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Sample records for mcgregor acari tetranychidae

  1. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

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    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  2. Biological control of Eotetranychus lewisi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry by four phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

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    Howell, Anna D; Daugovish, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    The spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a new emerging pest in California commercial strawberries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), typically used for biocontrol of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), provided growers little to no control of E. lewisi. Four commonly used phytoseiid predatory mites: P. persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), N. fallacis (Garman), and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), were used in lab studies to investigate which is best at managing E. lewisi populations. We als o investigated t he interactions between T. urticae and E. lewisi and in relation to phytoseiid efficiency given the potential for indirect effects of biocontrol. When E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, T. urticae populations increase and begin displacing E. lewisi. P. persimilis did not feed on E. lewisi, but the other three predatory mites consumed the spider mites and lowered their populations. When both E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, N. fallacis and A. andersoni fed on both types of mites equally and were capable of decreasing both populations. N. californicus fed on E. lewisi first and decreased its population, but allowed T. urticae populations to increase. P. persimilis may be insufficient at controlling E. lewisi and its use may instead enhance E. lewisi populations.

  3. Influence of the webbing produced by Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on associated predatory phytoseiids; Influencia da teia de Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) sobre os fitoseideos predadores associados

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    Franco, Renato A. [Bioagri Laboratorios Ltda., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: r.franco@bioagri.com.br; Reis, Paulo R. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Ecocentro], e-mail: paulo.rebelles@epamig.ufla.br; Zacarias, Mauricio S. [EMBRAPA Cafe, Lavras, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: zacarias@epamig.ufla.br; Oliveira, Daniel C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) is among those mite species that can cause damage to coffee plants (Coffea spp.). Species of Phytoseiidae acari are considered the most important and studied predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the webbing produced by O. ilicis on its predation by females of the phytoseiids Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma, Euseius citrifolius Denmark and Muma and Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant). Four bioassays were conducted, with three treatments and ten replicates. Each replicate consisted of 25 O. ilicis per experimental unit (a leaf disc of Coffea arabica) according to the tested developmental stage, in independent experiments. To spin the web, 15 adult females were put on each experimental unit for 24h; females were then removed, leaving only the web, and predators and prey to be tested were introduced. Predation was assessed after 24h. In the presence of webbing, the consumption of eggs, larvae and nymphs by I. zuluagai and eggs and larvae by E. citrifolius was lower. For A. herbicolus, egg predation was lower, but larval predation did not vary significantly and predation of nymphs and adults was higher in the presence of webbing. Predators as a whole were more efficient consuming larvae regardless of the presence of webbing. Considering the stages of O. ilicis altogether, webbing reduced the predation potential of I. zuluagai and E. citrifolius, but not of A. herbicolus. (author)

  4. Primeiro registro de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae em mudas de teca no Brasil

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    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae (Kock, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae foi relatado e suas injúrias caracterizadas pela primeira vez em viveiro de produção mudas de teca (Tectona grandis no Brasil.

  5. Temperature-dependent development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Haque, Md. Ahsanul; Nachman, Gösta

    2012-01-01

    Development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., at eleven constant temperatures. Tetranychus macfarlanei was able to develop and complete its life cycle at temperatures ranging from 17...

  6. Influence of the webbing produced by Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on associated predatory phytoseiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Renato A.; Reis, Paulo R.; Oliveira, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) is among those mite species that can cause damage to coffee plants (Coffea spp.). Species of Phytoseiidae acari are considered the most important and studied predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the webbing produced by O. ilicis on its predation by females of the phytoseiids Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma, Euseius citrifolius Denmark and Muma and Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant). Four bioassays were conducted, with three treatments and ten replicates. Each replicate consisted of 25 O. ilicis per experimental unit (a leaf disc of Coffea arabica) according to the tested developmental stage, in independent experiments. To spin the web, 15 adult females were put on each experimental unit for 24h; females were then removed, leaving only the web, and predators and prey to be tested were introduced. Predation was assessed after 24h. In the presence of webbing, the consumption of eggs, larvae and nymphs by I. zuluagai and eggs and larvae by E. citrifolius was lower. For A. herbicolus, egg predation was lower, but larval predation did not vary significantly and predation of nymphs and adults was higher in the presence of webbing. Predators as a whole were more efficient consuming larvae regardless of the presence of webbing. Considering the stages of O. ilicis altogether, webbing reduced the predation potential of I. zuluagai and E. citrifolius, but not of A. herbicolus. (author)

  7. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

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    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [es

  8. Impact of sulfur on density of Tetranychus pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in a central California vineyard.

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    Costello, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur is the oldest and most widely used fungicide in the vineyards of California, where it is used for control of powdery mildew (Uncinula necator [Schw.] Burr). For decades, sulfur use has been associated with outbreaks of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cultivated grapes in the San Joaquin Valley. I undertook large-scale field studies to test this association, to evaluate the impact of sulfur on Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbit) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a major predator of T. pacificus, and to determine if timing of sulfur applications with respect to grape bloom has an impact on T. pacificus density. The studies took place in a 32 ha vineyard in Fresno County, and all fungicide applications were made with commercial-scale equipment. In 1998 a 'high sulfur' treatment, a combination of wettable sulfur and sulfur dust, was compared to 'low sulfur,' in which demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides partially substituted for sulfur. In 1999 treatments were 'sulfur,' 'DMI,' 'sulfur pre-bloom' (here sulfur was applied prior to grape bloom, in late May, and then DMIs were applied until mid-season) and 'sulfur post-bloom' (the reverse of 'sulfur pre-bloom'). In each year, the T. pacificus population increase came after the end of fungicide applications, and results clearly show a relationship between sulfur use and T. pacificus density. In 1998, mean T. pacificus density was 2.7 times higher and mean G. occidentalis density 2.5 times higher in 'high sulfur' compared to 'low sulfur.' In 1999, the highest T. pacificus counts were in the 'sulfur' and 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatments, 4.8 times higher than 'sulfur post-bloom' and 2 times higher than 'DMIs.' Density of G. occidentalis was 2.3 times as high in 'sulfur' or 'sulfur pre-bloom' than 'DMIs.' The predator/prey ratio was not significantly different among treatments in 1998, but in 1999 it was highest in the 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatment. In 1999, density of Homeopronematus anconai (Baker) (Acari

  9. The impact of cucumber nitrogen nutrition on life history traits of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Motahari , M.; Kheradmand , K.; Roustaee , A.M.; Talebi , A.A.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The nutritional quality of the host plant is one of the most important factors of growth and reproduction for crop pests. In order to investigate the impact of nitrogen on the biology and demography of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), cucumber plants were nourished by four levels of nitrogen: N1 (10 meq /L NO3-), N2 (12 meq/L NO3-), N3 (15 meq/L NO3-) and N4 (20 meq /L NO3-). The experiments were performed under laboratory conditions at 25+/-1 °C, 60+/-...

  10. The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) follows extracts of trails left by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh

    2010-10-01

    As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.

  11. Voluntary Falling in Spider Mites in Response to Different Ecological Conditions at Landing Points

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    Ohzora, Yousuke; Yano, Shuichi

    2011-01-01

    We examined voluntary-falling behaviour by adult females of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of its major predators Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted using a setup in which mites could only move onto one of two landing points by falling. Significantly more T. urticae females fell onto available food leaves compared to non-food or heavily infested leaves, whereas significantly fewer females fell...

  12. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

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    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  13. Evidence for host plant preference by Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on Citrus.

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    Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present field and laboratory evidence on the preference of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) for grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) leaves compared with sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves. This preference was confirmed in four orchards whether leaf samples were taken from either border trees of contiguous grapefruit or sweet orange or interior row trees with both citrus species in adjacent rows. Iphiseiodes quadripilis was most abundant in grapefruit trees in spite of the greater abundance of the Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in sweet orange trees. Similar preference responses were observed in laboratory tests using a Y-tube olfactometer whether I. quadripilis were collected from sweet orange or grapefruit. Iphiseiodes quadripilis collected from grapefruit trees showed significant preference for grapefruit over sweet orange leaves in contact choice tests using an arena of alternating leaf strips (12 mm long x 2 mm wide) of sweet orange and grapefruit. However, I. quadripilis collected from sweet orange trees did not show preference for either grapefruit or sweet orange leaves. Based on these results, grapefruit leaves foster some unknown factor or factors that retain I. quadripilis in greater numbers compared with sweet orange leaves.

  14. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae fed with castor bean (Ricinus communisL. pollen in laboratory conditions

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    PP Marafeli

    Full Text Available The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticaeKoch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  15. Comparing chemical and biological control strategies for twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in commercial greenhouse production of bedding plants.

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    Opit, George P; Perret, Jamis; Holt, Kiffnie; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Williams, Kimberly A

    2009-02-01

    Efficacy, costs, and impact on crop salability of various biological and chemical control strategies for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated on mixed plantings of impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f (Ericales: Balsaminaceae), and ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (1.) L'Hér. Ex Aiton (Geraniales: Geraniaceae), cultivars in commercial greenhouses. Chemical control consisting of the miticide bifenazate (Floramite) was compared with two biological control strategies using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Treatments were 1) a single, early application of bifenazate; 2) a single, early release of predatory mites at a 1:4 predator:pest ratio based on leaf samples to estimate pest density; 3) a weekly release of predatory mites at numbers based on the area covered by the crop; and 4) an untreated control. T. urticae populations were monitored for 3 wk after the earliest treatment. When plants were ready for market, their salability was estimated. Bifenazate and density-based P. persimilis treatments effectively reduced T. urticae numbers starting 1 wk after plants had been treated, whereas the scheduled, area-based P. persimilis treatment had little or no effect. The percentage of flats that could be sold at the highest market wholesale price ranged from 15 to 33%, 44 to 86%, 84 to 95%, and 92 to 100%, in the control, weekly area-based P. persimilis, bifenazate, and single density-based P. persimilis treatments, respectively. We have shown that in commercial greenhouse production of herbaceous ornamental bedding plants, estimating pest density to determine the appropriate number of predators to release is as effective and offers nearly the same economic benefit as prophylactic use of pesticides.

  16. Intercropping Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel (Amaryllidaceae reduces Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae populations in strawberry

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    Fernando Hata

    2017-12-01

    Efeito do cultivo consorciado de Allium tuberosum Rottlerex Sprengel(Amaryllidaceae em populações de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae em morangueiro Resumo. O ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch, é uma das mais importantes pragas em casas de vegetação no mundo. Foi avaliado o efeito do consórcio de cebolinha chinesa, cultivada sob as estruturas de madeira que suportam as sacolas para o cultivo de morangueiro (sistema suspenso, em duas casas de vegetação, entre novembro de 2016 e janeiro de 2017. Formas móveis e ovos de ácaros foram contabilizados em folhas de morangueiro. Para as avaliações, cinco plantas foram aleatoriamente selecionadas em cada parcela. Populações de ácaro-rajado em folhas de morangueiro foram avaliadas com lupa de bolso, com 10 x de aumento. Reduções foram observadas em três de oito avaliações de formas móveis de ácaro-rajado. Foram observadas reduções no número de ovos em uma avaliação. Tomando em consideração os dados de ácaros acumulados por dia, foi observado que o consórcio reduziu em 54% a população de ácaros. Por outro lado, o número de ovos não foi alterado.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867 (Acari: Tetranychidae, and Its Response to β-Sitosterol

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    Chunya Bu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes—including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C—were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes—such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin—may also play important roles in mites’ response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.

  18. Non-preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae for oviposition on leaves of Paraguay tea progenies (Ilex paraguariensis/ Não-preferência do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, para oviposição em folhas de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis

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    José Djair Vendramim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor was evaluated under laboratory in 52 Paraguay tea progenies and one control collected in a local farm. The experiments were conducted on Paraguay tea leaf discs infested with one adult female mite/disc, incubated in a climate chamber (25±1ºC, 14h photophase for five days. Evaluations were performed daily, by counting the number of eggs laid in the period, the number of female escapes in the first 48 hours, as well as the number of eggs laid before the escaping. It was verified that discrimination by the mite occurred on two groups of progenies, in relation to the number of eggs: one group was different from the control (53.8% of the progenies and the other was identical to it (46.2% of the progenies. In the first group, 60.7% of progenies were less oviposited while a higher number of eggs/female than the control was verified in 39.3% of them. In 57.7% of progenies there was escape of some mites (10 to 40%, and in 10 of these progenies no eggs were laid. The data provide evidences that in some of the progenies evaluated there is resistance by non-preference to oviposition of the Paraguay tea red mite.A preferência para oviposição do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor, foi avaliada em condições de laboratório em 52 progênies de erva-mate e uma testemunha coletada em uma propriedade da região. Os experimentos foram realizados em discos foliares de erva-mate (2 cm de diâmetro, infestados com uma fêmea adulta do ácaro, e incubados a 25±1ºC e 14h de fotofase, durante cinco dias. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, contando-se o número de ovos depositados no período, número de fêmeas que fugiram nas primeiras 48 horas e número de ovos depositados antes da fuga. Verificou-se que houve discriminação do ácaro em dois grupos de progênies, em relação ao número de ovos, um que diferiu em relação à testemunha (53,8% de progênies e

  19. Interaction between two predator mites of Tetranychus urticae koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae) in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguelles R, Angelica; Plazas, Natali; Bustos R, Alexander; Cantor R, Fernando; Rodriguez, Daniel; Hilarion, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important pest of ornamental crops. A species of predatory mite used for its control is Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). This research proposes the use of joint releases of the two cited predators for the control of the pest. Several situations leading to interaction were evaluated: high density of one predator and low density of the other one, being the prey present or absent. The scenario with predators in equal densities and in presence of the prey was also evaluated. When a predator is in higher density and the prey present, the predator with the lower density increases the interference with the consumption of preys by the predator with higher density. On the other hand, when the consumption of T. urticae reduces, intraguild predation increases. P. persimilis shows intraguild predation behavior when t. urticae is absent and N. californicus is present, consuming all developmental stages of its conspecific. Instead, N. californicus only feed on conspecific larvae, when the fitofagous was absent and P. persimilis was present. When the two predators were present in the same assemblage and with the same population density, the quantity of T. urticae consumed by both of them was not higher than the consumed one when each predator was present in separate way.

  20. Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) mitochondrial COI phylogeny reviewed: host plant relationships, phylogeography, reproductive parasites and barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, V.I.D.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed a number of molecular studies that aimed to resolve issues of species delineation and phylogeny of mites in the family Tetranychidae. The central part of the mitochondrial COI region has frequently been used for investigating intra- and interspecific variation. All

  1. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  2. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

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    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  3. Intra-seasonal Strategies Based on Energy Budgets in a Dynamic Predator-Prey Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staňková, K.; Abate, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Křivan, V.; Zaccour, G.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a game-theoretical model to describe intra-seasonal predator-prey interactions between predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and prey mites (also called fruit-tree red spider mites) (Acari: Tetranychidae) that feed on leaves of apple trees. Its parameters have been instantiated based on

  4. Toxicidade de extratos de nim (Azadirachta indica ao ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis Toxicity of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Abreu Mourão

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade aguda e crônica de extratos de óleo de torta, de sementes e de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (nim a fêmeas do ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. A mortalidade e a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de fêmeas adultas desse ácaro foram avaliadas em discos de folhas de cafeeiro com 3,5 cm de diâmetro, impregnados com resíduo seco dos extratos de nim e flutuando em água. As concentrações dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim que mataram 50% e 99% dos indivíduos de O. ilicis, após 72 horas de exposição, foram de 0,02, 15,9 e 121,4 mg/mL e de 10,9, 520,9 e 277,4 mg/mL, respectivamente. A taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de O. ilicis diminuiu, linearmente, com o aumento da concentração dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim até 0,075, 15 e 144 mg/mL, respectivamente, a partir das quais as populações desse ácaro foram extintas.The objective of this work was to study the toxicity of extracts of oil cake, seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. Concentration-mortality and instantaneous rate of populational growth were determined for adult females of the red mite on disks of coffee with 3.5 cm diameter, floating on water and impregnated with dry residues of the neem extracts. Concentrations of these extracts which caused 50% mortality of the individuals of O. ilicis were 0.02, 15.9 and 121.4 mg/mL; while 99% mortality of this mite was reached with 10.9, 520.9 and 277.4 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively. The instantaneous rate of populational growth of O. ilicis dropped as the extract doses increased up to 0.075, 15 and 144 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively.

  5. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 e Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: II - Spirodiclofen e Azocyclotin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: II - Spirodiclofen and Azocyclotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp. por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, doença responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Ácaros da família Phytoseiidae, de várias espécies, são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga com spirodiclofen e azocyclotin, e o impacto sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos; em casa-de-vegetação foi avaliada a persistência no controle às duas espécies de ácaros-praga; e em campo foi avaliada a eficiência apenas no controle de B. phoenicis. Os bioensaios foram realizados em arenas de folhas destacadas. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e final de incubação. Os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos aos oito dias, e a persistência até 30 dias após a aplicação. A seletividade aos fitoseídeos foi avaliada, pelo efeito na mortalidade e reprodução de fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Spirodiclofen e azocyclotin (SC mostraram eficiente ação ovicida, principalmente para ovos de B. phoenicis no início de incubação. Para ovos de O. ilicis, somente o spirodiclofen apresentou efeito ovicida. Em geral, os efeitos tópico e residual associados melhoraram a eficiência dos produtos no controle das fases pós-embrionárias de ambas as espécies. O spirodiclofen apresentou seletividade aos ácaros predadores, já o azocyclotin foi nocivo. Em campo, ambos os acaricidas mostram-se altamente eficientes na redução de todas as fases pós-embrionárias do ácaro B. phoenicis, principalmente nas folhas.The mite Brevipalpus

  6. Comparison of thermal activity thresholds of the spider mite predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Megan R; Bale, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    The lower and upper thermal activity thresholds of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were compared with those of its prey Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of the alternative commercially available control agents for T. urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Adult female P. macropilis retained ambulatory function (CTmin) and movement of appendages (chill coma) at significantly lower temperatures (8.2 and 0.4 °C, respectively) than that of P. persimilis (11.1 and 3.3 °C) and T. urticae (10.6 and 10.3 °C). As the temperature was raised, P. macropilis ceased walking (CTmax) and entered heat coma (42.7 and 43.6 °C), beyond the upper locomotory limits of P. persimilis (40.0 and 41.1 °C), but before T. urticae (47.3 and 48.7 °C). Walking speeds were investigated and P. persimilis was found to have significantly faster ambulation than P. macropilis and T. urticae across a range of temperatures. The lower thermal activity threshold data indicate that P. macropilis will make an effective biological control agent in temperate climates.

  7. Assessment of the interactions between two predator mites of Tetranychus urticae (Acariformes: Tetranychidae in laboratory

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    Angelica María Argüelles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae is one of the most important pests in ornamental cultures. Between the species most used for its control are Neoseilus sp. and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Knowing the effectivity and ages of the prefers prey of each species of predator. In this search purposed the management of the plague through the use of combined releases, is necessary to evaluate that could occur between them with the prey when they act together. With this aim, we evaluated any situations. For one side was evaluated when a predator with a second predator with more density for the first predator. This situation was analyzed in presence and with absence of its prey. For other side, was evaluated the interactions of both predators are presents at the same density and with the prey. In the fist situation in presence of the prey was observe that increase the age of predator in minor density also increase the interference over the consumption of the high population’s predator over the prey. Moreover when decreased the T. urticae’s consumption increased the intraguild consumption. P. persimilis in absence of T. urticae and in presence of N. californicus approve a behavior of intraguild predation over all the ages of its cospecifics, while that N. californicus only consumed coespecific’s larvae in the phytofagous absence and in presence of  P. persimilis.  When both predators were in the same test at the same population’s density, was not observe a higher consumption of T. urticae that when each predator act for its way.

  8. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and adverse effects of two neem based products: Azamax TM (Azadirachtin A/B 12g/L and Neemseto TM (Azadirachtin A/B, Nimbin and Salanin 2,389 g/L over two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus in laboratory. Effects over the mortality, fecundity, eggs and biological persistence of the two-spotted spider mite when treated with neem based products were evaluated. For the phytoseiids the effects on mortality and fecundity were evaluated. The maximum mortality of two-spotted spider mites rates observed were 89.7% and 91.5% for Azamax TM and Neemseto TM respectively, on the 0.5% concentration after reapplying the product on the seventh day. Adverse effects were also observed over the fecundity and viability of the eggs when treated with commercial products (c.p.. The biological persistence of the products was of approximately three days after being pulverized. The formulations present selectivity in relation to the phytoseiids, however they caused fecundity reduction.

  9. Development, oviposition, and mortality of Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in response to reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Walgenbach, James F

    2005-12-01

    Eight reduced-risk insecticides (acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, indoxacarb, and spinosad) and three conventional insecticides (azinphosmethyl, fenpropathrin, and esfenvalerate) were tested against Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), the most abundant predacious mite in North Carolina apple (Malus spp.) orchards. To assess the effect of insecticides on development and mortality of N. fallacis immatures, 12-h-old eggs were individually placed on bean leaf disks previously dipped in insecticide solutions. Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) females were added as a food source. None of the reduced-risk insecticides significantly affected immature N. fallacis compared with the control; however, the pyrethroids esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin were highly toxic to immatures. To evaluate the effect of insecticides on mortality and oviposition of adult N. fallacis, 7- to 8-d-old females were confined on insecticide-treated bean leaves with Malephora crocea (Aizoaceae) pollen added as a food source. Spinosad resulted in the highest mortality, whereas azinphosmethyl, acetamiprid, fenpropathrin, and imidacloprid were moderately toxic, and mortality from esfenvalerate, indoxacarb, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, and thiamethoxam did not differ significantly from the control. Oviposition was affected in a similar manner, with the exception of acetamiprid that did not affect oviposition, and thiamethoxam that reduced oviposition.

  10. Life Table Parameters and Consumption Rate of Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt on Avocado Red Mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae Parámetros de Tabla de Vida y Tasa de Consumo de Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant y Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, sobre la Arañita Roja del Palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae

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    Tommy Rioja S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The avocado red mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor is the major leaf pest in Chile’s avocado orchards. Itaffects leaf physiology and makes it necessary to seek new natural enemies to interact with low population densities of O. yothersi. The potentiality of three predator mites: Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt was evaluated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1.93ºC, 87 ± 3.61% H.R. and 16:8 (L:D photoperiod on avocado leaf disks Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5 cm by separately feeding eggs, immature, and adult females of O. yothersi, and registering postembryonic development, consumption, as well as life table parameters. The postembryonic development of C. picanus was significantly lower (5.46 days compared to both A. graminis (7.33 days and G. occidentalis (8.69 days which were fed with immature O. yothersi. The life table parameters of C. picanus were net reproductive rate R0 = 25.41, finite rate of increase λ = 1.29, and Mean Generation Time T = 12.46. The Net Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r m was significantly higher for C. picanus (r m = 0.25 in contrast with G. occidentalis (r m = 0.19, while A. graminis showed r m = -0.06 indicating that its population didn’t have descendants. Under laboratory conditions, r m registered by C. picanus is an indicator of its predatory potential to control O. Yothersi. It can be assumed that the pest population reduction pattern could be maintained under field conditions.En Chile la arañita roja del palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor es la plaga más importante a nivel foliar en huertos comerciales afectando la fisiología de la hoja, siendo necesario la búsqueda de nuevos enemigos naturales que interactúen a bajas densidades poblacionales de O. yothersi. Se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio (27±1,93ºC, 87±3,61 % H.R. y un fotoperíodo de 16:8 (L:O sobre discos de hojas de palto Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5

  11. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

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    Dominiek Vangansbeke

    Full Text Available The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  12. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  13. Plant architecture and prey distribution influence foraging behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Lessando M; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-01-01

    The arrangement, number, and size of plant parts may influence predator foraging behavior, either directly, by altering the rate or pattern of predator movement, or, indirectly, by affecting the distribution and abundance of prey. We report on the effects of both plant architecture and prey distribution on foraging by the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plants differed in leaf number (2- or 6-leafed), and there were associated differences in leaf size, plant height, and relative proportions of plant parts; but all had the same total surface area. The prey, the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were distributed either on the basal leaf or on all leaves. The effect of plant architecture on predator foraging behavior varied depending on prey distribution. The dimensions of individual plant parts affected time allocated to moving and feeding, but they did not appear to influence the frequency with which predators moved among different plant parts. Overall, P. persimilis moved less, and fed upon prey longer, on 6-leafed plants with prey on all leaves than on plants representing other treatment combinations. Our findings suggest that both plant architecture and pattern of prey distribution should be considered, along with other factors such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles, in augmentative biological control programs.

  14. EVALUATING CHAMBERLAIN'S, McGREGOR'S, AND McRAE'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... spine and base of skull radiographs which however have diagnostic challenges due to the complexity of the ... McGregor's and Mc Rae's using CT bone windows ... metastatic lesion were excluded from the study. RESULTS.

  15. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysa...

  16. BIOLOGÍA DE OLIGONYCHUS YOTHERSI (MCGREGOR (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE SOBRE AGUACATE PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. CV. LORENA (LAURACEAE

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    Reyes Julian C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biología del ácaro rojo Oligonychus yothersi en condiciones controladas(26 ± 3°C 56 ± 3% HR, sobre hojas maduras de aguacate, Persea americana Mill. cv.Lorena. Las observaciones se realizaron durante una generación del ácaro. La duraciónde todos los estados, a excepción del adulto, fueron los siguientes: huevo 119.06 horas±13.77 (4.96 días; larva 54.09 horas ± 18.48 (2.25 días, protocrisálida 18.22 ± 9.53(0.76 días, protoninfa 50.62 horas ± 13.29 (2.11 días, deutocrisalida 21.66 horas ±7.78 (0.90 días, deutoninfa 62.54 horas ± 12.85 (2.61 días y teliocrisalida 30.79 horas± 13.28 (1.28 días. La duración total de huevo a emergencia de adulto fue estimadaen 344.21 horas (14.34 días. La relación de sexos encontrada fue de 4.8 hembras: 1macho. Los parámetros poblacionales, i.e., longevidad, fecundidad, tasa intrínsecade crecimiento (r m , tiempo de duplicación y tiempo generacional, sugieren un altopotencial reproductivo y de desarrollo del ácaro sobre aguacate cv. Lorena.

  17. Acari; Tetranychidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Corresponding author; E-mail: eziahvin@yahoo.com ... on the Karate®-resistant population showed that the application of these products 1 h before treatment with. Karate® reduce ... tissue, as well as a reduced photosynthetic rate ... Piraneo (2013) was employed to determine ..... toxicity in Norwegian populations of T.

  18. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

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    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  19. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.

  20. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  1. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M

    2009-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  2. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  3. Laboratory evaluation of the effect of Beauveria bassiana on the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2017-09-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a major pest of many agricultural crops, is mainly controlled with chemical acaricides. However, predatory mites and entomopathogens have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, the effect of the BotaniGard ® GHA strain of Beauveria bassiana on the survival, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatch rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. When B. bassiana was applied directly to P. persimilis eggs at a concentration of 1×10 8 conidia/ml, corrected hatchability was less than 5%, and the corrected mortality of nymphs and adults was not significantly different from control 10days after treatment. Phytoseiulus persimilis nymphs that hatched from treated eggs showed no significant change in their development time, adult female longevity, hatch rate, survival rates over time, or offspring sex ratio. However, significant negative effects on fecundity and life table parameters (net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, mean generation time, finite rate of increase, and doubling time) were found when B. bassiana was applied to the adult stage. Spraying B. bassiana at 1×10 8 conidia/ml on newly emerged adults of P. persimilis caused 44% reduction in the oviposition period, 26% in adult longevity, and 63% in fecundity. Due to these negative effects, B. bassiana should be used with careful adjustment of application timing (first spray B. bassiana and then release P. persimilis) to supplement biological mite control systems using P. persimilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nouvelle technique d'élevage de l'acarien phyllophage Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychidae et son application à l'étude de l'efficacité de quelques acaricides sur pomme de terre (Solarium tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A New Rearing Technique of Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychida and its Application in the Study of the Efficacy of some Acaricides on Potato [Solanum tuberosum L.. A 5 cm diameter leaf disc of potato or another host plant (or four on 2.5 cm diameter was used in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter for the rearing technique. This leaf disc, pierced in its centre, slides along a rustproof pin and floats on a 1 mm thick lamina of demineralized fresh water. Water is a "strong barrier" which confines the tetranychid mites on the leaf disc, even if this one does not corne from a host plant (tetranychid mites deprived of food. This rearing technique was used as a bioassay to test the effectiveness of acaricides (pyrimiphos-methyl, bromopropylate, fenpropathrin, dienochlor on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae. The ovicidal activity against the eggs of one, three, seven days old (the eggs incubation duration being 8.1 ±0.15 days was also studied. The results obtained show that bromopropylate, fenpropathrin and dienochlor have an ovicidal activity against the eggs of the different ages, but dienochlor has the highest efficiency (90 % mortality. Pyrimiphos-methyl is only active against the seven-day old eggs and bromopropylate has a high efficiency only on the one-day old eggs. Concerning the other developmental stages such as chrysalis (protochrysalis, deu-tochrysalis, teleiochrysalis and mobile stages (larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult female, pyrimiphos-methyl has de highest efficiency (90 % mortality ; dienochlor also, except mobile stages. Bromopropylate has no activity against the chrysalis and mobile stages and fenpropathrin has a remarkable repulsive effect.

  5. Intercropping With Fruit Trees Increases Population Abundance and Alters Species Composition of Spider Mites on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqiang; Pan, Hongsheng; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Yanhui

    2018-05-05

    With the recent increase in planting of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang, the intercropping of fruit trees and cotton has been widely adopted. From 2014 to 2016, a large-scale study was conducted in Aksu, an important agricultural area in southern Xinjiang, to compare the abundance and species composition of spider mites in cotton fields under jujube-cotton, apple-cotton, and cotton monocrop systems. The abundance of spider mites in cotton fields under both intercropping systems was generally higher than in the cotton monocrop. The species composition of spider mites also differed greatly between cotton intercropped with apple or jujube compared to the cotton monocrop. The relative proportion of Tetranychus truncates Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) in the species complex generally increased while that of another spider mite, Tetranychus dunhuangensis Wang (Acari: Tetranychidae), decreased under fruit tree-cotton systems. More attention should be paid to the monitoring and management of spider mites, especially T. truncates in this important region of China.

  6. Computer-assisted estimation of leaf damage caused by spider mites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloudová, B.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Zemek, Rostislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2, (2006), s. 81-91 ISSN 0168-1699 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Tetranychus urticae * Acari * Tetranychidae Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.851, year: 2006

  7. Influence de l'usage préventif des pesticides sur les acariens Tetranychus urticae et Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae présents en cultures de fraisiers du Nord du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagziri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of previous pesticide use on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae from strawberry crops in the north of Morocco. Description of the subject. Effects of recommended doses of five common pesticides in the strawberries of Loukkos area (Morocco were tested on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and its predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of one avermectin miticide (abamectin, two pyrethrinoid insecticide-acaricides (bifenthrin and lambda-cyalothrin, and two fungicides: firstly, mancozeb, which belongs to the dithiocarbamates family of chemicals and secondly, hexaconazole, of the triazole family. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to test in laboratory conditions the effect of five pesticides on the two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae and its predatory mite, P. persimilis. The five pesticides tested were those most frequently applied for at least two years on strawberries at the experimental site. Method. Bioassays were performed with populations of mites originating from different plots with various crop protection backgrounds. The first group of plots had been repeatedly treated with the five tested pesticides during a two-year period, the second group had been moderately treated, and the third had been treated once with the tested pesticides. Results. Our results showed that the tested pesticides provided effective control of T. urticae but that they were not compatible with use on the predatory mite P. persimilis, as these particular mites did not usually come into contact with these products. On the other hand, in plots where pesticides had been used for a long time, the susceptibility of P. persimilis populations to these products was significantly reduced. Conclusions. If the tested pesticides are to be considered for integrated pest control programs in plots where they have been used for a long time and where P

  8. Toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos recomendado na agricultura sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Residual toxicity of some pesticides recommended for citrus orchards on the predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor em condições de laboratório. O método de bioensaio adotado foi o de contato residual. Folhas de citros da variedade Pêra, acondicionadas em arenas, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. A toxicidade residual dos produtos foi avaliada duas horas e 1; 3; 5; 7; 10; 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação. Em cada arena, foram transferidas dez fêmeas adultas de N. californicus, juntamente com uma quantidade suficiente de Tetranychus urticae, como fonte de alimento. As avaliações de mortalidade foram realizadas 72 horas após a transferência dos ácaros para as arenas. Os agrotóxicos acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, enxofre, fenpropathrin, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite não causaram mortalidades significativas em adultos de N. californicus. Foram registradas mortalidades de 29,8; 24,0 e 34,1% para ácaros N. californicus expostos a resíduos de duas horas de idade de abamectim, azocyclotin e cyhexatin, respectivamente. Dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr causaram 100% de mortalidade aos ácaros predadores expostos aos resíduos tóxicos dos acaricidas, com duas horas de idade. Abamectin provocou mortalidade significativa por um período inferior a um dia. Resíduos dos acaricidas azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr provocaram mortalidades significativas por períodos de 1; 1; 10; 10 e 21dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos no presente experimento servem de subsídio para a escolha adequada dos agrotóxicos a serem utilizados em pomares de citros nos quais N. californicus esteja presente ou naqueles em que o predador venha a ser liberado. Esses resultados também servem para a escolha do momento mais favorável para a liberação dos ácaros predadores dessa espécie no campo, após a aplicação de agrotóxicos nos pomares. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda s

  9. Side Effects of Four Acaricides on the Predatory Mites of Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YORULMAZ SALMAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study determined the side effects of four acaricides of acequinocyl, etoxazole, bifenazate and milbemectin on the predator mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor. Acaricide concentrations were prepared as a two times the field application dose (2T, field application dose (T, and half of the field application dose (T/2 and were then applied on eggs, nymphs and adults of the P. persimilis and N. californicus. The side effects of the acaricidesapplied to the predator mites were determined three, five and seven days afterthe application. While all doses of acequinocyl and etoxazole showed a higher toxic effect on N.californicus eggs, it was found that bifenazate and milbemectin caused similar effects on both predator mite eggs. Furthermore, it was found that the toxic effects of acequinocyl, etoxazole, bifenazate and milbemectin on nymphs and adults of the predator miteswere high seventh day after the application. The results of the study showed that four acaracides frequently used against to pest mites, should be used more carefully in the agricultural areas.

  10. Impact of Mcgregor's X and Y Motivation Theory on the Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of McGregor's X and Y motivation theory in the job performance of staff in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The design was a descriptive survey. The population was 2632 and a sample of 100 was randomly selected. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  11. Padrão morfológico e ciclo de vida de Eutetranychus banksi (Acari: Tetranychidae de diferentes locais e hospedeiros Morphological pattern and life cycle of Eutetranychus banksi (Acari: Tetranychidae from different localities and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane M. Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor, 1914 is a phytophagous, polyphagous and cosmopolitan species recorded on 23 plant families in 24 countries in North, Central and South Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Specimens of E. banksi present morphological variability among individuals of the same population and also among populations from different host species, being commonly referred to as a polytypic species, despite the fact that studies based on meristic comparisons of these populations are lacking. Also, there is no data available in the literature on the biological life tables of E. banksi on different hosts. Specimens collected in Brazil, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mexico, and Paraguay were investigated in order to recognize morphological patterns among populations from different localities and hosts. A redescription of the species is provided based on data both from literature and new observations. Also, the biological cycle on three hosts, experiments of hosts exchange and the possibility of interbreeding in individuals originating from different populations were evaluated. Significant differences in the morphology of the females of different populations were detected when comparing the different hosts. The length of the dorsal pairs of setae v2, sc2, c1, c3, e1 and h1 differentiated the specimens of the populations collected from Citrus sp. from those of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. and Pachira aquatica Aubl.. Herein we observed significant variation among the life cycle of this species on the three hosts studied. When a substrate different from the one where the mites were collected was used for the biological cycle essay, significant variation was observed in several parameters such as average oviposition rate, events of arrenothoky, and sex ratio. Interbreeding with populations collected from Citrus sinensis and P. aquatica resulted in no descendants, although mating was observed.

  12. An Ecoinformatics Approach to Field-Scale Evaluation of Insecticide Effects in California Citrus: Are Citrus Thrips and Citrus Red Mite Induced Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, George; Hack, Lindsey; Steinmann, Kimberly P; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2018-05-28

    Experimental approaches to studying the consequences of pesticide use, including impacts on beneficial insects, are vital; however, they can be limited in scale and realism. We show that an ecoinformatics approach that leverages existing data on pesticides, pests, and beneficials across multiple fields can provide complementary insights. We do this using a multi-year dataset (2002-2013) on pesticide applications and density estimates of two pests, citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri (Moulton [Thysanoptera: Thripidae])) and citrus red mites (Panonychus citri McGregor [Acari: Tetranychidae]), and a natural enemy (Euseius spp. predatory mites) collected from citrus groves in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Using correlative analyses, we investigated the long-term consequences of pesticide use on S. citri and P. citri population densities to evaluate the hypothesis that the pest status of these species is largely due to the disruption of natural biological control-i.e., these are induced pests. We also evaluated short-term pesticide efficacy (suppression of citrus thrips and citrus red mite populations immediately post-application) and asked if it was correlated with the suppression of Euseius predator populations. Although the short-term efficacy of different pesticides varied significantly, our dataset does not suggest that the use of citrus pesticides suppressed Euseius densities or worsened pest problems. We also find that there is no general trade-off between pesticide efficacy and pesticide risk to Eusieus, such that highly effective and minimally disruptive compounds were available to citrus growers during the studied time period.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIABLE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON THE PREDATION EFFICIENCY OF P. PERSIMILIS, N. CALIFORNICUS AND N. FALLACIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vangansbeke, D; Verhoeven, R; De Clercq, P; Tirry, L; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Predatory mites like Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and N. fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are essential in sustainable control strategies of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in warm greenhouse cultures to complement imited available pesticides and to tackle emerging resistance. However, in response to high energy prices, greenhouse plant breeders have recently changed their greenhouse steering strategies, allowing more variation in temperature and humidity. The impact of these variations on biological control agents is poorly understood. Therefore, we constructed functional response models to demonstrate the impact of realistic climate variations on predation efficiency. First, two temperature regimes were compared at constant humidity (70%) and photoperiod (16L:8D): DIF0 (constant temperature) and DIF15 (variable temperature with day-night difference of 15°C). At mean temperatures of 25°C, DIF15 had a negative influence on the predation efficiency of P. persimilis and N. californicus, as compared to DIF0. At low mean temperatures of 15°C, however, DIF15 showed a higher predation efficiency for P. persimilis and N. californicus. For N. fallacis no difference was observed at both 15°C and 25°C. Secondly, two humidity regimes were compared, at a mean temperature of 25°C (DIFO) and constant photoperiod (16L:8D): RHCTE (constant 70% humidity) and RHALT (alternating 40% L:70%D humidity). For P. persimilis and N. fallacis RHCTE resulted in a higher predation efficiency than RHALT, for N. californicus this effect was opposite. This shows that N. californicus is more adapted to dry climates as compared to the other predatory mites. We conclude that variable greenhouse climates clearly affect predation efficiency of P. persimilis, N. californicus and N. fallacis. To obtain optimal control efficiency, the choice of predatory mites (including dose and application frequency

  14. Influence of long-term exposure to simulated acid rain on development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Ping; He, Lin; Zhao, Zhi-Mo

    2006-01-01

    Development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduvals) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated after long-term (about 40 generations) exposure to various levels of acid rain; pH 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.6. Deionized water (pH 6.8) served as a control. The mites were reared on eggplant leaves at 28?C, 80%RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) in the laboratory. The results showed that the duration of the immature stage was significantly affected by acid rain ...

  15. Mite (Acari) fauna of some cultivated plants from Kahramanmaraş ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... and fruit trees, the common weed Ipomoea indica (Burman) Merrill ... Mites were removed from the ... 2004). This species was also recorded from the bark of ..... the family Tetranychidae, damaging fruit trees in Central Anatolia.

  16. Air temperature optimisation for humidity-controlled cold storage of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2014-03-01

    Humidity-controlled cold storage, in which the water vapour pressure is saturated, can prolong the survival of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). However, information on the optimum air temperature for long-term storage by this method is limited. The authors evaluated the survival of mated adult females of N. californicus and P. persimilis at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 °C under saturated water vapour condition (vapour pressure deficit 0.0 kPa). N. californicus showed a longer survival time than P. persimilis at all the air temperatures. The longest mean survival time of N. californicus was 11 weeks at 7.5 °C, whereas that of P. persimilis was 8 weeks at 5.0 °C. After storage at 7.5 °C for 8 weeks, no negative effect on post-storage oviposition was observed in N. californicus, whereas the oviposition of P. persimilis stored at 5.0 °C for 8 weeks was significantly reduced. The interspecific variation in the response of these predators to low air temperature might be attributed to their natural habitat and energy requirements. These results may be useful for the long-term storage of these predators, which is required for cost-effective biological control. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Abandonment of the low level outlet structure at the McGregor South Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, D.L; Murray, T.K. [Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Soutar, B.M. [Alberta Transportation, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Carseland-Bow River Headworks (CBRH) is a major multi-purpose water delivery system, situated in southern Alberta. It supplies water to 87,000 hectares of agricultural land and several municipalities. The system was originally built starting in 1909. It consists of diversion works on the Bow River, 65 kilometres of canal, and the McGregor and Little Bow reservoirs. In the 1950s, the system was rehabilitated by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA), and Travers Reservoir was added in 1954. In 1973, ownership and operation of the CBRH system was turned over to Alberta Environment. In 2001, Alberta Transportation implemented a major program to rehabilitate and upgrade the CBRH system. This program included increasing the capacity of the canals and structures, and upgrading the dams to meet current dam safety guidelines. The project involved raising the north and south dams, providing an auxiliary spillway to accommodate the probable maximum flood (PMF), and rehabilitating the existing reservoir inlet and low level outlet structures. This paper discussed the abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure located within the south dam. The paper discussed the existing dams and outlet structure as well as the south dam and outlet structure. The abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure was discussed in terms of general construction; demolition; upstream conduits and gatewell; and downstream conduit. Several illustrations and photographs of the dam and the demolition were presented. It was concluded that the in-place abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure at the McGregor South Dam provides significant advantages, including eliminating the need to construct and remove an extensive cofferdam within the reservoir. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Effects of Insecticides and Fungicides Commonly Used in Tomato Production on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phtyoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditillo, J L; Kennedy, G G; Walgenbach, J F

    2016-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of tomatoes in North Carolina. Resident populations of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis have recently been detected on field-grown tomatoes in central North Carolina, and potentially can be a useful biological control agent against T. urticae Laboratory bioassays were used to assess lethal and reproductive effects of 10 insecticides and five fungicides commonly used in commercial tomato production (chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, permethrin, imidacloprid, dimethoate, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, boscalid, cyazofamid, and mancozeb) on P. persimilis adult females and eggs. Insecticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of the recommended field rates. Fungicides were tested at the 1× rate only. Dimethoate strongly impacted P. persimilis with high adult mortality, reduced fecundity, and reduced hatch of eggs laid by treated adults, particularly at high concentrations. The pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and fenpropathrin were associated with repellency and reproductive effects at high concentrations. Bifenthrin additionally caused increased mortality at high concentrations. Chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and permethrin did not significantly affect mortality or reproduction. Imidacloprid significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability, but was not lethal to adult P. persimilis Thiamethoxam negatively impacted fecundity at the 1× rate. There were no negative effects associated with fungicide exposure with the exception of mancozeb, which impacted fecundity. Field trials were conducted to explore the in vivo impacts of screened insecticides on P. persimilis populations in the field. Field trials supported the incompatibility of dimethoate with P. persimilis populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  19. New species of Uropodina from Madagascar (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3895, č. 4 (2014), s. 547-569 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Mesostigmata * Uropodina * new genus * new species * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  20. Two new Uropodina species from Ethiopia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2013), s. 49-56 ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Afrotropical * Ethiopia * new species * new synonymy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2013

  1. New Uropodina species and records from Malaysia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2012), s. 177-192 ISSN 1217-8837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Acari * new records * new species * Malaysia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2012

  2. McEvoy, Kieran; McGregor, Lorna, Transitional Justice from below. Grassroots Activism and the Struggle for Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Atiles-Osoria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El texto editado por Kieran McEvoy y Lorna McGregor representa un esfuerzo por repensar, redefinir e introducir un debate en el seno de la literatura y de las corrientes de estudio sobre la justicia transicional. Generalmente, la justicia transicional ha sido pensada como un conglomerado de estrategias jurídico‑políticas y socio‑económicas implementadas para lidiar con las violaciones de los derechos humanos, con la violencia política del pasado y los procesos de reconstrucción del Estado pos...

  3. When do predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) attack? Understanding their diel and seasonal predation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Aguilar-Fenollosa, Ernestina; Hurtado, Mónica A; Jaques, Josep A; Pina, Tatiana

    2017-06-16

    Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are considered one of the most important groups of natural enemies used in biological control. The behavioral patterns of arthropods can differ greatly daily and seasonally; however, there is a lack of literature related to Phytoseiidae diel and seasonal predation patterns. The predatory activity of three phytoseiid species (two Tetranychidae-specialists, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, and one omnivore, Euseius stipulatus) that occur naturally in Spanish citrus orchards was observed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer. The temperature and photoperiod of the climatic chamber where the mites were reared did not change during the experiment. Our study demonstrates that phytoseiids can exhibit diel and seasonal predatory patterns when feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Neoseiulus californicus was revealed to be a nocturnal predator in summer but diurnal in winter. In contrast, P. persimilis activity was maximal during the daytime, and E. stipulatus showed no clear daily predation patterns. The predatory patterns described in this study should be taken into account when designing laboratory studies and also in field samplings, especially when applying molecular techniques to unveil trophic relationships. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Control biológico de ácaros Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Gómez Alfredo

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo, se presenta información publicada e inédita y, también, se realiza una revisión bibliográfica exhaustiva de los enemigos naturales de T. cinnabarinus y T. urticae, tanto a nivel mundial, como a nivel nacional, con el propósito de despertar el interés e informar sobre las bondades del control
    biológico de los ácaros Tetranychidae y, en los casos donde es posible, se proporciona alguna información correspondiente a su efectividad. Posteriormente, se plantea una discusión resumida y se sugieren algunas propuestas de comportamiento estratégico o de utilidad potencial que podrían ser adoptadas por los profesionales comprometidos o
    responsables de los cultivos de flores para promover
    la ampliación del uso de enemigos naturales de los ácaros y utilizar, entre otros, métodos o estrategias biológicas, culturales o flsicas, que ayuden a disminuir la frecuencia del uso de agroquímicos y, así, conservar un ambiente menos contaminado y menos perjudicial para la humanidad del futuro.

  5. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, V.I.D.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of

  6. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  7. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  8. Testing for non-target effects of spinosad on twospotted spider mites and their predator Phytoseiulus persimilis under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kiffnie M; Opit, George P; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C

    2006-01-01

    The compatibility of the selective insecticide spinosad (Conserve SC), at rates recommended for thrips control in greenhouses, with release of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to control spider mites, was investigated in a crop of ivy geranium Pelargonium peltatum, cultivar 'Amethyst 96.' Plants were inoculated with twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), 2 weeks before treatments were applied. There were three treatment variables, each at two levels: predators (released or not), spray application (water or Conserve SC at 2 ml/3.79 l), and timing of spray (1 day before or after predators were released). Twospotted spider mite populations then were sampled twice each week over a three-week period. The application or timing of spinosad had no effect on the ability of the predator to reduce the population of spider mites. Spider mite populations in the no-predator treatment continued to expand over the course of the experiment, while those in the predator-release treatment declined. We conclude that P. persimilis can be used in conjunction with spinosad on ivy geraniums without causing obvious detrimental effects to this predator or leading to a reduction in biological control.

  9. Suscetibilidade de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae ao fungo Beauveria bassiana Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cassol de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliares de erva-mate (2,2 cm² foram previamente infestados com 20 fêmeas adultas. Alíquotas de 1 mL de cada suspensão de conídios dos diferentes isolados de B. bassiana, ajustadas na concentração de 1,0x10(8 conídios mL-1 foram pulverizadas, separadamente, sobre um conjunto de 5 discos. Os discos foliares foram mantidos flutuando em água destilada, em caixas plásticas (3 cm de diâmetro, sob condições controladas. Diariamente, os ácaros mortos foram transferidos para câmara úmida, para confirmação de mortalidade causada pelo fungo. A mortalidade total variou entre 77 e 98% (6 dias após a aplicação, não permitindo diferenciar os isolados quanto à virulência (P>0,05. Já a mortalidade confirmada variou entre 19 e 75%, permitindo diferenciá-los (PThe Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis crop is an important economical activity in Southern Brazil. With the increase of tea consumption in the 80s, the number of monoculture crops also increased, creating favorable conditions for the development of phytophagous insect and mite populations, such as the red mite Oligonychus yothersi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of the red mite O. yothersi to the several strains of the Beauveria bassiana fungus. The experiments were carried out in Cascavel, PR, Brazil. Leaf disks of Paraguay tea (2.2 cm² were previously infested with 20 adult females. Five disks were inoculated with 1 mL of each conidial suspension of B. bassiana strains (1x10(8 conidia per mL. Disks were kept afloat on distilled water in plastic boxes (3 cm diameter, under controlled conditions. Dead mites were transferred to a humid chamber on a daily basis to confirm the mortalities rate by the fungus. All the strains were pathogenic, with total mortality varying from 77 to 98%, 6 days after application. It was not possible to differentiate virulence levels between strains (P<0.05 by total mortality. However, confirmed mortality varied from 19 to 75%, 8 days after application, allowing for a differentiation in virulence levels between strains (P<0.05. This study concluded that the O. yothersi red mite is susceptible, at different levels, to B. bassiana tested strains.

  10. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  11. Comparação econômica entre controle biológico e químico para o manejo de ácaro-vermelho em macieira Economic comparison of biological and chemical control in the management of red spider mites in apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro-vermelho da macieira, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae, é uma importante praga na cultura da macieira em Fraiburgo - SC, e o controle biológico aplicado foi implantado em meados dos anos 90. O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar os benefícios econômicos da utilização do controle biológico no manejo do ácaro-vermelho. A avaliação foi realizada em dois pomares comerciais de macieiras. Em um deles, foi implantado o controle biológico aplicado de ácaros, baseado na liberação do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae, seleção de inseticidas e manejo de ervas invasoras, e o outro pomar seguiu o manejo convencional de artrópodes, baseado na aplicação de produtos químicos para o controle de insetos, ácaros fitófagos e ervas invasoras. A análise econômica mostrou que os custos com mão-de-obra e máquinas foram semelhantes em ambos os pomares, entretanto os custos com acaricidas foram significativamente inferiores no pomar onde o manejo foi o controle biológico, demonstrando que, apesar da necessidade de investimentos em instalações para a criação do ácaro predador e custos de manutenção das mesmas, a estratégia biológica foi economicamente viável.Red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae is a significant pest in apple tree in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina (SC and applied biological control was implemented in the mid-nineties. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the economic benefits of biological control in the management of red spider mite. The assessment was carried out in two commercial orchards, one of which was subjected to biological control of spider mite by releasing the predator Neoseiulus californicus, insecticide selection and weed management, and the other to conventional arthropod management, based on the application of chemicals to control insects, phytofagous mites and weed. Economic analysis showed that the costs for labor and machines were

  12. A large parasitengonid mite (Acari, Erythraeoidea from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A new large, fossil mite (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian Crato Formation from Ceará State, Brazil. It is assigned to the Cohort Parasitengona and the superfamily Erythraeoidea, some extant members of which can reach up to seven millimetres in body length. Given that doubts have been raised about the identity of putative Crato feather mite eggs, this new fossil represents the first unequivocal record of Acari from the Crato Formation, the first non-amber record of an erythraeoid mite and the oldest named example of this superfamily. Fossil erythraeoids from Mesozoic and Tertiary ambers are briefly reviewed – including a widely overlooked Late Cretaceous species – with comments on Mesozoic mites in general. Thirteen Baltic amber erythraeoids have been formally described, but much unstudied material from various amber sources remains. Ein neues großes Milbenfossil (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., wird aus der Crato Formation (Unterkreide, Aptium des Ceará Gebietes in Brasilien beschrieben. Es wird der Kohorte Parasitengona und der Überfamilie Erythraeoidea zugeordnet; die modernen Vertreter erreichen eine Körperlänge bis zu sieben mm. Weil die Identität von Federmilbeneiern aus der Crato Formation in Frage gestellt wurde, ist dieser Neufund der erste klare Hinweis von Acari aus der Crato Formation. Es ist die erste erythraeoide Milbe, die nicht aus dem Bernstein stammt sowie das älteste genannte Beispiel dieser Überfamilie. Fossile erythraeoide Milben aus dem Bernstein des Mesozoikum und des Tertiärs werden kurz zusammengefasst – u. a. eine weitgehend übersehene Art aus der Oberkreide – mit allgemeinen Anmerkungen zu den mesozoischen Milben. Dreizehn erythraeoide Milbenarten sind aus dem baltischen Bernstein genannt und beschrieben worden, aber weiteres unbearbeitetes Material von verschiedenen Bernstein-Fundpunkten liegt noch vor

  13. First report of Aculops lycopersici (Tryon, 1917 (Acari: Eriophyidae on Pepino in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Akyazi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Tryon, 1917 (Acari: Eriophyidae is reported for the first time on Pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton in Ordu and Samsun provinces in Turkey.

  14. New records of Acari from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, D.J.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Coetzee, L.; Oconnor, B.M.; Pugh, P.J.A.; Theron, P.D.; Ueckermann, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty species of Acari are recorded from the sub-Antarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands (the Prince Edward archipelago). Twenty of the 45 species collected on recent expeditions are new and currently undescribed. Other new taxa include a family of Mesostigmata, four new genera, and the first

  15. Three new .i.Trachyuropoda./i. (Acari: Uropodina: Trachyuropodidae) species from the Neotropical region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 7-14 ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Trachyuropoda * Galápagos Islands Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2013

  16. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C.; Moraes, Gilberto J. de

    2009-01-01

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  17. The human side of science education: Using McGregor's theory Y as a framework for improving student motivation*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwell, John

    2004-09-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students. This article explores the benefits of moving from a Theory X to a more Theory Y style of teaching. Copyright © 2004 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Trophic Interactions between Generalist Predators and the Two Spotted Spide Mite, Tetranychus urticae in, Strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer

    The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a major cause of pest damage worldwide. Its host range includes among many the strawberry crop, a high value crop in Denmark as well as in many other temperate and subtropical regions. Chemical control of T. urticae...... occurrence and diversity of predatory insects and predatory mites in Danish strawberry fields and surrounding vegetation is lacking, as is the knowledge of the potential of generalist insect predators to control T. urticae. The overall objective of this PhD thesis was to investigate the trophic interactions...... between natural enemies, in particular generalist predators and the two spotted spider mite, T. urticae, in strawberry. This was done by investigating interactions of T. urticae and its natural enemies as influenced by cropping practice and the surrounding vegetation (Manuscript I) as well as more...

  19. Five New Records of Raphignathoid Mites (Acari: Raphignathoidea) from Poland/ Pięć Nowych Gatunków Roztoczy Z Nadrodziny Raphignathoidea (Acari) Stwierdzonych W Faunie Polski

    OpenAIRE

    Doðan Salih; Sevsay Sevgi; Mąkol Joanna; Zeytun Erhan; Buğa Evren

    2014-01-01

    Pięć nowych gatunków roztoczy (Acari: Raphignathoidea) zostało odnoto- wanych jako nowe dla fauny Polski: trzy z rodziny Stigmaeidae, Eustigmaeus rhodomela (Koch), Mediolata obtecta Dónel et Doóan, Stigmaeus glabrisetus Summers, jeden z rodziny Cryptognathidae, Favognathus cucurbita (Berlese), i jeden z rodziny Barbutiidae, Barbuda anguineus (Berlese). Ostatni z wymienio- nych jest jednocześnie pierwszym stwierdzeniem przedstawiciela rodziny Barbutiidae w Polsce.

  20. Five New Records of Raphignathoid Mites (Acari: Raphignathoidea from Poland/ Pięć Nowych Gatunków Roztoczy Z Nadrodziny Raphignathoidea (Acari Stwierdzonych W Faunie Polski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doðan Salih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pięć nowych gatunków roztoczy (Acari: Raphignathoidea zostało odnoto- wanych jako nowe dla fauny Polski: trzy z rodziny Stigmaeidae, Eustigmaeus rhodomela (Koch, Mediolata obtecta Dónel et Doóan, Stigmaeus glabrisetus Summers, jeden z rodziny Cryptognathidae, Favognathus cucurbita (Berlese, i jeden z rodziny Barbutiidae, Barbuda anguineus (Berlese. Ostatni z wymienio- nych jest jednocześnie pierwszym stwierdzeniem przedstawiciela rodziny Barbutiidae w Polsce.

  1. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Sang-Geui; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-04-01

    Fifty-three plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch as well as adults of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, by using a filter paper diffusion bioassay without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and mite species. In a plastic container (4.5 by 9.5 cm) bioassay at 14 x 10(-3) microl/ml air, caraway seed, citronella java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, and peppermint oils gave > 90% mortality against adult T. urticae, whereas 82 and 81% mortality was observed with sage and spearmint oils, respectively. With the exception of sage oil, the other six essential oils were highly effective against T. urticae eggs at 9.3 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Against adult P. persimilis, these six test oils caused > 90% mortality at 7.1 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Particularly peppermint oil at 4.7 x 10(-3) microl/ml air was highly toxic. In an acrylic cage (30 by 30 by 40 cm ) test, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, peppermint, and spearmint oils were highly effective against adult T. urticae at 1.4 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase via the respiratory system. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. urticae control.

  2. TAMBO VIEJO: UN ASENTAMIENTO FORTIFICADO EN EL VALLE DE ACARÍ, PERÚ (Tambo Viejo: A Fortified Settlement in the Acari Valley, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidio M. Valdez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de los asentamientos fortificados y el origen del conflicto violento son temas poco discutidos en el contexto de la arqueología peruana. Considero que es oportuno investigar y determinar cuándo y por qué surgieron los primeros asentamientos fortificados. El propósito central de este artículo está precisamente orientado a responder tales interrogantes y discutir el tema del conflicto violento en el valle de Acarí y, por extensión, en la costa sur del Perú. Las evidencias arqueológicas disponibles señalan que, durante el periodo Intermedio Temprano, Tambo Viejo fue un asentamiento defendido por varias estructuras perimétricas. Otros sitios contemporáneos de Tambo Viejo en Acarí también fueron fortificados. Además, existe en el mismo valle evidencia tangible de violencia en la forma de prisioneros que posteriormente fueron decapitados. En contraste a la evidencia proveniente de Acarí, no existen asentamientos del periodo Intermedio Temprano identificables como fortificaciones, lo que hace de los sitios de Acarí los primeros asentamientos fortificados de toda la costa sur. ENGLISH: The emergence of violent conflict and of fortified settlements is a subject little studied within Peruvian archaeology. However, I consider it vital to investigate and determine the time and the reasons under which fortified settlements were first established. The central aim of this paper is to discuss when and why fortified settlements emerged first in the Acari Valley and, by extension, in the south coast of Peru. Available archaeological evidence indicates that during the Early Intermediate Period, Tambo Viejo was a fortified settlement protected by several massive walls. Other neighbouring sites in Acari were also fortified. Furthermore, in Acari there is conclusive evidence for violence in the form of decapitated individuals. In contrast to evidence coming from Acari, not a single Early Intermediate Period settlement from other

  3. Phytoseiid mites of the Canary Islands (Acari, Phytoseiidae. II. Tenerife and La Gomera Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferragut, F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae inhabiting plants in natural ecosystems from Tenerife and La Gomera islands (Canary Islands have been studied. Surveys were conducted from 1997 to 2002. Eleven species were collected, one of them being reported for the first time from the Canary Islands and six of them reported for the first time from Tenerife and La Gomera islands. Euseius machadoi n. sp. collected from woody plants in the Canarian laurisilva is proposed as a new species.

    En muestreos realizados desde 1997 hasta 2002 se ha estudiado la fauna de ácaros fitoseidos (Acari, Phytoseiidae asociada a plantas de ecosistemas naturales de las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera (Islas Canarias. Se han recolectado un total de 11 especies, siendo una de ellas citada por vez primera en las islas Canarias y seis de ellas citadas por primera vez en las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera. Euseius machadoi n. sp., recolectado en plantas leñosas de la laurisilva canaria, se propone como una nueva especie.

  4. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  5. Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 234: 10-12 Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Wellington, KW Leboho, T Sakong, BM Adenubi, OT Eloff, JN...

  6. Toxicity of spiromesifen and natural acaricides to Tetranychus urticae koch and compatibility with Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vargas de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one important pest of cotton crop due to reductions in cotton yield and fiber quality. Thus, this work evaluated the toxicity of the synthetic acaricide spiromesifen and natural products on T. urticae and the compatibility with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Spiromesifen and the natural products Azadirachtin A/B, Azadirachtin 1%, Jatropha curcas L. and Ricinus communis L. oils were used at different concentrations; the leaf dipping method was employed. The mortality of T. urticae females and eggs was evaluated 48 and 96 h after treatment to calculate the lethal concentrations. The effect on P. macropilis was studied using the LC50s obtained to T. urticae. All acaricides tested were effective in controlling females and eggs of T. urticae. However, according to the LC50s and LC90s calculated, spiromesifen was the most toxic acaricide to females and J. curcas oil presented the higher toxicity to eggs. Spiromesifen, J. curcas oil and Azadiractina 1% caused side effects on P. macropilis. However, only espiromesifeno was classified as harmful to the predator, whereas Azadirachtin A/B and R. communis oil were slightly harmful. R. communis and Azadirachtin A/B were effective in controlling the two-spotted spider mite and promising for the management of this pest in cotton considering their low toxicity to the predator.

  7. The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution (El genero Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en Mexico: claves de identificacion para adultos, diagnosis, huespedes y distribucion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    also from Estado de México (Hoffmann, 1969). Hosts in Mexico. Cricetidae and Hominidae ( Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia) (Hoffmann, 1969...distribution El género Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en México: claves de identifi cación para adultos, diagnosis, huéspedes y distribución Carmen Guzmán...postdoctoral scholarship under the Programa de Formación e Incorporación de Profesores de Carrera en Facultades y Escuelas para el Fortalecimiento de la

  8. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor in Fenpropathrin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Min Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor, is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9 cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1, 27% (PcE7 and 22% (PcE9, respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite.

  9. Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae) to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Renato Cassol de; Alves, Luis Francisco Angeli; Neves, Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro

    2002-01-01

    A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliare...

  10. Olfactory response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiedy, Marjan; Saboori, Alireza; Zahedi-Golpayegani, Azadeh

    2013-06-01

    Determination of attraction and avoidance behavior of predators is important in concomitant use of multiple natural enemies to control a pest. The olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was studied to odors related to Tetranychus urticae adults infected by Beauveria bassiana DEBI008 in 0, 24, 48 and 72 h intervals, both in absence and in presence of plants. In plant-present experiments, P. persimilis attraction was neither towards adults of T. urticae infected by 0.02 % Tween 80 (as control), nor to the ones infected by B. bassiana for 0 or 24 h, whereas significant attraction towards the control was observed when tested against T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h. In absence of plants, P. persimilis displayed significant avoidance of T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h, when their alternative option was 0.02 % Tween 80-infected T. urticae adults. These results indicate that P. persimilis can recognize the presence of B. bassiana and that the predator avoids the fungus. This suggests that the two natural enemy species can be used together in biological control programmes.

  11. Marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from Taiwan, Korea and India, with the first description of the male of Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Chan, B.K.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    he hitherto unknown male of the marine water mite Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) is described and recorded from Taiwan for the first time. Another marine water mite, Litarachna denhami (Lohmann, 1909...

  12. Response of forest soil Acari to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the southern Cascade Range.Can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Camann; Nancy E. Gillette; Karen L. Lamoncha; Sylvia R. Mori

    2008-01-01

    We studied responses of Acari, especially oribatid mites, to prescribed low-intensity fire in an east side pine site in the southern Cascade Range in California. We compared oribatid population and assemblage responses to prescribed fire in stands that had been selectively logged to enhance old growth characteristics, in logged stands to minimize old growth...

  13. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  14. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani-Samani Amir; Madreseh-Ghahfarokhi Samin; Dehghani-Samani Azam; Pirali-Kheirabadi Khodadad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Mesostigmata) is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobac...

  15. The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Cricetidae and Hominidae ( Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia) (Hoffmann, 1969). Note. The tick from Valle de Bravo, Estado de México, was...distribution El género Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en México: claves de identifi cación para adultos, diagnosis, huéspedes y distribución Carmen Guzmán...Incorporación de Profesores de Carrera en Facultades y Escuelas para el Fortalecimiento de la Investigación (PROFIP). Tila María Pérez, Curator of CNAC

  16. Investigations on the Effects of Five Different Plant Extracts on the Two-Spotted Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arac.: Tetranychidae, is an economic pest worldwide including Turkey, causing serious damage to vegetables, flowers, and fruit crops. In recent years, broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides have been used to control this pest in Turkey. Control is difficult mainly due to resistance to conventional pesticides. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of pesticides extracted from five different plants [i.e., Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae, Rhododendron luteum S. (Ericaceae, Helichrysum arenarium L. (Asteraceae, Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae, and Tanacetum parthenium L. (Asteraceae] against this mite. Bioassays were tested by two different methods to determine the effects of varying concentrations. Experiments were performed using 3 cm diameter leaf disk from unsprayed bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. In addition, the effects of the extracts on reproduction and oviposition were investigated. The extract yielded high mortality. In the lowest-concentration bioassays, the adult mites laid lower numbers of eggs compared to the untreated control. No ovicidal effect was observed.

  17. Pengaruh Minyak Atsiri Asal Kulit Jeruk Manis dan Besar terhadap Perkembangan Tungau Panonychus citri (Acarina: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizu lstianto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available P. citri (Acarina: Tetranychidae is one of the economically important citrus pests in Indonesia. However, the association of this pest with its host is not well understood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of essential oil extracted from sweet orange and pumello fruit peels on the development of P. citri. The research was conducted in the laboratory of IP2TP Tlekung Malang, using a complete random design consisted of six treatments. Fifteen mites were used for each treatment. The treatments were concentrations 10, 20, 40, and 80 ppm of essential oil. Parafin was used as a positive control because it was a diluting solution for the essential oil. The control received no application. The result showed that the main content of essential oil extracted from sweet orange and pumello was limonene. The essential oils prolonged the life cycle and reduced the fecundity of P. citri. The effects of essential oil extracted from pumello were found to be more pronounced than were from sweet orange. These differences might be due to the differences in the composition of the volatile compounds other than limonene.

  18. Spatial distribution of phytophagous mites (Aca ri: Tetranychidae) on strawberry plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadini, Marcos A.M.; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Hamilton G.; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2007-01-01

    Many phytophagous mites can attack strawberry plants, Fragaria x ananassa, among them the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. They are found together feeding on the same plant on the upper and underside of the leaves, respectively. Here we studied the choice for feeding sites of O. ilicis and T. urticae on strawberry plants. The first hypothesis tested whether the feeding site choice would be related to the fitness of the species. The second hypothesis dealt whether the feeding site would be determined by the presence of a heterospecific mite. We evaluated the preference, biology and reproductive success of O. ilicis and T. urticae on the under and upper side surface of strawberry leaves infested or not by the heterospecific. O. ilicis preferred to stay on the upper side surface while T. urticae preferred the underside. The preference for the leaf surface correlated with the reproductive success of the species (measured by the intrinsic growth rate). The choice pattern of feeding sites did not alter when the choice test was applied using sites previously infested by heterospecific. Although O. ilicis and T. urticae, apparently, do not interact directly for feeding sites, there is a chance that the first species induces defenses in strawberry plant enabling to reduce the fitness of the second species. The possibility of those species stay together on strawberry plant increases the damage capacity to the culture. (author)

  19. New feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acari: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1947, - (2008), s. 1-38 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acari * Astigmata * feather mites * systematics * Brazil * Proctophyllodidae * Aves * Passeriformes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2008 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2008/f/zt01947p038.pdf

  20. Effect of Pollen from Different Plant Species on Development of Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae Efecto del Polen de Diferentes Especies Vegetales sobre el Desarrollo de Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermúdez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a phytoseiid mite with a high potential in controlling the false Chilean mite (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different plant species pollen as a complementary food in the development of T. pyri when its prey is in low levels of availability. Mites were individually placed on black plastic boxes with pollen and maintained at a temperature of 26 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D. Postembryonic development of T. pyri was studied in 11 pollen species, as well as in a mixed diet of Hirschfeldia incana (L. and B. chilensis. Results show that H. incana was the only pollen in which there was no mortality (P > 0.05 along with the control (Oxalis pes-caprae L.. Mean duration from egg to adult with H. incana was 8.70 ± 1.66 d, protonymph 3.27 ± 0.21 d, and deutonymph 2.90 ± 1.45 d (P > 0.05. The mix feeding of T. pyri did not show any significant differences neither in the mean time from egg to adult, nor in mortality by feeding only with B. chilensis. Survival curves of T. pyri fed only with H. incana pollen, combined with B. chilensis, and only with B. chilensis are higher in the first 14 d of life. The sex ratio was not significantly affected by being fed only with H. incana pollen, B. chilensis, or by a combination of both.Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un ácaro que presenta un alto potencial de uso para el control de la falsa arañita roja de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del polen de diferentes especies vegetales como alimento complementario para T. pyri cuando escasea su presa. Los parámetros post-embrionarios de T. pyri se estudiaron en 11 especies de polen, en una dieta mixta de polen de Hirschfeldia incana (L. y B. chilensis. Los ácaros se colocaron individualmente sobre

  1. Effects of azadirachtin on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its compatibility with predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malausa, Thibaut; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Nava, Dori Edson

    2013-01-01

    The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax(®) 12 g L(-1) ) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated. Azadirachtin was efficient against T. urticae, with a mortality rate similar to that of abamectin. In addition, the azadirachtin showed lower biological persistence (7 days) than abamectin (21 days). Azadirachtin did not cause significant mortality of adult predatory mites (N. californicus and P. macropilis), but it did reduce fecundity by 50%. However, egg viability of the azadirachtin treatments was similar to that of the control (>80% viability). The use of azadirachtin and predatory mites is a valuable tool for controlling T. urticae in strawberry crop. Azadirachtin provided effective control of T. urticae and is compatible with the predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis. It is an excellent tool to be incorporated into integrated pest management for strawberry crop in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Ethanol extract of Cymbopogon winterianus on mortality and number of eggs of Tetranychus urticae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bernardo Vicentini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have been studied as a promising source of natural insecticides. This study assessed the effect of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella grass in comparison with an insecticide containing azadirachtin (ICA on mortality and number of eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae in laboratory conditions. For the tests, the mites were sprayed with the aid of a Potter spray tower. To assess the mortality of females, LC50 value for extract of citronella grass and ICA was, respectively, 2.63 and 2.83%. With respect to the number of eggs, the greatest reduction was observed at a concentration of 5% for the evaluation period of 120h, both for the extract of citronella grass (86% and for ICA (81%. These results suggest the potential of the ethanol extract of citronella grass to control of T. urticae. However, experiments, under field conditions, involving other populations of T. urticae should be performed to verify the efficacy of this extract as an alternative to be used in pest management programs

  3. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas Mortality of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae in residual toxicity persistence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gustavo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    . Azimphos-methyl foi o produto que menos afetou a sobrevivência do ácaro predador. Os inseticidas testados, usados na região do "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén" para o controle de Cydia pomonella, praga-chave das culturas de pomáceas, apresentaram baixa toxicidade sobre N. californicus.Phytoseiid mites, mainly Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, are important biological control agents of Tetranychidae pest mites in pip fruit crops in the region known as "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. We assessed the mortality of N. californicus when exposed to residues of the insecticides azimphos-methyl, carbaryl and cyfluthrin, as well as the acaricides cyhexatin and propargite. Pear plants were sprayed up to dip-point with pesticides in their recommended label concentrations. One, 3, 6 and 10 days after application (DAA, leaves were collected from treated plants and used to establish experimental arenas. Five adult laboratory-reared N. californicus specimens were transferred into each arena which contained Southern cattail pollen as food source. Experimental arenas were kept at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14 hours. Mite mortality was assessed 24 hours after the confinement. The completely randomized design was adopted for data statistical analysis, mortality means were compared by Dunnett's test (p < 0.05. Progression of pesticide's effect decline was submitted to regression analysis. On 1 and 3 DAA mean mortality in all of the treatments was significantly different from that of the water-treated control. On the sixth DAA, propargite, cyhexatin and cyfluthrin treatments caused about 30% mortality, while mortality levels in treatments with azimphos-methyl and carbaryl were statistically similar to that of control treatment. On the tenth DAA, mortality in none of the pesticide treatments differed from that of control. All of the pesticide treatments presented progressive decline throughout the experimental period, being significant (p < 0

  4. Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Woehl Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

  5. First record of larvae of the water mite Hydrachna processifera Piersig, 1895 from Turkey (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Hydrachnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeni Aykut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of water mite Hydrachna processifera Piersig, 1895 (Acari, Hydrachnidiae were reported on diving beetles Dytiscus marginalis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae from Turkey. The redescription of the larva was made. Earlier, the larva H. processifera was described as H. inermis, but it was subsequently synonymized with H. processifera. The larva of H. processifera is a new record for the Turkish fauna. All larvae of H. processifera were found on the mesosternum of the one specimens (prevalence = 16.7%.

  6. Ricoseius loxocheles (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is not a predator of false spider mite on coffee crops: What does it eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacacela Ajila, Henry E; Ferreira, João A M; Colares, Felipe; Oliveira, Cleber M; Bernardo, Ana Maria G; Venzon, Madelaine; Pallini, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is often found in coffee crops and is known to feed on coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). As the occurrence of coffee leaf rust is limited primarily to the rainy season, the mite may use other food sources to survive during the periods of low pathogen prevalence. It is well known that phytoseiid mites can survive on a variety of food sources, such as herbivorous mites, fungi and pollen. We evaluated the ability of R. loxocheles to survive and reproduce on a diet of Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), cattail pollen (Typha spp.), clover rust (Puccinia oxalidis), bee pollen (Santa Bárbara ® dehydrated pollen, Santa Bárbara, MG, Brazil) and coffee leaf rust. Ricoseius loxocheles did not survive or reproduce on any B. phoenicis stages tested (egg, larva, adult). The survival and oviposition of R. loxocheles were directly affected by the presence of coffee rust urediniospores, but not by the presence of the prey. Survival and oviposition of the phytoseiid were similar when fed cattail pollen, clover rust and coffee leaf rust but was lower when fed bee pollen. Our results show that R. loxocheles is not a predator of B. phoenicis but it is able to utilize other resources besides coffee leaf rust.

  7. New species and new records of mites of the genus Stigmaeus(Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2014-05-06

    Three new species of the genus Stigmaeus Koch, 1836 (Acari: Stigmaeidae) are described from various habitats in Crimea: Stigmaeus kuznetsovi sp. nov. from nests of Microtus socialis (Rodentia: Cricetidae); S. mitrofanovi sp. nov. from galleries of Pityogenes bistridentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the bark of Pinus pallasiana, and S. silvestris sp. nov. from rotten log of Pinus pallasiana. Stigmaeus corticeus Kuznetsov and Wainstein, 1977 and S. maraghehiensis Bagheri and Ueckermann, 2012 are recorded for the first time in Crimea. A key to species of the genus Stigmaeus of Crimea is provided.

  8. Harşit Vadisi’nin (Türkiye) Caligonellid Akarları (Acari: Raphignathoidea: Caligonellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, Sibel; DOĞAN, Salih; ERMAN, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Harşit Vadisi’nden (Türkiye) toplanancaligonellid akarların (Acari: Caligonellidae) iki cinsine ait toplam dört türtespit edildi. Türlerden üçü, Caligonellahumilis (Koch), Neognathusspectabilis (Summers ve Schlinger) ve N.terrestris (Summers ve Schlinger), çalışma alanından ilk defa kaydedildi.Bu türlerin, çeşitli organlarının şekilleri çizildi, ölçümleri alındı vetanımları yapıldı. Ayrıca Türkiye’de ve dünyada yayılışları üzerinde duruldu....

  9. Mites (acari) infesting commensal rats in Suez Canal zone, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.

  10. Binomial and enumerative sampling of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on peppermint in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Marcum, Daniel; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry

    2013-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an economic pest on peppermint [Mentha x piperita (L.), 'Black Mitcham'] grown in California. A sampling plan for T. urticae was developed under Pacific Northwest conditions in the early 1980s and has been used by California growers since approximately 1998. This sampling plan, however, is cumbersome and a poor predictor of T. urticae densities in California. Between June and August, the numbers of immature and adult T. urticae were counted on leaves at three commercial peppermint fields (sites) in 2010 and a single field in 2011. In each of seven locations per site, 45 leaves were sampled, that is, 9 leaves per five stems. Leaf samples were stratified by collecting three leaves from the top, middle, and bottom strata per stem. The on-plant distribution of T. urticae did not significantly differ among the stem strata through the growing season. Binomial and enumerative sampling plans were developed using generic Taylor's power law coefficient values. The best fit of our data for binomial sampling occurred using a tally threshold of T = 0. The optimum number of leaves required for T urticae at the critical density of five mites per leaf was 20 for the binomial and 23 for the enumerative sampling plans, respectively. Sampling models were validated using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plan Software.

  11. Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae on leaves of I. cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana M. de A. Maia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de três espécies acarinas fitófagas é relatada pela primeira vez sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica. As espécies Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, foram coletadas sobre folhas de I. cairica nas imediações da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, em 20 de janeiro de 2005.The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites on Ipomoea cairica, is reported. The species Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks were caught on leaves of I. cairica, around Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in January 20th, 2005.

  12. New records of water mites of the genus Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae) from Thailand, Malaysia and Sulawesi (Indonesia), with the description of four new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2009-01-01

    New records of water mites of the genus Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae) from Thailand, Malaysia and Sulawesi are presented. Four species new to science, Atractides siamis, A. malayensis, A. tahanensis and A. sulawesiensis, are described; a first description of the male is

  13. First record of the genus .i.Bloszykiella./i. in Kenya with the description of .i.Bloszykiella tertia./i. sp n. (Acari: Uropodidae) from a .i.Pinus radiata./i. D. Don plantation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2015), s. 629-635 ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * new species * Pinus radiata plantation * Kenya Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.708, year: 2015

  14. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Napiera?a, Agnieszka; M?dra, Anna; Leszczy?ska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.; Go?dyn, Bart?omiej; B?oszyk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be ...

  15. Plant species modifies the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): implications for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Fenlon, J S

    2001-02-01

    The functional response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot to eggs of its prey, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch was examined on three plant species. Experiments were done to determine whether differences in the functional response on the three plant species were due to the morphological features of the crop directly on the predator or through an effect of the plant species on the prey. The results show that crop morphology is the only factor influencing the predatory ability of P. persimilis on the three plant species. Fewer eggs were eaten on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. 'Autumnal Blue', the plant species with hairy leaves, and greater numbers of prey consumed on Choisya ternata, a species with smooth leaves. However, similarly few eggs were eaten on the smooth, but waxy leaved Euonymus japonicus as on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, demonstrating that morphological characters of leaves other than the possession of hairs and trichomes may affect the rates of predation. The implications of these results for the tritrophic interactions between plant, predator and prey, and the development of suitable biological control strategies are discussed.

  16. Alternating temperatures affect life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their prey Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Schrijver, Lien; Spranghers, Thomas; Audenaert, Joachim; Verhoeven, Ruth; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs force glasshouse growers to switch to energy saving strategies. In the temperature integration approach, considerable daily temperature variations are allowed, which not only have an important influence on plant growth but also on the development rate of arthropods in the crop. Therefore, we examined the influence of two constant temperature regimes (15 °C/15 °C and 20 °C/20 °C) and one alternating temperature regime (20 °C/5 °C, with an average of 15 °C) on life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus and their target pest, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae at a 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod and 65 ± 5 % RH. For females of both predatory mites the alternating temperature regime resulted in a 25-30 % shorter developmental time as compared to the corresponding mean constant temperature regime of 15 °C/15 °C. The immature development of female spider mites was prolonged for 7 days at 15 °C/15 °C as compared to 20 °C/5 °C. With a daytime temperature of 20 °C, no differences in lifetime fecundity were observed between a nighttime temperature of 20 and 5 °C for P. persimilis and T. urticae. The two latter species did show a higher lifetime fecundity at 20 °C/5 °C than at 15 °C/15 °C, and their daily fecundity at the alternating regime was about 30 % higher than at the corresponding mean constant temperature. P. persimilis and T. urticae showed no differences in sex ratio between the three temperature regimes, whereas the proportion of N. californicus females at 15 °C/15 °C (54.2 %) was significantly lower than that at 20 °C/5 °C (69.4 %) and 20 °C/20 °C (67.2 %). Intrinsic rates of increase were higher at the alternating temperature than at the corresponding mean constant temperature for both pest and predators. Our results indicate that thermal responses of the studied phytoseiid predators to alternating temperature regimes used in energy saving strategies in glasshouse crops may have consequences for their efficacy in biological control programs.

  17. Infection of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia Parkeri: First Report from the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    0279276E-D761-4A27-BFF7-7329E05E0F66 Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from...Spring, MD 20910-1230, U.S.A. Abstract The molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in a Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, collected in Delaware...near Smyrna, Delaware. All specimens were tested for the presence of Rickettsia with a genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain

  18. Natural Head Posture in the Setting of Sagittal Spinal Deformity: Validation of Chin-Brow Vertical Angle, Slope of Line of Sight, and McGregor's Slope With Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafage, Renaud; Challier, Vincent; Liabaud, Barthelemy; Vira, Shaleen; Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Diebo, Bassel G; Liu, Shian; Vital, Jean-Marc; Mazda, Keyvan; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Errico, Thomas J; Schwab, Frank J; Lafage, Virginie

    2016-07-01

    The maintenance of horizontal gaze is an essential function of upright posture and global sagittal spinal alignment. Horizontal gaze is classically measured by the chin-brow vertical angle (CBVA), which is not readily measured on most lateral spine radiographs. To evaluate relations between CBVA and the slope of the line of sight, the slope of McGregor's line (McGS), and Oswestry Disability Index. Patients were identified from a single center database of 531 spine patients who underwent full-body EOS x-rays. Correlations between CBVA, the slope of the line of sight, and McGS were assessed. Using a quadratic regression with Oswestry Disability Index and CBVA, windows of low disability were identified. Comparison of sagittal spinopelvic parameters was carried out between patients with "ascending gaze" and "neutral position." Three hundred three patients were included (74% female, mean age 54.8 years, body mass index 26.6 ± 6.0 kg/m). CBVA strongly correlated with the slope of the line of sight (r = 0.996) and McGS (r = 0.862). Regression studies between Oswestry Disability Index and CBVA yielded a range of values corresponding to low disability (-4.7 degrees to 17.7 degrees). Similarly, a low disability range for the slope of the line of sight (-5.1 degrees to 18.5 degrees) and McGS (-5.7 degrees to 14.3 degrees) was computed. Patients with "ascending gaze" had a worse spinopelvic alignment than "neutral position" patients. The slope of the line of sight and McGS correlated strongly with CBVA and can be used as surrogate measures. The range of values for these measures corresponding to low disability was identified. These values can be used as a general guideline to assess alignment for diagnostic purposes. Cervical compensatory mechanism may modify the natural head position in sagittally misaligned patients. CBVA, chin-brow vertical angleHRQoL, health-related quality of lifeMcGS, slope of McGregor's lineODI, Oswestry Disability IndexSLs, slope of the line of sight.

  19. Catalogue of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NiedbaŁa, Wojciech; Liu, Dong

    2018-03-11

    As important representatives of Oribatida (Acari), ptyctimous mites comprise more than 1400 described species in 40 genera and subgenera, with nearly cosmopolitan distribution except for the Arctic and Antarctic Regions. They are capable of folding the aspidosoma under the opisthosoma to protect their appendages, and are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Our purpose was to provide a detailed catalogue of all known ptyctimous mite species in the world with information of distribution, taxonomic issues and some remarks. Data of known juvenile  instars of ptyctimous mites which were not included in Norton Ermilov (2014) were added. We hope that our catalogue with bibliography will be helpful in taxonomic and ecological studies.        The catalogue presents taxonomic information and geographic distribution of 1431 known species of the world belonging to 42 genera and eight families (not including data of genus and species inquirenda, nomina nuda and species without author name). Among them, 261 species are listed as synonyms, 43 species inquirenda, nine homonyms, 17 new synonyms, one new subgenus Mahuntritia subgenus nov. and three new names are included in the catalogue.

  20. Molecular Effects of Irradiation (Cobalt-60 on the Control of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05 effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucleoli and gathered yolk. Additionally, the transcriptomes and gene expression profiles between irradiated and non-irradiated mites were compared, and three digital gene expression libraries were assembled and analyzed. The differentially expressed genes were putatively involved in apoptosis, cell death and the cell cycle. Finally, the expression profiles of some related genes were studied using quantitative real-time PCR. Our study provides valuable information on the changes in the transcriptome of irradiated P. citri, which will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the sterility induced by irradiation.

  1. Divergent methylation pattern in adult stage between two forms of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-Xia; Guo, Chao; Zhao, Xiu-Ting; Sun, Jing-Tao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2017-02-19

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch has two forms: green form and red form. Understanding the molecular basis of how these two forms established without divergent genetic background is an intriguing area. As a well-known epigenetic process, DNA methylation has particularly important roles in gene regulation and developmental variation across diverse organisms that do not alter genetic background. Here, to investigate whether DNA methylation could be associated with different phenotypic consequences in the two forms of T. urticae, we surveyed the genome-wide cytosine methylation status and expression level of DNA methyltransferase 3 (Tudnmt3) throughout their entire life cycle. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses of 585 loci revealed variable methylation patterns in the different developmental stages. In particular, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) indicates a significant epigenetic differentiation between female adults of the two forms. The gene expression of Tudnmt3 was detected in all examined developmental stages, which was significantly different in the adult stage of the two forms. Together, our results reveal the epigenetic distance between the two forms of T. urticae, suggesting that DNA methylation might be implicated in different developmental demands, and contribute to different phenotypes in the adult stage of these two forms. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. The Effect of Spiromesifen on the Reproductive Potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of spiromesifen on the fecundity, fertility and population growth of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch after treatment of pre-ovipositing females with five acaricide concentrations: 180mg/l (maximum recommended concentration for use in glasshouses against spider mites, 18 mg/l, 1.8 mg/l and 0.18 mg/l (the last one was discriminative for eggs and immatures in preliminary studies, i.e. produced 100% mortality of those stages and 0.018 mg/l. After24h exposure, the percentages of females surviving treatment without visible symptoms of poisoning were 50% (180 mg/l, 45% (18 mg/l, 51% (1.8 mg/l, 74% (0.18 mg/l, 96% (0.018 mg/l and 98% (0 mg/l. Over the first four days after treatment, the females that survived180 mg/l and 18 mg/l laid no eggs. The total number of eggs laid after treatment with these two concentrations was reduced to less than 2% against the control by the end of the trial. The females that survived 1.8 mg/l laid 50% less eggs, compared to the control, while the number of eggs laid by the females treated with 0.18 mg/l and 0.018 mg/l were 19% and 4% lower, respectively. Over the initial four days, egg hatch rates in treatments were 73-87%, and 92-93% in the control. Significant statistical differences between gross fecundity (FCg and gross fertility (FTg values in the control and treatments were detected for females surviving 180 mg/l, 18 mg/l and 1.8 mg/l. On the other hand, only the net fertility (FTn value of females treated with 0.018 mg/l showed no statistically significant difference from the control value. Treatments with 180 mg/l and 18 mg/l significantly reduced the instantaneous rate of increase (ri 6, 8 and 10 days after treatment, compared to the control. The negative ri values in those treatments indicated a declining population. Sublethal effects of spiromesifen and its impact on T. urticae management are discussed.

  3. Oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis (Acari: Parasitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Tomasz; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Sławomir

    2013-07-01

    We observed the oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis Berlese (Acari: Parasitidae) using continuous video-monitoring. Oviposition consisted of six sequential phases. The first phase (I) involved inspection of the substrate. In the second phase (II) there were rhythmic movements of the first pair of legs and slight reciprocating movements of the body. The third (III) was a resting phase. In the fourth phase (IV) the gnathosoma was lowered and the body was raised. In the next phase (V) there were two sub-phases. During the first (Va), the female held the egg below the gnathosoma. In the second sub-phase (Vb), the gnathosoma moved up holding the egg, which was then placed on the substrate. The last phase (VI) involved intense 'cleaning' movements of the chelicerae and palps. During Va a protective external eggshell structure is gradually formed, involving a phase where the egg shell is sticky. After moving the egg to the substrate, the female freed her palps and chelicerae from the sticky egg shell and cleaned her gnathosomal appendages. Phases II-V took on average 207 ± 69 s.

  4. Biologia e tabela de vida de Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae sobre folhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris Biology and life table of Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae on leaves of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rivero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects and life table of the red spider mite, Tetranychus desertorum Banks, 1900, were studied on leaf discs of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus cultivar "Tacarigua" under laboratory conditions (28 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12:12h. Our results showed that total developmental time was 6.8 days for females, with partial duration of immature stages corresponding to 3.8, 1.4, 1.0 and 0.7 for egg, larva, protonymph and deutonymph, respectively. Preoviposition, oviposition and postoviposition periods were 1.1, 8.4 and 1.3 days, respectively; and the higher mean fecundity (6.93 eggs/female/day was observed on day 4. Female mean longevity was 10 days. The life table parameters recorded were: net reproduction rate (Ro = 41.10 individuals; generation time (T = 11.15 days; intrinsic natural growth (r m = 0.144 individuals/female/day, and finite natural increase rate (λ = 1.155 individuals/female. Our findings could be a basis for further studies devoted to determine damage and control strategies for T. desertorum on kidney bean crops.

  5. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  6. TOXICIDADE DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS PARA O CONTROLE DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH, 1836 (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Santos Teixeira; Camila Costabeber Nunes; Romário Vargas; José Romário de Carvalho; Hugo Bolsoni Zago

    2017-01-01

    O ácaro rajado é considerado uma importante praga agrícola, causando danos em diferentes cultivos. O controle à base de acaricidas químicos pode vir a causar problemas ambientais e à saúde do homem. Desta forma o uso de óleos essenciais obtidos de produtos botânicos é uma alternativa no controle de pragas por apresentar baixo efeito residual, sendo objetivo deste trabalho avaliar a mortalidade e o efeito na fertilidade de fêmeas adultas de Tetranychus urticae submetidas a tratamentos com óleo...

  7. TOXICIDADE DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS PARA O CONTROLE DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH, 1836 (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Teixeira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro rajado é considerado uma importante praga agrícola, causando danos em diferentes cultivos. O controle à base de acaricidas químicos pode vir a causar problemas ambientais e à saúde do homem. Desta forma o uso de óleos essenciais obtidos de produtos botânicos é uma alternativa no controle de pragas por apresentar baixo efeito residual, sendo objetivo deste trabalho avaliar a mortalidade e o efeito na fertilidade de fêmeas adultas de Tetranychus urticae submetidas a tratamentos com óleos essenciais de laranja doce e limoneno, fornecidos pela empresa Ferquima Indústria e Comércio LTDA., e pela empresa Pack Indústria e Comércio de Produtos Agropecuários LTDA., respectivamente. Para avaliar a ação fumigante do óleo essencial sobre os ácaros foram realizados testes submetendo fêmeas adultas de T. urticae à dose pura do óleo essencial utilizando as dosagens de 5, 15 e 25 µL em câmaras de fumigação. Após o período de exposição ao óleo foi contabilizado o número de ácaros mortos e a quantidade de ovos depositados. Os resultados não foram significativos para mortalidade e para fertilidade de fêmeas adultas de T. urticae.

  8. Fundamental aspects of genetic control of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiobiological properties of Tetranychus urticae and other topics of genetic control have been evaluated. The induction by X-rays or fast neutrons of dominant lethals in mature sperm and of dominant lethals and recessive lethals in prophase-1 oocytes and the induction by both radiation types of chromosome mutations, recessive lethals and factors causing F 1 -infertility in sperm and oocytes, have been studied. From the results the optimal dose, radiation type and germ cell type could be chosen for obtaining either fully sterile males or substerile males, producing fully infertile F 1 -females. Also the most favourable conditions were determined for the induction of chromosome mutations with the lowest frequency of linked recessive lethals. The radiobiological properties of holokinetic chromosomes are extensively discussed. The successful displacement of the standard karyotype by a radiation arranged karyotype is presented and discussed in its relevance for practical application. (Auth./C.F.)

  9. The effect of chrysanthemum leaf trichome density and prey spatial distribution on predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Stavrinides, M C; Skirvin, D J

    2003-08-01

    The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. The number of prey consumed by P. persimilis was inversely related to trichome density. At low prey densities (less than ten eggs per stem), prey consumption did not differ in a biologically meaningful way between treatments. The effect of prey spatial arrangement on the predation rate of P. persimilis was also examined. Predation rates were higher in prey patches on leaves adjacent to the release point of P. persimilis, but significantly greater numbers of prey were consumed in higher density prey patches compared to low density patches. The predators exhibited non-random searching behaviour, spending more time on leaves closest to the release point. The implications of these findings for biological control and predator-prey dynamics are discussed.

  10. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  11. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Andre R.; Arthur, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  12. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  13. Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.

  14. Ocorrência de Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae em filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato e Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Ocurrence of Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae on Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl and Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee nestlings in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Mascarenhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre e Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal de Pelotas - RS atendeu dois filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato (Strigiformes - Strigidae e dois de Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae intensamente parasitados por ácaros, em maio de 2005 e dezembro de 2006, respectivamente. Os filhotes e o ninho de P. sulphuratus foram recolhidos na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas - RS após forte temporal. Os ácaros foram removidos, colocados em álcool 70% e levados ao laboratório de parasitologia para identificação. Os espécimes foram clarificados em lactofenol, montados em meio de Hoyer e identificados como Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Registra-se Megascops choliba e Pitangus sulphuratus como hospedeiros de Ornithonyssus bursa, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife and Center for Selection of Wild Animal of the Federal University of Pelotas has attended two nestlings of Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl (Strigiformes - Strigidae and two of Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae heavily parasitized by mites, in May 2005 and December 2006, respectively. The nestlings and the nest of P. sulphuratus were collected in the Pelotas urban area after severe storms. The mites were removed, clarified in lactofenol, permanently mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified as Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Megascops choliba and Pitangus sulphuratus are reported as host of Ornithonyssus bursa in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  15. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  16. New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari, Hydrachnidia) with descriptions of two new species from Nanshih River system in Taiwan and redescription of Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940) from the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia A.; Chatterjee, Tapas; Yam, Rita S.W.; Chan, Benny K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract New records of torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae) from Nanshih River, Taiwan, are presented. Two new species are described: Torrenticola nanshihensis and Torrenticola taiwanicus; the latter species is compared with Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940), a poorly known species which is re-described based on a new material from the Russian Far East; Monatractides cf. circuloides (Halík, 1930)is reported for the first time for Taiwan. PMID:21998497

  17. Plant-herbivore interaction: dissection of the cellular pattern of Tetranychus urticae feeding on the host plant

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    Nicolas Bensoussan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1,100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding.

  18. Susceptibility of sweet and sour cherry cultivars/genotypes to feeding damage caused by Bryobia rubrioculus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honarparvar, N.; Khanjani, M.; Zemek, Rostislav; Bouzari, N.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2018), s. 78-90 ISSN 1362-1971 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Prunus * brown mite * fee ding damage Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2016

  19. Evaluation of selected acaricides against two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse cotton using multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is an early season pest of cotton in the mid-southern United States and causes reduction in yield, fiber quality and impaired seed germination. Objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of abamectin and spiromesifen with two...

  20. Biology, ecology and control of the Penthaleus species complex (Acari: Penthaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Weeks, Andrew R

    2004-01-01

    Blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp. (Acari: Penthaleidae), are major agricultural pests in southern Australia and other parts of the world, attacking various pasture, vegetable and crop plants. Management of these mites has been complicated by the recent discovery of three cryptic pest species of Penthaleus, whereas prior research had assumed a single species. The taxonomy, population genetics, ecology, biology and control of the Penthaleus spp. complex are reviewed. Adult Penthaleus have a dark blue-black body approximately 1 mm in length, and eight red-orange legs. Within Australia, they are winter pests completing two or three generations a season, depending on conditions. The summer is passed as diapausing eggs, when long-distance dispersal is thought to occur. The Penthaleus spp. reproduce by thelytokous parthenogenesis, with populations comprising clones that differ ecologically. The three pest Penthaleus spp. differ markedly in their distributions, plant hosts, timing of diapause egg production and response to pesticides, highlighting the need to develop control strategies that consider each species separately. Chemicals are the main weapons used in current control programs, however research continues into alternative more sustainable management options. Host plant resistance, crop rotations, conservation of natural enemies, and improved timing of pesticide application would improve the management of these pests. The most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable means of control will result from the integration of these practices combined with the development of a simple field-based kit to distinguish the different mite species.

  1. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, northwest of Iran

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    Zahra Ramezani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, in northwest of Iran, including the combination of two of the geographical regions of Iran (Caspian and mountain plateau where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. Methods: Fifteen villages of Meshkin-Shahr County were selected randomly from different areas of the county. The animal dwellings were visited and the whole body of sheep, cows, goats and dogs were examined for their probable infestation. Samples were identified at the level of species according to the standard morphological key. Results: In this study 1 208 specimen were collected and totally nine species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor niveus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were identified in this study. Also 569 host including 40 cows, 450 sheep, 70 goats and 9 dogs were examined for infestation and among them 255 were infested which showed a 44% of infestation among examined livestock. The infestation rate among sheep (46% was higher than other hosts. The infestation rates among the rest of hosts were as: cows (40%, goat (37% and dogs (33%. Conclusions: The results of this study and other studies of the region showed the probability of the establishment and development of the burden of several tick-borne diseases.

  2. Development and reproductive potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) on plant-parasitic nematodes and artificial diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Osman, Mohamed Ali

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated development, reproduction and life table parameters of the astigmatid mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae) feeding on egg-masses or adult females of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita, egg-masses of the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, ras cheese or yeast at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH in the dark. Immature developmental times were shorter when the mite was fed females of M. incognita followed by yeast. Different prey/diet types had no significant effect on longevity and lifespan of both males and females. Daily oviposition rate (eggs/female/day) was highest for mites fed yeast (20.8 ± 1.8 eggs) and lowest for mites fed females of M. incognita (6.6 ± 0.5). Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was highest for mites fed yeast compared to other prey/diet; no significant differences in r m were observed among mites fed on non-yeast diets. This result may suggest a role of T. putrescentiae as biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and the yeast may be used for mite mass-production purposes.

  3. Aggregation in the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae): use and reuse of questing vantage points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, John A E; Bourke, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    Ongoing work in oak woods in Killarney National Park in southwestern Ireland is focusing on the factors influencing the fine-scale aggregated distribution of Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae) on the ground. The extent of reuse of stems of vegetation as questing points by adult ticks was determined by paint-marking stems on which ticks were found, counting and removing these ticks, and subsequently reexamining the same stems for ticks on two further occasions. Overall, an estimated 2,967 stems in 123 separate rush plants (Juncus effusus L.) were examined. Statistical analysis of the data demonstrated a highly significant reoccupancy by ticks of stems previously and recently used. Furthermore, it is shown that the extent of stem reuse by ticks is significantly and positively correlated with the numbers of ticks originally observed on those stems. Although other factors may be involved in generating clumping of ticks, the results are compatible with the proposition that aggregation of I. ricinus on the ground is pheromone-mediated. The findings are discussed in relation to what is known about the powers of lateral movement of I. ricinus on the ground and the possible implications for the performance of tick traps.

  4. Rickettsia parkeri and "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" in Questing Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) From Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J K; Moraru, G M; Stokes, J V; Wills, R W; Mitchell, E; Unz, E; Moore-Henderson, B; Harper, A B; Varela-Stokes, A S

    2017-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, may also be infected with a rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae." Infection rates with these rickettsiae vary geographically, and coinfected ticks have been reported. In this study, infection rates of R. parkeri and "Ca. R. andeanae" were evaluated, and rickettsial DNA levels quantified, in 335 questing adult A. maculatum collected in 2013 (n = 95), 2014 (n = 139), and 2015 (n = 101) from Oktibbeha County, MS. Overall infection rates of R. parkeri and "Ca. R. andeanae" were 28.7% and 9.3%, respectively, with three additional A. maculatum (0.9%) coinfected. While R. parkeri-infected ticks were detected all three years (34.7% in 2013; 13.7% in 2014; 43.6% in 2015), "Ca. R. andeanae" was not detected in 2013, and was detected at rates of 10.8% in 2014, and 15.8% in 2015. Interestingly, rickettsial DNA levels in singly-infected ticks were significantly lower in "Ca. R. andeanae"-infected ticks compared to R. parkeri-infected ticks (P Rickettsia species in A. maculatum at the population level. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Biological and ecological characterization of two mites (Tetranychus Urticae and Phytoseiulus Persimilis) occurring in some agro-ecosystems; Caratterizzazione biologica ed ecologica di due acari (Tetranichus Urticae e Phytoseiulus Persimilis) interagenti in alcuni ecosistemi agrari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvitti, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-12-01

    This work is a brief review of the actual knowledge about biological and ecological characteristics of two species of mites: Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina Tetranychidae) (two-spotted spider mite) and the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Acarina Phytoseiidae). Success obtained in biological control of spider mite, by mass release of P. persimilis, has increased the interest in biological and ecological study of these mites. Particularly, the following biological and ecological aspects of both P. persimilis and T. urticae are hereby discussed: reproductive biology; population dynamics (spider mites outbreaks) and natural regulation of the trophic interaction; feeding behaviour; biological control of two-spotted spider mite by P. persimilis. In this report experimental data obtained in laboratory have been integrated with bibliographic information concerning studies produced in natural conditions.

  6. Efficacy of plant-derived and synthetic compounds on clothing as repellents against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Dolan, Marc C

    2012-01-01

    We conducted field trials to compare the relative repellent activity of two natural product compounds (nootkatone and carvacrol) with commercially available plant-derived (EcoSMART organic insect repellent) and permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment, nootkatone and carvacrol provided 100% repellency of I. scapularis adults, with nootkatone maintaining complete protection through 3 d, whereas carvacrol showed steadily declining repellency against I. scapularis during the 7-d course of the trials. Nootkatone was at least as effective against host-seeking A. americanum as against I. scapularis through 3 d. Carvacrol provided little protection against A. americanum adults. Both natural compounds performed well initially in comparison with the commercial products. After 7 d, nootkatone was the most effective against both species followed in order of activity by Permanone, EcoSMART, and carvacrol. Nootkatone seems to have offer considerable potential as a clothing repellent against both I. scapularis and A. americanum.

  7. Controle biológico do ácaro rajado com ácaros predadores fitoseídeos (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae em culturas de pepino e morango Biological control of the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae in cucumber and strawberry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Watanabe

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch, é considerado uma das principais pragas de hortaliças e várias outras culturas no Brasil, em áreas onde um considerável volume de acaricidas é anualmente empregado no seu controle. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a viabilidade técnica do emprego dos fitoseídeos Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma e Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks, comum ente encontrados no Brasil, no controle de T. urticae em pepino e morangueiro em Jaguaríúna,SP. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 4 tratamentos (T1-T4 para o pepino e 5 tratamentos para o morangueiro (T1-T5: T1, testemunha; T2, pulverizações semanais de Malation para a exclusão de predadores nativos; T3, liberações periódicas de A.idaeus; T4, liberações periódicas de P.macropilis; T5, pulverizações semanais de avermectina para a exclusão de ácaros fitófagos e predadores nativos. Apenas A.idaeus se estabeleceu na cultura de pepino, reduzindo significativamente a população de T. urticae. Ambas espécies de predadores se estabeleceram na cultura do morango e reduziram significativamente a população de T.urticae.The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is considered one of the main pests of horticultural and other crops in Brazil, in areas where a considerable volume of acaricides is annually used for its control. The objective of this work was to test the technical viability of using phytoseiids Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma and Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks, commonly found in Brazil, to control T .urticae in cucumber and strawberry crops in Jaguaríúna,SP. A randomized complete block design was used, with 4 replicates and 4 treatments for cucumber (T1-T4 and 5 treatments for strawberry crops (T1-T5: T1, control; T2, weekly sprays of malathion for exclusion of native predators; T3, periodical releases of A.idaeus; T4, periodical releases of P. macropilis; T5, weekly sprays of avermectin for exclusion of native phytophagous and predatory mites. Only A. idaeus was successfully established on cucumber, significantly reducing T. urticae population. Both released phytoseiid species were established on strawberry and reduced significantly the population of T. urticae.

  8. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  9. Damage caused by Tetranychus Merganser Bondreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae on Nopal Verdura Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L. Miller during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima-Espíndola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus merganser occurs in some crops in Mexico and USA. This mite could be considered a potential pest in countries like Japan. In this work we recorded the damages that T. merganser causes to the nopal verdura (prickly pear vegetable crop in one of the principal cactus crop regions of Mexico.

  10. The determination of multiple resistance, inheritance and cytochrome P450 activity in bifenthrinresistant Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    AY, Recep; YORULMAZ, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    In this study, multiple resistance, inheritance and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity were determined in Tetranychus urticae Koch (SAK) population after 20 selections for bifenthrin resistance. Selection study and LC50, 60 levels of SAK population of T. urticae were determined by dry film method. LC50 level of the SAK population selected twenty times with bifenthrin was increased from 984.49 to 11914.40 µl l-1 distiled water. Selected population showing 21.84 fold resistances was named ...

  11. An analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae to four botanical pesticides

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    Attia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae, Hertia cheirifolia (L. Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae, Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management.

  12. Reproductive performance of seven strains of the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) at five temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotoh, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Pallini, A.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker et Pritchard occurs on solanaceous plants, and causes serious damage to a variety of crops in Africa and Europe. In 2001 this species was also found in Japan, on nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), and its invasion to solanaceous of agricultural imp...

  13. Analysis of transcriptome differences between resistant and susceptible strains of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The citrus red mite is a worldwide citrus pest and a common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis. It has developed strong resistance to many registered acaricides, However, the molecular mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. we therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptomes between resistant strains and susceptible strains. RESULTS: We obtained 34,159, 30,466 and 32,217 unigenes by assembling the SS reads, RS reads and SS&RS reads respectively. There are total 17,581 annotated unigenes from SS&RS reads by BLAST searching databases of nr, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG with an E-value ≤ 1e-5, in which 7,075 unigenes were annotated in the COG database, 12, 712 unigenes were found in the KEGG database and 3,812 unigenes were assigned to Gene ontology (GO. Moreover, 2,701 unigenes were judged to be the differentially expressed genes (DEGs based on the uniquely mapped reads. There are 219 pathways in all annotated unigenes and 198 pathways in DEGs that mapped to the KEGG database. We identified 211 metabolism genes and target genes related to general insecticide resistance such as P450 and Cytochrome b, and further compared their differences between RS and SS. Meanwhile, we identified 105 and 194 genes related to growth and reproduction, respectively, based on the mode of action of Hexythiazox. After further analyses, we found variation in sequences but not in gene expression related to mite growth and reproduction between different strains. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome study to discover candidate genes involved in phytophagous mite resistance. This study identified differential unigenes related to general pesticide resistance and organism growth and reproduction in P. citri. The assembled, annotated transcriptomes provide a valuable genomic resource for further understanding the molecular basis of resistance mechanisms.

  14. Compatibility of reduced-risk insecticides with the non-target predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döker, İsmail; Pappas, Maria L; Samaras, Konstantinos; Triantafyllou, Anneta; Kazak, Cengiz; Broufas, George D

    2015-09-01

    Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a common predatory mite in citrus orchards in some areas of the Mediterranean basin and an important biological control agent of the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes in greenhouse crops. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the 'reduced-risk' insecticides acetamiprid, chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, methoxyfenozide, spinetoram and thiamethoxam on I. degenerans, as a means of testing their compatibility in IPM programmes. Although all pesticides decreased immature survival, high mortality was only recorded for young larvae when exposed to acetamiprid, while metaflumizone, thiamethoxam and spinetoram resulted in intermediate lethal effects. The estimated LC50 values of acetamiprid, spinetoram and thiamethoxam for I. degenerans females were 0.52, 0.84 and 0.16-fold lower than the respective maximum recommended doses of the pesticides for field application. Although all pesticides tested significantly decreased fecundity, highest rates corresponded to the three pesticides already mentioned. Chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide and methoxyfenozide may preliminarily be included in IPM programmes, whereas the effects of acetamiprid, metaflumizone, spinetoram and thiamethoxam on I. degenerans should be clarified in further field toxicological tests. This information could be useful for rationally planning and implementing pest management on a sustainable basis. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H

    2011-12-01

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  16. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  17. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Hatano, F; Gettinger, D; Manhães, M L; Bergallo, H G

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  18. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  19. The influence of sublethal deposits of agricultural mineral oil on the functional and numerical responses of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to its prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingen; Meats, Alan; Beattie, G Andrew C; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Herron, Grant A

    2009-08-01

    Occasional pesticide application in integrated pest management to at least part of a crop requires that any biological control agents must re-invade previously sprayed areas in order that resurgent pests can be constrained. The ability of the phytoseiid predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to feed on adult two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae on excised leaf discs in both control conditions and in a treatment with a sub lethal residue of agricultural mineral oil (AMO) was assessed. The predator exhibited a Type II functional response with the asymptote significantly higher in the AMO conditions due to the fact that the prey grew slower and reached a smaller size in this treatment. In terms of prey volume eaten, the satiation level of the predator was unchanged by the AMO deposits. The numbers of eggs produced by adult P. persimilis females at densities of 4, 8 and 16 TSSM adult females/disc in the control were significantly higher than those in the AMO treatment, but were similar for the higher density levels, 32 and 64 prey per disc. Thus the functional response in terms of volume of prey eaten explained the numerical response in terms of predator eggs produced. The presence of AMO deposits when the prey were at high density had no effect on predator efficiency (volume eaten) but resulted in a lower intake than that in control conditions when there was a greater distance between prey.

  20. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for spider mites (Acarina: tetranychidae) in horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Banasik-Solgala, K.

    1999-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.), and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are closely related species of tetranychid mites (Acarina, Tetranychidae) that respond to gamma irradiation in a similar way. Eggs of both species exposed to gamma radiation early in embryonic development were considerably more susceptible to irradiation than older eggs. The tolerance of eggs to gamma radiation increased in 3-4-day-old eggs, when eye-spots were formed. Nymphs were more resistant to gamma radiation than eggs and larvae. Deteriorative effects of irradiation treatment were reflected in the immatures by their mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A positive relationship between dosage and the percent egg mortality or the mortality of subsequent stages was usually found when the immature stages were irradiated. The sex ratio of adults developed from irradiated eggs, larvae, and nymphs was affected by the irradiation treatment; the ratio was usually skewed towards males. Irradiation of females resulted in increased mortality, lowered fecundity, reduced egg viability, and sex ratio distortion in their progeny. Two-day-old females of the carmine spider mite and the two-spotted spider mite irradiated with 200 or 300 Gy lived as long as the controls. Mortality occurred after 3 weeks. The number of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites was considerably lower than in the control, and it decreased as the absorbed dose increased. The higher the dose of gamma radiation applied to adults of the spider mites (the parental generation, P), the higher the mortality of the F1 mites during their embryonic development. Viability of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites mated with irradiated males was significantly reduced. Young females treated with a dose of 0.2 kGy produced 40-50% nonviable eggs, while control mites produced only 6.0-6.6% nonviable eggs. A dose of 0.3 kGy caused high mortality of eggs; 88% and 97% nonviable

  1. Essential oils of aromatic Egyptian plants repel nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Azeem, Muhammad; Khalil, Nasr S; Sakr, Hanem H; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Awang, Khalijah; Saeed, Aamer; Farag, Mohamed A; AlAjmi, Mohamed F; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2017-09-01

    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm 2 and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.

  2. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  3. Aberrations of holokinetic chromosomes and associated lethality after X-irradiation of meiotic stages in Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari, tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelaar, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosomes of the holokinetic organization type were irradiated with X-rays in various stages of meiosis in unfertillized eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Visible cytological aberrations, lethality and sterility were investigated in subsequent generations. Chromosome fragments are the most frequently occuring light-microscopically visible chromosome aberrations; bridges are not formed. Contrary to expectations, the presence of fragments appears to be positively correlated with the occurrence of lethality; loss of fragments, missegregation and the measure of damage of the broken chromosome parts are involved. In contrast with monokinetic chromosomes the earliest lethality occurs only after about 10 divisions. The ratios between different embryonic lethality types (early vs. late) differ depending on the stage irradiated: in more compact chromatin, more serious damage (i.e. more early lethality syndromes) is induced than in less compact chromatin. In the progeny of the surviving males, neither translocations nor independent fragments are found; indirect evidence indicated the occasional presence of inversions. The presumtive inversions are induced more frequently in a chromatin-compact stage (metaphase I) than in a less compact one (telophase I). (Auth.)

  4. A comparative study of development and demographic parameters of Tetranychus merganser and Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) at different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, M. S.; Moriya, D.; Badii, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on development and demographic parameters such as the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) of the two spider mite species Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux and T. kanzawai Kishida at eleven constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 40C at intervals of 2.5...

  5. The effects of, and interactions between, Cardinium and Wolbachia in the doubly infected spider mite Bryobia sarothamni (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, V.I.D.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Many arthropods are infected with vertically transmitted, intracellular bacteria manipulating their host's reproduction. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is commonly observed and is expressed as a reduction in the number of offspring in crosses between infected males and uninfected females (or

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Maple Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Nursery-Grown Maples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Performance of Metarhizium anisopliae-treated foam in combination with Phytoseiulus longipes Evans on Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azandémè Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Maniania, Nguya K; Niassy, Saliou; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Delétré, Emilie; Fiaboe, Komi K; Martin, Thibaud

    2018-05-13

    Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment. However, in the control treatments, the infestation increased considerably from 9±0.3% to 100±0% at 15 days post-treatment. The reuse of the fungus-treated foam at 15, 30 and 45 days post-treatment resulted in 19±1.4%, 25±1.2% and 54±2.1% respective infestation by Te. The fungus-treated foam and Pl alone are efficient, but there is no benefit to combinting both against Te. The fungus-treated foam is an effective method to optimize the use of Ma in screenhouse conditions. These two control agents could be integrated in an IPM strategy for crops protection. However, these results need to be confirmed in large field trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Population density and phenology of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is linked to sulfur-induced outbreaks of this pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural plants. Sulfur fungicides are known to induce outbreaks of this pest on several crops, although mechanisms associated with sulfur-induced mite outbreaks are largely unknown. Studies were...

  9. Population density and phenology of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in hop is linked to the timing of sulfur applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; James, D G; Wright, L C; Gent, D H

    2012-06-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural plants. Sulfur fungicides are known to induce outbreaks of this pest on several crops, although mechanisms associated with sulfur-induced mite outbreaks are largely unknown. Studies were conducted during 2007-2009 in Oregon and Washington hop yards to evaluate the effect of timing of sulfur applications on T. urticae and key predators. In both regions, applications of sulfur made relatively late in the growing season (mid-June to mid-July) were associated with the greatest exacerbation of spider mite outbreaks, particularly in the upper canopy of the crop. The severity of mite outbreaks was closely associated with sulfur applications made during a relatively narrow time period coincident with the early exponential phase of spider mite increase and rapid host growth. A nonlinear model relating mean cumulative mite days during the time of sulfur sprays to the percent increase in total cumulative mite days (standardized to a nontreated plot) explained 58% of the variability observed in increased spider mite severity related to sulfur spray timing. Spatial patterns of spider mites in the Oregon plots indicated similar dispersal of motile stages of spider mites among leaves treated with sulfur versus nontreated leaves; however, in two of three years, eggs were less aggregated on leaves of sulfur-treated plants, pointing to enhanced dispersal. Apart from one experiment in Washington, relatively few predatory mites were observed during the course of these studies, and sulfur-induced mite outbreaks generally occurred irrespective of predatory mite abundance. Collectively, these studies indicate sulfur induces mite outbreaks through direct or indirect effects on T. urticae, mostly independent of predatory mite abundance or toxicity to these predators. Avoidance of exacerbation of spider mite outbreaks by sulfur sprays was achieved by carefully timing applications to periods of low spider mite abundance and slower host development, which is generally early to mid-spring for hop.

  10. Comparison and Field Validation of Binomial Sampling Plans for Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Hass Avocado in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesus R; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker, & Abatiello is a foliar pest of 'Hass' avocados [Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae)]. The recommended action threshold is 50-100 motile mites per leaf, but this count range and other ecological factors associated with O. perseae infestations limit the application of enumerative sampling plans in the field. Consequently, a comprehensive modeling approach was implemented to compare the practical application of various binomial sampling models for decision-making of O. perseae in California. An initial set of sequential binomial sampling models were developed using three mean-proportion modeling techniques (i.e., Taylor's power law, maximum likelihood, and an empirical model) in combination with two-leaf infestation tally thresholds of either one or two mites. Model performance was evaluated using a robust mite count database consisting of >20,000 Hass avocado leaves infested with varying densities of O. perseae and collected from multiple locations. Operating characteristic and average sample number results for sequential binomial models were used as the basis to develop and validate a standardized fixed-size binomial sampling model with guidelines on sample tree and leaf selection within blocks of avocado trees. This final validated model requires a leaf sampling cost of 30 leaves and takes into account the spatial dynamics of O. perseae to make reliable mite density classifications for a 50-mite action threshold. Recommendations for implementing this fixed-size binomial sampling plan to assess densities of O. perseae in commercial California avocado orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Toxicity of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium to predatory insects and mites of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y J; Kim, Y J; Yoo, J K

    2001-02-01

    The toxicities of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium to three predatory insect and two predatory mite species of Tetranychus urticae Koch were determined in the laboratory by the direct contact application. At a concentration of 540 ppm (a field application rate for weed control in apple orchards), glufosinate-ammonium was almost nontoxic to eggs of Amblyseius womersleyi Schicha, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, and T. urticae but highly toxic to nymphs and adults of these three mite species, indicating that a common mode of action between predatory and phytophagous mites might be involved. In tests with predatory insects using 540 ppm, glufosinate-ammonium revealed little or no harm to larvae and pupae of Chrysopa pallens Rambur but was slightly harmful to eggs (71.2% mortality), nymphs (65.0% mortality), and adults (57.7% mortality) of Orius strigicollis Poppius. The herbicide showed no direct effect on eggs and adults of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) but was harmful, slightly harmful, and harmless to first instars (100% mortality), fourth instars (51.1% mortality), and pupae (24.5% mortality), respectively. The larvae and nymphs of predators died within 12 h after treatment, suggesting that the larvicidal and nymphicidal action may be attributable to a direct effect rather than an inhibitory action of chitin synthesis. On the basis of our data, glufosinate-ammonium caused smaller effects on test predators than on T. urticae with the exception of P. persimilis, although the mechanism or cause of selectivity remains unknown. Glufosinate-ammonium merits further study as a key component of integrated pest management.

  12. Detection of Babesia spp. in Dogs and Their Ticks From Peninsular Malaysia: Emphasis on Babesia gibsoni and Babesia vogeli Infections in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Batah Kunalan; Low, Van Lun; Vinnie-Siow, Wei Yin; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Morvarid, Akhavan Rezaei; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-12

    Canine babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease with a worldwide distribution, including Malaysia. While the prevalence of Babesia has been documented from dogs in Malaysia, occurrence of Babesia has been relatively little studied in their tick vectors. Accordingly, a total of 240 dogs and 140 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from Malaysia were molecularly screened for the presence of Babesia protozoa in the present study. Babesia gibsoni was only detected in ticks (1.4%), whereas Babesia vogeli was detected in both ticks (1.4%) and dogs (2.1%). This study highlights the detection of B. gibsoni and B. vogeli for the first time, in both adult and nymphal stages of R. sanguineus s.l. in Malaysia, suggesting the potential role of this tick species in transmitting canine babesiosis.

  13. Seasonal variation in the populations of Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

  14. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  15. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  16. Ontogenetic shifts in intraguild predation on thrips by phytoseiid mites: the relevance of body size and diet specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, A; Paulus, H F; Schausberger, P

    2004-12-01

    In greenhouse agroecosystems, a guild of spider mite predators may consist of the oligophagous predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the polyphagous predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (both Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the primarily herbivorous but facultatively predatory western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Diet-specialization and the predator body size relative to prey are crucial factors in predation on F. occidentalis by P. persimilis and N. californicus. Here, it was tested whether the relevance of these factors changes during predator ontogeny. First, the predator (protonymphs and adult females of P. persimilis and N. californicus): prey (F. occidentalis first instars) body size ratios were measured. Second, the aggressiveness of P. persimilis and N. californicus towards F. occidentalis was assessed. Third, survival, development and oviposition of P. persimilis and N. californicus with F. occidentalis prey was determined. The body size ranking was P. persimilis females > N. californicus females > P. persimilis protonymphs > N. californicus protonymphs. Neoseiulus californicus females were the most aggressive predators, followed by highly aggressive N. californicus protonymphs and moderately aggressive P. persimilis protonymphs. Phytoseiulus persimilis females did not attack thrips. Frankliniella occidentalis larvae are an alternative prey for juvenile N. californicus and P. persimilis, enabling them to reach adulthood. Females of N. californicus but not P. persimilis sustained egg production with thrips prey. Within the guild studied here, N. californicus females are the most harmful predators for F. occidentalis larvae, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis juveniles. Phytoseiulus persimilis females are harmless to F. occidentalis.

  17. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso de Ferradás, B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Checklist and catalog publications demonstrate a clear connection between basic taxonomy and biodiversity issues. According to some estimates, only 10-30% of all global species have been named. As in other fields, catalogs provide an important source of information concerning species diversity in freshwater ecology.

    South America is a continent dominated by freshwater ecosystems. The tremendous habitat diversity created by this landscape supports a high number of arthropods, including water mites, which belong to the hyperdiverse group Acari. South America has a substantial task ahead in cataloging its biodiversity.

    Much has been published on water mites in South America. In fact, according to Besch, water mites were the most studied with the exception of Europe up until the 1960’s. Most of the collections were conducted by two acarologists (Lundblad and Karl Viets during the 1940’s. Today, the collection, identification and description process of water mites is slower. In the 1980’s, the north-american acarologist D. R. Cook produced two lengthy papers about neotropical water mites in four regions of South America. Recently, several Argentine acarologists have published papers on water mites from diverse habitats and regions in South America.

    The catalog presented here includes information regarding 6 superfamilies, including 23 families in 118 genera of true water mites (Hydrachnidia, Parasitengona, Acari. It also includes the references concerning the species, distribution in various regions of South America and –as far as known– habitat.

    At present, there are 916 species from several authors cataloged in 11 countries in South America. The degree of knowledge varies greatly from country to country, with numerous entries for Brazil and none for French Guiana.

    Las publicaciones de catálogos y listados de especies determinan una clara conexión entre taxonomía básica y temas

  18. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matioli, Andre L.; Pallini, Angelo; Tavares, Mara G.

    2009-01-01

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute (± 360 μm long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  19. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matioli, Andre L. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economica], e-mail: almatioli@biologico.sp.gov.br; Pallini, Angelo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: pallini@ufv.br; Tavares, Mara G. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: mtavares@ufv.br

    2009-03-15

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute ({+-} 360 {mu}m long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  20. Primera aproximacion a la Paleoentomología de los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, España: la fauna subfósil de Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo, J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atapuerca Quaternarian sites are of worldwide interest due to the presence of human remains belonging to the last million years. The oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida found in several archaeological samples extracted from the Atapuerca Quaternarian deposits, have been analyzed during the 2003 excavation campaign to study the Palaeoentomology of the site. The oribatid mite fauna consists of 7 individuals, 6 of which were obtained from Gran Dolina site (about 300.000 years old and belong to families Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae and Hemileiidae. Most of the taxa were identified to species level. The results obtained were used as a basis to reconstruct the paleo-environments of the site in correspondence with the biological and ecological preferences of the taxa.

    Los yacimientos cuaternarios de la Sierra de Atapuerca ofrecen interés mundial por haber hospedado varias especies de homínidos que vivieron en el último millón de años. En este contexto, durante la campaña de excavaciones de 2003 se realizó un muestreo puntual en algunos de sus yacimientos para obtener los primeros datos de restos de artrópodos que pudieran conservarse en los mismos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos de ácaros subfósiles pertenecientes al suborden de los oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida. Después de procesar los sedimentos, se obtuvieron un total de 7 individuos en el conjunto de los yacimientos muestreados, de los cuales 6 aparecieron en Gran Dolina en un nivel con datación en torno a los 300.000 años. Los ejemplares, identificados en su mayoría a nivel taxonómico de especie, pertenecen a las familias Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae y Hemileiidae. Dado el conocimiento que se dispone de la biología de los taxones encontrados, que pertenecen a géneros y especies presentes en la actualidad, se han realizado inferencias sobre los ambientes pretéritos en que los animales vivieron.

  1. Cuticle expansion during feeding in the tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae): The role of hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, W Reuben; Kaufman, S; Flynn, Peter C

    2016-05-01

    Female Amblyomma hebraeum ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) increase their weight ∼10-fold during a 'slow phase of engorgement' (7-9 days), and a further 10-fold during the 'rapid phase' (12-24h). During the rapid phase, the cuticle thins by half, with a plastic (permanent) deformation of greater than 40% in two orthogonal directions. A stress of 2.5 MPa or higher is required to achieve this degree of deformation (Flynn and Kaufman, 2015). Using a dimensional analysis of the tick body and applying the Laplace equation, we calculated that the tick must achieve high internal hydrostatic pressures in order to engorge fully: greater than 55 kPa at a fed:unfed mass ratio of ∼20:1, when cuticle thinning commences (Flynn and Kaufman, 2011). In this study we used a telemetric pressure transducer system to measure the internal hydrostatic pressure of ticks during feeding. Sustained periods of irregular high frequency (>20 Hz) pulsatile bursts of high pressure (>55 kPa) were observed in two ticks: they had been cannulated just prior to the rapid phase of engorgement, and given access to a host rabbit for completion of the feeding cycle. The pattern of periods of high pressure generation varied over the feeding cycle and between the two specimens. We believe that these pressures exceed those reported so far for any other animal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity of thiamethoxam to Tetranychus urticae Koch and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) through different routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo; Tirello, Paola; Ortiz, Paulina Bermudez

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of the impact of insecticides on Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is crucial for IPM. This study evaluates the effect of thiamethoxam on T. urticae and its predator by considering different routes of exposure (topical, residual and contaminated food exposures) and their combinations. Thiamethoxam effects on T. urticae were higher when residual and contaminated food exposures were considered. The total effect was higher than 90% where contaminated food exposure was involved. On P. persimilis, the total effect was higher in residual and contaminated prey exposures compared with topical exposure, and all combinations of routes of exposure attained a total effect higher than 90%. Thiamethoxam was found to be toxic to T. urticae and P. persimilis; however, the impact of the insecticide depended on the routes of exposure and their combinations. Lethal and sublethal effects occurred in residual and contaminated food exposures, while only sublethal effects occurred in topical exposure of predators and prey. The toxicity of thiamethoxam on prey and predator increased with the number of exposure routes involved. By limiting exposure to thiamethoxam to ingestion of contaminated food only, the impact of the pesticide was more favourable to P. persimilis than to its prey. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm 2 of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  4. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, Christine N; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat considering different sources of uncertainty in species distribution modelling.

  5. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae, a widespread agricultural pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Meynard

    Full Text Available Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi, an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1 species prevalence; (2 modelling method; and (3 variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat considering different sources of uncertainty in species distribution modelling.

  6. Talentide kooshoidmine / Jena McGregor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McGregor, Jena

    2008-01-01

    Töötajate eest hoolitsemisest, nende moraali tõstmisest ning heade töötajate hoidmisest ettevõttes majandusliku languse tingimustes. Lisa: Tegevuskava. Vt. samas: Michelle Conlin. Kuidas rasketel aegadel särada

  7. Phytoseiulus persimilis response to herbivore-induced plant volatiles as a function of mite-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Punya; Margolies, David C; Nechols, James R; Loughin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), uses plant volatiles (i.e., airborne chemicals) triggered by feeding of their herbivorous prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), to help locate prey patches. The olfactory response of P. persimilis to prey-infested plants varies in direct relation to the population growth pattern of T. urticae on the plant; P. persimilis responds to plants until the spider mite population feeding on a plant collapses, after which infested plants do not attract predators. It has been suggested that this represents an early enemy-free period for T. urticae before the next generation of females is produced. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind the diminished response of predators is due to extensive leaf damage caused by T. urticae feeding, which reduces the production of volatiles irrespective of the collapse of T. urticae population on the plant. To test this hypothesis we investigated how the response of P. persimilis to prey-infested plants is affected by: 1) initial density of T. urticae, 2) duration of infestation, and 3) corresponding leaf damage due to T. urticae feeding. Specifically, we assessed the response of P. persimilis to plants infested with two T. urticae densities (20 or 40 per plant) after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or 14 days. We also measured leaf damage on these plants. We found that predator response to T. urticae-infested plants can be quantified as a function of mite-days, which is a cumulative measure of the standing adult female mite population sampled and summed over time. That is, response to volatiles increased with increasing numbers of T. urticae per plant or with the length of time plant was infested by T. urticae, at least as long at the leaves were green. Predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only 20 spider mites. This suggests that the enemy-free period might only provide a limited window of opportunity for T. urticae

  8. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of long-term exposure to simulated acid rain on development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Ping; He, Lin; Zhao, Zhi-Mo

    2006-01-01

    Development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduvals) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated after long-term (about 40 generations) exposure to various levels of acid rain; pH 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.6. Deionized water (pH 6.8) served as a control. The mites were reared on eggplant leaves at 28°C, 80%RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) in the laboratory. The results showed that the duration of the immature stage was significantly affected by acid rain exposure. The shortest duration (8.90 days) was recorded for populations exposed to pH 5.6 acid rain, while the longest duration (9.37 days) occurred after exposure to pH 2.5 acid rain. Compared with the control population, adult longevity was shortened with an increase in acidity. Similarly, the oviposition duration was also shortened by an increase in acidity. Statistically, female fecundity did not differ significantly between pH 5.6, pH 4.0 and control populations, but did differ significantly between the control population and those exposed to pH 2.5 and pH 3.0 acid rain. This suggested that the mite suffered reproductive defects after long-term exposure to acid rain with higher acidity (pH 2.5 and 3.0). The intrinsic rate of increase among different populations was not significantly affected, but the net reproductive rate of populations exposed to pH 2.5 and 3.0 acid rain was significantly less than pH4.0, 5.6, and control populations. Bioassay results showed that after long-term exposure to acid rain, susceptibility of the mites to two acaricides, dichlorvos and fenpropathrin, did not change significantly. PMID:19537978

  10. Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid Causes Outbreaks of Spider Mites on Elm Trees in Urban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Creary, Scott F.; Laskowski, Kate L.; Nyrop, Jan P.; Raupp, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Attempts to eradicate alien arthropods often require pesticide applications. An effort to remove an alien beetle from Central Park in New York City, USA, resulted in widespread treatments of trees with the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid. Imidacloprid's systemic activity and mode of entry via roots or trunk injections reduce risk of environmental contamination and limit exposure of non-target organisms to pesticide residues. However, unexpected outbreaks of a formerly innocuous herbivore, Tetranychus schoenei (Acari: Tetranychidae), followed imidacloprid applications to elms in Central Park. This undesirable outcome necessitated an assessment of imidacloprid's impact on communities of arthropods, its effects on predators, and enhancement of the performance of T. schoenei. Methodology/Principal Findings By sampling arthropods in elm canopies over three years in two locations, we document changes in the structure of communities following applications of imidacloprid. Differences in community structure were mostly attributable to increases in the abundance of T. schoenei on elms treated with imidacloprid. In laboratory experiments, predators of T. schoenei were poisoned through ingestion of prey exposed to imidacloprid. Imidacloprid's proclivity to elevate fecundity of T. schoenei also contributed to their elevated densities on treated elms. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to report the effects of pesticide applications on the arthropod communities in urban landscapes and demonstrate that imidacloprid increases spider mite fecundity through a plant-mediated mechanism. Laboratory experiments provide evidence that imidacloprid debilitates insect predators of spider mites suggesting that relaxation of top-down regulation combined with enhanced reproduction promoted a non-target herbivore to pest status. With global commerce accelerating the incidence of arthropod invasions, prophylactic applications of pesticides play a major role in

  11. Bazı Pestisitlerin Tetranychus urticae Koch'nin Ergin Yaşam Süresi ve Yumurta Verimine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hakan BALCI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada deltamethrin, cypermethrin, imidacloprid ve thiacloprid etkili maddeye sahip insektisitlerin tarla uygulama dozu (T ve tarla uygulama dozunun yarısı (T/2'nın uygulandığı Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae erginlerinde üreme parametreleri ve yaşam süreleri incelenmiştir. İnsektisit dozları ve kontrol grubunda kullanılan saf su ilaçlama kulesi ile Petri kabındaki yaprak diskler üzerinde bulunan T. urticae'nin ergin bireylerine uygulanmıştır. Deltamethrin'in T/2 dozu uygulaması sonucunda, ergin bireylerinde ortalama yaşam süresi (5.35 gün ve ortalama ovipozisyon süresi (4.29 g kontrol grubuna (6.57 ve 5.44 g göre kısalmış, ayrıca yumurta sayısı/dişi oranıda azalmıştır. İmidacloprid, thiacloprid ve cypermethrin uygulanan her iki dozunda da T. urticae erginlerinde ortalama yaşam süresi ve ortalama preovipozisyon süresi kontrol grubu ile istatistiki olarak benzer bulunmuş ve dozlar arasında fark belirlenememiştir. İmidacloprid'in T/2 dozu uygulanan ergin bireylerin yumurta sayısı/dişi (64.03 oranının kontrol grubuna (39.96 göre arttığı belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, imidacloprid ve deltamethrin’in T/2 dozlarının T. urticae ergin bireylerinde ortalama yaşam süresi, ortalama ovipozisyon süresi gibi bazı biyolojik özelikler üzerinde etkili olabileceği kanısına varılmıştır. 

  12. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  13. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  14. Manejo integrado de la plaga Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) en cultivos de frutilla del Cinturón Hortícola Platense

    OpenAIRE

    Gugole Ottaviano, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    En el marco de la sustentabilidad de los sistemas agrícolas, el Manejo Integrado de Plagas propone utilizar todas las técnicas y métodos disponibles y compatibles entre sí, para mantener a la población de una plaga en niveles por debajo de aquellos que causan daño económico. Se basa en el análisis de la relación costo/beneficio, considerando los intereses e impactos sobre los productores, la sociedad y el ambiente. Este sistema de manejo tiene un enfoque ecológico y multidisciplinario que req...

  15. Leaf-morphology-assisted selection for resistance to two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kousuke

    2016-10-01

    The development of a cultivar resistant to the two-spotted spider mite has provided both ecological and economic benefits to the production of cut flowers. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mites using an inbred population of carnations. In the resistant and susceptible plants selected from an inbred population, a difference was recognised in the thickness of the abaxial palisade tissue by microscopic examination of the damaged leaf. Therefore, it was assumed that mites displayed feeding preferences within the internal leaf structure of the carnation leaf. The suitability of the host plant for mites was investigated using several cultivars selected using an index of the thickness from the abaxial leaf surface to the spongy tissue. The results suggested that the cultivar associated with a thicker abaxial tissue lowered the intrinsic rate of natural increase of the mites. The cultivars with a thicker abaxial tissue of over 120 µm showed slight damage in the field test. The ability of mites to feed on the spongy tissue during an early life stage from hatching to adult emergence was critical. It was possible to select a cultivar that is resistant to mites under a real cultivation environment by observing the internal structure of the leaf. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Efficacy of Nanoencapsulated Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus Essential Oils by a Mesoporous Material MCM-41 Against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Aliakbar, Alireza

    2017-12-05

    Inspite of well-established potentiality of plant essential oils as biopesticides, their environmentally low persistence is considered as a hindering obstacle for its commercialization. In the present study, chemical composition and toxicity of essential oils isolated from leaves of Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus were evaluated against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The chemicals present in the crude oil were found to be thymol (28.83%), oleic acid (11.51%), palmitic acid (8.60%), borneol (5.72%), ρ-cymene (3.60%), and 1,8-cineole (3.57%) in the essential oil of T. eriocalyx, and camphene (35.59%), linalyl acetate (20.47%), linalool (14.75%), α-terpineol (13.87%), and geranyl acetate (3.07%) in the essential oil of T. kotschyanus. The essential oils had strong fumigant toxicity on the adult females of Te. urticae and their fumigation persistence was prolonged until 6 and 5 d, respectively, for T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus. Loading of essential oils in MCM-41 increased their stability and persistence was extended up to 20 and 18 d for T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus. Further, mite mortality increased from 80 to 203 mites by T. eriocalyx and from 58 to 186 mites by T. kotschyanus nanoencapsulated essential oils. Based on these results, nanoencapsulation of T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus essential oils in MCM-41 may be a useful method for their application in the management of Te. urticae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (pbassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of genetically modified cotton (Bollgard) and Dipel WP on the non-target soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anibal R; Castro, Thiago R; Capalbo, Deise M F; Delalibera, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Insecticides derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and plants genetically modified (GM) to express B. thuringiensis toxins are important alternatives for insect pest control worldwide. Risk assessment of B. thuringiensis toxins to non-target organisms has been extensively studied but few toxicological tests have considered soil invertebrates. Oribatid mites are one of the most diverse and abundant arthropod groups in the upper layers of soil and litter in natural and agricultural systems. These mites are exposed to the toxic compounds of GM crops or pesticides mainly when they feed on vegetal products incorporated in the soil. Although some effects of B. thuringiensis products on Acari have been reported, effects on oribatid mites are still unknown. This study investigated the effects of the ingestion of Bt cotton Bollgard and of the B. thuringiensis commercial product Dipel WP on the pantropical species Scheloribates praeincisus (Scheloribatidae). Ingestion of Bollgard and Dipel did not affect adult and immature survivorship and food consumption (estimated by number of fecal pellets produced daily) or developmental time of immature stages of S. praeincisus. These results indicate the safety of Bollgard and Dipel to S. praeincisus under field conditions where exposition is lower and other food sources besides leaves of Bt plants are available. The method for toxicological tests described here can be adapted to other species of Oribatida, consisting on a new option to risk assessment studies.

  20. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  1. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  2. A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in highlands of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: Within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites......Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites...

  4. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of bottom-up (plant condition) and top-down (predatory mites) factors on the dynamics of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), a series of experiments were conducted in which spider mites and predatory mites were released on bean plants. Plants inoculated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 adult female T. urticae were either left untreated or were inoculated with 3 or 5 adult female predators (Phytoseiulus persimilis) one week after the introduction of spider mites. Plant area, densities of T. urticae and P. persimilis, and plant injury were assessed by weekly sampling. Data were analysed by a combination of statistical methods and a tri-trophic mechanistic simulation model partly parameterised from the current experiments and partly from previous data. The results showed a clear effect of predators on the density of spider mites and on the plant injury they cause. Plant injury increased with the initial number of spider mites and decreased with the initial number of predators. Extinction of T. urticae, followed by extinction of P. persimilis, was the most likely outcome for most initial combinations of prey and predators. Eggs constituted a relatively smaller part of the prey population as plant injury increased and of the predator population as prey density decreased. We did not find statistical evidence of P. persimilis having preference for feeding on T. urticae eggs. The simulation model demonstrated that bottom-up and top-down factors interact synergistically to reduce the density of spider mites. This may have important implications for biological control of spider mites by means of predatory mites.

  5. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: Within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari : Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nachman, G.; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2003), s. 35-68 ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Biological control * bottom-up factor * Phytoseiulus persimilis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.497, year: 2003

  6. Effect Of Agrotechnical Measures And Varieties On Seasonal Dynamics Of Tetranychus Urticae Koch (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae On High Tunnel-Cultivated Garden Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the seasonal pattern of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on strawberries cultivated in polythene-covered high tunnels in temperate climatic conditions. Various cultivars were used and the effect of modification of plant covering indices on abundance and incidence of these mites was also tested. The number of two-spotted spider mites was relatively low at the beginning of the vegetation season and started to increase when average air temperature rose above 20 to 25 °C. In the experiment two types of tunnels differing in additional plant cover were used. The maximum mite abundance did not significantly vary between varieties in tunnel 1 conditions, but it was significantly lower for variety 'Sonata' in tunnel 2 conditions. Mite numbers significantly declined after strawberry foliage mowing and removal of polythene cover. Mite development was prolonged in tunnel 1, where additional cover of plants was used and higher early season air temperature was recorded in comparison to tunnel 2. It was concluded that increase in early season temperature can increase two-spotted spider mite abundance and have a more negative effect on strawberry plants in respect of foliage damage by mites.

  7. Tabla de vida y parámetros poblacionales fundamentales de Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: tetranychidae sobre rosa Sp. en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páramo Gabriel

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los ácaros más ampliamente distribuidos y que causan pérdidas en cultivos bajo Invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá es T. urt/ca8 Koch. Utilizando la técnica del disco de hoja con follaje de rosa se determinó el ciclo de vida de esta especie y se elaboró la tabla de vida. El experimento se mantuvo en condiciones ambientales controladas con una temperatura de 23 ± 2°C y humedad relativa de 85 ± 5%. La duración de los diferentes estadios fue: Huevo 7.39 dlas, larva 1.87, nlnfocrlsállda 1.57, protonlnfa 1.53, deutocrlsállda 1.52, deutonlnfa 1.73 y tellocrlsállda 1.84 dlas. El periodo de ovlposición fue de 35 días con un promedio de 3.52
    huevos/hembra/día. Se construyó la curva de supervlvlencla para todo el ciclo de vida y se calcularon algunos parámetros poblaclonales tales como tasa neta de reproducción (Ro' tiempo medio generacional (T, tasa Intrinseca de crecimiento natural (rrn, tasa finita de multiplicación (A y distribución estable de edades.The two spotted spider mite, tetrenychus urticae Koch is one of the most widely dlstributed mites in the world and one of the maln causes of losses in commercial greenhouses in Bogota. Using the leaf dlsc technique some basic biologlcal data were studied under laboratory conditions with a temperature of 23 ±2°C and a relative humidlly of 85 ± 5%. Life cycle was
    determined uslng rose leaves as host plant. Ovlposition time for females was 35 days with an average of 3.52 eggs per female per day. Net reproductlve rate (Ro, mean length of a generation
    (T, Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r..,.,, finite rate of reproduction ('A and stable age distribution were calculated.

  8. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae as ectoparasites of Brazilian wild birds and their association with rickettsial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ogrzewalska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Os carrapatos (Acari: Ixodoidea são ectoparasitas obrigatórias de uma variedade de hospedeiros vertebrados e têm um papel importante na ecologia e transmissão de diversos patógenos causadores de doenças em humanos e animais no mundo todo. No Brasil existem 68 espécies de carrapatos e pelo menos 23 espécies são encontradas parasitando aves silvestres. Esse número tem crescido com o advento de novos estudos ressaltando o papel das aves nos ciclos de vida desses artrópodes. Na América do Sul alguns desses carrapatos estão envolvidos na epidemiologia de doenças graves para o ser humano, como a febre maculosa, causada por bactérias do gênero Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae. O alvo desse artigo é apresentar o estado atual de conhecimento sobre a fauna de carrapatos encontrados em aves no Brasil e as associações estabelecidas com as riquetsioses. A literatura disponível sobre carrapatos em aves e ocorrência de riquétsias foi revisada e pôde ser concluído que aves têm um papel importante nos ciclos de vida de várias espécies de carrapatos, sendo especialmente importantes para os estágios imaturos (larvas e ninfas. A maior parte do conhecimento sabrecai na fauna de carrapatos de aves dos biomas Mata Atlântica e Cerrado no sudeste e centro-oeste do Brasil. Já o conhecimento sobre o parasitismo por carrapatos em aves dos outros biomas: Amazônia, Caatinga, Pantanal e Pampas é muito limitado. Além disso, não há estudos sobre o papel de aves como disseminadores de carrapatos entre áreas e também o papel de aves no ciclo de Rickettsia não está totalmente esclarecido.

  9. Spintbestrijding met moderne insecticiden in de Aalsmeerse bloementeelt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, van G.S.

    1951-01-01

    Some insecticides were tested in systematic trials or on a small scale, especially for ovicidal action, residual activity in relation to life cycle of red spider mite (Tetranychidae), herbicidal activity and method of application. Practical experience with them was gained with flowers under

  10. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  11. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  12. Recognising one's enemies : a functional approach to risk assessment by prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grostal, P.; Dicke, M.

    2000-01-01

    Little has been done to compare the relative importance of various mechanisms through which prey assess the potential risk from natural enemies. We used predator-naive spider mites (Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychidae) to (1) compare the responses of prey to chemical cues from enemy and non-enemy

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicastro, Roberto L.; Arthur, Valter; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rnicastro@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sato, Mario E., E-mail: mesato@biologico.sp.gov.br [Laboratorio de Acarologia, Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is considered one of the most important phytophagous mites, causing considerable damage in several agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of the acaricides milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae. The R and S strains for milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were irradiated with gamma radiation at Gamma cell-220 source at doses of 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 Gy. Five concentrations of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were evaluated, making applications 24 hours after irradiation. Mites of the controls were sprayed with the same acaricide concentrations used for the R and S strains but they were not exposed to gamma radiation. Experiments on the effects of gamma radiation on the growth rates of mites for acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae were also carried out. Tests with the Milbemectin S strain showed an increased susceptibility to the acaricide milbemectin, when the mites were irradiated (20 Gy), in comparison with the control (non irradiated mites). For the Milbemectin R strain, there was no significant influence of gamma irradiation on the toxicity of milbemectin to the mites of this strain. For the Chlorfenapyr S strain, the effect of gamma radiation was similar to that observed for Milbemectin S strain, with increased toxicity of chlorfenapyr to the mites of this susceptible strain. In the case of the Chlorfenapyr R strain, the mites exposed to gamma radiation showed to be more tolerant to chlorfenapyr, considering the LC{sub 10} values. The same trend was observed for the LC{sub 50} values, however, there was no significant difference with the control. The experiments showed that doses of 200 and 300 Gy eliminated the mite populations of acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae, in a period of ten days. The dose of 100 Gy did not lead to total elimination of the mite populations, but reduced significantly the egg viability of T. urticae. The highest effect was observed for the Chlorfenapyr S strain, for which the instantaneous growth rate (ri)of irradiated mites was 3.8 times lower than that of the control. The effect of gamma radiation was lower for the Chlorfenapyr R strain, with the ri value 40% higher than that of the Chlorfenapyr S strain. (author)

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicastro, Roberto L.; Arthur, Valter; Machi, Andre R.; Sato, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is considered one of the most important phytophagous mites, causing considerable damage in several agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of the acaricides milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae. The R and S strains for milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were irradiated with gamma radiation at Gamma cell-220 source at doses of 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 Gy. Five concentrations of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were evaluated, making applications 24 hours after irradiation. Mites of the controls were sprayed with the same acaricide concentrations used for the R and S strains but they were not exposed to gamma radiation. Experiments on the effects of gamma radiation on the growth rates of mites for acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae were also carried out. Tests with the Milbemectin S strain showed an increased susceptibility to the acaricide milbemectin, when the mites were irradiated (20 Gy), in comparison with the control (non irradiated mites). For the Milbemectin R strain, there was no significant influence of gamma irradiation on the toxicity of milbemectin to the mites of this strain. For the Chlorfenapyr S strain, the effect of gamma radiation was similar to that observed for Milbemectin S strain, with increased toxicity of chlorfenapyr to the mites of this susceptible strain. In the case of the Chlorfenapyr R strain, the mites exposed to gamma radiation showed to be more tolerant to chlorfenapyr, considering the LC 10 values. The same trend was observed for the LC 50 values, however, there was no significant difference with the control. The experiments showed that doses of 200 and 300 Gy eliminated the mite populations of acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae, in a period of ten days. The dose of 100 Gy did not lead to total elimination of the mite populations, but reduced significantly the egg viability of T. urticae. The highest effect was observed for the Chlorfenapyr S strain, for which the instantaneous growth rate (ri)of irradiated mites was 3.8 times lower than that of the control. The effect of gamma radiation was lower for the Chlorfenapyr R strain, with the ri value 40% higher than that of the Chlorfenapyr S strain. (author)

  15. Low temperature–scanning electron microscopy to evaluate morphology and predation of Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae: Tetranychus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the potential usefulness of low temperature-scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) to evaluate morphology and predation behavior of the six-spotted thrips (Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande) against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)). Morphological features...

  16. 78 FR 44122 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Bonnie McGregor, Federal Trade Investigator, Division of Advertising Practices, Bureau of Consumer... Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Attention: Desk Officer for the Federal Trade Commission...

  17. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixododae Infesting Domestic Ruminants in Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fayazkhoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are one of the most important obligate ectoparasites of vertebrates, belonging to class Arachnida, which transmit a wide range of pathological agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites to humans and animals in Iran and around the world. Identifying the distribution of hard ticks in a region is important to monitor their control program, and thereby prevent disease transmission. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, sampling was carried out from different parts of the livestock body during four seasons in four geographical directions and five villages of Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2015-2016. The ticks were initially stimulated by using chloroform solution and then separated from domestic ruminants by forceps. The collected ticks were sent to a laboratory, and then their sex and species were identified by using valid diagnostic keys. Results: We studied 800 domestic ruminants, including cattle, sheep, and goats, and found 150 (18.7% cases of infestation. A total of 274 ticks were collected, 259 of which were hard ticks including four genera of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Repicephlus, and Haemaphysalis. The greatest diversity of species, including Hyalomma scopens (Hy. deteritum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Hyalomma anatolicum belonged to the genus Hyalomma. The frequency rates of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Hemaphysalis genera were 73.74%, 15.05%, 10.03%, and 1.15 %, respectively. The highest abundance of ticks was observed in spring (152. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the diversity of hard ticks in the region and the highest abundance of ticks in spring. Considering the importance of ticks in disease transmission among humans and domestic ruminants, health authorities and respective organizations should take appropriate health measures to control and combat these external parasites.

  18. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): 1. Symptoms in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Kleijn, Prisca W; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations showed a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles than other laboratory populations. We hypothesized earlier that this consistent change in foraging behavior is a symptom of a disease, as it is a contagious phenomenon. Here we describe more symptoms by comparing mated females of this population (non-responding (NR) population) with mated females of other populations that are strongly attracted to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (responding populations). The most apparent characteristic of the NR population was the presence of numerous dorso-ventrally flattened females (76% of all females). These females had a normal size after mating but shrank during adulthood. Independent of their age, shrunken females did not reproduce and died a few days after shrinking. In addition to these profound differences in short term performance, females from the NR-population showed behavioral changes, including a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles, a higher tendency to leave a prey-patch and a lower predation rate. Moreover, about half of the live females of the NR-population carried birefringent dumbbell-shaped crystals in the legs whereas live females of a responding population carried crystals only in the lumen of the Malpighian tubules and the rectum. The symptom 'crystals in the legs' was correlated with low reproduction. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of these crystals revealed that they contain calcium and phosphorus along with carbon and oxygen. Crystals with comparable elemental compositions and the same characteristic concentric layering are well known in insects, where they are thought to play a major role in detoxification of calcium and heavy metals, and in storage of phosphorus. The fraction of predators carrying a white spot in the distal part of the opisthosoma, due to accumulation of excretory

  19. Antibiotic activity of two Anabaena species against four fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... New antibiotics with high activity and without side effects for human and for .... doses, and n = the total number of used mice. Statistical .... extract of Anabaena variabilis on mice. Dose (mg/kg) ... Tetranychidae). International Conference for Development and the .... Elsevier Scientific, New York. 26. JE Grady,.

  20. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  1. Dinâmica populacional de Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa (Acari: eriophyidae em cultivares de videira na região da campanha do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Ebert Siqueira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Na Região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, o ácaro-da-ferrugem-da-videira, Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae, é encontrado com frequência em vinhedos de cultivares europeias, desde a safra de 2004/2005, causando bronzeamento nas folhas. A dinâmica populacional de C. vitis nas cultivares Chardonnay e Merlot foi avaliada em vinhedo comercial localizado no município de Dom Pedrito, na região da Campanha, durante os anos agrícolas de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, por meio de amostragem realizada em folhas das posições basal, intermediária e apical de ramos de produção. O pico populacional de C. vitis ocorre entre o final de fevereiro e o início de março, sendo seguido de forte declínio populacional. A infestação variou de intensidade entre as cultivares de acordo com o ano, sendo a cultivar Chardonnay mais infestada no primeiro ano, e Merlot, no segundo. Folhas na posição basal, mediana e apical apresentam níveis similares de infestação. Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada entre o número de C. vitis na face abaxial das folhas e o percentual de folhas com infestação.

  2. Climate Governance is Failing Us: We All Need to Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Peer reviewed introduction to the Special Issue on Global Climate Change Policy: Post-Copenhagen Discord, guest edited by Chris Riedy and Ian M. McGregor, University of Technology, Sydney.

  3. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se obtuvieron usando como solventes CO2 en condiciones supercríticas (CSC, etanol y éter de petróleo usando el método soxhlet y maceración y agua usando maceración. La técnica de fluidos supercríticos permite obtener extractos a temperaturas bajas usando altas presiones, evitando la degradación de los compuestos y permitiendo su separación del solvente al exponerlo a temperatura ambiente. El ácaro fue criado en laboratorio sobre plantas de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el Campus Laureles de la Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. La mortalidad fue evaluada colocando 10 mites en un disco de hoja de P. vulgaris de 3 cm de diámetro previamente sumergido en el extracto. Las concentraciones letales medias (CL50 más bajas se obtuvieron con el método CSC (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 a las 24, 48 y 72 h respectivamente. Los extractos se caracterizaron usando cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC/MS, obteniendo en el extracto CSC principalmente vinillditiínas (63,11%, dialil disulfuro (10,88% y di-2-propenil trisulfuro (10,4%. Se concluyó que la extracción con fluidos supercríticos permite obtener, a partir de bulbos de ajo, extractos con mayor concentración de compuestos biológicamente activos contra T. urticae, comparada con las otras técnicas usadas en este estudio.

  4. Suppression of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs after dual applications of plant-derived acaricides in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert A; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Schulze, Terry L

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the ability of dual applications of natural, plant-derived acaricides to suppress nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey. An aqueous formulation of 2% nootkatone provided >90% control of I. scapularis through 7 d. Control declined to 80.9% at 14 d, and a second application was made that provided >95% control through the remaining 4 wk of the nymphal season. Nootkatone provided >90% control of A. americanum through 35 d postapplication. Applications of 2% carvacrol and EcoTrol T&O resulted in rapid knockdown of both tick species, but control declined significantly to 76.7 and 73.7%, respectively, after 14 d when a second application was made that extended control of both tick species to between 86.2 and 94.8% at 21 d. Subsequently, control declined steadily in all plots by 42 d postapplication except for I. scapularis in carvacrol-treated plots, where levels of control >90% were observed through 35 d. Of the three compounds tested, 2% nootkatone provided the most consistent results, with 96.5 and 91.9% control of I. scapularis and A. americanum through 42 and 35 d, respectively. The ability of plant-derived natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides. In addition, the demonstrated efficacy of properly-timed backpack sprayer application may enable homeowner access to these minimal-risk acaricides.

  5. Why Johnny Won't Cooperate: An Examination of Behavior and Motivation Theory to Understand Resistance to Change in the Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... This thesis is advanced by synthesizing the motivation theories of Maslow, McGregor, and Merzberg to develop a model which describes behavior as a function of human need and points to the existence...

  6. Leadership through Shared Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccigrosso, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    The author explains the particular relevance of participatory decision making for the Catholic school administrator, with reference to such organizational theories as McGregor's Theory Y and Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. (Author/SJL)

  7. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves with abundant prey. The effects of non-homogenous distributions and degree of spatial overlap between prey and predators on the per capita predation rate were studied by means of a stage-specific predation model that averages the predation rates over all the local populations inhabiting the individual leaves. The empirical predation rates were compared with predictions assuming random predator search and/or an even distribution of prey. The analysis clearly shows that the ability of the predators to search non-randomly increases their predation rate. On the other hand, the prey may gain if it adopts a more even distribution when its density is low and a more patchy distribution when density increases. Mutual interference between searching predators reduces the predation rate, but the effect is negligible. The stage-specific functional response model was compared with two simpler models without explicit stage structure. Both unstructured models yielded predictions that were quite similar to those of the stage-structured model.

  8. Sublethal effects of spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben on life-history traits and life-table parameters of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Moosa; Ahmadi, Zeinab; Mahdavinia, Gholamreza

    2018-05-01

    Two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the economically most important pests on a wide range of crops in greenhouses and orchards worldwide. Control of T. urticae has been largely based on the use of acaricides. Sublethal effects of spirodiclofen, pyridaben and abamectin were studied on life-table parameters of T. urticae females treated with the acaricides. LC 25 values of spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben (3.84, 0.04 and 136.96 µg a.i./ml, respectively) were used for sublethal studies. All acaricides showed significant effects on T. urticae biological parameters including developmental time, survival rate, and fecundity. The females treated with spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben at LC 25 exhibited significantly reduced net reproductive rate (R 0 ), finite rate of increase (λ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r). The intrinsic rate of increase in spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben treated groups and control were 0.0138, 0.0273, 0.039 and 0.2481 female offspring per female per day, respectively. The results indicated that sublethal concentrations of tested pesticides strongly affected the life characteristics of spider mite and consequently may influence mite population growth in future generations.

  9. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves...

  10. Altered host plant preference of Tetranychus urticae and prey preference of its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) on transgenic Cry3Bb-eggplants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková-Rovenská, Gabriela; Zemek, Rostislav; Schmidt, J. E. U.; Hilbeck, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2005), s. 293-300 ISSN 1049-9644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * mites * Solanum melongena Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2005

  11. Paremad filmid 3 : Moulin Rouge! / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2006-01-01

    Muusikafilm "Moulin Rouge" : režissöör Baz Luhrmann : peaosades Nicole Kidman, Ewan McGregor : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Austraalia 2001. Lisatud nimekiri "25 paremat muusikali", mille koostas inglise telekanal Channel 4 2003.a.

  12. [Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Huan-Chao; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Cong-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i. e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  13. Synergism of thymol, carvacrol and eugenol in larvae of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, L X; Novato, T P L; Zeringota, V; Maturano, R; Melo, D; DA Silva, B C; Daemon, E; DE Carvalho, M G; Monteiro, C M O

    2016-12-01

    The effects of combinations of the monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol and the phenylpropanoid eugenol in larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Acari: Ixodidae) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) were assessed by the larval packet test. The CompuSyn program was used to make qualitative assessments of the effects (synergistic, additive and antagonistic) of the associations. The effects of all combinations tested against R. microplus larvae were synergistic, with combination indices (CIs) eugenol and thymol + eugenol have synergistic effects in R. microplus and R. sanguineus s.l. larvae. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Upper Cisuralian palynology and palaeoclimate of Manuguru area ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1985; Lakshminarayana and Murti 1990;. Lakshminarayana ..... ley, at Manuguru (Chandra and Ghosh 1990) also indicate proximity to the .... ples and applications (eds) Jansonius J and Mcgregor D. C, Am. Assoc. ... 51(1) 43–55. Jha N 2008 ...

  15. motivational needs assessment of extension agents of abia state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    and Douglas McGregors' theory X and theory Y), on the extension agents were collected .... any need level but a reasonable amount of gratification of first priority ... creatively use their initiatives in manners that may suit the local farmers.

  16. General Electric : Immelt surve all / Jena McGregor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McGregor, Jena

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtte General Electric juht Jeffrey R. Immelt võitleb selle nimel, et taastada usaldus firma vastu, kuna laenukriis ja kehvad aktsiahinnad on tekitanud olukorra, kus investorid avaldavad suurt survet ettevõtte juhile. Lisa: GE kindralid

  17. Toil and Trouble: On the Materiality of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Chambers

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature of temporality, entropy and negentropy, drawing contemporary fiction by Graham Swift and Fiona McGregor as well as the autobiography of Wikileaks founder Julian Assange, to ask questions about history, time and life.

  18. McGregor-Mayweather: het gevecht dat alle mediarecords zal verbreken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    René Foolen

    De roddel domineert al maandenlang het nieuws en de echte vechtsportliefhebbers raken er maar niet over uitgesproken: een gevecht tussen MMA-vechter Conor McGregor en bokser Floyd Mayweather. Totaal ondenkbaar, want twee verschillende gevechtsdisciplines, maar tegelijkertijd ook heel logisch. Want

  19. “Digital Life Skills” for the young and mobile “Digital Citizens”

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available fibre diameter analyser (OFDA). IWTO-47-95 Ilkley, Yorkshire, UK. McGregor, B.A., 2001. The Quality of cashmere and its influence on textile materials produced from cashmere and blends with superfine wool, PhD. , Sydney, Australia: University...

  20. A Laboratory Assessment of Two Local Strains of the Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. against the Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Their Potential as a Mycopesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algur, Omer Faruk

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates to be used in biocontrol and to determine their potentials as mycopesticide. For this purpose, two B. bassiana isolates, which were locally isolated from T. urticae, were chosen. Firstly, three suspensions were investigated at the degree of humidity of 65 ± 5% and 100% RH. Secondly, these strains were selected according to their tendency to mass production, tolerance to UV radiation, and capability of producing spore at the different temperatures. Finally, identification of the selected isolate was performed by using ITS rDNA analysis. Both tested fungal isolates were pathogenic to the T. urticae. Mycelial growths of isolate AT076 at 20°C and 30°C were found to be greater than isolate AT007. It was observed that isolate AT076 had more spore production with 1.61 × 107 spore/disc at 30°C and 44.33% germination after UV radiation for 15 min. The numbers of spores per 5 mm disk area for isolates AT076 and AT007 were found to be 1.2 × 106 and 1.0 × 106. These results show that isolate AT076 was more virulent and more UV-tolerant and had higher tendency to mass production compared to isolate AT007 against T. urticae. As a result of this study, isolate AT076 can be used in the biocontrol as mycopesticide. PMID:29250446

  1. The preliminary assessment and isolation of entomopathogenic fungi to be used in biological control with twospotted spider mite [Tetranychus urticae (acari, tetranychidae)] from East Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtücü, Serkan; Algur, Ömer Faruk

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to isolation entomopathogenic fungi for possible use in biocontrol of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. and to determine their pathogenicity. For this purpose, plant leaves infected with T. urticae were collected from Erzurum, Kars and Ardahan. At laboratory, the internal and external mycoflora of T.urticae individuals on plant leaves were determined. As a result of isolation, twenty-five different fungi species belonging to the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Gliocladium, Humicola, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Isaria, Ulocladium and Verticillium were obtained. Pathogenicity of this forty-five isolate belonging to twenty-five species were evaluated. As a test organism, T. urticae was used and suspensions (1 × 108conidia ml-1) were prepared in Tween 80. 2ml suspension of a single dose was sprayed onto down side of bean leaf discs using hand sprayer. Mortality was recorded daily for 7 days. A total of twelve isolates belonging to three species were determined to be pathogen against T.urticae. According to scale used: AT020 Isaria farinosa and AT025 Cladosporium cladosporioides were determined as least pathogen, AT037 and AT101 Beauveria bassiana, and AT019 and AT026 C. cladosporioides, and AT035 and AT036 I. farinosa as moderate pathogen, AT007, AT021, AT034 and AT076 B. bassiana as highly pathogen. The other thirty-three isolates found that not pathogenic against T.urticae.

  2. A Laboratory Assessment of Two Local Strains of the Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. against the Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and Their Potential as a Mycopesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ortucu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates to be used in biocontrol and to determine their potentials as mycopesticide. For this purpose, two B. bassiana isolates, which were locally isolated from T. urticae, were chosen. Firstly, three suspensions were investigated at the degree of humidity of 65 ± 5% and 100% RH. Secondly, these strains were selected according to their tendency to mass production, tolerance to UV radiation, and capability of producing spore at the different temperatures. Finally, identification of the selected isolate was performed by using ITS rDNA analysis. Both tested fungal isolates were pathogenic to the T. urticae. Mycelial growths of isolate AT076 at 20°C and 30°C were found to be greater than isolate AT007. It was observed that isolate AT076 had more spore production with 1.61 × 107 spore/disc at 30°C and 44.33% germination after UV radiation for 15 min. The numbers of spores per 5 mm disk area for isolates AT076 and AT007 were found to be 1.2 × 106 and 1.0 × 106. These results show that isolate AT076 was more virulent and more UV-tolerant and had higher tendency to mass production compared to isolate AT007 against T. urticae. As a result of this study, isolate AT076 can be used in the biocontrol as mycopesticide.

  3. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L; Murray, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating.

  4. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: 1 before chemical herbicide spray; 2 after spray but before ploughing; 3 after ploughing but before reseeding; and 4 after one year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favoured those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After one year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating.

  5. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L.; Murray, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating. PMID:27555863

  6. Body weight and growth rate of South African Angora goat kids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grethas

    E-mail: grethasn@nda.agric.za. Introduction ... production has been investigated (McGregor, 1998), but very little work has been done on the effect of different ..... Grégoire, R.J., Fahmy, M.H., Boucher, J.M., Tremblay, A. & Mercier, J., 1996.

  7. Align the Front End First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  8. Deelnemende bestuur as funksie van bestuurders se selfkonsep en mensbeskouing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Visser

    1997-06-01

    Opsomming Die literatuur toon 'n leemte aan navorsing betreffende individuele attribute wat 'n persoon tot deelnemende bestuur mag predisponeer. Met hierdie studie is ondersoek ingestel na die verband tussen twee suike attribute, naamlik selfkonsep en mensbeskouing enersyds, en gewilligheid tot deelnemende bestuur andersyds. 'n Instrument gebaseer op McGregor se teorie, is ontwikkel om mensbeskouing binne werkkonteks te meet. Met behulp van faktorontleding is twee faktore onttrek wat onderskeidelik intrinsieke en ekstrinsieke aspekte van 'n persoon se beskouing van ander se houding teenoor werk meet. 'n Gelykkansige steekproef uit 233 toesighouers van 'n openbare versorgingsonderneming het 196 bruikbare vraelyste opgelewer. 'n Beduidende verband tussen selfkonsep en mensbeskouing enersyds, en gewilligheid tot deelnemende bestuur andersyds, is met behulp van kanoniese korrelasie gevind (r =0,601; p < 0,01. Die bevinding bied steun vir McGregor se teorie dat 'n gunstige mensbeskouing tot 'n deelnemende bestuurstyl lei.

  9. Big Five personality profiles of context-specific achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCabe, Kira O.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Verbraak, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing body of literature supports the validity and utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). From this foundation, researchers have begun to investigate the complex antecedents and consequences underlying achievement goal pursuit. In the

  10. Theory X/Y in the Health Care Setting: Employee Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, David J; Nummelin, Mary Rogers

    Douglas McGregor's conceptualization of Theory X and Theory Y has influenced management practices for almost six decades, despite the relative paucity of empirical support. This empirical study examined the relationships between health care employees' perceptions of (1) manager Theory Y and Theory X orientations; (2) work unit psychological safety, organizational citizenship behavior, and service quality; and (3) the employing entity. The study used survey data from more than 3500 employees of a large US health care system and analyzed them using confirmatory factor and hierarchical regression analyses. Results indicate that McGregor's conceptualization is best considered as two separate constructs-Theory Y and Theory X-rather than as one-dimensional X/Y construct. This study's three dependent variables were positively related to Theory Y and negatively related to Theory X, with larger Theory Y effect sizes. Psychological safety partially mediated the relationship between Theory Y and the dependent variables Y. Practical implications are presented.

  11. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): 2. Disease transmission by adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Poitevin, Olivier; Negash, Tesfaye; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations (=NR-population), show the following set of symptoms: predators shrink several days after mating, cease egg production and die several days after shrinking, show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a shorter choice time in olfactometer tests, have the tendency to leave a prey patch with ample food, may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption, and have a lower excretion rate. We hypothesized earlier that this characteristic syndrome, called non-responding (=NR-) syndrome, is caused by a pathogen infecting P. persimilis. To further support this hypothesis we here study several transmission modes of the factor causing the NR-syndrome. In all tests we measured size, short-term fecundity, mortality, predator position, response to plant odors and crystal location, thus including 6 of the 9 symptoms known yet. No evidence was found for vertical transmission from parent to offspring. Eggs from symptomatic females of the NR-population mated by males of the NR-population gave rise to normal-sized, well performing predators, when they had been surface sterilized or transferred to a new leaf. However, such eggs gave rise to shrunken females (17%) when left on the leaf where they had been laid. In the latter case transmission via products deposited on the leaf by the mothers was possible. We therefore tested several modes of horizontal transmission by exposing females of a commercial population that never showed the NR-syndrome (=R1-population) to products related to the symptomatic NR-population. No evidence was found for transmission via food or via squashed adult females. However, symptoms were induced in adult females of the R1-population after a 3-day exposure to a live adult female of the NR-population (incubation period=3-7 days, fraction shrunken females=53%) and after a 1-day exposure to feces and

  12. successful occipitocervical fusion for basilar invagination in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    His X-rays, CT scans and MRI revealed basilar invagination (8.5mm ... McRae. Opisthion. McGregor. Hard palate. Chamberlain. DISCUSSION. Although congenital, basilar invagination can remain asymptomatic and unrecognized until adulthood (1). ... the reducible type; this is similar to Goel et al's (3) patients, 82% of ...

  13. Just a suburban boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Barrett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of Craig McGregor's Australian Son: Inside Mark Latham (Pluto Press, North Melbourne, 2004, Margaret Simons's Quarterly Essay: Latham’s World: The New Politics of the Outsiders (Black Inc., Melbourne, 2004 and Michael Duffy's Latham and Abbott (Random House Australia, Milson’s Point, 2004.

  14. What is this Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  15. Desire as response to experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    . The first part of the paper presents and critically discusses the answers given by need gratification theory (Maslow, McClelland, McGregor) and by learning theories placed within the field of workplace learning or organizational learning (Senge, Argyris et Schön, Wenger) and it opens up the ambition...

  16. An orthogonal-polynomial approach to first-hitting times of birth-death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    In a recent paper [J. Theor. Probab. 25 (2012) 950-980] Gong, Mao and Zhang, using the theory of Dirichlet forms, extended Karlin and McGregor's classical results on first-hitting times of a birth-death process on the nonnegative integers by establishing a representation for the Laplace transform

  17. Spectral properties of birth-death polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider sequences of polynomials that are defined by a three-terms recurrence relation and orthogonal with respect to a positive measure on the nonnegative axis. By a famous result of Karlin and McGregor such sequences are instrumental in the analysis of birth-death processes. Inspired by

  18. Spectral properties of birth-death polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    We consider sequences of polynomials that are defined by a three-terms recurrence relation and orthogonal with respect to a positive measure on the nonnegative axis. By a famous result of Karlin and McGregor such sequences are instrumental in the analysis of birth-death processes. Inspired by

  19. RMSRo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.; McGregor, Eoin David

    2014-01-01

    Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-12484, 2014 EGU General Assembly 2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. RMSRo: A vitrinite reflectance model consistent with the temperature-apatite fission track system Søren B. Nielsen, Ole R. Clausen, and Eoin D. McGregor Department...

  20. Long-Term Effects of Berberis thunbergii (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) Management on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Prevalence in Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott C; Linske, Megan A; Ward, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-08

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii de Candolle; Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) is an exotic invasive shrub that escaped cultivation in the United States and is now permanently established in many eastern and midwestern states. This study examined the long-term impacts of Japanese barberry management on blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) abundances and associated prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner; Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. At six locations across Connecticut, adult I. scapularis were sampled for up to 10 yr. At each location, we sampled an area where barberry infestations were unmanipulated, adjacent areas where barberry was virtually nonexistent, and areas where barberry was managed utilizing a variety of techniques. Barberry management reduced B. burgdorferi-infected adult I. scapularis (BBIAIS) abundances (191/ha ± 64 SE) over 6 yr to statistically indifferent from that of no barberry areas (140/ha ± 47 SE; P = 0.080) and significantly less than intact barberry stands (458/ha ± 80 SE; P = 0.026). Over 9 yr, BBIAIS abundances in managed barberry remained lower than intact barberry stands (P = 0.037), but increased to be significantly greater than no barberry areas (P = 0.007) as cover increased over time. Longer-term data further document that Japanese barberry infestations are favorable habitat for I. scapularis. Control of Japanese barberry and other invasives should be at least on a 5-yr rotation to maintain low levels of invasive cover and eliminate humidity refugia to expose juvenile I. scapularis to more hostile environmental conditions in the interest of public health. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  2. Orthogonal polynomials on $R^+$ and birth-death processes with killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen-Schrijner, Pauline; Coolen-Schrijner, Pauline; van Doorn, Erik A.; Elaydi, S.; Cushing, J.; Lasser, R.; Ruffing, A.; Papageorgiou, V.; Van Assche, W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend some results of Karlin and McGregor's and Chihara's concerning the three-terms recurrence relation for polynomials orthogonal with respect to a measure on the nonnegative real axis. Our findings are relevant for the analysis of a type of Markov chains known as

  3. Motivation of Teachers. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 18. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sydney

    This publication discusses intrinsic teacher motivation by reviewing human resources literature and making use of educational literature and interviews with working educators. First it provides sketches of the work motivation theories of McGregor, Maslow, Herzberg, and Deci. Next, the paper examines the work and problems of teachers. Finally, it…

  4. Birth-death processes with killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.; Zeifman, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to point out that Karlin and McGregor's integral representation for the transition probabilities of a birth-death process on a semi-infinite lattice with an absorbing bottom state remains valid if one allows the possibility of absorption into the bottom state from any

  5. Birth-death processes with killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.; Zeifman, Alexander I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to point out that Karlin and McGregor's integral representation for the transition probabilities of a birth-death process on a semi-infinite lattice with an absorbing bottom state remains valid if one allows the possibility of absorption into the bottom state from any

  6. Euroopa filmiakadeemia staar jättis Tallinnasse jälje / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Filmiakadeemia poolt antava elutööauhinna saanud šveitsi näitleja Bruno Ganzi kohtumisest Solarise kinos vaatajatega. Nimekiri: Euroopa filmiauhinnad 2010. Euroopa film 2010 - "Variautor", režissöör - Roman Polanski ("Variautor"), naisnäitleja - Sylvie Testud ("Lourdes"), meesnäitleja - Ewan McGregor ("Variautor")

  7. Interactions between phoretic mites and the Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Sharif, Eyas Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two mite species were found associated with this beetle: Sancassania sp. (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) and Hypoaspis rhinocerotis Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). Sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on O. a. arabicus adults and larvae. However, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. The highest deutonymph load was found in the subelytral space of O. a. arabicus adult. The phoretic and necromenic interactions between Sancassania sp. and O. a. arabicus need to be investigated in more detail. H. rhinocerotis was recorded for the first time in UAE. Its role has not yet been studied in the date palm agricultural ecosystem.

  8. Novel bacterial pathogen Acaricomes phytoseiuli causes severe disease symptoms and histopathological changes in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Gols, Rieta; Kleespies, Regina G; Poitevin, Olivier; Dicke, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of a laboratory population show a set of characteristic symptoms, designated as non-responding (NR) syndrome. Mature predators shrink, cease oviposition and die. They show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a greater tendency to leave prey patches carrying ample prey. Moreover, predators may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption and have a low excretion rate. Here, we satisfy Koch's postulates for a strain of Acaricomes phytoseiuli (DSM 14247) that was isolated from symptomatic female P. persimilis of the NR-population. Adult female P. persimilis were either exposed to a bacterial inoculum suspension (treatment) or to sterile distilled water (control) for a period of 3 days. Control and treated predators were examined for the occurrence of six symptoms characteristic for the NR-syndrome and the presence of A. phytoseiuli after inoculation. The latter was done by re-isolation of A. phytoseiuli from individual predators and predator feces placed on nutrient agar, by PCR-based identification and by histopathological studies of individual predators. The NR-syndrome was clearly induced in those predators that had been exposed to the bacterial inoculum (incubation time=2-5 days, fraction shrunken females=80%), whereas predators exposed to water did not show the NR-syndrome. A. phytoseiuli was never isolated from control predators whereas it could be re-isolated from 60% of the treated predators (N=37) and from feces of 41% of treated predators (N=17). Only one day after exposure A. phytoseiuli could not be re-isolated from treated predators and their feces. Light and electron microscope studies of predators exposed to A. phytoseiuli revealed striking bacterial accumulations in the lumen of the alimentary tract together with extreme degeneration of its epithelium. In addition, bacterial foci also occurred in the fat body. These phenomena

  9. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  10. Person-Centered Management in Project Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraway, James E.

    The theories of several contemporary management theorists are examined in order to demonstrate that their administrative stance is that of a person-intensive approach to management. After exploring leadership theory and the positions of Douglas McGregor, John J. Morse, Jay W. Lorsch, Rensis Likert, Bernard M. Bass, William Reddin, George H. Rice,…

  11. The DEDS: DSTO’s Environmental-Data Server for Research Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    AccuWeather.com, 2010. Available from: http:// www.accuweather.com/ [cited 15 June 2010]. 44. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, /data/gfs- avn ...hi. Available from: http://nomads.ncdc.noaa.gov/data/gfs- avn -hi/ [cited 15 June 2010]. 45. Wang, Y., L.R. Leung, J.L. McGregor, D.-K. Lee, W.-C

  12. carnivora: protelidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    north of Sa da Bandeira, Angola (at about 140. SO' Sjl3° 35' E). The skin and skull were deposited in the Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum. Kimberley, Cape (Collectors No. 276a). The stomach contents of this specimen are detailed in. Table I. The habitat where the specimen was obtained was degraded ...

  13. New records of Thecacineta cothurnioides and Trematosoma rotunda (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts on nematodes from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    . 2008. An overview of suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae). Zootaxa. 1810, 60-68. Fisher R. 2003. Ciliate hitch-hikers-nematode ecto-commensals from tropical Australian sea-grass meadows...

  14. Ability of two natural products, nootkatone and carvacrol, to suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Marc C; Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Schulze, Christopher J; Manning, Mark Cornell; Ruffolo, Daniel; Schmidt, Jason P; Piesman, Joseph; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Aqueous formulations of 1 and 5% nootkatone applied by backpack sprayer to the forest litter layer completely suppressed I. scapularis nymphs through 2 d. Thereafter, the level of reduction gradually declined to nootkatone was less effective, but at a 5% concentration, the level of control was similar or greater to that observed with I. scapularis through 21 d postapplication. Initial applications of 0.05% carvacrol were ineffective, but a 5% carvacrol formulation completely suppressed nymphs of both species through 2 d and resulted in significant reduction in I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs through 28 and 14 d postapplication, respectively. Backpack sprayer applications of 5% nootkatone to the shrub and litter layers resulted in 100% control of I. scapularis adults through 6 d, but the level of reduction declined to 71.5% at 28 d postapplication. By contrast, high-pressure applications of 2% nootkatone to the litter layer resulted in 96.2-100% suppression of both I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs through 42 d, whereas much lower control was obtained from the same formulation applied by backpack sprayer. Backpack sprayer application of a 3.1% nootkatone nanoemulsion resulted in 97.5-98.9 and 99.3-100% reduction in I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs, respectively, at 1 d postapplication. Between 7 d and 35 d postapplication, the level of control varied between 57.1% and 92.5% for I. scapularis and between 78.5 and 97.1% for A. americanum nymphs. The ability of natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks at relatively low concentrations may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides.

  15. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 6 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of reproductive vigor descriptors in studying genetic variability in nine ... to Varroa mite (Acari: Varroidae) in Iranian honey bee (Apis. mellifera meda) ... Association between milk protein polymorphism and milk production traits in Black ...

  16. Cd translocation into generative organs of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, M.; Woerner, A.; Schubert, S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    Linseed is able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in generative organs, the dietary critical value of 0.3 {mu}g Cd/g seed often being exceeded. Differences between genotypes of linseed in this respect, however, have been observed but the underlying mechanisms responsible for these differences are unknown. The aim of the present work was to identify these mechanisms by studying the Cd accumulation of the linseed genotypes Antares and McGregor which differ in their ability to accumulate Cd in the seeds. Cultivar Antares is a high and cv. McGregor is low Cd accumulator which was confirmed in a pot experiment. It was found that the differences between these genotypes were Cd-specific and were caused neither by single seed weight nor by Cd translocation into the shoot. The distribution pattern of Cd within mature capsules between the pericarp and the seeds differed from that of Ca which was used as a phloem-immobile reference ion. From these results we conclude that Cd was translocated from the pericarp into the seeds via the phloem. This conclusion was supported by direct Cd determination in collected phloem sap from linseed stems. As sources of seed-Cd we identified the pericarps of capsules and the leaves. The genotype differences concerning the Cd concentrations in the seeds may be explained in terms of differences in phloem translocation of Cd. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oellein vermag Cd in betraechtlichen Konzentrationen in den Samen zu akkumulieren. Aus diesem Grund wird der Grenzwert fuer Diaetlein von 0,3 {mu}g/g Samen im Anbau haeufig ueberschritten. Es gibt jedoch genotypische Unterschiede, deren zugrundeliegende Mechanismen nicht bekannt sind. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit bestand darin, diese Mechanismen an den Oelleinsorten Antares und McGregor zu untersuchen. Antares akkumuliert grosse, McGregor hingegen geringe Mengen Cd in den Samen. Diese Beobachtungen konnten in einem Gefaessversuch bestaetigt werden. Es wurde gezeigt, dass die

  17. A Gene Family Coding for Salivary Proteins (SHOT) of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Exhibits Fast Host-Dependent Transcriptional Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Khalighi, Mousaalreza; Pavlidi, Nena; Reubens, Wim; Baggerman, Geert; Tirry, Luc; Menschaert, Gerben; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The salivary protein repertoire released by the herbivorous pest Tetranychus urticae is assumed to hold keys to its success on diverse crops. We report on a spider mite-specific protein family that is expanded in T. urticae. The encoding genes have an expression pattern restricted to the anterior podocephalic glands, while peptide fragments were found in the T. urticae secretome, supporting the salivary nature of these proteins. As peptide fragments were identified in a host-dependent manner, we designated this family as the SHOT (secreted host-responsive protein of Tetranychidae) family. The proteins were divided in three groups based on sequence similarity. Unlike TuSHOT3 genes, TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 genes were highly expressed when feeding on a subset of family Fabaceae, while expression was depleted on other hosts. TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 expression was induced within 24 h after certain host transfers, pointing toward transcriptional plasticity rather than selection as the cause. Transfer from an 'inducer' to a 'noninducer' plant was associated with slow yet strong downregulation of TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2, occurring over generations rather than hours. This asymmetric on and off regulation points toward host-specific effects of SHOT proteins, which is further supported by the diversity of SHOT genes identified in Tetranychidae with a distinct host repertoire.

  18. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two new species of the feather mite family Gabuciniidae (Acariformes: Pterolichoidea) from wrens (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 568-579 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acari * Gabuciniidae * Piciformobia * systematics * Troglodytidae * Central America Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2014

  20. Food sources of selected terrestrial cave arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Nováková, Alena; Režňáková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-46 ISSN 1768-1448 Grant - others:Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * caves * Collembola * Diplopoda * feeding habits * Isopoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. The external morphology of the mouthparts, and observations on feeding and behavior of Tuckerella japonica on Camellia sinensis in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerella japonica Ehara (Acari: Tetranychoidea: Tuckerellidae) is found where longitudinal splitting occurs on exposed green periderm tissue of shoots on certain varieties or seedling plants of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theales: Theaceae) in the continental United States. The mite is able ...

  2. Size of predatory mites and refuge entrance determine success of biological control of the coconut mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F.R.; de Moraes, G.J.; Lesna, I.; Sato, Y.; Vasquez, C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Predators face the challenge of accessing prey that live in sheltered habitats. The coconut mite Aceriaguerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) lives hidden beneath the perianth, which is appressed to the coconut fruit surface, where they feed on the meristematic tissue. Its natural enemy, the

  3. Experimentation Using the Mir Station as a Space Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Institute for Machine Building (TsNIIMASH) Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia V. Teslenko and N. Shvets Energia Space Corporation Korolev, Moscow...N. Shvets Energia Space Corporation Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia J. A. Drakes/ D. G. Swann, and W. K. McGregor* Sverdrup Technology, Inc...and plume computations. Excitation of the plume gas molecular electronic states by solar radiation, geo- corona Lyman-alpha, and electronic impact

  4. El Paso County Geothermal Project at Fort Bliss. Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lear, Jon [Ruby Mountain Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United State); Bennett, Carlon [Ruby Mountain Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United State); Lear, Dan [Ruby Mountain Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United State); Jones, Phil L. [Ruby Mountain Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United State); Burdge, Mark [Evergreen Clean Energy Management, Provo, UT (United States); Barker, Ben [Evergreen Clean Energy Management, Provo, UT (United States); Segall, Marylin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geoscience Inst.; Moore, Joseph [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geoscience Inst.; Nash, Gregory [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geoscience Inst.; Jones, Clay [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geoscience Inst.; Simmons, Stuart [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geoscience Inst.; Taylor, Nancy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geoscience Inst.

    2016-02-01

    The El Paso County Geothermal Project at Fort Bliss was an effort to determine the scale and scope of geothermal resources previously identified on Fort Bliss’ McGregor Range in southern Otero County, New Mexico. The project was funded with a $5,000,000 grant to El Paso County from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and a $4,812,500 match provided by private sector partners. The project was administered through the DOE Golden Field Office to awardee El Paso County. The primary subcontractor to El Paso County and project Principal Investigator - Ruby Mountain Inc. (RMI) of Salt Lake City, Utah - assembled the project team consisting of Evergreen Clean Energy Management (ECEM) of Provo, Utah, and the Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah (EGI) in Salt Lake City, UT to complete the final phases of the project. The project formally began in May of 2010 and consisted of two preliminary phases of data collection and evaluation which culminated in the identification of a drilling site for a Resource Confirmation Well on McGregor Range. Well RMI 56-5 was drilled May and June 2013 to a depth of 3,030 ft. below ground level. A string of slotted 7 inch casing was set in 8.75 inch hole on bottom fill at 3,017 ft. to complete the well. The well was drilled using a technique called flooded reverse circulation, which is most common in mineral exploration. This technique produced an exceptionally large and complete cuttings record. An exciting development at the conclusion of drilling was the suspected discovery of a formation that has proven to be of exceptionally high permeability in three desalinization wells six miles to the south. Following drilling and preliminary testing and analysis, the project team has determined that the McGregor Range thermal anomaly is large and can probably support development in the tens of megawatts.

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 11 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of phenotypic divergence and powdery mildew resistance in a collection of ... Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management types ... Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and ... Mite (Acari) fauna of some cultivated plants from Kahramanmaras, Turkey ...

  6. Molecular detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in Dermacentor silvarum from a forest area of northeastern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun); L. Zhan (Lin); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); B.-H. Wen (Bo-Hai); H. Yang (Honghui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn total, 676 Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae) from a forest area of Jilin Province in northeastern China were examined by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. The overall positive rate was 10.7%, with a 95% confidence interval

  7. Climate change effects on soil arthropod communities from the Falkland Islands and the maritime Antartic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Huiskes, A.; Convey, P.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Over a 2-year study, we investigated the effect of environmental change on the diversity and abundance of soil arthropod communities (Acari and Collembola) in the Maritime Antarctic and the Falkland Islands. Open Top Chambers (OTCs), as used extensively in the framework of the northern boreal

  8. A revision of the family Ameroseiidae (Acari, Mesostigmata), with some data on Slovak fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašán, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The family Ameroseiidae Evans, 1961 (Acari: Mesostigmata) includes a total of 12 valid and adequately described genera, namely Afrocypholaelaps Elsen, 1972, Ameroseiella Bregetova, 1977, Ameroseius Berlese, 1904, Asperolaelaps Womersley, 1956, Brontispalaelaps Womersley, 1956, Epicriopsis Berlese, 1916, Hattena Domrow, 1963, Kleemannia Oudemans, 1930, Neocypholaelaps Vitzthum, 1942, Pseudoameroseius gen. n., Sertitympanum Elsen & Whitaker, 1985 and Sinoseius Bai & Gu, 1995. One of these genera includes subgenera, namely Kleemannia (Primoseius) Womersley, 1956. All genera are reviewed and re-diagnosed, and a dichotomous key is provided for their identification. Ameroseius (50 species), Kleemannia (28 species) and Neocypholaelaps (22 species) are the largest genera in the family. Ameroseiella, Kleemannia, Kleemannia (Primoseius) and Sinoseius are considered to be valid taxa and, in presented systematic classification, they are removed from synonymy with Ameroseius. The genus Pseudoameroseius gen. n., with type species Ameroseius michaelangeli Moraza, 2006 (from Canary Islands), is newly erected to further refine broad primary concept of Ameroseius as understood by some former authors (Karg, Bregetova). Asperolaelaps is removed from synonymy with Neocypholaelaps. Three new species are here described, namely Ameroseius renatae sp. n. (based on specimens from Slovakia), Kleemannia dolichochaeta sp. n. (from Spain) and Kleemannia miranda sp. n. (from U.S.A.). The following new junior synonymies are proposed: Ameroseius apodius Karg, 1971 = Ameroseiella macrochelae (Westerboer, 1963); Ameroseius bregetovae Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Neocypholaelaps favus Ishikawa, 1968; Ameroseius chinensis Khalili-Moghadam & Saboori, 2016 = Ameroseius guyimingi Ma, 1997; Ameroseius crassisetosus Ye & Ma, 1993, Ameroseius qinghaiensis Li & Yang, 2000 and Ameroseius norvegicus Narita, Abduch & Moraes, 2015 = Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806); Ameroseius dubitatus Berlese

  9. A revision of the family Ameroseiidae (Acari, Mesostigmata, with some data on Slovak fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mašán

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Ameroseiidae Evans, 1961 (Acari: Mesostigmata includes a total of 12 valid and adequately described genera, namely Afrocypholaelaps Elsen, 1972, Ameroseiella Bregetova, 1977, Ameroseius Berlese, 1904, Asperolaelaps Womersley, 1956, Brontispalaelaps Womersley, 1956, Epicriopsis Berlese, 1916, Hattena Domrow, 1963, Kleemannia Oudemans, 1930, Neocypholaelaps Vitzthum, 1942, Pseudoameroseius gen. n., Sertitympanum Elsen & Whitaker, 1985 and Sinoseius Bai & Gu, 1995. One of these genera includes subgenera, namely Kleemannia (Primoseius Womersley, 1956. All genera are reviewed and re-diagnosed, and a dichotomous key is provided for their identification. Ameroseius (50 species, Kleemannia (28 species and Neocypholaelaps (22 species are the largest genera in the family. Ameroseiella, Kleemannia, Kleemannia (Primoseius and Sinoseius are considered to be valid taxa and, in presented systematic classification, they are removed from synonymy with Ameroseius. The genus Pseudoameroseius gen. n., with type species Ameroseius michaelangeli Moraza, 2006 (from Canary Islands, is newly erected to further refine broad primary concept of Ameroseius as understood by some former authors (Karg, Bregetova. Asperolaelaps is removed from synonymy with Neocypholaelaps. Three new species are here described, namely Ameroseius renatae sp. n. (based on specimens from Slovakia, Kleemannia dolichochaeta sp. n. (from Spain and Kleemannia miranda sp. n. (from U.S.A.. The following new junior synonymies are proposed: Ameroseius apodius Karg, 1971 = Ameroseiella macrochelae (Westerboer, 1963; Ameroseius bregetovae Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Neocypholaelaps favus Ishikawa, 1968; Ameroseius chinensis Khalili-Moghadam & Saboori, 2016 = Ameroseius guyimingi Ma, 1997; Ameroseius crassisetosus Ye & Ma, 1993, Ameroseius qinghaiensis Li & Yang, 2000 and Ameroseius norvegicus Narita, Abduch & Moraes, 2015 = Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806; Ameroseius dubitatus Berlese

  10. The Rare ospC Allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto, Commonly Found among Samples Collected in a Coastal Plain Area of the Southeastern United States, Is Associated with Ixodes affinis Ticks and Local Rodent Hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2013), s. 1403-1406 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:NIH(US) R37AI-24899 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : lyme disease * genetic diversity * scapularis tick * Acari * North Carolina * heterogenity * polymorphism * cultivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.952, year: 2013

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelkader, Faten Ben. Vol 64, No 1 (2016): Special Edition - Articles Particularité du traitement à l'acide formique de varroa destructor (Acari, Varroidae), parasite d'apis mellifera dans les conditions tunisiennes. Abstract. ISSN: 0378-9721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  12. Response of Soil Mesofauna to Long-Term Application of Feedlot Manure on Irrigated Cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Battigelli, Jeff P; Beasley, Bruce W; Drury, Craig F

    2017-01-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may influence soil mesofauna. These organisms affect the health, structure, and fertility of soils, organic matter decomposition, and crop growth. The objective was to study the long-term (16-17 yr) influence of feedlot manure type and bedding on soil mesofauna over 2 yr (2014-2015). Stockpiled or composted feedlot manure with straw (ST) or wood-chip (WD) bedding (plus unamended control) was annually applied (13 Mg ha dry wt.) to an irrigated clay loam soil with continuous barley (). Intact cores were taken from surface (0-5 cm) soil in the fall, and the densities of Acari (mites) suborders and Collembola (springtails) families were determined. Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on soil mesofauna density. In contrast, there was a significant two- to sixfold increase in density with WD- compared with ST-amended soils of total Acari in 2014 and 2015, as well as total Collembola, total Acari and Collembola, oribatid mites, and entomobryid springtails in 2014. The bedding effect was attributed to significantly greater soil water content and lower bulk density for WD than ST. Density of soil mesofauna was not significantly greater in amended soils than in unamended soils. A shift by feedlot producers from stockpiled to composted feedlot manure application should have no effect on soil mesofauna density, whereas a shift from ST to WD bedding may increase the density of certain soil mesofauna, which may have a beneficial effect on soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. F-35A Training Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    experience natural soundscapes in national park units, and could similarly diminish the qualities of natural quiet that are intrinsic to recreational...Tables HO 3.10–9 and HO 3.10–10. Increased noise could diminish opportunities for visitors to experience natural soundscapes in national park units...characterized by a natural quite soundscape but has few visitors. The greatest impact could occur for recreation on the Otero Mesa of McGregor Range and the

  14. Achievement Goals, Competition Appraisals, and the Psychological and Emotional Welfare of Sport Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    Grounded in the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and th...

  15. Physiologic Systems and Their Responses to Conditions of Heat and Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition , Tenth Edition • Human Water and Electrolyte Balance Water (total bc.dy water) plays many unique and vital roles within the body. Warer is...t’t n/., 1996). The mismarch between intakes and losses is due to 496 Present Knowledge in Nutrition , Tenth Editi on • Human Water and Electrolyte...the ability to perform endurance-type physic al activities. For example, McGregor et a!. ( 1999) reporte d that semi-professional soccer players

  16. A new mite species of the genus Lasioseius (Acarina: Gamasina,Blattisociidae) associated with the flowers of Englerina lecardii and Chalcomitra senegalensis (Aves: Nectariniidae) in Senegal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalúz, S.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2011), s. 511-524 ISSN 0164-7954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acari * Gamasina * Lasioseius * Senegal * sunbird Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2011

  17. Current status of Colletotrichum capsici strains, causal agents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gil

    ASIC, 15e Colloque,. Montpellier 7 p. Dabert M (2006). DNA markers in the phylogenetic of the. Acari. Biol. Lett. 43(2):97-107. Damm U, Woudenberg JHC, Cannon PF, Crous PW (2009). Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts. Fungal Divers 39:45-87. Emechebe AM (1986). Cowpea pathology.

  18. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in Amblyomma americanum ticks in the southeastern United States: the case of selective compatibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Clark, K.; Oliver, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, MAY 25 (2016), č. článku e48. ISSN 2222-1751 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : lyme disease spirochete * Dermacentor variabilis * Ixodes scapularis * Ixodidae * Acari * strain Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 5.605, year: 2016

  19. aboagye et al.2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    14 Aboagye et al. wide variety of birds, including chickens, by piercing the quills of feathers and gnawing the epidermis. In doing so, they can spread disease and lower .... evolution. Oikos, 97: 223-228. Nordenfors, H. and Chirico, J. (2001). Evalua- tion of a sampling trap for Dermanyssus gal- linae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

  20. Toxicidade diferencial de produtos à base de abamectina ao ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae em citros Differential toxicity of abamectin based products over Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis é uma das principais pragas dos citros por ser vetor do "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV, agente causal da leprose, uma das mais graves doenças da citricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito tóxico de produtos à base de abamectina sobre o ácaro B. phoenicis. Foram realizados um experimento de ação direta e três de ação residual no Laboratório de Acarologia do Departamento de Proteção de Plantas (Fitossanidade da FCAV - UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento adotado nos bioensaios foi o inteiramente casualizado, onde 10 tratamentos foram repetidos 7 vezes, sendo cada repetição composta por um fruto de laranja. Os tratamentos estudados (mL p.c./100 L de água foram: Acaramik a 20; 30; 40 e 50 mL; Vertimec a 30 e 40 mL; Abamectin Nortox a 30 e 40 mL; Tricofol a 77 mL e uma testemunha sem aplicação. Utilizaram-se frutos com presença de verrugose, que foram lavados e parcialmente parafinados, deixando-se uma área sem parafina, que foi circundada com cola entomológica para contenção dos ácaros. Transferiram-se 20 ácaros adultos B. phoenicis para cada fruto. No bioensaio de ação direta, a transferência foi realizada antes das aplicações e, nos bioensaios de ação residual, aos 5; 10 e 15 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. A aplicação dos produtos sobre os frutos foi realizada em Torre de Potter. Os resultados obtidos nos bioensaios evidenciaram que os melhores tratamentos foram: Tricofol a 77 mL, Acaramik a 40 e 50 mL e Vertimec a 40 mL. De forma geral, os produtos testados podem ser utilizados no controle do ácaro B. phoenicis.The mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is one of the most important pests in Brazil citrus plantation, because it is the virus "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV vector, one of the most serious citrus plantation diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the toxical effect of abamectin in the mite B. phoenicis. It was performed

  1. Parasitic survey on introduced monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Briceño

    Full Text Available Abstract Central Chile has been identified as a unique ecosystem with high conservation priority because of its high levels of endemism and intensive anthropic pressure. Over a period of almost four decades, the monk parakeet has been successful in establishing and dispersing in urban Santiago, although little is known about its potential impact. Furthermore, nothing is known about its epidemiological risks towards animals or even humans. For this reason, we conducted the first parasitic survey of monk parakeets in Chile through capture, necropsy and thorough external and internal inspection of 92 adult individuals. Among these, 45.7% presented lice that were identified as Paragoniocotes fulvofasciatum, 1.1% had mesostigmatid acari and 8.9% had free-ranging acari. Among 89 parakeets, 19.1% had structures identified as Cryptosporidium sp. This study provides the first description of Cryptosporidium sp. in monk parakeets. Along with the presence of a mesostigmatid acarus in one parakeet, this serves as a public health warning, given that both of these parasites have zoonotic potential.

  2. External and gastrointestinal parasites of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Llanos-Soto

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae, were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277 of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae; a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera; and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae. Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae. To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.

  3. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  4. Motivace zaměstnanců v organizaci

    OpenAIRE

    Vágnerová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to investigate the current state of the system of the motivating employees in FOX company. The theoretical part deals with importance of the motivating employees for the success of the company. The forms of motivating are categorized here (for example internal and external motivating). The part also describes the theories of motivating like the Theory of the instrumentality, the content focused theories, the theories based on process and McGregors theory of X and Y. T...

  5. Glossary

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sanskrit terms in bold are given according to the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration) transcription standard. The main reference used for this glossary is the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, edited by R. S. McGregor (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). AgniAgni: the two-headed god of fire and the recipient of daily sacrifice as messenger of the gods. One of his heads signifies immortality, while the other is considered a symbol of life renewal. Ahimsaahiṃsā: “the av...

  6. Effects of of habitats and pesticides on aerobic capacity and survival of soil fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

    2005-06-01

    Faunal health is largely dependent on their soil environment and available litter quality. So the effects of different soil habitats and pesticides on citrate synthase (CS) activity of soil fauna and its population were studied. The soil animals were collected from different pedoecosystems for habitat study. Whereas Vigna radiata based system was selected for pesticidal observations. The field was divided into five equal plots for control and treatment of gamma-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin. Soil fauna was collected by quadrat method and extracted by Tullgren funnel. Individuals of a species having similar sizes were collected for the estimation of CS activity. They were homogenized and fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The activity of CS was assayed spectrophotometrically. Citrate synthase (CS) activity of beetle (Rasphytus fregi), woodlouse (Porcellio laevis) and centipede (Scolopendra morsitans) varied significantly with respect to changes in different soil habitats. Though the CS activity of R. fregi, P. laevis, and S. morsitans differed among themselves but the highest activity of CS in these animals was in V. radiata and lowest in A. nilotica based pedoecosystem. The aerobic capacity of centipede was maximum followed by woodlouse and beetle. The treatment of gamma-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin significantly reduced the CS activity of these animals. Gamma-BHC showed maximum reduction in CS activity indicating highly toxic effect of organochlorine on aerobic metabolism of soil fauna. However, minimum reduction was observed in response to carbaryl (in beetle) or cypermethrin (in woodlouse/centipede) leading to impairment of aerobic capacity. The differences in pesticide effects might be assigned to the differences in chemical nature of pesticides and their interactions with below-ground fauna. Treatment of gamma-BHC and quinalphos reduced the population of Acari, Coleoptera, Collembola, other arthropods as well as

  7. Stray dogs of northern Jordan as reservoirs of ticks and tick-borne hemopathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qablan, M.; Kubelová, M.; Široký, P.; Modrý, David; Amr, Z. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 1 (2012), s. 301-307 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Grant - others:GA CR(CZ) GA524/09/0715 Keywords : ANAPLASMA-PHAGOCYTOPHILUM * GRANULOCYTIC EHRLICHIOSIS * MOLECULAR EVIDENCE * CANINE BABESIOSIS * HEPATOZOON-CANIS * ISRAEL * IXODIDAE * ACARI * COINFECTION * INFECTION Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  8. Evaluation of workplace quality - A method for improvement and further development of workplace design for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Schjølberg, Trine Eide

    2012-01-01

    Background for Master’s Thesis Research Most of the workspace inhabited by people today were developed in and according to work needs in a time when the pace and character of changes in work were much less pronounced than they are today (McGregor & Then, 1991). Innovative thinking in office design is once again changing the way we think about our workspace, on a level not experienced since the end of the nineteenth century. Duffy (1997) states that the way people work in their ...

  9. Organizational Behaviour in 21st Century – ‘Theory A’ for Managing People for Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z in organizational behaviour (OB) are related to human motivation and management. Theory X and Y were coined by Douglas McGregor in the late 1960s, says that the average human being is lazy and self-centred, lacks ambition, dislikes change, and longs to be told what to do. The corresponding managerial approach emphasizes total control. Theory Y maintains that human beings are active rather than passive shapers of themselves and of their environment. They long to...

  10. Multi-scale climate modelling over Southern Africa using a variable-resolution global model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, FA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available -mail: fengelbrecht@csir.co.za Multi-scale climate modelling over Southern Africa using a variable-resolution global model FA Engelbrecht1, 2*, WA Landman1, 3, CJ Engelbrecht4, S Landman5, MM Bopape1, B Roux6, JL McGregor7 and M Thatcher7 1 CSIR Natural... improvement. Keywords: multi-scale climate modelling, variable-resolution atmospheric model Introduction Dynamic climate models have become the primary tools for the projection of future climate change, at both the global and regional scales. Dynamic...

  11. Acariasis on pet Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, A; Vellayan, S; Halimaton, I; Ho, T M

    2011-03-01

    To identify the acari present on pet Burmese pythons in Malaysia and to determine whether there is any potential public health risk related to handling of the snakes. Two sub-adult Burmese pythons kept as pets for a period of about 6 to 7 months by different owners, were brought to an exotic animal practice for treatment. On a complete medical examination, some ticks and mites (acari) were detected beneath the dorsal and ventral scales along body length of the snakes. Ticks were directly identified and mites were mounted prior to identification. A total of 12 ticks represented by 3 males, 2 females and 7 nymphal stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (R. sanguineus) were extracted from the first python while the other one was with 25 female Ophionyssus natricis (O. natricis) mesostigmatid mites. Only adult female mites were found. These mites are common ectoparasites of Burmese pythons. Both the acarine species found on the Burmese pythons are known vectors of pathogens. This is the first record that R. sanguineus has been reported from a pet Burmese python in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  13. Chelicerata: Acari II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Sabatino, A.; Gerecke, R.; Gledhill, T.; Smit, H.

    2010-01-01

    Chelicerata are a basically terrestrial group of invertebrates, including many clades whose representatives have never found an evolutionary way to aquatic live. An exception is made by some spiders and the highly diverse aquatic mites which in inland water habitats are represented by members of

  14. ??ndice num??rico de un espacio de Banach

    OpenAIRE

    Mart??n Su??rez, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    El ??ndice num??rico de un espacio de Banach se define como la mayor constante de equivalencia entre el radio num??rico y la norma usual en el ??lgebra de todos los operadores lineales y continuos sobre ??l. Este concepto fue introducido por G. Lumer en 1968, y estudiado por matem??ticos como F. Bonsall, J. Duncan, C. McGregor, J. Pryce y A. White. En la tesis se hace un estudio sistem??tica de este concepto. Por una parte, se estudia el comportamiento del ??ndice num??ri...

  15. Proposed Expansion of German Air Force Operations at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Hearing Transcripts and Responses to Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Ca6 44 m4 I 4s 6i 0 A0 C 4 0 0 6 6 6 a 4 6 0 I. wIw 6 3 .406 4 0 0 0 0 . a a4 .0 .4 In 4 5 6 1 A 6 0 0 I 4 5 0 4 1 V 4 4 0 0A 41 6 4 0 4 .2. A 54 4 0...some rural and recre- irget complex at McGregor Range Utilities - Increased demand for water, wastewater treatment , )treas of the range. solid waste

  16. The Effects of Rare Earth Doping on Gallium Nitride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    capture in a solid state device,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 43, p. 075502, 2010. [28] D. S. McGregor, M. F. Ohmes , R. E. Ortiz, A. S...1044, 1964. [5] M. Cardona and L. Ley , Photoemission in Solids: General Principles. Springer- Verlag New York, 1978. [6] C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu...A, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 449–450, 1975. [46] L. Ley , R. A. Pollak, F. R. McFeely, S. P. Kowalczyk, and D. A. Shirley, “Total valence-band densities of

  17. Alteraciones morfo-histológicas en hojas de Solanum chenopodioides (Solanaceae, producidas por ácaros y dípteros minadores Morpho-histological alterations in leaves of Solanum chenopodioides (Solanaceae produced by mites and leaf miner diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana D Del V. Figueroa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solanum chenopodioides Lam., conocida como "hierba mora", es una hierba o subarbusto ampliamente distribuido en Argentina y otras zonas de Sudamérica y es una maleza sumamente tóxica para el ganado. Sus hojas tienen propiedades medicinales y son utilizadas como sedante y en oftalmología. Es frecuente el ataque de sus hojas por ácaros fitófagos y por insectos minadores. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la morfología y la anatomía de las hojas en plantas sanas e infestadas por ácaros (Tetranychidae, Tetranychus sp. y dípteros minadores de la hoja (Agromyzidae. Los resultados muestran que el ataque de ambos agentes reduce significativamente el volumen del tejido fotosintético por excelencia. Así, se compromete el crecimiento, y por lo tanto la supervivencia de la especie. Aún más, en caso de ser utilizada como especie medicinal se afecta la calidad del principio activo.Solanum chenopodioides Lam., known as "nightshade", is a herb or subshrub widely distributed in Argentina and another zones of South America, and is a weed highly toxic to livestock. Its leaves have medicinal properties and are used as a sedative and in ophthalmology. The attack of its leaves by phytophagous mites and leafminer insects is frequent. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and the anatomy of the leaves of both healthy and infested plants by Tetranychidae, Tetranychus sp. mites and Agromyzidae leafminer diptera. The results show that the attack of both agents significantly reduces the amount of photosynthetic tissue par excellence. Thus, growth is compromised, and therefore the survival of the species. Moreover, when used as medicinal species, the quality the active principle is affected.

  18. Operational Mosquito and Vector-Borne Diseases Surveillance at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    of Biological Diversity , Columbus, OH, or the - cies and tested for arboviruses. Pools ranged from 1-25 mosquitoes depending on submission numbers...Rickettsia felis (Rickett- - phonaptera: Pulicidae) in the Philippines . J Ento- mol Sci. 2012;47:95-96. Mosquito surveillance data from Incirlik Air Base...Taylor SJ, Durden LA, Foley EH, Reeves WK. The bat tick Carios azteci (Acari: Argasidae) from Be- lize, with an endosymbiotic Coxiellaceae. Speleo

  19. Evaluación de la distribución poblacional del Acaro Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Segura Diego Marino

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Some important ecological topics about Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval. (Acari: Tetranychidae pest management was studied in a comercial crop of carnation Dianthus caryophyllus L. in greenhouse in Suba - Cundinamarca. Population of mites was evaluated on 3 thirds and 9 ages of plants during rainy and dry season. 34.8334.61% were found on the up third and 27.84% were found on the lower third of plants. Mite population reached equilibrium state, de life cycle was 37.19C% for egg;
    20.50% for larva; 24.37% ninfal stages and 17.54% for adults. Trifolium repens L.; Stellaris media (L. Cyrill; Pos annua L.; Veronica persica Poir; Holcus lanatus L. and
    Oxslis corniculata L. were found as secondary hosts for T. cinneberinus during this studv, In laboratory conditions, 300C and 85 ± 5% R.H., the life cycle of Tetrsnychuscinnabarinus
    (Boisduval. on Triototium repens L. Was shorter than the life cycle on carnation (Disnthus csryopbvtlu. L..El trabajo se desarrolló bajo condiciones de cultivo comercial (Municipio de Suba, Cundinamarca, abordó interrogantes
    de interés específico para el manejo de ácaros en clavel, como son principalmente: dinámica de población y efecto
    del ciclo de vida. Bajo invernadero, se evaluó la distribución vertical de poblaciones teniendo en cuenta: tres estratos, nueve edades de planta y dos épocas (lluviosa y seca; además se buscaron hospedantes secundarios del ácaro. Las mayores poblaciones de arañita se presentaron en plantas de 19, 20 y 21 meses de edad, con un 34.83% del total. Al tener en cuenta distribución vertical se observó que el estrato medio contiene la mayor población, el 37.55% y la menor, el
    estrato inferior con el 27.84%. Al comparar los diferentes estados del ciclo de vida del ácaro se pudo ver la condición de equilibrio estable de su poblaci

  20. Bioinsecticide-predator interactions: azadirachtin behavioral and reproductive impairment of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora B Lima

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticide use has been the dominant form of pest control since the 1940s. However, biopesticides are emerging as sustainable pest control alternatives, with prevailing use in organic agricultural production systems. Foremost among botanical biopesticides is the limonoid azadirachtin, whose perceived environmental safety has come under debate and scrutiny in recent years. Coconut production, particularly organic coconut production, is one of the agricultural systems in which azadirachtin is used as a primary method of pest control for the management of the invasive coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae. The management of this mite species also greatly benefits from predation by Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Here, we assessed the potential behavioral impacts of azadirachtin on the coconut mite predator, N. baraki. We explored the effects of this biopesticide on overall predator activity, female searching time, and mating behavior and fecundity. Azadirachtin impairs the overall activity of the predator, reducing it to nearly half; however, female searching was not affected. In contrast, mating behavior was compromised by azadirachtin exposure particularly when male predators were exposed to the biopesticide. Consequently, predator fecundity was also compromised by azadirachtin, furthering doubts about its environmental safety and selectivity towards biological control agents.

  1. Bioinsecticide-predator interactions: azadirachtin behavioral and reproductive impairment of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José Wagner S; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Gontijo, Lessando M; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Gondim, Manoel Guedes C

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pesticide use has been the dominant form of pest control since the 1940s. However, biopesticides are emerging as sustainable pest control alternatives, with prevailing use in organic agricultural production systems. Foremost among botanical biopesticides is the limonoid azadirachtin, whose perceived environmental safety has come under debate and scrutiny in recent years. Coconut production, particularly organic coconut production, is one of the agricultural systems in which azadirachtin is used as a primary method of pest control for the management of the invasive coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae). The management of this mite species also greatly benefits from predation by Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Here, we assessed the potential behavioral impacts of azadirachtin on the coconut mite predator, N. baraki. We explored the effects of this biopesticide on overall predator activity, female searching time, and mating behavior and fecundity. Azadirachtin impairs the overall activity of the predator, reducing it to nearly half; however, female searching was not affected. In contrast, mating behavior was compromised by azadirachtin exposure particularly when male predators were exposed to the biopesticide. Consequently, predator fecundity was also compromised by azadirachtin, furthering doubts about its environmental safety and selectivity towards biological control agents.

  2. Impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna living in bird nests built in nestboxes in pear and apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lise; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Lavigne, Claire; Galès, Mathieu; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (≥10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered.

  3. Like a glove: do the dimensions of male adanal suckers and tritonymphal female docking papillae correlate in the Proctophyllodidae (Astigmata: Analgoidea)?

    OpenAIRE

    Byers , K.A.; Proctor , H.C.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Precopulatory guarding of tritonymphal females by adult males is common in feather mites (Acari: Astigmata). Within the Proctophyllodidae (Astigmata: Analgoidea), some genera possess morphological features in both sexes that have been suggested to enhance male attachment. One such structure in tritonymphal females is the development of a pair of fleshy lobe-like docking papillae, while males possess a pair of ventral adanal suckers that are proposed to fit over top of ...

  4. Investigation of Demodex folliculorum frequency in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome*

    OpenAIRE

    Eser, Ayla; Erpolat, Seval; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Balci, Hatice; Kosus, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Background: Demodex mites are acari that reside in the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and have been associated with skin disorders. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Demodex folliculorum (D. folliculorum) mites in polycystic ovary syndrome patients as well as to examine the relationship between Demodex infestation and the presence of acne and oily or dry skin types in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Methods: 41 polycystic ...

  5. Improved methods for measuring radioactive tracer accumulation and excretion by microarthropods, with applications for a mite species, Tyrophagus longior (Acarina, Acaridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.T.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Radioisotope retention measurements of 85 Sr and 51 Cr in Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) were fit to 2 and 1 component models. Biological half-life for the rapid component of both radioisotopes was about 10 hours, with assimilation of 85 Sr being 62%. The identification of 51 Cr turnover as gut clearance must remain tentative. An inexpensive disposable culture chamber for measuring radioisotope retention in microarthropods is described along with details of methodology

  6. Índice numérico de un espacio de Banach

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Suárez, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    El índice numérico de un espacio de Banach se define como la mayor constante de equivalencia entre el radio numérico y la norma usual en el álgebra de todos los operadores lineales y continuos sobre él. Este concepto fue introducido por G. Lumer en 1968, y estudiado por matemáticos como F. Bonsall, J. Duncan, C. McGregor, J. Pryce y A. White. En la tesis se hace un estudio sistemática de este concepto. Por una parte, se estudia el comportamiento del índice numérico respec...

  7. Caracterização de um vírus baciliforme isolado de Solanum violaefolium transmitido pelos ácaros Brevipalpus phoenicis e Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae Characterization of a bacilliform virus isolated from Solanum violaefolium transmitted by the tenuipalpid mites Brevipalpus phoenicis and Brevipalpus obovatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Oliveira Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Solano-violeta (Solanum violaefolium é uma planta ornamental rasteira usada para cobrir solos de áreas sombreadas. Um vírus que induz manchas anelares nas folhas desta planta, tentativamente designado Solanum violaefolium ringspot virus - SvRSV, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae foi encontrado em Piracicaba, SP. Trata-se de um vírus baciliforme que se assemelha a outros vírus do tipo citoplasmático transmitidos por Brevipalpus sp. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar propriedades biológicas e estabelecer uma caracterização molecular parcial do SvRSV. O vírus pode ser transmitido mecanicamente a várias outras espécies botânicas, causando lesões localizadas. Entre as espécies avaliadas, Datura stramonium mostrou-se a melhor hospedeira experimental. Observou-se também a manifestação de sintomas nestas plantas após infestação das mesmas por B. obovatus previamente alimentado em lesões de SvRSV, confirmando esta outra espécie de ácaro como vetor do vírus. Suas propriedades físicas in vitro foram: temperatura de inativação 40-45 ºC; ponto final de diluição 10-3-10-4; longevidade in vitro 12 dias. Em secções ultrafinas, as partículas do SvRSV mostraram-se levemente mais delgadas e mais longas que as de outros vírus do mesmo grupo. A partir do dsRNA do SvRSV foi construída uma biblioteca de cDNA e foram identificadas duas possíveis regiões codificadoras das proteínas de movimento e replicase viral. Baseado nestas regiões foram desenhados "primers" para amplificação do RNA do SvRSV por RT-PCR. Sondas baseadas nas seqüências obtidas hibridizaram com ss- e dsRNA de D. stramonium infectadas pelo vírus. Ensaios preliminares de RT-PCR e hibridização não resultaram em reação com o vírus da leprose dos citros, tipo citoplasmático (CiLV-C.Solanum violaefolium is an ornamental plant, with prostrate, trailing growth habit and is cultivated in shaded areas. A virus that causes

  8. Efeito da solarização e da adubação sobre artrópodes em solo cultivado com alface Solarization, organic and chemical fertilization combined effects on arthropods community in soil cultivated with lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene G da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização e da adubação química e orgânica na comunidade de artrópodes de solo na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em blocos ao acaso, um com solarização e o outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica + NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com plástico transparente. Os artrópodes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas tipo alçapão em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento, após a solarização e após a colheita. Foram utilizados índices faunísticos e de diversidade em cada experimento, tratamento e épocas. Os principais grupos coletados foram: Collembola (82,8%, Acari (7,1%, Hymenoptera (6,1% Coleoptera (1,3% e outros (2,7%. A classe Collembola foi a mais abundante, mesmo na colheita, quando a subordem Acari aumentou substancialmente. As espécies de Collembola predominantes foram: Proisotoma tenella (Reuter (34,3%; Seira atrolutea (Arlé (29%; Folsomides centralis (Denis (7,2%; Isotomurus sp. 161 (2,4% e Sminthurides sp. 98 (1,6%. Observou-se que a diversidade e abundância da comunidade de artrópodes não foi influenciada pela solarização ou adubação.To evaluate the effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on soil arthropods community in lettuce, two blocks plots trials were carried out in Brasília, Brazil. One research was conducted with solarization and the other without solarization in a soil cultivated with lettuce, cv Veronica, under protected cultivation. Each trial consisted of five fertilization treatments: T1= organic fertilization; T2= amoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; T3= chemical fertilization; T4= organic and chemical fertilization; T5= control (without fertilization. In the solarized trial, the soil was covered for 132

  9. A Geographical Information System Based Approach for Integrated Strategies of Tick Surveillance and Control in the Peri-Urban Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino (Palermo, Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Torina; Valeria Blanda; Marcellocalogero Blanda; Michelangelo Auteri; Francesco La Russa; Salvatore Scimeca; Rosalia D’Agostino; Rosaria Disclafani; Sara Villari; Vittoria Currò; Santo Caracappa

    2018-01-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are bloodsucking arthropods involved in pathogen transmission in animals and humans. Tick activity depends on various ecological factors such as vegetation, hosts, and temperature. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatial/temporal distribution of ticks in six sites within a peri-urban area of Palermo (Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino) and correlate it with field data using Geographical Information System (GIS) data. A total of 3092 ticks were gathered via dr...

  10. Hydrobiological study of the small stream on the Czech–Moravian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was investigated in the years 2007–2008. Research included also physico-chemical factors of water (temperature, pH, conductivity, oxygen saturation. Altogether, 144 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in the Fryšávka Rivulet: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (6 taxa, Hirudinea (1 taxon, Mollusca (5 taxa, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Decapoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (18 taxa, Plecoptera (18 taxa, Heteroptera (1 taxon, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Planipennia (1 taxon, Trichoptera (36 taxa, Coleoptera (8 taxa, Diptera (44 taxa. Altogether, 76 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in Medlovka brook: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (2 taxa, Mollusca (1 taxon, Isopoda (1 taxon, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (14 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Trichoptera (17 taxa, Coleoptera (6 taxa, Diptera (22 taxa.The average abundance of zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was 3208 ind.m−2, the average biomass was 7.5 g . m−2, respectively. The same values for the Medlovka brook were: abundance 3238 ind.m−2 and biomass 5.8 g . m−2. The average value of the saprobic index for the whole Fryšávka Rivulet was 1.25 (oligosaprobity, for the Medlovka brook 1.42 (oligosaprobity.

  11. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  12. British energy policy and the market for coal - minutes of evidence - Tuesday 1 December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Committee set up to examine UK energy policy and the market for coal (particularly British Coal's place in that market), examined evidence from: Mr David Porter, Mr Neil Bryson, Mr Fergus Wiggin and Mr John Macadam (Association of Independent Electricity Producers); Mr John Collins, Mr John Wybrew, Dr Chris Fay and Mr Ian Wybrew-Bond (Shell UK Ltd); Sir James McKinnon and Mr Greg McGregor (Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS)). Aspects covered include consequences of British Coal's pit closure programme, UK natural gas reserves, and the effects of increased demand for natural gas due to the 'dash for gas' (i.e. generating electricity from natural gas rather than coal).

  13. Efficacy of Tissue Tolerable Plasma (TTP against Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] The efficacy of Tissue Tolerable Plasma (TTP against ticks was tested, as data from the literature has demonstrated its efficacy against other acari.The study was carried out by using the KINPen09 (Argon as carrier gas on (n=24. Treatment times of 1 and 3 minutes led to a reversible inactivation of the ticks. After 5 min of treatment, they died.Thanks to the acaricidal effect of TPP, a new treatment strategy using the KINPen09 for tick-infested pets is now available.

  14. [Soil mesofauna in differents systems of land use soil in Upper River Solimões, AM, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, José W De; Oliveira, Viviane Dos S; Dambros, Cristian De S; Tapia-Coral, Sandra C; Acioli, Agno N S

    2010-01-01

    The mesofauna has an important function in the soil and it is represented mainly by Acari Oribatida and Collembola. We report the first data on the density and diversity of the soil mesofauna in Benjamin Constant, Amazonas State, Brazil. The following systems were evaluated: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry system, cultivated areas and pastures. A total of 101 samples were collected 100 m apart from each other and specimens were collected by using Berlese-Tullgren method. The highest density was registered in secondary forest (29,776 specimens.m-2). Acari Oribatida was the dominant group (7.072 specimens.m-2) in the pasture, suggesting that mites show higher capacity of adaptation to disturbed environments and/or due to the presence of gregarious species. The density of Collembola (5,632 specimens.m-2) was higher in secondary forest. Formicidae was the dominant group (27,824 specimens.m-2) and its highest density occurred in the secondary forest (12,336 specimens.m-2). Seven species and ten morphospecies of Isoptera and three species of Symphyla were identified. The highest density and diversity were found in secondary forest. One supposes that the low density of mesofauna found in all of the studied systems is being influenced by soil structure and composition as well as litter volume. For SUT, the composition of taxonomic groups in the cultivated areas is similar to the one found in primary forest, while the groups found in the agroforestry system are similar to those in the pasture, which may help to decide on land use strategies.

  15. ECTOFAUNA PARASITÁRIA DE CÃES URBANOS DOMICILIADOS ATENDIDOS EM CLÍNICAS VETERINÁRIAS PARTICULARES NA CIDADE DE LAVRAS, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Guimarães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of ectoparasites in urban domiciled dogs treated at nine private veterinary clinics in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Visible and palpable ectoparasites specimens were collected manually from 67 dogs during the period of September 2004 to May 2005, kept in flasks with ethanol 70º GL and identified under a stereomicroscope. In the case of mites that cause mange, performed the analysis of the results obtained from 155 skin scrapings of the same number of dogs with clinical suspicion of parasitic dermatosis was performed, and sent to diagnostic at the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases of Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, during the period of September 2002 to July 2007. A total of 540 ectoparasites were recorded, and four species were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (60%, Ctenocephalides canis and C. felis (both 36%, and Dermatobia hominis larvae (4%. In scraped skin, positive results were verified in 12.9% (20/155, of which 80.0% with Demodex canis (16/20 and 20.0% with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (4/20. After ectoparasites identification a database with the dogs´medical records was made and analyzed by SPSS 12.0. It can be concluded that the predominant species of ectoparasites in dogs treated at private veterinary clinics in the city of Lavras, MG, were Ctenocephalides canis and C. felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae and R. sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae and Demodex canis (Acari: Demodecidae that had a significant predominance (p<0.05 on scraped skin of young animals with suspicion of canine demodicosis.

  16. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: putting theory X and theory Y into action in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2008-12-01

    Theory X and Theory Y are terms coined by Douglas McGregor to express the belief that managers' behaviors are shaped by their assumptions about the motivation of their subordinates. The theories were applied to dental education in a Perspectives article published in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Dental Education. This article explains how those seemingly contradictory theories can be reconciled using the concept of the "emotional bank account" introduced by Stephen Covey in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Understanding the underlying concept of an emotional bank account helps dental educators to bridge the generation gap between instructors, born during the baby boom period of 1946-63, and dental students, born after 1980, who are referred to as "Generation Y" or "millennials."

  17. The effect of pre spring spray to reduce of citrus important pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, B; Damavandian, M R; Shoushtaril, R Vafaei; Tafaghodynia, B

    2008-10-01

    The importance of pre spring spray against citrus aphids, Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell and Panonychus citri McGregor that are the most important pest of citrus during spring was tested. In this research, 150 trees ten years old sweet orange (Thomson navel on Citrus aurantium (root stocks)) in a citrus orchard approximately three hectares sampled. The experiment was laid out in a totally randomized (one-way) design replicated five times. According to the results, the pre spring spray do not effect on population density of citrus aphids and P. aurantii during March, April, May and June. However, the P. citri population decreased. Therefore, it seems the pre spring spray in citrus orchards is not necessary, but if P. citri is observed, the pre spring spray should be recommended.

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Arizona: documentation of heavy environmental infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus at an endemic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, William L; Paddock, Christopher D; Demma, Linda; Traeger, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Dickson, Jeffrey; McQuiston, Jennifer; Swerdlow, David

    2006-10-01

    A recent epidemiologic investigation identified 16 cases and 2 deaths from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in two eastern Arizona communities. Prevalence studies were conducted by collecting free-living ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from the home sites of RMSF patients and from other home sites within the community. Dry ice traps and flagging confirmed heavy infestations at many of the home sites. Only Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were identified and all developmental stages were detected. It is evident that under certain circumstances, this species does transmit Rickettsia rickettsii to humans and deserves reconsideration as a vector in other geographic areas.

  19. Presence of potentially pathogenic Babesia sp. for human in Ixodes ricinus in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Simona; Sager, Heinz; Gern, Lise; Piffaretti, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and performed a new PCR method based on the 18S rRNA in order to individuate the presence and the identity of Babesia parasites. Out of 1159 Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected in four areas of Switzerland, nine were found to contain Babesia DNA. Sequencing of the short amplicon obtained (411-452 bp) allowed the identification of three human pathogenic species: Babesia microti, B. divergens, for the first time in Switzerland, Babesia sp. EU1. We also report coinfections with B. sp. EU1-Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Babesia sp. EU1-B. afzelii.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae based on the mitochondrial COI gene and the 18S and the 5' end of the 28S rRNA genes indicates that several genera are polyphyletic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Matsuda

    Full Text Available The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825-1,901 bp and 28S (the 5' end of 646-743 bp rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp. As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered.

  1. Geography and major host evolutionary transitions shape the resource use of plant parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquín; Hórreo, José Luis; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Migeon, Alain; Rodríguez, Miguel Á; Magalhães, Sara; Hortal, Joaquín

    2016-08-30

    The evolution of resource use in herbivores has been conceptualized as an analog of the theory of island biogeography, assuming that plant species are islands separated by phylogenetic distances. Despite its usefulness, this analogy has paradoxically led to neglecting real biogeographical processes in the study of macroevolutionary patterns of herbivore-plant interactions. Here we show that host use is mostly determined by the geographical cooccurrence of hosts and parasites in spider mites (Tetranychidae), a globally distributed group of plant parasites. Strikingly, geography accounts for most of the phylogenetic signal in host use by these parasites. Beyond geography, only evolutionary transitions among major plant lineages (i.e., gymnosperms, commelinids, and eudicots) shape resource use patterns in these herbivores. Still, even these barriers have been repeatedly overcome in evolutionary time, resulting in phylogenetically diverse parasite communities feeding on similar hosts. Therefore, our results imply that patterns of apparent evolutionary conservatism may largely be a byproduct of the geographic cooccurrence of hosts and parasites.

  2. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against mite (Tetranychidae) on cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Mohd Ridzuan Ismail; Hamidah Sulaiman; Mohd Shamsudin Osman

    2000-01-01

    Cut flower, an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, is often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales and thrips. The use of low ionising radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flower but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating red spider mite Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymph and deutonymph respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults developed from the less immature stages of irradiated egg and larva. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 240 Gy prevented reproduction in female adult of T piercie by inducing sterility while a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce instant mortality. Based on the results obtained gamma irradiation of dose range 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment against Tetranychus piercie. However, this dose range is only suitable for chrysanthemum (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations and orchids which showed phytotoxic symptoms at dose range of 100-300 Gy

  3. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  4. Comparative morphological analysis of apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nal., a new pest in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vidović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nalepa, 1926 (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea, has been recently found in Serbia as a new pest of apple. The history of its research, the results of a morphological analysis and degree of infestation are presented. A comparison of the main morphological features of mites from different populations of remote geographical origin has shown that the apple blister mite from Serbia is most similar to another European population (Bulgarian [or Austrian?] while it differs from E. mali originating from the USA and New Zealand. The percentage of infestation varied from 1.6% to 87.6%, with an average of 22.4%.

  5. Shape parameters explain data from spatial transformations: comment on Pearce et al. (2004) and Tommasi & Polli (2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ken; Gallistel, C R

    2005-04-01

    In 2 recent studies on rats (J. M. Pearce, M. A. Good, P. M. Jones, & A. McGregor, see record 2004-12429-006) and chicks (L. Tommasi & C. Polli, see record 2004-15642-007), the animals were trained to search in 1 corner of a rectilinear space. When tested in transformed spaces of different shapes, the animals still showed systematic choices. Both articles rejected the global matching of shape in favor of local matching processes. The present authors show that although matching by shape congruence is unlikely, matching by the shape parameter of the 1st principal axis can explain all the data. Other shape parameters, such as symmetry axes, may do even better. Animals are likely to use some global matching to constrain and guide the use of local cues; such use keeps local matching processes from exploding in complexity.

  6. IPads in teachers’ practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Bente Tobiesen

    of tablets into classrooms will enroll devices in networks of learning that establish new and significant relationships between learning technologies such as iPads, whiteboards, pcs as well as books, pens and paper. These relationships challenge the idea that iPads can act as isolated and unique actors......Research in learning technologies has often focused on the affordances of single technologies such as pcs, smartphones or interactive whiteboards (Meyer 2013). However, in most learning environments technologies do not stand alone but are embedded in activity structures and webs of materials...... that make up the learning activity (Fenwick, Edwards and Sawchuk 2011, Lawn and Grosvenor 2005, McGregor 2003, Nespor 2002). This is specifically relevant when the object of study is mobile learning, where devices are flexible and follow the learner in his/her shifting learning activities and needs (Burden...

  7. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  8. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  9. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneeringer, M.R.; Dunn, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  10. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in the Brown Dog Tick and Domestic Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Batah Kunalan; Low, Van Lun; Tan, Tiong Kai; Vinnie-Siow, Wei Yin; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Morvarid, Akhavan Rezaei; Azman, Adzzie Shazleen; Yeong, Yze Shiuan; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-17

    Hepatozoon canis has been widely reported in dogs. Its prevalence in ticks, however, has not been well-established. Here we determine the occurrence of Hepatozoon DNA in the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) sensu lato (s.l.) and domestic dogs from Peninsular Malaysia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA coding sequence. Our results revealed a relatively low prevalence of H. canis DNA in both R. sanguineus s.l. (0.7%) and dogs (3.33%). This study represents the first report of H. canis DNA in R. sanguineus s.l. in Malaysia, highlighting the risk of this infection in dogs.

  11. Land use effect on soil meso and macro-organisms in Quindio coffee zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghian Siavosh

    2001-01-01

    Meso and macro-organisms communities in different agro-ecosystems were evaluated on the Colombian coffee region (Quindio) during the second semester of 1997. Soil samples were taken at 10 cm of deep and the Berlese funnel apparatus was used for evaluations. The agro-ecosystems were Guadual (Guadua angustifolia), traditional and technical coffee, citrus, and cassava crops, cattle ranching (extensive and intensive systems). A total of twenty taxonomic groups were identified. The most abundant and common specimens were ants, acari, collembola and diplura. The greatest diversity and abundance of organisms were registered on the G. angustifolia and coffee agro-ecosystems. The opposite tendency was observed on the cattle ranching due to physical degradation, associated to soil compacting

  12. Alimentación en Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipelo, Ana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary categories of a population of Melanophryniscus stelzneri are studied cuantitatively and cualitatively utilizing a sample of 57 specimens obtained from "El Trapiche", province of San Luis, Argentine, in order to know the grade of trophic overlap and predation strategies. The main alimentary categories for males and females are: Formicidae, Collembola, Acari, Coleoptera, Isoptera and larvae. Although the diets of both sexes show a high grade of trophic overlap, males and females differ in the amount of each resource used. Adults and juveniles present a low grade of trophic overlap. The juveniles follow the "widely foraging" strategy and the adults follow an intermidiate one, between "sit and wait" and "widely foraging".

  13. New Neoribates (Acari, Oribatida, Parakalummidae) from Vietnam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4303, č. 1 (2017), s. 51-72 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oripodoidea * morphology * systematics * Tam Dao National Park * Oriental region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  14. New Protoribates (Acari, Oribatida, Haplozetidae) from Vietnam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4258, č. 6 (2017), s. 501-524 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oripodoidea * morphology * systematics * new species * Tam Dao National Park * Oriental region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  15. fabricius (acari: ixodidae en equinos y bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Álvarez C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento sobre el comportamiento de los adultos y las ninfas de Amblyomma en equinos y bovinos, se desarrolló un estudio en San Pablo de Turrubares, provincia de San José. Para el trabajo de campo se empleó 3 métodos: revisión de los animales seleccionados, el arrastre por medio de bandera, y el trampeo con CO2. Los equinos demostraron ser la especie más susceptible para A. cajennense, seguidos por B. taurus. Las ninfas de A. cajennense se concentran en la época seca y a nivel de laboratorio muestran indicadores que colocan a estas garrapatas como individuos con una gran capacidad para sobrevivir sin alimento, lo que dificulta su control. No se encontró correlación entre la precipitación y los niveles de garrapatas; sin embargo, durante la época que incluye la mayoría de los meses lluviosos se encontró una mayor cantidad de garrapatas. Se observó sitios de preferencia por parte de A. cajennense para fijarse al cuerpo de los animales.

  16. A revision of the Plateremaeidae (Acari: Oribatei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson D. Paschoal

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Plateremaeidae is revised, and includes the following taxa: Plateremaeus Berlese, with the only species P. ornatissimus (Berlese, from Brazil; Allodamaeus Banks, with the species ewingi (Banks, from the USA, coralgablensis, sp. n. (type-locality: USA, Flórida, Coral Gables, and ornatos Balogh & Csiszár, from Argentina; Lophoremaeus, gen. n., with two species: mirabilis Csiszár, from Bulgaria, the type-species, and laminipes (Berlese, n. comb., from Italy; Paralopheremaeus, gen. n., with the species legendrei (Balogh, n. comb., from Madagascar; Calipteremaeus, gen. n., with the species yaginumai (Aoki, n. comb., from Japan; the following species are considered incertae sedis: Plateremaeus carinulatus (Berlese, from Brasil, P. complanatus (Berlese, from Chile, P. rotundatus Berlese, from Japan, and P. tunicatus ( Balogh, from Zaire.A família Plateremaeidae é revista, e inclui os seguintes táxons: Plateremaeus Berlese, com a única espécie P. ornatissimus (Berlese, do Brazil; Allodamaeus Banks, com as espécies ewingi (Banks, dos Estados Unidos, coralgablensis, sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Estados Unidos, Flórida, Coral Gables e ornatos Balogh & Csziszár, da Argentina; Lophoremaeus, gen. n., com duas espécies: mirabilis Csiszár, da Bulgária, espécie-tipo, e laminipes (Berlese, n. comb., da Itália; Paralopheremaeus, gen. n., com a espécie legendrei (Balogh, n. comb., de Madagascar; Calipteremaeus. gen. n., com a espécie yaginumai (Aoki, n. comb., do Japão; as seguintes espécies são consideradas incertae sedis: Plateremaeus carinulatus (Berlese, do Brasil, P. complanatus (Berlese, do Chile, P. rotundatus Berlese, do Japão, e P. tunicatus (Balogh, do Zaire.

  17. Selection of entomopathogenic fungi against the red spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Kishida (Tetranychidae: Acarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungal species to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Seven isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, six isolates of Beauveria bassiana, and an isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus from the Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following studies were undertaken: (1 screening of M. anisoplae, B. bassiana and P. lilicanus pathogenic to T. kanzawai, and (2 bioefficacy studies of the selected entomopathogenic fungi under greenhouse conditions. Conidia of each isolate were mass-produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA at 26+-1 oC and a 12-hour photophase for a maximum of 21 days. Preliminary screening for the most pathogenic isolate within the same species was determined using suspension with 104 to 108 conidia ml-1. At 4 days after treatment (DAT, the pathogenicity within M. anisopliae isolates in decreasing order was Ma5>Ma6>Ma4>Ma2>Ma1>Ma3>Ma7 while for B. bassiana, was Bb6>Bb5>Bb4>Bb3>Bb1>Bb2. The top three most pathogenic isolates within the two species were subjected to further studies to determine the most virulent isolate against T. kanzawai. At 5 DAT, the LC50 values of M. anisopliae isolates ranged from 5.0 x102 to 1.4x103 while for B. bassiana ranged from 1.2 x 103 to 2.4x 103 conidia ml-1. Based on LC50, the virulence of the fungal isolates within the species in decreasing order was Ma6>Ma5>Ma4 and Bb6>Bb5>Bb4. However, the LC50 values are not significantly different from each other. Green house trials showed that the epizootic of entomopathogenic fungus can regulate the population of mites. The fungal isolates used in the study, although not originally isolated from mites were virulent to T. kanzawai, indicating their wide host range.

  18. Cine Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2012-01-01

    Thursday 9 February 2012 at 20:30 CERN Council Chamber Angels and Demons / Illuminati directed by Ron Howard (USA, 2009) 138 min Based on the novel by Dan Brown With: Tom Hanks, Ewan McGregor, Ayelet Zurer Following the murder of a physicist, Father Silvano Bentivoglio, a symbolist, Robert Langdon, and a scientist, Vittoria Vetra, are on an adventure involving a secret brotherhood, the Illuminati. Clues lead them all around the Vatican, including the four altars of science, Earth, Air, Fire and Water. An assassin, working for the Illuminati, has captured four cardinals, and murders each, painfully. Robert and Vittoria are also searching for a new very destructive weapon that could kill millions. Original version English; german subtitles Entrance: 2 CHF Projection from DVD http://cineclub.web.cern.ch/Cineclub/ Thursday 16 February 2012 at 20:30 CERN Council Chamber Grizzly Man directed by Werner Herzog (USA, 2005) 103 min The film centers on amateur grizz...

  19. Raillietia caprae (Acari: Raillietidae and Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Psoroptidae in the ears of goats in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil Raillietia caprae (Acari: Raillietidae e Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Psoroptidae nos condutos auditivos de caprinos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz H. Faccini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ear cannals of 145 domestic goats including the breeds Saanen, Toggenburg, Anglobian, Alpine, Moxoto (native and crossbred goats from 10 smallholder farms were examined by flushing for the presence of ear mites. Prevalence of Raillietia caprae Quintero, Bassols and Acevedo, 1980 was much more higher than Psoroptes ovis (Hering, 1838 in the studied area, respectively 62% ( 90/145 and 4% ( 6/145. The youngest animal parasitized was eight months old and the oldest was 10 years old. Subclinical otitis is a common feature of infestation by both species but increase of wax and the presence of pus were detected in the flushed material in approximately 10% of the goats examined.Os condutos auditivos de 145 caprinos das raças Saanen, Toggenburg, Anglobian, Alpine, Moxoto (native e mestiços provenientes de 10 pequenos criadores foram examinados pela técnica de lavagem para diagnosticar a infestação por ácaros. A prevalência de Raillietia caprae Quintero, Bassols and Acevedo, 1980 foi muito mais alta do que Psoroptes ovis (Hering, 1838 - 62% (90/145 e 4% (6/145, respectivamente. O animal parasitado mais jovem tinha oito meses de idade e o mais velho 10 anos. Otite subclínica é comum nas infestações por ambas espécies mas aumento de cerume e presença de pus foram diagnosticados no material da lavagem em aproximadamente 10% dos caprinos examinados.

  20. Efeito de restos da cultura do abacaxizeiro e de agrobio na fauna do solo Effect of residues of pineaplle plant and agrobio in the soil fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsandra de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de restos culturais de abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus L. 'Smooth Cayenne' na fauna de artrópodes,em cultivos em campo. As mudas, do tipo filhote, foram plantadas no mês de junho, em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, que recebeu 0, 30 e 60t/ha de restos de abacaxizeiro, aplicados superficialmente e incorporados a 10cm de profundidade, com e sem a adição do biofertilizante-Agrobio10% (v/v. Foram coletadas amostras a 05 cm de profundidade aos 90, 210, 330 e 450 dias após a aplicação dos resíduos. Identificou-se, durante os 15 meses de avaliações, o predomínio de Acari e Collembola. A maior densidade de animais foi observada na primeira amostragem, aos 90 dias após a adição dos restos. No entanto, diferenças na abundância da fauna de solo só foram observadas, 330 dias após a adição dos resíduos.This study was conducted under field conditions, in order to determine the effect of pineapple crop (Ananas comosus L. residues on the edaphic arthropod fauna. Slips were planted in June, in Red-Yellow Latossol , with crop residues in amounts of 0, 30 and 60 t/ha, placed on the surface or tilled under 10cm, with and without 10% (v/v Agrobio biofertilizer applied along with the residues and sprayed monthly at 3% (v/v two months after planting. Soil samples were collected from the top 5.0 cm of soil at 90, 210, 330 and 450 days after the application of residues. Over 15 months, the predominance of Acari and Collembolan was observed. The highest density of animals was observed in the first sample, at 90 days after the addition of residues. Nevertheless, differences in soil fauna abundance between treatments were not detected until 330 days after soil management with crop residues.

  1. Búsqueda y reconocimiento de los enemigos naturales y hospedantes alternos de las principales plagas. En flores bajo invernadero en la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Andrade

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plagas que atacan cultivos de llores bajo invernadero son cada vez más importantes por la gravedad de su daño y por la alta densidad con que suelen presentarse. Para su control se ha acudido principalmente a la utilización de productos químicos, lo cual conduce a un aumento en los costos de producción, a contaminar el medio ambiente, a afectar la salud humana y a crear resistencia de los insectos a los insecticidas. Debido a esto, es necesario incluír dentro de los programas de control a los reguladores naturales de las plagas: parasitoides, depredadores y microorganismos entornógenos. En el presente trabajo se registran los enemigos naturales más importantes de las principales plagas en llores bajo invernadero (crisantemo, rosa y clavel: Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard, L. trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agrornyzídae; Myzuz persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae; Tetranychus urticae Koch y T. cinnabarinus Boísduval (Acarina: Tetranychidae; también se señalan las plantas hospedantes alternas presentes en las localidades donde se realizó la investigación.

  2. Parasites and pathogens of ticks ( Rhipicephalus species Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction of ticks with its environment as well as its natural hosts predisposes it to acquiring pathogens that could pose animal and human health risks. Identifying these pathogens could alert dog owners and others to reassess the predisposing factors and ensure control. The aim of the study was to identify the species ...

  3. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    20u209S, 60u209W Parque Defensores del Chaco 20u149S, 60u129W ALTO PARANÁ Ciudad del Este 25u329S, 54u379W BOQUERÓN Colonia Fernheim 22u149S, 59u509W...female, host unknown, Parque Defensores del Chaco, 5 December 1981, coll. J. A. Kochalka), RML 119014 (two males and one female, ex Catagonus wagneri...Moro, 22 June 2002, coll. M. Cunningham), RML 123661 (one female, ex Pa. onca, Parque Defensores del Chaco, 16 July 2003, coll. M. Cunningham), RML

  5. A Proteomic Analysis of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Rider, S. Dean; Grunwald, William C.; Cool, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The pruritic skin disease scabies is caused by the burrowing of the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei (De Geer). It is difficult to diagnose this disease because its symptoms often resemble those of other skin diseases. No reliable blood or molecular diagnostic test is available. The aim of this project was to begin to characterize the scabies proteome to identify scabies mite proteins, including those that may be useful in the development of a diagnostic test or vaccine. Various scabies mite extracts were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 844 Coomassie Blue-stained protein spots were excised, subjected to trypsin digestion, and analyzed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight/Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic fragment sequences determined by MS were searched against the recently completed S. scabiei annotated genome, leading to the identification of >150 proteins. Only 10 proteins hit to previously identified scabies proteins including actin, tropomyosin, and several ABC transporters. Thirteen proteins had homology to dust mite allergens (members of groups 8, 10, 13, 17, 20, 25, and 28). Most other sequences showed some homology to proteins in other mites and ticks including homologs of calmodulin, calreticulin, lipocalin, and glutathione-S-transferase. These data will now allow the identification of the proteins to which scabies patients produce antibodies, including those that may be good candidates for inclusion in a diagnostic test and vaccine. PMID:26792847

  6. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  7. Nuevas citas de ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida para la Argentina New records of oribatids (Acari: Oribatida for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Salazar Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la presente nota se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina , cuatro especies de ácaros oribátidos: Epilohmannia pallida americana Balogh & Mahunka, 1981, Protoribates (Triangius praeoccupatus (Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1980, Scheloribates curvialatus Hammer, 1961 y Galumna innexa Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1986. Los ejemplares fueron hallados en muestras de suelo recolectadas en La Plata , Provincia de Buenos Aires (34º 54'S, 57º 55´ W, en ambientes sometidos a intervención antrópica: bosques urbanos, huertas orgánicas y pastizales.Four species of oribatid mites are recorded from Argentina for the first time: Epilohmannia pallida americana Balogh & Mahunka, 1981, Protoribates (Triangius praeoccupatus (Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1980, Scheloribates curvialatus Hammer, 1961 and Galumna innexa Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1986. The specimens were collected in soil samples in La Plata , Buenos Aires Province (34º 54' S, 57º 55´ W in sites exposed to different degrees of human intervention: urban forest, organic orchards and pastures.

  8. Validation report – Results of an International Ring test According to the Draft Guideline: Predatory mite reproduction test in soil (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) (med bidrag)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Römbke, Jörg; Becker, B. Dark, Th. Moser, N. Halsall, W. Powley, A. Ruf, C. Scholer, E. Smit, P. Wege, N. Zenz, L.; Krogh, Paul Henning

    A new Test Guideline has been developed, which is designed to be used for assessing the effects of chemical substances in soil on the reproductive output of the soil mite species Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer Canestrini (Acari: Laelapidae). H. aculeifer represents an additional trophic level...... to the species for which guidelines are already available. The main endpoint is the reproduction of the mites without discrimination and quantification of the different stages of the reproductive cycle. Based on already standardised OECD and ISO test guidelines as well as ideas from literature, the ad...... caused by the ring test experiences. The results determined in the ring test proved the suitability of the proposed test method. The LC50 values for both test chemicals differed by less than a factor of 2.5 from the mean and no statistically significant differences were found between laboratories.The EC...

  9. Origin and higher-level diversification of acariform mites - evidence from nuclear ribosomal genes, extensive taxon sampling, and secondary structure alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, A R; Klimov, P B

    2015-09-02

    Acariformes is the most species-rich and morphologically diverse radiation of chelicerate arthropods, known from the oldest terrestrial ecosystems. It is also a key lineage in understanding the evolution of this group, with the most vexing question whether mites, or Acari (Parasitiformes and Acariformes) is monophyletic. Previous molecular studies recovered Acari either as monophyletic or non-monophyletic, albeit with a limited taxon sampling. Similarly, relationships between basal acariform groups (include little-known, deep-soil 'endeostigmatan' mites) and major lineages of Acariformes (Sarcoptiformes, Prostigmata) are virtually unknown. We infer phylogeny of chelicerate arthropods, using a large and representative dataset, comprising all main in- and outgroups (228 taxa). Basal diversity of Acariformes is particularly well sampled. With this dataset, we conduct a series of phylogenetically explicit tests of chelicerate and acariform relationships and present a phylogenetic framework for internal relationships of acariform mites. Our molecular data strongly support a diphyletic Acari, with Acariformes as the sister group to Solifugae (PP =1.0; BP = 100), the so called Poecilophysidea. Among Acariformes, some representatives of the basal group Endeostigmata (mainly deep-soil mites) were recovered as sister-groups to the remaining Acariformes (i. e., Trombidiformes + and most of Sarcoptiformes). Desmonomatan oribatid mites (soil and litter mites) were recovered as the monophyletic sister group of Astigmata (e. g., stored product mites, house dust mites, mange mites, feather and fur mites). Trombidiformes (Sphaerolichida + Prostigmata) is strongly supported (PP =1.0; BP = 98-100). Labidostommatina was inferred as the basal lineage of Prostigmata. Eleutherengona (e. g., spider mites) and Parasitengona (e. g., chiggers, fresh water mites) were recovered as monophyletic. By contrast, Eupodina (e. g., snout mites and relatives) was not. Marine mites (Halacaridae) were

  10. Achievement goals, competition appraisals, and the psychological and emotional welfare of sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-06-01

    Grounded in the 2x2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and the indicators of athletes' welfare. Finally, measurement and structural invariance was tested with respect to gender in the hypothesized model. An alternative model was also estimated specifying self-esteem as an antecedent of the four goals and cognitive appraisals. Four hundred and twenty-four team sport participants (Mage=24.25) responded to a multisection questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the hypothesized model only. Challenge and threat appraisals partially mediated the relationships observed between mastery-based goals and the well-being indicators. Lastly, the hypothesized model was found to be invariant across gender.

  11. Nuevos registros de ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida para la Argentina New records of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Accattoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicación constituye un aporte al conocimiento del elenco oribatológico en suelos de Argentina, basado en relevamientos realizados en un parque urbano de la ciudad de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Se informan dos nuevas citas de géneros, una de subgénero y siete de especies para el país. Además, cinco de las especies halladas serían nuevas para la ciencia. Se incorporan ocho géneros y siete especies a las registradas para la Provincia de Buenos Aires.This paper is a contribution to the knowledge of assemblages of oribatid mites in soils of Argentina. The study is based on samples from an urban forest in the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires. New records for the country are provided for two genera, one subgenus and seven species. Furthermore, five of the species found are possibly new to science. Eight genera and seven species are incorporated to the record of the Buenos Aires province.

  12. Artrópodes em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 (Aves, Columbidae em área urbana de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.

  13. Gamma irradiation used on adult Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osouli Shiva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma radiation with 0, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 Gy intensities on the longevity, total number of eggs, and the percent of hatched eggs laid by irradiated females of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae was evaluated. Two different groups (0–24 h old and 48–72 h old of adult females were irradiated. The results showed that 350 and 300 Gy doses significantly reduced the longevity of the 0–24 h old females and the 48–72 h old females. The younger females were more tolerant at lower dose rates than the older females. There was a quadratic relationship between dose rates and young females, while it was linear in older females. The total number of eggs laid by females of both ages was significantly reduced with a linear trend by 250 Gy irradiation. The eggs laid by females of both the 0–24 h olds and the 48–72 h olds lost their hatchability when the dose rate was 350 Gy. It was concluded, that applying a dose rate of 320 Gy on one of the mates (male or female before mating, or a 300 Gy on both of them, would be sufficient to cause sterility in adult mites.

  14. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Test No. 226: Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Römbke, L. Becker, B. Dark, Th. Moser, N. Halsall, W. Powley, A. Ruf, C. Scholer, E. Smit, P. Wege, N. Zenz m.fl., J.; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2008-01-01

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess the effects of chemical substances in soil on the reproductive output of the soil mite species Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer Canestrini (Acari: Laelapidae). It can be used for water soluble or insoluble substances, but not with volatile substances...... replicates for each test concentrations and six to eight control replicates, of 10 animals each, are recommended. At 20 oC, the test lasts 14 days after introducing the females, which usually allows the control offspring to reach the deutonymph stage. The number of surviving females (mortality ...% for a valid test) and the number of juveniles per test vessel (at least 50 for a valid test) are determined. The fecundity of the mites exposed to the test substance is compared to that of controls in order to determine the ECx (e.g. EC10, EC50) or the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). Any observed...

  15. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level...... effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.......e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari...

  16. Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Ronald L.

    Job satisfaction, motivation, and reward systems are included in one area of organizational theory. The strongest influence in this area is motivation because it overlaps into both of the other two components. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals four major theory areas: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; (2) Herzberg's…

  17. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Moro C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.

  18. Contribution to the Uropodina mites of Peru (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan

    2017-02-27

    Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.

  19. Biology of Dermacentor marginatus (Acari: Ixodidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Darvishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and survey the biology of Dermacentor marginatus (D. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Methods: In this investigation, D. marginatus adult ticks were collected from sheep in Semnan province. Then various developmental stages of D. marginatus including larvae, nymphs and adult males and females under laboratory condition were bred and their biology was scrutinized. Results: The requisite time to complete the life cycle of D. marginatus under controlled laboratory conditions for larvae (26 °C, 75% relative humidity and nymph (26 °C, 95% relative humidity moulting, was on average 92 d (range 75-104 d, including preoviposition and egg incubation (22.5 d, larvae incubation (20.5 d, nymphal stage (28 d along with male maturation (21 d. The index of conversion efficiency and the index of reproduction efficiency in females were 0.397 and 8.300, respectively. Conclusions: Although in this investigation, there was no meaningful correlation between preoviposition period and the weight of female ticks which were laid successfully. The significant linear relationship was fully observed between the weight of engorged female of D. marginatus and the number of eggs laid. The mean of preoviposition period from 5.4 d in autumn to 34.2 d in spring increased. The minimum weight of ticks with laying capacity was 69 mg and lighter ticks (21 mg either did not lay or if they did their eggs did not hatch.

  20. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  1. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... treatment and then the selected 5th instar larva were transferred to fundamental colonies with 10 to 12 ... Key words: Varroa mite, hygienic behavior (uncapping and .... into a container containing hot water and detergent.

  2. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three days later, the number of female Varroa in the capped cells were counted as attraction criteria for each treatment separately. ... The negative correlation between 2 major resistance traits (hygienic behavior and attraction traits) in the breeding stock deems that selection for resistance against Varroa mite and improved ...

  3. Listado de oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida de Túnez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subías, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid mites of several Tunisian soil samples were studied. 113 species were obtained, 95 of which are recorded for the first time from Tunisia. A systematic check-list with the 136 species known up to now is included, and their geographical distribution is given. Most of them, 77 (56%, have a typical Mediterranean distribution and 16 are recorded for the first time from North Africa.Se han estudiado los ácaros oribátidos de una serie de muestras de suelo de Túnez y se han identificado 113 especies, 95 de las cuales se citan por primera vez en Túnez. Se ha elaborado un listado sistemático en el que se incluyen las 136 especies conocidas hasta el momento y su distribución geográfica. La mayoría, 77 (56 %, presentan características típicamente mediterráneas, y 16 se citan por primera vez en el norte de África.

  4. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  5. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites (Phytoseiidae in Brazilian natural environments, adjacent to coffee agroecosystems (Coffea spp., or about the influence exerted by neighbor vegetation as a reservoir of predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of these organisms in coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments. Samples of the species Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart., Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae and Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae were collected in eight forest fragments, from 5 to 51ha, adjacent to coffee plantations, in June (end of the rainy season and October (end of the dry season in the years of 2004 and 2005, in the Southern region of State of Minas Gerais. Leaf mites were extracted using the wash method, mounted in microscopy slides with Hoyer's medium for identification. A total of 2.348 phytoseiids was collected, being 2.090 in the forest fragments and 258 in adjacent coffee plantations, belonging to 38 species. According to fauna analysis, Iphiseiodes zuluaguai Denmark & Muma, the year of 1972 presented the best indexes in the coffee agroecosystem, being very frequent and constant in those periods. In the forest fragments, Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 and Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 were dominant, very abundant, very frequent and constant in those periods. One may conclude that the native vegetation shelters predator mite, natural enemies of mite-pests that still occur in coffee culture, making possible ecological management program development involving areas of natural vegetation and adjacent coffee agroecosystems.

  6. Acarine infracommunities associated with the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in arid regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cornejo, C; García-Prieto, L; Morales-Malacara, J B; Pérez-Ponce De León, G

    2003-11-01

    The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, is one of the most widely distributed bats, and its range includes the whole Mexican territory. Ectoparasites of this bat have been the subject of isolated reports, but no studies of its community ecology have been conducted. The acarine infracommunities associated with this bat were analyzed, comparing bat populations from three arid regions of Mexico: an abandoned factory in Nombre de Dios, Durango; a cave in Santiago, Nuevo León; and a church in Concepción del Oro, Zacatecas. The acarine infracommunity in Nuevo Le6n's bats exhibited the highest levels of diversity as reflected by a higher richness, a lower dominance, and a moderate and relatively homogeneous abundance in this locality in relation to the other two. This pattern is influenced by stable cave conditions relative to artificial habitats. Notwithstanding, further studies are required to determine whether or not different habitat conditions are a primary factor in the process of structuring the acari infracommunities.

  7. Plant Perception and Short-Term Responses to Phytophagous Insects and Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Estrella Santamaria

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant–pest relationships involve complex processes encompassing a network of molecules, signals, and regulators for overcoming defenses they develop against each other. Phytophagous arthropods identify plants mainly as a source of food. In turn, plants develop a variety of strategies to avoid damage and survive. The success of plant defenses depends on rapid and specific recognition of the phytophagous threat. Subsequently, plants trigger a cascade of short-term responses that eventually result in the production of a wide range of compounds with defense properties. This review deals with the main features involved in the interaction between plants and phytophagous insects and acari, focusing on early responses from the plant side. A general landscape of the diverse strategies employed by plants within the first hours after pest perception to block the capability of phytophagous insects to develop mechanisms of resistance is presented, with the potential of providing alternatives for pest control.

  8. Parasitic arthropods of some wild rodents from Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between three species of rodents in the Atlantic forest and their parasitic arthropods was undertaken at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, located in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1989 to February 1990. Individuals of three species, Oryzomys russatus, Proechimys iheringi and Nectomys squamipes were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Eleven species of parasitic arthropods were found, including four species of insects and seven of Acari. Parasitism intensity, phenology, and rainfall were positively correlated with the abundance of the ectoparasites and their hosts. The most abundant host was O. russatus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae, and the most common parasite on it was the laelapid mite Gigantolaelaps oudemansi. The cuterebrid Metacuterebra apicalis caused myiasis in O. russatus. A mutualistic association between the staphylinid beetle Amblyopinus sp. and its host P. iheringi (Echimyidae was observed. The few N. squamipes captured had small numbers of ectoparasites.

  9. Minimal barcode distance between two water mite species from Madeira Island: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Horreo, Jose Luis; Valdecasas, Antonio G

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we compare morphological and molecular data in their ability to distinguish between species of water mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Hydrachnidia). We have focused on the two species of the genus Lebertia inhabiting the island of Madeira. While traditional morphological traits were initially sufficient to distinguish between these two species, the molecular data were more dependable on the kind of analysis carried out. Single arbitrary genetic distance (e.g. a K2P distance below 2%) may lead to the conclusion that the specimens under study belong to the same species. Analysing the same specimens with the coalescent model has proved the evolutionary independence of both Lebertia clades in Madeira. Furthermore, multi-rate Poisson Tree Process analysis confirmed both lineages as independent species. Our results agree with previous studies warning of the dangers of rigid species delimitation based on arbitrary molecular distances. In addition, the importance of different molecular data approaches for correct species delimitation in water mites is highlighted.

  10. Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Bechsgaard, Jesper S.; Fang, Xiaodong; Duan, Jinjie; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Gupta, Vikas; Jiang, Xuanting; Cheng, Ling; Fan, Dingding; Feng, Yue; Han, Lijuan; Huang, Zhiyong; Wu, Zongze; Liao, Li; Settepani, Virginia; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Vanthournout, Bram; Wang, Tobias; Zhu, Yabing; Funch, Peter; Enghild, Jan J.; Schauser, Leif; Andersen, Stig U.; Villesen, Palle; Schierup, Mikkel H; Bilde, Trine; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Spiders are ecologically important predators with complex venom and extraordinarily tough silk that enables capture of large prey. Here we present the assembled genome of the social velvet spider and a draft assembly of the tarantula genome that represent two major taxonomic groups of spiders. The spider genomes are large with short exons and long introns, reminiscent of mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analyses place spiders and ticks as sister groups supporting polyphyly of the Acari. Complex sets of venom and silk genes/proteins are identified. We find that venom genes evolved by sequential duplication, and that the toxic effect of venom is most likely activated by proteases present in the venom. The set of silk genes reveals a highly dynamic gene evolution, new types of silk genes and proteins, and a novel use of aciniform silk. These insights create new opportunities for pharmacological applications of venom and biomaterial applications of silk. PMID:24801114

  11. The Karlin-McGregor formula for a variant of a discrete version of Walsh's spider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenbaum, F Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We consider a variant of a discrete space version of Walsh's spider, see Walsh (1978 Temps Locaux, Asterisque vol 52-53 (Paris: Soc. Math. de France)) as well as Evans and Sowers (2003 Ann. Probab. 31 486-527 and its references). This process can be seen as an instance of a quasi-birth-and-death process, a class of random walks for which the classical theory of Karlin and McGregor can be nicely adapted as in Dette, Reuther, Studden and Zygmunt (2006 SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 29 117-42), Gruenbaum (2007 Probability, Geometry and Integrable Systems ed Pinsky and Birnir vol 55 (Berkeley, CA: MSRI publication) pp. 241-60, see also arXiv math PR/0703375), Gruenbaum (2007 Dagstuhl Seminar Proc. 07461 on Numerical Methods in Structured Markov Chains ed Bini), Gruenbaum (2008 Proceedings of IWOTA) and Gruenbaum and de la Iglesia (2008 SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 30 741-63). We give here a weight matrix that makes the corresponding matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials orthogonal to each other. We also determine the polynomials themselves and thus obtain all the ingredients to apply a matrix-valued version of the Karlin-McGregor formula.

  12. ÁCAROS ASOCIADOS AL CULTIVO DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana Mill EN LA COSTA CENTRAL DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Muñoz Marticorena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la costa central de Perú (Lima e Ica, se cultiva el aguacate con fines de exportación, especialmente la variedad Hass. Con el objetivo de conocer la diversidad de ácaros depredadores en huertos comerciales de aguacate, se realizaron recolectas en 6 lugares de la costa central, duran - te el 2010 al 2012. Se registraron 12 especies de la familia Phytoseiidae, de los cuales algunos tendrían potencial como depredadores eficien - tes de Oligonychus sp . (Guanilo et ál. 2012; estos son: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma, Ambly - seius chungas (Demmark y Muma, Amblyseiella setosa (Muma, Euseius emanus (El–Banhawy, Euseius concordis (Chant, Euseius stipulatus (Athias–Henriot, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias Henriot, Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, Neo - seiulus californicus (McGregor, Typhlodromina subtropica (Chant, Typhlodromus ( Antoseius evectus (Schusters y Aristadromips n.sp. Se con - firmó que la vegetación espontánea cumple un rol importante en la conservación de las especies halladas en este cultivo y que además la intro - ducción de un ácaro depredador exótico, como Euseius stipulatus, contribuyó significativamente con el control de la plaga durante la temporada de invierno.

  13. Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G

    2011-03-01

    Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic.

  14. The effect of chronic hyperthyroidism and restored euthyroid state by methimazole therapy in rat small mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi-Behzadi, Mahdi; Alimoradi, Houman; Haghjoo-Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Reza Sharifi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Nastaran; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2013-02-15

    Not much has been reported about the effects of hyperthyroidism and its correction on resistance vessels, and just two inconsistent studies have investigated the impacts of restored euthyroidism on vascular reactivity. In this regard, we designed the current study to evaluate the vascular reactivity of the mesenteric arteries of hyperthyroid and restore euthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by administration of triiodothyronine (T3; 300μg/kg, i.p., for 12 weeks in T3 group). Euthyroidism was restored by administration of T3 for 8 weeks and then T3+Methimazole (0.003% in drinking water) for 4 weeks (T3+MMI group). According to the McGregor method, vascular relaxation and contractility response were measured in response to acetylcholine or phenylephrine respectively. We found that maximal contractility response (Emax) to phenylephrine in the T3 group was significantly decreased (P0.05). In conclusion, synthesis of both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in mesenteric arteries significantly increased as a consequence of hyperthyroidism, and this abnormal vascular reactivity is corrected by methimazole therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation

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    Potts Michael

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit. Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed. However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine.

  16. A gallery of the key characters to ease identification of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Gamasida: Dermanyssidae and allow differentiation from Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Palma Antonella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite is a major threat for the poultry industry and is of significant interest for public health. Identification of D. gallinae can be difficult for scientists not familiar with mite morphology and terminology especially when trying to use identification keys. Moreover, this species may easily be confused with another dermanyssoid mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl mite, which often shares the same hosts and environment. Methods Specimens of D. gallinae were collected at poultry farms in the Puglia and performed for light and scanning electron microscopy observations, identification and micrographs. Moreover specimens of O. sylviarum were collected separately macerated and mounted on slides for light microscopy observations, identification and pictures. Results The micrographs used in this study, based on LM and SEM observations, highlight the following important identifying characters of D. gallinae: the prominent shoulders of the dorsal shield and the jagged edges of the shield reticulations, the position of setae j1, s1 and the epigynal pores, and the presence on tibia IV pl of one seta. Additional micrographs highlighting the shape of the dorsal (abruptly narrowed posteriorly and epigynal (narrowly rounded posteriorly shields and the chelicera (elongate, with distinct digits of O. sylviarum enable its differentiation from D.gallinae. Conclusion The photographic support provided here (both LM and SEM pictures can be considered a practical tool for scientists who are not well acquainted with the morphology of D.gallinae, and who are involved with classical and molecular systematics, veterinary and human health aspects of poultry red mites.

  17. The effect of indoxacarb and five other insecticides on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Amblyseius fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanian, Noubar J; Akalach, Mohammed

    2006-04-01

    A laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of indoxacarb, abamectin, endosulfan, insecticidal soap, S-kinoprene and dimethoate to Amblyseius fallacis (Garman), Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Say). Amblyseius fallacis is a predacious phytoseiid mite and an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) programmes in North American apple orchards. The other two beneficials are widely used in greenhouses to manage various arthropod pests infesting vegetable and ornamental crops. Indoxacarb is a slow-acting insecticide, so toxicity data were recorded 7 days post-treatment when the data had stabilised. It showed no toxicity to O. insidiosus nymphs or to A. fallacis or P. persimilis adults. The LC50 values for O. insidiosus nymphs and P. persimilis could not be estimated with their associated confidence limits, because the g values were greater than 0.5 and under such circumstances the lethal concentration would lie outside the limits. The LC50 for A. fallacis was 7.6x the label rate. The fecundity of P. persimilis was reduced by 26.7%. The eclosion of treated eggs from both species of beneficial mites was not affected adversely. Among the other pest control products, S-kinoprene and endosulfan affected adversely at least one species of the predators, whereas dimethoate, abamectin and insecticidal soap were very toxic to all three beneficials. Indoxacarb should be evaluated as a pest control product in IPM programmes. Copyright (c) 2006 Crown in the right of Canada.

  18. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  19. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  20. Life table and male mating competitiveness of wild type and of a chromosome mutation strain of Tetranychus urticae in relation to genetic pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) from a strain, homozygous for a structural chromosome mutation (T) were competed against males from a standard (wild-type) strain for mating of wild-type fermales. The T-males exhibited only a slight reduction in male mating competitiveness. The debilitating influence of ageing on male mating competitiveness was equal for males of both strains. Life-table studies on both strains showed that the net reproductive rate (R 0 ) of the T-strain was 53.3, which was higher than the R 0 -value of the standard strain (43.3). This difference was caused by the higher rate of age-dependent mortality of adult females of the standard strain. Also differences between both strains in the total sex-ratio were observed; the T-strain produced significantly fewer males and more females than the standard strain. The mean generation time of both strains was almost equal (14 days). The values of the intrinsic rate of increase (rsub(m)) for the T-strain and the standard strain were 0.286 and 0.273, respectively. The life-table data correspond well with those published elsewhere on Tetranychus urticae. The feasibility of T-strains for application in genetic pest control considering the use of structural chromosome mutations as a 'transport mechanism' for conditional lethals is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Ocorrência do ácaro vermelho europeu Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Tetranychidae associado à cultura da videira no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil European red spider mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Tetranychidae occurrence of vineyards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo é descrita ocorrência e o dano causado pelo ácaro vermelho europeu Panonychus ulmi (Koch associado à cultura da videira. As coletas foram realizadas na safra 2005-2006 em Vitis vinifera L. da cultivar Merlot, nos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Candiota, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As folhas infestadas apresentaram bronzeamento, com manchas avermelhadas na face adaxial, resultando na queda prematura das mesmas. Esse é o primeiro registro do ácaro vermelho europeu danificando a cultura da videira no Rio Grande do Sul.The occurrence and the damage caused for the European red spider mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch associated to the culture of the grapevine are described. The collections had been carried through in 2005-2006 seasons in Vitis vinifera L. of cultivating Merlot in Bento Gonçalves and Candiota counties, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The infested leaves had presented bronzing, with spots redly in the adaxial face resulting in the premature fall. This is the first register of the European red mite damaging the culture of the grapevine in Rio Grande do Sul.

  2. [Characteristics of floor litter and soil arthropod community in different types ot subtropical forest in Ailao Mountain of Yunnan, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2011-11-01

    By using line transect method, an investigation was conducted on the floor litter and soil arthropod community in a mid mountain wet evergreen broad-leaved forest, a mossy dwarf forest, and a Populus bonatii forest in Ailao Mountain of Yunnan in April (dry and hot season), June (rainy season), and December (dry and cold season), 2005. In both dry and rainy seasons, the existing floor litter mass, C storage, and C/N ratio in the three forests all increased in the order of mossy dwarf forest > P. bonatii forest > evergreen broad-leaved forest, but the N storage had less difference. In the floor litter layer of the forests, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups of soil arthropod community, while Diptera larvae, Coleoptera, ants, and Homoptera were the common groups. The Sorenson coefficients of soil arthropod community in the three forests were extremely great. No significant differences were observed in the soil arthropod density (ind x m(-2)) in the floor litter layer among the three forests, but the relative density (ind x g(-1)) of soil arthropods was higher in the evergreen broad-leaved forest and P. bonatii forest than in the mossy dwarf forest. In the three forests, the density of soil arthropods was significantly higher in dry season than in rainy season, but the Shannon diversity index had less difference. There were significant positive correlations between the existing floor litter mass and the individual density (ind x m(-2)) and dominant groups of soil arthropod communities in dry and hot season (April), but negative correlations between the existing floor litter mass and the relative density (ind x g(-1)) of soil arthropod communities and Acari in dry and cold season (December). The individual densities of Collembola and Coleoptera also had positive correlations with the N storage of the existing floor litter mass in the three forests. It was considered that the floor litter and the development of soil arthropod community in the litter layer of

  3. Six new species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2016), s. 485-496 ISSN 0044-586X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphthiracaroidea * Madagascar * morphology * new species * ptyctimous mites * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016

  4. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  5. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  6. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Oribatid mites from the Vohimana Reserve, Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahunka, S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Further studies on the oribatid species collected from the Vohimana Reserve (Madagascar are presented. Altogether 13 species are listed, of them two represent new genera (Rugocepheus gen. nov. and Madabelba gen. nov., furthermore seven species are new to science. The other six species were earlier mentioned from different regions of the island, they are however little known.

  8. Gamasoidosis caused by the special lineage L1 of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae): A case of heavy infestation in a public place in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Leis, Marilena; Chicca, Milvia; Roy, Lise

    2017-10-01

    Among Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata) mites, some dermanyssoid species are known to cause gamasoidosis, a human dermatitis characterized by papulosquamous eruptions and urticarian lesions. We describe a case of mite infestation which occurred in public conference halls in Ferrara (Italy), affecting four people who attended the place and showed signs of gamasoidosis. The mites were collected and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and mitochondrial DNA sequencing (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial CDS). Based on morphological and molecular data, the species responsible for the infestation was identified as the special lineage L1 of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acarina: Dermanissydae), a cryptic species known to be associated with pigeons. Rock doves, Columba livia Gmelin (Columbiformes: Columbidae) were roosting on the top of the public building, thus the mites probably gained access to the halls through small window openings. The present case report is the first one providing morpho-molecular identification of a D. gallinae cryptic species responsible of gamasoidosis in Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  10. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  11. A Comparison of the Pitfall Trap, Winkler Extractor and Berlese Funnel for Sampling Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Shiju, Raj T.; Vinod, KV.; Nithya, S.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF). Due to unique habitat conditions in TMCFs with continuously wet substrates and a waterlogged forest floor along with the innate biases of the pitfall trap, Berlese funnel and Winkler extractor are certain to make it difficult to choose the most appropriate method to sample the ground-dwelling arthropods in TMCFs. Among the three methods, the Winkler extractor was the most efficient method for quantitative data and pitfall trapping for qualitative data for most groups. Inclusion of floatation method as a complementary method along with the Winkler extractor would enable a comprehensive quantitative survey of ground-dwelling arthropods. Pitfall trapping is essential for both quantitative and qualitative sampling of Diplopoda, Opiliones, Orthoptera, and Diptera. The Winkler extractor was the best quantitative method for Psocoptera, Araneae, Isopoda, and Formicidae; and the Berlese funnel was best for Collembola and Chilopoda. For larval forms of different insect orders and the Acari, all the three methods were equally effective. PMID:21529148

  12. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este aislamiento en V. destructor y su tolerancia a las condiciones ambientales a las que sería expuesto, permite considerar esta cepa como una alternativa de control para esta plaga.

  13. Ritmo de queda de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae de cães artificialmente infestados Drop off rhythm of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae of artificially infested dogs

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    Gustavo F. Paz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O ritmo de queda de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille foi avaliado para duas populações do Brasil; uma de Monte Negro, Estado de Rondônia, e outra de Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais. Infestações artificiais com carrapatos das duas populações foram realizadas em cães domésticos mantidos em laboratório, sob o regime de luz: escotofase de 12:12 h. O padrão de queda de larvas ingurgitadas do hospedeiro se caracterizou pelo desprendimento de quantidades semelhantes de carrapatos em períodos de luz e de escotofase ou com um predomínio de queda durante o período de luz. No caso de ninfas e fêmeas ingurgitadas, a maioria dos carrapatos se desprendeu dos cães durante o período de escotofase, em todos os casos observados. Desta forma, é possível que em condições naturais, a maioria das ninfas e fêmeas adultas de R. sanguineus tendem a se desprender dos cães durante o período noturno, ao passo que larvas ingurgitadas se desprendem em proporções maiores durante o período diurno. Com base nestes dados, sugere-se que os locais onde os cães freqüentam durante a noite (onde possivelmente estará a maior parte da população de vida livre de R. sanguineus sejam priorizados com os tratamentos ambientais utilizando-se produtos carrapaticidas.The present study evaluated the drop-off rhythm of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille ticks from two populations from Brazil, one from Monte Negro, state of Rondônia, and another from Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. Artificial infestations with ticks were performed on dogs in the laboratory, held in a light: scotophase regimen of 12:12 h. Larval drop-off rhythm was characterized by similar number of engorged larvae detaching during both periods of light and scotophase, or by a larger number of larvae detaching during the light period. In contrast, most of the engorged nymphs and females detached from dogs during the scotophase period. These results indicate that under natural conditions, most of R. sanguineus engorged nymphs and females detach from dogs during the night period, whereas engorged larvae detach in higher proportions during daytime. Based on these data, tick control measures, encompassing environmental treatments with acaricide, should be indicated. The control measures are especially indicated in places where dogs spend or visit during the night period, since these places possibly harbor most of the free-living stages of R. sanguineus.

  14. Comparison of single and combination treatments of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Acramite (bifenazate) for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E; Kelts, Crystal; Rondon, Silvia I; Francis, Roger R

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of combining releases of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite (TSSM) (Tetranychus urticae Koch) in strawberries. In the greenhouse experiment, a combination treatment of P. persimilis and N. californicus was compared with single treatments of each species, Acramite application, and untreated control. All treatments significantly reduced TSSM numbers compared with the control. Field studies employed two approaches: one investigating the same five treatments as the greenhouse experiment and a second, comparing combination treatments of P. persimilis/N. californicus, Acramite/N. californicus, and Acramite/P. persimilis to single treatments of each and to control plots. Among the combination treatments, the P. persimilis/N. californicus treatment significantly reduced TSSM numbers compared with the control, but was not as effective as N. californicus alone during the 2003-2004 field season. Also, combination treatments of Acramite/N. californicus, and Acramite/P. persimilis significantly reduced TSSM populations compared with the control. These findings indicate that all three combination treatments are promising options for TSSM control in strawberries for growers in northern Florida and other strawberry producing areas of the world.

  15. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis, Véronique; Pidgeon, Anna M; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Radeloff, Volker C; Clayton, Murray K; Locke, Brian A; Bash, Dallas; Hostert, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing for biodiversity conservation typically rely on image classifications that do not capture variability within coarse land cover classes. Here, we compare two measures derived from unclassified remotely sensed data, a measure of habitat heterogeneity and a measure of habitat composition, for explaining bird species richness and the spatial distribution of 10 species in a semi-arid landscape of New Mexico. We surveyed bird abundance from 1996 to 1998 at 42 plots located in the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss Army Reserve. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values of two May 1997 Landsat scenes were the basis for among-pixel habitat heterogeneity (image texture), and we used the raw imagery to decompose each pixel into different habitat components (spectral mixture analysis). We used model averaging to relate measures of avian biodiversity to measures of image texture and spectral mixture analysis fractions. Measures of habitat heterogeneity, particularly angular second moment and standard deviation, provide higher explanatory power for bird species richness and the abundance of most species than measures of habitat composition. Using image texture, alone or in combination with other classified imagery-based approaches, for monitoring statuses and trends in biological diversity can greatly improve conservation efforts and habitat management.

  17. Revista de revistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1943-12-01

    Full Text Available Autores, Sandison, R. A., McGregor, J. S. Revista, Journal od Mental Science. Abreviación, J. ment. Sci. Tomo 88. páginas, 387-406. Fecha, julio, 1942. Una experiencia de un año de insulina intravenosa en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia mediante shock higlucemico / Autores Botterell, E. H., Jefferson, G. Revista, British Medical Journal. Abreviación, Brit. med. J. Tomo 1. Paginas 781-783. Fecha, 27-6-42 / Tratamiento de las heridas de cuero cabelludo en bajas por raid aéreo y otros accidentes / Autores, Clegg, J. W., King, E. J. Revista, British Medical Journal. Abreviación, Brit. med. J. Tomo 2. Páginas 329-333. Fecha 19-9-42 / Determinación de la hemoglobina por el método de la hematina alcalina. Autores, Henry, T. C. Revista, British Medical Journal. Abreviación. Brit. med. J. Tomo 2. Páginas 273-276. Fecha, 5-9-42 / Estomatitis úlcero-membranosa. Autores, Campbell, J. A. Revista, British journal of Experimental Pathology. Abreviación, Brit. J. exp. Path. Tomo 23. Páginas 191-201, Fecha, agosto 1942 / La incidencia de tumores primarios de pulmón en una cepa mixta de ratones.

  18. Achievement goals, self-handicapping, and performance: a 2 x 2 achievement goal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Smith, Alison L

    2009-11-01

    Elliot and colleagues (2006) examined the effects of experimentally induced achievement goals, proposed by the trichotomous model, on self-handicapping and performance in physical education. Our study replicated and extended the work of Elliot et al. by experimentally promoting all four goals proposed by the 2 x 2 model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), measuring the participants' own situational achievement goals, using a relatively novel task, and testing the participants in a group setting. We used a randomized experimental design with four conditions that aimed to induce one of the four goals advanced by the 2 x 2 model. The participants (n = 138) were undergraduates who engaged in a dart-throwing task. The results pertaining to self-handicapping partly replicated Elliot and colleagues' findings by showing that experimentally promoted performance-avoidance goals resulted in less practice. In contrast, the promotion of mastery-avoidance goals did not result in less practice compared with either of the approach goals. Dart-throwing performance did not differ among the four goal conditions. Personal achievement goals did not moderate the effects of experimentally induced goals on self-handicapping and performance. The extent to which mastery-avoidance goals are maladaptive is discussed, as well as the interplay between personal and experimentally induced goals.

  19. Protocols for the delivery of small molecules to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

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    Takeshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented. However, to identify biological and evolutionary roles of T. urticae genes and proteins, it is necessary to develop methods for the efficient manipulation of mite gene function or protein activity. Here, we describe protocols developed for the delivery of small molecules into spider mites. Starting with mite maintenance and the preparation of the experimental mite populations of developmentally synchronized larvae and adults, we describe 3 methods for delivery of small molecules including artificial diet, leaf coating, and soaking. The presented results define critical steps in these methods and demonstrate that they can successfully deliver tracer dyes into mites. Described protocols provide guidelines for high-throughput setups for delivery of experimental compounds that could be used in reverse genetics platforms to modulate gene expression or protein activity, or for screens focused on discovery of new molecules for mite control. In addition, described protocols could be adapted for other Tetranychidae and related species of economic importance such as Varroa, dust and poultry mites.

  20. Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) from Bolivia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3918, č. 1 (2015), s. 128-140 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Bolivia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  1. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

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    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  2. CHECKLIST OF THE ERIOPHYOID MITE FAUNA OF MONTENEGRO (ACARI: PROSTIGMATA: ERIOPHYOIDEA

    OpenAIRE

    Jočić, Ivona; Petanović, Radmila

    2012-01-01

    Accounts are given of the eriophyoid fauna of Montenegro. Based on the literature records, a total of 156 mite species are listed from 130 host species of 42 plant families. The families Phytoptidae, Eriophidae and Diptilomiopidae are represented by 6, 138 and 12 species, respectively. Fifteen new species for science have been described from this area.

  3. Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae PARÁSITO DE Boa constrictor EN COLOMBIA

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    Ana Torres M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir algunas garrapatas encontradas en dos ejemplares de Boa constrictor, llevados al Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre en Montería, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 37 garrapatas provenientes de dos individuos adultos de Boa constrictor, los parásitos fueron conservados en alcohol al 70% y posteriormente identificados mediante diversas claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Todas las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dissimile, de las cuales, 9 fueron hembras, 24 machos y 4 ninfas. Conclusiones. La identificación de ectoparásitos en especies de Boa c. constrictor contribuye a mantener adecuadamente esta especie en cautiverio y provee datos para establecer medidas profilácticas y tratamiento, igualmente, ayuda en el conocimiento de los agentes parasitarios de la fauna silvestre.

  4. Wild birds as hosts of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Rosario Rojas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prevalence, mean intensity and relative density of ticks in 467 wild birds of 67 species (12 families from forest and cerrado habitats at two protected areas of Minas Gerais, between March and September 1997. Ticks collected (n=177 were identified as larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense and four other species of Amblyomma. We report for the first time 28 bird species as hosts of the immature stages of A. cajennense, demonstrating the lack of host specificity of the larvae and nymphs. A. cajennense had 15% prevalence on birds, with a mean infestation intensity of 0.37 ticks per host sampled, and 2.5 ticks per infested bird. Prevalence varied in relation to host species, diet and between birds from forests at two successional stages. There were no differences in relation to host forest dependence, participation in mixed flocks of birds, and nest type constructed. A. cajennense is a species of medical and veterinary importance, occurring on domestic animals but is known little of its occurrence on wildlife.

  5. Three Species of Ectoparasite Mites (Acari: Pterygosomatidae Infested Geckos in Indonesia

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    TARUNI SRI PRAWASTI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited data is hitherto available on the diversity and dispersal of parasitic mites of geckos in Indonesia. Here, we collected three species of geckos, namely Cosymbotus platyurus, Hemidactylus frenatus, and H. garnotii throughout Indonesia to study the distribution and diversity of its parasitic mites. We conducted detail morphological analysis of the mites using whole mount polyvinyl lactophenol and scanning electron microscope preparation. Three species of ectoparasite mites from genus Geckobia were identified in a total of 221 individuals out of 448 geckos collected from 25 sites in Indonesia. Two species were G. glebosum and G. bataviensis, and the other one was designated as Geckobia sp 1. Based on our result, the three mites species were spread randomly and live sympatrically. The G. bataviensis mite showed the widest distribution, because it was found in almost all gecko collection sites, hence the most cosmopolitan mites. We also found that C. platyurus gecko had the lowest mite prevalence which might due to the fact that it has the least number of skin folds, an important site for mite protection. This result implies that further research on the relationship of anatomy of gecko skin with chelicera and claw structure of mites is necessary in the future.

  6. Factors Influencing Mesostigmata Mites (Acari, Parasitiformes In The Alkaline Fen Habitats

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    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesostigmata mite fauna was investigated in soil of one alkaline fen at Apšuciems in the Maritime Lowland in Latvia in 2009. Thirty sample plots were selected in the following way: half of them were located in Brown Bog Rush, Schoenus ferrugineus and half — in Saw-Sedge, Cladium mariscus prevailing habitat. Soil samples were collected using a soil borer. Vegetation cover was described in accordance with Braun-Blanquet classes. Mites were extracted using modified Berlese funnels. In total, more than 28 species were recorded, of them Prozercon kochi and Pergamasus vagabundus were dominant species. Mean density of Mesostigmata mites ranged from 520 to 2140 ind./m2. Mite abundance and distribution between habitats depended on vegetation cover of the vascular plants, while moss cover and soil pH had no significant influence.

  7. [Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil against Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2009-12-01

    Volatile oil from the clove bud was extracted by petroleum ether using Soxhlet Extractor. The acaricidal activity was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. In a filter paper contact toxicity bio-assay, at 2.5 h after treatment, clove bud oil at a dose of 12.20 microg/cm2 killed all dust mites. As judged by 24-h LD50 values, potent fumigant action was observed with clove bud oil (12.20 microg/cm2), showing an adequate acaricidal activity against indoor Dermatophagoides farinae.

  8. Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-10

    Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae, Austrophthiracarus longisetosus sp. nov., Phthiracarus allocotos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus amboroensis sp. nov. from Bolivia are described and figured. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Additional descriptions and taxonomical notes for three ptyctimous species: Acrotritia peruensis (Hammer, 1961), Acrotritia vestita (Berlese, 1913), and Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) sedecimus Niedbała, 2004 are added. A list of twenty six ptyctimous species from Bolivia is presented, ten of these species are new records for the fauna of Bolivia. A key to all species of ptyctimous mites of Bolivia is presented.

  9. New species of .i.Notophthiracarus./i. (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaroidea) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 79-86 ISSN 0003-4541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : oribatid * ptyctimous mites * new species * morphology * taxonomy * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.161, year: 2014

  10. New and little known oribatid mites from Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida. I.

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    Mahunka, S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the newly studied and identified oribatids from Madagascar (Malagasy Republic is given. Altogether 17species are mentioned from several sites of the island including four new species and a new subspecies belonging in the familiesSteganacaridae, Oppiidae and Austrachipteriidae, respectively. Two species, Eniochthonius sumatranus Mahunka, 1989 andCultroribula bicuspidata Mahunka, 1978 are recorded for the first time from Madagascar. With 25 figures.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2013), s. 337-345 ISSN 1217-8837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : oribatid mites * new species * Mahunka * Phthiracaroidea * Euphthiracaroidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2013

  12. Diagrammatic scale of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) damage in coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Andreia S.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C.; Michereff, Sami J.

    2008-01-01

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. Due to the lack of standardized methods to quantify damage of this eryophyid, a diagrammatic scale with indices of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 70% of damage caused by A. guerreronis was elaborated and tested to accuracy, precision and reproduction of the estimations. To validate the scale, fruits with different levels of damage were previously measured with the program Assess R and submitted to 10 inexperienced evaluators with or without the scale (first evaluation) and seven days after (second evaluation) with the same evaluators, using digitized pictures of the same fruits in a different sequence. The accuracy and precision of each evaluator was determined through linear regression between observed and estimated damage. Without using the scale, evaluators were less precise as seven out of 10 overestimated the damage, while evaluators provided with the scale were much more accurate. Also, evaluations with the aid of the scale were much more reproducible than without the scale. The scale was used to determine the relationship between infestation and damage levels caused by A. guerrerronis. The relationship between infestation and damage fitted by the equation 1ny = 4.948 - 0.121x + 1.789 1nx (R 2 = 99.87%, P < 0.0001). Therefore, these findings show that it is possible to estimate A. guerreronis population density on infested coconut fruits by using the diagrammatic scale. (author)

  13. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Carlos; Quiros de G, Magally; Aponte, Orlando; Sandoval, D. Maria F.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47 N and 64 deg 10' 38 W ) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60 N and 63 deg 12'0 W ) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  14. Evaluation of different agronomic managements on rice mesofauna: a case study in Piedmont (North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Cito, Annarita; Papini, Rossella; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    parasites groups. Dry land was more suitable to development of bacterial feeders and predators. On the whole, MI values ranged between 2 and 3, registered in organic farming and conventional management, respectively. The Acari represented the main group of microarthropods (about 43%), then Diptera (33%), Collembola (19%) and the others. The only euedaphic groups are Acari and Collembola. The BSQar value was 48 (sBC II) in IPM rice field, 71 in organic farming (sBC II/III), 95 in conventional management (sBC III). On all situation tested, the analysis of soil quality, by the study of mesofauna, reflects low differentiation in the arthropod communities' structure. In general, the results relative to the soil mesofauna biodiversity indicated a quite high level of disturbance and a low level of biodiversity. Future studies on this subject could help preserve, or even enhance, the biodiversity and soil quality.

  15. Efeito do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae em pomar de macieira Effect of weed management on Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae in apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre o deslocamento de ácaros tetraniquídeos (Panonychus ulmi e Tetranychus urticae e do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus em um pomar de macieira 'Gala', onde foi implantado o controle biológico do ácaro vermelho, P. ulmi, por meio de liberações massais de N. californicus. As parcelas tiveram as plantas daninhas manejadas de três formas: sem manejo, com roçadas manuais e com herbicidas. As populações de ácaros foram avaliadas sobre as plantas daninhas, Plantago tormentosa e Erigeron sp, e sobre as folhas de macieira. As maiores populações de N. californicus foram observadas nas parcelas onde os manejos proporcionaram desenvolvimento de plantas daninhas na linha de plantio. Na parcela manejada com herbicida, houve maior população de ácaros tetraniquídeos sobre as macieiras, provavelmente, devido ao reduzido número de N. californicus. P. tormentosa foi o hospedeiro preferencial do ácaro predador. Concluiu-se que o manejo de plantas daninhas, na linha de plantio das macieiras, assume um importante papel no equilíbrio entre as populações de ácaros.The influence of weed management on tetranychid mites (Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus urticae and phytoseids movement was evaluated. Neoseiulus californicus populations were released in an apple orchard for biological control of tetranychid mites. Three kinds of weed management were used: no weed control at all, manual control and control with herbicide. The mites were evaluated in Plantago tormentosa, Erigeron sp, and apple tree leaves. The highest population of N. californicus was observed where weed was not controlled. Tetranychid mites populations were abundant on apple trees when herbicide was used, probably due to the low population of N. californicus. P. tormentosa was the preferred host of phytoseids. The conclusion was that weed management plays an important role in the regulation of mite species in apple orchards.

  16. Distribuição espacial e plano de amostragem de Calacarus heveae (Acari em seringueira Spatial distribution and sampling plan for Calacarus heveae (Acari on rubber trees

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    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 é um eriofídeo descrito de espécimes coletados em plantas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Esse ácaro prefere a face adaxial dos folíolos e pode causar a perda do brilho, amarelecimento, bronzeamento dessa região e a subseqüente queda prematura das folhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a distribuição de C. heveae em seringueira, selecionar a unidade de amostragem mais representativa e desenvolver um plano de amostragem para o estudo de sua flutuação populacional. O trabalho foi conduzido com os clones PB 260 e IAN 873, respectivamente nos municípios de Itiquira e de Pontes e Lacerda, ambos no Mato Grosso. Em Itiquira, diferenças significativas foram observadas em quatro ocasiões em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha nos diferentes estratos das plantas. Nas amostragens realizadas em Pontes e Lacerda, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre os estratos em relação àquele parâmetro. Apenas em Itiquira, em uma ocasião de amostragem, foi verificada diferença entre os três estratos, em relação à proporção de folhas infestadas. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi verificada em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha e proporção de folhas infestadas por C. heveae a diferentes distâncias da periferia da copa. Calacarus heveae exibe distribuição agregada no campo. Para estimar a densidade de C. heveae, um plano numérico e um plano binomial de amostragem foram desenvolvidos.Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 (Eriophyidae is a mite described from specimens collected on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae in the northwest region of the state of São Paulo. This mite prefers the adaxial face of the folioles which it can turn dry, yellowish and brownish; it can also cause leaf fall. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of C. heveae on rubber trees, to select the most representative sampling unit and to develop a sampling plan to determine the populational fluctuation. This study was conducted with clones PB 260 and IAN 873, in Itiquira and Pontes e Lacerda, respectively, both in the state of Mato Grosso. In Itiquira, significant differences were observed in four occasions in relation to the average number of mites per leaf in the different plant strata. In the samplings carried out in Pontes e Lacerda, no significant differences were observed between strata in relation to that parameter. Only in Itiquira, in one occasion, a significant difference between strata was verified in relation to the proportion of infested leaves. No significant differences were verified in relation to the average number of mites per leaf and proportion of leaves infested by C. heveae at different depths in the canopy. Calacarus heveae exhibits aggregated distribution in the field. To estimate the density of C. heveae, numeric and sampling plans were developed.

  17. Swiss Albino Farelerde Fenpiroksimat (Akarisit’ın Teşvik Ettiği Biyokimyasal Değişime Karşı Fındığın Koruyucu Rolü

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    Kültiğin ÇAVUŞOĞLU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Fenpiroksimat Tetranychidae, Eriophyiidae ve Tarsonemidae ailelerindeki önemli fitofag akarlarına karşı mücadelede kullanılan pirazol bir akarisittir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Swiss albino farelerde seçilen biyokimyasal parametreler üzerine Fenpiroksimat akarisitinin toksisitesini değerlendirmek ve bu biyokimyasal değişimlere karşı fındığın koruyucu rolünü araştırmaktır. Fareler rastgele bir (1 kontrol ve üç (3 uygulama olmak üzere toplam dört (4 gruba ayrılmıştır. Deneysel periyodun sonunda, tüm fareler hafif eter anestezisi altında bayıltılmış, biyokimyasal analiz ve ölçümler için kan örnekleri ile karaciğer ve böbrek dokuları elde edilmiştir. Serum Aspartat Aminotransferaz (AST, Alanin Aminotransferaz (ALT, Kan Üre Nitrojen (BUN ve kreatinin seviyeleri ölçülmüş, elde edilen dokularda ise Malondialdehit (MDA ve Glutatyon (GSH seviyeleri analiz edilmiştir. Sonuçta, kontrol grubu ile karşılaştırıldığında Fenpiroksimat uygulanan farelerde GSH seviyelerinde önemli bir azalma (p<0.05, AST, ALT, BUN, kreatinin ve MDA seviyelerinde ise önemli bir artış (p<0.05 görülmüştür. Fenpiroksimat uygulama grubu ile karşılaştırıldığında, Fenpiroksimat ile birlikte fındık uygulaması GSH seviyelerinde tekrar önemli bir artışa (p<0.05, AST, ALT, BUN, kreatinin ve MDA seviyelerinde ise önemli bir azalmaya (p<0.05 neden olmuştur. Sonuç olarak, fındık ile beslemenin Fenpiroksimat tarafından teşvik edilen biyokimyasal hasara karşı önemli bir koruma sağladığı söylenebilir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Albino fare, fenpiroksimat, oksidatif stres, serum parametresi Abstract. Fenpyroximate is a pyrazole acaricide with selective activity against important phytophagous mites in the families’ Tetranychidae, Eriophyiidae, and Tarsonemidae. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Fenpyroximate acaricide on selected biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice. And

  18. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros com exceção dos macacos-pregos. A maior abundancia de infestação foi aquela em tamanduás-bandeira com média de 53 carrapatos∕animal. No ambiente foram capturados 166 carrapatos, todos da espécie A. cajennense. As espécies de carrapatos em animais domésticos (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens e A. cajennense foram aquelas características nestes hospedeiros no Brasil. De forma geral a espécie de carrapato A. cajennense foi a mais prevalente sendo encontrada em animais domésticos e selvagens bem como no ambiente. Portanto, esta é a principal espécie de vetor a estabelecer uma ponte para bioagentes patogênicos entre animais domésticos e selvagens.

  19. Diversity of Phylogenetic Information According to the Locus and the Taxonomic Level: An Example from a Parasitic Mesostigmatid Mite Genus

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    Lise Roy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers for cladistic analyses may perform differently according to the taxonomic group considered and the historical level under investigation. Here we evaluate the phylogenetic potential of five different markers for resolving evolutionary relationships within the ectoparasitic genus Dermanyssus at the species level, and their ability to address questions about the evolution of specialization. COI provided 9–18% divergence between species (up to 9% within species, 16S rRNA 10–16% (up to 4% within species, ITS1 and 2 2–9% (up to 1% within species and Tropomyosin intron n 8–20% (up to 6% within species. EF-1a revealed different non-orthologous copies withinindividuals of Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Tropomyosin intron n was shown containing consistent phylogenetic signal at the specific level within Dermanyssus and represents a promising marker for future prospects in phylogenetics of Acari. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the generalist condition is apomorphic and D. gallinae mightrepresent a complex of hybridized lineages. The split into hirsutus-group and gallinae-group in Dermanyssus does not seem to be appropriate based upon these results and D. longipes appears to be composed of two different entities.

  20. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

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    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  1. Distribution and phenology of ixodid ticks in southern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speybroeck, N; Madder, M; Van Den Bossche, P; Mtambo, J; Berkvens, N; Chaka, G; Mulumba, M; Brandt, J; Tirry, L; Berkvens, D

    2002-12-01

    Distribution data for epidemiologically important ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Southern Province of Zambia, one of the main cattle areas of the country, are presented. Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) was not recorded in southern Zambia, whereas Boophilus decoloratus (Koch) is present throughout the area. New distribution patterns for less economically important ixodid ticks are also discussed. Southern Zambia is a transition zone because it is the most northern area in Africa where mixed Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis Walker, Norval & Corwin populations were reported. Although a second generation of adult R. appendiculatus/R. zamnbeziensis was encountered, simulations indicated that this phenomenon is very rare in southern Zambia, mainly because of the colder temperatures during the early dry season and lower rainfall. These simulations were supported by a development trial under experimental conditions. Tick body size measurements showed that southern Zambian ticks are larger than eastern Zambian R. appendiculatus. It is hypothesized that body size is related to diapausing intensity in this species. The epidemiological consequences are that a different approach to control Theileria parva (Theiler) (Piroplasmida: Theileriidae) and other tick-borne diseases is needed in southern Zambia, compared to the one adopted in eastern Zambia.

  2. Impacts of the Replacement of Native Woodland with Exotic Pine Plantations on Leaf-Litter Invertebrate Assemblages: A Test of a Novel Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, B.R.; Baker, A.C.; Robson, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    We present an empirical comparison of invertebrate community structure between areas of undisturbed native eucalypt woodland and areas that have been cleared and replaced with plantations of exotic radiata pine (Pinus radiata). Implementation of a novel conceptual framework revealed that both insect (in autumn) and arachnid (in winter) assemblages demonstrated inhibition in response to the pine plantations. Species richness declines occurred in several taxonomic Orders (e.g., Hymenoptera, Blattodea, Acari) without compensated increases in other Orders in plantations. This was, however, a seasonal response, with shifts between inhibition and equivalency observed in both insects and arachnids across autumn and winter sampling periods. Equivalency responses were characterized by relatively similar levels of species richness in plantation and native habitats for several Orders (e.g., Coleoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Araneae). We propose testable hypotheses for the observed seasonal shifts between inhibition and equivalency that focus on diminished resource availability and the damp, moist conditions found in the plantations. Given the compelling evidence for seasonal shifts between categories, we recommend that seasonal patterns should be considered a critical component of further assemblage-level investigations of this novel framework for invasion ecology.

  3. Current status of the Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV -C and its vector Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes

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    Guillermo León M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus leprosis virus CiLV-C is a quarantine disease of economic importance. Over the past 15 years, this disease has spread to several countries of Central and South America. Colombia has about 45,000 hectares of citrus planted with an annual production of 750,000 tonnes. The CiLV-C has only been detected in the departments of Meta, Casanare and recently Tolima. Meta has 4,300 hectares representing 10% of the national cultivated area, and Casanare, where CiLV-C appeared in 2004, has no more than 500 ha planted with citrus. The presence of the Citrus leprosis virus in Colombia could affect the international market for citrus, other crops and ornamental plants with the United States and other countries without the disease. The false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is the main vector of the CiLV-C. Disease management is based on control programs of the vector and diminishing host plants. Chemical mite control is expensive, wasteful and generates resistance to different acaricides. This paper provides basic information on CiLV-C and its vector, advances in diagnosis and methods to control the disease and prevention of its spread

  4. Study strategies and beliefs about learning as a function of academic achievement and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jason; Toftness, Alexander R; Armstrong, Patrick I; Carpenter, Shana K; Manz, Carly L; Coffman, Clark R; Lamm, Monica H

    2018-05-01

    Prior research by Hartwig and Dunlosky [(2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134] has demonstrated that beliefs about learning and study strategies endorsed by students are related to academic achievement: higher performing students tend to choose more effective study strategies and are more aware of the benefits of self-testing. We examined whether students' achievement goals, independent of academic achievement, predicted beliefs about learning and endorsement of study strategies. We administered Hartwig and Dunlosky's survey, along with the Achievement Goals Questionnaire [Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 501-519] to a large undergraduate biology course. Similar to results by Hartwig and Dunlosky, we found that high-performing students (relative to low-performing students) were more likely to endorse self-testing, less likely to cram, and more likely to plan a study schedule ahead of time. Independent of achievement, however, achievement goals were stronger predictors of certain study behaviours. In particular, avoidance goals (e.g., fear of failure) coincided with increased use of cramming and the tendency to be driven by impending deadlines. Results suggest that individual differences in student achievement, as well as the underlying reasons for achievement, are important predictors of students' approaches to studying.

  5. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  7. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de; Moraes, Gilberto J. de

    2007-01-01

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  8. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: tatianemarie@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@esalq.usp.br

    2007-09-15

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  9. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.

  10. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3889, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-57 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Cameroon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  11. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.

  12. Abundance and distribution of Microdispus lambi (Acari: Microdispidae) in Spanish mushroom crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, María-Jesús; Gea, Francisco-José; Escudero-Colomar, L Adriana

    2010-04-01

    The myceliophagous mite Microdispus lambi has become a veritable plague since 1996, when it was first observed in Spanish mushroom crops, and is now causing substantial economic losses, particulary in spring and summer. This study looks at seasonal variation of the pest, its distribution on commercial farms and the population development during the crop cycle of the common white mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Over a period of 18 months, 24 consecutive mushroom crop cycles were monitored and a total of 24 spawn and 960 substrate samples were analysed. We found that it is usually the substrates in the growing rooms that are infested, most commonly the compost. In many cases, the pest can be detected when the first 'flush'-i.e., mushroom growth surge, with weekly periodicity-is harvested, although damage does not become evident until the third flush. Mites were detected at the back of the mushroom growing room and, to a lesser extent, near the access door.

  13. Morphological and molecular diagnostics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okassa, Mireille; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Kreiter, Serge

    2010-11-01

    This study focuses on the diagnostics of two natural enemy species, belonging to the genus Phytoseiulus in the family Phytoseiidae (sub-family Amblyseiinae): P. macropilis and P. persimilis. These two species are of primary importance in biological control all over the world. However, they are morphologically very similar and specific diagnostics is difficult. This study utilizes mitochondrial molecular markers (12S rRNA and Cytb mtDNA) to differentiate these two species. Morphological analyses showed significant differences between P. persimilis and P. macropilis for 17 morphological characters of the 32 considered. However, despite these significant differences, the ranges of all characters overlap. Only the serration of the macroseta on the basitarsus (StIV) allows the differentiation between P. persimilis and P. macropilis. Despite these small morphological differences, molecular results, for both mitochondrial DNA fragments considered (rRNA and Cytb mtDNA), showed a clear delineation between the specimens of P. macropilis and P. persimilis. This study emphasizes (i) that only one morphological character (serration of the seta StIV) clearly separates these two species, and (ii) the usefulness of an automatical molecular and simple diagnostic tool for accurate differentiation of the two species and ensure the morphological diagnostics. Further studies are proposed, including more DNA sequences especially for P. macropilis.

  14. Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) on birds of Cerrado in Distrito Federal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Kanegae, Mieko Ferreira; Valim, Michel; Fonseca, Marcelo Andrade da; Marini, Miguel Ângelo; Freire, Nicolau Maués Serra

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os ácaros plumícolas em aves do cerrado. O mesmo foi realizado na Fazenda Água Limpa (FAL), Distrito Federal, Brasil, entre janeiro e agosto de 2002. As aves foram capturadas com rede de neblina e anilhadas. Foram amostradas 696 aves pertencentes a 83 espécies e 25 famílias de Passeriformes e não-Passeriformes. Foram encontrados ácaros plumícolas pertencentes a cinco famílias: Analgidae, Trouessartiidae, Proctophyllodidae, Avenzoariidae e Psoroptoididae. O...

  15. A new species of the genus Neogalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang, Wenqin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of oribatid mites of the family Galumnidae, Neogalumna longiporosa sp. nov., is described from dark loamy soil collected under moss in North Eastern China. It is the first identified member of the genus Neogalumna recorded for China. An identification key to the known species of Neogalumna is also given.

  16. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4103, č. 6 (2016), s. 587-599 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * ptyctimous mites * new species * morphology * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  17. A new species of the genus Epidamaeus (Acari, Oribatida, Damaeidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Xie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid mite genus Epidamaeus Bulanova-Zachvatkina, 1957 from China is reviewed, and a list and key to all known species from China are provided. A new species, Epidamaeus conjungenus, sp. n. is identified, and its morphological descriptions and illustrations are also given. The distinct characteristics of E. conjungenus sp. n. is the coterminous ridge connected to the base of the notogastral setae. Pseudanal setae undulating attenuate, the proximal half with obvious, thorn-like barbs, the distal half smooth.

  18. Descriptions of two new species of the family oribotritiidae (Acari: Oribatida: Euphthiracaroidea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, D.; Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2011), s. 811-816 ISSN 0003-4541 Grant - others:National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31101617; Chinese Academy of Sciences(CN) KSCX2-EW-Z-8; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31093430; MNiSW(PL) N N303 201935 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : oribatid mite * Oribotritiidae * new species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.482, year: 2011

  19. The Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) of Mexico: Parasite-Host and Host-Parasite Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-20

    en Peligro de Extinción. Comisión Nacional para el Cono- cimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Fondo de Cultura Económica, Instituto de Ecología, UNAM...the largest genus of ticks in the world, currently comprising 243 species (Guglielmone et al. 2006), more than one quarter of the global tick fauna ...include it in the Mexican tick fauna . Ixodes bequaerti Cooley and Kohls Previous record CHIAPAS: 1&, Catharinus (sic), 4-V-1942, NA [Cooley & Kohls, 1945

  20. Genetic Diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus Complex (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Niu, Si-bo; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; van der Geest, Leo; Ni, Xue-bing; Sun, Yi; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were ...

  1. Rickettsia vini n. sp. (Rickettsiaceae) infecting the tick Ixodes arboricola (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Marketa; Costa, Francisco B; Krause, Frantisek; Literak, Ivan; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-08-26

    Recently, a new rickettsia named 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' belonging to the spotted fever group has been molecularly detected in Ixodes arboricola ticks in Spain, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Turkey, with prevalence reaching up to 100 %. The aim of this study was to isolate this rickettsia in pure culture, and to describe it as a new Rickettsia species. A total of 148 ornitophilic nidicolous ticks Ixodes arboricola were collected in a forest near Breclav (Czech Republic) and examined for rickettsiae. Shell vial technique was applied to isolate rickettsiae in Vero cells. Rickettsial isolation was confirmed by optical microscopy and sequencing of partial sequences of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA. Laboratory guinea pigs and chickens were used for experimental infestations and infections. Animal blood sera were tested by immunofluorescence assay employing crude antigens of various rickettsiae. Rickettsia vini n. sp. was successfully isolated from three males of I. arboricola. Phylogenetic analysis of fragments of 1092, 590, 800, and 497 nucleotides of the gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA genes, respectively, showed closest proximity of R. vini n. sp. to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis belonging to the spotted fever group. Experimental infection of guinea pigs and chickens with R. vini led to various levels of cross-reactions of R. vini-homologous antibodies with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia bellii, and Rickettsia felis. Laboratory infestations by R. vini-infected I. arboricola larvae on chickens led to no seroconversion to R. vini n. sp., nor cross-reactions with R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, 'Ca. R. amblyommii', R. rhipicephali, R. bellii or R. felis. Our results suggest that R. vini n. sp. is possibly a tick endosymbiont, not pathogenic for guinea pigs and chickens. Regarding specific phenotypic characters and significant differences of DNA sequences in comparison to the most closely related species (R. japonica and R. heilongjiangensis), we propose to classify the isolate as a new species, Rickettsia vini.

  2. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.

  3. New species of the superfamily Euphthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida) from Madagascar and Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, 27/28 (2015), s. 1689-1702 ISSN 0022-2933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * ptyctimous mites * Euphthiracaridae * new species * Afrotropical region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.010, year: 2015

  4. Uropodina species from the Montagne d' Ambre National Park, Madagascar (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2012), s. 89-98 ISSN 0035-418X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : acarology * turtle mites * taxonomy * Afrotropical region Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2012

  5. New species of the superfamily Phthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida) from the Afrotropical Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2015), s. 39-49 ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tanzania * Madagascar * Phthiracaridae * taxonomy * new species. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.708, year: 2015

  6. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  7. Rhinoseius rafinskii, a new species from Ecuador and Venezuela (Acari, Gamasina, Ascidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micherdzinski, W.; Lukoschus, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Rhinoseius rafinskii spec. nov. is described and figured in detail with all developmental stages. The species belongs to the group living in flowers and transmitted phoretically in the nasal cavities of hummingbirds in the neotropics.

  8. Perspectives for mass rearing of Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Fabio A. de

    2008-01-01

    Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma is an important predator of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) on citrus in Brazil. The suitability of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) as a food source of I. zuluagai in laboratory rearing was investigated at 25.5 ± 0.5 deg C, 88 ± 7% RU and photophase of 12h. Initially, levels of oviposition of the predator fed on eggs were evaluated, as well as the dead or live post-embryonic stages of T. putrescentiae, in a period of 10 days. The daily oviposition rate was 1.3 egg per female when they were fed on eggs on T. putrescentiae, 0.7 egg per female when they were fed on dead post embryonic stages and about 0.3 egg per female when they were fed on live post-embryonic stages. Later, the life table of I. zuluagai was constructed, when eggs of T. putrescentiae were offered to the predators as prey. The immature stages were observed every 8 h, to determine the corresponding durations. In the adult phase, the mites were observed every 24 h, to determine the reproductive parameters. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ) was 0.11 female/ female/day; resulting in a fi nite rate of increase of 1.11 (λ). The net reproductive rate (R 0 ) was 7.1 females/generation, with a mean generation time (T) 18.6 days. The results show that T. putrescentiae is a favorable food source for the development of I. zuluagai. (author)

  9. Repellent activity of DEET against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae nymphs submitted to different laboratory bioassays Atividade repelente do DEET contra ninfas de Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae em bioensaio laboratorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes Soares

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the repellent activity of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET against Amblyomma cajennense nymphs. Two repellent bioassays were compared and the effective concentration and repellent time were calculated. The fingertip test was accomplished to evaluate in vivo four concentrations of the compound (0.200; 0.100; 0.050 and 0.025 mg.cm-2 and the filter-paper bioassay to evaluate in vitro the two highest concentrations. The compound provided repellence higher than 90% in all concentrations and at least 95% repellency in the highest concentration over 5 hours. The effective concentration against 50% of tested nymphs (EC50 was 0.006 mg.cm-2 and the EC99 was 0.036 mg.cm-2. Those concentrations were lower than the ones obtained against other tick species, denoting the effectiveness of DEET against A. cajennense. The repellency time against 50% of the ticks (RT50 was 4.8 hours and the RT90 was 2.7 hours. Both bioassays were adequate to evaluate A. cajennense repellency and provided similar results; however the in vivo test is more appropriate to estimate the effective concentration and repellency time.Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade repelente do N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET sobre ninfas de Amblyomma cajennense. Dois bioensaios para a avaliação de repelência foram comparados e cálculos da concentração eficaz e do tempo de repelência foram realizados. Foram empregados o bioensaio da ponta do dedo, para avaliação in vivo de quatro concentações do químico (0,200; 0,100; 0,050 e 0,025 mg.cm-2 e o bioensaio do papel filtro, para a avaliação in vitro das duas concentrações mais altas. O composto conferiu mais de 90% de repelência em todas as concentrações utilizadas e 95% de repelência por mais de cinco horas na maior concentração. A concentração do composto efetiva contra 50% das ninfas testadas (CE50 foi de 0,006 mg.cm-2 e a CE99 foi de 0,036 mg.cm-2. Estas concentrações são mais baixas do que as observadas em outras espécies de carrapatos, denotando a efetividade do princípio contra A. cajennense. O tempo de repelência de 50% dos carrapatos (TR50 foi de 4,8 horas e o TR90 de 2,7 horas. Os dois bioensaios avaliados permitiram a observação de percentuais de repelência igualmente altos e se mostraram adequados para tal avaliação, sendo que o teste in vivo é mais indicado para cálculo da concentração eficaz e da duração da repelência.

  10. Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae two-host life-cycle on Viperidae snakes Ciclo dioxênico em Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidaeparasitando serpentes da família Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. This tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. It was described in Brazil and several other countries of South, Central and North America. Although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity for parasitic stages. The objective of this experiment was to study the life cycle of A. rotundatum feeding on Viperidae snakes under room controlled conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and 12:12 hours photoperiod for parasitic stages, and under B.O.D incubator conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and scotophase for non-parasitic stages. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 56 to 163 days (mean of 105 days. Two-host life cycle was observed for most of the ixodid population studied.Amblyomma rotundatum é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, parasito de animais pecilotérmicos, e que se reproduz exclusivamente por partenogênese. Este carrapato é frequentemente relatado infestando répteis e anfíbios em condições naturais e, às vezes, em animais de cativeiro. Ele já foi relatado no Brasil e em vários outros países das Américas do Sul, Central e do Norte. Embora muitos estudos sobre sua biologia tenham sido publicados, nunca foram utilizados ofídios como hospedeiros e, tão pouco, foram realizados ensaios com os estádios parasitários sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e iluminação. O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o ciclo biológico de A. rotundatum se alimentando em serpentes da família Viperidae sob condições ambientais controladas a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10% de umidade relativa do ar e 12:12 horas de fotoperíodo para estágios parasitários; assim como sob condições iguais a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10% de umidade relativa do ar e escotofase em estufas de germinação para estádios não parasitários. A duração total do ciclo de vida variou de 56 a 163 dias (média de 105 dias. Observou-se ciclo dioxênico para a a maior parte da população dos ixodídeos em estudo.

  11. The role of Effective Supervision on academic performance of Senior High Schools in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Rosemary Ankoma-Sey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In all facets of life, supervision has become a cross-cutting edge tool and a pivot around which performance revolves. There are widespread and on-going debates centred on the influence of effective supervision on academic performance in our academic institutions. This study examined the role of supervision on academic performance in Senior High Schools (SHS in Ghana. The study was based on the collegial model of educational management and the supervision model, Theory Y as proposed by Douglas McGregor. This study employed the descriptive research survey design. Through a questionnaire, data analysed was collected from 963 respondents who were purposively selected from randomised schools in each region comprising of headmasters, their assistants and heads of department of 155 SHSs across Ghana. The WAEC results (2006-2009 and 2011 of the sampled schools were analysed. Reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.826. The Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS version 18 software was employed in the analyses of data using, mean, standard deviation, correlation and independent t-test. The study revealed that there was a positive weak significant relationship between supervision roles of heads and academic performance of students. Moreso, there was a positive weak significant relationship between gender of heads and their supervision roles. The study recommended that supervision should be intensified in SHS. Heads of SHS should be re-orientated in the new trends of supervision in schools.

  12. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicetic; Watson, D M; Beattie, G A; Meats, A; Zheng, J

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. The results showed that 0.5% PSO applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T urticae infestation when the mite population was not already established. However, PSO applied after roses were infested with T. urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold. Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and application of PSO to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P persimilis as spraying the entire plant. Combining PSO with P. persimilis gave better control of T. urticae than using P. persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of PSO in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with PSO. Comparison of a control program for T urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of PSO revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining PSO and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

  13. How predictable are the behavioral responses of insects to herbivore induced changes in plants? Responses of two congeneric thrips to induced cotton plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Silva

    Full Text Available Changes in plants following insect attack are referred to as induced responses. These responses are widely viewed as a form of defence against further insect attack. In the current study we explore whether it is possible to make generalizations about induced plant responses given the unpredictability and variability observed in insect-plant interactions. Experiments were conducted to test for consistency in the responses of two congeneric thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae to cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum Linneaus (Malvales: Malvaceae damaged by various insect herbivores. In dual-choice experiments that compared intact and damaged cotton seedlings, F. schultzei was attracted to seedlings damaged by Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Trombidiforms: Tetranychidae, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, F. schultzei and F. occidentalis but not to mechanically damaged seedlings. In similar tests, F. occidentalis was attracted to undamaged cotton seedlings when simultaneously exposed to seedlings damaged by H. armigera, T. molitor or F. occidentalis. However, when exposed to F. schultzei or T. urticae damaged plants, F. occidentalis was more attracted towards damaged plants. A quantitative relationship was also apparent, F. schultzei showed increased attraction to damaged seedlings as the density of T. urticae or F. schultzei increased. In contrast, although F. occidentalis demonstrated increased attraction to plants damaged by higher densities of T. urticae, there was a negative relationship between attraction and the density of damaging conspecifics. Both species showed greater attraction to T. urticae damaged seedlings than to seedlings damaged by conspecifics. Results demonstrate that the responses of both species of thrips were context dependent, making generalizations difficult to formulate.

  14. Estrutura da comunidade de invertebrados bentônicos em dois cursos d'água do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Community structure of benthic invertebrates in two watercourses in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. P. Bueno

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The benthic fauna has an important role in the trophic chain of limnic environments, serving as food for fishes and crustaceans. This work aimed to identify and compare, quantitative and qualitatively, the macrobenthic communities from two watercourses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Samplings were done with a Surber sampler, monthly, from September 1999 to August 2000, in one of the creeks forming Tainhas River(29º15'30,2"S, 50º13'12,5"W, around São Francisco de Paula city and in Mineiro Creek (29º30'0,2"S, 50º46'50"W, around Taquara city. At each sampling point, physical and chemical variables of the waters were registered. In the laboratory, the samples were sorted out and the animals identified and quantified. Dissolved oxigen, pH and stream speed were very similar for both environments, whilst conductivity had extreme values. Insects, crustaceans, acari and molluscs dominated in the samples. Abundance, richness and diversity indexes in Tainhas subsidiary had relatively higher average values than Mineiro Creek. Similarity matrix groupings between sampling units indicate three groups. Our research revealed important characteristics of the ecology and distribution of benthic invertebrates, information that can subsidise future environmental monitoring in the region of São Francisco de Paula and Taquara.

  15. Subfossil markers of climate change during the Roman Warm Period of the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jach, Renata; Knutelski, Stanisław; Uchman, Alfred; Hercman, Helena; Dohnalik, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Abundant bog oak trunks occur in alluvial deposits of the Raba River in the village of Targowisko (southern Poland). Several of them contain galleries of the great capricorn beetle ( Cerambyx cerdo L.). A well-preserved subfossil larva and pupa, as well as adults of this species, are concealed in some of the galleries. These galleries co-occur with boring galleries of other insects such as ship-timber beetles (Lymexylidae) and metallic wood borers (Buprestidae). A dry larva of a stag beetle (Lucanidae) and a mite (Acari) have been found in the C. cerdo galleries. Selected samples of the trunks and a sample of the C. cerdo larva were dated, using radiocarbon and dendrochronological methods, to the period from 45 bc to ad 554; one sample was dated to the period from 799 to 700 bc. Accumulation of the channel alluvia containing the bog oak trunks is synchronous with the Roman Warm Period (late antiquity/Early Mediaeval times). The most recent part of this period correlates with massive accumulations of fallen oak trunks noted from various river valleys in the Carpathian region and dated to ad 450-570. The results indicate that C. cerdo was more abundant within the study area during the Roman Warm Period than it is today.

  16. First report of a Rickettsia asembonensis related infecting fleas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; de Maria Seabra Nogueira, Rita

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed in a non-endemic area for spotted fever (SF) in Imperatriz microregion, state of Maranhão, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites were collected from 300 dogs of the Imperatriz microregion. Canine serum samples were tested individually by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using five Rickettsia isolates from Brazil. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 1.6% of the dogs (5/300). These sera were considered reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia amblyommatis or very closely related species. The ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille), and the fleas, identified as Ctenocephalides felis, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of rickettsial DNA. More than 78% (83/106) of the C. felis fleas were found to be infected with Rickettsia species using gltA as rickettsial PCR targets, whereas no evidence of Rickettsia spp. was found in R. sanguineus s. l. Genetic analysis based on genes gltA, htrA and ompB showed that the detected strain, is most closely related to Rickettsia asembonensis (formerly Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis). The present study is the first report of a R. asembonensis related infecting C. felis fleas in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The characterization and manipulation of the bacterial microbiome of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Katie A; Gall, Cory A; Mason, Katheen L; Scoles, Glen A; Brayton, Kelly A

    2015-12-10

    In North America, ticks are the most economically impactful vectors of human and animal pathogens. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae), transmits Rickettsia rickettsii and Anaplasma marginale to humans and cattle, respectively. In recent years, studies have shown that symbiotic organisms are involved in a number of biochemical and physiological functions. Characterizing the bacterial microbiome of D. andersoni is a pivotal step towards understanding symbiont-host interactions. In this study, we have shown by high-throughput sequence analysis that the composition of endosymbionts in the midgut and salivary glands in adult ticks is dynamic over three generations. Four Proteobacteria genera, Rickettsia, Francisella, Arsenophonus, and Acinetobacter, were identified as predominant symbionts in these two tissues. Exposure to therapeutic doses of the broad-spectrum antibiotic, oxytetracycline, affected both proportions of predominant genera and significantly reduced reproductive fitness. Additionally, Acinetobacter, a free-living ubiquitous microbe, invaded the bacterial microbiome at different proportions based on antibiotic treatment status suggesting that microbiome composition may have a role in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. This study characterized the bacterial microbiome in D. andersoni and determined the generational variability within this tick. Furthermore, this study confirmed that microbiome manipulation is associated with tick fitness and may be a potential method for biocontrol.

  18. Metazoarios parásitos de Tlacuatzin canescens y Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia de México Metazoan parasites of Tlacuatzin canescens and Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los metazoarios parásitos de mamíferos de México se recolectaron 4 ejemplares de ratones tlacuache: 2 de Tlacuatzin canescens (Allen, 1893 procedentes de Oaxaca y 2 de Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897 de Veracruz. Se presentan 5 registros nuevos de hospedero y localidad para ácaros de las especies Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls y Clifford, 1966, las pulgas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950 y Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, así como para el cestodo Hymenolepis sp. y por primera vez en México se registra el nematodo Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano y Pujol, 1991.As a part of an ongoing project to inventory the metazoan parasites of Mexican mammals, 4 specimens of 2 species of mouse opossums (2 Tlacuatzin canescens [Allen, 1893] and 2 Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897, were collected from Oaxaca and Veracuz states, Mexico, respectively. Five new locality and host records are presented for the acari Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls and Clifford, 1966, of fleas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950, and Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, as well as the cestode Hymenolepis sp., while the nematode Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano and Pujol, 1991, is recorded for the first time in Mexico.

  19. Experimental infection of the tick Amblyomma cajennense, Cayenne tick, with Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J F; Soares, H S; Barbieri, A M; Labruna, M B

    2012-06-01

    In the laboratory, Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) (Fabricius) larvae, nymphs and adults were exposed to Rickettsia rickettsii by feeding on needle-inoculated animals, and thereafter reared on uninfected guinea pigs or rabbits. Regardless of the tick stage that acquired the infection, subsequent tick stages were shown to be infected (confirming transstadial and transovarial transmissions) and were able to transmit R. rickettsii to uninfected animals, as demonstrated by serological and molecular analyses. However, the larval, nymphal and adult stages of A. cajennense were shown to be partially refractory to R. rickettsii infection, as in all cases, only part of the ticks became infected by this agent, after being exposed to rickettsemic animals. In addition, less than 50% of the infected engorged females transmitted rickettsiae transovarially, and when they did so, only part of the offspring became infected, indicating that vertical transmission alone is not enough to maintain R. rickettsii in A. cajennense for multiple generations. Finally, the R. rickettsii-infected tick groups had lower reproductive performance than the uninfected control group. Our results indicate that A. cajennense have a low efficiency to maintain R. rickettsii for successive generations, as R. rickettsii-infection rates should decline drastically throughout the successive tick generations. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Diet of four annual killifishes: an intra and interspecific comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Laufer

    Full Text Available We examined the diet of 4 annual fishes, Austrolebias viarius, Austrolebias cheradophilus, Austrolebias luteoflammulatus and Cynopoecilus melanotaenia inhabiting temporal ponds of southeastern Uruguay, by analysis of stomach contents. Fishes were captured from fifty ephemeral ponds of Castillos Lagoon basin, in the region of the Humedales del Este. We identified 13099 individual prey items extracted from 669 stomachs of the four captured species. In the studied system, annual killifishes represents the most abundant and conspicuous top predators. Killifishes are generalist key predators at the ephemeral ponds of the studied system, consuming mostly aquatic items. Zooplancton represented the bulk of the diet in the four analyzed species, followed by eggs, algae and diatoms. Insects are the next group in prey number, as follows: Diptera larvae (especially Chironomidae and Cullicidae, Ephemeroptera (especially Betidae, and coleopteran larvae (especially Dytiscidae. Acari are also important prey in number. The four fish species differ in diet composition and in diet richness. A general pattern of differences in diet richness among killifish species and demographic groups could be related to variations in body sizes. As top predators annual killifishes are an important component of the temporal pond ecosystems. Understanding the natural history of this species and their communities is necessary in order to conserve them.

  1. Histochemistry and functional organization of the dorsal skin of Ancistrus dolichopterus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Garg

    Full Text Available The structural organization and histo-cytochemical features of dorsal skin of Ancistrus dolichopterus (acari bodo are the main focus of this work. The epidermis, dermis and subcutis are the principal layers of the skin. The epidermis mainly consists of epithelial and mucous cells. Interspersed between them are lymphocytes, pigment cells, eosinophilic granular cells (EGC, and the taste buds as sensory structures. The high number of EGCs is implicated in general and specific immunological defense from pathogenic bacteria and multicellular parasites. The epithelial cells and mucous cells contain glycoproteins with oxidizable vicinal diols, carboxyl groups and O-sulphate esters and their high secretory activity is correlated with the bottom dwelling habit of this species. A thick stratum laxum contains overlapping osteoderms bearing denticles, and the stratum compactum make the integument thicker to help the fish in negative buoyancy for maneuvering near the bottom and protection. The entire body surface is covered by conical, backwardly directed denticles. These are composed of a dentine cone, surrounding a pulp cavity with the top covered by mineralized cap, and are the true homologues of teeth. These structures provide effective protection from abrasion and enemies. These structural peculiarities and histochemical features indicate additional physiological role of the skin of A. dolichopterus.

  2. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [es

  3. Two new species of the genus Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Northern Vietnam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2017), s. 494-508 ISSN 1362-1971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : galumnid mites * new species * morphology * systematics * Tam Dao National Park * Oriental region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2016

  4. Infestation of mammals by Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in south-central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tälleklint, L; Jaenson, T G

    1997-12-01

    Infestation by Ixodes ricinus ticks on rodents, hares and cervids was examined at Bogesund, 10 km north of Stockholm, in south-central Sweden during 1991-1994 and on varying hares (Lepus timidus) at Stora Karlsö and Gotska Sandön in the Baltic Sea during 1992-1993. At Bogesund, there were great differences between two consecutive years in the number of I. ricinus larvae infesting bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). The seasonal pattern of infestation by I. ricinus larvae and nymphs on bank voles was unimodal in 1991, with peaks in June-July and bimodal in 1992, with peaks in June and August. Male bank voles, compared to females and older voles, compared to young voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Apodemus mice, compared to bank voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Ixodes ricinus larvae engorged on Apodemus mice were heavier than larvae engorged on bank voles and resulted in larger nymphs. However, there was no difference in the proportions of viable nymphs resulting from larvae engorged on mice or voles. The ranges in the numbers of I. ricinus ticks infesting individual hosts were 1-451 for rodents, 16-2374 for hares and 428-2072 for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). These ranges of tick numbers are estimated to represent potential blood losses from individual hosts of approximately 0.2-65% for rodents, 0.2-13% for hares and 0.3-9.0% for roe deer. Within the populations of all host species examined, the distributions of all stages of I. ricinus were clumped, with most host individuals harbouring few ticks and only a few individuals harbouring many ticks. The data suggest that, even though a small proportion of tick hosts may be severely affected, the direct effects of feeding by I. ricinus are unlikely to play an important role on mammal population dynamics.

  5. Factors affecting patterns of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitism in a rodent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-07-30

    Here we offer a multivariable analysis that explores associations of different factors (i.e., environmental, host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites) with the interaction of Amblyomma triste immature stages and one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. Monthly and for two years, we captured and sampled rodents at 16 points located at 4 different sites in the Parana River Delta region. The analyses were conducted with Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were: (a) environmental: trapping year, season, presence of cattle; type of vegetation (natural grassland or implanted forest); rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length; sex; body condition; blood cell counts; natural antibody titres; and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites: other stage of A. triste; Ixodes loricatus; lice; mites; and fleas. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Larvae were affected by all environmental variables assessed and by the presence of other ectoparasites (lice, fleas and other tick species). Host factors significantly associated with larval count were sex and levels of natural antibodies. Nymphs were associated with season, presence of cattle, body condition, body length and with burdens of I. loricatus. In most cases, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent (many interaction terms were significant). The findings of greater significance and implications of our study are two. Firstly, as burdens of A. triste larvae and nymphs were greater where cattle were present, and larval tick burdens were higher in implanted forests, silvopastoral practices developing in the region may affect the population dynamics of A. triste, and consequently the eco-epidemiology of Rickettsia parkeri. Secondly, strong associations and numerous interactions with other ectoparasites suggest that co-infestations may be more important for tick dynamics than has so far been appreciated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2014), s. 320-327 ISSN 0164-7954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * ptyctimous mites * taxonomy * descriptions * tritonymph Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2014

  7. Side-effects of three pesticides on the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, A; Talebi, K

    2003-01-01

    Side-effects of three commonly used pesticides in Iran were evaluated on an introduced strain of the predatory mite. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, reared for about 10 years without exposure to any pesticides. Application of pesticides was carried out either to detached bean leaves using a Potter tower at 1 mg wet deposit per cm2 or by a hand sprayer on bean plants until run off. According to an EPPO decision making scheme, pirimiphos-methyl was found to be harmful (E=90.8%) and heptenophos harmless (E=-3.7%) to the predatory mite in the residual initial toxicity tests. For determination of the hazard class of malathion a field test was found to be necessary (E=59.8%). Categories of 1, 2, 3 were determined for heptenophos, malathion and primiphos-methyl, respectively, using IOBC classification. Despite being harmful, it is possible to use pirimiphos-methyl 10 days before release of P. persimilis. Investigation of the contribution of both lethal and sub-lethal effects to total impact indicated the dominance of lethality in the case of pirimiphos-methyl, while malathion acted by both mechanisms. Heptenophos did not have negative effects on fecundity of P. persimilis but rather caused a higher rate of fecundity in comparison with the control. The mortality found in the heptenophos test was not significantly different from the control.

  8. The effect of temperature on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, David J; Fenlon, John S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental variables, such as temperature, are important in determining the efficiency of biological control in ornamental crops. This paper examines the effect of temperature on the functional response of adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis to eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The functional response was determined using a new functional response assay technique with plant stems as an arena, rather than leaf discs. The use of plant stems allows the influence that plant structure has on predation to be incorporated into the assay. Control assays were also used (without predators) to estimate natural losses of prey. The data were analysed using a binomial model, with the use of Abbot's formula to correct for the losses in the controls. A combined equation to describe the effect of temperature and prey density on the predation rate of Phytoseiulus persimilis was derived. The results showed that more prey are eaten as the temperature increases from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C, but the number of prey eaten then declines at 30 degrees C, although not to the levels seen at 20 degrees C. The implication of these results for biological control in ornamental crops, where the temperature can often exceed 30 degrees C, is discussed.

  9. Birefringent Crystals and Abdominal Discoloration in the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie

    1997-03-01

    In response to grower complaints of poor performance of Phytoseiulus persimilis, mites from 14 commercial insectaries and research colonies were examined for pathogens. Some were found to have abdominal discolorations, manifested initially as two white stripes along the dorsal sides of the body within the Malpighian tubules. Advanced signs appeared as a large, centrally located, white spot or U-shaped discoloration in the distal opisthosoma within the rectum/anal atrium. White material often accumulated and hardened within the anus and formed a rectal plug that inhibited further excretion. Most affected mites were lethargic. Adults and immatures with abdominal discoloration contained numerous densely packed, birefringent, dumbbell-shaped entities. Though occasionally observed in the colon, they occurred most frequently within the Malpighian tubules and/or rectum and anal atrium. Dumbbells measured 2-4 &mgr;m long and contained prominent concentric rings. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, the entities lacked cellular organelles. Asymptomatic mites contained few or no such entities. Dumbbell-shaped inclusions were observed in P. persimilis from all sources examined. High levels of potassium, low levels of phosphorous and sulfur, and traces of chlorine were detected by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Guanine and uric acid, known nitrogenous wastes of arachnids, do not contain these elements. The chemical composition and structure indicate that the dumbbells are crystals. Both asymptomatic mites and those specimens exhibiting abdominal discoloration were examined for pathogens using light and transmission electron microscopy. Microsporidia, virus-like particles, and a rickettsia (genus Wolbachia) were observed in some mites but showed no correlation with white abdominal discoloration or associated crystal formation. Neither were pathogens always detected in symptomatic mites. Although birefringent crystals may be naturally occurring excretory products, the cause of white abdominal signs associated with crystal accumulation in P. persimilis is unknown. These signs indicate overall poor health.

  10. A new species of Andocaeculus (Acari, Caeculidae) from the Pampa biome, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Ott; Ricardo Ott

    2014-01-01

    A new caeculid species Andocaeculus caioi sp. nov. is described from Pampa biome in south Brazil. The species of this family are usually large and strong sclerotized mites with robust and spinulose legs I and II. Until now records of species for South America were known only from Chile and Argentina.

  11. RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

    2012-06-01

    For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis.

  12. The Bat Tick Carios Azteci (Acari: Argasidae) From Belize, With An Endosymbiotic Coxiellaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    veterinary parasitologists. Similar recent records for bat ticks from Nicaragua (Venzal et al. 2015) also suggest the species is more widespread. Our...agent of either bats or humans. Ectoparasites from cave habitats are of ecological and veterinary interest as they are often poorly studied beyond... Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 31: 365–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-011-1318-7 Taylor, S.J., Heads, S.W., Jacoby, J., Hoese, G.B., Krejca

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of the oribatid mite genus Eurostocepheus (Acari, Oribatida, Otocepheidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2017), s. 640-652 ISSN 1362-1971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eurostocepheus * generic diagnosis * morphology * otocepheid mites * Tam Dao National Park * systematics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2016

  14. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Silva, Dayana Campelo da; Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle), which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti), 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense) were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.

  15. Two new Anoplocheylus species (Acari: Trombidiformes: Pseudocheylidae) from Kurdistan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Amini, Fatemeh

    2014-09-12

    Two new species of the genus Anoplocheylus Berlese, 1910 are described: Anoplocheylus marivaniensis sp. nov. collected from soil and rotten leaves under oak trees and Anoplocheylus qorvehiensis sp. nov. from soil under Astragalus sp. bushes in Kurdistan province, Iran. A key to females of all known species of Anoplocheylus is provided, based on original descriptions and other literature.

  16. How do Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) females penetrate densely webbed spider mite nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, M; de la Peña, F; Hormaza, J I; González-Fernández, J J

    2008-02-01

    The persea mite Oligonychus perseae is a pest of avocado trees that builds extremely dense webbed nests that protect them against natural enemies, including phytoseiid mites. Nests have one or two marginal entrances that are small and flattened. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus co-occurs with O. perseae in the avocado orchards of the south-east of Spain. Penetration inside nests through the entrances by this predator is thought to be hindered by its size and its globular-shaped body. However, in the field it has repeatedly been found inside nests that were clearly ripped. Perhaps penetration of the nests has been facilitated by nest wall ripping caused by some other species or by unfavourable abiotic factors. However, to assess whether N. californicus is also able to enter the nest of O. perseae by itself, we carried out laboratory experiments and made a short film. They show how this predator manages to overcome the webbed wall, and that it can penetrate and forage inside nests of O. perseae.

  17. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  18. Transstadial Transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M; Özübek, S

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated possible transovarial and transstadial transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks collected from naturally infected dogs in a municipal dog shelter and the grounds of the shelter. Four hundred sixty-five engorged nymphs were collected from 16 stray dogs that were found to be infected with H. canis by blood smear and PCR analyses and maintained in an incubator at 28 °C for moulting. Four hundred eighteen nymphs moulted to adults 14-16 d post collection. Unfed ticks from the shelter grounds comprised 1,500 larvae, 2,100 nymphs, and 85 adults; were sorted according to origin, developmental stage, and sex into 117 pools; and screened by 18S rRNA PCR for Hepatozoon infection. Of 60 adult tick pools examined, 51 were infected with H. canis. The overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of infection rate was calculated as 21.0% (CI 15.80-28.21). Hepatozoon canis was detected in 31 out of 33 female pools (MLE 26.96%, CI 17.64-44.33) and 20 out of 27 male pools (MLE 14.82%, CI 20.15-46.41). Among 42 unfed nymph pools collected from the shelter, 26 were infected with H. canis, and MLE of infection was calculated as 1.9% (CI 1.25-2.77). No H. canis DNA was detected in any of the gDNA pools consisting of larva specimens. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. Our results revealed the transstadial transmission of H. canis by R. sanguineus, both from larva to nymph and from nymph to adult, in field conditions. However, there were no evidence of transovarial transmission. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Complementary data on Haplozetes fusifer (Berlese, 1908 (Acari, Oribatida, Haplozetidae collected from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akrami, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An oribatid mite of the family Haplozetidae, Haplozetes fusifer (Berlese, 1908 is redescribed on the basis of Iranian materials, including the first detailed descriptions of the gnathosoma and legs.Se redescribe un ácaro oribátido de la familia Haplozetidae, Haplozetes fusifer (Berlese, 1908, sobre la base de material iraní, incluyendo las primeras descripciones detalladas del gnatosoma y las patas.

  20. New species of water mites from Oman, with some zoogeographical notes (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Pešić, V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with a collection of epigean water mites from Oman. One new genus, Omanaxonopsis, and 16 new species are described: Bharatavolzia arabica, Nilotonia bisetosa, N. longiseta, Torrenticola arabica, T. omanensis, Limnesia kochi, Protolimnesia inexspectata, Atractides arabicus, A.