Sample records for mcdonald observatory saturn

  1. Astrometric observations of Saturn's satellites from McDonald Observatory, 1972. [using reference stars (United States)

    Abbot, R. I.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.


    Observations of Saturn's satellites were reduced by means of secondary reference stars obtained by reduction of Palomar Sky Survey (PSS) plates. This involved the use of 39 SAO stars and plate overlap technique to determine the coordinates of 59 fainter stars in the satellite field. Fourteen plate constants were determined for each of the two PSS plates. Comparison of two plate measurement and reduction techniques on the satellite measurements demonstrate the existence of a serious background gradient effect and the utility of microdensitometry to eliminate this error source in positional determinations of close satellites.

  2. Astrometric observations of Saturn's satellites from McDonald Observatory, 1972 (United States)

    Abbot, R. I.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.


    Observations of Saturn's satellites have been reduced by means of secondary reference stars obtained by reduction of Palomar Sky Survey plates. This involved the use of 29 SAO stars and plate overlap technique to determine the coordinates of 59 fainter stars in the satellite field. Fourteen plate constants were determined for each of the two PSS plates. Comparison of two plate measurement and reduction techniques on the satellite measures appears to demonstrate the existence of a serious background gradient effect and the utility of microdensitometry to eliminate this error source in positional determinations of close satellites.

  3. Supernova observations at McDonald Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.C.


    The programs to obtain high quality spectra and photometry of supernovae at McDonald Observatory are reviewed. Spectra of recent Type I supernovae in NGC 3227, NGC 3625, and NGC 4419 are compared with those of SN 1981b in NGC 4536 to quantitatively illustrate both the homogeneity of Type I spectra at similar epochs and the differences in detail which will serve as a probe of the physical processes in the explosions. Spectra of the recent supernova in NGC 0991 give for the first time quantitative confirmation of a spectrally homogeneous, but distinct subclass of Type I supernovae which appears to be less luminous and to have lower excitation at maximum light than classical Type I supernovae


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Breger, M.


    We present 990 previously unpublished optical linear polarization measurements of quasars, active galactic nuclei, and some stars observed for interstellar polarization. The observations, covering the period 1981-2000, were made with McDonald Observatory's 2.1 m Struve reflector and the Breger photopolarimeter.

  5. The McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging project (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.


    A summary of the activities of the McDonald lunar laser ranging station at Fort Davis for the FY 77-78 fiscal year is presented. The lunar laser experiment uses the observatory 2.7m reflecting telescope on a thrice-per-day, 21-day-per-lunation schedule. Data are recorded on magnetic tapes and sent to the University of Texas at Austin where the data is processed. After processing, the data is distributed to interested analysis centers and later to the National Space Science Data Center where it is available for routine distribution. Detailed reports are published on the McDonald operations after every fourth lunation or approximately once every 115 days. These reports contain a day-by-day documentation of the ranging activity, detailed discussions of the equipment development efforts, and an abundance of other information as is needed to document and archive this important data type.

  6. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.


    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  7. 2011 Astronomy Day at McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Preston, Sandra; Hemeway, M.; Wetzel, M.


    Our philosophy is that everyday is Astronomy Day because the McDonald Observatory's Frank N. Bash Visitors Center is open 362 days a year. So, how did we create a special celebration for the "Astronomy Day” declared by the Astronomical League? During September 26-29 we conducted 20 videoconferences and served 12,559 students with "Astronomy Day” programming. Connect2Texas provides bridging for a network of Texas-based museums and cultural, historical, and scientific organizations that offer educational content to schools throughout the state via videoconferencing. Connect2Texas connected McDonald Observatory to 334 schools; most of these schools were in Texas, but schools in a dozen other states also participated. While most schools had a "view-only" connection, at least 20 of the schools had interactive connections, whereby the students could ask questions of the presenter. Connect2Texas also collects evaluation information from the participating schools that we will use to produce a report for our funders and make modifications to future programs as need be. The videoconferences were offered free of charge. The theme for the 2011 Astronomy Day program was the Year of the Solar System, which aligns with NASA's theme for 2011 and 2012. By aligning with this NASA theme, we could leverage NASA artwork and materials to both advertise and enrich the learning experience. Videoconference materials also included pre- and post-videoconference assessment sheets, an inquiry based activity, and pre- and post-videoconference activities, all of which were made available online. One of the lessons learned from past Astronomy Day videoconferences is that the days the Astronomical League declares as "Astronomy Day” are not always good days for Texas schools to participate. So, we choose an Astronomy Day that meets the needs of Texas schools and our schedule - so any day can be Astronomy Day. 2011 Astronomy Day was made possible by The Meyer-Levy Charitable Trust.

  8. Thirty years of cometary spectroscopy from McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Cochran, A. L.; Barker, E. S.; Gray, C. L.


    We report on the results of a spectroscopic survey of 130 comets that was conducted at McDonald Observatory from 1980 through 2008. Some of the comets were observed on only one night, while others were observed repeatedly. For 20 of these comets, no molecules were detected. For the remaining 110 comets, some emission from CN, OH, NH, C3, C2, CH, and NH2 molecules were observed on at least one occasion. We converted the observed molecular column densities to production rates using a Haser (Haser, L. [1957]. Liege Inst. Astrophysics Reprint No. 394) model. We defined a restricted data set of comets that had at least three nights of observations. The restricted data set consists of 59 comets. We used ratios of production rates to study the trends in the data. We find two classes of comets: typical and carbon-chain depleted comets. Using a very strict definition of depleted comets, requiring C2and C3 to both be depleted, we find 9% of our restricted data set comets to be depleted. Using a more relaxed definition that requires only C2 to be below a threshold (similar to other researchers), we find 25% of the comets are depleted. Two-thirds of the depleted comets are Jupiter Family comets, while one-third are Long Period comets. 37% of the Jupiter Family comets are depleted, while 18.5% of the Long Period comets are depleted. We compare our results with other studies and find good agreement.

  9. Stellar Radial Velocities with IGRINS at McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Mace, Gregory; Jaffe, Daniel; Park, Chan; Lee, Jae-Joon


    Exoplanet searches with dedicated instrumentation have made 1 m/s radial velocity (RV) precision routine.Yet, RVs for large samples of stars generally remain at the 1km/s level.TheImmersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a revolutionary instrument that exploits broad spectral coverage at high-resolution in the near-infrared.IGRINS on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory is nearly as sensitive as CRIRES at the 8 meter Very Large Telescope. However, IGRINS at R=45,000 has more than 30 times the spectral grasp of CRIRES.The use of a silicon immersion grating facilitates a compact cryostat while providing simultaneous wavelength coverage from 1.45 - 2.45 microns. Wehave developed a pipeline to cross-correlate the more than 20,000 resolution elements in two IGRINS exposures and provide relative RVs with uncertainties of 50m/s (product for multi-epoch studies of low-mass, stellar and substellar multiplicity.

  10. A continued program of planetary study at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Trafton, L.


    The program conducts solar system research in support of NASA missions and of general astronomical interest. Investigations of composition, physical characteristics and changes in solar system bodies are conducted primarily using the facilities of McDonald Observatory. Progress, accomplishments, and projected accomplishments are discussed.

  11. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory, 1 February - 31 May 1976 (United States)

    Palm, C. S.; Wiant, J. R.


    The four spring lunations produced 105 acquisitions, including the 2000th range measurement made at McDonald Observatory. Statistics were normal for the spring months. Laser and electronics problems are noted. The Loran-C station delay was corrected. Preliminary doubles data is shown. New magnetic tape data formats are presented. R and D efforts include a new laser modification design.

  12. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Shelus, P. J.


    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Ramirez, Ivan; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Reffert, Sabine


    We report the detection of a brown dwarf candidate orbiting the metal-rich K dwarf HD 91669, based on radial-velocity data from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search. HD 91669b is a substellar object in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.45) at a separation of 1.2 AU. The minimum mass of 30.6M Jup places this object firmly within the brown dwarf desert for inclinations i ∼> 23 0 . This is the second rare close-in brown dwarf candidate discovered by the McDonald planet search program.

  14. The Results of an Era of Teacher Professional Development at McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Finkelstein, K. D.; Hemenway, M. K.; Preston, S.; Wetzel, M.; Meyer, J.; Rood, M.


    During the past decade, McDonald Observatory has been developing and refining its Teacher Professional Development Workshops, many of which have been supported by NASA. Metrics include attendance, perceived knowledge gain, and readiness to apply what was learned in the classroom. Evaluations show impact through the classroom application at five to six months after the workshops and through consistently high positive workshop results. This paper will show that a) our Teacher Professional Development Workshops are consistently well attended, b) the workshops improve teachers' confidence and their understanding of concepts, c) teachers enjoy unique interactions with astronomers and engineers, d) teachers appreciate hands-on and inquiry-based activities that are modeled and tied to state and national standards, and e) many teachers experience using the activities in their classrooms with good results.

  15. Mcdonald Observatory 9P/TEMPEL 1 Data V1.0 (United States)

    Cochran, A. L.; Barker, E. S.; Caballero, M. D.; Gyorgey-Ries, J.


    We report on low-spectral resolution observations of comet 9P/Tempel 1 from 1983, 1989, 1994 and 2005 using the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope of McDonald Observatory. This comet was the target of NASA's Deep Impact mission and our observations allowed us to characterize the comet prior to the impact. In the published paper, we showed that the comet decreased in gas production from 1983 to 2005, with the decrease being different factors for different species. OH decreased by a factor 2.7, NH by 1.7, CN by 1.6, C3 by 1.8, CH by 1.4 and C2 by 1.3. Despite the decrease in overall gas production and these slightly different decrease factors, we found that the ratios of the gas production rates of OH, NH, C3, CH and C2 that of CN were constant over all of the apparitions. We saw no change in the production rate ratios after the impact. We found that the peak gas production occurred about two months prior to perihelion. This data set represents the integrated fluxes and column densities, mentioned in the published paper, which were used to derive the production rates in the paper.

  16. McDonald Observatory Planetary Search - A high precision stellar radial velocity survey for other planetary systems (United States)

    Cochran, William D.; Hatzes, Artie P.


    The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search program surveyed a sample of 33 nearby F, G, and K stars since September 1987 to search for substellar companion objects. Measurements of stellar radial velocity variations to a precision of better than 10 m/s were performed as routine observations to detect Jovian planets in orbit around solar type stars. Results confirm the detection of a companion object to HD114762.

  17. A description of the lunar ranging station at McDonald Observatory. (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.; Currie, D. G.


    The equipment of this station which has been in operation since the deployment of the first corner reflector by the Apollo 11 astronauts. The McDonald 2.7-m telescope is used for both transmission and reception of pulsed ruby laser light during three 45-minute daily laser runs about three weeks in a month. The present laser pulse width, timing system, calibration procedures, and signal levels are designed to achieve ranging with an accuracy to 1 nanosecond. The data rates obtained since September, 1970, are consistent with the scientific commitments of the lunar ranging program. Most of the over 200 acquisitions obtained have an accuracy to better than plus or minus 30 cm. Details of the telescope matching optics, guiding and timing equipment, and calibration procedures are discussed. Representative lunar range data are included.

  18. Continued program of planetary study at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.J.; Barker, E.S.; Cochran, W.D.; Trafton, L.M.


    The beginning of eclipses of the Pluto-Charon system was detected. The onset of coma formation of P/Halley at 5.4 au was detected and evidence of sublimation at 4.8 au when CN emission was detected. Extensive spatial maps of the gas in the comae of comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner were obtained in fall 1985. Halley was time variable, and Giacobini-Zinner was depleted in C 2 and C 3 relative to CN. Comet Kopff was shown to have a pre-perihelion brightness maximum of its gas, consistent with mantle development if the comet is a high obliquity object. New Haser model scale lengths for CN, C 3 , and C 2 were determined using results from the Faint Comet Survey. Spectra of 12 asteroids in unusual orbits showed no evidence of any comet-like emission features. In particular, 3200 Phaethon (1983 TB) has no gas or dust coma, in spite of the similarity of its orbit with the Geminid meteor stream. Data were analyzed on Saturn's H 2 and CH 4 bands for the recent southern summer using a Tomasko-Doose type of haze distribution. This haze model fits the data moderately well, giving a CH 4 mixing ratio of (4.2 + or 0.4)x003. Simple functions were found to approximate the collision-induced rotation-translation thermal opacity of H 2

  19. Activities of the Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    Smith, H. J.


    McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin reports on its activities during the period 1 Jan. 1986 to 30 June 1986. Extensive observations of Halley's Comet were obtained. The comet exhibited large variability; moreover, its variability was much more rapid than can be accounted for by water vaporization as the sole controller of activity. Jupiter satellite Io's atmosphere was found to be distended by more than the equilibrium scale height but less than for unimpeded streaming into space. The atmosphere is at least temporarily bound to IO. Uranus' (3-0) H2 quadrupole line shapes require a modification of Baines and Bergstralh's standard model which incorporates at high altitude absorbing haze in addition to the lower haze layer. A fraction of normal H2 equal to 0.25 + or 0.10 is derived, in good agreement with the standard model. This result is unchanged when the preliminary temperature structure derived by the Voyager Radio Occultation Experiment is used instead of Appleby's model c. Out of the six Pluto-Charon mutual events observed this year, data were obtained on four. Preliminary analysis is yielding improved estimates for the diameters, masses, densities, and albedos of these objects.

  20. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.


    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  1. Saturn

    CERN Document Server

    Vescia, Monique


    Saturn is one of the most surreal of all the planets in our solar system. With this intriguing curriculum-correlated book, young readers can learn just why. Saturn has many unusual features, such as rings made of ice, ammonia storms, and methane rain. Its density is less than that of water so theoretically it could float on water. The features of its many moons are sometimes even stranger. The Pioneer and Voyager missions in 1970s and 1980s offered stunning images included in the book, which will allow readers to have an armchair experience of exploring this fascinating planet.

  2. The Coude spectrograph and echelle scanner of the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald observatory (United States)

    Tull, R. G.


    The design of the Coude spectrograph of the 2.7 m McDonald telescope is discussed. A description is given of the Coude scanner which uses the spectrograph optics, the configuration of the large echelle and the computer scanner control and data systems.

  3. Performance of the Zeeman analyzer system of the McDonald Observatory 2.7 meter telescope (United States)

    Vogt, S. S.; Tull, R. G.; Kelton, P. W.


    The paper describes a multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer at the coude spectrograph of the McDonald 2.7 m reflector. A comparison of Lick and McDonald observations of HD 153882 reveals no significant difference in slopes or zero points of the two magnetic fields indicating that the systematic scale difference of 30-40% is probably instrumental in origin. Observations of the magnetic variable beta Cor Bor revealed a more nearly sinusoidal magnetic curve with less internal scatter than the photographically determined field measures of the Lick and Mauna Kea Zeeman systems. Investigation of periodicity in the secularly varying magnetic minima of beta Cor Bor did not yield evidence of previously noted periodicities other than that expected from the time structure of the data sampling.

  4. The high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle white-pupil spectrometer of the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope (United States)

    Tull, Robert G.; Macqueen, Phillip J.; Sneden, Christopher; Lambert, David L.


    A new high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer has been installed at the coude focus of the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope. Its primary goal was simultaneously to gather spectra over as much of the spectral range 3400 A to 1 micrometer as practical, at a resolution R identical with lambda/Delta lambda which approximately = 60,000 with signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 100 for stars down to magnitude 11, using 1-h exposures. In the instrument as built, two exposures are all that are needed to cover the full range. Featuring a white-pupil design, fused silica prism cross disperser, and folded Schmidt camera with a Tektronix 2048x2048 CCD used at either of two foci, it has been in regularly scheduled operation since 1992 April. Design details and performance are described.

  5. “An Instrument for the Frontiers of Modern Astronomy”: An Exhibit for the Harlan J. Smith 2.7-m Telescope Lobby at McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Preston, Sandra; Cianciolo, F.; Jones, T.; Wetzel, M.; Mace, K.; Barrick, R.; Kelton, P.; Cochran, A.; Johnson, R.


    Of the 100,000 visitors that come to McDonald Observatory each year, about half of them visit the Harlan J. Smith 2.7-m Telescope. Visitors experience the 2.7-m telescope as part of a guided tour, a self-guided tour, and during the once-a-month special viewing nights, that are unique to a telescope this size. Recent safety requirements limiting visitor access to the dome-floor level and a need to modernize out-of-date displays in the 2.7-m lobby area, motivated us to do this new exhibit. A planning team consisting of McDonald Observatory personnel from Outreach & Education, Physical Plant, and Administration came together via videoconferences (between Austin and Fort Davis) to develop an exhibit for the lobby area of this telescope. As the planning process unfolded, the team determined that a mix of static displays and modern technology such as flat panel displays and DVD video were key to presenting the history of the facility, introducing basic concepts about the telescope and current research, as well as giving virtual access to the dome floor for visitors on the self-guided tour. This approach also allows for content development and much of production to be done in-house, which was important from both a cost and maintenance standpoint. A representative of the Smith family was also consulted throughout the development of the exhibit to insure that the exhibit plan was seen as an acceptable memorial to the late director. The exhibit was installed in January 2007.

  6. Placing the Deep Impact Mission into context: Two decades of observations of 9P/Tempel 1 from McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Cochran, A. L.; Barker, E. S.; Caballero, M. D.; Györgey-Ries, J.


    We report on low-spectral resolution observations of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 from 1983, 1989, 1994 and 2005 using the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope of McDonald Observatory. This comet was the target of NASA's Deep Impact mission and our observations allowed us to characterize the comet prior to the impact. We found that the comet showed a decrease in gas production from 1983 to 2005, with the decrease being different factors for different species. OH decreased by a factor 2.7, NH by 1.7, CN by 1.6, C 3 by 1.8, CH by 1.4 and C 2 by 1.3. Despite the decrease in overall gas production and these slightly different decrease factors, we find that the gas production rates of OH, NH, C 3, CH and C 2 ratioed to that of CN were constant over all of the apparitions. We saw no change in the production rate ratios after the impact. We found that the peak gas production occurred about two months prior to perihelion. Comet Tempel 1 is a "normal" comet.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Barnes, Stuart I.; Caldwell, Caroline; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Simon, Attila E.


    We present high-precision radial velocity (RV) observations of four solar-type (F7-G5) stars—HD 79498, HD 155358, HD 197037, and HD 220773—taken as part of the McDonald Observatory Planet Search Program. For each of these stars, we see evidence of Keplerian motion caused by the presence of one or more gas giant planets in long-period orbits. We derive orbital parameters for each system and note the properties (composition, activity, etc.) of the host stars. While we have previously announced the two-gas-giant HD 155358 system, we now report a shorter period for planet c. This new period is consistent with the planets being trapped in mutual 2:1 mean-motion resonance. We therefore perform an in-depth stability analysis, placing additional constraints on the orbital parameters of the planets. These results demonstrate the excellent long-term RV stability of the spectrometers on both the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope and the Hobby-Eberly telescope.

  8. Arthur B. McDonald, Physics Nobel Laureate 2015, at CERN colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius


    Arthur B. McDonald, Physics Nobel Laureate 2015, photographed at CERN colloquium on the "Science of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and SNOLAB” given in CERN Main Auditorium on Monday 4 Sep 2017

  9. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.


    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  10. The McDonaldization of Higher Education. (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis, Ed.; Wynyard, Robin, Ed.

    The essays in this collection discuss the future of the university in the context of the "McDonaldization" of society and of academia. The idea of McDonaldization, a term coined by G. Ritzer (1998), provides a tool for looking at the university and its inevitable changes. The chapters are: (1) "Enchanting McUniversity: Toward a…

  11. Saturn's ringlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, J.A.; Smith, D.H.


    This paper suggests that Saturn's magnetic field is, in part, responsible for the very fine-scale radial features, or ringlets, seen in the ring-system. The planet's dipole field interacts with slight radial variations in plasma density, and the operation of an instability segregates the magnetic flux and plasma in the ring-plane into narrow alternating zones. It is suggested that this mechanism may act by itself to give rise to the inner ringlets. At greater radial distances the authors believe it amplifies gravitational resonances. (Auth.)

  12. Fast Food McDonald's China Fix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Since the opening of its first outlet 16 years ago, McDonald's China operation has on many levels proven enormously successful.Home to more than 750 locations nationwide, the Middle Kingdom today ranks as one of McDonald's ten largest markets,with returns hovering in doubles digits and raking in billions annually. As lucrative as it may be, however, China has nonetheless developed into a relative sore spot for the world's leading fast food giant.

  13. The McDonaldization of Academic Libraries? (United States)

    Quinn, Brian


    Discusses the McDonaldization thesis that suggests that many aspects of the fast food industry are making their way into other areas of society. Explores whether this thesis is applicable to academic libraries, focusing on efficiency, calculability, predictability, control, user expectations, pros and cons of teams, and creativity and information…

  14. McDonald's vs Father Christmas (United States)

    Pratt, Dave; Simpson, Amanda


    Mathematics in textbooks and indeed in conventional classrooms is often presented as exercises or worksheets in which the mathematics itself has been processed into a form that is easily digested. This McDonald's version of mathematics ensures that the mathematical skill or technique is laid bare and typically the sole focus of attention. In this…

  15. McDonald's Recipe for Success (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery


    Who isn't familiar with McDonald's? Its golden arches are among the most recognizable brand icons in the U.S. What many are less familiar with is the methodical and distinguished learning and development that supports that brand. Training that begins by preparing employees to serve customers at the counter, and extends to programs that help…

  16. Pengaruh Terpaan Komunikasi Pemasaran Menu Breakfast Mcdonald"s Keputusan Pembelian


    Tasuki, Martia Mutiara; Pradekso, Tandiyo; Ulfa, Nurist Surayya



  17. Lunar occultation of Saturn. IV - Astrometric results from observations of the satellites (United States)

    Dunham, D. W.; Elliot, J. L.


    The method of determining local lunar limb slopes, and the consequent time scale needed for diameter studies, from accurate occultation timings at two nearby telescopes is described. Results for photoelectric observations made at Mauna Kea Observatory during the occultation of Saturn's satellites on March 30, 1974, are discussed. Analysis of all observations of occultations of Saturn's satellites during 1974 indicates possible errors in the ephemerides of Saturn and its satellites.

  18. McDonaldization and Job Insecurity


    Emeka W. Dumbili


    The article examines how and why the McDonaldization of banking system in Nigeria engenders job insecurity. This is imperative because it provides an explicit revelation of the root causes of job insecurity in the sector that other scholars have totally omitted. No Nigerian scholar has applied the thesis in relation to job insecurity, which is the major problem in Nigeria’s banking industry. The article based on the an...

  19. Semiotic Analysis Of Mcdonald's Printed Advertisement




    Keywords: Semiotic, printed advertisement, sign, icon, symbol, index, connotation, myth Printed advertisement has a promotional function as medium to advertise aproduct. It implicitly persuades people to create demand of product which is being advertised. In this study, the writer uses printed advertisement of McDonald's fast food company as the object. The printed advertisement was analyzed by usingSemiotics study. There are seven printed advertisements that were analyzes in this study. All ...

  20. McDonaldization and Job Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka W. Dumbili


    Full Text Available The article examines how and why the McDonaldization of banking system in Nigeria engenders job insecurity. This is imperative because it provides an explicit revelation of the root causes of job insecurity in the sector that other scholars have totally omitted. No Nigerian scholar has applied the thesis in relation to job insecurity, which is the major problem in Nigeria’s banking industry. The article based on the analysis of secondary data and observations, therefore, draws on McDonaldization thesis to examine the upsurge of rationalization in the sector since consolidation exercise began in 2005. The article argues that the sector’s rising rationalization and ensuing efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control are necessary. However, these have inevitably engendered job insecurity and its adverse consequences. Based on the critical analyses of available evidence, the article concludes that the best option is to commence resistance of the McDonaldization processes, especially those that replace human with nonhuman technology or make customers unpaid workers.

  1. Improving queuing service at McDonald's (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Wong, Chin Keat; Lim, Hooi Kie; Migin, Melissa W.


    Fast food restaurants are popular among price-sensitive youths and working adults who value the conducive environment and convenient services. McDonald's chains of restaurants promote their sales during lunch hours by offering package meals which are perceived to be inexpensive. These promotional lunch meals attract good response, resulting in occasional long queues and inconvenient waiting times. A study is conducted to monitor the distribution of waiting time, queue length, customer arrival and departure patterns at a McDonald's restaurant located in Kuala Lumpur. A customer survey is conducted to gauge customers' satisfaction regarding waiting time and queue length. An android app named Que is developed to perform onsite queuing analysis and report key performance indices. The queuing theory in Que is based upon the concept of Poisson distribution. In this paper, Que is utilized to perform queuing analysis at this McDonald's restaurant with the aim of improving customer service, with particular reference to reducing queuing time and shortening queue length. Some results will be presented.

  2. The McDonaldization of Nigerian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka W. Dumbili


    Full Text Available This article examines the extent to which the deregulation of Nigerian higher education (HE has facilitated the McDonaldization of the universities. University education in Nigeria commenced in 1948 with the establishment of the University College, Ibadan. After independence in 1960, subsequent governments expanded the number of universities, a policy based on a lack of quality manpower in leadership positions created by the exit of British officials and the need to grant access to an increasing number of prospective students. In the 1970s, the number of universities increased accompanied by a decline in infrastructure, funding, and working conditions. This resulted in several strikes and an exodus of academics to other countries. Instead of tackling the problems, the federal government shifted responsibilities by approving private ownership of universities in 1999 and by establishing the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN in 2001. Against this backdrop, this article critically analyzes how some of these reforms facilitated the McDonaldization of Nigerian universities. The article reveals how this has resulted in an overloading of responsibilities on the faculty, erosion of academic autonomy, a prioritization of quantity over quality of publications, and an assumption of “customer” status by students. The article uses evidence from McDonaldized HE in Western countries to discuss the implications of these developments and suggests some remedial measures.

  3. McDonald 2.1-m and CRTS Photometry of Eclipsing Polars (United States)

    Wells, Natalie; Mason, Paul


    We present broadband optical photometry of five polars made using the 2.1-m telescope of McDonald Observatory. Four of the polars are eclipsing (EP Dra, FL Cet, V2301 Oph, and a Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) polar candidate). In addition, a pre-polar (MQ Dra) was observed. Typical integration times were 1-3 seconds with no dead time. At this time resolution, eclipse structure can be seen in both one- and two-pole accretors. McDonald 2.1-m data over several years is phased together with CSS photometry covering up to 7 years, in search of indications of period variation. Combining the high-resolution, high-speed photometry obtained using the ProEm camera on the McDonald 2.1-m with the sparse, but high-quality multi-year baseline photometry of the CSS places strong constraints on the time variability of the eclipse periods in these binary systems. In most cases, eclipse variations do not perfectly fit a linear ephemeris. We investigate the source of variations using standard O-C diagram techniques and period search algorithms.

  4. SMM Observations of Saturn (United States)

    Schnopper, Herbert; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)


    During the past year I have participated in a series of team telecons to I plan our observation of Saturn with SMM. The observation, scheduled for this month (September), was canceled and a new observation is being planned for 2002.

  5. Experience in Collaboration: McDenver at McDonald's. (United States)

    Combs, Clarice Sue


    The McDenver at McDonald's project provided a nontraditional, community-based teaching and learning environment for faculty and students in a health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) department and a school of nursing. Children and parents come to McDonald's, children received developmental screenings, and parents completed conferences…

  6. Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald's and Subway. (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen C; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A


    To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 7. Saturne study meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Saturne workshop has welcomed 120 scientists. 3 sessions have been organized: accelerators, physics and miscellaneous. The most recent experiments realized or scheduled at Saturne have been presented and the discussions which followed showed the high scientific interest taken in that equipment and made the participants regret its definitive closing down. Presentations by european teams about existent equipment, machines under construction or new projects opened the way to new perspectives. A lot of contributions were dedicated to the realization of high intensity particle beams and to the applications of accelerators. (A.C.)

  8. Moons Around Saturn (United States)


    This series of 10 Hubble Space Telescope images captures several small moons orbiting Saturn. Hubble snapped the five pairs of images while the Earth was just above the ring plane and the Sun below it. The telescope captured a pair of images every 97 minutes as it circled the Earth. Moving out from Saturn, the visible rings are: the broad C Ring, the Cassini Division, and the narrow F Ring.The first pair of images shows the large, bright moon Dione, near the middle of the frames. Two smaller moons, Pandora (the brighter one closer to Saturn) and Prometheus, appear as if they're touching the F Ring. In the second frame, Mimas emerges from Saturn's shadow and appears to be chasing Prometheus.In the second image pair, Mimas has moved towards the tip of the F Ring. Rhea, another bright moon, has just emerged from behind Saturn. Prometheus, the closest moon to Saturn, has rounded the F Ring's tip and is approaching the planet. The slightly larger moon Epimetheus has appeared.The third image pair shows Epimetheus, as a tiny dot just beyond the tip of the F Ring. Prometheus is in the lower right corner. An elongated clump or arc of debris in the F ring is seen as a slight brightening on the far side of this thin ring.In the fourth image pair, Epimetheus, in the lower right corner, streaks towards Saturn. The long ring arc can be seen in both frames.The fifth image pair again captures Mimas, beyond the tip of the F Ring. The same ring arc is still visible.In addition to the satellites, a pair of stars can be seen passing behind the rings, appearing to move towards the lower left due to Saturn's motion across the sky.The images were taken Nov. 21, 1995 with Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space

  9. The McDonald Modified Weibull Distribution: Properties and Applications


    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim


    A six parameter distribution so-called the McDonald modified Weibull distribution is defined and studied. The new distribution contains, as special submodels, several important distributions discussed in the literature, such as the beta modified Weibull, Kumaraswamy modified Weibull, McDonald Weibull and modified Weibull distribution,among others. The new distribution can be used effectively in the analysis of survival data since it accommodates monotone, unimodal and bathtub-shaped hazard fu...

  10. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, C.W.


    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. McDonaldization, Islamic teachings, and funerary practices in Kuwait. (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar


    Drawing on George Ritzer's sociological concept of McDonaldization, this article explores the transformation of burial practices in Kuwait. It is argued that traditional, religious, and private ways of dealing with death have been modernized using the fast-food model of McDonald's. This article examines Islamic teachings on burial and how that model has been applied to the traditional Muslim funerary services, including cemetery management, grave excavation, funeral prayers, burial, and condolences, to make them more efficient vis-a-vis more profitable. Based on personal observations and random interviews, the study finds that the state bureaucracy in Kuwait has made burial rituals more efficient, standardized, calculable, and controlled. Furthermore, several associated irrationalities are also considered. Findings suggest that some individuals may not be happy with these changes but there is no popular resistance to McDonaldization of the burial practices, probably due to the authoritarian and welfare nature of the State of Kuwait.

  12. The Rings of Saturn (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Filacchione, G.; Marouf, E. A.


    One could become an expert on Saturn's iconic rings pretty easily in the early 1970s, as very little was known about them beyond the distinction between the A, B, and C rings, and the Cassini Division or "gap" between rings A and B (Alexander, 1962; Bobrov, 1970). Water ice was discovered spectroscopically on the ring particle surfaces, and radar and microwave emission observations proved that the particles must be centimeters to meters in size, consisting primarily, not just superficially, of water ice (Pollack, 1975). While a 2:1 orbital resonance with Mimas had long been suspected of having something to do with the Cassini Division, computers of the time were unable to model the subtle dynamical effects that we now know to dominate ring structure. This innocent state of affairs was exploded by the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981. Spectacular images revealed filigree structure and odd regional color variations, and exquisitely detailed radial profiles of fluctuating particle abundance were obtained from the first stellar and radio occultations, having resolution almost at the scale of single particles. Voyager-era understanding was reviewed by Cuzzi et al. (1984) and Esposito et al. (1984). While the Voyager data kept ring scientists busy for decades, planning which led to the monumentally successful NASA-ESA-ASI Cassini mission, which arrived in 2004, had been under way even before Voyager got to Saturn. A review of pre-Cassini knowledge of Saturn's Rings can be found in Orton et al. (2009). This chapter will build on recent topical and process-specific reviews that treat the gamut of ring phenomena and its underlying physics in considerable detail (Colwell et al., 2009; Cuzzi et al., 2009; Horányi et al., 2009; Schmidt et al., 2009; Esposito, 2010; Tiscareno, 2013b; Esposito, 2014). We will follow and extend the general organization of Cuzzi et al. (2010), the most recent general discussion of Saturn's rings. For brevity and the benefit of the

  13. Spallation studies at Saturne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frehaut, J. [Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)


    SATURNE is a synchrotron accelerator which can deliver particles of momentum P and charge Z up to P/Z = 4 GeV/c. Monokinetic neutron beams of momentum up to 2 GeV/c can be produced. The spallation studies deal with measurements of: (i) differential neutron production cross sections from thin targets, (ii) neutron multiplicity distribution for proton and {sup 3}He induced reactions, and (iii) nuclide production in thin target. Measurements on thick or composite targets are under consideration.

  14. McDonald and Company Securities Library User Survey, 1996. (United States)

    Wolfgram, Derek E.

    The library of McDonald and Company Securities is important to the success of the business and its employees. This study assesses the needs and expectations of the library users, and analyzes how well the current library services are meeting those needs and expectations. A questionnaire was distributed to a large random sample of the firm's…

  15. Training for QSC: How McDonald's Makes Library Managers. (United States)

    Aycock, Anthony


    Written by a former McDonald's manager who earned a master's degree in library science, this article describes how "QSC"--quality, services, and cleanliness--can be applied to libraries in the same way it is used by restaurants. Argues that libraries are simply businesses that cater to customers. (Contains 42 references.) (NB)

  16. Bridge Suture for Successful McDonald Emergency Cerclage. (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Hori, Yoshiaki; Shirafuji, Aya; Kato, Mitsunori; Kato, Jyun; Kobayashi, Hiroto; Tsuchida, Toru; Fukae, Tsukasa


    To create awareness about a surgical technique termed bridge suture, which is performed as a pretreatment before a McDonald cerclage is performed on an emergency to treat severe cervical insufficiency. Procedures for bridge suture were reviewed in detail and outcomes of 16 patients treated with bridge suture followed by McDonald cerclage were evaluated retrospectively. Using the bridge suture, the edges of uterine cervix were temporarily sutured and the external uterine os was closed, while the hourglass-shaped fetal membranes were concomitantly confined within the cervix; subsequently, a McDonald cerclage was performed. Over a 22-year period, 16 patients with a dilated cervix and bulging fetal membranes were treated using the technique of bridge suture followed by an emergency cerclage. The mean gestational age at cerclage was 22.5 weeks; the mean gestational age at delivery was 30.7 weeks; and the mean interval between cerclage and delivery was 8.2 weeks. In 15 out of 16 cases, cerclage was performed without encountering any complications. No maternal complications, including cervical laceration, were observed. The mean body weight of 17 neonates, including that of a twin, was 1,516 g and of them, 15 neonates survived. The important outcome of bridge suture is the replacement of fetal membranes back into the uterine cavity before McDonald's cerclage is performed. Pretreatment with bridge suture may facilitate the performance of a successful emergency cerclage and contribute to good maternal and neonatal outcomes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Voyager 1 Saturn targeting strategy (United States)

    Cesarone, R. J.


    A trajectory targeting strategy for the Voyager 1 Saturn encounter has been designed to accomodate predicted uncertainties in Titan's ephemeris while maximizing spacecraft safety and science return. The encounter is characterized by a close Titan flyby 18 hours prior to Saturn periapse. Retargeting of the nominal trajectory to account for late updates in Titan's estimated position can disperse the ascending node location, which is nominally situated at a radius of low expected particle density in Saturn's ring plane. The strategy utilizes a floating Titan impact vector magnitude to minimize this dispersion. Encounter trajectory characteristics and optimal tradeoffs are presented.

  18. The deuterium abundance in Jupiter and Saturn from ISO-SWS observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E; Bezard, B; Fouchet, T; Feuchtgruber, H; Encrenaz, T; de Graauw, T

    Observations with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) are used to determine the D/H ratio in Jupiter's and Saturn's atmospheres. The D/H ratio is measured independently in hydrogen (i.e. from the HD/H-2 ratio) and methane (from CH3D/CH4). Observations

  19. Saturn's outer magnetosphere (United States)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.


    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  20. Success of Saturn: A Case Study of the Saturn Automobile (United States)


    speed in production with nearly 20,000 cars per month coming off the assembly line.133 MARKETING THE PRODUCT ADVERTISING STRATEGY Saturn’s approach to...Satisfaction Index.𔄁 5 In the Sales Satisfaction category Saturn finished sixth behind Lexus, Cadillac, Infiniti, Lincoln and Mercedes Benz , all...quality, inexpensive, fuel efficient automobiles. They put their cars on the market in the U.S. and Americans bought Japanese instead of expensive

  1. Saturn's Irregular Moon Ymir (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.


    Ymir (diameter 18 km), Saturn's second largest retrograde outer or irregular moon, has been observed six times by the Cassini narrow-angle camera (NAC) during the first 7 months in 2012. The observations span phase angles from 2° up to 102° and were taken at ranges between 15 and 18 million kilometers. From such a distance, Ymir is smaller than a pixel in the Cassini NAC. The data reveal a sidereal rotation period of 11.93 hrs, which is 1.6x longer than the previously reported value (Denk et al. 2011, EPSC/DPS #1452). Reason for this discrepancy is that the rotational light curve shows a rather uncommon 3-maxima and 3-minima shape at least in the phase angle range 50° to 100°, which was not recognizable in earlier data. The data cover several rotations from different viewing and illumination geometries and allow for a convex shape inversion with possibly a unique solution for the pole direction. The model reproduces the observed light curves to a very good accuracy without requiring albedo variegation, thereby suggesting that the lightcurve is dominated by the shape of Ymir. Among Saturn's irregular moons, the phenomenon of more than two maxima and minima at moderate to high phase angles is not unique to Ymir. At least Siarnaq and Paaliaq also show light curves with a strong deviation from a double-sine curve. Their rotation periods, however, remain unknown until more data can be taken. The light curve of Phoebe is fundamentally different to Ymir's because it is mainly shaped by local albedo differences and not by shape. Other reliable rotation periods of irregular satellites measured by Cassini include: Mundilfari 6.74 h; Kari 7.70 h; Albiorix 13.32 h; Kiviuq 21.82 h. More uncertain values are: Skathi 12 h; Bebhionn 16 h; Thrymr 27 h; Erriapus 28 h.

  2. Cassini at Saturn Huygens results

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M


    "Cassini At Saturn - Huygens Results" will bring the story of the Cassini-Huygens mission and their joint exploration of the Saturnian system right up to date. Cassini is due to enter orbit around Saturn on the 1 July 2004 and the author will have 8 months of scientific data available for review, including the most spectacular images of Saturn, its rings and satellites ever obtained by a space mission. As the Cassini spacecraft approached its destination in spring 2004, the quality of the images already being returned by the spacecraft clearly demonstrate the spectacular nature of the close-range views that will be obtained. The book will contain a 16-page colour section, comprising a carefully chosen selection of the most stunning images to be released during the spacecraft's initial period of operation. The Huygens craft will be released by Cassini in December 2004 and is due to parachute through the clouds of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in January 2005.

  3. SACLAY: Eta mesons at Saturne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Using a nuclear reaction, the new tagged eta meson facility now operating at the French Saturne National Laboratory in Saclay produces eta mesons (together with recoil helium-3 nuclei) by proton bombardment of a deuterium target. The proton beam is extracted from the Saturne synchrotron at 893 MeV, stabilized to 80 keV. This is a scant 1.5 MeV above the reaction threshold and close to the energy where eta production peaks.

  4. SACLAY: Eta mesons at Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Using a nuclear reaction, the new tagged eta meson facility now operating at the French Saturne National Laboratory in Saclay produces eta mesons (together with recoil helium-3 nuclei) by proton bombardment of a deuterium target. The proton beam is extracted from the Saturne synchrotron at 893 MeV, stabilized to 80 keV. This is a scant 1.5 MeV above the reaction threshold and close to the energy where eta production peaks

  5. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings (United States)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.


    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  6. Observations of faint comets at McDonald Observatory: 1978-1980 (United States)

    Barker, E. S.; Cochran, A. L.; Rybski, P. M.


    Modern observational techniques, developed for spectroscopy and photometry of faint galaxies and quasars, successfully applied to faint comets on the 2.7 m telescope. The periodic comets Van Biesbrock, Ashbrook-Jackson, Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, Tempel 2, Encke, Forbes, Brooks 2, Stephan-Oterma and the new comets Bradfield (19791), Bowell (1980b), Chernis-Petrauskas (1980k) were observed. The comets ranged in magnitude from 10th to 20th magnitude. For comets fainter than 19th magnitude, reflectance spectra at 100A resolution and area photometry were obtained. On comets of 17th or 18th magnitude, spectrometric scans (6A resolution) of the nucleus or inner coma region. On those comets which are brighter than 16th magnitude spatial spectrophotometric (6A resolution) studies of the inner and extended comae were done. An extensive spatial study of the comae of P/Encke and P/Stephen-Oterma, correlated with heliocentric distance is taking place. The observing process used is described and examples of the results obtained to date are discussed.

  7. The McDonald Observatory Faint Comet Survey - Gas production in 17 comets (United States)

    Cochran, Anita L.; Barker, Edwin S.; Ramseyer, Tod F.; Storrs, Alex D.


    The complete Intensified Dissector Scanner data set on 17 comets is presented, and production rates are derived and analyzed. It is shown that there is a strong degree of homogenization in the production rate ratios of many comets. It also appears that the ratio of the production rates of the various species has no heliocentric distance dependence, except for the case of NH2. When speaking of the gas in the coma of a comet, it appears that comets must have been formed under remarkably uniform conditions, and that they must have evolved and formed their comae in a similar manner. The data presented here constitute strong evidence that the minor species must be bound up in a lattice and that the interior of a comet must be reasonably uniform.

  8. Extending the McDonald Observatory Serendipitous Survey of UV/Blue Asteroid Spectra (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Cochran, A. L.


    Moderate resolution asteroid spectra in the 350 - 650 nm spectral range acquired randomly over many years (Cochran and Vilas, Icarus v 127, 121, 1997) identified absorption features in spectra of some of the asteroids. A feature centered at 430 nm was identified in the spectra of some low-albedo asteroids (C class and subclass), similar to the feature identified by Vilas et al. (Icarus, v. 102, 225,1993) in other low-albedo asteroid spectra and attributed to a ferric iron spin-forbidden transition in iron alteration minerals such as jarosite. Features at 505 nm and 430 nm were identified in the spectrum of 4 Vesta. The 505-nm feature is highly diagnostic of the amount and form of calcium in pyroxenes. This suggested further research on the sharpness and spectral placement of this feature in the spectra of Vesta and Vestoids (e.g., Cochran and Vilas, Icarus v. 134, 207, 1998). In 1997 and 1998, additional UV/blue spectra were obtained at the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope with a facility cassegrain spectrograph. These included spectra of low-albedo asteroids, the R-class asteroid 349 Dembowska, and the M-class asteroid 135 Hertha. These spectra will be presented and identified features will be discussed.

  9. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory. [spark gap configuration and photomultiplier system (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.


    Range measurements to an accuracy of 5 cm were achieved following improvements in the laser oscillator configuration and the photomultiplier system. Modifications to the laser include a redesigned pockel cell mount to eliminate stressing of the cell crystal; an improved electrically triggered spark gap for sharpening the electrical pulse; the use of a brewster plate in the cavity to eliminate pre-pulsing; improved alignment for the oscillator system; and increased cavity lifetime through thin film polarizer technology. Laser calibration data are presented along with the lunar laser operations log for June to October 1977.

  10. Saturn's Rings Edge-on (United States)


    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  11. 7. Saturne study meeting; Septiemes journees d`etudes saturne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Saturne workshop has welcomed 120 scientists. 3 sessions have been organized: accelerators, physics and miscellaneous. The most recent experiments realized or scheduled at Saturne have been presented and the discussions which followed showed the high scientific interest taken in that equipment and made the participants regret its definitive closing down. Presentations by european teams about existent equipment, machines under construction or new projects opened the way to new perspectives. A lot of contributions were dedicated to the realization of high intensity particle beams and to the applications of accelerators. (A.C.)

  12. 7. Saturne study meeting; Septiemes journees d`etudes saturne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Saturne workshop has welcomed 120 scientists. 3 sessions have been organized: accelerators, physics and miscellaneous. The most recent experiments realized or scheduled at Saturne have been presented and the discussions which followed showed the high scientific interest taken in that equipment and made the participants regret its definitive closing down. Presentations by european teams about existent equipment, machines under construction or new projects opened the way to new perspectives. A lot of contributions were dedicated to the realization of high intensity particle beams and to the applications of accelerators. (A.C.)

  13. Saturn and How to Observe it

    CERN Document Server

    Benton, Julius L


    Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system, and the only one with a spectacular ring system easily visible from Earth. Julius Benton's Saturn and How to Observe It provides a compendium of the latest information, amateur and professional images of Saturn. These images are followed by advice on how to observe Saturn using a variety of telescope apertures, color filters and magnifications. This text is a goldmine of information for all levels of amateur observers, from the beginner to the highly experienced. Brought to life by crisp color photographs, Saturn and How to Observe It is a modern comprehensive review of Saturn as a planet and its magnificent ring system. The book includes some of the latest detailed theories and physical descriptions of Saturn and its satellites. The techniques for observing Saturn are outlined in this book, giving the reader a thorough explanation of what they are viewing.

  14. Saturn Dynamo Model (Invited) (United States)

    Glatzmaier, G. A.


    There has been considerable interest during the past few years about the banded zonal winds and global magnetic field on Saturn (and Jupiter). Questions regarding the depth to which the intense winds extend below the surface and the role they play in maintaining the dynamo continue to be debated. The types of computer models employed to address these questions fall into two main classes: general circulation models (GCMs) based on hydrostatic shallow-water assumptions from the atmospheric and ocean modeling communities and global non-hydrostatic deep convection models from the geodynamo and solar dynamo communities. The latter class can be further divided into Boussinesq models, which do not account for density stratification, and anelastic models, which do. Recent efforts to convert GCMs to deep circulation anelastic models have succeeded in producing fluid flows similar to those obtained from the original deep convection anelastic models. We describe results from one of the original anelastic convective dynamo simulations and compare them to a recent anelastic dynamo benchmark for giant gas planets. This benchmark is based on a polytropic reference state that spans five density scale heights with a radius and rotation rate similar to those of our solar system gas giants. The resulting magnetic Reynolds number is about 3000. Better spatial resolution will be required to produce more realistic predictions that capture the effects of both the density and electrical conductivity stratifications and include enough of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. Important additional physics may also be needed in the models. However, the basic models used in all simulation studies of the global dynamics of giant planets will hopefully first be validated by doing these simpler benchmarks.

  15. Saturn's Misbegotten Moonlets (United States)

    Spitale, Joseph N.


    Saturn's rings are interspersed with numerous narrow (tens of km wide) gaps. Two of the largest of these gaps -- Encke and Keeler -- contain satellites -- Pan and Daphnis -- that maintain their respective gaps via the classical Goldreich/Tremaine-style shepherding mechanism wherein angular momentum is transferred across the essentially empty gap via torques acting between the satellites and the ring. Other prominent gaps are shepherded by resonances with external satellites or planetary modes: Mimas shepherds the outer edge of the B ring, clearing the inner part of the Cassini Division, Titan shepherds the Columbo ringlet / gap, and the Maxwell ringlet / gap is likely maintained by a resonance with a planetary mode. Prior to Cassini, it was expected that all of the gaps would be shepherded in a similar manner.However, many small gaps do not correspond with known resonances, and no satellites were spotted within those gaps during Cassini's prime and extended mission. To address this issue, a series of Cassini imaging observations were planned to examine 11 gaps in the C ring and Cassini division at a resolution and longitudinal coverage sufficient to either discover the shepherds or rule out their presence. The survey discovered no embedded satellites. Longitudinal coverage was incomplete, but within longitudes covered by the survey, satellites are ruled out to sizes in the 100-m range, far too small keep the observed gaps open. It is possible (about even odds) that there could be a larger satellite residing at a longitude not covered in the survey, but the probability that the survey was unfortunate enough to miss significant satellites in all 11 gaps is exceedingly small (~0.002%). Moreover, these gaps appear in earlier imaging sequences, with some high-resolution coverage, so the true probability is smaller yet. Therefore, a new theory is likely needed to explain the presence of the gaps.

  16. Upstream waves in Saturn's foreshock (United States)

    Bavassano Cattaneo, M. B.; Cattaneo, P.; Moreno, G.; Lepping, R. P.


    An analysis based on plasma and magnetic-field data obtained from Voyager 1 during its Saturn encounter is reported. The plasma data provided every 96 sec and magnetic-field data averaged over 48 sec are utilized. The evidence of upstream waves at Saturn are detected. The waves have a period, in the spacecraft frame, of about 550 sec and a relative amplitude larger than 0.3, are left- and right-hand elliptically polarized, and propagate at about 30 deg with respect to the average magnetic field. The appearance of the waves is correlated with the spacecraft being magnetically connected to the bow shock.

  17. Vnímanie značky McDonald's na českom trhu


    Harčár, Tomáš


    The bachelor thesis explores perception of the brand McDonald's on the Czech market. The objective of this thesis is to test via questionnaire an assumption, which is based on belief that customers find food sold in McDonald's restaurant unhealthy and of poor quality. The thesis contains a theoretic part which presents a basic definition linked to brand building and brand image. Those definitions are further used to explain advertising strategy of McDonald's company. Concluding chapter evalua...

  18. Comparative Study of McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) development in China


    Xie, Yuanyuan; Hu, Wei


    Abstract McDonald's and KFC are two international fast food restaurants. They both expended their businesses in global scale. It is obvious that McDonald surpassed KFC in terms of sales and fame in international level. However, in China, KFC performs better than McDonald's. The aim of this study is to find out how these two companies developed differently in Chinese market. By making a comparative study of McDonald's and KFC, different operation and competitive strategy theory will be...

  19. LASSO observations at McDonald and OCA/CERGA: A preliminary analysis (United States)

    Veillet, CH.; Fridelance, P.; Feraudy, D.; Boudon, Y.; Shelus, P. J.; Ricklefs, R. L.; Wiant, J. R.


    The Laser Synchronization from Synchronous Orbit (LASSO) observations between USA and Europe were made possible with the move of Meteosat 3/P2 toward 50 deg W. Two Lunar Laser Ranging stations participated into the observations: the MLRS at McDonald Observatory (Texas, USA) and OCA/CERGA (Grasse, France). Common sessions were performed since 30 Apr. 1992, and will be continued up to the next Meteosat 3/P2 move further West (planned for January 1993). The preliminary analysis made with the data already collected by the end of Nov. 1992 shows that the precision which can be obtained from LASSO is better than 100 ps, the accuracy depending on how well the stations maintain their time metrology, as well as on the quality of the calibration (still to be made.) For extracting such a precision from the data, the processing has been drastically changed compared to the initial LASSO data analysis. It takes into account all the measurements made, timings on board, and echoes at each station. This complete use of the data increased dramatically the confidence into the synchronization results.

  20. Diagram of Saturn V Launch Vehicle (United States)


    This is a good cutaway diagram of the Saturn V launch vehicle showing the three stages, the instrument unit, and the Apollo spacecraft. The chart on the right presents the basic technical data in clear detail. The Saturn V is the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in the United States. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams. Development of the Saturn V was the responsibility of the Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, Alabama, directed by Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  1. Spallation neutron experiment at SATURNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The double differential cross sections for (p,xn) reactions and the spectra of neutrons produced from the thick target have been measured at SATURNE in SACLAY from 1994 to 1997. The status of the experiment and the preliminary experimental results are presented. (author)

  2. McDonald Generalized Linear Failure Rate Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Elbatal


    Full Text Available We introduce in this paper a new six-parameters generalized version of the generalized linear failure rate (GLFR distribution which is called McDonald Generalized Linear failure rate (McGLFR distribution. The new distribution is quite flexible and can be used effectively in modeling survival data and reliability problems. It can have a constant, decreasing, increasing, and upside down bathtub-and bathtub shaped failure rate function depending on its parameters. It includes some well-known lifetime distributions as special sub-models. Some structural properties of the new distribution are studied. Moreover we discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameters of the new model.

  3. The Mcdonaldization of Academic Libraries and the Values of Transformational Change (United States)

    Nicholson, Karen P.


    In his article "The McDonaldization of Academic Libraries?" Brian Quinn explores to what extent and to what effect academic libraries have become "McDonaldized," according to the concept developed by sociologist George Ritzer. Quinn identifies a number of ways in which the four dimensions of…

  4. Hesburger asub ründama, McDonalds teeb kaevikuid / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres


    Hesburger tahab Eestis oma restoranide hulka kolmekordistada. McDonald's Eestis ei laiene, kuid kavatseb ettevõtte efektiivsust suurendada. Eesti hamburgerirestoranide kett Nehatu on konkurentsist välja langenud. Tabelid: Tulemused; Hamburgerirestoranid Eestis; Hamburger ja McDonald's maailmas. Lisad: Hakkas Hesburgeri partneriks; Hakka McDonald'si partneriks

  5. A Comparative Study of McDonald's Wedding Narratives with the Model of Anchoring (United States)

    Huang, Mimi


    Fast-food giant McDonald's announced in 2010 that they would start hosting wedding ceremonies and receptions for couples who would like to get married in their restaurants in Hong Kong. This paper conducts a study comparing the differing representations of McDonald's wedding services through a narrative analytical approach. Specifically, this…

  6. Corporate communication or McCommunication? Considering a McDonaldization of corporate communication hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.


    In this essay the perspective of Ritzer's McDonaldization of Society Thesis is the starting point for developing hypotheses about corporate communication (CorpCom). The central idea of McDonaldization is that increasing numbers of organizations are run as fast food restaurants, focusing on:

  7. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald's. (United States)

    Spencer, Elsa H; Frank, Erica; McIntosh, Nichole F


    McDonald's has sold >100 billion beef-based hamburgers worldwide with a potentially considerable health impact. This paper explores whether there would be any advantages if the next 100 billion burgers were instead plant-based burgers. Nutrient composition of the beef hamburger patty and the McVeggie burger patty were obtained from the McDonald's website; sales data were obtained from the McDonald's customer service. Consuming 100 billion McDonald's beef burgers versus the same company's McVeggie burgers would provide, approximately, on average, an additional 550 million pounds of saturated fat and 1.2 billion total pounds of fat, as well as 1 billion fewer pounds of fiber, 660 million fewer pounds of protein, and no difference in calories. These data suggest that the McDonald's new McVeggie burger represents a less harmful fast-food choice than the beef burger.

  8. Ronald McDonald dit: "Tout le monde connait: 'Deuxsteakshachessaucespecialesaladefromageoignons dansuntriplepainrondrecouvertdegrainsdesesames'" (Ronald McDonald Says: "Everyone Knows: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles- Onions-on-a-Sesame-Seed Bun'"). (United States)

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school French to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Paris. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Parisian McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom, (3) order…

  9. Ronald McDonald pregunta: "Puedes decir: 'dostortosdepurocarnederessalsaespeciallechugagueso- pepinillosycebollasenunpanconsemillasdeajonjoli'?" (Ronald McDonald Asks: "Can You Say: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles-Onions-On- A-Sesame-Seed-Bun'?" Activities in Spanish). (United States)

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school Spanish to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Costa Rica. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Costa Rican McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom,…

  10. Atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.E.


    In this paper the current knowledge of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are reviewed making use of the extensive telescopic studies, International Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite observations and the measurements made during the recent Pioneer and Voyager flybys which have been supported by detailed theoretical studies. A detailed discussion is given of the composition of these atmospheres and the abundance ratios which provide insight into their original state and their evolution. The Voyager observations indicate a surprisingly close similarity between the weather systems of the Earth and the giant planets. Although both Jupiter and Saturn have internal heat sources, and are therefore star-like in their interiors, they appear to produce terrestrial-style weather systems. A detailed discussion is given of this work, which forms a major study of the Laboratory for Planetary Atmospheres at University College London. (author)

  11. Detection of arsine in Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezard, B.; Drossart, P.; Lellouch, E.; Tarrago, G.; Maillard, J.P.


    The detection of arsine (AsH3) in Saturn's atmosphere using high-resolution observations near 4.7 microns is reported. A strong broad absorption at the position of the nu3 Q-branch of AsH3 and weaker features where the R(1) lines of the nu1 and nu3 bands occur are noted in this high-resolution spectral range. Comparison with synthetic spectra derived from a model atmosphere indicates the following: both the thermal emission and the reflected solar radiation contribute to Saturn's 5 micron flux; the mole fraction of arsine is (2.4 + 1.4 or - 1.2) x 10 to the -9th in the approx. 4 bar region (T about 200 K) from which the thermal emission originates; AsH3 is 2.5 to 10 times less abundant in the upper troposphere (0.2-0.4 bar), a possible consequence of UV photolysis. The current observation of arsine implies upward transport from the 360 K region that is sufficiently rapid to inhibit conversion reactions. A reanalysis of 5-micron spectroscopic observations of Jupiter by Bjoraker, Larson, and Kunde (1986) indicated that arsine is much less abundant on Jupiter (AsH3/H2 less than or roughly equal to 3 x 10 to the -10th) than on Saturn. 27 refs

  12. [The dangers and drifts of health McDonaldization]. (United States)

    Cembrani, Fabio


    The author reflects on the healthcare crisis, starting from globalization and liquid-modern society, with its systemic contradictions. The health care system is influenced by McDonald's success and its philosophy: efficiency, productivity, cost reduction, procedural standardization and control. This article underlines the deficiencies and manipulations in the health care system. The profit-oriented economic model is successful due to lack of attention to product quality from the globalised and hyper-consumerist society. Italian legislation has regulated the standardization in healthcare procedure, aiming at cost reduction of defensive medicine. It has been underlined that it defines actions, nevertheless human activity is mainly realized through language, gesture and creation. A new anthropological model is proposed, based on commitment and distributive justice.

  13. Reliability and validity of the McDonald Play Inventory. (United States)

    McDonald, Ann E; Vigen, Cheryl


    This study examined the ability of a two-part self-report instrument, the McDonald Play Inventory, to reliably and validly measure the play activities and play styles of 7- to 11-yr-old children and to discriminate between the play of neurotypical children and children with known learning and developmental disabilities. A total of 124 children ages 7-11 recruited from a sample of convenience and a subsample of 17 parents participated in this study. Reliability estimates yielded moderate correlations for internal consistency, total test intercorrelations, and test-retest reliability. Validity estimates were established for content and construct validity. The results suggest that a self-report instrument yields reliable and valid measures of a child's perceived play performance and discriminates between the play of children with and without disabilities. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonald's Australia. (United States)

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances E; Fisher, Matt; Harris, Elizabeth; Friel, Sharon


    The practices of transnational corporations affect population health through production methods, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald's Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia. We adapted existing Health Impact Assessment methods to assess McDonald's activities. Data identifying potential impacts were sourced through document analysis, including McDonald's corporate literature; media analysis and semi-structured interviews. We commissioned a spatial and socioeconomic analysis of McDonald's restaurants in Australia through Geographic Information System technology. The data was mapped against a corporate health impact assessment framework which included McDonald's Australia's political and business practices; products and marketing; workforce, social, environmental and economic conditions; and consumers' health related behaviours. We identified both positive and detrimental aspects of McDonald's Australian operations across the scope of the CHIA framework. We found that McDonald's outlets were slightly more likely to be located in areas of lower socioeconomic status. McDonald's workplace conditions were found to be more favourable than those in many other countries which reflects compliance with Australian employment regulations. The breadth of findings revealed the need for governments to strengthen regulatory mechanisms that are conducive to health; the opportunity for McDonald's to augment their corporate social responsibility initiatives and bolster reputational endorsement; and civil society actors to inform their advocacy towards health and equity outcomes from TNC operations. Our study indicates that undertaking a corporate health impact assessment is possible, with the different methods revealing sufficient information to

  15. Postavení firmy McDonald's na trhu v USA


    Holkupová, Jitka


    This thesis deals with McDonald's and its current position in the U.S. market. The first chapter focuses on the company's history from the very beginnings to the present. It explains what was behind the success of McDonald's and how the company is different from most competitors. The second chapter focuses on the current situation in the U.S. market, the role of franchising in the fast food industry and McDonald's compared with its main competitors. The subject of the third chapter is the SWO...

  16. Collage of Saturn's smaller satellites (United States)


    This family portrait shows the smaller satellites of Saturn as viewed by Voyager 2 during its swing through the Saturnian system. The following chart corresponds to this composite photograph (distance from the planet increases from left to right) and lists names, standard numerical designations and approximate dimensions (radii where indicated) in kilometers: 1980S26Outer F-ringshepherd120 X 100 1980S1Leadingco-orbital220 X 160 1980S25TrailingTethys trojanradii: 25 1980S28Outer Ashepherdradii: 20 1980S27Inner F-ringco-orbital145 X 70 1980S3TrailingTethys trojan140 X 100 1980S13LeadingTethys trojanradii: 30 1980S6LeadingDione trojanradii: 30 These images have been scaled to show the satellites in true relative sizes. This set of small objects ranges in size from small asteroidal scales to nearly the size of Saturn's moon Mimas. They are probably fragments of somewhat larger bodies broken up during the bombardment period that followed accretion of the Saturnian system. Scientists believe they may be mostly icy bodies with a mixture of meteorite rock. They are somewhat less reflective than the larger satellites, suggesting that thermal evolution of the larger moons 'cleaned up' their icy surfaces. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  17. Private Observatories in South Africa (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.


    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  18. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  19. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market


    Karataev, Oleg


    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  20. Conclusions and recommendations: Exploration of the Saturn system (United States)

    Hunten, D. M.


    Saturn missions have the following principal goals, in order of importance: (1) Intensive investigation of the atmosphere of Saturn; (2) determination of regional surface chemistry and properties of the surface features of satellites and properties of ring particles; (3) intensive investigation of Titan; and (4) atmospheric dynamics and structure of Saturn satellites and Saturn rings.

  1. The 2010 Saturn's Great White Spot: Observations and models (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.


    On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. We report on the evolution and motions of the 2010 GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The GWS "head source" extinguished by June 2011 implying that it survived about 6 months. Since this source is assumed to be produced by water moist convection, a reservoir of water vapor must exist at a depth of 10 bar and at the same time a disturbance producing the necessary convergence to trigger the ascending motions. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by a continuous Gaussian heat source extending from 10 bar to about 1 bar, that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. The presentation is done on behalf of the team listed in Reference [1]. [1]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011) [2]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 353, 397-401 (1991) [3]Hueso R., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1152-1159 (2010).

  2. Kepler-77b: a very low albedo, Saturn-mass transiting planet around a metal-rich solar-like star (United States)

    Gandolfi, D.; Parviainen, H.; Fridlund, M.; Hatzes, A. P.; Deeg, H. J.; Frasca, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Tognelli, E.; McQuillan, A.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Antoci, V.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Djupvik, A. A.; Guenther, E. W.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Ofir, A.; Telting, J.


    We report the discovery of Kepler-77b (alias KOI-127.01), a Saturn-mass transiting planet in a 3.6-day orbit around a metal-rich solar-like star. We combined the publicly available Kepler photometry (quarters 1-13) with high-resolution spectroscopy from the Sandiford at McDonald and FIES at NOT spectrographs. We derived the system parameters via a simultaneous joint fit to the photometric and radial velocity measurements. Our analysis is based on the Bayesian approach and is carried out by sampling the parameter posterior distributions using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Kepler-77b is a moderately inflated planet with a mass of Mp = 0.430 ± 0.032 MJup, a radius of Rp = 0.960 ± 0.016 RJup, and a bulk density of ρp = 0.603 ± 0.055 g cm-3. It orbits a slowly rotating (Prot = 36 ± 6 days) G5 V star with M⋆ = 0.95 ± 0.04 M⊙, R⋆ = 0.99 ± 0.02 R⊙, Teff = 5520 ± 60 K, [M/H] = 0.20 ± 0.05 dex, that has an age of 7.5 ± 2.0 Gyr. The lack of detectable planetary occultation with a depth higher than ~10 ppm implies a planet geometric and Bond albedo of Ag ≤ 0.087 ± 0.008 and AB ≤ 0.058 ± 0.006, respectively, placing Kepler-77b among the gas-giant planets with the lowest albedo known so far. We found neither additional planetary transit signals nor transit-timing variations at a level of ~0.5 min, in accordance with the trend that close-in gas giant planets seem to belong to single-planet systems. The 106 transitsobserved in short-cadence mode by Kepler for nearly 1.2 years show no detectable signatures of the planet's passage in front of starspots. We explored the implications of the absence of detectable spot-crossing events for the inclination of the stellar spin-axis, the sky-projected spin-orbit obliquity, and the latitude of magnetically active regions. Based on observations obtained with the 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA.Based on observations obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the

  3. SATURN. Studying Atmospheric Pollution in Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moussiopoulos, N.; Hout, K. D. van den; Mestayer, P.

    SATURN is a subproject under EUROTRAC-2. (EUROTRAC-2 is the EUREKA Project on the Transport and Chemical Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents in the Troposphere over Europe; Second Phase)....

  4. Birth and next future of SATURNE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienet, R.


    The renewal SATURNE project started in 1974. SATURNE I desassembling began in may 1977 and in july 1978 with the new ring, we just get more that ten to the eleventh particules in the very first hour of starting. The main parameters of SATURNE II was presented at the IX 0 International Conference on High Energy Accelerator at Stanford in may 1974 (Proceedings p. 615). SATURNE II is a strong focusing synchrotron and the injected particules fill the synchrotron space with very few betatron oscillation. So a small emittance external beam should be obtained, which is very important for experimental nuclear physics. The realization main difficulties will be mentionned. The results obtained with the first days beam will be presented. We will described the forecasted characteristics of the accelerator and the experimental areas to be reached in 1979

  5. Evaluation of the 2010 McDonald multiple sclerosis criteria in children with a clinically isolated syndrome. (United States)

    Kornek, Barbara; Schmitl, Beate; Vass, Karl; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Pritsch, Martin; Penzien, Johann; Karenfort, Michael; Blaschek, Astrid; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin


    Magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic criteria for paediatric multiple sclerosis have been established on the basis of brain imaging findings alone. The 2010 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, however, include spinal cord imaging for detection of lesion dissemination in space. The new criteria have been recommended in paediatric multiple sclerosis. (1) To evaluate the 2010 McDonald multiple sclerosis criteria in children with a clinically isolated syndrome and to compare them with recently proposed magnetic resonance criteria for children; (2) to assess whether the inclusion of spinal cord imaging provided additional value to the 2010 McDonald criteria. We performed a retrospective analysis of brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging scans from 52 children with a clinically isolated syndrome. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the magnetic resonance criteria were assessed. The 2010 McDonald dissemination in space criteria were more sensitive (85% versus 74%) but less specific (80% versus 100%) compared to the 2005 McDonald criteria. The Callen criteria were more accurate (89%) compared to the 2010 McDonald (85%), the 2005 McDonald criteria for dissemination in space (81%), the KIDMUS criteria (46%) and the Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease Network criteria (76%). The 2010 McDonald criteria for dissemination in time were more accurate (93%) than the dissemination in space criteria (85%). Inclusion of the spinal cord did not increase the accuracy of the McDonald criteria.

  6. The occultation of Epsilon Geminorum by Mars - Analysis of McDonald data. [turbulent scintillation in light curves (United States)

    Africano, J.; De Vaucouleurs, G.; Evans, D. S.; Finkel, B. E.; Nather, R. E.; Palm, C.; Silverberg, E.; Wiant, J.; Hubbard, W. B.; Jokipii, J. R.


    An analysis of observations of the occultation of Epsilon Gem by Mars on April 8, 1976, is presented. The data were obtained by three neighboring telescopes at McDonald Observatory. Intensity fluctuations on time scales of the order of 100 ms were observed simultaneously at the three telescopes. As the observations compare well with predictions of turbulent scintillation theory, it is concluded that such fluctuations were probably largely the effect of stellar scintillations in the Martian atmosphere. The stellar diameter is included as a parameter in the theory but in a way which differs from previously published interpretations of occultations of extended sources by planetary atmospheres. Scintillations govern the experimental uncertainty in the deduction of the scale height of the high Martian atmosphere. A density scale height of 9.9 + or - 2.5 km is obtained at an altitude of 74 + or - 8 km above the mean surface. For CO 2 gas, this result corresponds to a temperature of 190 + or - 50 K.

  7. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.


    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  8. Interobserver agreement on Poser's and the new McDonald's diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Zipoli, V; Portaccio, E; Siracusa, G; Pracucci, G; Sorbi, S; Amato, M P


    We assessed the interobserver agreement on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a study sample consisting of 41 MS (15 relapsing remitting, two secondary progressive, five primary progressive and 19 presenting their first clinical attack) and three non-MS cases. Clinical and paraclinical information was recorded in standardized forms. Four neurologists were asked to make a diagnosis using Poser's and McDonald's criteria and to assess MRI scans according to the McDonald's guidelines. In terms of the kappa statistic (kappa), we found a moderate agreement on the overall diagnosis using both Poser's and McDonald's criteria (kappa, respectively 0.57 and 0.52). As for distinct diagnostic categories, we observed a moderate to substantial agreement for the three McDonald categories (range of kappa values 0.49-0.64) and a fair to substantial agreement for the nine Poser categories (range of kappa values 0.37-0.67). Taking into account clinical information, the agreement on dissemination over time was substantially higher (kappa = 0.69) than that found on dissemination over space (kappa = 0.46). In contrast, for MRI assessment, the agreement for spatial dissemination was substantial (kappa = 0.74) compared with the fair agreement (kappa = 0.25) yielded by dissemination over time. The new McDonald's criteria yield a good overall diagnostic reliability, and compare favourably with Poser's classification in terms of agreement on distinct diagnostic categories.

  9. Resistive Heating in Saturn's Thermosphere (United States)

    Vriesema, Jess W.; Koskinen, Tommi; Yelle, Roger V.


    The thermospheres of the jovian planets are several times hotter than solar heating alone can account for. On Saturn, resistive heating appears sufficient to explain these temperatures in auroral regions, but the particular mechanism(s) responsible for heating the lower latitudes remains unclear. Smith et al. (2005) suggested that electrodynamics of the equatorial region—particularly resistive heating caused by strong electrojet currents—might explain the observed temperatures at low latitudes. Müller-Wodarg et al. (2006) found that their circulation model could reproduce low-latitude temperatures only when they included resistive heating at the poles and applied a uniform, generic heating source globally. Smith et al. (2007) concluded that heating at the poles leads to meridional circulation that cools low latitudes and argued that in-situ heating is required to explain the temperatures at low latitudes.Resistive heating at low latitudes, arising from enhanced current generation driven by thermospheric winds, is a potentially important in-situ heating mechanism. Ion drag caused by low-latitude electrodynamics can modify global circulation and meridional transport of energy. We present an axisymmetric, steady-state formulation of wind-driven electrodynamics to investigate these possibilities throughout Saturn's thermosphere. At present, we assume a dipole magnetic field and neglect any contributions from the magnetosphere. We use ion mixing ratios from the model of Kim et al. (2014) and the observed temperature-pressure profile from Koskinen et al. (2015) to calculate the generalized conductivity tensor as described by Koskinen et al. (2014). Our model solves the coupled equations for charge continuity and Ohm's law with tensor conductivity while enforcing zero current across the boundaries. The resulting partial differential equation is solved for the current density throughout the domain and used to calculate the net resistive heating rate. We demonstrate

  10. Ilusões de modernidade: o fetiche da marca McDonald's no Brasil Illusions of modernity: the fetish of McDonald's' brand in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isleide Arruda Fontenelle


    Full Text Available Objetiva-se apresentar e discutir as relações atuais entre imagem e entretenimento a partir de pesquisas realizadas sobre a construção da imagem de marca McDonald's e sobre as modernas técnicas de marketing. Visando compreender porque nos tornamos consumidores de imagens, procurou-se recuperar, a partir da própria historia do McDonald's, os acontecimentos econômicos, sociais, culturais, políticos, que teriam nos transformado em uma sociedade na qual "estar na imagem é existir". Embora trágica em seu sentido de fundo, essa perda da forma nos é compensada por imagens de diversão e felicidade que as marcas nos transmitem. Ao final, questiona-se o alcance global dessa promessa a partir de uma digressão sobre o Brasil: como a marca McDonald's nos fornece as imagens para uma certa constituição identitária; e o seu nome para um sentimento de permanência? Como falar de "identificação" com uma marca que, aparentemente, não teria uma relação histórica e cultural com o Brasil?This article presents and discusses the current relationship between image and entertainment, based on the results of research studies on the constitution of McDonald's' brand image all over the world and contemporary marketing. Aiming to understand why we have become image consumers, those studies tried to recover, based on McDonald's history, economical, social, cultural, and political events that have lead us towards an obsessed image society, in which, "being in the image is the same as existing". Although tragic in its bottom line, that inexistence of form is compensated to us by amusement and happiness images conveyed by the brands. Finally, the research questions the global reach of that promise, starting from a digression on Brazil: how does McDonald's' brand supply us images for a certain identity constitution; and its brand name for a permanence feeling? How is it possible to speak of "identification" with a brand that, seemingly, would not have a

  11. Starting up the Saturne synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvat, M.


    Illustrated by many drawings and graphs, this report describes and comments all operations and measurements to be performed for starting up the Saturne synchrotron until particle acceleration exclusively. The author reports the study of beam as it goes out of the Van de Graaff: experiment of position and stability of the beam axis, study of beam current and geometric characteristics (calibration of the induction probe), experiment of mass separation and proton percentage, and adjustment of regulation and Van de Graaff fall law. In a second part, he reports the optics alignment and the study of optics property (installation of the different sectors, study of inflector end voltage, and influence of inflector position in the chamber). The third part addresses the examination of phenomena associated with injection: injection method and definition of the initial instant, search for injection optimum conditions, study of particle lifetime and of phenomena on the inner probe. The fourth part proposes theoretical additional elements regarding the movement of particles at the injection in the useful area, and phenomena occurring on targets and on the inner probe

  12. Charged dust in saturn's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.; Hill, J.R.; Houpis, H.L.F.


    Gravito-electrodynamic theory of charged dust grains is used to explain a variety of phenomena in those portions of the Saturnian ring system that are known to be dominated by fine (micron- and submicron-sized) dust, and in which collisional forces and Coulomb drag can be neglected. Among the phenomena discussed are the formation and evolution of the rotating near-radial spokes in the B-ring, the formation of waves in the F-ring, the cause of eccentricities of certain isolated ringlets, and the origin and morphology of the broad diffuse E-ring. Several novel processes predicted by the gravitoelectrodynamic theory, including 'magneto-gravitational capture' of exogenic dust by the magnetosphere, '1:1 magneto-gravitational orbital resonances' of charged dust with nearby satellites, and 'gyro-orbital resonances,' are used to explain individual observations. The effect of a ring current associated with this charged dust is also evaluated. Finally, the cosmogonic implications of the magneto-gravitational theory are briefly discussed. While several (although not all) of these processes have been discussed by one or more of the present authors elsewhere, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize all these processes within the framework of gravito-electrodynamics, and also to show its range of applicability within Saturn's ring system

  13. Polar heating in Saturn's thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith


    Full Text Available A 3-D numerical global circulation model of the Kronian thermosphere has been used to investigate the influence of polar heating. The distributions of temperature and winds resulting from a general heat source in the polar regions are described. We show that both the total energy input and its vertical distribution are important to the resulting thermal structure. We find that the form of the topside heating profile is particularly important in determining exospheric temperatures. We compare our results to exospheric temperatures from Voyager occultation measurements (Smith et al., 1983; Festou and Atreya, 1982 and auroral H3+ temperatures from ground-based spectroscopic observations (e.g. Miller et al., 2000. We find that a polar heat source is consistent with both the Smith et al. determination of T∞~400 K at ~30° N and auroral temperatures. The required heat source is also consistent with recent estimates of the Joule heating rate at Saturn (Cowley et al., 2004. However, our results show that a polar heat source can probably not explain the Festou and Atreya determination of T∞~800 K at ~4° N and the auroral temperatures simultaneously. Keywords. Ionosphere (Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospherica physics (Planetary magnetospheres – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (Thermospheric dynamics

  14. Brief Analysis On Different Organizational Behaviors Between Wal-Mart and McDonald's

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ At present, increasing companies appeared on the market, and market is just like a big melting furnace. If company can not lay out themselves, company will be eliminated. Many of companies are out of use in the market, but the Walmart and McDonald's talented showing itself in numerous markets and held water in this melting furnace. And how did they achieve their success? General speaking, the organizational structure, culture and perfect management are the most important factors for the two companies. In my report, I will use the Walmart and McDonald's case and compare the two companies' different cultures, structures and managements, and begin to describe the three areas. First chapter will talk about companies' background. Second part will describe the comparison of companies. And third chapter will discuss the development of companies. Now we will walk into the world of Walmart and McDonald, and experience the success of the two enterprises jointly.

  15. Application of the McDonald MRI criteria in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Chan, Ling Ling; Sitoh, Yih Yian; Chong, June; See, Siew Ju; Umapathi, Thirugnanam N; Lim, Shih Hui; Ong, Benjamin


    The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of McDonald's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a group of Asian patients diagnosed with clinically definite MS, based on lesion characterisation on MRI scans. Forty-nine patients from 3 major neurological institutions were classified as having Asian- or Western-type MS based on clinical assessment. Each MRI scan was reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists for the presence and characteristics of brain and spinal lesions. The McDonald's MRI criteria were then applied and its sensitivity evaluated. Nine patients were excluded, leaving 34 females and 6 males who were dominantly Chinese (90%), with a mean age of 36.2 years. The MRI brain and spinal findings were detailed and tabulated. Statistically significant differences (P McDonald's MRI criteria were found between our Asian- and Western-type MS patients. The diagnostic yield of McDonald's MRI criteria increased by 20% when we substituted a cord for a brain lesion, and applied the substitution for enhancing cord lesions as well. The diagnosis is more likely to be made when using McDonald MRI criteria based on brain findings, in a patient who presents clinically with Western-type MS. The provision for substitution of "one brain for a spinal lesion" is helpful in Asian-type MS, where there is preponderance of spinal lesion load. Our findings suggest that minor modifications in the interpretation of McDonald's MRI criteria have significant impact on the diagnosis in patients clinically presenting as Asian-type MS, with potential bearing on their subsequent management.

  16. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico (United States)

    Dorman, H. J.


    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  17. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.


    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  18. Wideband Photometry of Saturn: 1995-2007 (United States)

    Schmude, Richard W.


    The writer has measured the brightness of Saturn + rings at four wavelengths (0.44 to 0.86 microns) every year since 1995 using a single channel photometer. Filters transformed to the Johnson B, V, R and I system were used in all measurements. The main conclusions of this 12 year study are: 1) The color of Saturn + rings does not change in visible light as the solar phase angle drops from 6 to 2 degrees. 2) The color of Saturn + rings becomes a few percent bluer in visible light as the solar phase angle drops below 1.0 degree due to the opposition surge. 3) In visible wavelengths, the color of Saturn + rings does not change as the ring tilt changes from 4 to 27 degrees. 4) The R-I color index value increases by about 0.1 magnitudes as the ring tilt angle rises from 4 to 27 degrees. The opening of the rings is probably the cause of this change. 5) The solar phase angle coefficient of Saturn + rings is 0.027 magnitude/degree for a ring tilt angle of 14 degrees and it rises by about 0.0005 magnitude/degree for each 1 degree increase in ring tilt angle and it drops by about the same amount for each 1 degree drop in ring tilt angle. The writer would like to thank Gordon College for providing financial support for attending this meeting.

  19. McUniversities Revisited: A Comparison of University and McDonald's Casual Employee Experiences in Australia (United States)

    Nadolny, Andrew; Ryan, Suzanne


    The McDonaldization of higher education refers to the transformation of universities from knowledge generators to rational service organizations or "McUniversities". This is reflected in the growing dependence on a casualized academic workforce. The article explores the extent to which the McDonaldization thesis applies to universities…

  20. Saturn V Instrument Unit Being Checked At MSFC (United States)


    A technician checks the systems of the Saturn V instrument unit in a test facility in Huntsville. This instrument unit was flown aboard Apollo 4 on November 7, 1967, which was the first test flight of the Saturn V. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  1. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector Ricardo.


    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  2. McJobs and Pieces of Flair: Linking McDonaldization to Alienating Work (United States)

    Treiber, Linda Ann


    This article offers strategies for teaching about rationality, bureaucracy, and social change using George Ritzer's "The McDonaldization of Society" and its ideas about efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control. Student learning is facilitated using a series of strategies: making the familiar strange, explaining…

  3. 'Acting like chameleons’: on the McDonaldization of private security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.; de Waard, J.


    Private security is a fragmented industry with tens of thousands of small- and medium-sized suppliers worldwide. However, with the arrival in the market of multinational brands such as Group 4 Securicor and Securitas, we are witnessing a McDonaldization of security commodities. This development

  4. McDonald's restaurants and neighborhood deprivation in Scotland and England. (United States)

    Cummins, Steven C J; McKay, Laura; MacIntyre, Sally


    Features of the local fast food environment have been hypothesized to contribute to the greater prevalence of obesity in deprived neighborhoods. However, few studies have investigated whether fast food outlets are more likely to be found in poorer areas, and those that have are local case studies. In this paper, using national-level data, we examine the association between neighborhood deprivation and the density of McDonald's restaurants in small census areas (neighborhoods) in Scotland and England. Data on population, deprivation, and the location of McDonald's Restaurants were obtained for 38,987 small areas in Scotland and England (6505 "data zones" in Scotland, and 32,482 "super output areas" in England) in January 2005. Measures of McDonald's restaurants per 1000 people for each area were calculated, and areas were divided into quintiles of deprivation. Associations between neighborhood deprivation and outlet density were examined during February 2005, using one-way analysis of variance in Scotland, England, and both countries combined. Statistically significant positive associations were found between neighborhood deprivation and the mean number of McDonald's outlets per 1000 people for Scotland (p<0.001), England (p<0.001), and both countries combined (p<0.001). These associations were broadly linear with greater mean numbers of outlets per 1000 people occurring as deprivation levels increased. Observed associations between presence or absence of fast food outlets and neighborhood deprivation may provide support for environmental explanations for the higher prevalence of obesity in poor neighborhoods.

  5. The Rationalization of Everything? Using Ritzer's McDonaldization Thesis To Teach Weber. (United States)

    Lippmann, Stephen; Aldrich, Howard


    Outlines a plan for helping undergraduate students appreciate Max Weber's theoretical achievements, teaching critical thinking about what constitutes 'the good life' in rationalized societies. Uses the book "The McDonaldization of Society" (George Ritzer) to encourage student interest in Weber's work. Describes field exercises and…

  6. Where Were the Whistleblowers? The Case of Allan McDonald and Roger Boisjoly. (United States)

    Stewart, Lea P.

    Employees who "blow the whistle" on their company because they believe it is engaged in practices that are illegal, immoral, or harmful to the public, often face grave consequences for their actions, including demotion, harassment, forced resignation, or termination. The case of Allan McDonald and Roger Boisjoly, engineers who blew the…

  7. Beneath the Golden Arches: The McDonald's Corporation [and] Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Brufke, Edward F.

    This teacher developed case study which surveys the meteoric rise of the McDonald's Corporation and that of its chief promoter, Ray Kroc, is intended to help secondary students develop an understanding of economics and of the decision-making process. A teacher's guide containing questions for discussion and suggestions for class activities is…

  8. J. Crush and D.A. McDonald. (eds). 2002. Transnationalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Crush and D.A. McDonald. (eds). 2002. Transnationalism and New African Immigration to South Africa. Cape Town. Southern African Migration Project and the Canadian Association of African Studies. IV + 188 pp. ISBN 0-88911-926-0.

  9. Hydrothermal venting on the flanks of Heard and McDonald islands, southern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Lupton, J. E.; Arculus, R. J.; Coffin, M.; Bradney, A.; Baumberger, T.; Wilkinson, C.


    Heard Island and the nearby McDonald Islands are two sites of active volcanism associated with the so-called Kerguelen mantle plume or hot spot. In fact, it has been proposed that the Kerguelen hot spot is currently located beneath Heard Island. During its maiden maximum endurance voyage (IN2016_V01), the recently commissioned Australian R/V Investigator conducted a detailed bathymetric and water column survey of the waters around Heard Island and the McDonald Islands as well as other sites on the Kerguelen Plateau. Some 50 hydrographic profiles were completed using the CTD/rosette system equipped with trace metal sampling and a nephelometer for suspended particle concentrations. In addition to the hydrographic profiles, 244 bubble plumes were detected in the vicinity of the Heard and McDonald Islands using the ship's multibeam system. It is thought that the bubble plumes observed on sea knolls and other seafloor surrounding the McDonald Islands are likely hydrothermal in origin, while plumes northeast of Heard Island may be biogenic methane from cold seeps. At 29 of the hydrographic stations water samples for helium isotope measurements were drawn from the CTD rosette and hermetically sealed into copper tubing for subsequent shorebased mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph analysis. In this paper we report results for 3He/4He ratios and CO2 and CH4 concentrations in water samples collected with the CTD/rosette, and discuss how these results are correlated with suspended particle concentrations and temperature anomalies.

  10. Wij kiezen bij arbeidsomstandigheden voor de grote A : personeelsbeleid is als hamburger voor McDonald's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, T.; Vergouw, E.


    Leuk werken is - volgens Manager Human Resources Lydia van Dongen - een belangrijk aandachtspunt bij de hamburgergigant McDonald's. Daarvoor haalt het bedrijf alles voor uit de kast. Investeren in arbozorg loont. In dit artikel wordt verslag gedaan van een interview met Lydia van Dongen. Hierbij

  11. Knot positioning during McDonald cervical cerclage, does it make a difference? A cohort study. (United States)

    Atia, Hytham; Ellaithy, Mohamed; Altraigey, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Heba


    To study the effect of McDonald cerclage knot position on the different maternal and neonatal outcomes. This historical cohort study included women with singleton pregnancy who had a prophylactic McDonald cervical cerclage between 1 May 2010 and 31 September 2017. Maternal and neonatal outcome parameters were compared between the anterior and posterior knot cerclage procedures. The primary outcome measure was the rate of term birth. 550 Women had a prophylactic McDonald cervical cerclage, 306 with anterior knot (Group A) and 244 with posterior knot (Group B). There were no statistically significant differences regarding gestational age (GA) at delivery (36.3 ± 4.2 versus 35.8 ± 5.3 for groups A and B respectively), term birth rate, post-cerclage cervical length, symptomatic vaginitis, urinary tract infection, difficult cerclage removal and cervical lacerations. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences as regards the studied neonatal outcomes including take home babies, neonatal intensive care admission, respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal sepsis. Survival analysis on GA at delivery demonstrated no statistically significant difference as regards the proportion of term deliveries in the anterior and posterior knot cerclage groups (log-rank test p-value = .478). Knot positioning during McDonald cervical cerclage, anteriorly or posteriorly, didn't significantly impact the studied maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  12. A Note on McDonald's Generalization of Principal Components Analysis (United States)

    Shine, Lester C., II


    It is shown that McDonald's generalization of Classical Principal Components Analysis to groups of variables maximally channels the totalvariance of the original variables through the groups of variables acting as groups. An equation is obtained for determining the vectors of correlations of the L2 components with the original variables.…

  13. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk


    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  14. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  15. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.


    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  16. Saturn - lord of the rings. [Pioneer II investigation of Saturn reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G [University Coll., London (UK); Burgess, E


    Much new information has been obtained about Saturn and its system of rings by the spacecraft Pioneer II. One of the major discoveries was that Saturn has a magnetic field whose axis was found to correspond almost exactly with the axis of rotation of the planet. The planet was also found to be surrounded by belts of trapped energetic particles (radiation belts) which are effected by the planet's rings. It was not only discovered that Saturn has at least 10 satellites but also new information was provided by Pioneer about the Planet's ring system that would have been impossible to obtain from Earth-based observations. Analysis of Saturn's gravitational field, coupled with a temperature profile calculated from infrared measurements of the heat emitted by the clouds in excess of that received from the Sun, has allowed a new view of the interior of the planet to be developed.

  17. The Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojvat, C.


    The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international collaboration for the detailed study of the highest energy cosmic rays. It will operate at two similar sites, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. The Observatory is designed to collect a statistically significant data set of events with energies greater than 10 19 eV and with equal exposures for the northern and southern skies

  18. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times (United States)

    Leverington, David


    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  19. Diagram of the Saturn V Launch Vehicle in Metric (United States)


    This is a good cutaway diagram of the Saturn V launch vehicle showing the three stages, the instrument unit, and the Apollo spacecraft. The chart on the right presents the basic technical data in clear metric detail. The Saturn V is the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in the United States. The towering, 111 meter, Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams. Development of the Saturn V was the responsibility of the Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, Alabama, directed by Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  20. The Paris Observatory has 350 years (United States)

    Lequeux, James


    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  1. At Saturn: Tripping the Flight Fantastic (United States)

    Porco, Carolyn C.


    Boulder planetary scientist Carolyn Porco, leader of the imaging team for NASA's Cassini mission to Saturn and science advisor for the forthcoming movie "Star Trek," guides you on a magical mystery tour around the ringed planet. Come and witness the wonders, discoveries, and the awesome natural beauty of this amazing planet and its family of rings and moons.

  2. Self-gravitation in Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, H.; Lukkari, J.


    In a ring-shaped collisional system self-gravitation reduces the equilibrium values of the geometric and optical thickness. In Saturn's rings both effects are appreciable. The previously found discrepancy between the calculated profile and the observed profile of the rings is chiefly caused by the omission of self-gravitation. (Auth.)

  3. Origin and evolution of Jupiter and Saturn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S S [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA)


    Arguments are presented which make it very unlikely that Jupiter and Saturn were formed by contraction from initially extended gaseous states. Formation of these and other planets (in the solar system) by the mechanism of accretion does not appear to present any difficulties.

  4. [Revision of McDonald's new diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis]. (United States)

    Wiendl, H; Kieseier, B C; Gold, R; Hohlfeld, R; Bendszus, M; Hartung, H-P


    In 2001, an international panel suggested new diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). These criteria integrate clinical, imaging (MRI), and paraclinical results in order to facilitate diagnosis. Since then, these so-called McDonald criteria have been broadly accepted and widely propagated. In the meantime a number of publications have dealt with the sensitivity and specificity for MS diagnosis and with implementing these new criteria in clinical practice. Based on these empirical values and newer data on MS, an international expert group recently proposed a revision of the criteria. Substantial changes affect (1) MRI criteria for the dissemination of lesions over time, (2) the role of spinal cord lesions in the MRI and (3) diagnosis of primary progressive MS. In this article we present recent experiences with the McDonald and revised criteria.

  5. Globalization Theory: Lessons from the Exportation of McDonaldization and the New Means of Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzer, George (Maryland, Univ Of - College Pa); Malone, Elizabeth L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ritzer, George


    McDonaldization and the exportation of the new means of consumption tend to support the view that in at least some sectors the world is growing more homogeneous than heterogeneous. Against those globalization theorists who tend to focus on the importance of the local and therefore on heterogeneity, the study of McDonaldization and the new means of consumption emphasizes transnational issues and uniformity throughout the world. Fast-food restaurants do adapt to local markets, but the basic procedures of operation and marketing remain the same across a wide range of international settings. This is true even of indigenous versions. The uniformity is exported by transnational corporations, with nation-states less and less able to control or restrict such exports.

  6. Globalization Theory: Lessons from the Exportation of McDonaldization and the New Means of Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzer, George; Malone, Elizabeth L.


    McDonaldization and the exportation of the new means of consumption tend to support the view that in at least some sectors the world is growing more homogeneous than heterogeneous. Against those globalization theorists who tend to focus on the importance of the local and therefore on heterogeneity, the study of McDonaldization and the new means of consumption emphasizes transnational issues and uniformity throughout the world. Fast-food restaurants do adapt to local markets, but the basic procedures of operation and marketing remain the same across a wide range of international settings. This is true even of indigenous versions. The uniformity is exported by transnational corporations, with nation-states less and less able to control or restrict such exports.

  7. Most Scottish neurologists do not apply the 2010 McDonald criteria when diagnosing multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Lumley, R; Davenport, R; Williams, A


    The diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis have evolved over time and currently the 2010 McDonald criteria are the most widely accepted. These criteria allow the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis to be made at the clinically isolated syndrome stage provided certain criteria are met on a single magnetic resonance brain scan. Our hypothesis was that neurologists in Scotland did not use these criteria routinely. We sent a SurveyMonkey questionnaire to all Scottish neurologists (consultants and trainees) regarding the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Our questionnaire response rate was 65/99 (66%). Most Scottish neurologists were aware of the criteria and 31/58 (53%) felt that they were using these routinely. However, in a clinical vignette designed to test the application of these criteria, only 5/57 (9%) of neurologists appeared to use them. Scottish neurologists' use of the 2010 McDonald criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis varies from practitioners' perception of their use of these criteria.

  8. The world of Ronald McDonald: on the trademark and the mediatic sociality


    Fontenelle, Isleide Arruda


    O palhaço Ronald McDonald -- uma das imagens de marca da Corporação McDonald's -- é tomado como paradigma para pensarmos as relações entre mercado, mídia e entretenimento, as quais tem uma ligação direta com o que estamos conceituando como "socialidade midiática". Enquanto uma metáfora ideal de uma propaganda que parece não querer mais fazer sentido, a história do palhaço nos permite desvendar os sentidos contidos em duas das principais práticas do marketing moderno, a propaganda e a publicid...

  9. The McDonald exponentiated gamma distribution and its statistical properties


    Al-Babtain, Abdulhakim A; Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim


    Abstract In this paper, we propose a five-parameter lifetime model called the McDonald exponentiated gamma distribution to extend beta exponentiated gamma, Kumaraswamy exponentiated gamma and exponentiated gamma, among several other models. We provide a comprehensive mathematical treatment of this distribution. We derive the moment generating function and the rth moment. We discuss estimation of the parameters by maximum likelihood and provide the information matrix. AMS Subject Classificatio...

  10. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonald?s Australia


    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances E.; Fisher, Matt; Harris, Elizabeth; Friel, Sharon


    Background The practices of transnational corporations affect population health through production methods, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald?s Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia. Methods We adapted existing Health Impact Assessment methods to assess M...

  11. Cultural Differences Applied in International Marketing : Cases Of McDonalds and Red Bull


    Abdulkerimova, Assiyat


    The main purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate how culture and cultural differences influence on the international marketing. Also, it demonstrates how international companies deal with cross-cultural issues and problems. First, the importance of culture and two models of cultural dimensions like Hofstede and Trompenaars will be analyzed and discussed. Second, the marketing activities of two international corporations- McDonald's and Red Bull will be discussed and analyzed. The research wi...

  12. Management závěrečného turnaje McDonalds cup 2015


    Kafka, Dominik


    Title: Management of the McDonald's Cup 2015 final tournament Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to provide a detailed analysis of the management of the McDonald's Cup 2015 final tournament known as the Festival of Football, to present its strengths, weaknesses, potential opportunities and threats and then, based on previous analyses, to create a list of suggestions and recommendations leading to the elimination of the weaknesses and threats and thus to development, increase of ...

  13. Sponzorský projekt McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls na podporu mladých sportovců.


    Adamec, Richard


    This thesis is devoted to the McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls sponsorship project. The first two parts include theoretical essentials for elaboration and the terms concerning marketing. Explanation of terms related to marketing communication and commercial communications is also included in this section. The third part is focused on sponsorship, its types and evaluation of sponsorship projects. The application part describes the history of the McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls project. Evaluation of th...

  14. Cassini-Huygens Nears Saturn Orbit Insertion (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    After nearly 7 years and a 3.5-billion-km, circuitous journey from Earth, the $3-billion Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan-an international effort by NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency-now is just days away from its critical Saturn orbit insertion. Scheduled for 30 June, this will begin the 4-years part of the mission to study the Saturnian system. At a 3 June briefing at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C., Robert Mitchell, the Cassini program manager with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, said that scientists involved with the program are feeling excited, relieved, and also a bit anxious as the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft draws near to the ringed planet and its system.

  15. Profiling Saturn's rings by radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouf, E.A.; Tyler, G.L.; Rosen, P.A.


    The development of reconstruction algorithms that correct for diffraction effects in radio occultation measurements is described. The reciprocal Fresnel transform relationship between the complex amplitude of the observed coherent signal and the complex microwave transmittance of the rings is derived using the Huygens-Fresnel formulation of the diffraction problem. The effects of the finite data segment width, the uncertainties in the Fresnel scale, systematic phase errors in the kernel of the inverse transform, reference oscillator instabilities, and random noise measurements on the resolution of the reconstructed transmittance are analyzed. Examples of reconstructed opacity profiles for some regions of Saturn's rings derived by applying the reconstruction theory to Voyager 1 at Saturn data are presented. 35 references

  16. Modeling Saturn's Inner Plasmasphere: Cassini's Closest Approach (United States)

    Moore, L.; Mendillo, M.


    Ion densities from the three-dimensional Saturn-Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Model (STIM, Moore et al., 2004) are extended above the plasma exobase using the formalism of Pierrard and Lemaire (1996, 1998), which evaluates the balance of gravitational, centrifugal and electric forces on the plasma. The parameter space of low-energy ionospheric contributions to Saturn's plasmasphere is explored by comparing results that span the observed extremes of plasma temperature, 650 K to 1700 K, and a range of velocity distributions, Lorentzian (or Kappa) to Maxwellian. Calculations are made for plasma densities along the path of the Cassini spacecraft's orbital insertion on 1 July 2004. These calculations neglect any ring or satellite sources of plasma, which are most likely minor contributors at 1.3 Saturn radii. Modeled densities will be compared with Cassini measurements as they become available. Moore, L.E., M. Mendillo, I.C.F. Mueller-Wodarg, and D.L. Murr, Icarus, 172, 503-520, 2004. Pierrard, V. and J. Lemaire, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 7923-7934, 1996. Pierrard, V. and J. Lemaire, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 4117, 1998.

  17. Saturn's Internal Magnetic Field Revealed by Cassini Grand Finale (United States)

    Cao, H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Khurana, K. K.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.; Kellock, S.; Burton, M. E.; Burk, T. A.


    Saturn's internal magnetic field has been puzzling since the first in-situ measurements during the Pioneer 11 Saturn flyby. Cassini magnetometer measurements prior to the Grand Finale phase established 1) the highly axisymmetric nature of Saturn's internal magnetic field with a dipole tilt smaller than 0.06 degrees, 2) at least an order of magnitude slower secular variation rate compared to that of the current geomagnetic field, and 3) expulsion of magnetic fluxes from the equatorial region towards high latitude. The highly axisymmetric nature of Saturn's intrinsic magnetic field not only challenges dynamo theory but also makes an accurate determination of the interior rotation rate of Saturn extremely difficult. The Cassini spacecraft entered the Grand Finale phase in April 2017, during which time the spacecraft dived through the gap between Saturn's atmosphere and the inner edge of the D-ring 22 times before descending into the deep atmosphere of Saturn. The unprecedented proximity to Saturn (reaching 2500 km above the cloud deck) and the highly inclined nature of the Grand Finale orbits provided an ideal opportunity to decode Saturn's internal magnetic field. The fluxgate magnetometer onboard Cassini made precise vector measurements during the Grand Finale phase. Magnetic signals from the interior of the planet, the magnetospheric ring current, the high-latitude field-aligned current (FAC) modulated by the 10.7 hour planetary period oscillation, and low-latitude FACs were observed during the Grand Finale phase. Here we report the magnetometer measurements during the Cassini Grand Finale phase, new features of Saturn's internal magnetic field revealed by these measurements (e.g., the high degree magnetic moments of Saturn, the level of axisymmetry beyond dipole), and implications for the deep interior of Saturn.

  18. Saturn V First Stage S-1C LOX Fuel Tanks (United States)


    This photograph shows the Saturn V assembled LOX (Liquid Oxygen) and fuel tanks ready for transport from the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The tanks were then shipped to the launch site at Kennedy Space Center for a flight. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  19. Saturn V First Stage Leaves the Dynamic Test Stand (United States)


    This photo shows the Saturn V first stage being lowered to the ground following a successful test to determine the effects of continual vibrations simulating the effects of an actual launch. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  20. Saturn V First Stage (S-1C) At MSFC (United States)


    This small group of unidentified officials is dwarfed by the gigantic size of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) at the shipping area of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  1. Aft View of Saturn V Third Stage (S-IVB) (United States)


    The powerful J-2 engine is prominent in this photograph of a Saturn V Third Stage (S-IVB) resting on a transporter in the Manufacturing Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  2. Photochemistry Saturn's Atmosphere. 2; Effects of an Influx of External Oxygen (United States)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Bezard, Bruno; Gladstone, G. Randall; Allen, Mark


    We use a one-dimensional diurnally averaged model of photochemistry and diffusion in Saturn's stratosphere to investigate the influence of extraplanetary debris on atmospheric chemistry. In particular, we consider the effects of an influx of oxygen from micrometeoroid ablation or from ring-particle diffusion; the contribution from cometary impacts, satellite debris, or ring vapor is deemed to be less important. The photochemical model results are compared directly with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations to constrain the influx of extraplanetary oxygen to Saturn. From the ISO observations, we determine that the column densities of CO2 and H2O above 10 mbar in Saturn's atmosphere are (6.3 +/- 1) x 10(exp 14) and (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 15)/ square cm, respectively; our models indicate that a globally averaged oxygen influx of (4+/-2) x 10(exp 6) O atoms /sq cm/s is required to explain these observations. Models with a locally enhanced influx of H20 operating over a small fraction of the projected area do not provide as good a fit to the ISO H2O observations. If volatile oxygen compounds comprise one-third to one-half of the exogenic source by mass, then Saturn is currently being bombarded with (3 +/- 2) x 10(exp -16) g/square cm/s of extraplanetary material. To reproduce the observed CO2/H2O ratio in Saturn's stratosphere, some of the exogenic oxygen must arrive in the form of a carbon-oxygen bonded species such as CO or CO2. An influx consistent with the composition of cometary ices fails to reproduce the high observed CO2/H2O ratio, suggesting that (i) the material has ices that are slightly more carbon-rich than is typical for comets, (ii) a contribution from an organic-rich component is required, or (iii) some of the hydrogen-oxygen bonded material is converted to carbon-oxygen bonded material without photochemistry (e.g., during the ablation process). We have also reanalyzed the 5-micron CO observations of Noll and Larson and determine that the CO

  3. F-1 Engine for Saturn V Undergoing a Static Test (United States)


    The flame and exhaust from the test firing of an F-1 engine blast out from the Saturn S-IB Static Test Stand in the east test area of the Marshall Space Flight Center. A Cluster of five F-1 engines, located in the S-IC (first) stage of the Saturn V vehicle, provided over 7,500,000 pounds of thrust to launch the giant rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  4. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  5. ESO's Two Observatories Merge (United States)


    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  6. The impact of a new McDonald's restaurant on eating behaviours and perceptions of local residents: A natural experiment using repeated cross-sectional data. (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen E; McCann, Jennifer; Parker, Kate; Crawford, David A


    Neighbourhood food environments are posited as an important determinant of eating behaviours; however causality is difficult to establish based on existing studies. Using a natural experiment study design (incorporating repeated cross-sectional data), we tested whether the development of a new McDonald's restaurant increased the frequency of consumption of McDonald's products amongst local residents in the suburbs of Tecoma (site of a new McDonald's restaurant development) and Monbulk (control site) in Victoria, Australia. Across both sites, the reported frequency of McDonald's consumption did not change during the follow-up surveys. In the context explored, the development of a new McDonald's restaurant has not resulted in an increased consumption of McDonald's products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  8. South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years, by both staff and visitors, has made major contributions to the fields of astrophysics and astronomy. During 1986 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae and interstellar matter; stellar astrophysics; open clusters; globular clusters, and solar systems

  9. New `Moons' of Saturn May Be Transient Objects (United States)


    ring plane crossings (RPX) . At the corresponding times, the Sun illuminates the thin Saturnian rings exactly from the side. Due to its own orbital motion around the Sun, the Earth will cross the ring plane either once or three times, just before and/or after a solar RPX event. In 1995, this happened on May 22 and August 10, and there will be a third Earth RPX event on February 11, 1996. RPX Events Offer Improved Possibilities to Discover Faint Moons The apparent brightness of Saturn's rings decreases dramatically around the time of a solar RPX event. It is then much easier to detect faint moons which would otherwise be lost in the strong glare of Saturn's ring system. Also, the edge-on view improves the chances of detecting faint and dilute rings [3]. Moreover, numerous `mutual events' (eclipses and occultations) occur between the moons during this period; exact timing of these events allows highly improved determination of the motions and orbits around Saturn of these objects. The most recent Earth RPX event took place on August 10, 1995. At this time, Saturn was situated nearly opposite the Sun (in `opposition'), as seen from the Earth, and conditions were very favourable for astronomical observations from both hemispheres. However, because of the longer nights during the southern winter, observing possibilities were particularly good in the south and thus at the ESO La Silla Observatory. The ADONIS Observations Here, a team of astronomers (Jean-Luc Beuzit, Bruno Sicardy and Francois Poulet of the Paris Observatory; Pablo Prado from ESO) followed this rare event during 6 half-nights around August 10, 1995, with the advanced ADONIS adaptive optics camera at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. This instrument neutralizes the image-smearing effects of the atmospheric turbulence and records very sharp images on an infrared-sensitive 256 x 256 pixel detector with a scale of 0.05 arcsec/pixel. Most of the Saturn images were taken through the `short K' filter with a central

  10. Cassini Radio Occultations of Saturn's Ionosphere: Modeling a Variable Influx of Water into Saturn's Atmosphere (United States)

    Moore, L.; Mendillo, M.


    The Saturn-Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Model (STIM), a global circulation model (GCM) of Saturn's upper atmosphere, is used to investigate a range of possible parameters that could lead to the profiles measured recently by the Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) aboard Cassini. Specifically, electron density observations of Saturn's equatorial ionosphere demonstrate a dawn/dusk asymmetry, a possible double peak, and a high degree of vertical structure and variability. On average, peak electron densities are larger at dusk than dawn (5400 cm-3 vs. 1700 cm-3) and the peak altitudes are lower at dusk than dawn (1880 km vs. 2360 km). Self-consistent, time-dependent 1D water diffusion calculations have been combined with the GCM in order to examine the possibility that a topside flux of neutral water into Saturn's atmosphere may provide a loss mechanism -- via charge exchange with protons -- that is sufficient to reproduce the observed ionosphere. Our previous modeling results indicated that a constant background influx of (0.5 -- 1.0) x 107 H2O cm-2 sec-1 was adequate in reproducing Cassini measurements on average [Moore et al., 2006], however the large observed variations in the vertical electron density profiles require additional complexities in the modeling. In this study we show that one possible source of the structuring observed in the electron density profiles could be from brief surges and/or reductions in the background water flux, which ultimately may be linked to geysers near Enceladus' southern pole. Moore, L., A.F. Nagy, A.J. Kliore, I. Mueller-Wodarg, J.D. Richardson, M. Mendillo (2006), Cassini radio occultations of Saturn's ionopshere: I. model comparisons using a constant water flux, submitted to GRL.

  11. Developments and new performance of Saturne II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciret, J.C.


    The development of Saturne II aims to improve the quality, diversity and reliability of the beams which are or will be delivered to physicists. The significant development projects (polarized ions, heavy ions, Mimas, SPES II, etc.) are dealt with separately and specifically by other authors. Only the new performance and qualities of the beam delivered to physicists in the future are described here. The purpose of these developments is to meet the short and long term requirements expressed by the physicists and concern the Machine and the Areas [fr

  12. The Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn (United States)

    Helled, Ravit


    Probing the interiors of the giant planets in our Solar System is not an easy task. This requires a set of observations combined with theoretical models that are used to infer the planetary composition and its depth dependence. The masses of Jupiter and Saturn are 318 and 96 Earth masses, respectively, and since a few decades, we know that they mostly consist of hydrogen and helium. It is the mass of heavy elements (all elements heavier than helium) that is not well determined, as well as its distribution within the planets. While the heavy elements are not the dominating materials in Jupiter and Saturn, they are the key for our understanding of their formation and evolution histories. The planetary internal structure is inferred to fit the available observational constraints including the planetary masses, radii, 1-bar temperatures, rotation rates, and gravitational fields. Then, using theoretical equations of states (EOSs) for hydrogen, helium, their mixtures, and heavier elements (typically rocks and/or ices), a structure model is developed. However, there is no unique solution for the planetary structure, and the results depend on the used EOSs and the model assumptions imposed by the modeler. Standard interior models of Jupiter and Saturn include three main regions: (1) the central region (core) that consists of heavy elements, (2) an inner metallic hydrogen envelope that is helium rich, and (3) an outer molecular hydrogen envelope depleted with helium. The distribution of heavy elements can be either homogenous or discontinuous between the two envelopes. Major model assumptions that can affect the derived internal structure include the number of layers, the heat transport mechanism within the planet (and its entropy), the nature of the core (compact vs. diluted), and the location/pressure where the envelopes are divided. Alternative structure models assume a less distinct division between the layers and/or a less non-homogenous distribution of the heavy

  13. Cassini at Saturn: The Final Two Years (United States)

    Spilker, L.; Edgington, S.; Altobelli, N.


    After 11 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn, a collaboration of NASA, ESA, and ASI, continues to wow the imagination and reveal unprecedented findings. Every year Cassini produces answers to questions raised by the Voyager flybys, while at the same time posing new questions that can only be answered with a long duration mission using a flagship-class spacecraft. Here we sample a few of Cassini's discoveries from the past year and give an overview of Cassini's final two years.

  14. Spallation neutron spectra measured at Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, J.L.; Bouyer, P.; Brochard, F.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Leray, S.; Milleret, G.; Plouin, F.; Uematsu, M.; Whittal, D.M.; Martinez, E.; Beau, M.; Boue, F.; Crespin, S.; Drake, D.; Frehaut, J.; Lochard, J.P.; Patin, Y.; Petibon, E.; Legrain, R.; Terrien, Y.


    Good knowledge of spallation reactions is necessary to design accelerator-based transmutation systems. An extensive program has begun at Saturne to measure energy and angular distributions of neutrons produced by incident protons or deuterons of up to 2 GeV on several thin targets. Our measurements will extend the available data to higher energies than the present limit of 800 MeV enabling improvements to the codes which are sometimes in poor agreement with the data. (Authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  15. Apollo Saturn V Height Comparison to Statue of Liberty (United States)


    This 1967 illustration compares the Apollo Saturn V Spacecraft of the Moon Landing era to the Statue of Liberty located on Ellis Island in New York City. The Apollo Saturn V, at 363 feet towers above Lady Liberty, as the statue is called, standing at 305 feet.

  16. The Second Stage of a Saturn V Ready For Test (United States)


    This Saturn V S-II (second) stage is being lifted into position for a test at the Vehicle Assembly Building at the Kennedy Space Center. When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burned out and dropped away, power for the Saturn was provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engines used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  17. On the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Hueso, R.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; Rojas, J. F.


    We present an analysis of the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind profiles at their upper cloud level as retrieved from cloud motion tracking on images obtained at ground-based observatories and with different spacecraft missions since 1979, encompassing about three Jovian and one Saturn years. We study the sensitivity and variability of the zonal wind profile in both planets to major planetary-scale disturbances and to seasonal forcing. We finally discuss the implications that these results have for current model efforts to explain the global tropospheric circulation in these planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Icarus, 147, 405-420 (2000). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez LavegaA., Icarus, 152, 316-330 (2001) [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 423, 623-625 (2003). [4] García-Melendo E., et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L22204 (2010).

  18. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna


    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  19. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Mak, H.B.; Robertson, B.C.


    This report discusses the proposal to construct a unique neutrino observatory. The observatory would contain a Cerenkov detector which would be located 2070 m below the earth's surface in an INCO mine at Creighton near Sudbury and would contain 1000 tons of D20 which is an excellent target material. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. There are three main objectives of the laboratory. The prime objective will be to study B electron neutrinos from the sun by a direct counting method that will measure their energy and direction. The second major objective will be to establish if electron neutrinos change into other neutrino species in transit from the sun to the earth. Finally it is hoped to be able to observe a supernova with the proposed detector. The features of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory which make it unique are its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. In section II of this proposal the major physics objectives are discussed in greater detail. A conceptual design for the detector, and measurements and calculations which establish the feasibility of the neutrino experiments are presented in section III. Section IV is comprised of a discussion on the possible location of the laboratory and Section V contains a brief indication of the main areas to be studied in Phase II of the design study

  20. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.


    This report is a supplement to a report (SNO-85-3 (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory)) which contained the results of a feasibility study on the construction of a deep underground neutrino observatory based on a 1000 ton heavy water Cerenkov detector. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes, a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is unique in its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. The results of the July 1985 study indicated that the project is technically feasible in that the proposed detector can measure the direction and energy of electron neutrinos above 7 MeV and the scientific programs will make significant contributions to physics and astrophysics. This present report contains new information obtained since the 1985 feasibility study. The enhanced conversion of neutrinos in the sun and the new physics that could be learned using the heavy water detector are discussed in the physics section. The other sections will discuss progress in the areas of practical importance in achieving the physics objectives such as new techniques to measure, monitor and remove low levels of radioactivity in detector components, ideas on calibration of the detector and so forth. The section entitled Administration contains a membership list of the working groups within the SNO collaboration

  1. The Observatory Health Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni


    Full Text Available

    Background: The number of indicators aiming to provide a clear picture of healthcare needs and the quality and efficiency of healthcare systems and services has proliferated in recent years. The activity of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is multidisciplinary, involving around 280 public health care experts, clinicians, demographers, epidemiologists, mathematicians, statisticians and economists who with their different competencies, and scientific interests aim to improve the collective health of individuals and their conditions through the use of “core indicators”. The main outcome of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is the “Osservasalute Report – a report on health status and the quality of healthcare assistance in the Italian Regions”.

    Methods: The Report adopts a comparative analysis, methodology and internationally validated indicators.

    Results: The results of Observatory Report show it is necessary:

    • to improve the monitoring of primary health care services (where the chronic disease could be cared through implementation of clinical path;

     • to improve in certain areas of hospital care such as caesarean deliveries, as well as the average length of stay in the pre-intervention phase, etc.;

    • to try to be more focused on the patients/citizens in our health care services; • to practice more geographical interventions to reduce the North-South divide as well as reduce gender inequity.

    Conclusions: The health status of Italian people is good with positive results and outcomes, but in the meantime some further efforts should be done especially in the South that still has to improve the quality and the organization of health care services. There are huge differences in accuracy and therefore usefulness of the reported data, both between diseases and between

  2. Source mechanism of Saturn narrowband emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Menietti


    Full Text Available Narrowband emission (NB is observed at Saturn centered near 5 kHz and 20 kHz and harmonics. This emission appears similar in many ways to Jovian kilometric narrowband emission observed at higher frequencies, and therefore may have a similar source mechanism. Source regions of NB near 20 kHz are believed to be located near density gradients in the inner magnetosphere and the emission appears to be correlated with the occurrence of large neutral plasma clouds observed in the Saturn magnetotail. In this work we present the results of a growth rate analysis of NB emission (~20 kHz near or within a probable source region. This is made possible by the sampling of in-situ wave and particle data. The results indicate waves are likely to be generated by the mode-conversion of directly generated Z-mode emission to O-mode near a density gradient. When the local hybrid frequency is close n fce (n is an integer and fce is the electron cyclotron frequency with n=4, 5 or 6 in our case, electromagnetic Z-mode and weak ordinary (O-mode emission can be directly generated by the cyclotron maser instability.

  3. The DISTO data acquisition system at SATURNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R.


    The DISTO collaboration has built a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer designed to provide broad kinematic coverage of multiparticle final states produced in pp scattering. The spectrometer has been installed in the polarized proton beam of the Saturne accelerator in Saclay to study polarization observables in the rvec pp → pK + rvec Y (Y = Λ, Σ 0 or Y * ) reaction and vector meson production (ψ, ω and ρ) in pp collisions. The data acquisition system is based on a VME 68030 CPU running the OS/9 operating system, housed in a single VME crate together with the CAMAC interface, the triple port ECL memories, and four RISC R3000 CPU. The digitization of signals from the detectors is made by PCOS III and FERA front-end electronics. Data of several events belonging to a single Saturne extraction are stored in VME triple-port ECL memories using a hardwired fast sequencer. The buffer, optionally filtered by the RISC R3000 CPU, is recorded on a DLT cassette by DAQ CPU using the on-board SCSI interface during the acceleration cycle. Two UNIX workstations are connected to the VME CPUs through a fast parallel bus and the Local Area Network. They analyze a subset of events for on-line monitoring. The data acquisition system is able to read and record 3,500 ev/burst in the present configuration with a dead time of 15%

  4. Sudbury neutrino observatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.


    This report is a proposal by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) collaboration to develop a world class laboratory for neutrino astrophysics. This observatory would contain a large volume heavy water detector which would have the potential to measure both the electron-neutrino flux from the sun and the total solar neutrino flux independent of neutrino type. It will therefore be possible to test models of solar energy generation and, independently, to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than that of terrestrial experiments. It will also be possible to search for spectral distortion produced by neutrino oscillations in the dense matter of the sun. Finally the proposed detector would be sensitive to neutrinos from a stellar collapse and would detect neutrinos of all types thus providing detailed information on the masses of muon- and tau-neutrinos. The neutrino detector would contain 1000 tons of D20 and would be located more than 2000 m below ground in the Creighton mine near Sudbury. The operation and performance of the proposed detector are described and the laboratory design is presented. Construction schedules and responsibilities and the planned program of technical studies by the SNO collaboration are outlined. Finally, the total capital cost is estimated to be $35M Canadian and the annual operating cost, after construction, would be $1.8 M Canadian, including the insurance costs of the heavy water

  5. Compliance with McDonald criteria and red flag recognition in a general neurology practice in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Albertyn, Christine


    BACKGROUND: The revised McDonald criteria aim to simplify and speed the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). An important principle of the criteria holds there should be no better explanation for the clinical presentation. In Miller et al.\\'s consensus statement on the differential diagnosis of MS, red flags are identified that may suggest a non-MS diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: All new patients with a practice diagnosis of MS were assessed for compliance with McDonald criteria. The group of patients not fulfilling criteria was followed up to assess compliance over time. At the end of the follow-up period, red flags were sought in the group of patients who remained McDonald criteria negative. METHODS: Clinical notes and paraclinical tests were examined retrospectively for compliance with McDonald criteria and for the presence of red flags. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were identified, with two lost to follow-up. Twenty-six (42%) patients fulfilled criteria at diagnosis. After 53 months follow-up, 47 (78%) patients fulfilled criteria. In the 13 (22%) patients who remain McDonald criteria negative, a total of 20 red flags were identified, ranging from one to six per patient. Alternative diagnoses were considered and further investigations performed in 10 patients with no significantly abnormal results. CONCLUSION: Twenty-two percent of patients still do not fulfill McDonald criteria after 53 months. Dissemination in time was not proven in the majority of patients and the lack of follow-up neuroimaging was an important factor in this. Red flags may be useful in identifying alternative diagnoses, but the yield was low in our cohort.

  6. MCDonalds mārketinga komunikācijas analīze : Latvija-Īrija


    Kazakova, Nataļja


    Diplomdarba tēma; pētāmās problēmas apraksts: McDonalds pielietoto mārketinga komunikāciju analīze Latvijā un Īrijā; pētījuma veikšanas laikā daudzus uzņēmumus šajās valstīs (un īpaši Latvijā) skar ekonomiskās krīzes sekas, tāpēc ir nepieciešami aplūkot tādu uzņēmumu pieredzi, kas veiksmīgi darbojas starptautiskajā tirgū ilglaicīgi. Atslēgas vārdi: McDonalds, mārketinga komunikācijas, reklāma, preces virzīšana tirgū, e-mārketings, sabiedriskās attiecības, tiešā pārdošana, personiskā apkalp...

  7. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets. (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S


    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  8. The Composition and Chemistry of the Deep Tropospheres of Saturn and Uranus from Ground-Based Radio Observations (United States)

    Hofstadter, M. D.; Adumitroaie, V.; Atreya, S. K.; Butler, B.


    Ground-based radio observations of the giant planets at wavelengths from 1 millimeter to 1 meter have long been the primary means to study the deep tropospheres of both gas- and ice-giant planets (e.g. de Pater and Massie 1985, Icarus 62; Hofstadter and Butler 2003, Icarus 165). Most recently, radiometers aboard the Cassini and Juno spacecraft at Saturn and Jupiter, respectively, have demonstrated the ability of spaceborne systems to study composition and weather beneath the visible cloud tops with high spatial resolution (Janssen et al. 2013, Icarus 226; Bolton et al. 2016, this meeting). Ground-based observations remain, however, an excellent way to study the tropospheres of the ice giants, particularly the temporal and spatial distribution of condensible species, and to study the deep troposphere of Saturn in the region of the water cloud. This presentation focuses on two ground-based data sets, one for Uranus and one for Saturn. The Uranus data were all collected near the 2007 equinox, and span wavelengths from 0.1 to 20 cm. These data provide a snapshot of atmospheric composition at a single season. The Saturn observations were recently made with the EVLA observatory at wavelengths from 3 to 90 cm, augmented by published observations at shorter and longer wavelengths. It is expected that these data will allow us to constrain conditions in the water cloud region on Saturn. At the time of this writing, both data sets are being analyzed using an optimal estimation retrieval algorithm fed with the latest published information on the chemical and electrical properties of relevant atmospheric species (primarily H2O, NH3, H2S, PH3, and free electrons). At Uranus, we find that—consistent with previously published work—ammonia in the 1 to 50-bar range is strongly depleted from solar values. The relative volume mixing ratios of the above species satisfy PH3 < NH3 < H2S < H2O, which is interesting because based on cosmic abundances one would expect H2S < NH3. At the

  9. Positional Catalogues of Saturn's and Jupiter's Moons (United States)

    Yizhakevych, O.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.; Lukianchuk, V.; Shatokhina, S.

    In the framework of the UkrVO national project ( we have started the processing of photographic observations of Saturn's (S1-S8) and Jupiter's (J6-J8) moons. Observations were conducted during 1961-1993 with three astrographs DLFA, DWA, DAZ and Z600 reflector. Plate images were digitized as tif-files with commercial scanners. Image processing was carried out by specific software package in the LINUX-MIDAS-ROMAFOT environment with Tycho2 as reference. The software was developed at the MAO NASU. Obtained positions of objects were compared with theoretically predicted ones in IMCCE (Paris) ( online. Rms error of divergence between observed and calculated positions is of 0.20' - 0.35'.

  10. Interaction of Titan's atmosphere with Saturn's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, R.E.


    The Voyager 1 measurements made during the Titan flyby reveal that Saturn's rotating magnetospheric plasma interacts directly with Titan's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. This results from the lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Titan. The interaction induces a magnetosphere which deflects the flowing plasma around Titan and forms a plasma wake downstream. Within the tail of the induced magnetosphere, ions of ionospheric origin flow away from Titan. Just outside Titan's magnetosphere, a substantial ion-exosphere forms from an extensive hydrogen-nitrogen exosphere. The exospheric ions are picked up and carried downstream into the wake by the plasma flowing around Titan. Mass loading produced by the addition of exospheric ions slows the wake plasma down considerably in the vicinity of the magnetopause. 36 references

  11. The Diogene 4π detector at Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alard, J.P.; Arnold, J.; Augerat, J.; Bastid, N.; Costilhes, J.P.; Crouau, M.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Montarou, G.; Parizet, M.J.; Tamain, J.C.; Valero, J.; Babinet, R.; Marco, N. de; Drouet, M.; Fanet, H.; Fodor, Z.; Girard, J.; Gosset, J.; Laspalles, C.; Lemaire, M.C.; L'Hote, D.; Lucas, B.; Papineau, A.; Poitou, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Terrien, Y.; Valette, O.; Brochard, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Racca, C.


    Diogene, an electronic 4π detector, has been built and installed at the Saturne synchrotron in Saclay. The forward angular range (0 0 -6 0 ) is covered by 48 time-of-flight scintillator telescopes that provide charge identification. The trajectories of fragments emitted at larger angles are recorded in a cylindrical 0.4 m 3 Pictorial Drift Chamber (PDC) surrounding the target. The PDC is inside a 1-T magnetic field; the axis of the PDC cylinder and the magnetic field are parallel to the beam. Good identification has been obtained for both positive and negative π mesons and for hydrogen and helium isotopes. Multiplicities in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions up to 40 have been detected, limited mainly by the present electronics. (orig.)

  12. Perennial Environment Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Frederic


    The Perennial Environment Observatory [Observatoire Perenne de l'Environnement - OPE] is a unique approach and infrastructure developed and implemented by ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, as part of its overall project of deep geological disposal for radioactive waste. Its current mission is to assess the initial state of the rural (forest, pasture, open-field and aquatic) environment, prior to repository construction. This will be followed in 2017 (pending construction authorizations) and for a period exceeding a century, by monitoring of any impact the repository may have on the environment. In addition to serving its own industrial purpose of environmental monitoring, ANDRA also opens the OPE approach, infrastructure and acquired knowledge (database...) to the scientific community to support further research on long term evolution of the environment subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses, and to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between the various compartments of the environment

  13. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, E.W.


    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical 37 Cl and 71 Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun

  14. Noncircular features in Saturn's rings IV: Absolute radius scale and Saturn's pole direction (United States)

    French, Richard G.; McGhee-French, Colleen A.; Lonergan, Katherine; Sepersky, Talia; Jacobson, Robert A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Mathew M.; Marouf, Essam A.; Colwell, Joshua E.


    We present a comprehensive solution for the geometry of Saturn's ring system, based on orbital fits to an extensive set of occultation observations of 122 individual ring edges and gaps. We begin with a restricted set of very high quality Cassini VIMS, UVIS, and RSS measurements for quasi-circular features in the C and B rings and the Cassini Division, and then successively add suitably weighted additional Cassini and historical occultation measurements (from Voyager, HST and the widely-observed 28 Sgr occultation of 3 Jul 1989) for additional non-circular features, to derive an absolute radius scale applicable across the entire classical ring system. As part of our adopted solution, we determine first-order corrections to the spacecraft trajectories used to determine the geometry of individual occultation chords. We adopt a simple linear model for Saturn's precession, and our favored solution yields a precession rate on the sky n^˙P = 0.207 ± 0 .006‧‧yr-1 , equivalent to an angular rate of polar motion ΩP = 0.451 ± 0 .014‧‧yr-1 . The 3% formal uncertainty in the fitted precession rate is approaching the point where it can provide a useful constraint on models of Saturn's interior, although realistic errors are likely to be larger, given the linear approximation of the precession model and possible unmodeled systematic errors in the spacecraft ephemerides. Our results are largely consistent with independent estimates of the precession rate based on historical RPX times (Nicholson et al., 1999 AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #31 31, 44.01) and from theoretical expectations that account for Titan's 700-yr precession period (Vienne and Duriez 1992, Astronomy and Astrophysics 257, 331-352). The fitted precession rate based on Cassini data only is somewhat lower, which may be an indication of unmodeled shorter term contributions to Saturn's polar motion from other satellites, or perhaps the result of inconsistencies in the assumed


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 1 Saturn encounter position data that have been generated at a 48.0 second sample rate using the NAIF SPICE kernals. The data set is...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 2 Saturn encounter position data that have been generated at a 48.0 second sample rate using the NAIF SPICE kernals. The data set is...

  17. Saturn radio emission and the solar wind - Voyager-2 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desch, M.D.; Rucker, H.O.; Observatorium Lustbuhel, Graz, Austria)


    Voyager 2 data from the Plasma Science experiment, the Magnetometer experiment and the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment were used to analyze the relationship between parameters of the solar wind/interplanetary medium and the nonthermal Saturn radiation. Solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field properties were combined to form quantities known to be important in controlling terrestrial magnetospheric processes. The Voyager 2 data set used in this investigation consists of 237 days of Saturn preencounter measurements. However, due to the immersion of Saturn and the Voyager 2 spacecraft into the extended Jupiter magnetic tail, substantial periods of the time series were lacking solar wind data. To cope with this problem a superposed epoch method (CHREE analysis) was used. The results indicate the superiority of the quantities containing the solar wind density in stimulating the radio emission of Saturn - a result found earlier using Voyager 1 data - and the minor importance of quantities incorporating the interplanetary magnetic field. 10 references


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 1 Saturn encounter magnetometer data that have been resampled at a 9.6 second sample rate. The data set is composed of 6 columns: 1)...

  19. McDonald's zjednodušuje mezinárodní ekonomická srovnání

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Dušek, Libor

    -, č. 4 (2007), s. 12-13 ISSN 1210-9525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : wages * international comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics mcdonalds -zjednodusuje-mezinarodni-ekonomicka-srovnani.html

  20. Cassini-Huygens Science Highlights: Surprises in the Saturn System (United States)

    Spilker, Linda; Altobelli, Nicolas; Edgington, Scott


    The Cassini-Huygens mission has greatly enhanced our understanding of the Saturn system. Fundamental discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, its retinue of icy moons including Titan, the dynamic rings, and the system's complex magnetosphere. Launched in 1997, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft spent seven years traveling to Saturn, arriving in July 2004, roughly two years after the northern winter solstice. Cassini has orbited Saturn for 9.5 years, delivering the Huygens probe to its Titan landing in 2005, crossing northern equinox in August 2009, and completing its Prime and Equinox Missions. It is now three years into its 7-year Solstice mission, returning science in a previously unobserved seasonal phase between equinox and solstice. As it watches the approach of northern summer, long-dark regions throughout the system become sunlit, allowing Cassini's science instruments to probe as-yet unsolved mysteries. Key Cassini-Huygens discoveries include icy jets of material streaming from tiny Enceladus' south pole, lakes of liquid hydrocarbons and methane rain on giant Titan, three-dimensional structures in Saturn's rings, and curtain-like aurorae flickering over Saturn's poles. The Huygens probe sent back amazing images of Titan's surface, and made detailed measurements of the atmospheric composition, structure and winds. Key Cassini-Huygens science highlights will be presented. The Solstice Mission continues to provide new science. First, the Cassini spacecraft observes seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Saturn, Titan, Enceladus and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere. Second, it addresses new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, for example providing qualitatively new measurements of Enceladus and Titan that could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases. Third, it will conduct a close-in mission at Saturn yielding fundamental knowledge about the interior of Saturn. This grand finale of the

  1. Shock mitigation for the PFLs at the SATURN accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, R.E.


    Accelerometer measurements were made on the SATURN pulse forming lines (PFL) to determine the mechanism responsible for severe metal deformation around the water switch openings and cracking of welded seams. A reason for this problem and a solution were established. A simple shock mitigating pad under the support stand for the PFL provides more than adequate protection from shock damage and will greatly extend the useful life of the power flow sections of SATURN


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson dos Santos


    Full Text Available This research considers the increasing concern of society in general environmental issues, shows the importance of an Environmental Management System to improve the image of a company towards society in which it is embedded. Shows that proper waste management can result in financial and environmental benefits for companies that practice. To address the practical issues of the theme, was chosen the company McDonald's, as a service company fast food, that have a quantity of waste, and creates conditions for application of the techniques of environmental management in this sector. Thus, this article aims to demonstrate through case study and descriptive research, the commitment that this large network of fast-food has with the preservation of the environment through its waste management and investments in economic, social and environmental the country.

  3. SATURN-S - a program system for the description of the thermomechanical behaviour of reactor fuel pins under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesl, R.; Freund, D.; Gaertner, H.; Steiner, H.


    On the basis of post irradiation examination results of various irradiation experiments with different fuel types real case calculations showed many of the existing models to be applicable to a restricted extent only. Therefore a re- and partially new formulation of models was necessary. Furthermore, the data base had been actualized and numerical procedures had been improved. This, together with the capabilities of modern computer systems, conducted the development of the program system SATURN-S with a strictly modular structure, specified by the requirements of the determination of the superposition of effects. In the present report the program SATURN-S as well as some analysis results are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Health observatories in iran. (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A


    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  5. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Hallin, A.; Lee, H.W.; Leslie, J.R.; MacArthur, J.D.; Mak, H.B.; McDonald, A.B.; McLatchie, W.; Robertson, B.C.; Skensved, P.; Sur, B.; Jagam, P.; Law, J.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Simpson, J.J.; Wang, J.X.; Tanner, N.W.; Jelley, N.A.; Barton, J.C.; Doucas, G.; Hooper, E.W.; Knox, A.B.; Moorhead, M.E.; Omori, M.; Trent, P.T.; Wark, D.L.


    Two experiments now in progress have reported measurements of the flux of high energy neutrinos from the Sun. Since about 1970, Davis and his co-workers have been using a 37 Cl-based detector to measure the 7 Be and 8 B solar neutrino flux and have found it to be at least a factor of three lower than that predicted by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). The Kamiokande collaborations has been taking data since 1986 using a large light-water Cerenkov detector and have confirmed that the flux is about two times lower than predicted. Recent results from the SAGE and GALLEX gallium-based detectors show that there is also a deficit of the low energy pp solar neutrinos. These discrepancies between experiment and theory could arise because of inadequacies in the theoretical models of solar energy generation or because of previously unobserved properties of neutrinos. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will provide the information necessary to decide which of these solutions to the ''solar neutrino problem'' is correct

  6. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.


    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. Stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, that push the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like `straw' that can explain the halo morphology and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; this requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping explains both small and large particles at resonances. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating it as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries

  7. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories (United States)

    Wright, J. T.


    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally ``lonely'' (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highest period-ratios among planets in a two-planet system, and some of the longest orbital periods ever measured for exoplanets. In many cases, combining Keck radial velocities from those from other long-term surveys at Lick Observatory, McDonald Observatory, HARPS, and, of course, OHP spectrographs, produces superior orbital fits, constraining both period and eccentricity better than could be possible with any single set alone. Stellar magnetic activity cycles can masquerade as long-period planets. In most cases this effect is very small, but a loud minority of stars, including, apparently, HD 154345, show very strong RV-activity correlations.

  8. Energetic Nitrogen Ions within the Inner Magnetosphere of Saturn (United States)

    Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Richardson, J. D.; Jurac, S.; Moore, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Mauk, B. H.; Smith, H. T.; Michael, M.; Paranicus, C.; Armstrong, T. P.; Tsurutani, B.; Connerney, J. E. P.


    Titan's interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere will result in the energetic ejection of atomic nitrogen atoms into Saturn's magnetosphere due to dissociation of N2 by electrons, ions, and UV photons. The ejection of N atoms into Saturn's magnetosphere will form a nitrogen torus around Saturn with mean density of about 4 atoms/cm3 with source strength of 4.5x1025 atoms/sec. These nitrogen atoms are ionized by photoionization, electron impact ionization and charge exchange reactions producing an N+ torus of 1-4 keV suprathermal ions centered on Titan's orbital position. We will show Voyager plasma observations that demonstrate presence of a suprathermal ion component within Saturn's outer magnetosphere. The Voyager LECP data also reported the presence of inward diffusing energetic ions from the outer magnetosphere of Saturn, which could have an N+ contribution. If so, when one conserves the first and second adiabatic invariant the N+ ions will have energies in excess of 100 keV at Dione's L shell and greater than 400 keV at Enceladus' L shell. Energetic charged particle radial diffusion coefficients are also used to constrain the model results. But, one must also consider the solar wind as another important source of keV ions, in the form of protons and alpha particles, for Saturn's outer magnetosphere. Initial estimates indicate that a solar wind source could dominate in the outer magnetosphere, but various required parameters for this estimate are highly uncertain and will have to await Cassini results for confirmation. We show that satellite sweeping and charged particle precipitation within the middle and outer magnetosphere will tend to enrich N+ ions relative to protons within Saturn's inner magnetosphere as they diffuse radially inward for radial diffusion coefficients that do not violate observations. Charge exchange reactions within the inner magnetosphere can be an important loss mechanism for O+ ions, but to a lesser degree for N+ ions. Initial LECP

  9. The Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLatchie, W.; Earle, E.D.


    This report initially discusses the Homestake Mine Experiment, South Dakota, U.S.A. which has been detecting neutrinos in 38 x 10 litre vats of cleaning fluid containing chlorine since the 1960's. The interation between neutrinos and chlorine produces argon so the number of neutrinos over time can be calculated. However, the number of neutrinos which have been detected represent only one third to one quarter of the expected number i.e. 11 per month rather than 48. It is postulated that the electron-neutrinos originating in the solar core could change into muon- or tau-neutrinos during passage through the high electron densities of the sun. The 'low' results at Homestake could thus be explained by the fact that the experiment is only sensitive to electron-neutrinos. The construction of a heavy water detector is therefore proposed as it would be able to determine the energy of the neutrinos, their time of arrival at the detector and their direction. It is proposed to build the detector at Creighton mine near Sudbury at a depth of 6800 feet below ground level thus shielding the detector from cosmic rays which would completely obscure the neutrino signals from the detector. The report then discusses the facility itself, the budget estimate and the social and economic impact on the surrounding area. At the time of publication the proposal for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory was due to be submitted for peer review by Oct. 1, 1987 and then to various granting bodies charged with the funding of scientific research in Canada, the U.S.A. and Britain

  10. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition]. (United States)

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P


    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  11. Magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, N.F.


    The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn and the characteristics of their magnetospheres, formed by interaction with the solar wind, are discussed. The origins of both magnetic fields are associated with a dynamo process deep in the planetary interior. The Jovian magnetosphere is analogous to that of a pulsar magnetosphere: a massive central body with a rapid rotation and an associated intense magnetic field. Its most distinctive feature is its magnetodisk of concentrated plasma and particle flux, and reduced magnetic field intensity. The magnetopause near the subsolar point has been observed at radial distances ranging over 50 to 100 Jovian radii, implying a relatively compressible obstacle to solar wind flow. The composition of an embedded current sheet within the magnetic tail is believed to be influenced by volcanic eruptions and emissions from Io. Spectral troughs of the Jovian radiation belts have been interpreted as possible ring particles. The Saturnian magnetosphere appears to be more like the earth in its topology. It is mainly characterized by a dipole axis parallel to the rotational axis of the planet and a magnetic field intensity much less than expected

  12. An astronomical observatory for Peru (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar


    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  13. Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory (United States)

    Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.


    Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site

  14. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  15. The South African astronomical observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.


    A few examples of the activities of the South African Astronomical Observatory are discussed. This includes the studying of stellar evolution, dust around stars, the determination of distances to galaxies and collaboration with space experiments

  16. A View into Saturn through its Natural Seismograph (United States)

    Mankovich, Christopher


    Saturn's nonradial oscillations perturb the orbits of ring particles. The C ring is fortuitous in that it spans several resonances with Saturn's fundamental acoustic (f-) modes, and its moderate optical depth allows the characterization of wave features using stellar occultations. The growing set of C-ring waves with precise pattern frequencies and azimuthal order m measured from Cassini stellar occultations (Hedman & Nicholson 2013, 2014; French et al. 2016) provides new constraints on Saturn's internal structure, with the potential to aid in resolving long-standing questions about the planet's distribution of helium and heavier elements, its means of internal energy transport, and its rotation state.We construct Saturn interior models and calculate mode eigenfrequencies, mapping the planet mode frequencies to resonant locations in the rings to compare with the locations of observed spiral density and vertical bending waves in the C ring. While spiral density waves at low azimuthal order (m=2-3) appear strongly affected by resonant coupling between f-modes and deep g-modes (Fuller 2014), the locations of waves with higher azimuthal order can be fit with a spectrum of pure f-modes for Saturn models with adiabatic envelopes and realistic equations of state. Notably, several newly observed density waves and bending waves (Nicholson et al., in preparation) align with outer Lindblad and outer vertical resonances for non-sectoral (m!=l) Saturn f-modes of relatively high angular degree, and we present normal mode identifications for these waves. We assess the range of resonance locations in the C and D rings allowed for the spectrum of f-modes given gravity field constraints, point to other resonance locations that should experience strong forcing, and use the full set of observed waves to estimate Saturn's bulk rotation rate.

  17. Mapping Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS (United States)

    Brooks, Shawn M.; Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Pilorz, S. H.; Deau, E.


    Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and quick temperature responses are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid, coherent particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias (Ferrari et al. 2005). Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded millions of spectra of Saturn's rings since its arrival at Saturn in 2004 (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 (16.7 and 1000 µm) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks in this wavelength range. FP1 spectra can be used to infer ring temperatures. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The thermal budget of the rings is dominated by the solar radiation absorbed by its constituent particles. When ring particles enter Saturn's shadow this source of energy is abruptly cut off. As a result, ring particles cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  18. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The geographical position, climate and equipment at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), together with the enthusiasm and efforts of SAAO scientific and technical staff and of visiting scientists, have enabled the Observatory to make a major contribution to the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. During 1987 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: supernovae; galaxies, including Seyfert galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galatic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae; interstellar matter and stellar astrophysics

  19. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  20. The Observatory as Laboratory: Spectral Analysis at Mount Wilson Observatory (United States)

    Brashear, Ronald


    This paper will discuss the seminal changes in astronomical research practices made at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the early twentieth century by George Ellery Hale and his staff. Hale’s desire to set the agenda for solar and stellar astronomical research is often described in terms of his new telescopes, primarily the solar tower observatories and the 60- and 100-inch telescopes on Mount Wilson. This paper will focus more on the ancillary but no less critical parts of Hale’s research mission: the establishment of associated “physical” laboratories as part of the observatory complex where observational spectral data could be quickly compared with spectra obtained using specialized laboratory equipment. Hale built a spectroscopic laboratory on the mountain and a more elaborate physical laboratory in Pasadena and staffed it with highly trained physicists, not classically trained astronomers. The success of Hale’s vision for an astronomical observatory quickly made the Carnegie Institution’s Mount Wilson Observatory one of the most important astrophysical research centers in the world.

  1. Examining the Combined Saturn and Ring Exosphere/Ionosphere using Cassini's Proximal orbits (United States)

    Tucker, O. J.; Tseng, W. L.; Johnson, R. E.; Perry, M. E.


    Neutral molecules that are emitted from Saturn's exobase (i.e., H2) and the main rings (i.e., H2, O2, H) are a source of material for both the Saturn and ring ionospheres as well as Saturn's magnetosphere (Tseng et al., 2013 [PSS 85 164 - 167]). However, the density gradient of H2 produced from the main rings is very different than that produced by Saturn's exospheric flux due to its emission from the ring plane and distance from Saturn. Cassini measurements obtained during the proximal orbits can likely be used to identify contributions from Saturn and the rings. Here we present results obtained from Monte Carlo models of the Saturn and ring exosphere used to analyze INMS data of neutrals and ions measured along the trajectories of the Proximal orbits. Understanding the sources of neutrals and the concomitant ions can help provide insight about the dynamics occurring in the Saturn system.

  2. Dynamical variability in Saturn Equatorial Atmosphere (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.; French, R. G.; Grupo Ciencias Planetarias Team


    Historical ground-based and recent HST observations show that Saturn's Equatorial Atmosphere is the region where the most intense large-scale dynamical variability took place at cloud level in the planet. Large-scale convective storms (nicknamed the ``Great White Spots") occurred in 1876, 1933 and 1990. The best studied case (the 1990 storm), produced a dramatic change in the cloud aspect in the years following the outburst of September 1990. Subsequently, a new large storm formed in 1994 and from 1996 to 2002 our HST observations showed periods of unusual cloud activity in the southern part of the Equator. This contrast with the aspect observed during the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981 when the Equator was calm, except for some mid-scale plume-like features seen in 1981. Cloud-tracking of the features have revealed a dramatic slow down in the equatorial winds from maximum velocities of ˜ 475 m/s in 1980-1981 to ˜ 275 m/s during 1996-2002, as we have recently reported in Nature, Vol. 423, 623 (2003). We discuss the possibility that seasonal and ring-shadowing effects are involved in generating this activity and variability. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932. SPH acknowledges a PhD fellowship from the Spanish MECD and RH a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco. RGF was supported in part by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program NAG5-10197 and STSCI Grant GO-08660.01A.

  3. Improved Radio Emissivities for Satellites of Saturn (United States)

    Ries, Paul


    The size distribution of TNOs is one of the most important constraints on the history of the early solar system. However, while TNOs are most detectable in the visible and near-IR wavelengths, their albedos vary substantially, thus creating uncertainty in their sizes when determined from reflected light alone. One way of determining the size distribution for a large number of TNOs is to measure their thermal emission, such as has been done with Spitzer and Herschel. However, in just a few year's time, ALMA will be coming online, and will be able to detect thermal emission from even more TNOs. However, thermal emission from Solar System bodies in the millimeter and submillimeter, such as that which ALMA will detect, is not that of a pure blackbody. Pluto, the Gallillean satellites, and Vesta have all shown deviations from unity emissivity. However, the cause of this variation is not well understood. Here we re-analayze data from the Cassini RADAR instrument at 2.5 cm. Cassini RADAR measured the brightness temperature and emissivity of several of Saturn's icy satellites, at least one of which, Phoebe, is thought to be a captured TNO. Previous emissivity determinations relied on relatively simple thermal models. We recalculate emissivities using thermal models based on recent data obtained with the CIRS (infrared) instrument on Cassini which account for, among other things, diurnal effects and the rotation during the RADAR observations. For one important result, we demonstrate that deviation from unity emissivity on Iapetus is due solely to surface depth effects at long wavelengths when RADAR data at 2.5 cm is combined with data obtained at 3.3 mm on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This research is supported by a grant under the NRAO Student Observing Support program.

  4. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.


    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Taurus Hill Observatory Scientific Observations for Pulkova Observatory during the 2016-2017 Season (United States)

    Hentunen, V.-P.; Haukka, H.; Heikkinen, E.; Salmi, T.; Juutilainen, J.


    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused on exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring. We also do long term monitoring projects.

  6. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments (United States)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.


    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : - Continuous data in real time coming

  7. Analisis Faktor-faktor Preferensi Pelanggan Dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian (Studi Terhadap Pelanggan Mcdonald's Di Indonesia Dan Malaysia)


    Erinda, Aisyah; Kumadji, Srikandi; Sunarti,


    The purpose of this study to determine factor of consumer preference for McDonalds and the effect of Purchasing Decision. There are 21 variable factors of consumer preferences used in this study as well as its influence on the purchase decision. The type of this research is explanatory research with quantitative approach. Location of the study was conducted in Indonesia and Malaysia. The sampling technique of this study used formula from Machin and Campbell (1987:89). The sample in this study...

  8. A proposed modification to the McDonald 2010 criteria for the diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, S B


    The diagnostic criteria for primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) have undergone revision over the last 20 years. Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands (CSFOBs) have received less emphasis in recent revisions of the McDonald criteria. The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity of the diagnostic criteria for PPMS with particular reference to spinal cord criteria and examine the utility of CSFOBs in a cohort of PPMS patients.

  9. Tungsten Z-Pinch Long Implosions on the Saturn Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Recent success on the Saturn and Z accelerators at Sandia National Laboratories have demonstrated the ability to scale z-pinch parameters to increasingly larger current pulsed power facilities. Next generation machines will require even larger currents (>20 MA), placing further demands on pulsed power technology. To this end, experiments have been carried out on Saturn operating in a long pulse mode, investigating the potential of lower voltages and longer implosion times while still maintaining pinch fidelity. High wire number, 25 mm diameter tungsten arrays were imploded with implosion times ranging from 130 to 240 ns. The results were comparable to those observed in the Saturn short pulse mode, with risetimes on the order of 4.5 to 6.5 ns. Experimental data will be presented, along with two dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations used to explain and reproduce the experiment

  10. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.


    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  11. Griffith Observatory: Hollywood's Celestial Theater (United States)

    Margolis, Emily A.; Dr. Stuart W. Leslie


    The Griffith Observatory, perched atop the Hollywood Hills, is perhaps the most recognizable observatory in the world. Since opening in 1935, this Los Angeles icon has brought millions of visitors closer to the heavens. Through an analysis of planning documentation, internal newsletters, media coverage, programming and exhibition design, I demonstrate how the Observatory’s Southern California location shaped its form and function. The astronomical community at nearby Mt. Wilson Observatory and Caltech informed the selection of instrumentation and programming, especially for presentations with the Observatory’s Zeiss Planetarium, the second installed in the United States. Meanwhile the Observatory staff called upon some of Hollywood’s best artists, model makers, and scriptwriters to translate the latest astronomical discoveries into spectacular audiovisual experiences, which were enhanced with Space Age technological displays on loan from Southern California’s aerospace companies. The influences of these three communities- professional astronomy, entertainment, and aerospace- persist today and continue to make Griffith Observatory one of the premiere sites of public astronomy in the country.

  12. Mr. Pat McDonald, Director of "Key Business Technologies", Department of Trade and Industry, United Kingdom

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Photos 01,02: Mr Pat McDonald, Director of "Key Business Technologies", Department of Trade and Industry, UK (third from left, front) in front of the ATLAS End-Cap Toroid vacuum vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall with, from left to right, Fred Wickens, Chris Jones, Peter Fletcher, Ray Browne, Neil Geddes, Jim Fleming, Anne Trefethen, Jim Wilson, Edwin Towndrow, Sharon Bonfield, Guy Rickett, Ken Smith, Peter Jenni. Photo 03: Mr Pat McDonald, Director of "Key Business Technologies", Department of Trade and Industry, UK (fifth from left) visiting ATLAS assembly hall with, from left to right, Jim Wilson, Peter Jenni, Ken Smith, Edwin Towndrow, Ray Brown, Chris Jones, Neil Geddes, Sharon Bonfield, Anne Trefethen, Jim Fleming, Fred Wickens. Photo 04: Mr Pat McDonald, Director of "Key Business Technologies", Department of Trade and Industry, UK (fourth from right) in front of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid coil casing in the ATLAS assembly hall with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, Jim Wilson, Guy Rickett, Anne Trefethen, ...

  13. Saturn's Internal Structure: A View through its Natural Seismograph (United States)

    Mankovich, Christopher; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Movshovitz, Naor


    Saturn's nonradial oscillations perturb the orbits of ring particles. The C ring is fortuitous in that it spans several resonances with Saturn's fundamental acoustic (f-) modes, and its moderate optical depth allows the characterization of wave features using stellar occultations. The growing set of C-ring waves with precise pattern frequencies and azimuthal order m measured from Cassini stellar occultations (Hedman & Nicholson 2013, 2014; French et al. 2016) provides new constraints on Saturn's internal structure, with the potential to resolve long-standing questions about the planet's distribution of helium and heavier elements, its means of internal energy transport, and its rotation state.We construct Saturn interior models and calculate mode eigenfrequencies, mapping the planet mode frequencies to resonant locations in the rings to compare with the locations of observed spiral density and vertical bending waves in the C ring. While spiral density waves at low azimuthal order (m=2-3) appear strongly affected by resonant coupling between f-modes and deep g-modes (Fuller 2014), the locations of waves with higher azimuthal order can be fit reasonably well with a spectrum of pure f-modes for Saturn models with adiabatic envelopes and realistic equations of state. In particular, four observed bending waves (Nicholson et al., DPS 2016) align with outer vertical resonances for non-sectoral (m≠l) Saturn f-modes of relatively high angular degree, and we present preliminary identifications of these. We assess the range of resonance locations in the C and D rings allowed for the spectrum of f-modes given gravity field constraints and discuss what role a realistic helium distribution in the planet might play.

  14. McDonaldization or commercial re-stratification: corporatization and the multimodal organisation of English doctors. (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Bishop, Simon


    This paper investigates transitions in the social organisation of medicine found in the extended opportunities for private corporations to own, manage and deliver public healthcare services in the English National Health Service. It follows recent calls to explain the reconstruction of medical work without reducing analysis to either the structures of organisational control or the strategic resistance of doctors. Accordingly, the paper considers how doctors interact, mediate and co-create new organisational environments. Central to our analysis are the variable sources of power that influence whether doctors acquiesce, resist or re-create change. Drawing on ethnographic research carried out between 2006 and 2010 in two Independent Sector Treatment Centres - private providers of public healthcare - the paper shows how doctors' responses to bureaucratic and commercial structures reflect their own structured forms of power, which have variable value within this new commercial environment. These include clinical experience and specialist knowledge, but also social and economic influence. Building on established sociological debates, these divergent sources of power explain how for some doctors the expansion of private healthcare might involve more extreme forms of McDonaldization, while for others it might involve opportunities for Commercial Re-stratification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The McDonaldization of childhood: children's mental health in neo-liberal market cultures. (United States)

    Timimi, Sami


    As the failings of neo-liberalism have recently been revealed through the collapse of much of the banking and financial services sector, it seems an opportune time to think about the impact this economic, political, and social value system has had on the well-being of children. After analyzing how our beliefs and practices around children and families are shaped by a variety of economic, political, and cultural pressures, I discuss how policies that promote a particular form of aggressive capitalism lead to a narcissistic value system that permeates social institutions, including those that deal with children. Not only does this impact children's emotional well-being, but it also shapes the way we conceptualize children and their problems. These dynamics facilitate the rapid growth of child psychiatric diagnoses and the tendency to deal with aberrant behavior or emotions in children through technical--particularly pharmaceutical--interventions, a phenomenon I refer to as the 'McDonaldization' of children's mental health. The present article seeks to challenge many of the unhelpful cultural assumptions regarding childhood embedded within the narrow biomedical frame that neo-liberalism has encouraged.

  16. Regulation of trans fats: the gap, the Polder, and McDonald's French fries. (United States)

    Katan, Martijn B


    Lowering the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) probably reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Estimates of the reduction vary from 4% based on changes in plasma LDL and HDL concentrations alone, to > 20% based on epidemiological associations when TFA intake is lowered by 2% of energy (5 g/day). Even the lowest estimate represents enough cases to justify measures to reduce TFA intake. In The Netherlands, a major reduction in TFA content of retail foods has been achieved in the 1990s through efforts of industry; government intervention has been minimal. Societal pressure is now helping to reduce the TFA content of fast foods. McDonald's French fries in The Netherlands now have less than 4% trans and 24% saturates, as opposed to 21% trans and 21% saturates in the USA. This illustrates the feasibility of reducing TFA in fast foods without increasing saturates. As a result of these developments, dairy and meat have become the major remaining source of TFA in Europe. The question whether these ruminant TFA have the same effect on coronary heart disease risk as industrial TFA has not been settled.

  17. Visits to La Plata Observatory (United States)

    Feinstein, A.


    La Plata Observatory will welcome visitors to ESO-La Silla that are willing to make a stop at Buenos Aires on their trip to Chile or on their way back. There is a nice guesthouse at the Observatory that can be used, for a couple of days or so, by astronomers interested in visiting the Observatory and delivering talks on their research work to the Argentine colleagues. No payments can, however, be made at present. La Plata is at 60 km from Buenos Aires. In the same area lie the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica dei Espacio (IAFE), in Buenos Aires proper, and the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). about 40 km from Buenos Aires on the way to La Plata. Those interested should contacl: Sr Decano Prof. Cesar A. Mondinalli, or Dr Alejandro Feinstein, Observatorio Astron6mico, Paseo dei Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Telex: 31216 CESLA AR.

  18. Astronomical Research Using Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanaka


    Full Text Available The Virtual Observatory (VO for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.

  19. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The research work discussed in this report covers a wide range, from work on the nearest stars to studies of the distant quasars, and the astronomers who have carried out this work come from universities and observatories spread around the world as well as from South African universities and from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) staff itself. A characteristic of much of this work has been its collaborative character. SAAO studies in 1989 included: supernovae 1987A; galaxies; ground-based observations of celestial x-ray sources; the Magellanic Clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; the provision of photometric standards; nebulous matter; stellar astrophysics, and astrometry

  20. McDonald versus Shirodkar cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth: impact of body mass index. (United States)

    Figueroa, Reinaldo; Crowell, Rebecca; Martinez, Alvin; Morgan, Marielle; Wakefield, Dorothy


    To compare obstetrical outcomes on women undergoing a McDonald or Shirodkar cerclage and to estimate the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI) on these outcomes. We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of all women with singleton pregnancies who underwent placement of a McDonald or Shirodkar cerclage at St. Francis Hospital from January 2008 to October 2013. The subjects were categorized based on BMI groups (normal: less than 25 kg/m 2 , overweight: 25-29 kg/m 2 , obese: 30 kg/m 2 or more). The primary outcome was gestational age at delivery. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Student's t-test, and multivariable regression analysis. Of 95 women, 47 (49.5%) received a Shirodkar, and 48 (50.5%) a McDonald cerclage. 16 women (16.8%) were categorized as normal weight, 35 (36.8%) as overweight, and 44 (46.3%) as obese. Gestational age at delivery differed significantly by group, decreasing with each categorical increase in BMI (normal: 39.0 ± 0.3 weeks; overweight: 36.6 ± 0.7 weeks; obese: 33.0 ± 1.1 weeks; p McDonald cerclage (36.7 ± 0.6 weeks versus 33.9 ± 1.0 weeks; p = .02). However, analysis showed a significant interaction between weight status and gestational age at delivery. Obese women had significantly longer pregnancies when they received a Shirodkar cerclage versus a McDonald cerclage (32.6 ± 1.0 weeks versus 28.8 ± 0.9 weeks; p McDonald: 32.9 ± 0.9 weeks; p = .63). Compared to obese women receiving a McDonald cerclage, obese women receiving a Shirodkar cerclage had significantly longer pregnancies. No significant differences in pregnancy duration were found in normal/overweight women regardless of cerclage technique. Pregnancy duration in obese women receiving a Shirodkar cerclage was similar to the pregnancy duration of normal/overweight women.

  1. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca


    between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a highquality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record...... of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET...

  2. Saturn V First Stage (S-1C) Ready for Assembly AT KSC (United States)


    This photograph shows the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center ready to be mated with the second and third stages to complete the assembly of a Saturn V launch vehicle. This particular Saturn V was used for Apollo 6, which was a systems test flight. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  3. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset at the first Lagrange (L1) point. The primary space weather instrument is the PlasMag...

  4. New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P E; Kemp, J C; King, R; Parker, T E; Barbour, M S [Oregon Univ., Eugene (USA). Dept. of Physics


    Linear polarimetry of Saturn's rings, obtained through the period of the 1979 opposition, is presented. The polarisation clearly correlates in direction with the plane containing the Sun, planet and Earth, but not the ring plane. The results are consistent with local scattering on the surface of individual ring bodies, covered with frost.

  5. Spallation neutron production on thick target at saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, J.C.; David, J.C.; Varignon, C.; Borne, F.; Boudard, A.; Brochard, F.; Crespin, S.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, D.; Durand, J.M.; Frehaut, J.; Hannappe, F.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Ledoux, X.; Lefebvres, F.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Louvel, M.; Martinez, E.; Menard, S.; Milleret, G.; Patin, Y.; Petitbon, E.; Plouin, F.; Schapira, J.P.; Stugge, L.; Terrien, Y.; Thun, J.; Volant, C.; Whittal, D.M.


    In view of the new spallation neutron source projects, we discuss the characteristics of the neutron spectra on thick targets measured at SATURNE. Some comparisons to spallation models, and especially INCL4/ABLA implemented in the LAHET code, are done. (orig.)

  6. Heavy meson production at Saturne: the role of baryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bornec, Y.


    A selection of experiments performed at SATURNE which demonstrate the role played by N* resonances is presented. Nucleon-nucleon and proton-deuteron reactions are discussed and analyzed. Recent theoretical interpretations are also briefly described. (R.P.) 27 refs., 20 figs

  7. Cassini at Saturn Proximal Orbits - Attitude Control Challenges (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.


    The Cassini mission at Saturn will come to an end in the spring and summer of 2017 with a series of 22 orbits that will dip inside the rings of Saturn. These are called proximal orbits and will conclude with spacecraft disposal into the atmosphere of the ringed world on September 15, 2017. These unique orbits that cross the ring plane only a few thousand kilometers above the cloud tops of the planet present new attitude control challenges for the Cassini operations team. Crossing the ring plane so close to the inner edge of the rings means that the Cassini orientation during the crossing will be tailored to protect the sensitive electronics bus of the spacecraft. This orientation will put the sun sensors at some extra risk so this paper discusses how the team prepares for dust hazards. Periapsis is so close to the planet that spacecraft controllability with RCS thrusters needs to be evaluated because of the predicted atmospheric torque near closest approach to Saturn. Radiation during the ring plane crossings will likely trigger single event transients in some attitude control sensors. This paper discusses how the attitude control team deals with radiation hazards. The angular size and unique geometry of the rings and Saturn near periapsis means that star identification will be interrupted and this paper discusses how the safe mode attitude is selected to best deal with these large bright bodies during the proximal orbits.

  8. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli


    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  9. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon


    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  10. Space astrophysical observatory 'Orion-2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.; Jarakyan, A.L.; Krmoyan, M.N.; Kashin, A.L.; Loretsyan, G.M.; Ohanesyan, J.B.


    Ultraviolet spectrograms of a large number of faint stars up to 13sup(m) were obtained in the wavelengths 2000-5000 A by means of the space observatory 'Orion-2' installed in the spaceship 'Soyuz-13' with two spacemen on board. The paper deals with a description of the operation modes of this observatory, the designs and basic schemes of the scientific and auxiliary device and the method of combining the work of the flight engineer and the automation system of the observatory itself. It also treats of the combination of the particular parts of 'Orion-2' observatory on board the spaceship and the measures taken to provide for its normal functioning in terms of the space flight. A detailed description is given of the optical, electrical and mechanical schemes of the devices - meniscus telescope with an objective prism, stellar diffraction spectrographs, single-coordinate and two-coordinate stellar and solar transducers, control panel, control systems, etc. The paper also provides the functional scheme of astronavigation, six-wheel stabilization, the design of mounting (assembling) the stabilized platform carrying the telescopes and the drives used in it. Problems relating to the observation program in orbit, the ballistic provision of initial data, and control of the operation of the observatory are also dealt with. In addition, the paper carries information of the photomaterials used, the methods of their energy calibration, standardization and the like. Matters of pre-start tests of apparatus, the preparation of the spacemen for conducting astronomical observations with the given devices, etc. are likewise dwelt on. The paper ends with a brief survey of the results obtained and the elaboration of the observed material. (Auth.)

  11. Keep calm and carry on: A crisis communication study of Cadbury and McDonalds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telang Achyut


    Full Text Available Many organizations, at some point or another, have to face a crisis situation. In that scenario, the way in which the organization communicates makes or breaks the organization’s success in dealing with the crisis. Especially after the emergence of the social media, the impact of crisis communication on the process of successful crisis management has become even greater than before. Organizations have to take the initiative, to be proactive and create a plan for crisis communication. This paper is focused on the comparative study of the communication approaches followed by Cadbury and McDonalds during a period when the companies were dealing with a crisis. The findings of the content analysis show that a company should respond to the crisis as quickly as possible to avoid loss in terms of sales. The initial statement of the companies during a crisis should be clear, positive and through the right channel to help the company regain its reputation on the market. Advertising is the best way to convey the message across the world because the crisis situation that has come up in one market can soon catch-up in the other markets where the company operates. The company has to connect with the consumers on emotional grounds because the crisis breaks down the faith of the consumers in the company. The recovery actions that support the statements also play an important role during the crisis situation. By following the above-mentioned communication strategies, organizations can achieve damage control as well as turn the crisis into an opportunity to grow.

  12. Volcanism, Iron, and Phytoplankton in the Heard and McDonald Islands Region, Southern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Trull, T. W.; Heobi in2016 v01 Shipboard Party, T.


    Phytoplankton supply approximately half of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, and iron supply limits the growth of phytoplankton in the anemic Southern Ocean. Situated entirely within the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean are Australia's only active subaerial volcanoes, Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) on the central Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province. Widespread fields of submarine volcanoes, some of which may be active, extend for distances of up to several hundred kilometers from the islands. The predominantly eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current sweeps across the central Kerguelen Plateau, and extensive blooms of phytoplankton are observed on the Plateau down-current of HIMI. The goal of RV Investigator voyage IN2016_V01, conducted in January/February 2016, is to test the hypothesis that hydrothermal fluids, which cool active submarine volcanoes in the HIMI region, ascend from the seafloor and fertilise surface waters with iron, thereby enhancing biological productivity beginning with phytoplankton. Significant initial shipboard results include: Documentation, for the first time, of the role of active HIMI and nearby submarine volcanoes in supplying iron to the Southern Ocean. Nearshore waters had elevated dissolved iron levels. Although biomass was not correspondingly elevated, fluorescence induction data indicated highly productive resident phytoplankton. Discovery of >200 acoustic plumes emanating from the seafloor and ascending up to tens of meters into the water column near HIMI. Deep tow camera footage shows bubbles rising from the seafloor in an acoustic plume field north of Heard Island. Mapping 1,000 km2 of uncharted seafloor around HIMI. Submarine volcanic edifices punctuate the adjacent seafloor, and yielded iron-rich rocks similar to those found on HIMI, respectively. Acoustic plumes emanating from some of these features suggest active seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  13. Daytime Utilization of a University Observatory for Laboratory Instruction (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.


    Scheduling convenience provides a strong incentive to fully explore effective utilization of educational observatories during daylight hours. I present two compelling daytime student activities that I developed at the Observatory at Fayetteville State University. My Introductory Astronomy Laboratory classes pursue these as separate investigations. My Physical Science classes complete both in a single lab period of 110 minutes duration. Both of these activities are also appropriate for High School student investigators, and could be used as demonstrations for younger students. Daylight Observation of Venus. With a clear sky, and when its elongation exceeds ~20˚, Venus is readily apparent in the daytime sky once a telescope is pointed at it. This is accomplished either with a digital pointing system, or with setting circles on a polar-aligned mount using the Sun to initialize the RA circle. Using the telescope pointing as a reference, it is also possible under optimal circumstances for students to see Venus in the daytime sky with naked eyes. Students are asked to write about the circumstances that made it possible to see Venus. Educational utilization of daytime observations of the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, and the brightest stars are also discussed. Using a CCD Camera to Determine the Temperature of a Sunspot. After my students view the Sun with Eclipse Glasses and in projection using a 3-inch refractor, they analyze a CCD image of a sunspot (which they obtain if possible) to determine the ratio of its surface intensity relative to the normal solar surface. They then use the Stefan-Boltzmann law (usually with some coaching) to determine the sunspot temperature given the nominal surface temperature of the Sun. Appropriate safety precautions are presented given the hazards of magnified sunlight. Mitigation of dome seeing during daylight hours is discussed.

  14. Saturn's Ring: Pre-Cassini Status and Mission Goals (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeff N.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    In November 1980, and again in August 1981, identical Voyager spacecraft flew through the Saturn system, changing forever the way we think about planetary rings. Although Saturn's rings had been the only known ring system for three centuries, a ring system around Uranus had been discovered by stellar occultations from Earth in 1977, and the nearly transparent ring of Jupiter was imaged by Voyager in 1979 (the presence of material there had been inferred from charged particle experiments on Pioneer 10 and 11 several years earlier). While Saturn had thus temporarily lost its uniqueness as having the only ring system, with Voyager it handily recaptured the role of having the most fascinating one. The Voyager breakthroughs included spiral density and bending waves such as cause galactic structure; ubiquitous fine-scale radial 'irregular' structure, with the appearance of record-grooves; regional and local variations in particle color; complex, azimuthally variable ring structure; empty gaps in the rings, some containing very regular, sharp-edged, elliptical rings and one containing both a small moonlet and incomplete arcs of dusty material; and shadowy 'spokes' that flicker across the main rings. One of the paradigm shifts of this period was the realization that many aspects of planetary rings, and even the ring systems themselves, could be 'recent' on geological timescales. These early results are reviewed and summarized in the Arizona Space Science series volumes 'Saturn'. (An excellent review of ring dynamics at a formative stage is by Goldreich and Tremaine.) From the mid 1980's to the time of this writing, progress has been steady, while at a less heady pace, and some of the novel ring properties revealed by Voyager 1 and 2 are beginning to be better understood. It is clearly impossible to cite, much less review, every advance over the last decade; however, below we summarize the main advances in understanding of Saturn's rings since the mid 1980's, in the context

  15. The Periodic Flapping and Breathing of Saturn's Magnetodisk During Equinox (United States)

    Sorba, A. M.; Achilleos, N.; Guio, P.; Arridge, C. S.; Dougherty, M. K.; Sergis, N.


    Periodic variations have been observed in many field and particle properties in Saturn's magnetosphere, modulated at a period close to the planetary rotation rate. Magnetic field observations by Cassini's magnetometer instrument suggest that in the outer magnetosphere (beyond 12 Saturn radii) Saturn's current sheet is periodically displaced with respect to the rotational equator, to a first approximation acting as a rotating, tilted disk. This manifests as a `flapping' mode when observed by the spacecraft. Recent studies suggest the magnetosphere also has a `breathing' mode, expanding and contracting with a period close to the planetary rotation rate. We model these two modes in tandem by combining a global, geometrical model of a tilted and rippled current sheet with a local, force-balance model of Saturn's magnetodisk, accounting for the magnetospheric size and hot plasma content. We simulate the breathing behavior by introducing an azimuthal dependence of the system size. We fit Cassini magnetometer data acquired on equatorial orbits from 23 Oct - 17 Dec 2009 (Revs 120-122), close to Saturn equinox, in order that seasonal effects on the current sheet are minimised. We find that our model characterises well the amplitude and phase of the oscillations in the data, for those passes that show clear periodic signatures in the field. In particular, the Bθ (meridional) component can only be characterised when the breathing mode is included. This study introduces calculations for an oscillating boundary under conditions of constant solar wind dynamic pressure, which provide a good basis for understanding the complex relationship between current sheet dynamics and the periodic field perturbations.

  16. INMS measures an influx of molecules from Saturn's rings (United States)

    Perry, M. E.


    In 1984, Connerney and Waite proposed water influx from Saturn's rings to explain the low electron densities measured during Pioneer and Voyager radio occultation experiments. Charge exchange with this minor species depleted the H+ ions and provided a faster path to electron recombination. With ice the primary constituent of the rings, water was the most likely in-falling molecule. During the Grand Finale orbits, Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) detected and quantified an influx from the rings. Unexpectedly, the primary influx molecules are CH4 and a heavier carbon-bearing species. Water was detected, but quantities were factors of ten lower than these other species. Distribution in both altitude and latitude are consistent with a ring influx. The concentration of the minor species in Saturn's atmosphere shows that they enter Saturn's atmosphere from the top. Both molecules have their highest concentrations at the highest altitudes, with concentrations >0.4% at 3,500 km altitude and only 0.02% at 2,700 km. Molecules from the rings deorbit to Saturn's atmosphere at altitudes near 4,000 km, consistent with the INMS measurements. The latitudinal dependence of the minor species indicates that their source is near the equatorial plane. At high altitudes, the minor species were observed primarily at zero latitude, where the 28u species was six times more concentrated than at 5° latitude. At lower altitudes, the peaking ratio was 1, indicating that the species had diffused and was fully mixed into Saturn's H2 atmosphere. The lighter molecule, CH4, diffuses more rapidly than the 28u species. INMS also detected both of these species during the earlier F-ring passes, finding that the neutrals were centered at the ring plane and extended 3,000 km (half width, half max) north and south.

  17. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape (United States)

    Glass, I. S.


    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  18. The MicroObservatory Net (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.


    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  19. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory . (United States)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  20. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (United States)


    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  1. A study of the outermost ring of Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, M.S.


    The attention is called to the fact that the discovery by Feibelman (1967) of the rarefied outer ring of Saturn is confirmed by the observations of Kuiper (1972). It is proposed to designate this object as E-ring (exterior) in order to avoid confusion with the innermost, also rarefied, D-ring observed by Guerin (1970) and earlier by Barabashov and Semejkin (1933). The effects of the interaction of E-ring with inner Saturn's satellites are briefly discussed. The conclusion is drawn that in cosmogonic time scale these effects are small. It is also shown that the optical thickness of E-ring is lower than 1/20000; the available photometric estimations of the geometric thickness of A- and B-rings need not be corrected for the light scattering and absorption by E-ring. (Auth.)

  2. Possible concepts for an in situ Saturn probe mission (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Mousis, Olivier; Atkinson, David H.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Reh, Kim R.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cavalie, Thibault; Colaprete, Anthony; Gautier, Daniel; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Marty, Bernard; Morse, Andy; Sims, Jon; Spilker, Tom; Spilker, Linda


    In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere would bring insights in two broad themes: the formation history of our solar system and the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. The science case for in situ measurements at Saturn are developed in [1] and two companion abstracts (see Mousis et al., and Atkinson et al.). They are summarized here. Measurements of Saturn's bulk chemical and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula and hence on the formation mechanisms. An in situ probe, penetrating from the upper atmosphere (μbar level) into the convective weather layer to a minimum depth of 10 bar, would also contribute to our knowledge of Saturn's atmospheric structure, dynamics, composition, chemistry and cloud-forming processes. Different mission architectures are envisaged, all based on an entry probe that would descend through Saturn's stratosphere and troposphere under parachute down to a minimum of 10 bars [1]. Future studies will focus on the trade-offs between science return and the added design complexity of a probe that could operate at pressures larger than 10 bars. Accelerometry measurements may also be performed during the entry phase in the higher part of the stratosphere prior to starting measurements under parachute. A carrier system would be required to deliver the probe along its interplanetary trajectory to the desired atmospheric entry point at Saturn. The entry site would be carefully selected. Three possible mission configurations are currently under study (with different risk/cost trades): • Configuration 1: Probe + Carrier. After probe delivery, the carrier would follow its path and be destroyed during atmospheric entry, but could perform pre-entry science. The carrier would not be used as a radio relay, but the probe would transmit its data to the ground system via a direct-to-Earth (DTE) RF link; • Configuration 2: Probe + Carrier/Relay. The probe would detach from the

  3. Photometric changes on Saturn's Titan: Evidence for active cryovolcanism (United States)

    Nelson, R.M.; Kamp, L.W.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Matson, D.L.; Kirk, R.L.; Hapke, B.W.; Wall, S.D.; Boryta, M.D.; Leader, F.E.; Smythe, W.D.; Mitchell, K.L.; Baines, K.H.; Jaumann, R.; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, R.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Lunine, J.I.; Combes, M.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Formisano, V.; Filacchione, G.; Langevin, Y.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Irwin, P.G.J.; Pearl, J.C.


    We report infrared spectrophotometric variability on the surface of Saturn's moon Titan detected in images returned by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. The changes were observed at 7??S, 138??W and occurred between October 27, 2005 and January 15, 2006. After that date the surface was unchanged until the most recent observation, March 18, 2006. We previously reported spectrophotometric variability at another location (26??S, 78??W). Cassini Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) images find that the surface morphology at both locations is consistent with surface flows possibly resulting from cryovolcanic activity (Wall et al., companion paper, this issue). The VIMS-reported time variability and SAR morphology results suggest that Titan currently exhibits intermittent surface changes consistent with present ongoing surface processes. We suggest that these processes involve material from Titan's interior being extruded or effiised and deposited on the surface, as might be expected from cryovolcanism. ?? 2009.

  4. Tilting Saturn without Tilting Jupiter: Constraints on Giant Planet Migration (United States)

    Brasser, R.; Lee, Man Hoi


    The migration and encounter histories of the giant planets in our solar system can be constrained by the obliquities of Jupiter and Saturn. We have performed secular simulations with imposed migration and N-body simulations with planetesimals to study the expected obliquity distribution of migrating planets with initial conditions resembling those of the smooth migration model, the resonant Nice model and two models with five giant planets initially in resonance (one compact and one loose configuration). For smooth migration, the secular spin-orbit resonance mechanism can tilt Saturn’s spin axis to the current obliquity if the product of the migration timescale and the orbital inclinations is sufficiently large (exceeding 30 Myr deg). For the resonant Nice model with imposed migration, it is difficult to reproduce today’s obliquity values, because the compactness of the initial system raises the frequency that tilts Saturn above the spin precession frequency of Jupiter, causing a Jupiter spin-orbit resonance crossing. Migration timescales sufficiently long to tilt Saturn generally suffice to tilt Jupiter more than is observed. The full N-body simulations tell a somewhat different story, with Jupiter generally being tilted as often as Saturn, but on average having a higher obliquity. The main obstacle is the final orbital spacing of the giant planets, coupled with the tail of Neptune’s migration. The resonant Nice case is barely able to simultaneously reproduce the orbital and spin properties of the giant planets, with a probability ˜ 0.15%. The loose five planet model is unable to match all our constraints (probability <0.08%). The compact five planet model has the highest chance of matching the orbital and obliquity constraints simultaneously (probability ˜0.3%).

  5. MeV proton flux predictions near Saturn's D ring. (United States)

    Kollmann, P; Roussos, E; Kotova, A; Cooper, J F; Mitchell, D G; Krupp, N; Paranicas, C


    Radiation belts of MeV protons have been observed just outward of Saturn's main rings. During the final stages of the mission, the Cassini spacecraft will pass through the gap between the main rings and the planet. Based on how the known radiation belts of Saturn are formed, it is expected that MeV protons will be present in this gap and also bounce through the tenuous D ring right outside the gap. At least one model has suggested that the intensity of MeV protons near the planet could be much larger than in the known belts. We model this inner radiation belt using a technique developed earlier to understand Saturn's known radiation belts. We find that the inner belt is very different from the outer belts in the sense that its intensity is limited by the densities of the D ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere, not by radial diffusion and satellite absorption. The atmospheric density is relatively well constrained by EUV occultations. Based on that we predict an intensity in the gap region that is well below that of the known belts. It is more difficult to do the same for the region magnetically connected to the D ring since its density is poorly constrained. We find that the intensity in this region can be comparable to the known belts. Such intensities pose no hazard to the mission since Cassini would only experience these fluxes on timescales of minutes but might affect scientific measurements by decreasing the signal-to-contamination ratio of instruments.

  6. Resistive Heating and Ion Drag in Saturn's Thermosphere (United States)

    Vriesema, Jess William; Koskinen, Tommi; Yelle, Roger V.


    One of the most puzzling observations of the jovian planets is that the thermospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are all several times hotter than solar heating can account for (Strobel and Smith 1973; Yelle and Miller 2004; Muller-Wodarg et al. 2006). On Saturn, resistive heating appears sufficient to explain these temperatures in auroral regions, but the particular mechanism(s) responsible for heating the lower latitudes remains unclear. The most commonly proposed heating mechanisms are breaking gravity waves and auroral heating at the poles followed by redistribution of energy to mid-and low latitudes. Both of these energy sources are potentially important but also come with significant problems. Wave heating would have to be continuous and global to produce consistently elevated temperatures and the strong Coriolis forces coupled with polar ion drag appear to hinder redistribution of auroral energy (see Strobel et al. 2016 for review). Here we explore an alternative: wind-driven electrodynamics that can alter circulation and produce substantial heating outside of the auroral region. Smith (2013) showed this in-situ mechanism to be potentially significant in Jupiter’s thermosphere. We present new results from an axisymmetric, steady-state model that calculates resistive (Joule) heating rates through rigorous solutions of the electrodynamic equations for the coupled neutral atmosphere and ionosphere of Saturn. At present, we assume a dipole magnetic field and neglect any contributions from the magnetosphere. We use ion mixing ratios from the model of Kim et al. (2014) and the observed temperature-pressure profile from Koskinen et al. (2015) to calculate the generalized conductivity tensor as described by Koskinen et al. (2014). We calculate the current density under the assumption that it has no divergence and use it to calculate the resistive heating rates and ion drag. Our results suggest that resistive heating and ion drag at low latitudes likely

  7. 10 Years at Saturn, and More Excitement to Come! (United States)

    Edgington, S. G.; Spilker, L. J.; Altobelli, N.


    After 10 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn, a collaboration of NASA, ESA, and ASI, continues to wow the imagination. Every year Cassini produces answers to questions raised by the Voyager flybys, while at the same time posing new questions that can only be answered with a long duration mission using a flagship-class spacecraft. In this talk, we sample a few of Cassini's discoveries from the past decade and give an overview of what comes next.

  8. Extracted-beam-detection system around synchrotron saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Remy; Milleret, Gerard; Giuliani, Arlette; Lefol, Andre; Perret, Robert; Poupard, Joseph; Trogno, Andre; Van den Bossche, Maurice; N'Guyen Sieu Viet.


    The extracted-beam-detection system working around the synchrotron Saturne is presented. The whole system is composed of about forty multiwire chambers used for beam tuning and providing beams profiles. Optic beam parameters such as position, divergence, dimension, emittance can be easily measured, or calculated with a program running on a computer. They are working in large range intensity beams (10 2 to 5.10 11 p/cm 2 /s of protons, alpha particles, deutons, pions, tritons and electrons [fr

  9. Applicability of McDonald 2010 and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MAGNIMS) 2016 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Criteria for the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis in Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Gamage, Sujani Madhurika Kodagoda; Wijeweera, Indunil; Wijesinghe, Priyangi; Adikari, Sanjaya Bandara; Fink, Katharina; Sominanda, Herath Mudiyanselage Ajith


    The magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis (MAGNIMS) group recently proposed guidelines to replace the existing dissemination-in-space criteria in McDonald 2010 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria for diagnosing multiple sclerosis. There has been insufficient research regarding their applicability in Asians. Objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of McDonald 2010 and MAGNIMS 2016 MRI criteria with the aim of verifying their applicability in Sri Lankan patients. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome diagnosed by consultant neurologists were recruited from five major neurology centers. Baseline and follow-up MRI scans were performed within 3 months from the initial presentation and at one year after baseline MRI, respectively. McDonald 2010 and MAGNIMS 2016 MRI criteria were applied to all MRI scans. Patients were followed-up for 2 years to assess the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for predicting the conversion to CDMS were calculated. Forty-two of 66 patients converted to CDMS. Thirty-seven fulfilled the McDonald 2010 MRI criteria, and 33 converted to CDMS. MAGNIMS 2016 MRI criteria were fulfilled by 29, with 28 converting to CDMS. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV were 78%, 83%, 64%, 89%, and 69%, respectively, for the McDonald 2010 criteria, and 67%, 96%, 77%, 96%, and 62% for the MAGNIMS 2016 MRI criteria. MAGNIMS 2016 MRI criteria were superior to McDonald 2010 MRI criteria in specificity, accuracy, and PPV, but inferior in sensitivity and NPV. Copyright © 2018 Korean Neurological Association.

  10. McDonald Criteria 2010 and 2005 Compared: Persistence of High Oligoclonal Band Prevalence Despite Almost Doubled Diagnostic Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schwenkenbecher


    Full Text Available The 2010 McDonald criteria were developed to allow a more rapid diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS by only one MRI of the brain. Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is not a mandatory part of the latest criteria, the evidence of an intrathecal humoral immunoreaction in the form of oligoclonal bands (OCB is crucial in the diagnostic workup. To date, the impact of the 2010 McDonald criteria on the prevalence of OCB has not been investigated. We retrospectively evaluated data of 325 patients with a clinical relapse suggestive of demyelination that were treated in a German university hospital between 2010 and 2015. One hundred thirty-six patients (42% were diagnosed with MS and 189 patients with CIS when the criteria of 2010 were applied. The criteria of 2005 allowed only 70 patients (22% to be designated as MS. In contrast, the prevalence of OCB was marginal affected in MS patients with 96% for the criteria of 2010 and 98.5% for the criteria of 2005. In conclusion, OCB are prevalent in most MS patients and reflect the chronic inflammatory nature of the disease. We recommend CSF examination to exclude alternative diagnoses and reevaluation of the diagnosis MS in patients with negative OCB.

  11. The McDonaldization of appraisal? Doctors' views of the early impacts of medical revalidation in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Archer, Julian; Nunn, Suzanne; Regan de Bere, Sam


    Medical regulation is rapidly changing with claims that systems such as revalidation/relicensing will reassure the public. Yet the impact of such initiatives is unknown. Using the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability and control through technology, identified by Ritzer, and exampled by the McDonalds business model, we analyzed interviews with doctors between May 2012-Dec 2013 which focused on doctor experiences of appraisal and revalidation in SW England. The research found significant changes in appraisals since the launch of revalidation in December 2012. Appraisal has been standardized with a list of supporting information that must be collected by doctors. The success of implementation is measured in the numbers of appraisals completed but less is known about the quality of the appraisal itself. Such efficiencies have been supported by IT systems that themselves might be at risk of driving the process. There are potential advantages to McDonaldization including appraisals available to all, not just for doctors working in the NHS, and a potentially more appetizing recipe for their completion. As yet a state of McAppraisal has not been reached; with a complete transfer of trust in the doctor to trust in the appraisal process within revalidation. However policymakers will need to continue to ensure that regulatory initiatives, such as revalidation, are not just a process for their own sake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A model of Saturn inferred from its measured gravitational field (United States)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.


    We present an interior model of Saturn with an ice-rock core, a metallic region, an outer molecular envelope and a thin transition layer between the metallic and molecular regions. The shape of Saturn’s 1 bar surface is irregular and determined fully self-consistently by the required equilibrium condition. While the ice-rock core is assumed to have a uniform density, three different equations of state are adopted for the metallic, molecular and transition regions. The Saturnian model is constrained by its known mass, its known equatorial and polar radii, and its known zonal gravitational coefficients, J 2n , n = 1, 2, 3. The model produces an ice-rock core with equatorial radius 0.203 R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure surface; the core density ρ c = 10388.1 kgm‑3 corresponding to 13.06 Earth masses; and an analytical expression describing the Saturnian irregular shape of the 1-bar pressure level. The model also predicts the values of the higher-order gravitational coefficients, J 8, J 10 and J 12, for the hydrostatic Saturn and suggests that Saturn’s convective dynamo operates in the metallic region approximately defined by 0.2 R S < r e < 0.7 R S, where r e denotes the equatorial radial distance from the Saturnian center of figure.

  13. Gravitoelectrodynamics in Saturn's F ring: encounters with Prometheus and Pandora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lorin Swint; Hyde, Truell W


    The dynamics of Saturn's F ring have been a matter of curiosity ever since Voyagers 1 and 2 sent back pictures of the ring's unusual features. Some of these images showed three distinct ringlets with the outer two displaying a kinked and braided appearance. Many models have been proposed to explain the braiding seen in these images; most of these invoke perturbations caused by the shepherding moons or kilometre-sized moonlets embedded in the ring and are purely gravitational in nature. These models also assume that the plasma densities and charges on the grains are small enough that electromagnetic forces can be ignored. However, Saturn's magnetic field exerts a significant perturbative force on even weakly charged micron- and submicron-sized grains causing the grains to travel in epicyclic orbits about a guiding centre. This study examines the effect of Saturn's magnetic field on the dynamics of micron-sized grains along with gravitational interactions between the F ring's shepherding moons, Prometheus and Pandora. Due to the differences in charge-to-mass ratios of the various sized grains, a phase difference between different size populations is observed in the wavy orbits imposed by passage of the shepherding moons

  14. Cassini UVIS Observations of Saturn during the Grand Finale Orbits (United States)

    Pryor, W. R.; Esposito, L. W.; West, R. A.; Jouchoux, A.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D. C.; Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Gustin, J.; Lamy, L.; Badman, S. V.


    In 2016 and 2017, the Cassini Saturn orbiter executed a final series of high inclination, low-periapsis orbits ideal for studies of Saturn's polar regions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) obtained an extensive set of auroral images, some at the highest spatial resolution obtained during Cassini's long orbital mission (2004-2017). In some cases, two or three spacecraft slews at right angles to the long slit of the spectrograph were required to cover the entire auroral region to form auroral images. We will present selected images from this set showing narrow arcs of emission, more diffuse auroral emissions, multiple auroral arcs in a single image, discrete spots of emission, small scale vortices, large-scale spiral forms, and parallel linear features that appear to cross in places like twisted wires. Some shorter features are transverse to the main auroral arcs, like barbs on a wire. UVIS observations were in some cases simultaneous with auroral observations from the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) that will also be presented. UVIS polar images also contain spectral information suitable for studies of the auroral electron energy distribution. The long wavelength part of the UVIS polar images contains a signal from reflected sunlight containing absorption signatures of acetylene and other Saturn hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon spatial distribution will also be examined.

  15. Magnetotail Reconnection and Flux Circulation: Jupiter and Saturn Compared (United States)

    Jackman, C. M.; Vogt, M. F.; Slavin, J. A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Boardsen, S. A.


    The Jovian magnetosphere has been visited by eight spacecraft, and the magnetometer data have been used to identify dozens of plasmoids and 250 field dipolarizations associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail [e.g. Vogt et al., 2010]. Since the arrival of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn in 2004, the magnetometer instrument has also been used to identify reconnection signatures. The deepest magnetotail orbits were in 2006, and during this time 34 signatures of plasmoids were identified. In this study we compare the statistical properties of plasmoids at Jupiter and Saturn such as duration, size, location, and recurrence period. Such parameters can be influenced by many factors, including the different Dungey cycle timescales and cross-magnetospheric potential drops at the two planets. We present superposed epoch analyses of plasmoids at the two planets to determine their average properties and to infer their role in the reconfiguration of the nightside of the magnetosphere. We examine the contributions of plasmoids to the magnetic flux transfer cycle at both planets. At Jupiter, there is evidence of an extended interval after reconnection where the field remains northward (analogous to the terrestrial post-plasmoid plasma sheet). At Saturn we see a similar feature, and calculate the amount of flux closed on average in reconnection events, leading us to an estimation of the recurrence rate of plasmoid release.

  16. 3-Dimensional simulations of storm dynamics on Saturn (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.


    The formation and evolution of convective clouds in the atmosphere of Saturn is investigated using an anelastic three-dimensional time-dependent model with parameterized microphysics. The model is designed to study the development of moist convection on any of the four giant planets and has been previously used to investigate the formation of water convective storms in the jovian atmosphere. The role of water and ammonia in moist convection is investigated with varying deep concentrations. Results imply that most of the convective activity observed at Saturn may occur at the ammonia cloud deck while the formation of water moist convection may happen only when very strong constraints on the lower troposphere are met. Ammonia storms can ascend to the 300 mb level with vertical velocities around 30 ms-1. The seasonal effect on the thermal profile at the upper troposphere may have important effects on the development of ammonia storms. In the cases where water storms can develop they span many scale heights with peak vertical velocities around 160 ms-1 and cloud particles can be transported up to the 150 mb level. These predicted characteristics are similar to the Great White Spots observed in Saturn which, therefore, could be originated at the water cloud base level. This work has been supported by Gobierno Vasco PI 1997-34. R. Hueso acknowledges a PhD fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  17. Saturn's Magnetic Field from the Cassini Grand Finale orbits (United States)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Cao, H.; Khurana, K. K.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.; Kellock, S.; Burton, M. E.; Burk, T. A.


    The fundamental aims of the Cassini magnetometer investigation during the Cassini Grand Finale orbits were determination of Saturn's internal planetary magnetic field and the rotation rate of the deep interior. The unique geometry of the orbits provided an unprecedented opportunity to measure the intrinsic magnetic field at close distances never before encountered. The surprising close alignment of Saturn's magnetic axis with its spin axis, known about since the days of Pioneer 11, has been a focus of the team's analysis since Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion. However, the varying northern and southern magnetospheric planetary period oscillations, which fill the magnetosphere, has been a factor in masking the field signals from the interior. Here we describe an overview of the magnetometer results from the Grand Finale orbits, including confirmation of the extreme axisymmetric nature of the planetary magnetic field, implications for knowledge of the rotation rate and the behaviour of external magnetic fields (arising from the ring current, field aligned currents both at high and low latitudes and the modulating effect of the planetary period oscillations).

  18. Quasiperiodic ULF-pulsations in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kleindienst


    Full Text Available Recent magnetic field investigations made onboard the Cassini spacecraft in the magnetosphere of Saturn show the existence of a variety of ultra low frequency plasma waves. Their frequencies suggest that they are presumably not eigenoscillations of the entire magnetospheric system, but excitations confined to selected regions of the magnetosphere. While the main magnetic field of Saturn shows a distinct large scale modulation of approximately 2 nT with a periodicity close to Saturn's rotation period, these ULF pulsations are less obvious superimposed oscillations with an amplitude generally not larger than 3 nT and show a package-like structure. We have analyzed these wave packages and found that they are correlated to a certain extent with the large scale modulation of the main magnetic field. The spatial localization of the ULF wave activity is represented with respect to local time and Kronographic coordinates. For this purpose we introduce a method to correct the Kronographic longitude with respect to a rotation period different from its IAU definition. The observed wave packages occur in all magnetospheric regions independent of local time, elevation, or radial distance. Independent of the longitude correction applied the wave packages do not occur in an accentuated Kronographic longitude range, which implies that the waves are not excited or confined in the same selected longitude ranges at all times or that their lifetime leads to a variable phase with respect to the longitudes where they have been exited.

  19. The value of conventional high-field MRI in MS in the light of the McDonald criteria: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Line Sofie Lunde; Larsson, H B W; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini


    The diagnosis of MS is based on the revised McDonald criteria and is multidisciplinary. Both clinical and paraclinical measures are included. High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly available and it is therefore necessary to clarify possible advantages of high-field MRI...... multiple sclerosis. Further larger studies of patients with clinically isolated syndromes are needed to settle the question of a diagnostic consequence of high-field imaging in MS. We suggest that the next revision of the McDonald diagnostic criteria include a recommendation of field strength....

  20. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest (United States)


    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  1. Saturn V First Stage Lowered to the Ground After Static Test (United States)


    This vintage photograph shows the 138-foot long first stage of the Saturn V being lowered to the ground following a successful static test firing at Marshall Space flight Center's S-1C test stand. The firing provided NASA engineers information on the booster's systems. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  2. Second stage of Saturn V being assembled with the first stage. (United States)


    The hydrogen-powered second stage is being lowered into place during the final phase of fabrication of the Saturn V moon rocket at North American's Seal Beach, California facility. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  3. The high energy astronomy observatories (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.


    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  4. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.


    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  5. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.


    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  6. BART: The Czech Autonomous Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Štrobl, Jan; Polášek, Cyril


    Roč. 2010, Spec. Is. (2010), 103986/1-103986/5 ISSN 1687-7969. [Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories. Málaga, 18.05.2009-21.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : robotic telescope * BART * gamma ray bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  7. Hubble again views Saturn's Rings Edge-on (United States)


    Saturn's magnificent ring system is seen tilted edge-on -- for the second time this year -- in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture taken on August 10, 1995, when the planet was 895 million miles (1,440 million kilometers) away. Hubble snapped the image as Earth sped back across Saturn's ring plane to the sunlit side of the rings. Last May 22, Earth dipped below the ring plane, giving observers a brief look at the backlit side of the rings. Ring-plane crossing events occur approximately every 15 years. Earthbound observers won't have as good a view until the year 2038. Several of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are from left to right, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Mimas. 'The Hubble data shows numerous faint satellites close to the bright rings, but it will take a couple of months to precisely identify them,' according to Steve Larson (University of Arizona). During the May ring plane crossing, Hubble detected two, and possibly four, new moons orbiting Saturn. These new observations also provide a better view of the faint E ring, 'to help determine the size of particles and whether they will pose a collision hazard to the Cassini spacecraft,' said Larson. The picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in wide field mode. This image is a composite view, where a long exposure of the faint rings has been combined with a shorter exposure of Saturn's disk to bring out more detail. When viewed edge-on, the rings are so dim they almost disappear because they are very thin -- probably less than a mile thick.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL

  8. Gravity Field and Interior Structure of Saturn from Cassini Observations (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.


    We discuss the sources for a determination of Saturn's external gravitational potential, beginning with a Pioneer 11 flyby in September 1979, two Voyager flybys in November 1980 for Voyager 1 and August 1981 for Voyager 2, four useful close approaches by the Cassini orbiter in May and June 2005, and culminating in an extraordinary close approach for Radio Science in September 2006. Results from the 2006 data are not yet available, but even without them, Cassini offers improvements in accuracy over Pioneer and Voyager by a factor of 37 in the zonal coefficient J2, a factor of 14 in J4, and a factor of 5 in J6. These improvements are important to our understanding of the internal structure of Saturn in particular, and to solar and extrasolar giant planets in general. Basically, Saturn can be modeled as a rapidly rotating planet in hydrostatic equilibrium. Consistent with the limited data available, we express the density distribution as a polynomial of fifth degree in the normalized mean radius β = r/R over the real interval zero to one, where R is the radius of a sphere with density equal to the mean density of Saturn. Then the six coefficients of the polynomial are adjusted by nonlinear least squares until they match the measured even zonal gravity coefficients J2,J4,J6 within a fraction of a standard deviation. The gravity coefficients are computed from the density distribution by the method of level surfaces to the third order in the rotational smallness parameter. Two degrees of freedom are removed by applying the constraints that (1)~the derivative of the density distribution is zero at the center, and (2)~the density is zero at the surface. Further, a unique density distribution is obtained by the method of singular value decomposition truncated at rank three. Given this unique density distribution, the internal pressure can be obtained by numerical integration of the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, expressed in terms of the single independent parameter

  9. From Data to Equations: Inferring the Laws governing Saturn's Ring Temperature (United States)

    Altobelli, N.; Lopez-Paz, D.; Spilker, L.; Pilorz, S.


    Six years after Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI), the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board the Cassini Spacecraft has been performing a thermal mapping of Saturn's main rings, by measuring the thermal radiance in the far-infrared ( [10-600] cm-1 ) for different viewing geometries. So far, more than 2.5 millions individual spectra have been recorded, from Saturn's northern winter solstice till Saturn's northern spring. We present a first attempt of treating the data set globally by applying numerical data mining techniques inherited from the field of artificial intelligence, such as neural networks and genetic programing.

  10. Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories (United States)

    Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.


    This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

  11. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura


    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  12. Worldwide R&D of Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Cui, C. Z.; Zhao, Y. H.


    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a data intensive online astronomical research and education environment, taking advantages of advanced information technologies to achieve seamless and uniform access to astronomical information. The concept of VO was introduced in the late 1990s to meet the challenges brought up with data avalanche in astronomy. In the paper, current status of International Virtual Observatory Alliance, technical highlights from world wide VO projects are reviewed, a brief introduction of Chinese Virtual Observatory is given.

  13. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.


    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts. Keywords: Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, architecture, botanic garden, tourism, Cultural Astronomy.

  14. O mundo de Ronald McDonald: sobre a marca publicitária e a socialidade midiática The world of Ronald McDonald: on the trademark and the mediatic sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isleide Arruda Fontenelle


    Full Text Available O palhaço Ronald McDonald -- uma das imagens de marca da Corporação McDonald's -- é tomado como paradigma para pensarmos as relações entre mercado, mídia e entretenimento, as quais tem uma ligação direta com o que estamos conceituando como "socialidade midiática". Enquanto uma metáfora ideal de uma propaganda que parece não querer mais fazer sentido, a história do palhaço nos permite desvendar os sentidos contidos em duas das principais práticas do marketing moderno, a propaganda e a publicidade, revelando-nos como, entre o nonsense da propaganda contemporânea e uma publicidade que fundiu realidade e ilusão, há uma relação visceral entre mídia e publicidade, que estabelece uma nova forma de comunicação, na qual o sujeito torna-se apenas um meio para fins que ele sabe quais são, mas, paradoxalmente, age como se não soubesse. Tal paradoxo é revelador de uma forma de subjetividade profundamente marcada pela mídia enquanto agente socializador, na medida em que a atuação da mídia como mediador da socialidade contemporânea acabou por alterar o nosso universo perceptivo, saturando o nosso imaginário de uma forma radicalmente nova. Some-se a isso o fato de que a "socialidade midiática" implica uma nova forma de representação do sujeito no registro do "espetáculo", no sentido de que "estar na imagem é existir". Desnecessário dizer o quanto essas questões precisam ser contempladas pelos estudos contemporâneos sobre os processos de socialização e o quanto são desafiadoras para aqueles que atuam no universo da educação.The clown Ronald McDonald -- one of the trademarks of the McDonald's Corporation -- is taken as a paradigm to reflect upon the relations between market, media, and entertainment, which have a direct link with what we define as "mediatic sociality". As an ideal metaphor of an advertising that no longer seems to attempt to make sense, the story of the clown allows us to unveil the meanings contained

  15. Submarine glacial landforms and interactions with volcanism around Sub-Antarctic Heard and McDonald Islands (United States)

    Picard, K.; Watson, S. J.; Fox, J. M.; Post, A.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Carey, R.; Coffin, M. F.; Hodgson, D.; Hogan, K.; Graham, A. G. C.


    Unravelling the glacial history of Sub-Antarctic islands can provide clues to past climate and Antarctic ice sheet stability. The glacial history of many sub-Antarctic islands is poorly understood, including the Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) located on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean. The geomorphologic development of HIMI has involved a combination of construction via hotspot volcanism and mechanical erosion caused by waves, weather, and glaciers. Today, the 2.5 km2 McDonald Islands are not glacierised; in contrast, the 368 km2 Heard Island has 12 major glaciers, some extending from the summit of 2813 m to sea level. Historical accounts from Heard Island suggest that the glaciers were more extensive in the 1850s to 1870s, and have retreated at least 12% (33.89 km2) since 1997. However, surrounding bathymetry suggests a much more extensive previous glaciation of the HIMI region that encompassed 9,585 km2, likely dating back at least to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 26.5 -19 ka. We present analyses of multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data, acquired aboard RV Investigator in early 2016, that support the previous existence of an extensive icecap. These data reveal widespread ice-marginal and subglacial features including moraines, over-deepened troughs, drumlins and crag-and-tails. Glacial landforms suggest paleo-ice flow directions and a glacial extent that are consistent with previously documented broad scale morphological features. We identify >660 iceberg keel scours in water depths ranging from 150 - 530 m. The orientations of the iceberg keel scours reflect the predominantly east-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and westerly winds in the region. 40Ar/39Ar dating of volcanic rocks from submarine volcanoes around McDonald Islands suggests that volcanism and glaciation coincided. The flat-topped morphology of these volcanoes may result from lava-ice interaction or erosion by glaciers post eruption during a time of extensive ice

  16. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability (United States)

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen


    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helled, R.


    Knowledge of Saturn's axial moment of inertia can provide valuable information on its internal structure. We suggest that Saturn's angular momentum may be determined by the Solstice Mission (Cassini XXM) by measuring Saturn's pole precession rate and the Lense-Thirring acceleration on the spacecraft, and therefore put constraints on Saturn's moment of inertia. It is shown that Saturn's moment of inertia can change up to ∼2% due to different core properties. However, a determination of Saturn's rotation rate is required to constrain its axial moment of inertia. A change of about seven minutes in rotation period leads to a similar uncertainty in the moment of inertia value as different core properties (mass, radius). A determination of Saturn's angular momentum and rotation period by the Solstice Mission could reveal important information on Saturn's internal structure, in particular, its core properties.

  18. The Case for Massive and Ancient Rings of Saturn (United States)

    Esposito, Larry W.


    Analysis of Voyager and Pioneer 11 results give a mass for Saturn's rings, M = 5 x 10-8 Msat. This is about the mass of Saturn's small moon Mimas. This has been interpreted as a lower limit to the ring mass (Esposito et al 1983), since the thickest parts of the rings were not penetrated by the stellar occultstion, and this calculation assumes an unvarying particle size throughout the rings. Because the rings are constantly bombarded by micrometeroids, their current composition of nearly pure water ice implies such low mass rings must have formed recently. The case is par-ticularly strong for Saturn's A ring, where the data are the best, implying the A ring is less than 10% of the age of the Saturn (Esposito 1986). Cassini results com-pound this problem. UVIS spectra are consistent with either young rings or rings about 10x as massive as the Voyager estimate (Elliott and Esposito (2011). CDA confirms the impacting mass flux is similar to that as-sumed for the pollution calculations (Kempf etal 2015). VIMS analysis of density wave signatures in the B ring gives a value of about 1/3 the Voyager value (Hedmann etal 2016). This VIMS result implies the rings are even younger! The problem is that young rings are very unlikely to be formed recently, meaning that we live in a very special epoch, following some unlikely recent origin… like disruption of a medium sized moon or capture of the fragments of a disrupted comet. This paradox (Charnoz etal 2009) is unre-solved. Alternative interpretations: To take the VIMS results at face value, Saturn's low mass rings must be very young. The optically thick B ring must be made of small, porous or fractal particles. This is hard to understand, since the particles are continually colliding every few hours and temporary aggregates will stir the collision velocities to higher values. An alternative is that we accept the higher mass interpretation of the Pioneer 11 results (Esposito etal 2008) using the granola bar model of Colwell

  19. [Effect of indications and pre-existing conditions on the result of McDonald's cervix-closure surgery]. (United States)

    Avar, Z; Tóth, B; Zacher, P


    Authors have performed the McDonald cerclage operation on 172 gravidae because of cervical incompetence. From these pregnancies 80.2 per cent of the infants have survived over the sixth day. While with operations performed on the basis of extended indications for surgery an effect of 56.5 per cent was achieved, it was in cases of classical ones 92.8 per cent. Two complicated cases are reported caused by blastospores or bacteria respectively, isolated also in the vaginal secretion which have ascended into the uterine cavity. Both cases resulted in fetal death and in a septic condition of the mother. It is emphasized that the normal vaginal bioflora is essential condition for the cervical suture.

  20. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan


    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  1. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  2. Saturn's equatorial jet structure from Cassini/ISS (United States)

    García-Melendo, Enrique; Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hueso, Ricardo


    Detailed wind observations of the equatorial regions of the gaseous giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are crucial for understanding the basic problem of the global circulation and obtaining new detailed information on atmospheric phenomena. In this work we present high resolution data of Saturn's equatorial region wind profile from Cassini/ISS images. To retrieve wind measurements we applied an automatic cross correlator to image pairs taken by Cassini/ISS with the MT1, MT2, MT3 filters centred at the respective three methane absorbing bands of 619nm, 727nm, and 889nm, and with the adjacent continuum CB1, CB2, and CB3 filters. We obtained a complete high resolution coverage of Saturn's wind profile in the equatorial region. The equatorial jet displays an overall symmetric structure similar to that shown the by same region in Jupiter. This result suggests that, in accordance to some of the latest compressible atmosphere computer models, probably global winds in gaseous giants are deeply rooted in the molecular hydrogen layer. Wind profiles in the methane absorbing bands show the effect of strong vertical shear, ~40m/s per scale height, confirming previous results and an important decay in the wind intensity since the Voyager era (~100 m/s in the continuum and ~200 m/s in the methane absorbing band). We also report the discovery of a new feature, a very strong and narrow jet on the equator, about only 5 degrees wide, that despite the vertical shear maintains its intensity (~420 m/s) in both, the continuum and methane absorbing band filters. Acknowledgements: Work supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, A. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Sergis, N. [Office of Space Research and Technology, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efesiou 4, 11527 Athens (Greece); Stawarz, L. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Fujimoto, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Coates, A. J., E-mail: [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)


    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we present the full picture of suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock revealed by Cassini . The downstream thermal electron distribution is resolved in all data taken by the low-energy electron detector (CAPS-ELS, <28 keV) during shock crossings, but the higher energy channels were at (or close to) background. The high-energy electron detector (MIMI-LEMMS, >18 keV) measured a suprathermal electron signature at 31 of 508 crossings, where typically only the lowest energy channels (<100 keV) were above background. We show that these results are consistent with the theory in which the “injection” of thermal electrons into an acceleration process involves interaction with whistler waves at the shock front, and becomes possible for all upstream magnetic field orientations at high Mach numbers like those of the strong shocks around young SNRs. A future dedicated study will analyze the rare crossings with evidence for relativistic electrons (up to ∼1 MeV).


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Sulaiman, A. H.; Sergis, N.; Stawarz, L.; Fujimoto, M.; Coates, A. J.


    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we present the full picture of suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock revealed by Cassini . The downstream thermal electron distribution is resolved in all data taken by the low-energy electron detector (CAPS-ELS, <28 keV) during shock crossings, but the higher energy channels were at (or close to) background. The high-energy electron detector (MIMI-LEMMS, >18 keV) measured a suprathermal electron signature at 31 of 508 crossings, where typically only the lowest energy channels (<100 keV) were above background. We show that these results are consistent with the theory in which the “injection” of thermal electrons into an acceleration process involves interaction with whistler waves at the shock front, and becomes possible for all upstream magnetic field orientations at high Mach numbers like those of the strong shocks around young SNRs. A future dedicated study will analyze the rare crossings with evidence for relativistic electrons (up to ∼1 MeV).

  5. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie


    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  6. Regional circulation around Heard and McDonald Islands and through the Fawn Trough, central Kerguelen Plateau (United States)

    van Wijk, Esmee M.; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Ronai, Belinda M.; Williams, Guy D.


    The fine-scale circulation around the Heard and McDonald Islands and through the Fawn Trough, Kerguelen Plateau, is described using data from three high-resolution CTD sections, Argo floats and satellite maps of chlorophyll a, sea surface temperature (SST) and absolute sea surface height (SSH). We confirm that the Polar Front (PF) is split into two branches over the Kerguelen Plateau, with the NPF crossing the north-eastern limits of our survey carrying 25 Sv to the southeast. The SPF was associated with a strong eastward-flowing jet carrying 12 Sv of baroclinic transport through the deepest part of Fawn Trough (relative to the bottom). As the section was terminated midway through the trough this estimate is very likely to be a lower bound for the total transport. We demonstrate that the SPF contributes to the Fawn Trough Current identified by previous studies. After exiting the Fawn Trough, the SPF crossed Chun Spur and continued as a strong north-westward flowing jet along the eastern flank of the Kerguelen Plateau before turning offshore between 50°S and 51.5°S. Measured bottom water temperatures suggest a deep water connection between the northern and southern parts of the eastern Kerguelen Plateau indicating that the deep western boundary current continues at least as far north as 50.5°S. Analysis of satellite altimetry derived SSH streamlines demonstrates a southward shift of both the northern and southern branches of the Polar Front from 1994 to 2004. In the direct vicinity of the Heard and McDonald islands, cool waters of southern origin flow along the Heard Island slope and through the Eastern Trough bringing cold Winter Water (WW) onto the plateau. Complex topography funnels flow through canyons, deepens the mixed layer and increases productivity, resulting in this area being the preferred foraging region for a number of satellite-tracked land-based predators.

  7. Interstellar Organics, the Solar Nebula, and Saturn's Satellite Phoebe (United States)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Cruikshank, D. P.


    The diffuse interstellar medium inventory of organic material (Pendleton et al. 1994, Pendleton & Allamandola 2002) was likely incorporated into the molecular cloud in which the solar nebula condensed. This provided the feedstock for the formation of the Sun, major planets, and the smaller icy bodies in the region outside Neptune's orbit (transneptunian objects, or TNOs). Saturn's satellites Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion open a window to the composition of one class of TNO as revealed by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn. Phoebe (mean diameter 213 km) is a former TNO now orbiting Saurn. VIMS spaectral maps of PHoebe's surface reveal a complex organic spectral signature consisting of prominent aromatic (CH) and alophatic hydrocarbon (CH2, CH3) absorption bands (3.2-3.6 micrometers). Phoebe is the source of a huge debris ring encircling Saturn, and from which particles (approximately 5-20 micrometer size) spiral inward toward Saturn. They encounter Iapetus and Hperion where they mix with and blanket the native H2O ice of those two bodies. Quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon bands on Iapetus demonstrates that aromatic CH is approximately 10 times as abundant as aliphatic CH2+CH3, significantly exceeding the strength of the aromatic signature in interplanetary dust particles, comet particles, ad in carbonaceous meteorites (Cruikshank et al. 2013). A similar excess of aromatics over aliphatics is seen in the qualitative analysis of Hyperion and Phoebe itself (Dalle Ore et al. 2012). The Iapetus aliphatic hydrocarbons show CH2/CH3 approximately 4, which is larger than the value found in the diffuse ISM (approximately 2-2.5). In so far as Phoebe is a primitive body that formed in the outer regions of the solar nebula and has preserved some of the original nebula inventory, it can be key to understanding the content and degree of procesing of the nebular material. There are other Phoebe-like TNOs that are presently

  8. Galaxies and Saturn's rings: Gravitational analogues of nonneutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.


    Orbit and collective dynamics in disk galaxies and in Saturn's rings are gravitational analogues of those occurring in nonneutral plasmas. The interesting problems for such ''gravitational plasmas'' are analogous to single-disk studies of transverse dynamics in particle beams. Of particular interest are various orbit-resonances with spiral density and bending waves in these disks which are analogous to electrostatic waves in nonneutral beam plasmas. The background physics, terminology and results of astrophysical investigations in these fields are surveyed in this paper. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  9. First Observation of Lion Roar Emission in Saturn's Magnetosheath

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píša, David; Sulaiman, A. H.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.


    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2018), s. 486-492 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-08772S; GA ČR GJ16-16050Y Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Cassini spacecraft * Magnetosheath * Saturn * lion roar emissions * bow shock * propagation * particle * plasma * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016

  10. Hydrogen-Helium shock Radiation tests for Saturn Entry Probes (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.


    This paper describes the measurement of shock layer radiation in Hydrogen/Helium mixtures representative of that encountered by probes entering the Saturn atmosphere. Normal shock waves are measured in Hydrogen-Helium mixtures (89:11% by volume) at freestream pressures between 13-66 Pa (0.1-0.5 Torr) and velocities from 20-30 km/s. Radiance is quantified from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Near Infrared. An induction time of several centimeters is observed where electron density and radiance remain well below equilibrium. Radiance is observed in front of the shock layer, the characteristics of which match the expected diffusion length of Hydrogen.

  11. JANNAF Lessons Learned Panel: Selected Saturn V History (United States)

    Urquhart, Skip


    Pogo occurs when the natural frequency of a propellant feed line comes close to a readily excited rocket longitudinal structural vibration natural frequency. Maximum Pogo response corresponds to close tuning of the structural and hydraulic frequencies. On Saturn V, accelerations up to 17 g's (Zero To Peak) at the Launch Vehicle/Payload Interface and up to 34 g's at an Engine have been observed. Nicknamed Pogo because it causes the Rocket to stretch and compress like a Pogo stick. First recognized with the Titan II in 1962, Pogo remains a prime consideration in design of launch vehicles today

  12. Scientific Value of a Saturn Atmospheric Probe Mission (United States)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Atreya, S. K.; Spilker, T. R.; Coustenis, A.; Atkinson, D. H.


    Atmospheric entry probe mISSions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As outlined in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey, a Saturn Probe mission - with a shallow probe - ranks as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission [1].

  13. The isolated non-circular ringlets of Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.R.; Mendis, D.A.


    It is shown that the combined effect of electrodynamic and gravitational forces can account for a number of features observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 in the isolated fine dust rings of Saturn. These include (a) the appearance and disappearance of the braids in the F-ring, (b) the eccentricities of the F-ring and the ringlets within the Encke and Cassine divisions and a gap in the C-ring, and (c) the kinks in the eccentric Encke ring. They may also account for the very existence of these rings. (Auth.)

  14. Hyperion II: a heavy ion pre-injector for Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, M.; Auclair, J.P.; Courtois, A.


    Since 1978, the 3GeV synchrotron Saturne is routinely operated with proton, deuteron, helium beams and, since 1981 with polarized protons and deuterons. Heavy ions are expected in 1983 by using a new pre-injector presently under construction. The marriage of an EBIS and an RFQ can be looked upon generally as a very good means of production of heavy ion beams at low energy. In the first paragraph, the cryogenic version of EBIS, called CRYEBIS, is described, while the RFQ design is studied in detail in paragraph two. The construction status is given in a third paragraph

  15. Use of the 2010 McDonald criteria can facilitate early diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis in a predominantly black cohort. (United States)

    Williams, Mitchel T; Tapos, Daniela O; Juhász, Csaba


    Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis represents around 3-5% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. Both the 2005 and 2010 McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis have been suggested for the possible use in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Modifications incorporated into the 2010 criteria enabled the fulfillment of dissemination in time to be met with the initial magnetic resonance imaging. The present study was designed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of these criteria at initial presentation, the time to fulfilling them, and secondary effects of ethnicity in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Twenty-five children with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (mean age, 14.6 ± 3.1 years; 15 girls) from a single center between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed using both the 2005 and 2010 McDonald criteria based on initial clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings comparing diagnostic sensitivity, time interval to meet diagnosis, and ethnicity. Initial multiple sclerosis diagnosis rates applying the 2005 McDonald criteria were 32% compared with 92% for the 2010 criteria (P = 0.0003). The mean time after initial signs until the 2005 and 2010 McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis were met was 5.0 vs 0.7 months, respectively (P = 0.001). Time to diagnosis using the 2010 criteria was shorter in black children than the European white (P = 0.005). The 2010 McDonald criteria are an appropriate tool for the timely diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis, especially in black children, potentially allowing an earlier initiation of disease-modifying therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heard Island and McDonald Islands Acoustic Plumes: Split-beam Echo sounder and Deep Tow Camera Observations of Gas Seeps on the Central Kerguelen Plateau (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Spain, E. A.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Fox, J. M.; Bowie, A. R.


    Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) are two active volcanic edifices on the Central Kerguelen Plateau. Scientists aboard the Heard Earth-Ocean-Biosphere Interactions voyage in early 2016 explored how this volcanic activity manifests itself near HIMI. Using Simrad EK60 split-beam echo sounder and deep tow camera data from RV Investigator, we recorded the distribution of seafloor emissions, providing the first direct evidence of seabed discharge around HIMI, mapping >244 acoustic plume signals. Northeast of Heard, three distinct plume clusters are associated with bubbles (towed camera) and the largest directly overlies a sub-seafloor opaque zone (sub-bottom profiler) with >140 zones observed within 6.5 km. Large temperature anomalies did not characterize any of the acoustic plumes where temperature data were recorded. We therefore suggest that these plumes are cold methane seeps. Acoustic properties - mean volume backscattering and target strength - and morphology - height, width, depth to surface - of plumes around McDonald resembled those northeast of Heard, also suggesting gas bubbles. We observed no bubbles on extremely limited towed camera data around McDonald; however, visibility was poor. The acoustic response of the plumes at different frequencies (120 kHz vs. 18 kHz), a technique used to classify water column scatterers, differed between HIMI, suggestiing dissimilar target size (bubble radii) distributions. Environmental context and temporal characteristics of the plumes differed between HIMI. Heard plumes were concentrated on flat, sediment rich plains, whereas around McDonald plumes emanated from sea knolls and mounds with hard volcanic seafloor. The Heard plumes were consistent temporally, while the McDonald plumes varied temporally possibly related to tides or subsurface processes. Our data and analyses suggest that HIMI acoustic plumes were likely caused by gas bubbles; however, the bubbles may originate from two or more distinct processes.

  17. Importance of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the era of McDonald 2010 criteria: a German-Austrian retrospective multicenter study in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome. (United States)

    Huss, André M; Halbgebauer, Steffen; Öckl, Patrick; Trebst, Corinna; Spreer, Annette; Borisow, Nadja; Harrer, Andrea; Brecht, Isabel; Balint, Bettina; Stich, Oliver; Schlegel, Sabine; Retzlaff, Nele; Winkelmann, Alexander; Roesler, Romy; Lauda, Florian; Yildiz, Özlem; Voß, Elke; Muche, Rainer; Rauer, Sebastian; Bergh, Florian Then; Otto, Markus; Paul, Friedemann; Wildemann, Brigitte; Kraus, Jörg; Ruprecht, Klemens; Stangel, Martin; Buttmann, Mathias; Zettl, Uwe K; Tumani, Hayrettin


    The majority of patients presenting with a first clinical symptom suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) do not fulfill the MRI criteria for dissemination in space and time according to the 2010 revision of the McDonald diagnostic criteria for MS and are thus classified as clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). To re-evaluate the utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in the context of the revised McDonald criteria from 2010, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictive value of oligoclonal IgG bands (OCBs) in patients with CIS. Patients were recruited from ten specialized MS centers in Germany and Austria. We collected data from 406 patients; at disease onset, 44/406 (11 %) fulfilled the McDonald 2010 criteria for MS. Intrathecal IgG OCBs were detected in 310/362 (86 %) of CIS patients. Those patients were twice as likely to convert to MS according to McDonald 2010 criteria as OCB-negative individuals (hazard ratio = 2.1, p = 0.0014) and in a shorter time period of 25 months (95 % CI 21-34) compared to 47 months in OCB-negative individuals (95 % CI 36-85). In patients without brain lesions at first attack and presence of intrathecal OCBs (30/44), conversion rate to MS was 60 % (18/30), whereas it was only 21 % (3/14) in those without OCBs. Our data confirm that in patients with CIS the risk of conversion to MS substantially increases if OCBs are present at onset. CSF analysis definitely helps to evaluate the prognosis in patients who do not have MS according to the revised McDonald criteria.

  18. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.


    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  19. Observatory data and the Swarm mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macmillan, S.; Olsen, Nils


    products. We describe here the preparation of the data set of ground observatory hourly mean values, including procedures to check and select observatory data spanning the modern magnetic survey satellite era. We discuss other possible combined uses of satellite and observatory data, in particular those......The ESA Swarm mission to identify and measure very accurately the different magnetic signals that arise in the Earth’s core, mantle, crust, oceans, ionosphere and magnetosphere, which together form the magnetic field around the Earth, has increased interest in magnetic data collected on the surface...... of the Earth at observatories. The scientific use of Swarm data and Swarm-derived products is greatly enhanced by combination with observatory data and indices. As part of the Swarm Level-2 data activities plans are in place to distribute such ground-based data along with the Swarm data as auxiliary data...

  20. Bimodality and the formation of Saturn's ring particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.


    The F ring appears to have an outer and an inner rim, with only the latter observed by the imaging photopolarimeter (IPP) on the Pioneer Saturn spacecraft. The inside of the G ring, near 2.49 R/sub S/, may also be seen in the optical data. 1979S1 is red as well as dark. The light scattered through the B ring is noticeably red. The A ring has a dense outer rim. The Cassini Division and the French Division (Dollfus Division) have a dark gap near their centers. The C ring becomes weaker toward the center such that outer, middle, and inner C rings can be recognized. The Pioneer and earth-based observations are explained with a model for the B and A rings to some extent of a bimodal size distributions of particles; the larger ones may be original accretions, while small debris diffuses inward through the Cassini Division and the C ring. During the formation of the ring system, differential gravitation allowed only silicaceous grains of higher density (rho> or approx. =3 g cm -3 ) to coagulate. These serve as interstitial cores for snowy carbonaceous grains, between the times of accretion from interplanetary cometary grains and liberation by collision followed by diffusion inward to Saturn and final evaporation

  1. Elusive Ethylene Detected in Saturns Northern Storm Region (United States)

    Hesman, B. E.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Sada, P. V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Lunsford, A. W.; Fletcher, L. N.; Boyle, R. J.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; hide


    The massive eruption at 40 deg. N (planetographic latitude) on Saturn in 2010 December has produced significant and lasting effects in the northern hemisphere on temperature and species abundances. The northern storm region was observed on many occasions in 2011 by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). In 2011 May, temperatures in the stratosphere greater than 200 K were derived from CIRS spectra in the regions referred to as "beacons" (warm regions in the stratosphere). Ethylene has been detected in the beacon region in Saturn's northern storm region using CIRS. Ground-based observations using the high-resolution spectrometer Celeste on the McMath-Pierce Telescope on 2011 May 15 were used to confirm the detection and improve the altitude resolution in the retrieved profile. The derived ethylene profile from the CIRS data gives a C2H4 mole fraction of 5.9 +/- 4.5 x 10(exp -7) at 0.5 mbar, and from Celeste data it gives 2.7 +/- 0.45 x 10(exp -6) at 0.1 mbar. This is two orders of magnitude higher than the amount measured in the ultraviolet at other latitudes prior to the storm. It is also much higher than predicted by photochemical models, indicating that perhaps another production mechanism is required or a loss mechanism is being inhibited.

  2. Predicted radiation environment of the Saturn baseline diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbleib, J.A.; Lee, J.R.


    Coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport was used to predict the radiation environment of the Saturn accelerator for the baseline diode design. The x-ray output has been calculated, as well as energy deposition in CaF 2 thermoluminescent dosimetry and silicon. It is found that the design criteria for the radiation environment will be met and that approximately 10 kJ of x rays will be available for simulation experiments, if the diode provides a nominal beam of 2.0-MeV electrons for 20 ns with a peak current of 12.5 MA. The penalty in dose and x-ray output for operating below the nominal energy in order to obtain a softer spectrum is quantified. The penalty for using excessive electron equilibration in the standard packaging of the thermoluminescent dosimeters is shown to be negligible. An intrinsic lack of electron equilibration for silicon elements of components and subsystems is verified for Saturn environments, demonstrating the ambiguity of design criteria based on silicon deposition. Validation of an efficient next-event-estimator method for predicting energy deposition in equilibrated detectors/dosimetry is confirmed. Finally, direct-electron depositions in excess of 1 kJ/g are shown to be easily achievable. 34 refs., 30 figs

  3. Developments of STIM, the Saturn Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (United States)

    Aylward, A. D.; Smith, C. G.; Miller, S.; Millward, G.


    The STIM (Saturn Thermosphere Ionosphere Model) model is a joint venture betwen University College London, Imperial College London, Boston University and the University of Arizona to develop a 3-d global circulation model of the Saturnian system - the primary aim being to use this as a tool for interpretation and testing of Cassini data. After initial work producing a basic thermosphere model (Muller-Wodarg et al 2005), examining issues to do with the ionosphere (Moore et al 2005) and examining auroral heating effects (Smith et al 2005), a global coupled ionosphere-plasmasphere has been added to the model. At low latitudes the model calculates ion densities on closed flux tubes passing through the ring plane. At high latitudes it performs self-consistent calculations of Joule heating and ion drag based on the calculated thermospheric and ionospheric parameters. The plasmasphere is complicated for Saturn by the strength of the centrifugal force which can dominate the forces in the outer flux tubes. Studies initially used H+ and H3+ as the principle ions but for the future it will be necessary to look at the consequences of the rings supplying OH or oxygen from ring ice particles. The high-latitude morphology is being refined as Cassini data constrains it. Long-term plans for the STIM development will be discussed.

  4. Quasi-periodic latitudinal shift of Saturn's main auroral emission (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Palmaerts, B.; Grodent, D. C.; Radioti, K.; Krupp, N.; Yao, Z.


    The main component of the ultraviolet auroral emissions at Saturn consists in a ring of emission around each pole of the planet. This main ring of emission has been revealed to oscillate by a few degrees in the prenoon-premidnight direction with a period of 10.8h. This auroral oscillation is thought to be induced by a rotating external magnetospheric current system associated with the planetary period oscillations. Here we report, by means of auroral imaging sequences obtained with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on board the Cassini spacecraft, the first direct observation of an additional motion of the main emission superimposed to this oscillation. The whole main emission ring exhibits step-like displacements in latitude mainly towards dayside, decoupled from the 10.8h oscillation. These latitude shifts recur around every hour, which is a typical short periodicity at Saturn previously identified in the aurora intensity, in the charged particle fluxes and in the magnetic field. This unique observation directly demonstrates what has been inferred from past in-situ and remote measurements: the 1-hour periodicities reveal a global and fundamental magnetospheric oscillation mode that acts independently of the local magnetospheric conditions. However, the magnetospheric mechanism responsible for these 1-hour auroral shifts is still unknown. It is possible that Alfvén waves inducing hourly magnetic fluctuations might also modify the place where the field-aligned electrons precipitate in the ionosphere and produce the main emission.

  5. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father...

  6. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (United States)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso


    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  7. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (United States)

    Favali, Paolo


    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006,, is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011,, and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  8. The Malaysian Robotic Solar Observatory (P29) (United States)

    Othman, M.; Asillam, M. F.; Ismail, M. K. H.


    Robotic observatory with small telescopes can make significant contributions to astronomy observation. They provide an encouraging environment for astronomers to focus on data analysis and research while at the same time reducing time and cost for observation. The observatory will house the primary 50cm robotic telescope in the main dome which will be used for photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry observation activities. The secondary telescope is a robotic multi-apochromatic refractor (maximum diameter: 15 cm) which will be housed in the smaller dome. This telescope set will be used for solar observation mainly in three different wavelengths simultaneously: the Continuum, H-Alpha and Calcium K-line. The observatory is also equipped with an automated weather station, cloud & rain sensor and all-sky camera to monitor the climatic condition, sense the clouds (before raining) as well as to view real time sky view above the observatory. In conjunction with the Langkawi All-Sky Camera, the observatory website will also display images from the Malaysia - Antarctica All-Sky Camera used to monitor the sky at Scott Base Antarctica. Both all-sky images can be displayed simultaneously to show the difference between the equatorial and Antarctica skies. This paper will describe the Malaysian Robotic Observatory including the systems available and method of access by other astronomers. We will also suggest possible collaboration with other observatories in this region.

  9. Robotic Software for the Thacher Observatory (United States)

    Lawrence, George; Luebbers, Julien; Eastman, Jason D.; Johnson, John A.; Swift, Jonathan


    The Thacher Observatory—a research and educational facility located in Ojai, CA—uses a 0.7 meter telescope to conduct photometric research on a variety of targets including eclipsing binaries, exoplanet transits, and supernovae. Currently, observations are automated using commercial software. In order to expand the flexibility for specialized scientific observations and to increase the educational value of the facility on campus, we are adapting and implementing the custom observatory control software and queue scheduling developed for the Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) to the Thacher Observatory. We present the design and implementation of this new software as well as its demonstrated functionality on the Thacher Observatory.

  10. Near equality of ion phase space densities at earth, Jupiter, and Saturn (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Armstrong, T. P.


    Energetic-ion phase-space density profiles are strikingly similar in the inner magnetospheres of earth, Jupiter, and Saturn for ions of first adiabatic invariant near 100 MeV/G and small mirror latitudes. Losses occur inside L approximately equal to 7 for Jupiter and Saturn and inside L approximately equal to 5 at earth. At these L values there exist steep plasma-density gradients at all three planets, associated with the Io plasma torus at Jupiter, the Rhea-Dione-Tethys torus at Saturn, and the plasmasphere at earth. Measurements of ion flux-tube contents at Jupiter and Saturn by the low-energy charged-particle experiment show that these are similar (for O ions at L = 5-9) to those at earth (for protons at L = 2-6). Furthermore, the thermal-ion flux-tube contents from Voyager plasma-science data at Jupiter and Saturn are also very nearly equal, and again similar to those at earth, differing by less than a factor of 3 at the respective L values. The near equality of energetic and thermal ion flux-tube contents at earth, Jupiter, and Saturn suggests the possibility of strong physical analogies in the interaction between plasma and energetic particles at the plasma tori/plasma sheets of Jupiter and Saturn and the plasmasphere of earth.

  11. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.


    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  12. Rate Constant for the Reaction CH3 + CH3 Yields C2H6 at T = 155 K and Model Calculation of the CH3 Abundance in the Atmospheres of Saturn and Neptune (United States)

    Cody, Regina J.; Romani, Paul N.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Iannone, Mark A.; Tardy, Dwight C.; Stief, Louis J.


    The column abundances of CH3 observed by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) satellite on Saturn and Neptune were lower than predicted by atmospheric photochemical models, especially for Saturn. It has been suggested that the models underestimated the loss of CH3 due to poor knowledge of the rate constant k of the CH3 + CH3 self-reaction at the low temperatures and pressures of these atmospheres. Motivated by this suggestion, we undertook a combined experimental and photochemical modeling study of the CH3 + CH3 reaction and its role in determining planetary CH3 abundances. In a discharge flow-mass spectrometer system, k was measured at T = 155 K and three pressures of He. The results in units of cu cm/molecule/s are k(0.6 Torr) = 6.82 x 10(exp -11), k(1.0 Torr) = 6.98 x 10(exp -11), and k(1.5 Torr) = 6.91 x 10(exp -11). Analytical expressions for k were derived that (1) are consistent with the present laboratory data at T = 155 K, our previous data at T = 202 K and 298 K, and those of other studies in He at T = 296-298 K and (2) have some theoretical basis to provide justification for extrapolation. The derived analytical expressions were then used in atmospheric photochemical models for both Saturn and Neptune. These model results reduced the disparity with observations of Saturn, but not with observations of Neptune. However, the disparity for Neptune is much smaller. The solution to the remaining excess CH3 prediction in the models relative to the ISO observations lies, to a large extent, elsewhere in the CH3 photochemistry or transport, not in the CH3 + CH3 rate.

  13. Statistical eclipses of close-in Kepler sub-Saturns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheets, Holly A.; Deming, Drake, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)


    We present a method to detect small atmospheric signals in Kepler's planet candidate light curves by averaging light curves for multiple candidates with similar orbital and physical characteristics. Our statistical method allows us to measure unbiased physical properties of Kepler's planet candidates, even for candidates whose individual signal-to-noise precludes the detection of their secondary eclipse. We detect a secondary eclipse depth of 3.83{sub −1.11}{sup +1.10} ppm for a group of 31 sub-Saturn (R < 6 R {sub ⊕}) planet candidates with the greatest potential for a reflected light signature ((R{sub p} /a){sup 2} > 10 ppm). Including Kepler-10b in this group increases the depth to 5.08{sub −0.72}{sup +0.71} ppm. For a control group with (R{sub p} /a){sup 2} < 1 ppm, we find a depth of 0.36 ± 0.37 ppm, consistent with no detection. We also analyze the light curve of Kepler-10b and find an eclipse depth of 7.08 ± 1.06 ppm. If the eclipses are due solely to reflected light, this corresponds to a geometric albedo of 0.22 ± 0.06 for our group of close-in sub-Saturns, 0.37 ± 0.05 if including Kepler-10b in the group, and 0.60 ± 0.09 for Kepler-10b alone. Including a thermal emission model does not change the geometric albedo appreciably, assuming A{sub B} = (3/2)*A{sub g} . Our result for Kepler-10b is consistent with previous works. Our result for close-in sub-Saturns shows that Kepler-10b is unusually reflective, but our analysis is consistent with the results of Demory for super-Earths. Our results also indicate that hot Neptunes are typically more reflective than hot Jupiters.

  14. The Hera Saturn Entry Probe Mission: a Proposal in Response to the ESA M5 Call (United States)

    Mousis, Olivier; Atkinson, David; Amato, Michael; Aslam, Shahid; Atreya, Sushil; Blanc, Michel; Bolton, Scott; Brugger, Bastien; Calcutt, Simon; Cavalié, Thibault; Charnoz, Sébastien; Coustenis, Athena; Deleuil, Magali; Dobrijevic, Michel; Ferri, Francesca; Fletcher, Leigh; Gautier, Daniel; Guillot, Tristan; Hartogh, Paul; Holland, Andrew


    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an ESA M-class mission to be piggybacked on a NASA spacecraft sent to or past the Saturn system. Hera consists of an atmospheric probe built by ESA and released into the atmosphere of Saturn by its NASA companion Saturn Carrier-Relay spacecraft. Hera will perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition as well as the structure and dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and evolution of Saturn, the giant planets and their satellite systems, with extrapolation to extrasolar planets. Hera will probe well into and possibly beneath the cloud-forming region of the troposphere, below the region accessible to remote sensing, to locations where certain cosmogenically abundant species are expected to be well mixed. The Hera probe will be designed from ESA elements with possible contributions from NASA, and the Saturn/Carrier-Relay Spacecraft will be supplied by NASA through its selection via the New Frontier 2016 call or in the form of a flagship mission selected by the NASA "Roadmaps to Ocean Worlds" (ROW) program. The Hera probe will be powered by batteries, and we therefore anticipate only one major subsystems to be possibly supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the thermal protection system of the probe. Following the highly successful example of the Cassini-Huygens mission, Hera will carry European and American instruments, with scientists and engineers from both agencies and many affiliates participating in all aspects of mission development and implementation. A Saturn probe is one of the six identified desired themes by the Planetary Science Decadal Survey committee on the NASA New Frontier's list, providing additional indication that a Saturn probe is of extremely high interest and a very high priority for the international community.

  15. Interoperability of Heliophysics Virtual Observatories (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Roberts, A.; King, T.; King, J.; Harvey, C.


    If you'd like to find interrelated heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics) data for a research project that spans, for example, magnetic field data and charged particle data from multiple satellites located near a given place and at approximately the same time, how easy is this to do? There are probably hundreds of data sets scattered in archives around the world that might be relevant. Is there an optimal way to search these archives and find what you want? There are a number of virtual observatories (VOs) now in existence that maintain knowledge of the data available in subdisciplines of heliophysics. The data may be widely scattered among various data centers, but the VOs have knowledge of what is available and how to get to it. The problem is that research projects might require data from a number of subdisciplines. Is there a way to search multiple VOs at once and obtain what is needed quickly? To do this requires a common way of describing the data such that a search using a common term will find all data that relate to the common term. This common language is contained within a data model developed for all of heliophysics and known as the SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) Data Model. NASA has funded the main part of the development of SPASE but other groups have put resources into it as well. How well is this working? We will review the use of SPASE and how well the goal of locating and retrieving data within the heliophysics community is being achieved. Can the VOs truly be made interoperable despite being developed by so many diverse groups?

  16. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.


    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  17. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.


    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  18. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: Status Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creech-Eakman, M. J; Bakker, E. J; Buscher, D. F; Coleman, T. A; Haniff, C. A; Jurgenson, C. A; Klinglesmith, III, D. A; Parameswariah, C. B; Romero, V. D; Shtromberg, A. V; Young, J. S


    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is a ten element optical and near-infrared imaging interferometer being built in the Magdalena mountains west of Socorro, NM at an altitude of 3230 m...

  19. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Solano, E.


    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  20. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) (United States)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; hide


    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  1. Astronomy projects in ruins as observatory obliterated

    CERN Multimedia

    Bradley, M


    Canberra bushfires have gutted the Mount Stromlo Observatory causing the flames destroyed five telescopes, the workshop, eight staff homes and the main dome, causing more than $20 million in damage (1 page).

  2. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see

  3. The Farid and Moussa Raphael Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjar, R


    The Farid and Moussa Raphael Observatory (FMRO) at Notre Dame University Louaize (NDU) is a teaching, research, and outreach facility located at the main campus of the university. It located very close to the Lebanese coast, in an urbanized area. It features a 60-cm Planewave CDK telescope, and instruments that allow for photometric and spetroscopic studies. The observatory currently has one thinned, back-illuminated CCD camera, used as the main imager along with Johnson-Cousin and Sloan photometric filters. It also features two spectrographs, one of which is a fiber fed echelle spectrograph. These are used with a dedicated CCD. The observatory has served for student projects, and summer schools for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. It is also made available for use by the regional and international community. The control system is currently being configured for remote observations. A number of long-term research projects are also being launched at the observatory. (paper)

  4. Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) Ready for Static Test (United States)


    Two workers are dwarfed by the five J-2 engines of the Saturn V second stage (S-II) as they make final inspections prior to a static test firing by North American Space Division. These five hydrogen -fueled engines produced one million pounds of thrust, and placed the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit before departing for the moon. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  5. Study and realisation of cabled interfaces for the control and command of the Saturne cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devailly, Jean


    This research thesis addressed the assessment of needs, design and realisation of some hardware used by the Saturne cyclotron to solve problems of command and control while using connections developed for the Saturne's computer. After some generalities (description of Saturne, requirements and constraints, general statements about acquisitions and commands, selection of the acquisition and command system, codes), the author presents the different hardware for analog acquisitions, digital acquisitions, analog commands, digital commands, all-or-none control, simulators, amplifiers and memories. He reports some examples: magnetic measurements, control of ejection currents, programs. He finally presents the developed hardware

  6. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  7. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub


    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  8. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.


    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  9. Works about the Saturne synchrotron during the third quarter 1961

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report first gives an overview of works performed by the Saturne maintenance and operation department (works on magnet supply rectifiers, vessel inspection and detected defects and corrective measures), of the annual maintenance (dismounting, cleaning and control of different elements, installation of new components), of works and adjustments performed on the machine, and of miscellaneous studies (dynamic filtering of the magnetic field, target propellers). The next part briefly reports the various works performed by the department of maintenance and development physics apparatuses: works performed in the hall, underground measurement rooms, building extension, protection of the control room. It also presents newly installed equipment: particle selector, electric supply device, cooling. The third part indicates subcontracted scientific and industrial activities

  10. Evidence of Accretion in Saturn's F Ring (Invited) (United States)

    Agnor, C. B.; Buerle, K.; Murray, C. D.; Evans, M. W.; Cooper, N. J.; Williams, G. W.


    Lying slightly outside the classical Roche radius and being strongly perturbed by the adjacent moons Prometheus and Pandora, Saturn's F ring represents a unique astrophysical laboratory for examining the processes of mass accretion and moonlet formation. Recent images from the Cassini spacecraft reveal optically thick clumps, capable of casting shadows, and associated structures in regions of the F ring following close passage by Prometheus. Here we examine the accretion environment of the F ring and Prometheus' role in moonlet formation and evolution. Using the observed structures adjacent to these clumps and dynamical arguments we estimate the masses of these clumps and find them comparable to that of ~10-20-km contiguous moonlets. Further, we show that Prometheus' perturbations on the F ring create regions of enhanced density and low relative velocity that may accelerate the accretion of clumps and moonlets.

  11. Experimental results and modeling of a dynamic hohlraum on SATURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzon, M.S.; Allshouse, G.O.; Deeney, C.; Leeper, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.L.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Ryutov, D.D.


    Experiments were performed at SATURN, a high current z-pinch, to explore the feasibility of creating a hohlraum by imploding a tungsten wire array onto a low-density foam. Emission measurements in the 200--280 eV energy band were consistent with a 110--135 eV Planckian before the target shock heated, or stagnated, on-axis. Peak pinch radiation temperatures of nominally 160 eV were obtained. Measured early time x-ray emission histories and temperature estimates agree well with modeled performance in the 200--280 eV band using a 2D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics code. However, significant differences are observed in comparisons of the x-ray images and 2D simulations

  12. Analysis of Electric Propulsion System for Exploration of Saturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Huaura Solórzano


    Full Text Available Exploration of the outer planets has experienced new interest with the launch of the Cassini and the New Horizons Missions. At the present time, new technologies are under study for the better use of electric propulsion system in deep space missions. In the present paper, the method of the transporting trajectory is used to study this problem. This approximated method for the flight optimization with power-limited low thrust is based on the linearization of the motion of a spacecraft near a keplerian orbit that is close to the transfer trajectory. With the goal of maximizing the mass to be delivered in Saturn, several transfers were studied using nuclear, radioisotopic and solar electric propulsion systems.

  13. Early German plans for southern observatories (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.


    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  14. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II (United States)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  15. Cassini ISS Observation of Saturn from Grand Finale Orbits (United States)

    Blalock, J. J.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Dyudina, U.; Ewald, S. P.; McCabe, R. M.; Garland, J.; Gunnarson, J.; Gallego, A.


    We present images captured during Cassini's Grand Finale orbits, and their preliminary analyses. During the final 22 orbits of the mission, the spacecraft is in orbits that have 6.5 day period at an inclination of 62 degrees, apoapsis altitude of about 1,272,000 km, and periapsis altitudes of about 2,500 km. Images captured during periapsis passes show Saturn's atmosphere at unprecedented spatial resolution. We present preliminary analyses of these images, including the final images captured before the end of the mission when the spacecraft enters Saturn's atmosphere on September 15th, 2017. Prominent features captured during the final orbits include the north polar vortex and other vortices as well as very detailed views of the "popcorn clouds" that reside between the Hexagon and the north pole. In the cloud field between zonal jets, clouds either resemble linear streaks suggestive of cirrus-like clouds or round shapes suggestive of vortices or cumulus anvil. The presence of linear streaks that follow lines of constant latitudes suggests that meridional mixing is inhibited at those latitudes. The size of vortices may reflect latitudinal variation in the atmospheric deformation radius. We also compare the new images to those captured earlier in the Cassini mission to characterize the temporal evolution such as changes in the zonal jet speeds, and prevalence and colors of vortices. A particular focus of our interest is the long-term change in the color of the hexagon, the evolution of the wind speeds in the jetstream that blows eastward at the boundary of the hexagon, and the morphology of the north polar vortex. Our work has been supported by NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NSF AAG 1212216, and NASA NESSF NNX15AQ70H.

  16. Lightning-produced Carbon Species in the Atmosphere of Saturn (United States)

    Delitsky, Mona; Baines, K. H.


    Recent studies by Baines et al (2009) indicate that thunderstorm-associated clouds on Saturn are spectrally dark from 0.7 to 4 um, darker than regular clouds. This darkening is found to be consistent with the presence of particles of elemental carbon, such as in the form of soot particles mixed in with spectrally bright condensates. This carbon is thought to be generated by lightning-induced dissociation of methane. Lightning on Saturn will input large amounts of energy to a narrow column of atmosphere and generate products at high energies such as radicals and ions. After the column cools down, the new chemical species recombine and are frozen into a new chemical equilibrium. Experimental studies in the literature of reactions of methane and other gases in plasma discharges (which simulate lightning) indicate that, even with high ratios of hydrogen/methane, the elemental carbon obtained will form solid dark particles that persist and have a very high C/H ratio. Basically, they are mostly pure carbon, in the form of soot, amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon black, carbon onions, etc. Hydrogen will act as a sealant onto the particles and attach to dangling bonds on their growing surfaces. Even in experiments to form the most crystalline allotrope of carbon, that is, diamond, the presence of hydrogen does not inhibit diamond formation, even at the low pressures in the atmospheres of the Jovian planets or in the interstellar medium (Allamandola et al 1991). Therefore, some form of elemental carbon is likely produced in Saturnian storm clouds and may occur as dark particles of either amorphous carbon, PAHs or crystalline carbon in a form such as graphite. ..Refs: Baines et al., PSS 57, 1650-1658 (2009) ; Allamandola et al., Meteoritics 26, 313 (1991).

  17. Stochastic orbital migration of small bodies in Saturn's rings (United States)

    Rein, H.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.


    Many small moonlets that create propeller structures have been found in Saturn's rings by the Cassini spacecraft. We study the dynamical evolution of such 20-50 m sized bodies, which are embedded in Saturn's rings. We estimate the importance of various interaction processes with the ring particles on the moonlet's eccentricity and semi-major axis analytically. For low ring surface densities, the main effects on the evolution of the eccentricity and the semi-major axis are found to be caused by collisions and the gravitational interaction with particles in the vicinity of the moonlet. For high surface densities, the gravitational interaction with self-gravity wakes becomes important. We also perform realistic three-dimensional, collisional N-body simulations with up to a quarter of a million particles. A new set of pseudo shear periodic boundary conditions is used, which reduces the computational costs by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. Our analytic estimates are confirmed to within a factor of two. On short timescales the evolution is always dominated by stochastic effects caused by collisions and gravitational interaction with self-gravitating ring particles. These result in a random walk of the moonlet's semi-major axis. The eccentricity of the moonlet quickly reaches an equilibrium value owing to collisional damping. The average change in semi-major axis of the moonlet after 100 orbital periods is 10-100m. This translates to an offset in the azimuthal direction of several hundred kilometres. We expect that such a shift is easily observable. Two movies are only available in electronic form at

  18. Waves in Saturn's rings probed by radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.A.


    Thirty wave features, observed in 3.6 and 13 cm-wavelength optical depth profiles of Saturn's rings obtained by Voyager 1 radio occultation, are analyzed individually and comparatively. Many are the signature of spiral density waves and bending waves excited by gravitational resonances with Saturn's satellites. A new technique for locating waveform extrema, which fits a sinusoid to each half cycle of wave data, quantifies the wavelength variation across a feature. Fitting dispersion models to the derived wavelengths provides new estimates of ambient surface mass density σ in each wave region. For fourteen weak density waves in Ring A, modelling of the waveform near resonance with linear density wave theory gives independent estimates of σ, as well as reliable estimates of resonance location. Measurements of wave amplitude damping give an upper bound for ring thickness 2H, where H is the ring scale height. In the wave regions studied, Rings A, B, and C have 30 approx-lt σ approx-lt 70, σ approx-gt 65, and σ ∼ 1 g/cm 2 , respectively. Mass loading estimates from waveform modelling are 20 to 40% larger than dispersion-derived values, suggesting accumulation of mass in the wave regions. The average offset of derived wave location from theoretical resonance is about 1 km. Model waveforms of overlapping waves excited by the satellites Janus and Epimethenus agree well with observed morphologies in the linear region near resonance. In Ring C, dispersion analysis indicates that the most prominent wave feature, previously unidentified, is a one-armed spiral wave

  19. The Russian-Ukrainian Observatories Network for the European Astronomical Observatory Route Project (United States)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Bondar, N. I.; Karetnikov, V. G.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Pinigin, G. I.; Pozhalova, Zh. A.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskay, A. N.; Stepanov, A. V.; Tolbin, S. V.


    In 2004,the Center of UNESCO World Heritage has announced a new initiative "Astronomy & World Heritage" directed for search and preserving of objects,referred to astronomy,its history in a global value,historical and cultural properties. There were defined a strategy of thematic programme "Initiative" and general criteria for selecting of ancient astronomical objects and observatories. In particular, properties that are situated or have significance in relation to celestial objects or astronomical events; representations of sky and/or celestial bodies and astronomical events; observatories and instruments; properties closely connected with the history of astronomy. In 2005-2006,in accordance with the program "Initiative", information about outstanding properties connected with astronomy have been collected.In Ukraine such work was organized by astronomical expert group in Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory. In 2007, Nikolaev observatory was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5116. Later, in 2008, the network of four astronomical observatories of Ukraine in Kiev,Crimea, Nikolaev and Odessa,considering their high authenticities and integrities,was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5267 "Astronomical Observatories of Ukraine". In 2008-2009, a new project "Thematic Study" was opened as a successor of "Initiative". It includes all fields of astronomical heritage from earlier prehistory to the Space astronomy (14 themes in total). We present the Ukraine-Russian Observatories network for the "European astronomical observatory Route project". From Russia two observatories are presented: Kazan Observatory and Pulkovo Observatory in the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century".The description of astronomical observatories of Ukraine is given in accordance with the project "Thematic study"; the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century" - astronomical observatories in Kiev,Nikolaev and Odessa; the

  20. Proces zavádění nových výrobků společnosti McDonald ´s


    Vaňková, Kateřina


    This Bachelor's thesis focuses on the way of introducing new products of the company McDonald's in the Czech Republic. It is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part of the thesis deals the fundamental terms of general marketing. These are: SWOT analysis, marketing communications, marketing strategies and communication mix. In the practical part of the thesis is presented the history of the company, the corporate social responsibility and the basic principles. The fol...

  1. Prediction of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome using the 2016 MAGNIMS and 2010 McDonald criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippi, Massimo; Preziosa, Paolo; Meani, Alessandro


    of the distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions was suggested. We compared the performance of the 2010 McDonald and 2016 MAGNIMS criteria for multiple sclerosis diagnosis in a large multicentre cohort of patients with CIS to provide evidence to guide revisions of multiple sclerosis diagnostic......, 2017, 571 patients with CIS were screened, of whom 368 met all study inclusion criteria. At the last evaluation (median 50·0 months [IQR 27·0-78·4]), 189 (51%) of 368 patients developed clinically definite multiple sclerosis. At 36 months, the two DIS criteria showed high sensitivity (2010 McDonald 0......·32-0·50], and similar AUC (0·63 [0·57-0·68]). Inclusion of optic nerve evaluation resulted in similar sensitivity (0·92 [0·87-0·96]), and slightly lower specificity (0·26 [0·18-0·34]) and AUC (0·59 [0·55-0·64]). AUC values were also similar for DIT (2010 McDonald 0·61 [0·55-0·67] and 2016 MAGNIMS 0·61 [0...

  2. The Plasma Proton Environment within Saturn's inner magnetosphere as Observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) during Saturn Orbit Insertion (United States)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Elrod, M. K.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Tseng, W. L.; Smith, H. T.; Chornay, D. J.; Shappirio, M.; Simpson, D. G.


    In analyzing the Cassini data between Saturn's A-ring outer edge and Mimas' L shell numerous inconsistencies have been reported in estimates of total ionic charge and electron density. The primary focus of our work is to understand these inconsistencies. We present our recent discovery of plasma protons during Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) outbound pass of the magnetospheric region between the F and G rings. We also searched for H2+ ions but no such events were found. The discovery of protons was made possible by a recent analysis of the CAPS Ion Mass Spectrometer's (IMS's) time-of-flight (TOF) composition data in a mode of reduced post-acceleration voltage at 6 kV instead of the usual 14.6 kV. All previous work for this region had not considered the TOF data. The new proton analysis was enabled by minimum scattering of 6 kV protons in the instrument's ultrathin carbon foils (CF), in comparison to larger scattering for the heavier ions such as for O+ and O2+. We use a SIMION model of the CAPS IMS including the effects of energy straggling and scattering by the instrument's CFs in an attempt to understand the TOF composition data for the heavier ions. This analysis within the uncertainties of the instrument allows us to estimate the relative abundances of the heavier ions and thus run our 2D velocity ion moments code to get ion densities, temperatures and velocities during the SOI outbound pass through the F-ring and G-ring gap. Comparisons with other data sets will be made.

  3. Analysis of the structure of Saturn's magnetic field using charged particle absorption signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenette, D.L.; Davis, L. Jr.


    A new technique is derived for determining the structure of Saturn's magnetic field. This technique uses the observed positions of charged particle absorption signatures due to the satellites and rings of Saturn to determine the parameters of an axially symmetric, spherical harmonic model of the magnetic field using the method of least squares. Absorption signatures observed along the Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 spacecraft trajectories are used to derive values for the orientation of the magnetic symmetry axis relative to Saturn's axis of rotation, the axial displacement of the center of the magnetic dipole from the center of Saturn, and the magnitude of the external field component. Comparing these results with the magnetic field model parameters deduced from analyses of magnetometer data leads us to prefer models that incorporate a northward offset of the dipole center by about 0.05 R/sub s/


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains images of the Saturn system taken by the Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) through November 1995....

  5. Magnetic field orientations in Saturn's upper ionosphere inferred from Voyager radio occultations (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.


    The radio scintillations observed during occultations of Voyagers 1 and 2 by Saturn are analyzed to determine the morphology of plasma irregularities and hence the magnetic field orientation in Saturn's upper atmosphere. The measurement techniques, the weak scattering theory, and the method used to relate the observed radio scintillations to physical properties of the ionospheric irregularities are briefly described. Results on the spatial characteristics of the irregularities are presented, and the magnetic field orientation in Saturn's ionosphere is inferred. Although the occultation measurements generally confirm the accuracy of the Saturnian magnetic field model of Connerney et al. (1982), it is found that a small adjustment of the coefficients in that model's zonal harmonic expansion would remove the discrepancy between the model predictions and the measurements. A strategy for obtaining improved measurements of Saturn's magnetic field from radio occultation observations of scintillations and Faraday rotation using an orbiting spacecraft is briefly discussed.

  6. Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem Fault Protection Challenges During Saturn Proximal Orbits (United States)

    Bates, David M.


    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. As part of the final extended mission, Cassini will begin an aggressive and exciting campaign of high inclination low altitude flybys within the inner most rings of Saturn, skimming Saturn's outer atmosphere, until the spacecraft is finally disposed of via planned impact with the planet. This final campaign, known as the proximal orbits, presents unique fault protection related challenges, the details of which are discussed in this paper.

  7. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory (United States)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.


    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  8. Six Years Into Its Mission, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory Continues to Achieve Scientific Firsts (United States)


    In August 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened for business. Six years later, it continues to achieve scientific firsts. "When Chandra opened its sunshade doors for the first time, it opened the possibility of studying the X-ray emission of the universe with unprecedented clarity," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "Already surpassing its goal of a five-year life, Chandra continues to rewrite textbooks with discoveries about our own solar system and images of celestial objects as far as billions of light years away." Based on the observatory's outstanding results, NASA Headquarters in Washington decided in 2001 to extend Chandra s mission from five years to ten. During the observatory s sixth year of operation, auroras from Jupiter, X-rays from Saturn, and the early days of our solar system were the focus of Chandra discoveries close to home -- discoveries with the potential to better understand the dynamics of life on Earth. Jupiter's auroras are the most spectacular and active auroras in the solar system. Extended Chandra observations revealed that Jupiter s auroral X-rays are caused by highly charged particles crashing into the atmosphere above Jupiter's poles. These results gave scientists information needed to compare Jupiter's auroras with those from Earth, and determine if they are triggered by different cosmic and planetary events. Mysterious X-rays from Saturn also received attention, as Chandra completed the first observation of a solar X-ray flare reflected from Saturn's low-latitudes, the region that correlates to Earth's equator and tropics. This observation led scientists to conclude the ringed planet may act as a mirror, reflecting explosive activity from the sun. Solar-storm watchers on Earth might see a surprising benefit. The results imply scientists could use giant planets like Saturn as remote-sensing tools to help monitor X-ray flaring on portions of the sun

  9. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga, O.V.


    Full Text Available The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  10. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory (United States)


    experience to have the opportunity to do an in-depth review of operational procedures established in 1978 and be given the chance to streamline these through the application of the tools available to engineers and scientists in 1995." The innovative arrangements were designed and developed at the ESA IUE Observatory, which is located in Spain at ESA's Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station in Villanueva de la Canada near Madrid. As a result, ESA is now performing all of WE's science observations (16 hours per day) from the Villafranca station. All the processing of the observations transmitted by the satellite and the subsequent rapid data distribution to the research scientists world-wide is now done from Villafranca. NASA does maintain its role in the programme in the area of operational spacecraft maintenance support, satellite communications and data re-processing for IUE's Final Archive. Thus the IUE Project could be extended and the final IUE observing program can now be implemented. In particular, this will involve critical studies on comets (e,g. on Comet Hale-Bopp), on stellar wind structures, on the enigmatic mini-quasars (which are thought to power the nuclei of Active Galaxies), as well as performing pre- studies which will optimize the utilization of the Hubble Space Telescope. Prof. R.M. Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science Programme comments "I am quite pleased that we have been able to secure the extension of our support for the scientists in Europe and the world to this highly effective mission. Also the scientists can be proud of the utilization of IUE, with more than 3000 learned publications and 200 Doctoral dissertations based on data from IUE. Through this they demonstrate in turn to be very appreciative of our efforts in the Science Programme".

  11. An international network of magnetic observatories (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, A.


    Since its formation in the late 1980s, the International Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), a voluntary consortium of geophysical institutes from around the world, has promoted the operation of magnetic observatories according to modern standards [eg. Rasson, 2007]. INTERMAGNET institutes have cooperatively developed infrastructure for data exchange and management ads well as methods for data processing and checking. INTERMAGNET institute have also helped to expand global geomagnetic monitoring capacity, most notably by assisting magnetic observatory institutes in economically developing countries by working directly with local geophysicists. Today the INTERMAGNET consortium encompasses 57 institutes from 40 countries supporting 120 observatories (see Figures 1a and 1b). INTERMAGNET data record a wide variety of time series signals related to a host of different physical processes in the Earth's interiors and in the Earth's surrounding space environment [e.g., Love, 2008]. Observatory data have always had a diverse user community, and to meet evolving demand, INTERMAGNET has recently coordinated the introduction of several new data services.

  12. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory (United States)

    Friend, D. B.


    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  13. H/He demixing and the cooling behavior of Saturn (United States)

    Püstow, Robert; Nettelmann, Nadine; Lorenzen, Winfried; Redmer, Ronald


    The description of the interior structure and evolution of the Solar System giant planets continues to be a serious challenge. The most prominent example is Saturn for which simple homogeneous evolution models yield ages between 2 and 3 billion years (Gyr), i.e. much shorter than the age of the Solar System of τ⊙ = 4.56 Gyr. It has long been suggested that H/He demixing might occur in the interior of Saturn after the planet has cooled off sufficiently. This incident would mark the begin of an inhomogeneous evolution period in which He droplets sink down and accumulate above the planetary core. The corresponding release of gravitational energy contributes to the intrinsic luminosity of the planet, thereby prolonging its cooling time, perhaps towards the correct value. Such scenarios have been studied in the past on the basis of rather approximate assumptions for the H-He phase diagram. Recently, various ab initio simulations have revealed details of the H-He phase diagram but also of remaining uncertainties (Morales, M.A. et al. [2009]. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 1324; Morales, M.A. et al. [2013a]. Phys. Rev. B 87, 174105; Lorenzen, W. et al. [2011]. Phys. Rev. B 84, 235109). In this paper we use the new predictions by Lorenzen et al. and modifications thereof to study the inhomogeneous evolution period of Saturn, with resulting values for the onset of H/He phase separation ts , the cooling time τ , and the atmospheric helium abundance y1 . For the planetary interior during the inhomogeneous evolution we assume adiabatic, convective envelopes. We find ts = 1 Gyr, τ = 5.8 Gyr, and y1 = 0.18 , while ts ≊ 2 Gyr for the Morales et al. data, for which we also estimate τ ≈ 5.1 Gyr. On the other hand, reasonable cooling times τ ≈τ⊙ are obtained for shifts of the Lorenzen et al. phase diagram by respectively -1300 K and +500 K, yielding y1 = 0.22 and y1 = 0.06 . More accurate knowledge of H-He phase diagram is necessary to understand cool gas giant

  14. Deciphering the embedded wave in Saturn's Maxwell ringlet (United States)

    French, Richard G.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Mathew M.; Hahn, Joseph M.; McGhee-French, Colleen A.; Colwell, Joshua E.; Marouf, Essam A.; Rappaport, Nicole J.


    The eccentric Maxwell ringlet in Saturn's C ring is home to a prominent wavelike structure that varies strongly and systematically with true anomaly, as revealed by nearly a decade of high-SNR Cassini occultation observations. Using a simple linear "accordion" model to compensate for the compression and expansion of the ringlet and the wave, we derive a mean optical depth profile for the ringlet and a set of rescaled, background-subtracted radial wave profiles. We use wavelet analysis to identify the wave as a 2-armed trailing spiral, consistent with a density wave driven by an m = 2 outer Lindblad resonance (OLR), with a pattern speed Ωp = 1769.17° d-1 and a corresponding resonance radius ares = 87530.0 km. Estimates of the surface mass density of the Maxwell ringlet range from a mean value of 11g cm-2 derived from the self-gravity model to 5 - 12gcm-2 , as inferred from the wave's phase profile and a theoretical dispersion relation. The corresponding opacity is about 0.12 cm2 g-1, comparable to several plateaus in the outer C ring (Hedman, M.N., Nicholson, P.D. [2014]. Mont. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 444, 1369-1388). A linear density wave model using the derived wave phase profile nicely matches the wave's amplitude, wavelength, and phase in most of our observations, confirming the accuracy of the pattern speed and demonstrating the wave's coherence over a period of 8 years. However, the linear model fails to reproduce the narrow, spike-like structures that are prominent in the observed optical depth profiles. Using a symplectic N-body streamline-based dynamical code (Hahn, J.M., Spitale, J.N. [2013]. Astrophys. J. 772, 122), we simulate analogs of the Maxwell ringlet, modeled as an eccentric ringlet with an embedded wave driven by a fictitious satellite with an OLR located within the ring. The simulations reproduce many of the features of the actual observations, including strongly asymmetric peaks and troughs in the inward-propagating density wave. We argue that

  15. Rotation Rate of Saturn's Magnetosphere using CAPS Plasma Measurements (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Simpson, D.; Paterson, W.


    We present the present status of an investigation of the rotation rate of Saturn 's magnetosphere using a 3D velocity moment technique being developed at Goddard which is similar to the 2D version used by Sittler et al. (2005) [1] for SOI and similar to that used by Thomsen et al. (2010). This technique allows one to nearly cover the full energy range of the CAPS IMS from 1 V less than or equal to E/Q less than 50 kV. Since our technique maps the observations into a local inertial frame, it does work during roll manoeuvres. We have made comparisons with Wilson et al. (2008) [2] (2005-358 and 2005-284) who performs a bi-Maxwellian fit to the ion singles data and our results are nearly identical. We will also make comparisons with results by Thomsen et al. (2010) [3]. Our analysis uses ion composition data to weight the non-compositional data, referred to as singles data, to separate H+, H2+ and water group ions (W+) from each other. The ion data set is especially valuable for measuring flow velocities for protons, which are more difficult to derive using singles data within the inner magnetosphere, where the signal is dominated by heavy ions (i.e., proton peak merges with W+ peak as low energy shoulder). Our technique uses a flux function, which is zero in the proper plasma flow frame, to estimate fluid parameter uncertainties. The comparisons investigate the experimental errors and potential for systematic errors in the analyses, including ours. The rolls provide the best data set when it comes to getting 4PI coverage of the plasma but are more susceptible to time aliasing effects. Since our analysis is a velocity moments technique it will work within the inner magnetosphere where pickup ions are important and velocity distributions are non-Maxwellian. So, we will present results inside Enceladus' L shell and determine if mass loading is important. In the future we plan to make comparisons with magnetic field observations, use Saturn ionosphere conductivities as

  16. Multinational History of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André


    Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is quite an interesting place for historians: several changes of nationality between France and Germany, high-profile scientists having been based there, big projects born or installed in its walls, and so on. Most of the documents circulating on the history of the Observatory and on related matters have however been so far poorly referenced, if at all. This made necessary the compilation of a volume such as this one, offering fully-documented historical facts and references on the first decades of the Observatory history, authored by both French and German specialists. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in the details of European history. After an introductory chapter by the Editor, contributions by Wolfschmidt and by Duerbeck respectively deal extensively with the German periods and review people and instrumentation, while another paper by Duerbeck is more...

  17. NASA Helps Keep the Light Burning for the Saturn Car Company (United States)


    The Saturn Electronics & Engineering, Inc. (Saturn) facility in Marks, Miss., that produces lamp assemblies was experiencing itermittent problems with its automotive under the hood lamps. After numerous testing and engineering efforts, technicians could not pin down the root of the problem. So Saturn contacted the NASA Technology Assistance Program (TAP) at Stennis Space Center. The Marks production facility had been experiencing intermittent problems with under the hood lamp assemblies for some time. The failure rate, at 2 percent, was unacceptable. Every effort was made to identify the problem so that corrective action could be put in place. The problem was investigated and researched by Saturn's engineering department. In addition, Saturn brought in several independent testing laboratories. Other measures included examining the switch component suppliers and auditing them for compliance to the design specifications and for surface contaminants. All attempts to identify the factors responsible for the failures were inconclusive. In an effort to get to the root of the problem, and at the recommendation of the Mississippi Department of Economic Development, Saturn contacted the NASA TAP at Stennis. The NASA Materials and Contamination Laboratory, with assistance from the Stennis Prototype Laboratory, conducted a materials evaluation study on the switch components. The laboratory findings showed the failures were caused by a build-up of carbon-based contaminants on the switch components. Saturn Electronics & Engineering, Inc., is a minority-owned provider of contract manufacturing services to a diverse global marketplace. Saturn operates manufacturing facilities globally serving the North American, European, and Asian markets. Saturn's production facility in Marks, Mississippi, produces more than 1,000,000 lamps and switches monthly. "Since the NASA recommendations were implemented, our internal failure rate for intermittency has dropped to less than .02 percent

  18. Hospital leadership perspectives on the contributions of Ronald McDonald Houses. Results from an international survey. (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Rubin, Nicole; Mauery, D Richard


    The purpose of this paper is to describe an international survey of hospital executives and administrators' perspectives on the contributions of their affiliation with a Ronald McDonald House (RMH) as an example of accommodation in family-centered care to the hospital's mission, operations and patient experience. RMHs worldwide provided the names and e-mail addresses of the people holding key leadership positions in their main hospital partner, who in turn were invited to complete an internet-based survey (530 participants; response rate of 54.5 percent). Hospital leaders reported very positive opinions about the contributions of their RMHs affiliation to their ability to serve seriously ill children and their families. This included such important outcomes as increasing family integrity and family participation in care decisions; and decreasing psychosocial stress and hospital social work resource burdens associated with lodging, food, transportation and sibling support. Hospital chief executive offices (CEOs) and medical directors reported very strong and positive opinions regarding the value-added of their RMHs affiliation in many areas, including enhanced marketing of hospital specialty services and reduced length of stay. Survey response bias is a limitation, although the results are still useful in terms of identifying multiple ways in which RMHs are perceived as contributing to hospitals' operations and provision of family-centered care. Overall, the results suggest that, internationally, hospital leaders believe that RMHs play a key and valued role in their provision of family-centered care to seriously ill children and their families. Family accommodation is more than the simple provision of lodging and plays an integral role how hospitals approach family-centered care. This international study contributes to the general literature on the role of family accommodation in hospitals' provision of family-centered care and the specific and very sparse

  19. "Like a trip to McDonalds": a grounded theory study of patient experiences of day surgery. (United States)

    Mottram, Anne


    The amount and complexity of (ambulatory) day surgery is rapidly expanding internationally. Nurses have a responsibility to provide quality care for day surgery patients. To do this they must understand all aspects of the patient experience. There is dearth of research into day surgery using a sociological frame of reference. The study investigated patients' experiences of day surgery using a sociological frame of reference. A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach was used. The study was based in two day surgery units in two urban public hospitals in the United Kingdom. 145 patients aged 18-70 years and 100 carers were purposely selected from the orthopaedic, ear nose and throat and general surgical lists. They were all English speaking and were of varied socio-economic background. The data was collected from 2004 to 2006. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on three occasions: before surgery, 48 h following surgery and one month following discharge. Permission was received from the Local Research Ethics Committee. Analysis of the data involved line-by-line analysis, compilation of key words and phrases (codes) and constant comparison of the codes until categories emerged. Patients liked day surgery and placed it within the wider societal context of efficiency and speed. Time was a major issue for them. They wished surgery, like all other aspects of their life to be a speedy process. They likened it to a McDonald's experience with its emphasis on speed, predictability and control. This study throws new light on patient experiences and offers an understanding of day surgery against a western culture which emphasises the importance of speed and efficiency. It is a popular choice for patients but at times it can be seen to be a mechanistic way of providing care. The implications for nurses to provide education and information to add to the quality of the patient experience are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chicago's Dearborn Observatory: a study in survival (United States)

    Bartky, Ian R.


    The Dearborn Observatory, located on the Old University of Chicago campus from 1863 until 1888, was America's most promising astronomical facility when it was founded. Established by the Chicago Astronomical Society and directed by one of the country's most gifted astronomers, it boasted the largest telescope in the world and virtually unlimited operating funds. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed its funding and demolished its research programme. Only via the sale of time signals and the heroic efforts of two amateur astronomers did the Dearborn Observatory survive.

  1. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum


    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  2. Operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martino, Julio


    While the work to make data acquisition fully automatic continues, both the Fluorescence Detectors and the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory need some kind of attention from the local staff. In the first case, the telescopes are operated and monitored during the moonless periods. The ground array only needs monitoring, but the larger number of stations implies more variables to consider. AugerAccess (a high speed internet connection) will give the possibility of operating and monitoring the observatory from any place in the world. This arises questions about secure access, better control software and alarms. Solutions are already being tested and improved.

  3. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, John


    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  4. SPASE and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Thieman


    Full Text Available The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE project has developed an information model for interoperable access and retrieval of data within the Heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics science community. The diversity of science data archives within this community has led to the establishment of many virtual observatories to coordinate the data pathways within Heliophysics subdisciplines, such as magnetospheres, waves, radiation belts, etc. The SPASE information model provides a semantic layer and common language for data descriptions so that searches might be made across the whole of the heliophysics data environment, especially through the virtual observatories.

  5. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)


    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  6. Public relations for a national observatory (United States)

    Finley, David G.

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a government-funded organization providing state-of-the art observational facilities to the astronomical community on a peer-reviewed basis. In this role, the NRAO must address three principal constituencies with its public-relations efforts. These are: the astronomical community; the funding and legislative bodies of the Federal Government; and the general public. To serve each of these constituencies, the Observatory has developed a set of public-relations initiatives supported by public-relations and outreach professionals as well as by management and scientific staff members. The techniques applied and the results achieved in each of these areas are described.

  7. Modelling of the ring current in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giampieri


    Full Text Available The existence of a ring current inside Saturn's magnetosphere was first suggested by Smith et al. (1980 and Ness et al. (1981, 1982, in order to explain various features in the magnetic field observations from the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Connerney et al. (1983 formalized the equatorial current model, based on previous modelling work of Jupiter's current sheet and estimated its parameters from the two Voyager data sets. Here, we investigate the model further, by reconsidering the data from the two Voyager spacecraft, as well as including the Pioneer 11 flyby data set. First, we obtain, in closed form, an analytic expression for the magnetic field produced by the ring current. We then fit the model to the external field, that is the difference between the observed field and the internal magnetic field, considering all the available data. In general, through our global fit we obtain more accurate parameters, compared to previous models. We point out differences between the model's parameters for the three flybys, and also investigate possible deviations from the axial and planar symmetries assumed in the model. We conclude that an accurate modelling of the Saturnian disk current will require taking into account both of the temporal variations related to the condition of the magnetosphere, as well as non-axisymmetric contributions due to local time effects. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; planetary magnetospheres; plasma sheet

  8. First Observation of Lion Roar Emission in Saturn's Magnetosheath (United States)

    Píša, D.; Sulaiman, A. H.; Santolík, O.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.


    We present an observation of intense emissions in Saturn's magnetosheath as detected by the Cassini spacecraft. The emissions are observed in the dawn sector (magnetic local time ˜06:45) of the magnetosheath over a time period of 11 h before the spacecraft crossed the bow shock and entered the unshocked solar wind. They are found to be narrow-banded with a peak frequency of about 0.16 fce, where fce is the local electron gyrofrequency. Using plane wave propagation analysis, we show that the waves are right hand circularly polarized in the spacecraft frame and propagate at small wave normal angles (lion roars" have been reported by numerous missions in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Here we show the first evidence such emission outside the terrestrial environment. Our observations suggest that lion roars are a solar-system-wide phenomenon and capable of existing in a broad range of parameter space. This also includes 1 order of magnitude difference in frequencies. We anticipate our result to provide new insight into such emissions in a new parameter regime characterized by a higher plasma beta (owing to the substantially higher Mach number bow shock) compared to Earth.

  9. Polar heating in Saturn's thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith


    Full Text Available A 3-D numerical global circulation model of the Kronian thermosphere has been used to investigate the influence of polar heating. The distributions of temperature and winds resulting from a general heat source in the polar regions are described. We show that both the total energy input and its vertical distribution are important to the resulting thermal structure. We find that the form of the topside heating profile is particularly important in determining exospheric temperatures. We compare our results to exospheric temperatures from Voyager occultation measurements (Smith et al., 1983; Festou and Atreya, 1982 and auroral H3+ temperatures from ground-based spectroscopic observations (e.g. Miller et al., 2000. We find that a polar heat source is consistent with both the Smith et al. determination of T~400 K at ~30° N and auroral temperatures. The required heat source is also consistent with recent estimates of the Joule heating rate at Saturn (Cowley et al., 2004. However, our results show that a polar heat source can probably not explain the Festou and Atreya determination of T~800 K at ~4° N and the auroral temperatures simultaneously.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospherica physics (Planetary magnetospheres – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (Thermospheric dynamics

  10. Discovery of a Jupiter/Saturn analog with gravitational microlensing. (United States)

    Gaudi, B S; Bennett, D P; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Christie, G W; Maoz, D; Dong, S; McCormick, J; Szymanski, M K; Tristram, P J; Nikolaev, S; Paczynski, B; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; Depoy, D L; Han, C; Kaspi, S; Lee, C-U; Mallia, F; Natusch, T; Pogge, R W; Park, B-G; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Fukui, A; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Korpela, A V; Kilmartin, P M; Lin, W; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Okumura, T; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Sako, T; Saito, To; Sato, S; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Sweatman, W L; Yock, P C M; Albrow, M D; Allan, A; Beaulieu, J-P; Burgdorf, M J; Cook, K H; Coutures, C; Dominik, M; Dieters, S; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Horne, K; Steele, I; Tsapras, Y; Chaboyer, B; Crocker, A; Frank, S; Macintosh, B


    Searches for extrasolar planets have uncovered an astonishing diversity of planetary systems, yet the frequency of solar system analogs remains unknown. The gravitational microlensing planet search method is potentially sensitive to multiple-planet systems containing analogs of all the solar system planets except Mercury. We report the detection of a multiple-planet system with microlensing. We identify two planets with masses of approximately 0.71 and approximately 0.27 times the mass of Jupiter and orbital separations of approximately 2.3 and approximately 4.6 astronomical units orbiting a primary star of mass approximately 0.50 solar mass at a distance of approximately 1.5 kiloparsecs. This system resembles a scaled version of our solar system in that the mass ratio, separation ratio, and equilibrium temperatures of the planets are similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn. These planets could not have been detected with other techniques; their discovery from only six confirmed microlensing planet detections suggests that solar system analogs may be common.

  11. Cassini’s Discoveries at Saturn and the Proposed Cassini Solstice Mission (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Spilker, L. J.; Mitchell, R. T.; Cuzzi, J.; Gombosi, T. I.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lunine, J. I.


    Understanding of the Saturn system has been greatly enhanced by the Cassini-Huygens mission. Fundamental discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, Titan and the other icy satellites, the rings, and magnetosphere of the system. Key discoveries include: water-rich plumes emanating from the south pole of Enceladus; hints of possible activity on Dione and of rings around Rhea; a methane hydrological cycle on Titan complete with fluvial erosion, lakes, and seas of liquid methane and ethane; non-axisymmetric ring microstructure in all moderate optical depth rings; south polar vortices on Saturn; and a unique magnetosphere that shares characteristics with both Earth’s and Jupiter’s magnetospheres. These new discoveries are directly relevant to current Solar System science goals including: planet and satellite formation processes, formation of gas giants, the nature of organic material, the history of volatiles, habitable zones and processes for life, processes that shape planetary bodies, and evolution of exoplanets. The proposed 7-year Cassini Solstice Mission would address new questions that have arisen during the Cassini Prime and Equinox Missions, and would observe seasonal and temporal change in the Saturn system to prepare for future missions to Saturn, Titan, and Enceladus. The proposed Cassini Solstice Mission would provide new science in three ways. First, it would observe seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Saturn, Titan and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere, in a hitherto unobserved seasonal phase from equinox to solstice. Second, it would address new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, providing qualitatively new measurements (e.g. of Enceladus and Titan) which could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases. Tthird, it would conduct a close-in mission phase at Saturn that would provide unique science including comparison to the Juno observations at Jupiter.

  12. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · Atmospheric neutrinos – India connection · INO Collaboration · INO Project components · ICAL: The physics goals · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · INO site : Bodi West Hills · Underground Laboratory Layout · Status of activities at INO Site · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · INO-ICAL Detector · ICAL factsheet.

  13. Asteroids Observed from GMARS and Santana Observatories (United States)

    Stephens, Robert D.


    Lightcurve period and amplitude results from Santana and GMARS Observatories are reported for 2008 June to September: 1472 Muonio, 8.706 ± 0.002 h and 0.50 mag; 2845 Franklinken, 114 ± 1 h and 0.8 mag; and 4533 Orth (> 24 hours).

  14. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.


    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  15. Education and public engagement in observatory operations (United States)

    Gabor, Pavel; Mayo, Louis; Zaritsky, Dennis


    Education and public engagement (EPE) is an essential part of astronomy's mission. New technologies, remote observing and robotic facilities are opening new possibilities for EPE. A number of projects (e.g., Telescopes In Education, MicroObservatory, Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope and UNC's Skynet) have developed new infrastructure, a number of observatories (e.g., University of Arizona's "full-engagement initiative" towards its astronomy majors, Vatican Observatory's collaboration with high-schools) have dedicated their resources to practical instruction and EPE. Some of the facilities are purpose built, others are legacy telescopes upgraded for remote or automated observing. Networking among institutions is most beneficial for EPE, and its implementation ranges from informal agreements between colleagues to advanced software packages with web interfaces. The deliverables range from reduced data to time and hands-on instruction while operating a telescope. EPE represents a set of tasks and challenges which is distinct from research applications of the new astronomical facilities and operation modes. In this paper we examine the experience with several EPE projects, and some lessons and challenges for observatory operation.

  16. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  17. Reverberation Mapping Results from MDM Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.


    We present results from a multi-month reverberation mapping campaign undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from around the world. We measure broad line region (BLR) radii and black hole masses for six objects. A velocity-resolved analysis of the H_beta response show...

  18. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado


    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  19. Geomagnetic secular variation at the African observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haile, T.


    Geomagnetic data from ten observatories in the African continent with time series data length of more than three decades have been analysed. All-day annual mean values of the D, H and Z components were used to study secular variations in the African region. The residuals in D, H and Z components obtained after removing polynomial fits have been examined in relation to the sunspot cycle. The occurrence of the 1969-1970 worldwide geomagnetic impulse in each observatory is studied. It is found that the secular variation in the field can be represented for most of the observatories with polynomials of second or third degree. Departures from these trends are observed over the Southern African region where strong local magnetic anomalies have been observed. The residuals in the geomagnetic field components have been shown to exhibit parallelism with the periods corresponding to double solar cycle for some of the stations. A clear latitudinal distribution in the geomagnetic component that exhibits the 1969-70 jerk is shown. The jerk appears in the plots of the first differences in H for the southern most observatories of Hermanus, Hartebeesthoek, and Tsuemb, while the Z plots show the jerk for near equatorial and equatorial stations of Antananarivo, Luanda Belas, Bangui and Addis Ababa. There is some indication for this jerk in the first difference plots of D for the northern stations of M'Bour and Tamanrasset. The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. (author)

  20. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi


    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance ( to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  1. Lights go out at city observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    Armstrong, R


    Edinburgh's Royal Observatory is to close its doors to the public due to dwindling visitor numbers. The visitor centre will remain open to the general public for planned lectures and night-time observing sessions, but will cease to be open on a daily basis from next month (1/2 page).

  2. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)


    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  3. Development of Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Kochiashvili, Nino; Astsatryan, Hrach; Harutyunian, Haik; Magakyan, Tigran; Chargeishvili, Ketevan; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi; Sargsyan, Lusine; Sinamyan, Parandzem; Kochiashvili, Ia; Mikayelyan, Gor


    The Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory (ArGVO) project is the first initiative in the world to create a regional VO infrastructure based on national VO projects and regional Grid. The Byurakan and Abastumani Astrophysical Observatories are scientific partners since 1946, after establishment of the Byurakan observatory . The Armenian VO project (ArVO) is being developed since 2005 and is a part of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). It is based on the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, the digitized version of famous Markarian survey) and other Armenian archival data. Similarly, the Georgian VO will be created to serve as a research environment to utilize the digitized Georgian plate archives. Therefore, one of the main goals for creation of the regional VO is the digitization of large amounts of plates preserved at the plate stacks of these two observatories. The total amount of plates is more than 100,000 units. Observational programs of high importance have been selected and some 3000 plates will be digitized during the next two years; the priority is being defined by the usefulness of the material for future science projects, like search for new objects, optical identifications of radio, IR, and X-ray sources, study of variability and proper motions, etc. Having the digitized material in VO standards, a VO database through the regional Grid infrastructure will be active. This partnership is being carried out in the framework of the ISTC project A-1606 "Development of Armenian-Georgian Grid Infrastructure and Applications in the Fields of High Energy Physics, Astrophysics and Quantum Physics".

  4. O evangelho segundo o McDonald's: estudo sobre o processo de produção da fast-food


    Alves, Carmen Lucia Rodrigues


    Este estudo aborda o processo de produção da cadeia de fast-food McDonald s, resgatando a forma de produzir seus alimentos, a tecnologia investida, as definições sobre cor, aroma, gosto; as relações de trabalho, desde a estrutura funcional dos trabalhadores, a seleção dos funcionários e o treinamento para cumprir todas as funções que concretizam o processo produtivo. Enfoca, também, através da análise da propaganda de seus produtos, a ideologia que veicula, particularmente p...

  5. The Age of Saturn's Rings Constrained by the Meteoroid Flux Into the System (United States)

    Kempf, S.; Altobelli, N.; Srama, R.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Estrada, P. R.


    The origin of Saturn's ring is still not known. There is an ongoing argument whether Saturn's ring are rather young or have been formed shortly after Saturn together with its satellites. The water-ice rings contain about 5% rocky material resulting from continuous meteoroid bombardment of the ring material with interplanetary micrometeoroids. Knowledge of the incoming mass flux would allow to estimate the ring's exposure time. Model calculations suggest exposure times of 108 years implying a late ring formation. This scenario is problematic because the tidal disruption of a Mimas-sized moon or of a comet within the planet's Roche zone would lead to a much larger rock content as observed today. Here we report on the measurement of the meteoroid mass flux into the Saturnian system obtained by the charge-sensitive entrance grid system (QP) of the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) on the Cassini spacecraft. Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) entering Saturn's sphere of gravitational influence are identified through the measurements of their speed vectors. We analyzed the full CDA data set acquired after Cassini's arrival at Saturn in 2004, identified the impact speed vectors of 128 extrinsic micrometeoroids ≥ 2 μm, and determined their orbital elements. On the basis of these measurements we determined the mass flux into the Saturnian system. Our preliminary findings are in support of an old ring. The knowledge of the meteoroids orbital elements allows us for the first time to characterize the meteoroid environment in the outer solar system based on direct measurements.

  6. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.


    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  7. Periods, poles, and shapes of Saturn's irregular moons (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano


    We report rotational-lightcurve observations of irregular moons of Saturn based on disk-integrated observations with the Narrow-Angle Camera of the Cassini spacecraft. From 24 measured rotation periods, 20 are now known with an accuracy of ~2% or better. The numbers are as follows (in hours; an '*' marks the less reliable periods): Hati 5.42; Mundilfari 6.74; Loge 6.94*; Skoll 7.26; Kari 7.70; Suttungr 7.82*, Bergelmir 8.13; Phoebe 9.274; Siarnaq 10.188; Narvi 10.21; Tarvos 10.69; Skathi 11.30; Ymir 11.922; Hyrrokkin 12.76; Greip 12.79*; Ijiraq 13.03; Albiorix 13.32; Bestla 14.624; Bebhionn 16.40; Paaliaq 18.75; Kiviuq 21.96; Erriapus 28.15; Thrymr 35 or >45* Tarqeq 76.8.More recent data strengthen the notion that objects in orbits with an inclination supplemental angle i' > 27° have significantly slower spin rates than those at i' 27°, Siarnaq, stands opposed to at least eight objects with faster spins and i' 27° bin contains all nine known prograde moons and four retrograde objects.A total of 25 out of 38 known outer moons has been observed with Cassini, and there is no chance to observe the 13 missing objects until end-of-mission. However, all unobserved objects are part of the i' 27° are known, and none of them is a fast rotator, with no exception.Several objects were observed repeatedly to determine pole directions, sidereal periods, and convex shapes. A few lightcurves have been observed to show three maxima and three minima even at low phase angles, suggesting objects with a triangular equatorial cross-section. Some objects with 2 maxima/ 2 minima are probably quite elongated. One moon even shows lightcurves with 4 maxima/ 4 minima.

  8. Slicing The 2010 Saturn's Storm: Upper Clouds And Hazes (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.


    At the end of 2010 a small storm erupted in Saturn's northern mid-latitudes. Starting from a localized perturbation, it grew up to be a global-scale disturbance and cover the whole latitude band by February, 2011 (Fletcher et al. 2011, Science 332; Sánchez-Lavega et al. 2011, Nature 475; Fischer et al. 2011, Nature 475). By June, 2011 the storm was facing its end and gradually disappeared (Sánchez-Lavega et al. 2012, Icarus 220). In this work we use the observations acquired by the Cassini ISS instrument during the whole process to investigate the vertical cloud and haze structure above the ammonia condensation level (roughly 1 bar). Cassini ISS observations cover visual wavelengths from the blue to the near-infrared including two methane absorption bands. Such observations have been modeled using a radiative transfer code which reproduces the atmospheric reflectivity as a function of observation/illumination geometry and wavelength together with a retrieval technique to find maximum likelihood atmospheric models. This allows to investigate some atmospheric parameters: cloud-top pressures, aerosol optical thickness and particle absorption, among others. We will focus on two aspects: (1) maximum likelihood models for the undisturbed reference atmosphere in the 15°N to 45°N band before and after the disturbance; (2) models for particular structures during the development of the global-scale phenomenon. Our results show a general increase of particle density and single-scattering albedo inside the storm. However, some discrete features showing anomalous structure and related to the storm peculiar dynamics will also be discussed. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    The motions of small moons through Saturn's rings provide excellent tests of radial migration models. In theory, torque exchange between these moons and ring particles leads to radial drift. We predict that moons with Hill radii r {sub H} {approx} 2-24 km should migrate through the A ring in 1000 yr. In this size range, moons orbiting in an empty gap or in a full ring eventually migrate at the same rate. Smaller moons or moonlets-such as the propellers-are trapped by diffusion of disk material into corotating orbits, creating inertial drag. Larger moons-such as Pan or Atlas-do not migrate because of their own inertia. Fast migration of 2-24 km moons should eliminate intermediate-size bodies from the A ring and may be responsible for the observed large-radius cutoff of r {sub H} {approx} 1-2 km in the size distribution of the A ring's propeller moonlets. Although the presence of Daphnis (r {sub H} Almost-Equal-To 5 km) inside the Keeler gap challenges this scenario, numerical simulations demonstrate that orbital resonances and stirring by distant, larger moons (e.g., Mimas) may be important factors. For Daphnis, stirring by distant moons seems the most promising mechanism to halt fast migration. Alternatively, Daphnis may be a recent addition to the ring that is settling into a low inclination orbit in {approx}10{sup 3} yr prior to a phase of rapid migration. We provide predictions of observational constraints required to discriminate among possible scenarios for Daphnis.

  10. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory (United States)


    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  11. Getting the Most Out of Your Observatory-Based Astro 101 Laboratory (United States)

    Hufnagel, B.; Metlay, S.


    Astronomy lab classes can be mind-expanding experiences for students: seeing Saturn for the first time with their own eyes is amazing! This is your chance to share and hear success stories from others who incorporate real-time observing into their laboratories. The group will self-select discussion topics, which could include: do we stress amateur and historical sky gazing; focus on uncertainty, graphing and making measurements; learn about physical laws, light and spectroscopy; or work with modern observing data from our own or national telescope archives? What is the role of computers for processing data, running simulations, and controlling telescopes? How can we track our topics with lecture - or do we even try? How do we manage a flexible schedule to take advantage of clear nights? In the era of Hubble, how do manage expectations when viewing a light-polluted sky with an eight-inch reflector? What difficulty level is appropriate for introductory students? What is the balance between teaching astronomy and teaching observing techniques? What is the ideal class size, and what size is economical for the college? How can the observatory be used for community outreach, since this is not directly funded? Outcomes: Experts, share your solutions to challenges and learn from others about what works and what does not. Newbies, inform yourself about issues involved in incorporating observing into your astronomy labs.

  12. Cassini Operational Sun Sensor Risk Management During Proximal Orbit Saturn Ring Plane Crossings (United States)

    Bates, David M.


    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 which arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004–08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. As part of the final extended missions, Cassini will begin an aggressive and exciting campaign of high inclination, low altitude flybys within the inner most rings of Saturn, skimming Saturn’s outer atmosphere, until the spacecraft is finally disposed of via planned impact with the planet. This final campaign, known as the proximal orbits, requires a strategy for managing the Sun Sensor Assembly (SSA) health, the details of which are presented in this paper.

  13. On Radiative Factors in Planetary Rings: New Insight Derived from Cassini CIRS Observations at Saturn Equinox (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S.; Edgington, S. G.; Deau, E.; Morishima, R.


    Since arriving at Saturn in 2004, Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded tens of millions of spectra of Saturn's rings (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation (16.7-1000 microns) at focal plane 1 (FP1). Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks at FP1 wavelengths. CIRS spectra are well characterized as blackbody emission at an effective temperature Te, multiplied by a scalar factor related to ring emissivity (Spilker et al. [2005, 2006]). CIRS can therefore characterize the rings' temperature and study the thermal environment to which the ring particles are subject. We focus on CIRS data from the 2009 Saturnian equinox. As the Sun's disk crossed the ring plane, CIRS obtained several radial scans of the rings at a variety of phase angles, local hour angles and distances. With the Sun's rays striking the rings at an incidence angle of zero, solar heating is virtually absent, and thermal radiation from Saturn and sunlight reflected by Saturn dominate the thermal environment. These observations appear to present a paradox. Equinox data show that the flux of thermal energy radiated by the rings can even exceed the energy incident upon them as prescribed by thermal models, particularly in the C ring and Cassini Division (Ferrari and Leyrat [2006], Morishima et al. [2009, 2010]). Conservation principles suggest that such models underestimate heating of the rings in these cases, as it is clearly unphysical for the rings to radiate significantly more energy than is incident upon them. In this presentation, we will describe our efforts to resolve this paradox and determine what doing so can teach us about Saturn's rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  14. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch


    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  15. Beyond the Observatory: Reflections on the Centennial (United States)

    Devorkin, D. H.


    One of the many unexpected side-benefits of acting as editor of the AAS centennial volume was the chance to take a fresh look at some of the personalities who helped to shape the American Astronomical Society. A common characteristic of these people was their energy, compassion and drive to go "Beyond the Observatory," to borrow a phrase from Harlow Shapley. But what did going `beyond the observatory' mean to Shapley, or to the others who shaped and maintained the Society in its first one hundred years of life? Just as the discipline of astronomy has changed in profound ways in the past century, so has the American Astronomical Society changed, along with the people who have been its leaders and its sustainers and the culture that has fostered it. The Centennial meeting of the Society offers a chance to reflect on the people who have given American astronomy its sense of community identity.

  16. The STELLA Robotic Observatory on Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Strassmeier


    Full Text Available The Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC inaugurated the robotic telescopes STELLA-I and STELLA-II (STELLar Activity on Tenerife on May 18, 2006. The observatory is located on the Izaña ridge at an elevation of 2400 m near the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. STELLA consists of two 1.2 m alt-az telescopes. One telescope fiber feeds a bench-mounted high-resolution echelle spectrograph while the other telescope feeds a wide-field imaging photometer. Both scopes work autonomously by means of artificial intelligence. Not only that the telescopes are automated, but the entire observatory operates like a robot, and does not require any human presence on site.

  17. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 (United States)


    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  18. The value of conventional high-field MRI in MS in the light of the McDonald criteria: a literature review. (United States)

    Lunde Larsen, L S; Larsson, H B W; Frederiksen, J L


    The diagnosis of MS is based on the revised McDonald criteria and is multidisciplinary. Both clinical and paraclinical measures are included. High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly available and it is therefore necessary to clarify possible advantages of high-field MRI in MS. The aim of this paper was to review MRI studies in MS where a direct comparison of MRI at high field with MRI at 1-1.5 tesla (T) had been performed. The studies evaluated were found by searching Pubmed with relevant terms including MeSH terms. The reviewed studies all found the conspicuity of lesions to be better at high field. Of the seven studies, six found more and bigger lesions at high-field MRI. In the present paper, the relevant MRI sequences are evaluated in detail. The detection of more lesions at high-field strength did not seem to lead to earlier diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. Further larger studies of patients with clinically isolated syndromes are needed to settle the question of a diagnostic consequence of high-field imaging in MS. We suggest that the next revision of the McDonald diagnostic criteria include a recommendation of field strength.

  19. Clinically Isolated Syndrome According to McDonald 2010: Intrathecal IgG Synthesis Still Predictive for Conversion to Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schwenkenbecher


    Full Text Available While the revised McDonald criteria of 2010 allow for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS in an earlier stage, there is still a need to identify the risk factors for conversion to MS in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS. Since the latest McDonald criteria were established, the prognostic role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and visual evoked potentials (VEP in CIS patients is still poorly defined. We conducted a monocentric investigation including patients with CIS in the time from 2010 to 2015. Follow-ups of 120 patients revealed that 42% converted to MS. CIS patients with positive oligoclonal bands (OCB were more than twice as likely to convert to MS as OCB negative patients (hazard ratio = 2.6. The probability to develop MS was even higher when a quantitative intrathecal IgG synthesis was detected (hazard ratio = 3.8. In patients with OCB, VEP did not add further information concerning the conversion rate to MS. In patients with optic neuritis and negative OCB, a significantly higher rate converted to MS when VEP were delayed. In conclusion, the detection of an intrathecal IgG synthesis increases the conversion probability to MS. Pathological VEP can help to predict the conversion rate to MS in patients with optic neuritis without an intrathecal IgG synthesis.

  20. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov


    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  1. From AISR to the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander S.


    The talk will provide a retrospective on important results enabled by the NASA AISR program. The program had a unique approach to funding research at the intersection of astrophysics, applied computer science and statistics. It had an interdisciplinary angle, encouraged high risk, high return projects. Without this program the Virtual Observatory would have never been started. During its existence the program has funded some of the most innovative applied computer science projects in astrophysics.

  2. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems (United States)

    Cording, Dean


    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the '' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  3. The architecture of LAMOST observatory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Jin Ge; Yu Xiaoqi; Wan Changsheng; Hao Likai; Li Xihua


    The design of architecture is the one of the most important part in development of Observatory Control System (OCS) for LAMOST. Based on the complexity of LAMOST, long time of development for LAMOST and long life-cycle of OCS system, referring many kinds of architecture pattern, the architecture of OCS is established which is a component-based layered system using many patterns such as the MVC and proxy. (authors)

  4. Technology Development for a Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.


    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

  5. Memory testing with Saturne synchrotron beams. Experiments with protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisson, J.


    For simulate light ions of the cosmic rays CEA will use facilities used in fundamental physic research. SATURNE is a synchrotron especially designed to accelerate light particles, for example protons with energy up to 2.9 GeV. Two experiments are made on SATURNE to specify the beam characteristics (energy and intensity) and to adapt the beam for irradiation of electronic components. During these preliminary experimentation memories and microprocessors was tested. The results of the tests (cross-section) are given in this paper [fr

  6. Long-lived particulate or gaseous structure in Saturn's outer magnetosphere (United States)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Hasegawa, T.; Bagenal, F.


    Voyager 1 and 2 and Pioneer 11 data on the variations in the number density of low-energy plasma ions in the outer Saturn magnetosphere are discussed. Low and high latitude observations are compared in reference to the position of the spacecraft crossing of the field line. Abrupt decreases in the number density interrupted the tendancy for the number density to increase with spacecraft approach to Saturn. All three spacecraft are concluded to have encountered the same magnetospheric structure in the field line, with absorbers being present in the equatorial plane. The absorbers are suggested to be either gas or debris, which may be detectable visibly or with occultation techniques.

  7. Loading the Saturn I S-IV Stage into Pregnant Guppy (United States)


    The photograph shows the loading operation of the Saturn I S-IV stage (second stage) into the Pregnant Guppy at the Redstone Airfield, Huntsville, Alabama. The Pregnant Guppy was a Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser modified to transport various stages of Saturn launch vehicles. The modification project called for lengthening the fuselage to accommodate the S-IV stage. After the flight test of that modification, phase two called for the enlargement of the plane's cabin section to approximately double its normal volume. The fuselage separated just aft of the wing's trailing edge to load and unload the S-IV and other cargoes.

  8. Saturn Orbits Car Making into the Twenty-First Century. A Case Study (United States)


    are adding a new automotive operating unit--Saturn--to our passenger car lines....Not since 1918, when Chevrolet joined the General Motors family, have...34landmark" for a U.S.-made car. In its comparison test with the Nissan NX 2000, the Mazda MX-3, and the Toyota Paseo, Saturn SC (sports coupe) ended in a dead...every year. 2 2 The Goliath of the group is General Motors , the world’s largest corporation. GM employs 715,000 people in 35 countries (368,000 in the

  9. A robotic observatory in the city (United States)

    Ruch, Gerald T.; Johnston, Martin E.


    The University of St. Thomas (UST) Observatory is an educational facility integrated into UST's undergraduate curriculum as well as the curriculum of several local schools. Three characteristics combine to make the observatory unique. First, the telescope is tied directly to the support structure of a four-story parking ramp instead of an isolated pier. Second, the facility can be operated remotely over an Internet connection and is capable of performing observations without a human operator. Third, the facility is located on campus in the heart of a metropolitan area where light pollution is severe. Our tests indicate that, despite the lack of an isolated pier, vibrations from the ramp do not degrade the image quality at the telescope. The remote capability facilitates long and frequent observing sessions and allows others to use the facility without traveling to UST. Even with the high background due to city lights, the sensitivity and photometric accuracy of the system are sufficient to fulfill our pedagogical goals and to perform a variety of scientific investigations. In this paper, we outline our educational mission, provide a detailed description of the observatory, and discuss its performance characteristics.

  10. LAGO: The Latin American giant observatory (United States)

    Sidelnik, Iván; Asorey, Hernán; LAGO Collaboration


    The Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) is an extended cosmic ray observatory composed of a network of water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) spanning over different sites located at significantly different altitudes (from sea level up to more than 5000 m a.s.l.) and latitudes across Latin America, covering a wide range of geomagnetic rigidity cut-offs and atmospheric absorption/reaction levels. The LAGO WCD is simple and robust, and incorporates several integrated devices to allow time synchronization, autonomous operation, on board data analysis, as well as remote control and automated data transfer. This detection network is designed to make detailed measurements of the temporal evolution of the radiation flux coming from outer space at ground level. LAGO is mainly oriented to perform basic research in three areas: high energy phenomena, space weather and atmospheric radiation at ground level. It is an observatory designed, built and operated by the LAGO Collaboration, a non-centralized collaborative union of more than 30 institutions from ten countries. In this paper we describe the scientific and academic goals of the LAGO project - illustrating its present status with some recent results - and outline its future perspectives.

  11. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Fellowship Program (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Shkolnik, E.


    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Fellowship Program. Now beginning its seventh year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully begun science operations and we anticipate the commissioning of several new instruments in 2014, making this a particularly exciting time to do research at Lowell. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see and links therein. Applications for Fall 2014 are due by May 1, 2014.

  12. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  13. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.


    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  14. Mission Techniques for Exploring Saturn's icy moons Titan and Enceladus (United States)

    Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John


    The future exploration of Titan is of high priority for the solar system exploration community as recommended by the 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey [1] and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program themes. Cassini-Huygens discoveries continue to emphasize that Titan is a complex world with very many Earth-like features. Titan has a dense, nitrogen atmosphere, an active climate and meteorological cycles where conditions are such that the working fluid, methane, plays the role that water does on Earth. Titan's surface, with lakes and seas, broad river valleys, sand dunes and mountains was formed by processes like those that have shaped the Earth. Supporting this panoply of Earth-like processes is an ice crust that floats atop what might be a liquid water ocean. Furthermore, Titan is rich in very many different organic compounds—more so than any place in the solar system, except Earth. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) concept that followed the 2007 TandEM ESA CV proposal [2] and the 2007 Titan Explorer NASA Flagship study [3], was examined [4,5] and prioritized by NASA and ESA in February 2009 as a mission to follow the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The TSSM study, like others before it, again concluded that an orbiter, a montgolfiѐre hot-air balloon and a surface package (e.g. lake lander, Geosaucer (instrumented heat shield), …) are very high priority elements for any future mission to Titan. Such missions could be conceived as Flagship/Cosmic Vision L-Class or as individual smaller missions that could possibly fit within NASA's New Frontiers or ESA's Cosmic Vision M-Class budgets. As a result of a multitude of Titan mission studies, several mission concepts have been developed that potentially fit within various cost classes. Also, a clear blueprint has been laid out for early efforts critical toward reducing the risks inherent in such missions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of potential Titan (and Enceladus) mission

  15. TMT approach to observatory software development process (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder


    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  16. The exploitation of the Saturne synchrotron during the forth quarter of 1960; L'exploitation du synchrotron Saturne pendant le 4eme trimestre 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document reports information and data regarding the operation of the Saturne synchrotron during the fourth quarter of 1960. It addresses the machine operation (acceleration cycles, beam intensity, technical incidents, time table), hardware studies (corrector circuit under high fields, intensity increase), physics experiments (on counters, in bubble chambers, target irradiation), measures and measurements regarding the protection against radiations (comparison of irradiation levels in different areas of the synchrotron, annual evolution), the liquefactor activity (nitrogen and hydrogen consumption and production data)

  17. The exploitation of the Saturne synchrotron during the first quarter of 1959; L'exploitation du synchrotron Saturne pendant le 1er trimestre 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    After having recalled some important events which occurred in 1958 regarding the operation of the Saturne synchrotron, this document first reports facts concerning the operation of the synchrotron (technical incidents are mentioned), experiments performed on the equipment (trajectory anomalies), physics experiments (use of fixed targets and of a target with radial projection, experiments in a bubble chamber), measures and measurements regarding protection against radiations during the first quarter of 1959.

  18. Habitability potential of satellites around Jupiter and Saturn (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Raulin, Francois; Encrenaz, Therese; Grasset, Olivier; Solomonidou, Anezina


    In looking for habitable conditions in the outer solar system recent research focuses on the natural satellites rather than the planets themselves. Indeed, the habitable zone as traditionally defined may be larger than originally conceived. The outer solar system satellites provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the ground but also by the Voyager, Galileo and the Cassini spacecrafts revealed the potential of these satellites in this context, and our understanding of habitability in the solar system and beyond can be greatly enhanced by investigating several of these bodies together [1]. Their environments seem to satisfy many of the "classical" criteria for habitability (liquid water, energy sources to sustain metabolism and chemical compounds that can be used as nutrients over a period of time long enough to allow the development of life). Indeed, several of the moons show promising conditions for habitability and the development and/or maintenance of life. The strong gravitational pull caused by the giant planets may produce enough energy to sufficiently heat the cores of orbiting icy moons. Europa and Ganymede may be hiding, under their icy crust, putative undersurface liquid water oceans [2] which, in the case of Europa [3], may be in direct contact with a silicate mantle floor and kept warm by tidally generated heat [4]. Titan and Enceladus, Saturn's satellites, were found by the Cassini-Huygens mission to possess active organic chemistries with seasonal variations, unique geological features and possibly internal liquid water oceans. Titan's rigid crust and the probable existence of a subsurface ocean create an analogy with terrestrial-type plate tectonics, at least surficial [5], while Enceladus' plumes find an analogue in geysers. As revealed by Cassini the liquid hydrocarbon lakes [6] distributed mainly at polar latitudes on Titan are ideal isolated environments to look for

  19. The Virtual Solar Observatory and the Heliophysics Meta-Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.


    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is now able to search for solar data ranging from the radio to gamma rays, obtained from space and groundbased observatories, from 26 sources at 12 data providers, and from 1915 to the present. The solar physics community can use a Web interface or an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows integrating VSO searches into other software, including other Web services. Over the next few years, this integration will be especially obvious as the NASA Heliophysics division sponsors the development of a heliophysics-wide virtual observatory (VO), based on existing VO's in heliospheric, magnetospheric, and ionospheric physics as well as the VSO. We examine some of the challenges and potential of such a "meta-VO."

  20. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Mercury and Saturn Propulsion Investigations (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan


    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed. In-situ resource utilization was found to be critical in making Mercury missions more amenable for human visits. At Saturn, refueling using local atmospheric mining was found to be difficult to impractical, while refueling the Saturn missions from Uranus was more practical and less complex.

  1. Observations of chorus at Saturn using the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science Instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.; Santolík, Ondřej; Dougherty, M. K.


    Roč. 113, č. 12 (2008), A12206/1-A12206/13 ISSN 0148-0227 Grant - others:National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US) 1279973 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Saturn * chorus Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008

  2. High and medium high energy lines in France. The SATURNE case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milleret, G.


    Located in the Paris area, the SATURNE accelerator produces high energy charged particles: protons, deuterons, helium 3, helium 4, neutrons. The beams, with very flexible characteristics (linear energy transfer, flexible environment, dimension and intensity) for simulation of cosmic particles or high energy accelerator environments, allow for testing various individual or complete components. The various commercial offers and prices are presented. 5 fig., 2 ref

  3. Evolution of electron pitch angle distributions across Saturn's middle magnetospheric region from MIMI/LEMMS (United States)

    Clark, G.; Paranicas, C.; Santos-Costa, D.; Livi, S.; Krupp, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roussos, E.; Tseng, W.-L.


    We provide a global view of ~20 to 800 keV electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) close to Saturn's current sheet using observations from the Cassini MIMI/LEMMS instrument. Previous work indicated that the nature of pitch angle distributions in Saturn's inner to middle magnetosphere changes near the radial distance of 10RS. This work confirms the existence of a PAD transition region. Here we go further and develop a new technique to statistically quantify the spatial profile of butterfly PADs as well as present new spatial trends on the isotropic PAD. Additionally, we perform a case study analysis and show the PADs exhibit strong energy dependent features throughout this transition region. We also present a diffusion theory model based on adiabatic transport, Coulomb interactions with Saturn's neutral gas torus, and an energy dependent radial diffusion coefficient. A data-model comparison reveals that adiabatic transport is the dominant transport mechanism between ~8 to 12RS, however interactions with Saturn's neutral gas torus become dominant inside ~7RS and govern the flux level of ~20 to 800 keV electrons. We have also found that field-aligned fluxes were not well reproduced by our modeling approach. We suggest that wave-particle interactions and/or a polar source of the energetic particles needs further investigation.

  4. Saturne II: characteristics of the proton beam, field qualities and corrections, acceleration of the polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laclare, J.-L.


    Indicated specifications of Saturne II are summed up: performance of the injection system, quality of the guidance field (magnetic measurements and multipolar corrections), transverse and longitudinal instabilities, characteristics of the beam stored in the machine and of the extracted beam. The problem of depolarization along the acceleration cycle is briefly discussed (1 or 2% between injection and 3 GeV) [fr

  5. Analysis of Saturn's Thermal Emission at 2.2-cm Wavelength: Spatial Distribution of Ammonia Vapor (United States)

    Laraia, A. L.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Janssen, Michael A.; Gulkis, Samuel; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Allison, Michael D.


    This work focuses on determining the latitudinal structure of ammonia vapor in Saturn's cloud layer near 1.5 bars using the brightness temperature maps derived from the Cassini RADAR (Elachi et al., 2004) instrument, which works in a passive mode to measure thermal emission from Saturn at 2.2-cm wavelength. We perform an analysis of five brightness temperature maps that span epochs from 2005 to 2011, which are presented in a companion paper by Janssen et al. (2013a, this issue). The brightness temperature maps are representative of the spatial distribution of ammonia vapor, since ammonia gas is the only effective opacity source in Saturn's atmosphere at 2.2-cm wavelength. Relatively high brightness temperatures indicate relatively low ammonia relative humidity (RH), and vice versa. We compare the observed brightness temperatures to brightness temperatures computed using the Juno atmospheric microwave radiative transfer (JAMRT) program which includes both the means to calculate a tropospheric atmosphere model for Saturn and the means to carry out radiative transfer calculations at microwave frequencies. The reference atmosphere to which we compare has a 3x solar deep mixing ratio of ammonia (we use 1.352x10(exp -4) for the solar mixing ratio of ammonia vapor relative to H2; see Atreya, 2010) and is fully saturated above its cloud base. The maps are comprised of residual brightness temperatures-observed brightness temperature minus the model brightness temperature of the saturated atmosphere.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan M.


    Temporal variations of Saturn's equatorial jet and magnetic field hint at rich dynamics coupling the atmosphere and the deep interior. However, it has been assumed that rotation of the interior dynamo must be steady over tens of years of modern observations. Here we use a numerical convection model and scaling estimates to show how equatorial convective bursts can transfer angular momentum to the deeper interior. The numerical model allows angular momentum transfer between a fluid outer spherical shell and a rigid inner sphere. Convection drives a prograde equatorial jet exhibiting quasiperiodic bursts that fill the equatorial volume outside the tangent cylinder. For each burst strong changes in the equatorial surface velocity are associated with retrograde torque on the inner sphere. Our results suggest that Saturn's Great White Spot, a giant storm that was observed to fill the equatorial region in 1990, could mobilize a volume of fluid carrying roughly 15% of Saturn's moment of inertia. Conservation of angular momentum then implies that a 20% change in the equatorial jet angular velocity could change the average interior rotation rate by about 0.1%—roughly an order of magnitude less than the apparent rotation rate changes associated with Saturn's kilometric radio (SKR) signal. However, if the SKR signal originates outside the liquid metal core in a 'planetary tachocline' that separates the layer of fast zonal flow from the magnetically controlled and slowly convecting deep interior, then convective bursts can provide a possible mechanism for the observed ∼1% SKR changes.

  7. Improvement in the 20 MeV beam brightness at Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamouard, P.A.; Olivier, M.


    Theoretical and experimental results are given for a program launched to improve beam brightness at Saturne. The low energy beam line located between the preinjector and linac was modified to give a reduction of beam size in the buncher and more flexible beam emittance matching with the linac acceptance, taking into account space charge effects. (E.C.B.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainey, Valéry; Desmars, Josselin; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Emelyanov, Nicolai; Remus, Françoise; Karatekin, Özgür; Charnoz, Sébastien; Mathis, Stéphane; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe; Tobie, Gabriel; Zahn, Jean-Paul


    Tidal interactions between Saturn and its satellites play a crucial role in both the orbital migration of the satellites and the heating of their interiors. Therefore, constraining the tidal dissipation of Saturn (here the ratio k 2 /Q) opens the door to the past evolution of the whole system. If Saturn's tidal ratio can be determined at different frequencies, it may also be possible to constrain the giant planet's interior structure, which is still uncertain. Here, we try to determine Saturn's tidal ratio through its current effect on the orbits of the main moons, using astrometric data spanning more than a century. We find an intense tidal dissipation (k 2 /Q = (2.3 ± 0.7) × 10 –4 ), which is about 10 times higher than the usual value estimated from theoretical arguments. As a consequence, eccentricity equilibrium for Enceladus can now account for the huge heat emitted from Enceladus' south pole. Moreover, the measured k 2 /Q is found to be poorly sensitive to the tidal frequency, on the short frequency interval considered. This suggests that Saturn's dissipation may not be controlled by turbulent friction in the fluid envelope as commonly believed. If correct, the large tidal expansion of the moon orbits due to this strong Saturnian dissipation would be inconsistent with the moon formations 4.5 Byr ago above the synchronous orbit in the Saturnian subnebulae. But it would be compatible with a new model of satellite formation in which the Saturnian satellites formed possibly over a longer timescale at the outer edge of the main rings. In an attempt to take into account possible significant torques exerted by the rings on Mimas, we fitted a constant rate da/dt on Mimas' semi-major axis as well. We obtained an unexpected large acceleration related to a negative value of da/dt = –(15.7 ± 4.4) × 10 –15 AU day –1 . Such acceleration is about an order of magnitude larger than the tidal deceleration rates observed for the other moons. If not coming from an

  9. Photochemistry in Saturn's Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Modulation of Hydrocarbons and Observations of Dust Content (United States)

    Edgington, S. G.; Atreya, S. K.; Wilson, E. H.; Baines, K. H.; West, R. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Fletcher, L. N.; Momary, T.


    Cassini has been orbiting Saturn for over twelve years now. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere with solar inclination of 24 degrees to covering a large swath south of the equator and it continues to move southward. At Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004, the projection of the A-ring onto Saturn reached as far as 40N along the central meridian (52N at the terminator). At its maximum extent, the ring shadow can reach as far as 48N/S (58N/S at the terminator). The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn's axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds.Previous work examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. Here, we report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow on the photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethane, propane, and benzene) and phosphine in Saturn's stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. We assess their impact on phosphine abundance, a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere.We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini's CIRS, UVIS, and VIMS datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content of the northern hemisphere and we will begin to assess the implications for dynamical mixing. In particular, we will examine how the now famous hexagonal jet stream acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn's north polar region from outside transport of photochemically-generated molecules and haze.The research described in this paper was carried out

  10. GAIA virtual observatory - development and practices (United States)

    Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Marple, Steve


    The Global Auroral Imaging Access, or GAIA, is a virtual observatory providing quick access to summary data from satellite and ground-based instruments that remote sense auroral precipitation ( This web-based service facilitates locating data relevant to particular events by simultaneously displaying summary images from various data sets around the world. At the moment, there are GAIA server nodes in Canada, Finland, Norway and the UK. The development is an international effort and the software and metadata are freely available. The GAIA system is based on a relational database which is queried by a dedicated software suite that also creates the graphical end-user interface if such is needed. Most commonly, the virtual observatory is used interactively by using a web browser: the user provides the date and the type of data of interest. As the summary data from multiple instruments are displayed simultaneously, the user can conveniently explore the recorded data. The virtual observatory provides essentially instant access to the images originating from all major auroral instrument networks including THEMIS, NORSTAR, GLORIA and MIRACLE. The scientific, educational and outreach use is limited by creativity rather than access. The first version of the GAIA was developed at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada) in 2004-2005. This proof-of-concept included mainly THEMIS and MIRACLE data, which comprised of millions of summary plots and thumbnail images. However, it was soon realised that a complete re-design was necessary to increase flexibility. In the presentation, we will discuss the early history and motivation of GAIA as well as how the development continued towards the current version. The emphasis will be on practical problems and their solutions. Relevant design choices will also be highlighted.

  11. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.


    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  12. Protection of Hawaii's Observatories from Light Pollution (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.


    Maunakea Observatory, located on the island of Hawaii, is among the world darkest sites for astronomy. Strong efforts to preserve the dark night sky over the last forty years have proven successful. Artificial light presently adds only approximately 2% to the natural night sky brightness. The techniques being used to protect Maunakea from light pollution will be described, along with the challenges that are now being faced.Haleakala Observatory, located on the island of Maui, is also an excellent observing site, and is among the best sites in the United States. Lighting restrictions in Maui County are much weaker, and consequently, the night sky above Haleakala is less well protected. Haleakala is closer to Honolulu and the island of Oahu (population approximately 1 million), and the glow from Oahu makes the northwestern sky brighter.Much of the lighting across most of the United States, including Hawaii, is presently being converted to LED lighting. This provides an opportunity to replace existing poorly shielded lights with properly shielded LED fixtures, but careful spectral management is essential. It is critically important to only use LED lighting that is deficient in blue and green light. LED lighting also is easy to dim. Dimming of lights later at night, when there is no need for brighter lighting, is an important tool for reducing light pollution.Techniques used to protect astronomical observatories from light pollution are similar to the techniques that must be used to protect animals that are affected by light at night, such as endangered birds and turtles. These same techniques are compatible with recent human health related lighting recommendations from the American Medical Association.

  13. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo


    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (, Citclops (, COBWEB (, OMNISCIENTIS (, and WeSenseIt ( Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  14. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Suárez, Juan Carlos


    Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  15. Recent Results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampert, Karl-Heinz


    The Pierre Auger observatory is a hybrid air shower experiment which uses multiple detection techniques to investigate the origin, spectrum, and composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present recent results on these topics and discuss their implications to the understanding the origin of the most energetic particles in nature as well as for physics beyond the Standard Model, such as violation of Lorentz invariance and 'top-down' models of cosmic ray production. Future plans, including enhancements underway at the southern site in Argentina will be presented. (author)

  16. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Juan Carlos


    Full Text Available Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  17. The Virtual Solar Observatory: Progress and Diversions (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Bogart, R. S.; Amezcua, A.; Hill, Frank; Oien, Niles; Davey, Alisdair R.; Hourcle, Joseph; Mansky, E.; Spencer, Jennifer L.


    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is a known and useful method for identifying and accessing solar physics data online. We review current "behind the scenes" work on the VSO, including the addition of new data providers and the return of access to data sets to which service was temporarily interrupted. We also report on the effect on software development efforts when government IT “security” initiatives impinge on finite resoruces. As always, we invite SPD members to identify data sets, services, and interfaces they would like to see implemented in the VSO.

  18. Ground-based measurements of the 1.3 to 0.3 millimeter spectrum of Jupiter and Saturn, and their detailed calibration. (United States)

    Pardo, Juan R; Serabyn, Eugene; Wiedner, Martina C; Moreno, Raphäel; Orton, Glenn


    One of the legacies of the now retired Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) is presented in this paper. We measured for the first time the emission of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn across the 0.3 to 1.3 mm wavelength range using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer mounted on the 10.4-meter dish of the CSO at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, 4100 meters above sea level. A careful calibration, including the evaluation of the antenna performance over such a wide wavelength range and the removal of the Earth's atmosphere effects, has allowed the detection of broad absorption lines on those planets' atmospheres. The calibrated data allowed us to verify the predictions of standard models for both planets in this spectral region, and to confirm the absolute radiometry in the case of Jupiter. Besides their physical interest, the results are also important as both planets are calibration references in the current era of operating ground-based and space-borne submillimeter instruments.

  19. Ground-based measurements of the 1.3 to 0.3 mm spectrum of Jupiter and Saturn, and their detailed calibration (United States)

    Pardo, Juan R.; Serabyn, Eugene; Wiedner, Martina C.; Moreno, Raphäel; Orton, Glenn


    One of the legacies of the now retired Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) is presented in this paper. We measured for the first time the emission of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn across the 0.3 to 1.3 mm wavelength range using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer mounted on the 10.4 m dish of the CSO at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, 4100 m above sea level. A careful calibration, including the evaluation of the antenna performance over such a wide wavelength range and the removal of the Earth's atmosphere effects, has allowed the detection of broad absorption lines on those planets' atmospheres. The calibrated data allowed us to verify the predictions of standard models for both planets in this spectral region, and to confirm the absolute radiometry in the case of Jupiter. Besides their physical interest, the results are also important as both planets are calibration references in the current era of operating ground-based and space-borne submillimeter instruments.

  20. A Long-lived Cyclone In Saturn's Atmosphere: Observations And Models (United States)

    Del Rio Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Legarreta, J.; Hueso, R.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.


    The atmospheres of the Giant Planets Jupiter and Saturn possess large numbers of atmospheric vortices. On Jupiter, anticyclones are generally long-lived structures while cyclones survive a much shorter time. A long term survey of images of Saturn atmosphere obtained by the Cassini ISS camera has revealed the presence of a long-lived cyclone in Saturn's southern hemisphere during at least four years, making this vortex the longest lived cyclone on either Jupiter or Saturn. We find that the vortex drifts following the wind profile, with changes in velocity following changes of latitude. During the four years of our survey its size remained essentially constant, and there was no other structure of comparable size at its latitude. Internal circulation is cyclonic, with a maximum velocity of 20±5 m/s and an average vorticity of 4·10-5 s-1, an order of magnitude lower than planetary vorticity, but only slightly higher than the ambient vorticity. Photometric analysis shows that the vortex is located at a slightly lower altitude than its surroundings, at an average of 10-20 mbar below adjacent clouds. Finally, EPIC simulations of the vortex that reproduce its behavior imply a Rossby deformation radius of 2000 km in the weather layer (1 - 10 bar), consistent with the size of the cyclone. The long-lifetime of this cyclonic spot is surprising in view of its low tangential velocity and it suggests that low dissipation conditions prevail at mid-latitudes in Saturn's upper troposphere. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  1. Variations in Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S.; Edgington, S. G.; Déau, E.; Altobelli, N.


    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded over two million of spectra of Saturn's rings in the far infrared since arriving at Saturn in 2004. CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 ( 16.7 and 1000 μ {m} ) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn’s rings peaks in this wavelength range. Ring temperatures can be inferred from FP1 data. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and rapidly changing temperatures are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias. Ferrari et al. (2005) fit thermal inertia values of 5218 {Jm)-2 {K}-1 {s}-1/2 to their B ring data and 6412 {Jm)-2 {K}-1 {s}-1/2 to their C ring data. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The rings’ thermal budget is dominated by its absorption of solar radiation. As a result, ring particles abruptly cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  2. A Saturn Ring Observer Mission Using Multi-Mission Radioisotope Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Shirley, James H.


    Saturn remains one of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields. The primary objective of the mission would be to understand ring dynamics, including the microphysics of individual particles and small scale (meters to a few kilometers) phenomena such as particle agglomeration behavior. This would be accomplished by multispectral imaging of the rings at multiple key locations within the A and B rings, and by ring-particle imaging at an unprecedented resolution of 0.5 cm/pixel. The SRO spacecraft would use a Venus-Earth-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VEEJGA) and be aerocaptured into Saturn orbit using an advanced aeroshell design to minimize propellant mass. Once in orbit, the SRO would stand off from the ring plane 1 to 1.4 km using chemical thrusters to provide short propulsive maneuvers four times per revolution, effectively causing the SRO vehicle to 'hop' above the ring plane. The conceptual SRO spacecraft would be enabled by the use of a new generation of multi-mission Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) currently being developed by NASA and DOE. These RPSs include the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). The RPSs would generate all necessary electrical power (≥330 We at beginning of life) during the 10-year cruise and 1-year science mission (∼11 years total). The RPS heat would be used to maintain the vehicle's operating and survival temperatures, minimizing the need for electrical heaters. Such a mission could potentially launch in the 2015-2020 timeframe, with operations at Saturn commencing in approximately 2030



    José Ricardo Riambau Jahnke


    Esta dissertação de mestrado vem ao encontro de nossas inquietações sobre como se dá o fe-nômeno da adesão às marcas em detrimento de outras valorações sociais tradicionalmente aceitas e fundeadas nas habilidades pessoais de interação com seus iguais do que por ditames artificialmente construídos. Entendemos que para alcançarmos este objetivo há de se partir de uma historicidade de como uma marca ser faz existir, para tanto escolhemos a Rede de Fast Food McDonalds em virtude da mesma estar po...

  4. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Nofi, Larissa


    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its tenth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. Strong collaborations, the new Ph.D. program at Northern Arizona University, and cooperative links across the greater Flagstaff astronomical community create a powerful multi-institutional locus in northern Arizona. Lowell Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope is operating at full science capacity and boasts some of the most cutting-edge and exciting capabilities available in optical/infrared astronomy. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. For more information, see and links therein. Applications for Fall 2018 are due by May 1, 2018; alternate application dates will be considered on an individual basis.

  5. SPASE, Metadata, and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories (United States)

    Thieman, James; King, Todd; Roberts, Aaron


    To provide data search and access capability in the field of Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) a number of Virtual Observatories (VO) have been established both via direct funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Virtual Observatories in the Heliophysics community, 9 of them funded by NASA. The problem is that different metadata and data search approaches are used by these VO's and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC) representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1 of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  6. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.


    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  7. Developing a Virtual Network of Research Observatories (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Kirschtl, D.


    The hydrologic community has been discussing the concept of a network of observatories for the advancement of hydrologic science in areas of scaling processes, in testing generality of hypotheses, and in examining non-linear couplings between hydrologic, biotic, and human systems. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) is exploring the formation of a virtual network of observatories, formed from existing field studies without regard to funding source. Such a network would encourage sharing of data, metadata, field methods, and data analysis techniques to enable multidisciplinary synthesis, meta-analysis, and scientific collaboration in hydrologic and environmental science and engineering. The virtual network would strive to provide both the data and the environmental context of the data through advanced cyberinfrastructure support. The foundation for this virtual network is Water Data Services that enable the publication of time-series data collected at fixed points using a services-oriented architecture. These publication services, developed in the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project, permit the discovery of data from both academic and government sources through a single portal. Additional services under consideration are publication of geospatial data sets, immersive environments based upon site digital elevation models, and a common web portal to member sites populated with structured data about the site (such as land use history and geologic setting) to permit understanding the environmental context of the data being shared.

  8. Late summer distribution and stoichiometry of dissolved N, Si and P in the Southern Ocean near Heard and McDonald Islands on the Kerguelen Plateau (United States)

    Chase, Z.; Bowie, A. R.; Blain, S.; Holmes, T.; Rayner, M.; Sherrin, K.; Tonnard, M.; Trull, T. W.


    The Kerguelen plateau in the Southern Indian Ocean is a naturally iron-fertilised region surrounded by iron-limited, High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll waters. The Heard Earth Ocean Biosphere Interaction (HEOBI) project sampled waters south of the Polar Front in the vicinity of Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) in January and February 2016. Fe fertilised waters over the plateau generally exhibited high phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic competency (as in previous studies and satellite observations), but interestingly, phytoplankton biomass was low near HIMI, though photosynthetic competency was high. In plateau waters away from HIMI, silicic acid (Si) concentrations were strongly depleted in surface waters, averaging 3 μM, while nitrate concentrations were close to 25 μM. Relative to the remnant winter water, this represents an average seasonal drawdown of 32 μM Si and only 8 μM nitrate. Though absolute drawdown was lower at an HNLC reference site south of Heard Island, the drawdown ratio was similarly high (ΔSi: ΔN 4-5). The average N:P drawdown ratio was 12, typical for a diatom-dominated system (Weber and Deutsch 2010). N:P drawdown was positively correlated with Si drawdown, perhaps indicative of an impact of Fe on both seasonal Si drawdown and diatom N:P uptake (Price 2005). In the well-mixed, shallow waters (McDonald Islands, despite the apparent lack of nutrient drawdown or biomass accumulation. Mixed layers deeper than the euphotic zone are one mechanism that retains these remineralization signatures and near the islands, tidal mixing also contributes.

  9. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.T.


    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 13 . At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle

  10. Availability and Access to Data from Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Minamoto


    Full Text Available The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA is operating four geomagnetic observatories in Japan. Kakioka Magnetic Observatory (KMO, commissioned in 1913, is the oldest. The hourly records at KMO cover over almost 100 years. KMO is JMA's headquarters for geomagnetic and geoelectric observations. Almost all data are available at the KMO website free of charge for researchers. KMO and two other observatories have been certified as INTERMAGNET observatories, and quasi-real-time geomagnetic data from them are available at the INTERMAGNET website.

  11. PAHs in the Ices of Saturn's Satellites: Connections to the Solar Nebula and the Interstellar Medium (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.


    Aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs have been observed in the interstellar medium (e.g., Allamandola et al. 1985, Pendleton et al. 1994, Pendleton & Allamandola 2002, Tielens 2013, Kwok 2008, Chiar & Pendleton 2008) The inventory of organic material in the ISM was likely incorporated into the molecular cloud in which the solar nebula condensed, contributing to the feedstock for the formation of the Sun, major planets, and the smaller icy bodies in the region outside Neptune's orbit (transneptunian objects, or TNOs). Additional organic synthesis occurred in the solar nebula (Ciesla & Sandford 2012). Saturn's satellites Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion open a window to the composition of one class of TNO as revealed by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn. Phoebe (mean diameter 213 km) is a former TNO now orbiting Saturn (Johnson & Lunine 2005). VIMS spectral maps of Phoebe's surface reveal a complex organic spectral signature consisting of prominent aromatic (CH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon (=CH2, -CH3) absorption bands (3.2-3.6 micrometers). Phoebe is the source of a huge debris ring encircling Saturn, and from which particles ((is) approximately 5-20 micrometers size) spiral inward toward Saturn (Verbiscer et al. 2009). They encounter Iapetus and Hyperion where they mix with and blanket the native H2O ice of those two bodies. Quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon bands on Iapetus demonstrates that aromatic CH is approximately 10 times as abundant as aliphatic CH2+CH3, significantly exceeding the strength of the aromatic signature in interplanetary dust particles, comet particles, and in carbonaceous meteorites (Cruikshank et al. 2014). A similar excess of aromatics over aliphatics is seen in the qualitative analysis of Hyperion and Phoebe itself (Dalle Ore et al. 2012). The Iapetus aliphatic hydrocarbons show CH2/CH3 (is) approximately 4, which is larger than the value found in the diffuse ISM ((is) approximately 2

  12. Synergism of Saturn, Enceladus and Titan and Formation of HCNO Prebiotic Molecules (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, John F.


    Saturn as a system has two very exotic moons Titan and Enceladus. Titan, taking in energy from Saturn's magnetosphere, solar UV irradiation, and cosmic rays, can make HCN based molecules as discussed in earlier paper by Raulin and Owen. Space radiation effects at both moons, and as coupled by the Saturn magnetosphere, could cause an unexpected series of events potentially leading to prebiotic chemical evolution at Titan with HCNO from magnetospheric oxygen as the new ingredient. The "Old Faithful" model suggests that Enceladus, highly irradiated by Saturn magnetospheric electrons and thus having a source of chemical energy from radiolytic gas production, has episodic ejections of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and various hydrocarbons into Saturn's magnetosphere. The hydrocarbons do not survive transport through the plasma environment, but oxygen ions from Enceladus water molecules become the dominant ion species in the outer magnetosphere. At Titan, Cassini discovered that 1) keV oxygen ions, evidently from Enceladus, are bombarding Titan's upper atmosphere and 2) heavy positive and negative ions exist in significant abundances within Titan's upper atmosphere. Initial models of heavy ion formation in Titan's upper atmosphere invoked polymerization of aromatics such as benzenes and their radicals to make polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) , while a more recent model by Sittler et al., has raised the possibility of carbon chains forming from the polymerization of acetylene and its radicals to make fullerenes. Laboratory measurements indicate that fullerenes, which are hollow carbon shells, can trap keV oxygen ions. Clustering of the fullerenes with aerosol mixtures from PAHs and the dominant nitrogen molecules could form larger aerosols enriched in trapped oxygen. Aerosol precipitation could then convey these chemically complex structures deeper into the atmosphere and to the moon surface. Ionizing solar UV, magnetospheric electron, and galactic cosmic ray

  13. A statistical analysis of the location and width of Saturn's southern auroras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Badman


    Full Text Available A selection of twenty-two Hubble Space Telescope images of Saturn's ultraviolet auroras obtained during 1997–2004 has been analysed to determine the median location and width of the auroral oval, and their variability. Limitations of coverage restrict the analysis to the southern hemisphere, and to local times from the post-midnight sector to just past dusk, via dawn and noon. It is found that the overall median location of the poleward and equatorward boundaries of the oval with respect to the southern pole are at ~14° and ~16° co-latitude, respectively, with a median latitudinal width of ~2°. These median values vary only modestly with local time around the oval, though the poleward boundary moves closer to the pole near noon (~12.5° such that the oval is wider in that sector (median width ~3.5° than it is at both dawn and dusk (~1.5°. It is also shown that the position of the auroral boundaries at Saturn are extremely variable, the poleward boundary being located between 2° and 20° co-latitude, and the equatorward boundary between 6° and 23°, this variability contrasting sharply with the essentially fixed location of the main oval at Jupiter. Comparison with Voyager plasma angular velocity data mapped magnetically from the equatorial magnetosphere into the southern ionosphere indicates that the dayside aurora lie poleward of the main upward-directed field-aligned current region associated with corotation enforcement, which maps to ~20°–24° co-latitude, while agreeing reasonably with the position of the open-closed field line boundary based on estimates of the open flux in Saturn's tail, located between ~11° and ~15°. In this case, the variability in location can be understood in terms of changes in the open flux present in the system, the changes implied by the Saturn data then matching those observed at Earth as fractions of the total planetary flux. We infer that the broad (few degrees diffuse auroral emissions

  14. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  15. The Steward Observatory asteroid relational database (United States)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Alvarezdelcastillo, Elizabeth M.


    The Steward Observatory Asteroid Relational Database (SOARD) was created as a flexible tool for undertaking studies of asteroid populations and sub-populations, to probe the biases intrinsic to asteroid databases, to ascertain the completeness of data pertaining to specific problems, to aid in the development of observational programs, and to develop pedagogical materials. To date, SOARD has compiled an extensive list of data available on asteroids and made it accessible through a single menu-driven database program. Users may obtain tailored lists of asteroid properties for any subset of asteroids or output files which are suitable for plotting spectral data on individual asteroids. The program has online help as well as user and programmer documentation manuals. The SOARD already has provided data to fulfill requests by members of the astronomical community. The SOARD continues to grow as data is added to the database and new features are added to the program.

  16. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective (United States)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.


    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  17. In situ vector calibration of magnetic observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonsette


    Full Text Available The goal of magnetic observatories is to measure and provide a vector magnetic field in a geodetic coordinate system. For that purpose, instrument set-up and calibration are crucial. In particular, the scale factor and orientation of a vector magnetometer may affect the magnetic field measurement. Here, we highlight the baseline concept and demonstrate that it is essential for data quality control. We show how the baselines can highlight a possible calibration error. We also provide a calibration method based on high-frequency absolute measurements. This method determines a transformation matrix for correcting variometer data suffering from scale factor and orientation errors. We finally present a practical case where recovered data have been successfully compared to those coming from a reference magnetometer.

  18. The sunspot databases of the Debrecen Observatory (United States)

    Baranyi, Tünde; Gyori, Lajos; Ludmány, András


    We present the sunspot data bases and online tools available in the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory: the DPD (Debrecen Photoheliographic Data, 1974 -), the SDD (SOHO/MDI-Debrecen Data, 1996-2010), the HMIDD (SDO/HMI-Debrecen Data, HMIDD, 2010-), the revised version of Greenwich Photoheliographic Data (GPR, 1874-1976) presented together with the Hungarian Historical Solar Drawings (HHSD, 1872-1919). These are the most detailed and reliable documentations of the sunspot activity in the relevant time intervals. They are very useful for studying sunspot group evolution on various time scales from hours to weeks. Time-dependent differences between the available long-term sunspot databases are investigated and cross-calibration factors are determined between them. This work has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2012-2015) under grant agreement No. 284461 (eHEROES).

  19. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos


    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  20. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigioni, P.; De Silvestri, L.


    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  1. Virtual Observatory: From Concept to Implementation (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Williams, R.


    We review the origins of the Virtual Observatory (VO) concept, and the current status of the efforts in this field. VO is the response of the astronomical community to the challenges posed by the modern massive and complex data sets. It is a framework in which information technology is harnessed to organize, maintain, and explore the rich information content of the exponentially growing data sets, and to enable a qualitatively new science to be done with them. VO will become a complete, open, distributed, web-based framework for astronomy of the early 21st century. A number of significant efforts worldwide are now striving to convert this vision into reality. The technological and methodological challenges posed by the information-rich astronomy are also common to many other fields. We see a fundamental change in the way all science is done, driven by the information technology revolution.

  2. SOFIA: The Next Generation Airborne Observatory (United States)

    Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)


    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, will carry a 2.5 meter telescope into the stratosphere on 160 7.5 hour flights per year. At stratospheric altitudes SOFIA will operate above 99% of the water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, allowing observation of wide regions of the infrared spectrum that are totally obscured from even the best ground-based sites. Its mobility and long range will allow worldwide observation of ephemeral events such as occultations and eclipses. SOFIA will be developed jointly by NASA and DARA, the German space agency. It has been included in the President's budget request to Congress for a development start in FY96 (this October!) and enjoys strong support in Germany. This talk will cover SOFIA's scientific goals, technical characteristics, science operating plan, and political status.

  3. The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Harris, Walter M.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)


    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative study of how the planets, comets, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interact with the Sun and respond to solar variability. Through such a study we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur. Because the other planets have lacked study initiatives comparable to the terrestrial ITM, LWS, and EOS programs, our understanding of the upper atmospheres and near space environments on these worlds is far less detailed than our knowledge of the Earth. To close this gap we propose a mission to study {\\it all) of the solar interacting bodies in our planetary system out to the heliopause with a single remote sensing space observatory, the Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of a binocular EUV/FUV telescope operating from a remote, driftaway orbit that provides sub-arcsecond imaging and broadband medium resolution spectro-imaging over the 55-290 nm bandpass, and high (R>10$^{5}$ resolution H Ly-$\\alpha$ emission line profile measurements of small scale planetary and wide field diffuse solar system structures. A key to the SCOPE approach is to include Earth as a primary science target. From its remote vantage point SCOPE will be able to observe auroral emission to and beyond the rotational pole. The other planets and comets will be monitored in long duration campaigns centered when possible on solar opposition when interleaved terrestrial-planet observations can be used to directly compare the response of both worlds to the same solar wind stream and UV radiation field. Using a combination of observations and MHD models, SCOPE will isolate the different controlling parameters in each planet system and gain insight into the underlying physical processes that define the

  4. Towards a new Mercator Observatory Control System (United States)

    Pessemier, W.; Raskin, G.; Prins, S.; Saey, P.; Merges, F.; Padilla, J. P.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.


    A new control system is currently being developed for the 1.2-meter Mercator Telescope at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). Formerly based on transputers, the new Mercator Observatory Control System (MOCS) consists of a small network of Linux computers complemented by a central industrial controller and an industrial real-time data communication network. Python is chosen as the high-level language to develop flexible yet powerful supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software for the Linux computers. Specialized applications such as detector control, auto-guiding and middleware management are also integrated in the same Python software package. The industrial controller, on the other hand, is connected to the majority of the field devices and is targeted to run various control loops, some of which are real-time critical. Independently of the Linux distributed control system (DCS), this controller makes sure that high priority tasks such as the telescope motion, mirror support and hydrostatic bearing control are carried out in a reliable and safe way. A comparison is made between different controller technologies including a LabVIEW embedded system, a PROFINET Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and motion controller, and an EtherCAT embedded PC (soft-PLC). As the latter is chosen as the primary platform for the lower level control, a substantial part of the software is being ported to the IEC 61131-3 standard programming languages. Additionally, obsolete hardware is gradually being replaced by standard industrial alternatives with fast EtherCAT communication. The use of Python as a scripting language allows a smooth migration to the final MOCS: finished parts of the new control system can readily be commissioned to replace the corresponding transputer units of the old control system with minimal downtime. In this contribution, we give an overview of the systems design, implementation details and the current status of the project.

  5. IMF dependence of Saturn's auroras: modelling study of HST and Cassini data from 12–15 February 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya


    Full Text Available To gain better understanding of auroral processes in Saturn's magnetosphere, we compare ultraviolet (UV auroral images obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST with the position of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere calculated using a magnetic field model that employs Cassini measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF as input. Following earlier related studies of pre-orbit insertion data from January 2004 when Cassini was located ~ 1300 Saturn radii away from the planet, here we investigate the interval 12–15 February 2008, when UV images of Saturn's southern dayside aurora were obtained by the HST while the Cassini spacecraft measured the IMF in the solar wind just upstream of the dayside bow shock. This configuration thus provides an opportunity, unique to date, to determine the IMF impinging on Saturn's magnetosphere during imaging observations, without the need to take account of extended and uncertain interplanetary propagation delays. The paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere is then employed to calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure and ionospheric open-closed field line boundary for averaged IMF vectors that correspond, with appropriate response delays, to four HST images. We show that the IMF-dependent open field region calculated from the model agrees reasonably well with the area lying poleward of the UV emissions, thus supporting the view that the poleward boundary of Saturn's auroral oval in the dayside ionosphere lies adjacent to the open-closed field line boundary.

  6. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan


    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  7. First observation of lion roar-like emissions in Saturn's magnetosheath (United States)

    Pisa, David; Sulaiman, Ali H.; Santolik, Ondrej; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.


    Electromagnetic whistler mode waves known as "lion roars" have been reported by many missions inside the terrestrial magnetosheath. We show the observation of similar intense emissions in Saturn's magnetosheath as detected by the Cassini spacecraft. The emissions were observed inside the dawn sector (MLT˜0730) of the magnetosheath over a time period of nine hours before the satellite crossed the bow shock and entered the solar wind. The emissions were narrow-banded with a typical frequency of about 15 Hz well below the local electron cyclotron frequency (fce ˜100 Hz). Using the minimum variance analysis method, we show that the waves are right hand circularly polarized and propagate at small wave normal angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field. Here, for the first time, we report the evidence of lion roar-like emissions in Saturn's magnetosheath which represents a new and unique parameter regime.

  8. Dynamic auroral storms on Saturn as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. (United States)

    Nichols, J D; Badman, S V; Baines, K H; Brown, R H; Bunce, E J; Clarke, J T; Cowley, S W H; Crary, F J; Dougherty, M K; Gérard, J-C; Grocott, A; Grodent, D; Kurth, W S; Melin, H; Mitchell, D G; Pryor, W R; Stallard, T S


    We present observations of significant dynamics within two UV auroral storms observed on Saturn using the Hubble Space Telescope in April/May 2013. Specifically, we discuss bursts of auroral emission observed at the poleward boundary of a solar wind-induced auroral storm, propagating at ∼330% rigid corotation from near ∼01 h LT toward ∼08 h LT. We suggest that these are indicative of ongoing, bursty reconnection of lobe flux in the magnetotail, providing strong evidence that Saturn's auroral storms are caused by large-scale flux closure. We also discuss the later evolution of a similar storm and show that the emission maps to the trailing region of an energetic neutral atom enhancement. We thus identify the auroral form with the upward field-aligned continuity currents flowing into the associated partial ring current.

  9. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  10. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  11. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 3. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  12. University Observatory, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    The University Observatory of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität was founded in 1816. Astronomers who worked or graduated at the Munich Observatory include: Fraunhofer, Soldner, Lamont, Seeliger and Karl Schwarzschild. At present four professors and ten staff astronomers work here. Funding comes from the Bavarian Government, the German Science Foundation, and other German and European research progra...

  13. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  14. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  15. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 3. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  16. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  17. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  18. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (

  19. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada


    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  20. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. Since 2013, it also covers the wholesale CO 2 market. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (