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Sample records for mc murdo sound

  1. A new carnivorous shallow-water sponge from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (Porifera, Poecilosclerida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Baker, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new shallow-water representative of the carnviorous sponge genus Asbestopluma is described from the southernmost Antarctic region of McMurdo Sound. Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) vaceleti n.sp. is a white, thin, sparingly branched sponge fringed by filaments along its entire length, with a slight

  2. Contamination in sediments, bivalves and sponges of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, Andrew; Burns, Kathryn; Boyle, Steve; Brinkman, Diane; Webster, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg and As) in marine sediments off Scott Base (NZ) and compared them with sediments near the highly polluted McMurdo Station (US) as well as less impacted sites including Turtle Rock and Cape Evans. The Antarctic mollusc, Laternula elliptica and three common sponge species were also analysed for trace metals. The mean THC concentration in sediments from Scott Base was 3 fold higher than the pristine site, Turtle Rock, but 10 fold lower than samples from McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station sediments also contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and the trace metals, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg. Copper was significantly higher in bivalves from McMurdo Station than other sites. Trace metal concentrations in sponges were generally consistent within sites but no spatial patterns were apparent. - Analyses of Antarctic marine sediments, bivalves and sponges revealed strong PAH, PCB and trace metal gradients in McMurdo Sound

  3. Contamination in sediments, bivalves and sponges of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Burns, Kathryn [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Boyle, Steve [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Brinkman, Diane [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Webster, Nicole [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2006-10-15

    This study examined the concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg and As) in marine sediments off Scott Base (NZ) and compared them with sediments near the highly polluted McMurdo Station (US) as well as less impacted sites including Turtle Rock and Cape Evans. The Antarctic mollusc, Laternula elliptica and three common sponge species were also analysed for trace metals. The mean THC concentration in sediments from Scott Base was 3 fold higher than the pristine site, Turtle Rock, but 10 fold lower than samples from McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station sediments also contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and the trace metals, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg. Copper was significantly higher in bivalves from McMurdo Station than other sites. Trace metal concentrations in sponges were generally consistent within sites but no spatial patterns were apparent. - Analyses of Antarctic marine sediments, bivalves and sponges revealed strong PAH, PCB and trace metal gradients in McMurdo Sound.

  4. Detrital U-Pb zircon analysis of an Eocene McMurdo Erratic sandstone, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, T.; Encarnacion, J.; Valencia, V.A.; Roti Roti, J.M.; Rasoazanamparany, C.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most important Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in Antarctica are glacial erratics of fossiliferous Palaeogene to Neogene siliclastic rocks known as the McMurdo Erratics. Detrital zircon U-Pb isotopic data reported herein provide new information on the provenance of these siliciclastic rocks. The U-Pb age data from a sandstone glacial erratic that is likely of Eocene age show a dominant age cluster that ranges from 488 to 635 Ma, accompanied by subsidiary Neoproterozoic-Archaean peaks. The dominant Neoproterozoic-Ordovician age cluster, in conjunction with the arkosic lithologies of some erratics and the local presence of granitic and metasedimentary clasts, indicates that the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician basement complex of the Transantarctic Mountains likely served as a major source for the Eocene siliciclastic sediments. This is consistent with derivation of the McMurdo Erratics from locations proximal to the Transantarctic Mountains such as the Discovery Deep and/or major mountain outlet glacier areas. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Profile temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure from CTD casts in McMurdo Sound from 2011-11-26 to 2011-12-03 (NCEI Accession 0131073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Full-depth CTD profiles taken on along-sound and cross-sound transects of McMurdo Sound. Eleven stations with six independent sites were visited.

  6. Neogene sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Southern McMurdo Sound and the McMurdo Ice Shelf (ANDRILL Program, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Francesca; Willmott, Veronica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Florindo, Fabio; Harwood, David; Naish, Tim; Powell, Ross

    2010-05-01

    During the austral summers 2006 and 2007 the ANtarctic DRILLing Program (ANDRILL) drilled two cores, each recovering more than 1000m of sediment from below the McMurdo Ice-Shelf (MIS, AND-1B), and sea-ice in Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS, AND-2A), respectively, revealing new information about Neogene Antarctic cryosphere evolution. Core AND-1B was drilled in a more distal location than core AND-2A. With the aim of obtaining important information for the understanding of the history of Antarctic climate and environment during selected interval of the Neogene, we applied novel organic geochemistry proxies such as TEX86 (Tetra Ether IndeX of lipids with 86 carbon atoms) using a new calibration equation specifically developed for polar areas and based on 116 surface sediment samples collected from polar oceans (Kim et al., subm.), and BIT (Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether), to derive absolute (sea surface) temperature values and to evaluate the relative contribution of soil organic matter versus marine organic matter, respectively. We will present the state-of-the-art of the methodology applied, discussing its advantages and limitations, and the results so far obtained from the analysis of 60 samples from core AND-2A covering the Miocene Climatic Optimum (and the Mid-late Miocene transition) and of 20 pilot samples from core AND-1B covering the late Pliocene.

  7. Observations of turbulence beneath sea ice in southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Stevens

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The first turbulence profiler observations beneath land fast sea ice which is directly adjacent to an Antarctic ice shelf are described. The stratification in the 325 m deep water column consisted of a layer of supercooled water in the upper 40 m lying above a quasi-linearly stratified water column with a sharp step in density at mid-depth. Turbulent energy dissipation rates were on average 3×10−8 m2 s−3 with peak bin-averaged values reaching 4×10−7 m2 s−3. The local dissipation rate per unit area was estimated to be 10 m Wm−2 on average with a peak of 50 m Wm−2. These values are consistent with a moderate baroclinic response to the tides. The small-scale turbulent energetics lie on the boundary between isotropy and buoyancy-affected. This will likely influence the formation and aggregation of frazil ice crystals within the supercooled layer. The data suggest that the large crystals observed in McMurdo Sound will transition from initial growth at scales smaller than the Kolmogorov lengthscale to sizes substantially (1–2 orders of magnitude greater than the Kolmogorov scale. An estimate of the experiment-averaged vertical diffusivity of mass Kρ yields a coefficient of around 2×10−4 m2s−1 although this increased by a factor of 2 near the surface. Combining this estimate of Kρ with available observations of average and maximum currents suggests the layer of supercooled water can persist for a distance of ~250 km from the front of the McMurdo Ice Shelf.

  8. Polar ecosystem dynamics: recovery of communities from organic enrichment in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stacy; Hammerstom, Kamille K; Conlan, Kathleen E; Thurber, Andrew R

    2010-12-01

    Community structure and diversity are influenced by patterns of disturbance and input of food. In Antarctica, the marine ecosystem undergoes highly seasonal changes in availability of light and in primary production. Near research stations, organic input from human activities can disturb the regular productivity regime with a consistent input of sewage. McMurdo Sound has both high-productivity and low-productivity habitats, thereby providing an ideal test bed for community recovery dynamics under polar conditions. We used experimental manipulations of the subtidal communities to test the hypotheses that (1) benthic communities respond differently to disturbance from organic enrichment versus burial and (2) community response also varies in areas with different natural patterns of food supply. Both in low- and high-food habitats, the strongest community response was to organic enrichment and resulted in dominance of typical organic-enrichment specialists. In habitats with highly seasonal productivity, community response was predictable and recovery was rapid. In habitats with low productivity, community variability was high and caging treatments suggested that inconsistencies were due to patchy impacts by scavengers. In areas normally subject to regular organic enrichment, either from primary production or from further up the food web (defecation by marine mammals), recovery of benthic communities takes only years even in a polar system. However, a low-productivity regime is as common in near shore habitats around the continent; under these conditions, recovery of benthic communities from disturbance is likely to be much slower and follow a variable ecological trajectory.

  9. Patterns of Macrozooplankton and Fish Occurrence Beneath McMurdo Sound Fast Ice during Spring/Summer 2014/2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, B. T.; Daly, K. L.; Kim, S.; Ainley, D. G.; Ballard, G.

    2016-02-01

    McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, represents a unique environment for study of trophic interactions, where a full complement of marine predators thrive. As part of a greater study of McMurdo Sound food web interactions, including ocean and ice physics, algal characterization, and predator behavior, macrozooplankton and fish were surveyed using bioacoustics and video using a specially-designed under-ice ROV. Acoustic returns from 82 under-ice surveys were divided into classes consisting of krill, silverfish, and weak scatters. Krill were scarce during surveys in late November, but increased in abundance in association with increasing chlorophyll a in December and early January when surveys ended. The greatest concentrations of krill were found near Ross Island in the eastern Sound, where southerly currents move high-productivity waters beneath the fast ice. Conversely, silverfish, especially schools of juveniles, were found in greater abundance toward the west where currents flow northward and platelet ice typically blocked light from surface waters. Silverfish were rare toward the end of the survey in late December/early January, but possibly had moved deeper than the acoustic instrument could detect. Overall, krill were less abundant and occurred deeper in the water column within 2 km of the fast ice edge, which was accessible by air-breathing predators, suggesting that predation pressure helped structure krill abundance or distribution. Acoustic returns from weak scatters, which included observed jellies, pteropods, detached ice algae and potentially other mesoplankton in high abundance such as copepods, also increased during the study period and co-occurred with chlorophyll a. The patterns of macrozooplankton and fish observed in McMurdo Sound raise important questions about source-sink dynamics, overwinter strategies of mid-trophic organisms, prey-predator dynamics, and sea-ice structuring of ecosystems.

  10. Heat transport in McMurdo Sound first-year fast ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trodahl, H. J.; McGuinness, M. J.; Langhorne, P. J.; Collins, K.; Pantoja, A. E.; Smith, I. J.; Haskell, T. G.

    2000-05-01

    We have monitored the temperature field within first-year sea ice in McMurdo Sound over two winter seasons, with sufficient resolution to determine the thermal conductivity from the thermal waves propagating down through the ice. Data reduction has been accomplished by direct reference to energy conservation, relating the rate of change of the internal energy density to the divergence of the heat current density. Use of this procedure, rather than the wave attenuation predicted by the thermal diffusion equation, avoids difficulties arising from a strongly temperature dependent thermal diffusivity. The thermal conductivity is an input parameter for ice growth and climate models, and the values commonly used in the models are predicted to depend on temperature, salinity, and the volume fraction of air. The present measurements were performed at depths in the ice where the air volume is small and the salinity is nearly constant, and they permit the determination of the absolute magnitude of the thermal conductivity and its temperature dependence. The weak temperature dependence is similar to that predicted by the models in the literature, but the magnitude is smaller by ˜10% than the predicted value most commonly used in climate and sea ice models. In the first season we find an additional scatter in the results at driving temperature gradients larger than ˜10-15 °C/m. We suggest that the scatter arises from a nonlinear contribution to the heat current, possibly associated with the onset of convective motion in brine inclusions. Episodic convective events are also observed. We have further determined the growth rate of the ice and compared it with the rate explained by the heat flux from the ice-water interface. The data show a sudden rise of growth rate, without a rise in heat flux through the ice, which coincides in time and depth with the appearance of platelet ice. Finally, we discuss the observation of radiative solar heating at depth in the ice and

  11. Integrating terrestrial and marine records of the LGM in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: implications for grounded ice expansion, ice flow, and deglaciation of the Ross Sea Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, A. J.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    During the LGM, grounded glacier ice filled the Ross Embayment and deposited glacial drift on volcanic islands and peninsulas in McMurdo Sound, as well as along coastal regions of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), including the McMurdo Dry Valleys and Royal Society Range. The flow geometry and retreat history of this ice remains debated, with contrasting views yielding divergent implications for both the fundamental cause of Antarctic ice expansion as well as the interaction and behavior of ice derived from East and West Antarctica during late Quaternary time. We present terrestrial geomorphologic evidence that enables the reconstruction of former ice elevations, ice-flow paths, and ice-marginal environments in McMurdo Sound. Radiocarbon dates of fossil algae interbedded with ice-marginal sediments provide a coherent timeline for local ice retreat. These data are integrated with marine-sediment records and multi-beam data to reconstruct late glacial dynamics of grounded ice in McMurdo Sound and the western Ross Sea. The combined dataset suggest a dominance of ice flow toward the TAM in McMurdo Sound during all phases of glaciation, with thick, grounded ice at or near its maximum extent between 19.6 and 12.3 calibrated thousands of years before present (cal. ka). Our data show no significant advance of locally derived ice from the TAM into McMurdo Sound, consistent with the assertion that Late Pleistocene expansion of grounded ice in McMurdo Sound, and throughout the wider Ross Embayment, occurs in response to lower eustatic sea level and the resulting advance of marine-based outlet glaciers and ice streams (and perhaps also reduced oceanic heat flux), rather than local increases in precipitation and ice accumulation. Finally, when combined with allied data across the wider Ross Embayment, which show that widespread deglaciation outside McMurdo Sound did not commence until 13.1 ka, the implication is that retreat of grounded glacier ice in the Ross Embayment did

  12. Decadal Trends in Abundance, Size and Condition of Antarctic Toothfish in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; Nur, Nadav; Eastman, Joseph T.; Ballard. Grant; Parkinson, Claire L; Evans, Clive W.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    We report analyses of a dataset spanning 38 years of near-annual fishing for Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni, using a vertical setline through the fast ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2010. This constitutes one of the longest biological time series in the Southern Ocean, and certainly the longest for any fish. Fish total length, condition and catch per unit effort (CPUE) were derived from the more than 5500 fish caught. Contrary to expectation, length-frequency was dominated by fish in the upper half of the industrial catch. The discrepancy may be due to biases in the sampling capabilities of vertical (this study) versus benthic (horizontal) fishing gear (industry long lines), related to the fact that only large Antarctic toothfish (more than 100 cm TL) are neutrally buoyant and occur in the water column. Fish length and condition increased from the early 1970s to the early 1990s and then decreased, related to sea ice cover, with lags of 8 months to 5 years, and may ultimately be related to the fishery (which targets large fish) and changes in the Southern Annular Mode through effects on toothfish main prey, Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum. CPUE was constant through 2001 and then decreased dramatically, likely related to the industrial fishery, which began in 1996 and which concentrates effort over the Ross Sea slope, where tagged McMurdo fish have been found. Due to limited prey choices and, therefore, close coupling among mesopredators of the Ross Sea, Antarctic toothfish included, the fishery may be altering the trophic structure of the Ross Sea.

  13. Abiotic versus biotic drivers of ocean pH variation under fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Paul G; Washburn, Libe; Martz, Todd R; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to have a major effect on the marine carbonate system over the next century, particularly in high latitude seas. Less appreciated is natural environmental variation within these systems, particularly in terms of pH, and how this natural variation may inform laboratory experiments. In this study, we deployed sensor-equipped moorings at 20 m depths at three locations in McMurdo Sound, comprising deep (bottom depth>200 m: Hut Point Peninsula) and shallow environments (bottom depth ∼25 m: Cape Evans and New Harbor). Our sensors recorded high-frequency variation in pH (Hut Point and Cape Evans only), tide (Cape Evans and New Harbor), and water mass properties (temperature and salinity) during spring and early summer 2011. These collective observations showed that (1) pH differed spatially both in terms of mean pH (Cape Evans: 8.009±0.015; Hut Point: 8.020±0.007) and range of pH (Cape Evans: 0.090; Hut Point: 0.036), and (2) pH was not related to the mixing of two water masses, suggesting that the observed pH variation is likely not driven by this abiotic process. Given the large daily fluctuation in pH at Cape Evans, we developed a simple mechanistic model to explore the potential for biotic processes--in this case algal photosynthesis--to increase pH by fixing carbon from the water column. For this model, we incorporated published photosynthetic parameters for the three dominant algal functional groups found at Cape Evans (benthic fleshy red macroalgae, crustose coralline algae, and sea ice algal communities) to estimate oxygen produced/carbon fixed from the water column underneath fast sea ice and the resulting pH change. These results suggest that biotic processes may be a primary driver of pH variation observed under fast sea ice at Cape Evans and potentially at other shallow sites in McMurdo Sound.

  14. Abiotic versus biotic drivers of ocean pH variation under fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Matson

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is expected to have a major effect on the marine carbonate system over the next century, particularly in high latitude seas. Less appreciated is natural environmental variation within these systems, particularly in terms of pH, and how this natural variation may inform laboratory experiments. In this study, we deployed sensor-equipped moorings at 20 m depths at three locations in McMurdo Sound, comprising deep (bottom depth>200 m: Hut Point Peninsula and shallow environments (bottom depth ∼25 m: Cape Evans and New Harbor. Our sensors recorded high-frequency variation in pH (Hut Point and Cape Evans only, tide (Cape Evans and New Harbor, and water mass properties (temperature and salinity during spring and early summer 2011. These collective observations showed that (1 pH differed spatially both in terms of mean pH (Cape Evans: 8.009±0.015; Hut Point: 8.020±0.007 and range of pH (Cape Evans: 0.090; Hut Point: 0.036, and (2 pH was not related to the mixing of two water masses, suggesting that the observed pH variation is likely not driven by this abiotic process. Given the large daily fluctuation in pH at Cape Evans, we developed a simple mechanistic model to explore the potential for biotic processes--in this case algal photosynthesis--to increase pH by fixing carbon from the water column. For this model, we incorporated published photosynthetic parameters for the three dominant algal functional groups found at Cape Evans (benthic fleshy red macroalgae, crustose coralline algae, and sea ice algal communities to estimate oxygen produced/carbon fixed from the water column underneath fast sea ice and the resulting pH change. These results suggest that biotic processes may be a primary driver of pH variation observed under fast sea ice at Cape Evans and potentially at other shallow sites in McMurdo Sound.

  15. Assessment of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in Weddell seal tissue (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M. [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Noren, Shawn R. [Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Usenko, Sascha, E-mail: Sascha_Usenko@baylor.edu [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Davis, Jay [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Washington Fish and Wildlife Office, Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Kanatous, Shane B. [Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1878 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Muscle samples were collected from pup, juvenile and adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2006. Blubber samples were collected from juvenile and adult seals. Samples were analyzed for emerging and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including current and historic-use organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Of the 41 target analytes, 28 contaminants were recovered from the Weddell seal blubber, in this order of prevalence: p,p Prime -DDE, p,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 153, PCB 138, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, nonachlor III, PCB 187, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, PCB 118, PBDE 47, PCB 156, PCB 149, PCB 180, PCB 101, PCB 170, PCB 105, o,p Prime -DDT, PCB 99, trans-chlordane, PCB 157, PCB 167, PCB 189, and PCB 114. Fewer POPs were found in the muscle samples, but were similar in the order of prevalence to that of the blubber: p,p Prime -DDE, o,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, nonachlor III, oxychlordane, p,p Prime -DDT, dieldrin, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 138, and PCB 105. Besides differences in toxicant concentrations reported between the muscle and blubber, we found differences in POP levels according to age class and suggest that differences in blubber storage and/or mobilization of lipids result in age class differences in POPs. To our knowledge, such ontogenetic associations are novel. Importantly, data from this study suggest that p,p Prime -DDT is becoming less prevalent temporally, resulting in an increased proportion of its metabolite p,p Prime -DDE in the tissues of this top predator. In addition, this study is among the first to identify a PBDE congener in Weddell seals near the McMurdo Station. This may provide evidence of increased PBDE transport and encroachment in Antarctic wildlife. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE measuring in Weddell seal blubber. Black

  16. The petrology, geochronology and significance of Granite Harbour Intrusive Complex xenoliths and outcrop sampled in western McMurdo Sound, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.P.; Cooper, A.F.; Price, R.C.; Turnbull, R.E.; Roberts, N.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Granite Harbour Intrusive Complex xenoliths in McMurdo Volcanic Group rocks and in situ outcrops have been studied from Mount Morning, western McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Calc-alkalic samples have whole rock signatures and normative compositions similar to the Dry Valleys 1b suite, and zircon grains in one specimen yield a 545.2 ± 4.4 Ma crystallisation age. This supports subduction-related magmatism initiating in Southern Victoria Land by 545 Ma. A second group of xenoliths is alkalic, with titanite grains in one xenolith from this group dated at 538 ± 8 Ma. Whole rock chemistry, normative compositions and geochronology of the alkalic group are comparable to the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Suite (KGAS). The position of a proposed lower crustal discontinuity that may form a significant basement suture in the McMurdo Sound region is newly constrained to the east of Mount Morning, perhaps along the trace of the Discovery Glacier. The boundary between East and West Antarctica may also pass along the trace of the Discovery Glacier if, as previously hypothesised, its location is controlled by the basement suture. A significant basement suture may also have provided the necessary egress for the (regionally) early and sustained magmatic activity observed at Mount Morning over the last 24 million years. (author).

  17. Electric Vehicle Performance at McMurdo Station (Antarctica) and Comparison with McMurdo Station Conventional Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, T.; Lammert, M.; Colby, K.; Walter, R.

    2014-09-01

    This report examines the performance of two electric vehicles (EVs) at McMurdo, Antarctica (McMurdo). The study examined the performance of two e-ride Industries EVs initially delivered to McMurdo on February 16, 2011, and compared their performance and fuel use with that of conventional vehicles that have a duty cycle similar to that of the EVs used at McMurdo.

  18. Dissolved and particulate trace metal micronutrients under the McMurdo Sound seasonal sea ice: basal sea ice communities as a capacitor for iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Abigail E.; Moran, Dawn M.; Allen, Andrew E.; Saito, Mak A.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate metal concentrations are reported from three sites beneath and at the base of the McMurdo Sound seasonal sea ice in the Ross Sea of Antarctica. This dataset provided insight into Co and Mn biogeochemistry, supporting a previous hypothesis for water column mixing occurring faster than scavenging. Three observations support this: first, Mn-containing particles with Mn/Al ratios in excess of the sediment were present in the water column, implying the presence of bacterial Mn-oxidation processes. Second, dissolved and labile Co were uniform with depth beneath the sea ice after the winter season. Third, dissolved Co:PO3−4 ratios were consistent with previously observed Ross Sea stoichiometry, implying that over-winter scavenging was slow relative to mixing. Abundant dissolved Fe and Mn were consistent with a winter reserve concept, and particulate Al, Fe, Mn, and Co covaried, implying that these metals behaved similarly. Elevated particulate metals were observed in proximity to the nearby Islands, with particulate Fe/Al ratios similar to that of nearby sediment, consistent with a sediment resuspension source. Dissolved and particulate metals were elevated at the shallowest depths (particularly Fe) with elevated particulate P/Al and Fe/Al ratios in excess of sediments, demonstrating a sea ice biomass source. The sea ice biomass was extremely dense (chl a >9500 μg/L) and contained high abundances of particulate metals with elevated metal/Al ratios. A hypothesis for seasonal accumulation of bioactive metals at the base of the McMurdo Sound sea ice by the basal algal community is presented, analogous to a capacitor that accumulates iron during the spring and early summer. The release and transport of particulate metals accumulated at the base of the sea ice by sloughing is discussed as a potentially important mechanism in providing iron nutrition during polynya phytoplankton bloom formation and could be examined in future oceanographic

  19. Diatom evidence for the onset of Pliocene cooling from AND-1B, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    The late Pliocene, ~ 3.3–3.0 Ma, is the most recent interval of sustained global warmth in the geologic past. This window is the focus of climate reconstruction efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey's Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Data/Model Cooperative, and may provide a useful climate analog for the coming century. Reconstructions of past surface ocean conditions proximal to the Antarctic continent are essential to understanding the sensitivity of the cryosphere to this key interval in Earth's climate evolution. An exceptional marine sediment core collected from the southwestern Ross Sea (78° S), Antarctica, during ANDRILL's McMurdo Ice Shelf Project preserves evidence of dramatic fluctuations between grounded ice and productive, open ocean conditions during the late Pliocene, reflecting orbitally-paced glacial/interglacial cycling. In this near-shore record, diatom-rich sediments are recovered from interglacial intervals; two of these diatomites, from ~ 3.2 Ma and 3.03 Ma, are within the PRISM chronologic window. The diatom assemblages identified in PRISM-age late Pliocene diatom-rich sediments are distinct from those in mid-Pliocene and later Pliocene/Pleistocene intervals recovered from AND-1B, and comprise both extant taxa with well-constrained ecological preferences and a diverse extinct flora, some members of which are previously undescribed from Antarctic sediments. Both units are dominated by Chaetoceros resting spores, an indicator of high productivity and stratification that is present at much lower abundance in materials both older and younger than the PRISM-age sediments. Newly described species of the genus Fragilariopsis, which first appear in the AND-1B record at 3.2 Ma, are the most abundant extinct members of the PRISM-age assemblages. Other extant species with established environmental affinities, such as Fragilariopsis sublinearis, F. curta, Stellarima microtrias, and Thalassiothrix antarctica, are

  20. Photoadaptations of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism by phytoplankton from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. I. Species-specific and community responses to reduced irradiances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkin, R.B.; Voytek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiance-dependent rates of photosynthesis and photosynthate labeling patterns were measured for phytoplankton in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Species-specific and traditional whole-water techniques were used to compare the physiological responses of algae collected in a high light environment at the ice edge and from a low light environment under the annual sea ice. There were differences among species within the same sample, for the same species isolated from high and low light environments, and when species-specific responses were compared with that of the natural assemblage. For algae collected beneath the sea ice, photosynthesis generally saturated at a lower irradiance, and the light-limited region of the P vs. I relationship had a steeper slope than for the same species collected at the ice edge. Low-light-adapted algae incorporated significantly less 14 C into proteins and more into low molecular weight compounds and lipids than the same species isolated from a high light environment. Under conditions where reduced rates of protein synthesis were coupled with high rates of carbon uptake, the measurement of photosynthesis may not accurately reflect the physiological condition of the phytoplankton

  1. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993

  2. Flow Control and Design Assessment for Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Rosa Affleck, Meredith...Flow Control and Design Assessment for Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Rosa Affleck, Meredith Carr, and Brendan West Cold Regions...Characterization and Variations at McMurdo Station, Antarctica . ERDC/CRREL TR-14-6. Hanover, NH: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

  3. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 meters of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drillcore, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. Nearly all of LSU 1 consists of volcanic breccia and sandstone that is a mixture of near primary volcanic material dominated by lava and vitric clasts with minor exotic material derived from distal basement sources. Lava clasts and glass are mafic and range from strongly alkaline (basanite, tephrite) to moderately alkaline (alkali basalt, hawaiite) compositions that are similar to nearby land deposits. 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating analyses on groundmass separated from lava clasts yield Pleistocene ages (692±38 and 793±63, ±2σ internal errors). Volcanoes of the Dailey Island group, located ~13 km SW of the drillsite, are a possible source for the volcanic materials based on their close proximity, similar composition and age. A basanite lava flow on Juergens Island yields a comparable Pleistocene age of 775±22 ka. Yet there is evidence to suggest that the volcanic source is much closer to the drillsite and that the sediments were deposited in much shallower water relative to the present-day water depth of 384 mbsl. Evidence for local volcanic activity is based in part on the common occurrence of delicate vitriclasts (e.g. glass shards and Pele’s hair) and a minimally reworked ~2 meter thick monomict breccia that is interpreted to have formed by autobrecciating lava. In addition, conical-shaped seamounts and high frequency magnetic anomalies encompass the drillsite and extend south including the volcanoes of the Dailey Islands. Sedimentary features and structures indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Rippled asymmetric cross-laminated sands and hummocky cross-stratification occur intermittently throughout LSU 1 and indicate water depths shallower than 100 meters. The occurrence of ooliths and layers containing siderite and Fe

  4. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in approximately true color. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly

  5. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Color Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars

  6. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and

  7. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in exaggerated color to enhance color differences among rocks, soils and sand. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama

  8. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  9. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-05-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  10. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station

  11. 2010/11 McMurdo Station Snow Road Strength and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    McMurdo Station. Part of this study in- cluded tracking the road maintenance and temperature and testing the road strength at predetermined mile...data provides insight as to the direct effects of various maintenance and environmental factors on the strength of the roads . Un- derstanding the...13 4.2 Maintenance vs. road strength

  12. Drivers of solar radiation variability in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obryk, Maciej; Fountain, Andrew G.; Doran, Peter; Lyons, Berry; Eastman, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Annually averaged solar radiation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica has varied by over 20 W m−2 during the past three decades; however, the drivers of this variability are unknown. Because small differences in radiation are important to water availability and ecosystem functioning in polar deserts, determining the causes are important to predictions of future desert processes. We examine the potential drivers of solar variability and systematically eliminate all but stratospheric sulfur dioxide. We argue that increases in stratospheric sulfur dioxide increase stratospheric aerosol optical depth and decrease solar intensity. Because of the polar location of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (77–78°S) and relatively long solar ray path through the stratosphere, terrestrial solar intensity is sensitive to small differences in stratospheric transmissivity. Important sources of sulfur dioxide include natural (wildfires and volcanic eruptions) and anthropogenic emission.

  13. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 , and NO x ). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  14. Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 7- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations , Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for...January 2017 Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Rosa Affleck U.S. Army Engineer Research and...runoff can be extreme where the flow can overwhelm both the drainage system and the operations and maintenance (O&M) crew. CRREL has been involved

  15. Comprehensive characterization report on Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; White, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Winter Quarters Bay is a small embayment located adjacent to the United States largest base in Antarctica, McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station, which is managed by the National Science Foundation`s Office of Polar Programs, was constructed in 1955, has been in constant use since that time, and has a population of about 1,000 persons during the summer and about 250 people for the winter. The bay offers shelter for ships and an ice dock is used during January and February to off load fuel and cargo. During earlier times, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of the bay, doused with several thousand gallons of fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased and the site has been regraded to cover the waste. The bottom of the bay is littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, all sorts of metal objects, cables, etc., especially the southeastern side where dumping took place. The sediments are gravel in some places yet fine and fluid at other sites with coarse particles intermixed. The original benthic community is not well recorded but significant ecological changes have occurred. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. This report summarizes available information on Winter Quarters Bay and was originally intended to be used by workshop participants to become familiar with the bay prior to becoming updated with unpublished data by various Antarctic investigators. The proposed workshop was to assist the National Science Foundation in determining whether and how the bay should be remediated and to develop an integrated research plan if additional data were needed. However, plans changed, the workshop was never conducted, but the briefing report was prepared. Most of this report reviews and summarizes other published data. The only new data are those from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory`s investigation into the distribution of organic contaminants in the bay and sediment toxicity testing.

  16. The McMurdo Dry Valleys Magmatic Laboratory Workshop of 2005 in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.; Simon, A.; Charrier, A. D.; Hersum, T. G.; Eschholz, E.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2005, twenty-five petrologists, volcanologists, geochemists, structural geologists, and magma dynamicists spent two weeks studying and discussing the Magmatic Mush Column represented by the 180 Ma Ferrar Dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. This exceptionally well-exposed system shows a series of massive interconnected sills culminating in a capping of regional flood basalts. The lowermost sill, the Basement Sill, contains a massive ultramafic tongue of large phenocrysts of orthopyroxene (Opx) with subordinate Cpx and much smaller plagioclase. The 3-D distribution of this Opx Tongue serves as a tracer for the filling dynamics and local motion of the magma. Ponding of the Basement Sill has resulted in a small (500 m), but exceedingly diversified and extensively layered ultramafic intrusion, the Dais Intrusion. Because of the relatively rapid cooling time of this body, the Dais textures have been preserved before extensive annealing, which presents the possibility of using these textures to understand those of much larger, slowly cooled bodies. The combination of seeing in detail a wide variety of exceptional field relations depicting layering, sill emplacement mechanics, internal ordering and crystal sorting in the Opx Tongue, dike and fissure distributions, wall rock thermal effects, and many other first order features of central interest to understanding magmatic processes and performing research in real time was a new challenge to all involved. Facilities were set up at McMurdo Station for rock cutting, thin-section making, map making, GIS analysis, petrographic analysis, and computer modeling using existing chemical and physical data on a spectrum of the representative rock types. At any one time half the group was housed in the field in Bull Pass near Wright Valley and the remaining group was shuttled in by helicopter each day. The principal groups were switched about every three days. Areas for daily field-work were decided upon by

  17. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic characterization of PAH contaminants at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo . E-mail moonkoo.kim@wmich.edu; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian Yaorong

    2006-01-01

    The molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of contaminant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica were analyzed in samples collected from land and sub-tidal area. PAHs in the study areas were characterized by high amounts of naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes from petroleum products introduced by human activities in the area. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PAH composition data identified multiple sources of PAH contamination in the study area. Compositional assignments of origins were confirmed using compound specific stable carbon isotopic analysis

  18. A Pliocene marine diatom δ18O record of terrestrial-marine feedbacks and orbitally-paced cryogenic brine formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, J. P.; Abbott, T.; Gibbons, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Orbital frequencies are well documented in a number of terrestrial and marine climate records throughout the Cenozoic; however, assessing the feedbacks and timing of terrestrial-marine systems on glacial-interglacial timescales is often challenging. This is particularly the case in high-latitude, near-shore environments where traditional proxy records like benthic foraminifera are absent. Here we present oxygen isotope (δ18O and δ17O) values from marine diatom silica in the mid-Pliocene (3.5 - 4.7Ma) section of the AND-1B core from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Diatom silica δ18O values range between +28.1 and +36.4‰ VSMOW. Over a range of temperatures (0 to 10°C) that reflect both growth and shallow (fall on a mixing line between marine and meteoric waters, which also supports our cryogenic brine hypothesis. The AND-1B δ18O values have an inverse relationship with the stacked benthic foraminifera δ18O record where lower δ18O values in the AND-1B diatom silica correspond with colder intervals, and we interpret variations in the diatom δ18O values as increased brine flux from the MDV to McMurdo Sound. Currently, subsurface brines in the MDV are hydrologically connected with McMurdo Sound. Density-driven transport of these brines from the MDV to the marine costal environments during the warm mid-Pliocene indicate a potentially overlooked terrestrial source of hypersaline waters. Although the lateral extent of these brines is not known, mixing between the terrestrial cryogenic brines and seawater may represent a significant flux of hypersaline water to the marine environment during warmer-than-present global conditions.

  19. Mapping sediment contamination and toxicity in Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Alan B; White, Gregory J

    2003-07-01

    Winter Quarters Bay (WQB) is a small embayment located adjacent to McMurdo Station, the largest research base in Antarctica. The bay is approximately 250 m wide and long, with a maximum depth of 33 m. Historically, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of WQB, doused with fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased, and the adjacent land area has been regraded to cover the residual waste. The bottom of WQB remains littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, cables, and other objects, especially the southeastern side of the bay where dumping took place. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. The objectives of this study were to map the distribution of organic contaminants in WQB, assess the toxicity of WQB sediments using a simple microbial test, and determine correlations between toxicity and contaminant levels. The study suggests that adverse ecological effects have occurred from one or more of the contaminants found in WQB but the source of the toxic impacts to bay sediments remains unknown. Whole sediment toxicity was only correlated with oil-equivalent while solvent extracts of sediments were correlated with PAHs and oil-equivalent. The authors recommend that an integrated research plan be developed that focuses on determining what additional information is needed to make informed decisions on possible remediation of WQB.

  20. Aerosolization of cyanobacterial cells across ecosystem boundaries in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout-Haney, J.; Heindel, R. C.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cyanobacteria play a major ecological role in polar freshwaters, occurring predominately as small single cells in the water column, i.e., picocyanobacteria, or large multicellular colonies and mats that reside on the lake bottom. Cyanobacteria are also present in terrestrial polar habitats, including within soils, soil crusts, rocks, and glacial ice. Despite their predominance in polar ecosystems, the extent to which cyanobacteria move between terrestrial and aquatic landscape units remains poorly understood. In polar deserts such as the McMurdo Dry Valleys, aeolian processes influence terrestrial landscape morphology and drive the transport of sediments and other particles. Water surfaces can also act as a source of aerosolized particles, such as the production of sea spray aerosols through wave breaking in marine environments. However, aerosolization from freshwater bodies has been far less studied, especially in polar regions. We conducted a field-study to examine the transport of aerosolized cyanobacterial cells from ponds and soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We used highly portable aerosol collection devices fitted with GF/F filters combusted at 500°C (0.3 µm) to collect small particles, such as picocyanobacteria (0.2 - 2 µm), from near-shore water and adjacent soil. We used epifluorescence microscopy to quantify aerosolized cells, with excitation filters for chlorophyll a (435 nm) and phycobilin pigments (572 nm), to distinguish cyanobacterial cells. We detected aerosolized picocyanobacterial cells from all ponds and soils sampled, indicating that these cells may be quite mobile and transported across ecosystem boundaries. We observed cyanobacterial cells individually, clustered, and associated with other organic material, suggesting multiple modes of cell transport. Further, we investigated the potential for aerosolization of toxin-producing cyanobacterial taxa (or unbound cyanotoxins), and the ecological and ecosystem-scale implications of

  1. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra...Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Jason C. Weale and Devinder S. Sodhi Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) U.S...Division of Polar Programs operates an over-sea-ice traverse from McMurdo Station to rou- tinely resupply Marble Point Camp. The traverse requires that

  2. Linking Orbital, Field, and Laboratory Analyses of Dolerites in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica: Terrestrial Studies and Planetary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Wyatt, M. B.; Seeley, J.

    2012-03-01

    Primary igneous and secondary alteration signatures can be resolved using orbital spectroscopy over mafic regions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We assess the nature of these signatures and their link to surface stability and regional microclimates.

  3. Ground based observations of Pc3-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation power at Antarctic McMurdo station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maclennan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The two horizontal geomagnetic components and, measured by a fluxgate magnetometer at Antarctic McMurdo station (corrected geomagnetic coordinates 80.0° S, 327.5° E, are analyzed for the period May-June 1994; the spectral powers are calculated and integrated over three frequency intervals corresponding to the nominal ranges. The time dependence of those integrated powers and their correlations with northern auroral indices and solar wind speed are considered. The observations are compared with previous results reported from Terra Nova Bay station (located near McMurdo at the same corrected geomagnetic latitude during Antarctic summer intervals. The differences found between the two stations are discussed in terms of the seasonal dependence of geomagnetic field line configurations in the near cusp region.

  4. Temporal and spatial patterns of anthropogenic disturbance at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, Mahlon C II; Klein, Andrew; Montagna, Paul; Palmer, Terence; Sweet, Stephen; Wade, Terry; Sericano, Jose; Denoux, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human visitations to Antarctica have increased in recent decades, raising concerns about preserving the continent's environmental quality. To understand the spatial and temporal patterns of anthropogenic disturbances at the largest scientific station in Antarctica, McMurdo Station, a long-term monitoring program has been implemented. Results from the first nine years (1999-2007) of monitoring are reported. Most physical disturbance of land surfaces occurred prior to 1970 during initial establishment of the station. Hydrocarbons from fuel and anthropogenic metals occur in patches of tens to hundreds of square meters in areas of fuel usage and storage. Most soil contaminant concentrations are not expected to elicit biological responses. Past disposal practices have contaminated marine sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), petroleum hydrocarbons, and metals in close proximity to the station that often exceed concentrations expected to elicit biological responses. Chemical contamination and organic enrichment reduced marine benthic ecological integrity within a few hundred meters offshore of the station. Contaminants were detected in marine benthic organisms confirming bioavailability and uptake. PCBs in sediments are similar to suspected source materials, indicating minimal microbial degradation decades after release. Anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment is likely to persist for decades. A number of monitoring design elements, indicators and methodologies used in temperate climates were effective and provide guidance for monitoring programs elsewhere in Antarctica.

  5. McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica - A Mars Phoenix Mission Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Anderson, R. M.; Archer, D.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Moore, Q.; Quinn, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix mission (PHX; May 25 - Nov. 2, 2008) studied the north polar region of Mars (68deg N) to understand the history of water and potential for habitability. Phoenix carried with it a wet chemistry lab (WCL) capable of determining the basic solution chemistry of the soil and the pH value, a thermal and evolved-gas analyzer capable of determining the mineralogy of the soil and detecting ice, microscopes capable of seeing soil particle shapes, sizes and colors at very high resolution, and a soil probe (TECP) capable of detecting unfrozen water in the soil. PHX coincided with an international effort to study the Earth s polar regions named the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007-2008). The best known Earth analog to the Martian high-northern plains, where Phoenix landed, are the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica (Fig. 1). Thus, the IPY afforded a unique opportunity to study the MDV with the same foci - history of water and habitability - as PHX. In austral summer 2007, our team took engineering models of WCL and TECP into the MDV and performed analgous measurements. We also collected sterile samples and analyzed them in our home laboratories using state-of-the-art tools. While PHX was not designed to perform biologic analyses, we were able to do so with the MDV analog samples collected.

  6. Flexural-response of the McMurdo Ice Shelf to surface lake filling and drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, A. F.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Willis, I.; Macdonald, G. J.; Goodsell, B.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic ice-shelf instability and break-up, as exhibited by the Larsen B ice shelf in 2002, remains one of the most difficult glaciological processes to observe directly. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have previously been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain. During the austral summer of 2016/2017, we monitored the filling and draining of four surface lakes on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and the effect of these processes on ice-shelf flexure. Water-depth data from pressure sensors reveal that two lakes filled to >2 m in depth and subsequently drained over multiple week timescales, which had a simultaneous effect on vertical ice deflection in the area. Differential GPS data from 12 receivers over three months show that vertical deflection varies as a function of distance from the maximum load change (i.e. at the lake centre). Using remote sensing techniques applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery, we also quantify the meltwater volume in these two lakes through the melt season, which, together with the vertical deflection data, are used to constrain key flexural parameter values in numerical models of ice-shelf flexure.

  7. Evolution of Meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica During Two Summer Melt Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, G. J.; Banwell, A. F.; Willis, I.; Mayer, D. P.; Hansen, E. K.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ice shelves surround > 50% of Antarctica's coast and their response to climate change is key to the ice sheet's future and global sea-level rise. Observations of the development and drainage of 2750 lakes prior to the collapse of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, combined with our understanding of ice-shelf flexure/fracture, suggest that surface meltwater plays a key role in ice-shelf stability, although the present state of knowledge remains limited. Here, we report results of an investigation into the seasonal evolution of meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 austral summers using satellite remote sensing, complemented by ground survey. Although the MIS is relatively far south (78° S), it experiences relatively high ablation rates in the west due to adiabatically warmed winds, making it a useful example of how meltwater could evolve on more southerly ice shelves in a warming climate. We calculate the areas and depths of ponded surface meltwater on the ice shelf at different stages of the two melt seasons using a modified NDWI approach and water-depth algorithm applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery. Data from two automatic weather stations on the ice shelf are used to drive a positive degree-day model to compare our observations of surface water volumes with modelled meltwater production. Results suggest that the spatial and temporal variations in surface meltwater coverage on the ice shelf vary not only with climatic conditions but also in response to other important processes. First, a rift that widens and propagates between the two melt seasons intercepts meltwater streams, redirecting flow and facilitating ponding elsewhere. Second, some lakes from previous years remain frozen over and become pedestalled, causing streams to divert around their perimeter. Third, surface debris conditions also cause large-scale spatial variation in melt rates and the flow and storage of water.

  8. Landscape Change and Microbial Response in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.; Levy, J.; Gooseff, M. N.; Van Horn, D. J.; Obryk, M.; Pettersson, R.; Telling, J. W.; Glennie, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica is ubiquitous with active layer depths ranging from a few cm at the highest elevations to 1 m near sea level. Although many landscapes in this region have been considered stable over millennia, ad-hoc field observations have documented extreme geomorphic changes in the valley bottoms over the past decade. To assess these changes across the region, we compared a lidar dataset surveyed in the austral summers of 2001-2002 against one surveyed in 2014-2015. Results showed that the vertical resolution of the surveys was resolution of the elevation differences and we ignored differences 1m) landscape changes, including stream channel incision into buried ice deposits (implying the advection of heat by stream water locally degrades thermokarst) and slope failures in thermokarst landforms from block failure and insolation-driven retreat. Smaller changes (bank erosion intercepted buried ice, or in thermokarst ponds. The magnitude and rate of change is much larger than observed previously in this otherwise stable and slowly changing environment. Biological surveys and experimental manipulations show that wetted soils host microbial communities different from those hosted by adjacent dry soils, and are hotspots of biodiversity highly susceptible to changing physical conditions. In all cases field-checked, the association of sediment and rock debris blanketing buried ice was noted, indicating these are the most vulnerable landscapes to climate warming. Ground penetrating radar mapping of buried ice showed, however, that not all buried ice is associated with landscape change due to the depth of burial, slope, and proximity to stream water. Similarly, modeling of soil temperatures suggests a spatial heterogeneity in warming rates across the valley bottom, as a consequence of microclimatic influences, topographic shading and moisture content. Collectively, these conditions imply that landscapes in the MDV will become

  9. δ13C and δ15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. . E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic

  10. Delta13C and delta15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Kathleen E; Rau, Greg H; Kvitek, Rikk G

    2006-12-01

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  11. Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 6. Observations of BrO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.A.; Solomon, S.; Schmeltekopf, A.L.; Sanders, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the evening twilight BrO abundance over McMurdo Station, Antarctica during austral spring, 1987, are described. The observed variation of the slant column abundance with increasing solar zenith angles suggests that most of the BrO is located near 15 km. The total vertical column abundance observed during 1 week of measurements yielded an average value of 2.5 x 10 13 cm -2 , assuming the room temperature absorption cross sections measured by Cox et al. (1982). These values are consistent with BrO mixing ratios of about 5-15 parts per trillion by volume distributed from 150 to 20 mbar. If the differential absorption cross section of BrO increases by 30% at temperatures characteristic of the Antarctic lower stratosphere, as indicated by Sander and Watson (1981), then the BrO measurements reported in this paper should be decreased by 30%

  12. Hydrologic connectivity in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica: System function and changes over two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bernzott, E. D.; McKnight, D. M.; Jaros, C.; Lyons, W.

    2013-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is one of the coldest (average annual air temperature of -18°C) and driest (ecological connections in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Intermittent glacial meltwater streams connect glaciers to closed basin lakes and compose the most prominent hydrologic nexus in the valleys. This study uses of 20+ years of stream temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), and discharge data to enhance our quantitative understanding of the temporal dynamics of hydrologic connections along the glacier-stream-lake continuum. Annually, streamflow occurs for a relatively brief 10-12 week period of the austral summer. Longer streams are more prone to intermittent dry periods during the flow season, making for a harsher ecological environment than shorter streams. Diurnal streamflow variation occurs primarily as a result of changing solar postion relative to the source-glacier surfaces. Therfore, different streams predictably experience high flows and low flows at different times of the day. Electrical conductivity also exhibits diel variations, but the nature of EC-discharge relationships differs among streams throughout the valley. Longer streams have higher EC values and lower discharges than shorter streams, suggesting that hyporheic zones act as a significant solute source and hydrologic reservoir along longer streams. Water temperatures are consistently warmer in longer streams, relative to shorter streams, likely due to prolonged exposure to incident radiation with longer surface water residence times. Inter-annually, several shorter streams in the region show significant increases in Q10, Q30, Q50, Q70, Q90, and/or Q100 flows across the 20+ year record, indicating a long-term non-stationarity in hydrologic system dynamics. The tight coupling between surface waters and the glacier surface energy balance bring forth remarkably consistent hydrologic patterns on the daily and annual timescales, providing a model system for understanding fundamental

  13. Ciliate diversity, community structure, and novel taxa in lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Vick-Majors, Trista; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael; Priscu, John C; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2014-10-01

    We report an in-depth survey of next-generation DNA sequencing of ciliate diversity and community structure in two permanently ice-covered McMurdo Dry Valley lakes during the austral summer and autumn (November 2007 and March 2008). We tested hypotheses on the relationship between species richness and environmental conditions including environmental extremes, nutrient status, and day length. On the basis of the unique environment that exists in these high-latitude lakes, we expected that novel taxa would be present. Alpha diversity analyses showed that extreme conditions-that is, high salinity, low oxygen, and extreme changes in day length-did not impact ciliate richness; however, ciliate richness was 30% higher in samples with higher dissolved organic matter. Beta diversity analyses revealed that ciliate communities clustered by dissolved oxygen, depth, and salinity, but not by season (i.e., day length). The permutational analysis of variance test indicated that depth, dissolved oxygen, and salinity had significant influences on the ciliate community for the abundance matrices of resampled data, while lake and season were not significant. This result suggests that the vertical trends in dissolved oxygen concentration and salinity may play a critical role in structuring ciliate communities. A PCR-based strategy capitalizing on divergent eukaryotic V9 hypervariable region ribosomal RNA gene targets unveiled two new genera in these lakes. A novel taxon belonging to an unknown class most closely related to Cryptocaryon irritans was also inferred from separate gene phylogenies. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  14. Climatic implications of reconstructed early - Mid Pliocene equilibrium-line altitudes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusic, A.G.; Prentice, M.L.; Licciardi, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Early-mid Pliocene moraines in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are more extensive than the present alpine glaciers in this region, indicating substantial climatic differences between the early-mid Pliocene and the present. To quantify this difference in the glacier-climate regime, we estimated the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) change since the early-mid Pliocene by calculating the modern ELA and reconstructing the ELAs of four alpine glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys at their early-mid Pliocene maxima. The area-altitude balance ratio method was used on modern and reconstructed early-mid Pliocene hypsometry. In Wright and Victoria Valleys, mass-balance data identify present-day ELAs of 800-1600 m a.s.l. and an average balance ratio of 1.1. The estimated ELAs of the much larger early-mid Pliocene glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys range from 600 to 950 ?? 170 m a.s.l., and thus are 250-600 ??170 m lower than modern ELAs in these valleys. The depressed ELAs during the early-mid-Pliocene most likely indicate a wetter and therefore warmer climate in the Dry Valleys during this period than previous studies have recognized.

  15. Heat Flow and Hydrologic Characteristics at the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Williams, Trevor; Henry, Stuart; ,; Hansaraj, Dhiresh

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) successfully drilled and cored a borehole, AND-1B, beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf and into a flexural moat basin that surrounds Ross Island. Total drilling depth reached 1285 m below seafloor (mbsf) with 98 percent core recovery for the detailed study of glacier dynamics. With the goal of obtaining complementary information regarding heat flow and permeability, which is vital to understanding the nature of marine hydrogeologic systems, a succession of three temperature logs was recorded over a five-day span to monitor the gradual thermal recovery toward equilibrium conditions. These data were extrapolated to true, undisturbed temperatures, and they define a linear geothermal gradient of 76.7 K/km from the seafloor to 647 mbsf. Bulk thermal conductivities of the sedimentary rocks were derived from empirical mixing models and density measurements performed on core, and an average value of 1.5 W/mK ± 10 percent was determined. The corresponding estimate of heat flow at this site is 115 mW/m2. This value is relatively high but is consistent with other elevated heat-flow data associated with the Erebus Volcanic Province. Information regarding the origin and frequency of pathways for subsurface fluid flow is gleaned from drillers' records, complementary geophysical logs, and core descriptions. Only two prominent permeable zones are identified and these correspond to two markedly different features within the rift basin; one is a distinct lithostratigraphic subunit consisting of a thin lava flow and the other is a heavily fractured interval within a single thick subunit.

  16. Reactivation of a cryptobiotic stream ecosystem in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A long-term geomorphological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Tate, C.M.; Andrews, E.D.; Niyogi, D.K.; Cozzetto, K.; Welch, K.; Lyons, W.B.; Capone, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica contain many glacial meltwater streams that flow for 6 to 12??weeks during the austral summer and link the glaciers to the lakes on the valley floors. Dry valley streams gain solutes longitudinally through weathering reactions and microbial processes occurring in the hyporheic zone. Some streams have thriving cyanobacterial mats. In streams with regular summer flow, the mats are freeze-dried through the winter and begin photosynthesizing with the onset of flow. To evaluate the longer term persistence of cyanobacterial mats, we diverted flow to an abandoned channel, which had not received substantial flow for approximately two decades. Monitoring of specific conductance showed that for the first 3??years after the diversion, the solute concentrations were greater in the reactivated channel than in most other dry valley streams. We observed that cyanobacterial mats became abundant in the reactivated channel within a week, indicating that the mats had been preserved in a cryptobiotic state in the channel. Over the next several years, these mats had high rates of productivity and nitrogen fixation compared to mats from other streams. Experiments in which mats from the reactivated channel and another stream were incubated in water from both of the streams indicated that the greater solute concentrations in the reactivated channel stimulated net primary productivity of mats from both streams. These stream-scale experimental results indicate that the cryptobiotic preservation of cyanobacterial mats in abandoned channels in the dry valleys allows for rapid response of these stream ecosystems to climatic and geomorphological change, similar to other arid zone stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thin, Conductive Permafrost Surrounding Lake Fryxell Indicates Salts From Past Lakes, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Myers, K. F.; Doran, P. T.; Auken, E.; Dugan, H. A.; Mikucki, J.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), permafrost should be thick and liquid water rare. However, despite the well below zero mean annual temperature in this cryospheric desert, liquid water can be found in lakes, summer melt streams, subglacial outflow, and - recent work has shown - underneath anomalously thin permafrost. In part, this niche hydrosphere is maintained by the presence of salts, which depress the freezing point of water to perhaps as cold as -10° Celsius. We detected widespread salty water across the MDV in lakes and at depth using a helicopter-borne Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) sensor. By using the presence of brines to mark the transition from frozen permafrost (near the surface) to unfrozen ground (at depth), we have created a map of permafrost thickness in Lower Taylor Valley (LTV), a large MDV with a complex history of glaciation and occupation by lakes. Our results show that permafrost is thinner ( 200m) than would be expected based on geothermal gradient measurements (up to 1000m), a result of the freezing point depression caused by salt and potentially enhanced by an unfinished transient freezing process. Near Lake Fryxell, a large, brackish lake in the center of LTV, permafrost is very thin (about 30-40m) and notably more electrically conductive than more distal permafrost. This thin ring of conductive permafrost surrounding the lake basin most likely reflects the high presence of salts in the subsurface, preventing complete freezing. These salts may be a remnant of the salty bottom waters of a historic larger lake (LGM glacially dammed Lake Washburn) or the remnant of salty basal water from a past advance of Taylor Glacier, which now sits many km up-valley but is known to contain brines which currently flow onto the surface and directly into the subsurface aquifer.

  18. Effects of human trampling on populations of soil fauna in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Edward; Nkem, Johnson N; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J; Barrett, J E; Broos, Emma J; Parsons, Andrew N; Powers, Laura E; Simmons, Breana L; Virginia, Ross A

    2008-12-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are often considered nearly pristine because levels of anthropogenic disturbance are extremely low there. Nevertheless, over recent decades there has been a rapid increase in the number of people, researchers and tourists, visiting Antarctica. We evaluated, over 10 years, the direct impact of foot traffic on the abundance of soil animals and soil properties in Taylor Valley within the McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica. We compared soils from minimally disturbed areas with soils from nearby paths that received intermediate and high levels of human foot traffic (i.e., up to approximately 80 passes per year). The nematodes Scottnema lindsayae and Eudorylaimus sp. were the most commonly found animal species, whereas rotifers and tardigrades were found only occasionally. On the highly trampled footpaths, abundance of S. lindsayae and Eudorylaimus sp. was up to 52 and 76% lower, respectively, than in untrampled areas. Moreover, reduction in S. lindsayae abundance was more pronounced after 10 years than 2 years and in the surface soil than in the deeper soil, presumably because of the longer period of disturbance and the greater level of physical disturbance experienced by the surface soil. The ratio of living to dead Eudorylaimus sp. also declined with increased trampling intensity, which is indicative of increased mortality or reduced fecundity. At one site there was evidence that high levels of trampling reduced soil CO(2) fluxes, which is related to total biological activity in the soil. Our results show that even low levels of human traffic can significantly affect soil biota in this ecosystem and may alter ecosystem processes, such as carbon cycling. Consequently, management and conservation plans for Antarctic soils should consider the high sensitivity of soil fauna to physical disturbance as human presence in this ecosystem increases.

  19. {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. [Canadian Musem of Nature, P.O. Box 3443 Station D, Ottawa, Ont., K1P 6P4 (Canada)]. E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kvitek, Rikk G. [Earth Systems Science and Policy, California State University Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  20. Velocity Field of the McMurdo Shear Zone from Annual Three-Dimensional Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging and Crevasse Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L.; Jordan, M.; Arcone, S. A.; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Lever, J.; Walker, B.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ) is a narrow, intensely crevassed strip tens of km long separating the Ross and McMurdo ice shelves (RIS and MIS) and an important pinning feature for the RIS. We derive local velocity fields within the MSZ from two consecutive annual ground penetrating radar (GPR) datasets that reveal complex firn and marine ice crevassing; no englacial features are evident. The datasets were acquired in 2014 and 2015 using robot-towed 400 MHz and 200 MHz GPR over a 5 km x 5.7 km grid. 100 west-to-east transects at 50 m spacing provide three-dimensional maps that reveal the length of many firn crevasses, and their year-to-year structural evolution. Hand labeling of crevasse cross sections near the MSZ western and eastern boundaries reveal matching firn and marine ice crevasses, and more complex and chaotic features between these boundaries. By matching crevasse features from year to year both on the eastern and western boundaries and within the chaotic region, marine ice crevasses along the western and eastern boundaries are shown to align directly with firn crevasses, and the local velocity field is estimated and compared with data from strain rate surveys and remote sensing. While remote sensing provides global velocity fields, crevasse matching indicates greater local complexity attributed to faulting, folding, and rotation.

  1. Life Detection and Characterization of Subsurface Ice and Brine in the McMurdo Dry Valleys Using an Ultrasonic Gopher: A NASA ASTEP Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, P. T.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Fritsen, C.; Kenig, F.; McKay, C. P.; Murray, A.; Sherrit, S.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of ice and fluids near the surface of Mars in both the distant and recent past is growing with each new mission to the Planet. One explanation for fluids forming springlike features on Mars is the discharge of subsurface brines. Brines offer potential refugia for extant Martian life, and near surface ice could preserve a record of past life on the planet. Proven techniques to get underground to sample these environments, and get below the disruptive influence of the surface oxidant and radiation regime, will be critical for future astrobiology missions to Mars. Our Astrobiology for Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) project has the goal to develop and test a novel ultrasonic corer in a Mars analog environment, the McMurdo Dry valleys, Antarctica, and to detect and describe life in a previously unstudied extreme ecosystem; Lake Vida (Fig. 1), an ice-sealed lake.

  2. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  3. Western Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound Ice Forecasting Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    areal ice distribution and follow the sane historical proqression of pack disintergration . This technique assumes that environmental conditions...30-day) are based on historical ice data which cxnbine averaae disintergration rates as well as averace wind and current drift. Iong-range wind...original 2 to 3 okta area and its new cnfiguration remains the same, the products of ocnoentrations and widths at the verifying time must equal the

  4. Field Observations and Modeling Results of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica: Implications on Shear Margin Dynamics and Long- Term Viability of the South Pole Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Enderlin, E. M.; Courville, Z.; Campbell, S. W.; Arcone, S.; Jordan, M.; Ray, L.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the flow of inland ice towards the ocean. Understanding the controls on ice-shelf stability are critical to predicting the future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. For the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), an important region of lateral resistance is the McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ), a 5-10 km wide strip of heavily crevassed ice. On a yearly basis the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) mitigates crevasse hazards along the South Pole Traverse (SPoT) route that crosses this region. However, as ice advects northward past the lateral buttress of White Island into a region of greater flow divergence, intensified crevassing has been observed which will continue to place a substantial burden on safety mitigation efforts. The route has advected down-glacier towards this complex region since 2002 so the USAP currently has plans to relocate the shear zone crossing upstream in the near future. Our work aims to assess the feasibility of moving the route to several potential locations based on results from an integrated project incorporating detailed field-based observations of crevasse distributions and orientation from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), GPS and remote sensing observations of the flow and stress field within the MSZ, and finite element numerical modeling of local and regional kinematics within the region. In addition, we assess plausible dynamic forcings both upstream and downstream of the MSZ that could influence shear zone stability. These include changes in mass flux across the grounding lines of tributary glaciers such as the observed increase in ice discharge from of Byrd Glacier (Stearns et al., 2008) as well as changes at the MIS front due to recent intensified rift propagation (Banwel et al., 2017). Results from this work will increase our understanding of ice shelf shear margin dynamics and provide a firm basis for predicting the long-term behavior of the MSZ and viability of the SPoT. Stearns, Leigh A., Benjamin E. Smith, and

  5. Calcareous nannofossil evidence for Marine Isotope Stage 31 (1 Ma) in the AND-1B Core, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, G.; Persico, D.; Wise, S. W.; Gadaleta, A.

    2009-04-01

    During the austral summer 2006 the ANDRILL Program recovered a 1285 m-long succession of cyclic glacimarine sediments from the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS). The aim of the MIS Project was to obtain continuous Neogene (c. 0-10 Ma) glacial, glacimarine, volcanic, and biogenic sediments that have accumulated in the region of the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Ross Sea) nourished by ice flowing from East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) outlet glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The MIS AND-1B drill core represents the longest and most complete (98% recovery) geological record from the Antarctic continental margin to date, and will provide a key reference record of climate and ice-sheet variability through the Late Neogene; detailed investigations of this record will contribute for improving our knowledge of Antarctica's influence on global climate. Preliminary on-ice analysis of the smear slides of the Andrill core revealed calcareous microfossils (dinoflagellates, calciosponge spicula and small foraminifera) occurring with variable concentrations. The presence of thoracosphaerid fragments in the smear slides of the first 600 mbsf (Quaternary), probably belong to the species Thoracosphaera saxea (Stradner 1961), and Thoracosphaera heimi (Kamptner, 1941) and other, potentially undescribed species (Villa & Wise 1998), suggests either a peculiar adaptation to this environment, due to their ability to develop cysts or warmer conditions at the time of their deposition, or a combination of both. However, they represent an additional element to use with the other proxies for inferring palaeoenvironmental conditions of the core. Subsequent shore-based analyses of 100 samples from 86-96 mbsf revealed for the first time the presence of Pleistocene coccolithophorids at these high southern latitudes (77° S), including: Coccolithus pelagicus, small Gephyrocapsa, Reticulofenestra asanoi, Pseudoemiliania lacunosa, Dictyoccocites productus, Reticulofenestra sp., Reticulofenestra minutula

  6. Evaluation of tele-ultrasound as a tool in remote diagnosis and clinical management at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the McMurdo Research Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian; Shemenski, Ron; Scott, Jessica M; Hartshorn, Jeanette; Bishop, Sheryl; Viegas, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Background: A large number of Antarctic stations do not utilize ultrasound for medical care. Regular use of ultrasound imaging at South Pole and McMurdo Stations first began in October 2002. To date, there has been no evaluation of medical events requiring ultrasound examination from this remote environment. Additionally, the importance of tele-ultrasound for clinical management in Antarctica has not yet been assessed. We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis of all ultrasound exams performed at South Pole and McMurdo Stations between October 2002 and October 2003. Radiology reports and patient charts were reviewed for pre- and post-ultrasound diagnosis and treatment. Sixty-six ultrasound exams were conducted on 49 patients. Of the exams, 94.0% were interpreted by the store-and-forward method, whereas 6.0% were interpreted in "real-time" format. Abdominal, genitourinary, and gynecology ultrasound exams accounted for 63.6% of exams. Ultrasound examination prevented an intercontinental aeromedical evacuation in 25.8% of cases, and had a significant effect on the diagnosis and management of illness in patients at South Pole and McMurdo research stations. These findings indicate that diagnostic ultrasound has significant benefits for medical care at Antarctic stations and that tele-ultrasound is a valuable addition to remote medical care for isolated populations with limited access to tertiary-healthcare facilities.

  7. Cold adaptive traits revealed by comparative genomic analysis of the eurypsychrophile Rhodococcus sp. JG3 isolated from high elevation McMurdo Dry Valley permafrost, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Zolotarov, Yevgen; de Bethencourt, Luis; Ronholm, Jennifer; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Stromvik, Martina; Greer, Charles W; Bakermans, Corien; Whyte, Lyle

    2016-02-01

    The permafrost soils of the high elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys are the most cold, desiccating and oligotrophic on Earth. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is one of very few bacterial isolates from Antarctic Dry Valley permafrost, and displays subzero growth down to -5°C. To understand how Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is able to survive extreme permafrost conditions and be metabolically active at subzero temperatures, we sequenced its genome and compared it to the genomes of 14 mesophilic rhodococci. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possessed a higher copy number of genes for general stress response, UV protection and protection from cold shock, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. We characterized genome wide molecular adaptations to cold, and identified genes that had amino acid compositions favourable for increased flexibility and functionality at low temperatures. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possesses multiple complimentary strategies which may enable its survival in some of the harshest permafrost on Earth. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Nitrogen and carbon limitation of planktonic primary production and phytoplankton–bacterioplankton coupling in ponds on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Brian K; Safi, Karl; Hawes, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We compared planktonic primary and secondary production across twenty meltwater ponds on the surface of the McMurdo Ice Shelf in January 2007, including some ponds with basal brines created by meromictic stratification. Primary production ranged from 1.07 to 65.72 mgC m −3 h −1 in surface waters. In stratified ponds primary production was always more than ten times higher in basal brines than in the corresponding mixolimnion. Regression tree analysis (r 2 = 0.80) identified inorganic nitrogen (as NH 4 + ) as the main factor limiting planktonic primary production. However, there was also evidence of inorganic carbon co-limitation of photosynthesis in some of the more oligotrophic waters. Neither C nor N limited carbon fixation at [NH 4 –N] > 50 mg m −3 , with photoinhibition the factor most likely limiting photosynthesis under such conditions. Primary production was the only factor significantly correlated to bacterial production and the relationship (r 2 = 0.56) was non-linear. Nitrogen limitation and tight coupling of planktonic primary and bacterial production is surprising in these ponds, as all have large pools of dissolved organic carbon (1.2–260 g m −3 ) and organic nitrogen (all >130 mg m −3 ). The dissolved pools of organic carbon and nitrogen appear to be recalcitrant and bacterial production to be constrained by limited release of labile organics from phytoplankton. (letter)

  9. Characterizing Microbial Mat Morphology with Structure from Motion Techniques in Ice-Covered Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, T. J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Allen, B.; Hawes, I.; Lawrence, J.; Jungblut, A. D.; Krusor, M.; Coleman, L.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Structure from Motion (SFM) techniques can provide quantitative morphological documentation of otherwise inaccessible benthic ecosystems such as microbial mats in Lake Joyce, a perennially ice-covered lake of the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). Microbial mats are a key ecosystem of MDV lakes, and diverse mat morphologies like pinnacles emerge from interactions among microbial behavior, mineralization, and environmental conditions. Environmental gradients can be isolated to test mat growth models, but assessment of mat morphology along these gradients is complicated by their inaccessibility: the Lake Joyce ice cover is 4-5 m thick, water depths containing diverse pinnacle morphologies are 9-14 m, and relevant mat features are cm-scale. In order to map mat pinnacle morphology in different sedimentary settings, we deployed drop cameras (SeaViewer and GoPro) through 29 GPS referenced drill holes clustered into six stations along a transect spanning 880 m. Once under the ice cover, a boom containing a second GoPro camera was unfurled and rotated to collect oblique images of the benthic mats within dm of the mat-water interface. This setup allowed imaging from all sides over a ~1.5 m diameter area of the lake bottom. Underwater lens parameters were determined for each camera in Agisoft Lens; images were reconstructed and oriented in space with the SFM software Agisoft Photoscan, using the drop camera axis of rotation as up. The reconstructions were compared to downward facing images to assess accuracy, and similar images of an object with known geometry provided a test for expected error in reconstructions. Downward facing images identify decreasing pinnacle abundance in higher sedimentation settings, and quantitative measurements of 3D reconstructions in KeckCAVES LidarViewer supplement these mat morphological facies with measurements of pinnacle height and orientation. Reconstructions also help isolate confounding variables for mat facies trends with measurements

  10. Near-Surface Refractory Black Carbon Observations in the Atmosphere and Snow in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and Potential Impacts of Foehn Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Xian, Peng; Welch, Kathleen A.; Berry Lyons, W.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2018-03-01

    Measurements of light-absorbing particles in the boundary layer of the high southern latitudes are scarce, particularly in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica. During the 2013-2014 austral summer near-surface boundary layer refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were measured in air by a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) at multiple locations in the MDV. Near-continuous rBC atmospheric measurements were collected at Lake Hoare Camp (LH) over 2 months and for several hours at more remote locations away from established field camps. We investigated periods dominated by both upvalley and downvalley winds to explore the causes of differences in rBC concentrations and size distributions. Snow samples were also collected in a 1 m pit on a glacier near the camp. The range of concentrations rBC in snow was 0.3-1.2 ± 0.3 μg-rBC/L-H2O, and total organic carbon was 0.3-1.4 ± 0.3 mg/L. The rBC concentrations measured in this snow pit are not sufficient to reduce surface albedo; however, there is potential for accumulation of rBC on snow and ice surfaces at low elevation throughout the MDV, which were not measured as part of this study. At LH, the average background rBC mass aerosol concentrations were 1.3 ng/m3. rBC aerosol mass concentrations were slightly lower, 0.09-1.3 ng/m3, at the most remote sites in the MDV. Concentration spikes as high as 200 ng/m3 were observed at LH, associated with local activities. During a foehn wind event, the average rBC mass concentration increased to 30-50 ng/m3. Here we show that the rBC increase could be due to resuspension of locally produced BC from generators, rocket toilets, and helicopters, which may remain on the soil surface until redistributed during high wind events. Quantification of local production and long-range atmospheric transport of rBC to the MDV is necessary for understanding the impacts of this species on regional climate.

  11. Characterization of the abundant ≤0.2 μm cell-like particles inhabiting Lake Vida brine, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, E.; Ichimura, A.; Peng, V.; Fritsen, C. H.; Murray, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    Most lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys are perennially covered with 3 to 6 m of ice, but Lake Vida is frozen from the surface through the lake bed, with ice permeated by brine channels. Brine collected from within the ice of Lake Vida is six times saltier than seawater, anoxic, with temperature of -13.4 C, pH of 6.2, high concentrations of ferrous iron (>300 μM), NH4+ (3.6 mM), and N2O (>58 μM), making it a unique environment. The first analysis of Vida brine microbial community (sampled in 2005) detected a cell rich environment (107 cells/mL), with cells falling into two size classes: ≥0.5 μm (105 cells/mL) and ~0.2 μm (107 cells/mL). Microorganisms in the domain Bacteria were detected, but Eukarya and Archaea were not. The clone library from 2005 identified Bacteria related to the phyla Proteobacteria (γ, δ, and ɛ), Lentisphaera, Firmicutes, Spirochaeta, Bacterioidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and candidate Division TM7. Brine samples were collected again in the austral summer of 2010 in which one of the focus areas is interrogating the ~0.2 μm cell size class. Molecular, imaging, and elemental analyses were employed to characterize the population of nano-sized particles (NP) that pass through 0.2 μm filters. The aim of testing was to determine whether or not these particles are cells with a morphology resulting from environmental stresses. These results are being compared to the same analyses applied in the whole brine microbial community. A 0.2 μm filtrate of brine incubated for 25 days at -13 C was collected on a 0.1 μm filter. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene DGGE profile showed differences in the banding pattern and relative intensity when comparing the 0.2 μm filtrate to the whole brine community. A 16S rRNA clone library from the 0.2 μm filtrate indicated the presence of genera previously described in the 2005 whole brine community clone library like Pscychrobacter, Marinobacter, and members related to candidate Division TM7. Also, the

  12. Multiphase Reactive Transport and Platelet Ice Accretion in the Sea Ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J. J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Huber, C.

    2018-01-01

    Sea ice seasonally to interannually forms a thermal, chemical, and physical boundary between the atmosphere and hydrosphere over tens of millions of square kilometers of ocean. Its presence affects both local and global climate and ocean dynamics, ice shelf processes, and biological communities. Accurate incorporation of sea ice growth and decay, and its associated thermal and physiochemical processes, is underrepresented in large-scale models due to the complex physics that dictate oceanic ice formation and evolution. Two phenomena complicate sea ice simulation, particularly in the Antarctic: the multiphase physics of reactive transport brought about by the inhomogeneous solidification of seawater, and the buoyancy driven accretion of platelet ice formed by supercooled ice shelf water onto the basal surface of the overlying ice. Here a one-dimensional finite difference model capable of simulating both processes is developed and tested against ice core data. Temperature, salinity, liquid fraction, fluid velocity, total salt content, and ice structure are computed during model runs. The model results agree well with empirical observations and simulations highlight the effect platelet ice accretion has on overall ice thickness and characteristics. Results from sensitivity studies emphasize the need to further constrain sea ice microstructure and the associated physics, particularly permeability-porosity relationships, if a complete model of sea ice evolution is to be obtained. Additionally, implications for terrestrial ice shelves and icy moons in the solar system are discussed.

  13. Draft genome of Kocuria polaris CMS 76or(T) isolated from cyanobacterial mats, McMurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica: an insight into CspA family of proteins from Kocuria polaris CMS 76or(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlapally, Sathyanarayana Reddy; Ara, Srinivas; Sisinthy, Shivaji

    2015-10-01

    Kocuria polaris strain CMS 76or(T) is a gram-positive, orange-pigmented bacterium isolated from a cyanobacterial mat sample from a pond located in McMurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica. It is psychrotolerant, orange pigmented, hydrolyses starch and Tween 80 and reduces nitrate. We report the 3.78-Mb genome of K. polaris strain CMS 76or(T), containing 3416 coding sequences, including one each for 5S rRNA, 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA and 47 tRNA genes, and the G+C content of DNA is 72.8%. An investigation of Csp family of proteins from K. polaris strain CMS 76or(T) indicated that it contains three different proteins of CspA (peg.319, peg.2255 and 2832) and the length varied from 67 to 69 amino acids. The three different proteins contain all the signature amino acids and two RNA binding regions that are characteristic of CspA proteins. Further, the CspA from K. polaris strain CMS 76or(T) was different from CspA of four other species of the genus Kocuria, Cryobacterium roopkundense and E. coli indirectly suggesting the role of CspA of K. polaris strain CMS 76or(T) in psychrotolerant growth of the bacterium.

  14. Seismic facies and stratigraphy of the Cenozoic succession in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: Implications for tectonic, climatic and glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, C.R.; Whittaker, J.; Henrys, S.A.; Wilson, T.J.; Nash, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    A new stratigraphic model is presented for the evolution of the Cenozoic Victoria Land Basin of the West Antarctic Rift, based on integration of seismic reflection and drilling data. The Early Rift phase (?latest Eocene to Early Oligocene) comprises wedges of strata confined by early extensional faults, and which contain seismic facies consistent with drainage via coarse-grained fans and deltas into discrete, actively subsiding grabens and half-grabens. The Main Rift phase (Early Oligocene to Early Miocene) comprises a lens of strata that thickens symmetrically from the basin margins into a central depocenter, and in which stratal events pass continuously over the top of the Early Rift extensional topography. Internal seismic facies and lithofacies indicate a more organized, cyclical shallow marine succession, influenced increasingly upward by cycles of glacial advance and retreat into the basin. The Passive Thermal Subsidence phase (Early Miocene to ?) comprises an evenly distributed sheet of strata that does not thicken appreciably into the depocentre, with more evidence for clinoform sets and large channels. These patterns are interpreted to record accumulation under similar environmental conditions but in a regime of slower subsidence. The Renewed Rifting phase (? to Recent, largely unsampled by coring thus far) has been further divided into 1, a lower interval, in which the section thickens passively towards a central depocentre, and 2. an upper interval, in which more dramatic thickening patterns are complicated by magmatic activity. The youngest part of the stratigraphy was accumulated under the influence of flexural loading imposed by the construction of large volcanic edifices, and involved minimal sediment supply from the western basin margin, suggesting a change in environmental (glacial) conditions at possibly c. 2 Ma.

  15. Hearing Mouth Shapes: Sound Symbolism and the Reverse McGurk Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Spence

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In their recent article, Sweeny, Guzman-Martinez, Ortega, Grabowecky, and Suzuki (2012 demonstrate that heard speech sounds modulate the perceived shape of briefly presented visual stimuli. Ovals, whose aspect ratio (relating width to height varied on a trial-by-trial basis, were rated as looking wider when a /woo/ sound was presented, and as taller when a /wee/ sound was presented instead. On the one hand, these findings add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that audiovisual correspondences can have perceptual (as well as decisional effects. On the other hand, they prompt a question concerning their origin. Although the currently popular view is that crossmodal correspondences are based on the internalization of the natural multisensory statistics of the environment (see Spence, 2011, these new results suggest instead that certain correspondences may actually be based on the sensorimotor responses associated with human vocalizations. As such, the findings of Sweeny et al. help to breathe new life into Sapir's (1929 once-popular “embodied” explanation of sound symbolism. Furthermore, they pose a challenge for those psychologists wanting to determine which among a number of plausible accounts best explains the available data on crossmodal correspondences.

  16. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  17. Pollutant Concentration in Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    Antarctic Support Contract 7400 S. Tucson Way Centennial , CO 08112 Margaret Knuth National Science Foundation Division of Polar Programs...basin 2 has the largest area and encompasses the majority of the snowfield and the depression above Gasoline Alley. Sub-basin 3 includes the area

  18. Runoff Characterization and Variations at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-13

    Boulevard Arlington, VA 22230 Laura Elliot and Corey Chan Antarctic Support Contract 7400 S. Tucson Way Centennial , CO 08112 Michael Diamond...then along the road and down Hut Point Road. Sub-basin 2 has the largest area and encompasses the majority of the snowfield and the depression above

  19. Subsurface Assessment at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Support Contract 7400 S. Tucson Way Centennial , CO 08112 Final Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for...on this rough bedrock surface; that is, fill was used to fill depressions between bedrock outcrops. Fill thickness tends to be greater towards the...First Hundred Years, ed. G.A. Kiersch, 277–298. Geological Society of America, Centennial Special Vol. 3. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America

  20. Subsurface Assessment at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    surface albedo of the bare ground . Figure 2. Soil temperature with depth collected from 1994 to 1996 by Tumeo and Cummings (1996). Campbell et...example photo- graphs in Figures 5–9 of the entire pit with segregated ice at Site 1, mas- sive ice at Site 2 and Site 4, man-made fill at Site 3, and...excavation was approxi- mately from the surface down to 0.3 m; and ice lenses (mainly segregated ice) were found just below 0.3 m ( Figure 10). The

  1. Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    is minimized distribution of low strength areas (also called “ holidays ”). Holidays are actually areas of pulverized snow that are missed or inade...quately processed. Though holidays usually occur sporadically, any single flaw may extend through the entire thickness of an unelevated road. The...Pegasus Road and the LDB pad. A few additional sites were chosen for comparison (Williams Field, virgin snow, etc.). Williams Field Road densities

  2. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    inter- mixed” and has a combined silt and clay composition that varies between 21% and 68% (Crockett and White 1997). The concentration of fine mate...2�������� where v is kinematic viscosity of seawater and � � 2������� is the “time average of the square of the

  3. Engineering Manual for McMurdo Station. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    runway vided greater security from ice breakout but .’ >, surface and unseen cracks in the surrounding was not suitable for construction of runways...an approximately 600-foot-long and 170-foot-wtde area of sea ice was thickened to a maximum of 29 feet. This wharf was secured to the shore by cables...water distribution netowrk . 8. Waste energy from the power plant should be used as a heat source for utilidor heating. 9. Alternate techniques of

  4. ASSESSMENT OF SEA ICE FREEBOARD AND THICKNESS IN MCMURDO SOUND, ANTARCTICA, DERIVED BY GROUND VALIDATED SATELLITE ALTIMETER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Price

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation employs the use of ICESat to derive freeboard measurements in McMurdo Sound in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, for the time period 2003-2009. Methods closely follow those previously presented in the literature but are complemented by a good understanding of general sea ice characteristics in the study region from extensive temporal ground investigations but with limited spatial coverage. The aim of remote sensing applications in this area is to expand the good knowledge of sea ice characteristics within these limited areas to the wider McMurdo Sound and western Ross Sea region. The seven year Austral Spring (September, October, and November investigation is presented for sea ice freeboard alone. An interannual comparison of mean freeboard indicates an increase in multiyear sea ice freeboard from 1.08 m in 2003 to 1.15 m in 2009 with positive and negative variation in between. No significant trend was detected for first year sea ice freeboard. Further, an Envisat imagery investigation complements the freeboard assessment. The multiyear sea ice was observed to increase by 254 % of its original 2003 area, as firstyear sea ice persisted through the 2004 melt season into 2005. This maximum coverage then gradually diminished by 2009 to 20 % above the original 2003 value. The mid study period increase is likely attributed to the passage of iceberg B-15A minimising oceanic pressures and preventing sea ice breakout in the region.

  5. Design and Implementation of a Consolidated Airfield at McMurdo, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Technical Documents in Hydrology No 83, IACS Contribution No 1. Paris : United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, International...d elivery I 1 Commissioning I EIFuels delivery system Design 9 Procurement I contracting I transportation I b Season 1 implementation - Brest cap

  6. Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    especially during warm weather when their high flotation tires al- low greater over-snow mobility. Table 2. Test vehicle information. Vehicle Vehicle...potential danger to the vehicle and pax 16 ERDC/CRREL TR-14-9 51 GO SLOWTI-U<OtJG-ISBTFOR YOLH?. SAFETY LANE C SCOTT BASE TRANSIT/ONTO SILVER

  7. McMurdo Consolidated Airfields Study: Phase I, Basis of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official...Buenos Aires, Argentina, 9−12 August. Bonin, J. H and E. O. Teichmann. 1949. Investigation of solar energy for ice melting. Armour Research

  8. Geophysical Survey of McMurdo Ice Shelf to Determine Infrastructure Stability and for Future Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    further encouraged research to deter- mine if other englacial features exist that may contribute to future MIS in- stability. The National Science...surrounding topography by roughly 5 m. The structure is capped by a hyperbolic reflection at a 10 m depth, lacks any fine firn stratigraphy within, and

  9. Vertical Temperature Simulation of Pegasus Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Polar Programs PSP Precision Spectral Pyranometer SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command ERDC/CRREL TR-15-2 ix Unit Conversion Factors...site was measured (M. Knuth*, pers. comm.) in 15-minute intervals from 29 October 2010 until 5 February 2011. Two broadband pyranometers (Eppley...Precision Spectral Pyranometer ) were mounted on a mast immediately adjacent to the runway. One measured downwelling radiation and the other upwelling

  10. Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Martin, Antarctic Support Contract 7400 S. Tucson Way Centennial , CO 08112 Jude Arbogast Northeastern University 360 Huntington Ave Boston, MA...encompasses the majority of the snowfield and the depression above Gasoline Alley. Sub- basin 3 includes the area north of the Main Road, then...the weir, to compact the rocks, and to create a sump or depression upstream of the weirs. Figure 11. Rock weir using the 2 to 8 in. rocks. The

  11. Indicators of Physical and Biological Trends around the McMurdo Station, Antarctica: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    from +2.0 ERDC/CRREL SR-15-1 13 m/decade in the Queen Maud region to −19.4 m/decade in the Amundsen region. For the Ross Sea region, the change...precipitation in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica. PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Cook, A. J., and D. G. Vaughan. 2010

  12. Evaluation of a New SnowPaver at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    designed to sit on top of the existing framework of the paver. The power pack con- sisted of a 75 HP Cummins Turbo Diesel motor. Attached to this... diesel engine and rotated at up to 1000 rpm. Following the drum was a leveling blade and a vibratory com- pactor. This SnowPaver was self-propelled and...power pack consists of a diesel engine coupled to hydraulic pumps and valves that allow for operation of all of the func- tions of the SnowPaver

  13. Skin Dose Assessment Methodology for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (1962-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Particle size factor (unitless) = Moisture factor (unitless) = Enrichment factor (unitless) Values used for parameters in Equation A-1...forearm (fa) IRF (IRF/IRFfa) See Table A-5 Particle Size Factor (PS) 1.0 Moisture Factor (EM) High humidity, e.g. Pacific Ocean 3.0 Low humidity to... Interception and retention fractions, and effective retention factors ......................... 22 Table B-1. Standard height external skin doses (mSv

  14. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Age Control of Glacimarine Sediments, ANDRILL 1B Drillcore, McMurdo Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R.; Levy, R.; Crampton, J.; Wilson, G.; Naish, T.; Harwood, D.; Winter, D.; Scherer, R.

    2008-12-01

    Interpretation of glacimarine sedimentary records from Antarctic shelf drillholes has been greatly hampered by the ambiguous age of strata where erosional unconformities and coarse diamictite deposits truncate or omit the mangetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic units used for correlation. However, new quantitative biostratigraphic techniques enable the correlation of sparse, incomplete, and reworking-prone Plio- Pleistocene records of Ross Sea fossil diatom flora with the more extensively documented but potentially diachronous offshore history of species' first and last appearances (FAs and LAs). The approach uses a comprehensive regional database of fossil records and computer-automated search algorithms to (a) find the multidimensional line of correlation (LOC) that best fits local observations, and (b) map out confidence intervals based on the full range of equally parsimonious composite FA/LA sequences and local range-end adjustments. An integrated, quantitative chronostratigraphic model for the AND-1B drillcore was constructed iteratively: the initial LOC was based solely on preliminary on-ice observations of fossil diatom highest and lowest occurrences (HOs and LOs) and their correlation with a database of other local event records from 24 DVDP, CIROS, and IODP drillcore sections. The model was subsequently updated as off-ice work yielded additional biostratigraphic marker events and revised event horizons, Ar/Ar ages for volcanic material, better- constrained magnetostratigraphic interpretations, and refinements to computational/analytical methodology. The current quantitative biostratigraphic age model for the AND-1B hole integrates the local ranges of 29 diatom taxa, 5 dated ashes, and independently constrained ages of 5 paleomagnetic reversals. Results corroborate almost all of the on-ice geomagnetic polarity reversal age interpretations, but identify a previously unrecognized major disconformity (~800kyr hiatus) near 440mbsf. It is significant to note that in spite of drastic augmentation and progressive refinement of, the original AND- 1B input dataset, successive iterations of the output LOC retain the same fundamental structure/shape with only relatively minor, fine-scale differences. The age model's remarkable stability indicates that quantitative biostratigraphic analysis is capable of constructing robust and reliable regional correlation schemes and local section chronologies, even where records are somewhat rough or unfinished and include some errors and low-quality content, or lack independent age control. Large discrepancies between observed and expected HO/LO horizons reveal significant diachronism in the timing of a few species' FAs and LAs on the shelf vs. offshore. In other cases, positions of HOs and LOs that were predicted by the quantitative analysis were subsequently validated by collection of additional microfossil count data that documented occurrences of the taxon near the stratigraphic limits predicted by regional correlations. Quantitative biostratigraphic analysis of this type could potentially be useful in guiding more intensive, supplementary off-ice or post-cruise sampling and investigation.

  15. Waste Water Handling Proof of Concepts at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges . ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering...h.- vlc •K-too’l /0 Yo tii-<- 3t~o ,?_.$•- j.J’?-- · ~ -,-L~ ~..J- .... s.-~ fi.,,/.-J.~:. t• y.Jj J(r . to ./""’:ls ~ s;yoo r’ ~-~ "" .... lc

  16. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  17. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  18. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  19. Multibeam collection for NBP0401: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2004-01-19 to 2004-02-17, McMurdo Station, Antarctica to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for NBP9601: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 1996-01-28 to 1996-02-18, McMurdo Station, Antarctica to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Multibeam collection for NBP1101: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2011-01-19 to 2011-02-15, McMurdo Station, Antarctica to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for NBP0301: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2003-01-05 to 2003-01-27, McMurdo/Ice Edge, Antarctica to McMurdo/Ice Edge, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for NBP0301B: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2003-02-20 to 2003-02-22, McMurdo/Ice Edge, Antarctica to McMurdo/Ice Edge, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for NBP9801: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 1998-01-16 to 1998-02-19, McMurdo Station, Antarctica to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for NBP0301A: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2003-02-02 to 2003-02-20, McMurdo/Ice Edge, Antarctica to McMurdo/Ice Edge, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  7. Role of Biotic and Abiotic Processes on Soil CO2 Dynamics in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D. A.; Macintyre, C. M.; Lee, C.; Cary, C.; Shanhun, F.; Almond, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the harsh conditions of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, microbial activity has been recorded via measurements of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and surface efflux. However, high temporal resolution studies in the Dry Valleys have also shown that abiotic solubility-driven processes can strongly influence (and perhaps even dominate) the CO2 dynamics in these low flux environments and suggests that biological activity may be lower than previously thought. In this study, we aim to improve our understanding of CO2 dynamics (biotic and abiotic) in Antarctic Dry Valley soils using long-term automated measurements of soil CO2 surface flux and soil profile concentration at several sites, often at sub-diel frequency. We hypothesize that soil CO2 variations are driven primarily by environmental factors affecting CO2 solubility in soil solution, mainly temperature, and that these processes may even overprint biologic production in representative Dry Valley soils. Monitoring of all sites revealed only one likely biotic CO2 production event, lasting three weeks during the Austral summer and reaching fluxes of 0.4 µmol/m2/s. Under more typical low flux conditions (sampling campaigns. Subsurface CO2 monitoring and a lab-controlled Antarctic soil simulation experiment confirmed that abiotic processes are capable of dominating soil CO2 variability. Diel temperature cycles crossing the freezing boundary revealed a dual abiotic cycle of solubility cycling and gas exclusion from ice formation observed only by high temporal frequency measurements (30 min). This work demonstrates a need for a numerical model to partition the dynamic abiotic processes underlying any biotic CO2 production in order to understand potential climate-change induced increases in microbial productivity in terrestrial Antarctica.

  8. Upper Bound Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, between 1962 and 1979 (2REV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    N IC A L R EP O R T Defense Threat Reduction Agency 8725 John J. Kingman Road , MS-6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 STANDARD FORM 298 (Rev. 8/98...8725 John J. Kingman Road , Mail Stop 6201 Fort...Early Operation ..................................................................................... 5 2.2 Operations and Maintenance

  9. 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the McMurdo Volcanic Group at The Pleiades, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, R.P.; Kyle, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifteen samples from The Pleiades volcanic centre in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, were dated using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar furnace step-heating method. Ages range from 847 to 6 ka. Eight samples are <100 ka, showing that The Pleiades are very young. Three trachyte samples suggest eruptive activity started at c. 830 ka. An apparent increase in volcanic activity began at c. 100 ka, and at c. 65 ka a significant phase of cone building occurred at Mt Atlas, the largest volcanic cone at The Pleiades. At c. 45 ka, lava flows were erupted on the western flank of Mt Pleiones adjacent to Mt Atlas and near the summit of Alcyone Cone. The youngest activity (6 ± 6 ka) occurred at Taygete Cone, an endogenous dome of trachyte. The near-zero age for Taygete Cone is consistent with evidence of recent volcanism, including fresh hydrothermal activity and compositionally similar pumice lapilli scattered over parts of The Pleiades. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Upper-Bound Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, between 1962 and 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    seawater. The reactor replaced an oil boiler as the heat source for water distillation. The water distillation plant continued to use steam from the NPP...Examination of Fuel Tubes , Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH. February 28. Brown, S., 2011. Letter to Secretary of Defense concerning...Routine Uses’ published at the beginning of USN’s compilation of systems of records notices. DISCLOSURE: Voluntary. However, failure to provide the

  11. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  12. McStas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Farhi, Emmanuel; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    experiments. McStas is being actively used for the design-update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund. This paper includes an introduction to the McStas package, recent and ongoing simulation projects. Further, new features in releases McStas 1.12c and 2.0 are discussed.......The McStas neutron ray-tracing simulation package is a collaboration between Risø DTU, ILL, University of Copenhagen and the PSI. During its lifetime, McStas has evolved to become the world leading software in the area of neutron scattering simulations for instrument design, optimisation, virtual...

  13. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  14. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  15. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  16. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  17. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  18. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  19. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  20. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  1. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  2. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  3. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  4. A Haphazard Reading of McHugh and Barlow (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Replies to comments on Do haphazard reviews provide sound directions for dissemination efforts? by Eileen Gambrill and Julia H. Littell on the current authors' article The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts by Kathryn R. McHugh and David H. Barlow. In their commentary, Gambrill…

  5. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  6. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  7. McXtrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Prodi, Andrea; Baltser, Jana

    2013-01-01

    to the standard X-ray simulation software SHADOW. McXtrace is open source, licensed under the General Public License, and does not require the user to have access to any proprietary software for its operation. The structure of the software is described in detail, and various examples are given to showcase...

  8. EVALUATING CHAMBERLAIN'S, McGREGOR'S, AND McRAE'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... spine and base of skull radiographs which however have diagnostic challenges due to the complexity of the ... McGregor's and Mc Rae's using CT bone windows ... metastatic lesion were excluded from the study. RESULTS.

  9. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  10. Experience in Collaboration: McDenver at McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Clarice Sue

    2002-01-01

    The McDenver at McDonald's project provided a nontraditional, community-based teaching and learning environment for faculty and students in a health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) department and a school of nursing. Children and parents come to McDonald's, children received developmental screenings, and parents completed conferences…

  11. Alex McQueen : power

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    A. McQueeni moevälisest tegevusest. 'American Express' tellis temalt krediitkaardi kujunduse. 1998. a. suvest ajakirja 'Dazed & Confused' abitoimetaja. A. McQueen on lubanud olla Björki (Island) video kunstiline juht.

  12. Branding McJobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noppeney, Claus; Endrissat, Nada; Kärreman, Dan

    Traditionally, employer branding has been considered relevant for knowledge intensive firms that compete in a ‘war for talent’. However, the continuous rise in service sector jobs and the negative image of these so-called McJobs has motivated a trend in rebranding service work. Building on critical...... oriented branding literature, our contribution to this stream of research is twofold: We provide an empirical account of employer branding of a grocery chain, which has repeatedly been voted among the ‘100 best companies to work for’. Second, we outline the role of symbolic compensation that employees...... of employer branding....

  13. McArdle Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalla, Alfredo; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2014-01-01

    McArdle disease is arguably the paradigm of exercise intolerance in humans. This disorder is caused by inherited deficiency of myophosphorylase, the enzyme isoform that initiates glycogen breakdown in skeletal muscles. Because patients are unable to obtain energy from their muscle glycogen stores......, this disease provides an interesting model of study for exercise physiologists, allowing insight to be gained into the understanding of glycogen-dependent muscle functions. Of special interest in the field of muscle physiology and sports medicine are also some specific (if not unique) characteristics...

  14. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  15. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  16. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  17. Michel Trottier-McDonald

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. Michel Trottier-McDonald. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 79 Issue 5 November 2012 pp 1337-1340 Poster Presentations. Tau reconstruction, energy calibration and identification at ATLAS · Michel Trottier-McDonald on behalf of the ATLAS ...

  18. Nitrogen and carbon limitation of planktonic primary production and phytoplankton-bacterioplankton coupling in ponds on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, B.K.; Hawes, I.; Safi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of nutrient limitation and coupling of planktonic primary and secondary production were investigated in meltwater ponds of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using regression tree analysis and multiple regression. Phytoplankton were primaril N-limited but inorganic carbon apparently co...

  19. Micro-hole and multigrain quartz luminescence dating of Paleodeltas at Lake Fryxell, McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica), and relevance for lake history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, G.W.; Doran, P.T.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2013-01-01

    Relict (perched) lacustrine deltas around the perennially ice-covered lakes in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, imply that these lakes were up to 40 times larger in area than at present since the last glacial maximum (LGM). These deltas have been used to constrain ice-margin positions in Taylor Val...

  20. An integrated study of photochemical function and expression of a key photochemical gene (psbA) in photosynthetic communities of Lake Bonney (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kong, W.; Wei, L.; Romancová, Ingrid; Prášil, Ondřej; Morgan-Kiss, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2014), s. 293-302 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Grant - others:NSF Office of Polar Programs(US) OPP-0631659, OPP-1056396 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : photochemistry * lake Bonnney * communities Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.568, year: 2014

  1. Upper-Bound Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, between 1962 and 1979, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    using Equation 2 (DTRA, 2010, ED01): Dmonitor highest average HT TLD D = (2) where: TLDhighest = Highest TLD measurement during environmental...the processing of administrative claims or litigation. For use by Agency officials, employees, and authorized contractors . ROUTINE USES

  2. Personal care products and steroid hormones in the Antarctic coastal environment associated with two Antarctic research stations, McMurdo Station and Scott Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emnet, Philipp; Gaw, Sally; Northcott, Grant; Storey, Bryan; Graham, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are a major source of micropollutants to the aquatic environment. Despite intense research on the fate and effects of PPCPs in temperate climates, there is a paucity of data on their presence in polar environments. This study reports the presence of selected PPCPs in sewage effluents from two Antarctic research stations, the adjacent coastal seawater, sea ice, and biota. Sewage effluents contained bisphenol-A, ethinylestradiol, estrone, methyl triclosan, octylphenol, triclosan, and three UV-filters. The maximum sewage effluent concentrations of 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor, benzophenone-1, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and octylphenol exceeded concentrations previously reported. Coastal seawaters contained bisphenol-A, octylphenol, triclosan, three paraben preservatives, and four UV-filters. The sea ice contained a similar range and concentration of PPCPs as the seawater. Benzophenone-3 (preferential accumulation in clams), estradiol, ethinylestradiol, methyl paraben (preferential accumulation in fish, with concentrations correlating negatively with fillet size), octylphenol, and propyl paraben were detected in biota samples. PPCPs were detected in seawater and biota at distances up to 25 km from the research stations WWTP discharges. Sewage effluent discharges and disposal of raw human waste through sea ice cracks have been identified as sources of PPCPs to Antarctic coastal environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  4. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  5. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  6. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  7. Improving an Empirical Formula for the Absorption of Sound in the Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moll, C. A. van; Ainslie, M. A; Janmaat, J

    2008-01-01

    A new empirical formula for the absorption of sound in seawater is derived. The starting point of this investigation is the formula proposed by Ainslie and McColm for attenuation due to the boron and magnesium relaxations...

  8. Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds The Sound of Music

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchamp, James W

    2007-01-01

    Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds contains a detailed treatment of basic methods for analysis and synthesis of musical sounds, including the phase vocoder method, the McAulay-Quatieri frequency-tracking method, the constant-Q transform, and methods for pitch tracking with several examples shown. Various aspects of musical sound spectra such as spectral envelope, spectral centroid, spectral flux, and spectral irregularity are defined and discussed. One chapter is devoted to the control and synthesis of spectral envelopes. Two advanced methods of analysis/synthesis are given: "Sines Plus Transients Plus Noise" and "Spectrotemporal Reassignment" are covered. Methods for timbre morphing are given. The last two chapters discuss the perception of musical sounds based on discrimination and multidimensional scaling timbre models.

  9. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  10. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  11. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  12. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  13. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  14. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  15. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  16. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  17. MC 68020 μp architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casals, O.; Dejuan, E.; Labarta, J.

    1988-01-01

    The MC68020 is a 32-bit microprocessor object code compatible with the earlier MC68000 and MC68010. In this paper we describe its architecture and two coprocessors: the MC68851 paged memory management unit and the MC68882 floating point coprocessor. Between its most important characteristics we can point up: addressing mode extensions for enhanced support of high level languages, an on-chip instruction cache and full support of virtual memory. (Author)

  18. McStas event logger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    Functionality is added to the McStas neutron ray-tracing code, which allows individual neutron states before and after a scattering to be temporarily stored, and analysed. This logging mechanism has multiple uses, including studies of longitudinal intensity loss in neutron guides and guide coatin...

  19. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  20. NTS MC and A History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary Alice Price; Kim Young

    2008-01-01

    Within the past three and a half years, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has progressed from a Category IV to a Category I nuclear material facility. In accordance with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Administrator, NTS received shipments of large quantities of special nuclear material from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and other sites in the DOE complex. December 2004 was the first occurrence of Category I material at the NTS, with the exception of two weeks of sub-critical underground testing in 2001, since 1992. The Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) program was originally a jointlab effort by LANL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Bechtel Nevada, but in March 2006 the NNSA Nevada Site Office appointed the NTS Management and Operations contractor with sole responsibility. This paper will discuss the process and steps taken to transition the NTS MC and A program from multiple organizations to a single entity and from a Category IV to a Category I program. This transition flourished as MC and A progressed from the 2004 Office of Assessment (OA) rating of 'Significant Weakness' to the 2007 OA assessment rating of 'Effective Performance'. The paper will provide timelines, funding and staffing issues, OA assessment findings and corrective actions, and future expectations. The process has been challenging, but MC and A's innovative responses to the challenges have been very successful

  1. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  2. ExMC Technology Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, M.; Barr, Y.; Watkins, S.; Fung, P.; McGrath, T.; Baumann, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA endeavor conducted under the Human Research Program's (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focusing on ExMC technology gaps. The project involves several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASA's goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2011, the major focus areas for Tech Watch included information dissemination, education outreach and public accessibility to technology gaps and gap reports. The dissemination of information was accomplished through site visits to research laboratories and/or companies, and participation at select conferences where Tech Watch objectives and technology gaps were presented. Presentation of such material provided researchers with insights on NASA ExMC needs for space exploration and an opportunity to discuss potential areas of common interest. The second focus area, education outreach, was accomplished via two mechanisms. First, several senior student projects, each related to an ExMC technology gap, were sponsored by the various NASA centers. These projects presented ExMC related technology problems firsthand to collegiate laboratories

  3. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  4. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  5. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  6. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  7. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  8. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  9. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  10. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  11. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  12. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  13. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  14. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  15. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  16. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  17. The McDonaldization of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis, Ed.; Wynyard, Robin, Ed.

    The essays in this collection discuss the future of the university in the context of the "McDonaldization" of society and of academia. The idea of McDonaldization, a term coined by G. Ritzer (1998), provides a tool for looking at the university and its inevitable changes. The chapters are: (1) "Enchanting McUniversity: Toward a…

  18. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  19. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  20. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  1. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Seo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, You Seok; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Seok; Lee, Min Yong

    1995-12-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs.

  2. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60μA. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed

  3. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60{mu}A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed.

  4. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jong Seo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, You Seok; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Seok; Lee, Min Yong.

    1995-12-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs

  5. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  6. Sound segregation via embedded repetition is robust to inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Keiko; Barascud, Nicolas; Kashino, Makio; McDermott, Josh H; Chait, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The segregation of sound sources from the mixture of sounds that enters the ear is a core capacity of human hearing, but the extent to which this process is dependent on attention remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of attention on the ability to segregate sounds via repetition. We utilized a dual task design in which stimuli to be segregated were presented along with stimuli for a "decoy" task that required continuous monitoring. The task to assess segregation presented a target sound 10 times in a row, each time concurrent with a different distractor sound. McDermott, Wrobleski, and Oxenham (2011) demonstrated that repetition causes the target sound to be segregated from the distractors. Segregation was queried by asking listeners whether a subsequent probe sound was identical to the target. A control task presented similar stimuli but probed discrimination without engaging segregation processes. We present results from 3 different decoy tasks: a visual multiple object tracking task, a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) digit encoding task, and a demanding auditory monitoring task. Load was manipulated by using high- and low-demand versions of each decoy task. The data provide converging evidence of a small effect of attention that is nonspecific, in that it affected the segregation and control tasks to a similar extent. In all cases, segregation performance remained high despite the presence of a concurrent, objectively demanding decoy task. The results suggest that repetition-based segregation is robust to inattention. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  8. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  9. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  10. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  11. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  12. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.; Sviridova, V.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production

  13. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymotin, L. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sviridova, V. [ed.] [All-Russian Research Inst. of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-06-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

  14. Shawarmas contre McDo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles-Édouard de Suremain

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La question des identités locales et de leur articulation à la mondialisation et à la standardisation est abordée ici à partir de l’alimentation. Après avoir présenté les lieux où il est possible de manger hors de chez soi à La Paz, je m’attarderai sur les particularités du McDonald’s bolivien. Ces données permettront de suivre la genèse d’un anti-modèle alimentaire, le shawarma, qui a connu son apogée durant la « troisième guerre mondiale », la période démarrant dans la foulée des attentats du 11 septembre 2001. L’hypothèse est que les contestations identitaires dans la sphère alimentaire peuvent s’appuyer sur les logiques de la mondialisation alimentaire et s’ériger contre elle, tout en évitant les écueils de la standardisation alimentaire.Shawarmas versus Macdonald’s. Identities contesting food globalization and standardization (Bolivia Local identities and their tendency toward globalization and standardization is analyzed here with food as an example. After briefly reviewing the different places where one can eat out in La Paz, the particularities of the Bolivian McDonald’s are outlined. These data allow us to witness the birth of a food anti-model, the shawarma, which reached its pinnacle during the so-called ‘Third World War’, the period following September 11, 2001. The hypothesis is that identity contestations in the food sphere can be based on the logic of food globalization -and at the same time be constructed against them- avoiding food standardization pitfalls.

  15. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  16. Ocean Disposal of Man-Made Ice Piers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation is permitted to ocean dump man-made ice piers from its base at McMurdo Sound in Antarctica under a MPRSA general permit. Information is provided about ice piers and impacts of ice pier disposal.

  17. Multispectral Landsat images of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Bowell, J.A.; Edwards, K.L.; Eliason, E.M.; Fergurson, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a program to map Antarctica by using colored, digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner images to increase existing map coverage and to improve upon previously published Landsat maps. This report is a compilation of images and image mosaic that covers four complete and two partial 1:250,000-scale quadrangles of the McMurdo Sound region.

  18. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  19. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  20. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  1. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  2. McLetchie on mass campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, C J

    1982-01-01

    Dr. J.L. McLetchie was asked in 1963 to express his thoughts on the many aspects of mass campaigns for the historical record fro future field workers. The significance of his thoughts at that time lies in the soundness of the principles outlined, based upon field responsibility. It was from such principles that the modern strategy of community health in dveloping countries arose, which was adopted and put into practice by the World Health Organization and was presented at the Alma Ata Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978. The text is reproduced here. There should be no need to argue the need for mass campaigns under conditions as they exist at present in Africa as well as other tropical areas. Several conditions cannot be dealt with in other way, e.g., tuberculosis, malnutrition, onchocerciasis, yaws, sleeping sickness. The most essential needs are the recognition, at the highest political and administrative level, that a country's services must be balanced, with well-developed preventive, laboratory, and curative sections. To obtain and retain this balance requires strong and continous administrative action to counteract the overwhelming attraction of the curative services to young African doctors and to expatriates on short-term contracts. The preventive services divide naturally into those dealing with urban problems having a large content of environmental hygiene and those dealing with rural problems in which curative medicine plays a mojor part, i.e., mass treatment. In rural health work, the "amateur" -- the young medical officer assigned to rural duties for a period of 1-2 years -- may play a valuable part but cannot do so unless the service is well organized and has a core of "professionals," senior medical staff with considerable experience with rural problems and how to tackle them. Rural health specialists have to work closely in cooperation with other sections of the medical department, with other departments, and with local government authorities

  3. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  4. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  5. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  6. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  7. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  8. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  9. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  10. Implatation of MC2 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seehusen, J.; Nair, R.P.K.; Becceneri, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The implantation of MC2 computer code in the CDC system is presented. The MC2 computer code calculates multigroup cross sections for tipical compositions of fast reactors. The multigroup constants are calculated using solutions of PI or BI approximations for determined buckling value as weighting function. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. MC and A system design workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.; Harms, N.L.

    1984-01-01

    The workshop had as its goal the development of a Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) system for a low enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant. The factors to be considered for each of the ten key elements of the safeguards (MC and A) are presented in the text for the session

  12. McStas and Mantid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T. R.; Markvardsen, A. J.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2015-01-01

    McStas and Mantid are two well-established software frameworks within the neutron scattering community. McStas has been primarily used for simulating the neutron transport mechanisms in instruments, while Mantid has been primarily used for data reduction. We report here the status of our work don...

  13. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  14. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  15. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  16. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  17. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  18. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  19. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  20. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  1. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  2. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  3. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  4. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  5. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  6. McCune-Albright syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Michael T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS is classically defined by the clinical triad of fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD, café-au-lait skin spots, and precocious puberty (PP. It is a rare disease with estimated prevalence between 1/100,000 and 1/1,000,000. FD can involve a single or multiple skeletal sites and presents with a limp and/or pain, and, occasionally, a pathologic fracture. Scoliosis is common and may be progressive. In addition to PP (vaginal bleeding or spotting and development of breast tissue in girls, testicular and penile enlargement and precocious sexual behavior in boys, other hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies may be involved including hyperthyroidism, growth hormone excess, Cushing syndrome, and renal phosphate wasting. Café-au-lait spots usually appear in the neonatal period, but it is most often PP or FD that brings the child to medical attention. Renal involvement is seen in approximately 50% of the patients with MAS. The disease results from somatic mutations of the GNAS gene, specifically mutations in the cAMP regulating protein, Gs alpha. The extent of the disease is determined by the proliferation, migration and survival of the cell in which the mutation spontaneously occurs during embryonic development. Diagnosis of MAS is usually established on clinical grounds. Plain radiographs are often sufficient to make the diagnosis of FD and biopsy of FD lesions can confirm the diagnosis. The evaluation of patients with MAS should be guided by knowledge of the spectrum of tissues that may be involved, with specific testing for each. Genetic testing is possible, but is not routinely available. Genetic counseling, however, should be offered. Differential diagnoses include neurofibromatosis, osteofibrous dysplasia, non-ossifying fibromas, idiopathic central precocious puberty, and ovarian neoplasm. Treatment is dictated by the tissues affected, and the extent to which they are affected. Generally, some form of surgical intervention

  7. McDonald’s Corporation - 2015 (MCD)

    OpenAIRE

    Alen Badal

    2017-01-01

    McDonald’s Corporation, 2015 is aiming to enlighten the “Experience of the Future” for consumers, with a special focus on the ‘younger’ generation. Beginning in 2015 and moving forward, McDonald’s has operationalized the functions of its strategy to bett er serve consumers with such offerings as trial-testing a build-your-burger strategy with the order being served at the table, known as the “Create Your Taste” program. The restaurant chain has introduced the all-day breakfast menu and ‘McPic...

  8. The McClean Lake uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The McClean Lake Uranium Project, located in the northern part of Saskatchewan, consists of five uranium deposits, Jeb - Sue A - Sue B - Sue C - McClean, scattered in three different locations on the mineral lease. On 16 March 1995, COGEMA Resources Inc and its partners, Denison Mines Ltd and OURD (Canada) Co Ltd, made the formal decision to develop the McClean Lake Project. Construction of the mine and mill started during summer 1995 and should be finished by mid 1997. Mining of the first deposit, Jeb started in 1996, ore being currently mined. The start of the yellowcake production is scheduled to start this fall. (author)

  9. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  10. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  11. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  12. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  13. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  14. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  15. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  16. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  17. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  18. Fast Food McDonald's China Fix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since the opening of its first outlet 16 years ago, McDonald's China operation has on many levels proven enormously successful.Home to more than 750 locations nationwide, the Middle Kingdom today ranks as one of McDonald's ten largest markets,with returns hovering in doubles digits and raking in billions annually. As lucrative as it may be, however, China has nonetheless developed into a relative sore spot for the world's leading fast food giant.

  19. Henry P. McKean Jr. selecta

    CERN Document Server

    Moerbeke, Pierre; Moll, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers by Henry P. McKean, which illustrate the various areas in mathematics in which he has made seminal contributions. Topics covered include probability theory, integrable systems, geometry and financial mathematics. Each paper represents a contribution by Prof. McKean, either alone or together with other researchers, that has had a profound influence in the respective area.

  20. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  1. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  2. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  3. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  4. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  5. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  6. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  7. Corporate communication or McCommunication? Considering a McDonaldization of corporate communication hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay the perspective of Ritzer's McDonaldization of Society Thesis is the starting point for developing hypotheses about corporate communication (CorpCom). The central idea of McDonaldization is that increasing numbers of organizations are run as fast food restaurants, focusing on:

  8. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  9. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  10. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  11. ERSN-OpenMC, a Java-based GUI for OpenMC Monte Carlo code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar EL Bakkali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OpenMC is a new Monte Carlo transport particle simulation code focused on solving two types of neutronic problems mainly the k-eigenvalue criticality fission source problems and external fixed fission source problems. OpenMC does not have any Graphical User Interface and the creation of one is provided by our java-based application named ERSN-OpenMC. The main feature of this application is to provide to the users an easy-to-use and flexible graphical interface to build better and faster simulations, with less effort and great reliability. Additionally, this graphical tool was developed with several features, as the ability to automate the building process of OpenMC code and related libraries as well as the users are given the freedom to customize their installation of this Monte Carlo code. A full description of the ERSN-OpenMC application is presented in this paper.

  12. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  13. The MC4 receptor and control of appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, R. A. H.; Tiesjema, B.; Hillebrand, J. J. G.; La Fleur, S. E.; Kas, M. J. H.; de Krom, M.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the human melanocortin (MC)4 receptor have been associated with obesity, which underscores the relevance of this receptor as a drug target to treat obesity. Infusion of MC4R agonists decreases food intake, whereas inhibition of MC receptor activity by infusion of an MC receptor

  14. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  15. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  16. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  17. ATLAS Monte Carlo tunes for MC09

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the ATLAS tunes of underlying event and minimum bias description for the main Monte Carlo generators used in the MC09 production. For the main shower generators, pythia and herwig (with jimmy), the MRST LO* parton distribution functions (PDFs) were used for the first time in ATLAS. Special studies on the performance of these, conceptually new, PDFs for high pt physics processes at LHC energies are presented. In addition, a tune of jimmy for CTEQ6.6 is presented, for use with MC@NLO.

  18. Is McMurray′s osteotomy obsolete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaltankar P

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of the method of performing, advantages, disadvantages of McMurray′s displacement osteotomy with regard to treatment of nonunion of transcervical fracture neck femur with viable femoral head was carried out in this study of ten cases, in view of the abandonment of the procedure in favour of angulation osteotomy. Good results obtained in the series attest to the usefulness of McMurray′s osteotomy in the difficult problem of nonunion of transcervical fracture neck femur in well selected cases with certain advantages over the angulation osteotomy due to the ′Armchair effect′.

  19. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  20. McGraw-Hill: Filmstrips, Records, 8mm Film Loops, Transparencies, Globegraphic System for Elementary Grades, Junior & Senior High School, College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw-Hill Films, New York, NY.

    This catalog lists audiovisual aids available from McGraw-Hill, with prices for individual items and for sets. Approximately 250 series of filmstrips are listed under subject headings. About half of these are intended for elementary schools use, and half are intended for secondary sch ols and colleges. Some filmstrips come with sound recordings,…

  1. 75 FR 27286 - McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... range allotment management planning on the McKelvie Geographic Area, Samuel R. McKelvie National Forest... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie National Forest, Bessey Ranger District in Nebraska AGENCY: Forest...

  2. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  3. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  4. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  5. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  6. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  7. Improved algorithms and advanced features of the CAD to MC conversion tool McCad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The latest improvements of the McCad conversion approach including decomposition and void filling algorithms is presented. •An advanced interface for the materials editing and assignment has been developed and added to the McCAD GUI. •These improvements have been tested and successfully applied to DEMO and ITER NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) applications. •The performance of the CAD model conversion process is shown to be significantly improved. -- Abstract: McCad is a geometry conversion tool developed at KIT to enable the automatic bi-directional conversions of CAD models into the Monte Carlo (MC) geometries utilized for neutronics calculations (CAD to MC) and, reversed (MC to CAD), for visualization purposes. The paper presents the latest improvements of the conversion algorithms including improved decomposition, void filling and an advanced interface for the materials editing and assignment. The new implementations and features were tested on fusion neutronics applications to the DEMO and ITER NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) models. The results demonstrate greater stability and enhanced efficiency of McCad conversion process

  8. Metal ion-mediated agonism and agonist enhancement in melanocortin MC1 and MC4 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Elling, Christian E; Schwartz, Thue W

    2002-01-01

    -melanocortin stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the MC1 and MC4 receptors, respectively. In the presence of peptide agonist, Zn(II) acted as an enhancer on both receptors, because it shifted the dose-response curves to the left: most pronounced was a 6-fold increase in alpha-MSH potency on the MC1 receptor. The effect......An endogenous metal-ion site in the melanocortin MC1 and MC4 receptors was characterized mainly in transiently transfected COS-7 cells. ZnCl(2) alone stimulated signaling through the Gs pathway with a potency of 11 and 13 microm and an efficacy of 50 and 20% of that of alpha...... affinities and profiles were similar for a number of the 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline analogs in complex with Zn(II) in the MC1 and MC4 receptors. However, the potencies and efficacies of the metal-ion complexes were very different in the two receptors, and close to full agonism was obtained...

  9. Multibeam collection for NBP0701: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2006-12-22 to 2007-01-28, Lyttelton, New Zealand to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for NBP0803: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2008-02-22 to 2008-03-13, McMurdo Station, Antarctica to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for NBP9501: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 1995-02-07 to 1995-03-13, McMurdo Station, Antarctica to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for NBP9902: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 1999-02-12 to 1999-03-25, McMurdo Station, Antarctica to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for NBP9407: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 1994-12-29 to 1995-02-04, Lyttelton, New Zealand to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for NBP1201: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2011-12-24 to 2012-02-11, Punta Arenas, Chile to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. The McDonaldization of Academic Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the McDonaldization thesis that suggests that many aspects of the fast food industry are making their way into other areas of society. Explores whether this thesis is applicable to academic libraries, focusing on efficiency, calculability, predictability, control, user expectations, pros and cons of teams, and creativity and information…

  16. Nancy McCormick Rambusch: A Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povell, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    Fall of 2005 marks the 12th anniversary of Nancy McCormick Rambusch's death. As the founder of the American Montessori Society and as its first president, Rambusch reintroduced Maria Montessori to America at a time--1960--when education for the young was floundering, and a second look at the Montessori method, which had changed the early childhood…

  17. Physical training for McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinlivan, Rosaline; Vissing, John; Hilton-Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    McArdle disease is a rare metabolic myopathy caused by a complete absence of the enzyme muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Affected people experience symptoms of fatigue and cramping within minutes of exercise and are at risk for acute muscle injury (rhabdomyolysis) and acute renal failure. If the fi...

  18. Lucky Mc Uranium Mill. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Environmental Impact Statement addressed the following: the existing environment; operations; environmental impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs and other mitigating measures; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relationship between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; alternatives; and NRC benefit-cost summary for the Lucky Mc Mill

  19. McDonald's vs Father Christmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Dave; Simpson, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Mathematics in textbooks and indeed in conventional classrooms is often presented as exercises or worksheets in which the mathematics itself has been processed into a form that is easily digested. This McDonald's version of mathematics ensures that the mathematical skill or technique is laid bare and typically the sole focus of attention. In this…

  20. McDonald's Recipe for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Who isn't familiar with McDonald's? Its golden arches are among the most recognizable brand icons in the U.S. What many are less familiar with is the methodical and distinguished learning and development that supports that brand. Training that begins by preparing employees to serve customers at the counter, and extends to programs that help…

  1. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  2. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  3. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  4. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  5. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  6. Soil classification using CPTu in Fort McMurray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbanna, M. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Nanaimo, BC (Canada); El Sabbagh, M. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Sharp, J. [ConeTec Investigations Ltd., Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluated 4 piezocone penetration testing (CPTu) classification methods using data from 3 different sites near Fort McMurray in northern Alberta. For comparative purposes, other in-situ tests, field observations, and laboratory tests were performed at all sites in close proximity to the CPTu soundings. The study evaluated pleistocene sand and sand till deposits with low fines content. Profiling these deposits is necessary because they are often used as filler material for earth retaining structures in many oilsands projects. The study also evaluated pleistocene clay and clay tills that are often used as low permeability material for seepage control. In thick layers, pleistocene clay is known to cause foundation problems. CPTu with dissipation data was shown to be a useful tool in geotechnical engineering practice to provide near continuous soil profiling and material properties. CPTu tip resistance and sleeve friction combined with pore pressure measurement provided useful evaluation of subsurface soil types. It was concluded that although all of the CPTu classification charts provided reasonable soil classification in typical soil conditions, local experience and understanding of soil behaviour is needed to make an appropriate selection of the most applicable charts in a given geological condition. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  7. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  8. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  9. Audiovisual plasticity following early abnormal visual experience: Reduced McGurk effect in people with one eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Stefania S; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2018-04-13

    Previously, we have shown that people who have had one eye surgically removed early in life during visual development have enhanced sound localization [1] and lack visual dominance, commonly observed in binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls [2]. Despite these changes, people with one eye integrate auditory and visual components of multisensory events optimally [3]. The current study investigates how people with one eye perceive the McGurk effect, an audiovisual illusion where a new syllable is perceived when visual lip movements do not match the corresponding sound [4]. We compared individuals with one eye to binocular and monocular viewing controls and found that they have a significantly smaller McGurk effect compared to binocular controls. Additionally, monocular controls tended to perceive the McGurk effect less often than binocular controls suggesting a small transient modulation of the McGurk effect. These results suggest altered weighting of the auditory and visual modalities with both short and long-term monocular viewing. These results indicate the presence of permanent adaptive perceptual accommodations in people who have lost one eye early in life that may serve to mitigate the loss of binocularity during early brain development. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Age McCanni büroo = Offices of Age McCann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Rotermanni 8 asuva Age McCanni büroo sisekujundusest. Sisekujunduse autorid: sisearhitekt Kerli Valk (Kukuhaus OÜ) ja arhitekt Tomomi Hayashi (HG Arhitektuur OÜ), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu

  11. Hydrologic Process Parameterization of Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Solute Plumes Using POD McMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awatey, M. T.; Irving, J.; Oware, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) inversion frameworks are becoming increasingly popular in geophysics due to their ability to recover multiple equally plausible geologic features that honor the limited noisy measurements. Standard McMC methods, however, become computationally intractable with increasing dimensionality of the problem, for example, when working with spatially distributed geophysical parameter fields. We present a McMC approach based on a sparse proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) model parameterization that implicitly incorporates the physics of the underlying process. First, we generate training images (TIs) via Monte Carlo simulations of the target process constrained to a conceptual model. We then apply POD to construct basis vectors from the TIs. A small number of basis vectors can represent most of the variability in the TIs, leading to dimensionality reduction. A projection of the starting model into the reduced basis space generates the starting POD coefficients. At each iteration, only coefficients within a specified sampling window are resimulated assuming a Gaussian prior. The sampling window grows at a specified rate as the number of iteration progresses starting from the coefficients corresponding to the highest ranked basis to those of the least informative basis. We found this gradual increment in the sampling window to be more stable compared to resampling all the coefficients right from the first iteration. We demonstrate the performance of the algorithm with both synthetic and lab-scale electrical resistivity imaging of saline tracer experiments, employing the same set of basis vectors for all inversions. We consider two scenarios of unimodal and bimodal plumes. The unimodal plume is consistent with the hypothesis underlying the generation of the TIs whereas bimodality in plume morphology was not theorized. We show that uncertainty quantification using McMC can proceed in the reduced dimensionality space while accounting for the

  12. McClean Lake. Site Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    Located over 700 kilometers northeast of Saskatoon, Areva's McClean Lake site is comprised of several uranium mines and one of the most technologically advanced uranium mills in the world - the only mill designed to process high-grade uranium ore without dilution. Areva has operated several open-pit uranium mines at the McClean Lake site, and is evaluating future mines at and near the site. The McClean Lake mill has recently undergone a multimillion-dollar upgrade and expansion, which has doubled its annual production capacity of uranium concentrate to 24 million pounds. It is the only facility in the world capable of processing high-grade uranium ore without diluting it. The mill processes the ore from the Cigar Lake mine, the world's second largest and highest-grade uranium mine. The McClean Lake site operates 365 days a year on a week-in/week-out rotation schedule for workers, over 50% of whom reside in northern Saskatchewan communities. Tailings are waste products resulting from milling uranium ore. This waste is made up of leach residue solids, waste solutions and chemical precipitates that are carefully engineered for long-term disposal. The TMF serves as the repository for all resulting tailings. This facility allows proper waste management, which minimizes potential adverse environmental effects. Mining projections indicate that the McClean Lake mill will produce tailings in excess of the existing capacity of the TMF. After evaluating a number of options, Areva has decided to pursue an expansion of this facility. Areva is developing the Surface Access Borehole Resource Extraction (SABRE) mining method, which uses a high-pressure water jet placed at the bottom of the drill hole to extract ore. Areva has conducted a series of tests with this method and is evaluating its potential for future mining operations. McClean Lake maintains its certification in ISO 14001 standards for environmental management and OHSAS 18001 standards for occupational health

  13. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  14. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  15. McSustainability and McJustice: Certification, Alternative Food and Agriculture, and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hatanaka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative food and agriculture movements increasingly rely on market-based approaches, particularly voluntary standards and certification, to advance environmental sustainability and social justice. Using a case study of an ecological shrimp project in Indonesia that became certified organic, this paper raises concerns regarding the impacts of certification on alternative food and agriculture movements, and their aims of furthering sustainability and justice. Drawing on George Ritzer’s McDonaldization framework, I argue that the ecological shrimp project became McDonaldized with the introduction of voluntary standards and certification. Specifically, efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control became key characteristics of the shrimp project. While the introduction of such characteristics increased market access, it also entailed significant costs, including an erosion of trust and marginalization and alienation of farmers. Given such tradeoffs, in concluding I propose that certification is producing particular forms of environmental sustainability and social justice, what I term McSustainability and McJustice. While enabling the expansion of alternative food and agriculture, McSustainability and McJustice tend to allow little opportunity for farmer empowerment and food sovereignty, as well as exclude aspects of sustainable farming or ethical production that are not easily measured, standardized, and validated.

  16. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  17. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  18. Evaluation of MC and A detection time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.W.; Thomas, N.M.

    1984-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has proposed reform of the material control and accounting (MC and A) requirements for facilities authorized to possess and use formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM). The purpose of the reform is to strengthen MC and A capabilities by requiring more timely detection of possible SSNM losses and by providing for more rapid and conclusive resolution of discrepancies. This study was conducted to identify the advantages and disadvantages of detection time intervals ranging from one day to two weeks. Material loss tests based on existing process monitoring data are used to compare the detection sensitiviy, alarm frequency, resolution capability and effort to collect and process data for the stipulated range of detection times. 15 references, 4 figures, 12 tables

  19. McGuire snubber elimination program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, R.L.; Leung, J.S.M.; Taylor, W.H.; Morgan, R.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An engineering program has been initiated at McGuire Nuclear Stations 1 and 2 to eliminate all existing snubbers. The elimination is achieved by replacing existing snubbers with limit stop pipe supports. The program establishes plant-wide modification procedures for one-to-one substitution under the 10 CFR 50.59 requirement. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) acceptance is based on the results of both comparison analyses and the hardware implementation of sample piping systems at McGuire nuclear stations. Experimental results obtained on shake table testing and from the NRC sponsored HDR research program are also used to formulate the technical basis and design procedures for plant-wide implementation of the snubber replacement effort. The overall program plan is for nearly 3,000 snubbers to be replaced in phases consistent with the plant scheduled outages. Duke Power estimates the program, when completed, will maintain ALARA, improve reliability, and reduce plant operating costs

  20. The MC21 Monte Carlo Transport Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton TM; Donovan TJ; Trumbull TH; Dobreff PS; Caro E; Griesheimer DP; Tyburski LJ; Carpenter DC; Joo H

    2007-01-01

    MC21 is a new Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code currently under joint development at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. MC21 is the Monte Carlo transport kernel of the broader Common Monte Carlo Design Tool (CMCDT), which is also currently under development. The vision for CMCDT is to provide an automated, computer-aided modeling and post-processing environment integrated with a Monte Carlo solver that is optimized for reactor analysis. CMCDT represents a strategy to push the Monte Carlo method beyond its traditional role as a benchmarking tool or ''tool of last resort'' and into a dominant design role. This paper describes various aspects of the code, including the neutron physics and nuclear data treatments, the geometry representation, and the tally and depletion capabilities

  1. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  2. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  3. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  4. Modelling hadronic interactions in HEP MC generators

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2015-01-01

    HEP event generators aim to describe high-energy collisions in full exclusive detail. They combine perturbative matrix elements and parton showers with dynamical models of less well-understood phenomena such as hadronization, diffraction, and the so-called underlying event. We briefly summarise some of the main concepts relevant to the modelling of soft/inclusive hadron interactions in MC generators, in particular PYTHIA, with emphasis on questions recently highlighted by LHC data.

  5. McDonaldization and Job Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Emeka W. Dumbili

    2013-01-01

    The article examines how and why the McDonaldization of banking system in Nigeria engenders job insecurity. This is imperative because it provides an explicit revelation of the root causes of job insecurity in the sector that other scholars have totally omitted. No Nigerian scholar has applied the thesis in relation to job insecurity, which is the major problem in Nigeria’s banking industry. The article based on the an...

  6. McDonaldization and Job Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka W. Dumbili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how and why the McDonaldization of banking system in Nigeria engenders job insecurity. This is imperative because it provides an explicit revelation of the root causes of job insecurity in the sector that other scholars have totally omitted. No Nigerian scholar has applied the thesis in relation to job insecurity, which is the major problem in Nigeria’s banking industry. The article based on the analysis of secondary data and observations, therefore, draws on McDonaldization thesis to examine the upsurge of rationalization in the sector since consolidation exercise began in 2005. The article argues that the sector’s rising rationalization and ensuing efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control are necessary. However, these have inevitably engendered job insecurity and its adverse consequences. Based on the critical analyses of available evidence, the article concludes that the best option is to commence resistance of the McDonaldization processes, especially those that replace human with nonhuman technology or make customers unpaid workers.

  7. McDonald’s Corporation - 2015 (MCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Badal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available McDonald’s Corporation, 2015 is aiming to enlighten the “Experience of the Future” for consumers, with a special focus on the ‘younger’ generation. Beginning in 2015 and moving forward, McDonald’s has operationalized the functions of its strategy to bett er serve consumers with such offerings as trial-testing a build-your-burger strategy with the order being served at the table, known as the “Create Your Taste” program. The restaurant chain has introduced the all-day breakfast menu and ‘McPick 2’ for $5.00. Additionally, the company has engaged consumers by way of social media and is interested in having a smart phone application in use. Other roll-outs include processing transactions by way of mobile-payment with such channels as ‘Google Wallet, Soft card and Apple Pay.’ The fast-food giant continues to test a variety of strategies at select locations aimed at increasing shareholder value as a result of both introducing and modifying the point-of-sale services and food & beverage offerings¹.

  8. Improving queuing service at McDonald's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Wong, Chin Keat; Lim, Hooi Kie; Migin, Melissa W.

    2014-07-01

    Fast food restaurants are popular among price-sensitive youths and working adults who value the conducive environment and convenient services. McDonald's chains of restaurants promote their sales during lunch hours by offering package meals which are perceived to be inexpensive. These promotional lunch meals attract good response, resulting in occasional long queues and inconvenient waiting times. A study is conducted to monitor the distribution of waiting time, queue length, customer arrival and departure patterns at a McDonald's restaurant located in Kuala Lumpur. A customer survey is conducted to gauge customers' satisfaction regarding waiting time and queue length. An android app named Que is developed to perform onsite queuing analysis and report key performance indices. The queuing theory in Que is based upon the concept of Poisson distribution. In this paper, Que is utilized to perform queuing analysis at this McDonald's restaurant with the aim of improving customer service, with particular reference to reducing queuing time and shortening queue length. Some results will be presented.

  9. The McDonaldization of Nigerian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka W. Dumbili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the extent to which the deregulation of Nigerian higher education (HE has facilitated the McDonaldization of the universities. University education in Nigeria commenced in 1948 with the establishment of the University College, Ibadan. After independence in 1960, subsequent governments expanded the number of universities, a policy based on a lack of quality manpower in leadership positions created by the exit of British officials and the need to grant access to an increasing number of prospective students. In the 1970s, the number of universities increased accompanied by a decline in infrastructure, funding, and working conditions. This resulted in several strikes and an exodus of academics to other countries. Instead of tackling the problems, the federal government shifted responsibilities by approving private ownership of universities in 1999 and by establishing the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN in 2001. Against this backdrop, this article critically analyzes how some of these reforms facilitated the McDonaldization of Nigerian universities. The article reveals how this has resulted in an overloading of responsibilities on the faculty, erosion of academic autonomy, a prioritization of quantity over quality of publications, and an assumption of “customer” status by students. The article uses evidence from McDonaldized HE in Western countries to discuss the implications of these developments and suggests some remedial measures.

  10. A neurally inspired musical instrument classification system based upon the sound onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Michael J; Smith, Leslie S

    2012-06-01

    Physiological evidence suggests that sound onset detection in the auditory system may be performed by specialized neurons as early as the cochlear nucleus. Psychoacoustic evidence shows that the sound onset can be important for the recognition of musical sounds. Here the sound onset is used in isolation to form tone descriptors for a musical instrument classification task. The task involves 2085 isolated musical tones from the McGill dataset across five instrument categories. A neurally inspired tone descriptor is created using a model of the auditory system's response to sound onset. A gammatone filterbank and spiking onset detectors, built from dynamic synapses and leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, create parallel spike trains that emphasize the sound onset. These are coded as a descriptor called the onset fingerprint. Classification uses a time-domain neural network, the echo state network. Reference strategies, based upon mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, evaluated either over the whole tone or only during the sound onset, provide context to the method. Classification success rates for the neurally-inspired method are around 75%. The cepstral methods perform between 73% and 76%. Further testing with tones from the Iowa MIS collection shows that the neurally inspired method is considerably more robust when tested with data from an unrelated dataset.

  11. Official portrait of Astronaut Ronald E. McNair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Official portrait of Astronaut Ronald E. McNair. McNair is in the blue shuttle flight suit, standing in front of a table which holds a model of the Space Shuttle. An American flag is visible behind him.

  12. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  13. Manual del McVCO 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  14. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  15. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  16. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  17. α-Skew π-McCoy Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Abduldaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of α-skew McCoy rings, we introduce the concept of α-skew π-McCoy rings, and we study the relationships with another two new generalizations, α-skew π1-McCoy rings and α-skew π2-McCoy rings, observing the relations with α-skew McCoy rings, π-McCoy rings, α-skew Armendariz rings, π-regular rings, and other kinds of rings. Also, we investigate conditions such that α-skew π1-McCoy rings imply α-skew π-McCoy rings and α-skew π2-McCoy rings. We show that in the case where R is a nonreduced ring, if R is 2-primal, then R is an α-skew π-McCoy ring. And, let R be a weak (α,δ-compatible ring; if R is an α-skew π1-McCoy ring, then R is α-skew π2-McCoy.

  18. Barbara McClintock, Jumping Genes, and Transposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock Honored * Woman of Science * Educational Material * Resources with Additional Information Barbara McClintock's remarkable life spanned the history of genetics in the twentieth century. ... [T]he science of Dedicate Famous Scientist Stamps ... Woman of Science: McClintock, Barbara and the Jumping Genes, 4,000

  19. Occurrence of the Microcystins MC-LW and MC-LF in Dutch Surface Waters and Their Contribution to Total Microcystin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth J. Faassen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are the most frequently found cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems. Many MC variants have been identified and variants differ in their toxicity. Recent studies showed that the variants MC-LW and MC-LF might be more toxic than MC-LR, the variant that is most abundant and mostly used for risk assessments. As little is known about the presence of these two variants in The Netherlands, we determined their occurrence by analyzing 88 water samples and 10 scum samples for eight MC variants ((dm-7-MC-RR, MC-YR, (dm-7-MC-LR, MC-LY, MC-LW and MC-LF by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. All analyzed MC variants were detected, and MC-LW and/or MC-LF were present in 32% of the MC containing water samples. When MC-LW and MC-LF were present, they contributed to nearly 10% of the total MC concentrations, but due to their suspected high toxicity, their average contribution to the total MC toxicity was estimated to be at least 45%. Given the frequent occurrence and possible high toxicity of MC-LW and MC-LF, it seems better to base health risk assessments on the toxicity contributions of different MC variants than on MC-LR concentrations alone.

  20. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  1. The Effects of Spatial Diversity and Imperfect Channel Estimation on Wideband MC-DS-CDMA and MC-CDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In our previous work, we compared the theoretical bit error rates of multi-carrier direct sequence code division multiple access (MC- DS - CDMA ) and...consider only those cases where MC- CDMA has higher frequency diversity than MC- DS - CDMA . Since increases in diversity yield diminishing gains, we conclude

  2. McUniversities Revisited: A Comparison of University and McDonald's Casual Employee Experiences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Andrew; Ryan, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The McDonaldization of higher education refers to the transformation of universities from knowledge generators to rational service organizations or "McUniversities". This is reflected in the growing dependence on a casualized academic workforce. The article explores the extent to which the McDonaldization thesis applies to universities…

  3. Entrevista com Eric McLuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLuhan, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshall McLuhan faria 100 anos em 2011. Para marcar esta data, que já provocou uma recente revisitação à obra do teórico, o XI Seminário Internacional da Comunicação, promovido pela PUCRS, destacou temas como as relações do homem com as tecnologias e os efeitos psicológicos das mídias para nortear às discussões dos três dias de evento. Mas se engana que acredita que entender a obra mcluhiana é tarefa fácil. Mesmo tendo se dedicado com afinco a explicar metáforas como ‘o meio é a mensagem’ e ‘aldeia global’, McLuhan nunca chegou a ser completamente entendido. Ou as pessoas não sedavam ao trabalho de entendê-lo, ou, simplesmente, não conseguiam enxergar as mudanças que estavam acontecendo com a mesma clareza que o pesquisador. Numa tentativa não só de entender a obra do ‘profeta da globalização’, mas de ampliar os entendimentos sobre as tecnologias e as extensões do homem, Eric McLuhan, filho do teórico, participou como palestrante do Seminário para falar, entre outros assuntos, da percepção acadêmica quanto a obra de seu pai, além de introduzir novas ideias sobre televisão, globalização e ecologia

  4. MC++ and a transport physics framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Cummings, J.C.; Nolen, S.D.; Keen, N.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy has launched the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) to address a pressing need for more comprehensive computer simulation capabilities in the area of nuclear weapons safety and reliability. In light of the decision by the US Government to abandon underground nuclear testing, the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program is focused on using computer modeling to assure the continued safety and effectiveness of the nuclear stockpile. The authors believe that the utilization of object-oriented design and programming techniques can help in this regard. Object-oriented programming (OOP) has become a popular model in the general software community for several reasons. MC++ is a specific ASCI-relevant application project which demonstrates the effectiveness of the object-oriented approach. It is a Monte Carlo neutron transport code written in C++. It is designed to be simple yet flexible, with the ability to quickly introduce new numerical algorithms or representations of the physics into the code. MC++ is easily ported to various types of Unix workstations and parallel computers such as the three new ASCI platforms, largely because it makes extensive use of classes from the Parallel Object-Oriented Methods and Applications (POOMA) C++ class library. The MC++ code has been successfully benchmarked using some simple physics test problems, has been shown to provide comparable serial performance and a parallel efficiency superior to that of a well-known Monte Carlo neutronics package written in Fortran, and was the first ASCI-relevant application to run in parallel on all three ASCI computing platforms

  5. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  6. Interview with Harold McGee

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín

    2016-01-01

    Harold McGee was born on the East coast of America but grew up in Chicago. He writes about the chemistry of food and cooking. He took up this odd vocation after studies at the California Institute of Technology and at Yale University, where he wrote a doctoral thesis with the prophetic title "Keats and the Progress of Taste." After several years as a literature and writing instructor at Yale, he decided to practice what he'd been teaching, and write a book about the science of everyday life. ...

  7. Physical training for McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinlivan, Rosaline; Vissing, John; Hilton-Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    McArdle disease is a rare metabolic myopathy caused by a complete absence of the enzyme muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Affected people experience symptoms of fatigue and cramping within minutes of exercise and are at risk for acute muscle injury (rhabdomyolysis) and acute renal failure. If the fi....... If the first few minutes of exercise are paced, a 'second wind' will occur enabling exercise to continue. This is due to mobilisation and utilisation of alternative fuel substrates. Aerobic training appears to improve work capacity by increasing cardiovascular fitness....

  8. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  9. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  10. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  11. Mobile sound: media art in hybrid spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The thesis explores the relationships between sound and mobility through an examination\\ud of sound art. The research engages with the intersection of sound, mobility and\\ud art through original empirical work and theoretically through a critical engagement with\\ud sound studies. In dialogue with the work of De Certeau, Lefebvre, Huhtamo and Habermas\\ud in terms of the poetics of walking, rhythms, media archeology and questions of\\ud publicness, I understand sound art as an experimental mobil...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  13. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  14. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  15. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  16. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  17. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  18. McJobs and Pieces of Flair: Linking McDonaldization to Alienating Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Linda Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article offers strategies for teaching about rationality, bureaucracy, and social change using George Ritzer's "The McDonaldization of Society" and its ideas about efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control. Student learning is facilitated using a series of strategies: making the familiar strange, explaining…

  19. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  20. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  1. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  2. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  3. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  5. Workshop for development of formal MC and A plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Hatcher, C.R.; Scott, S.C.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    Upgrades to both physical protection and material controls and accountability (MC and A) are progressing at many nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation. In general, Russian facilities are well prepared to address issues related to physical protection. The infrastructure to plan and implement physical protection upgrades is already in place in Russia. The infrastructure to integrate new and existing MC and A capabilities is not as well developed. The authors experience has shown that working with Russian facility management and technical personnel to draft an MC and A plan provides a way of moving MC and A upgrades forward. Los Alamos has developed a workshop for Russian nuclear facilities to facilitate the preparation of their facility MC and A plans. The workshops have been successful in bringing together facility management, safeguards specialists, and operations personnel to initiate the process of drafting these MC and A plans. The MC and A plans provide the technical basis for scheduling future MC and A upgrades at the facilities. Although facility MC and A plans are site specific, the workshop can be tailored to guide the development of an MC and A plan for any Russian nuclear site

  6. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dBA and their left ear was exposed 4.6 dB more than the right ear. Percussionists were exposed to high sound peaks >115 dBC but less continuous sound exposure was observed in this group. Musicians were exposed up to LAeq8h of 92 dB and a majority of musicians were exposed to sound levels exceeding......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  7. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  8. MC3D modelling of stratified explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picchi, S.; Berthoud, G.

    1999-01-01

    It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)

  9. Supernova observations at McDonald Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The programs to obtain high quality spectra and photometry of supernovae at McDonald Observatory are reviewed. Spectra of recent Type I supernovae in NGC 3227, NGC 3625, and NGC 4419 are compared with those of SN 1981b in NGC 4536 to quantitatively illustrate both the homogeneity of Type I spectra at similar epochs and the differences in detail which will serve as a probe of the physical processes in the explosions. Spectra of the recent supernova in NGC 0991 give for the first time quantitative confirmation of a spectrally homogeneous, but distinct subclass of Type I supernovae which appears to be less luminous and to have lower excitation at maximum light than classical Type I supernovae

  10. DWH MC 252: Subsurface Oil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle-Krause, C. J.; Boyer, T.; Murray, D.

    2010-12-01

    Before reaching the ocean surface, the oil and gas released from the DWH MC 252 blowout at 1500 m moves as a buoyant plume until the trapping depth and plume transition point are reached (Zheng et al 2002). At the transition point, the oil droplets and bubbles move independently of each other, and rise at a rate related to their diameter. The oil density, droplet size distribution and currents primarily determine the distribution of the oil between: Large droplets that rise quickly and create a surface expression of the oil. Moderate size droplets that rise over the course of days, and so spread out quite differently than the surface oil, and commonly do not reach the surface in large enough quantities to create a surface sheen. These droplets separate in the currents, particularly in the strong current shear in upper 500 m currents. Very tiny droplets that rise very slowly, over the course or weeks to months, and may be removed by dissolution, biodegradation or marine snow before ever reaching the surface. Modeling and observations (Joint Analysis Group, 2010) confirm the presence of a deep layer of oil and gas between approximately 1100 and 1300 m over the release location and spreading out along the isopycnal surfaces. Later in the event, a small oxygen depression was a proxy for where oil and gas had been. The DWH MC252 well is located at intermediate depth in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The water mass is Antarctic Intermediate Water, which enters and exits the GoM through the Yucatan Straits. Surface influences, such as Loop Current Frontal Eddies (e.g. Berger et al 2000) can reach down to these depths, and alter the flow within De Soto Canyon. The water mass containing the deep layer of oil droplets changes depth within the GoM, but does not reach above a depth of about 900 m. There are no physical processes that could cause this deep layer of oil to reach the continental shelf or the Florida Straits. Observed and historical hydrographic data, observations

  11. MC3D modelling of stratified explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picchi, S.; Berthoud, G. [DTP/SMTH/LM2, CEA, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1999-07-01

    It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)

  12. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  13. Molecular evidence for cryptic species among the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii and Trematomus hansoni

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bernardi, G.; Goswami, U.

    the Antarctic Peninsula and the individuals from McMurdo Sound. This one substitution was carefully checked by repeated sequencing on both strands and will be the subject of further investigation as it may reveal population differences. Ten substitutions... at the juvenile stage, and extreme care should be taken in using young individuals. In the case of sequencing errors, most of the time these turn out to be apomorphies and result in unusual branch lengths but rarely alter phylogenetic relationships. However...

  14. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  15. Sound Stories for General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2013-01-01

    Language and music literacy share a similar process of understanding that progresses from sensory experience to symbolic representation. The author identifies Bruner’s modes of understanding as they relate to using narrative in the music classroom to enhance music reading at iconic and symbolic levels. Two sound stories are included for…

  16. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  17. Intercepting a sound without vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Visual information is extremely important to generate internal spatial representations. In the auditory modality, the absence of visual cues during early infancy does not preclude the development of some spatial strategies. However, specific spatial abilities might result impaired. In the current study, we investigated the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability to localize static and moving auditory stimuli by comparing sighted and early blind individuals’ performance in different spatial tasks. We also examined perceptual stability in the two groups of participants by matching localization accuracy in a static and a dynamic head condition that involved rotational head movements. Sighted participants accurately localized static and moving sounds. Their localization ability remained unchanged after rotational movements of the head. Conversely, blind participants showed a leftward bias during the localization of static sounds and a little bias for moving sounds. Moreover, head movements induced a significant bias in the direction of head motion during the localization of moving sounds. These results suggest that internal spatial representations might be body-centered in blind individuals and that in sighted people the availability of visual cues during early infancy may affect sensory-motor interactions. PMID:28481939

  18. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  19. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  20. Auditory-visual speech integration by prelinguistic infants: perception of an emergent consonant in the McGurk effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Denis; Dodd, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The McGurk effect, in which auditory [ba] dubbed onto [ga] lip movements is perceived as "da" or "tha," was employed in a real-time task to investigate auditory-visual speech perception in prelingual infants. Experiments 1A and 1B established the validity of real-time dubbing for producing the effect. In Experiment 2, 4 1/2-month-olds were tested in a habituation-test paradigm, in which an auditory-visual stimulus was presented contingent upon visual fixation of a live face. The experimental group was habituated to a McGurk stimulus (auditory [ba] visual [ga]), and the control group to matching auditory-visual [ba]. Each group was then presented with three auditory-only test trials, [ba], [da], and [(delta)a] (as in then). Visual-fixation durations in test trials showed that the experimental group treated the emergent percept in the McGurk effect, [da] or [(delta)a], as familiar (even though they had not heard these sounds previously) and [ba] as novel. For control group infants [da] and [(delta)a] were no more familiar than [ba]. These results are consistent with infants' perception of the McGurk effect, and support the conclusion that prelinguistic infants integrate auditory and visual speech information. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Drilling and testing specifications for the McGee well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The McGee Well is a part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project's subsurface site selection and characterization activities. Information from the McGee Well support site hydrologic characterization and repository design. These test specifications include details for the drilling and testing of the McGee. It includes the predicted stratigraphy, the drilling requirements, description of tests to be conducted, intervals selected for hydrologic testing, and a schedule of the drilling and testing activities. 19 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1998-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Mötley Crüe "Greatest Hits", Mariah Carey "# 1s", Pearl Jam "Live On Two Legs", Linda McCartney "Wide Prairie", Method Man "Tical 2000 : Judgement Day", Nada Surf "The Proximity Effect", Stina Nordenstam "People Are Strange", Portishead "Roseland NYC Live", Maggie Reilly "There and Back Again", Ǹ Sync "The Winter Album", Terminaator "Singapur", Zucchero "Bluesugar", George Michael "Ladies & Gentlemen".Best Of" ja Eric B & Rakim "Paid In Full.The Platinum Edition"

  3. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  4. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Vlad; Ionita, Mihai Vlad

    2018-02-01

    In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  5. APLIKASI ANALISIS DISKRIMINAN DALAM MENENTUKAN KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN PRODUK McCafe (Studi Kasus: McDonald’s Jimbaran Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRISNA RAMADHAN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available McDonald’s is one of fast food company that is growing rapidly. McDonald’s continues to innovate to satisfy customers. It introduced the concept of a cafe with the name McCafe. Because of the competition with other fast food restaurants, McDonald’s needs to improve the quality of McCafe favored by customers. Thus, this research was conducted to aim at getting the indicators that are best describing customers characteristic. This research used discriminant analysis methods. Discriminant analysis was used to classify customers into groups of loyal customers or non loyal customers.. The indicators that distinguished the decision of the customer to buy McCafe Jimbaran product were affordable prices and locations that are easily accessible to customers. The formed discriminant function had an accuracy of 91,67 percent in classifying the customers.

  6. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  7. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  8. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  9. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanini, S.

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation

  10. Measuring the 'complexity'of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sounds in the natural environment form an important class of biologically relevant nonstationary signals. We propose a dynamic spectral measure to characterize the spectral dynamics of such non-stationary sound signals and classify them based on rate of change of spectral dynamics. We categorize sounds with slowly ...

  11. Sounds in one-dimensional superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Whang, E.H.; Hong, S.K.; Oh, H.G.; George, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature variations of first-, second-, and third-sound velocity and attenuation coefficients in one-dimensional superfluid helium are evaluated explicitly for very low temperatures and frequencies (ω/sub s/tau 2 , and the ratio of second sound to first sound becomes unity as the temperature decreases to absolute zero

  12. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  13. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  14. Bubbles That Change the Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bubbles on sound has long attracted the attention of physicists. In his 1920 book Sir William Bragg described sound absorption caused by foam in a glass of beer tapped by a spoon. Frank S. Crawford described and analyzed the change in the pitch of sound in a similar experiment and named the phenomenon the "hot chocolate effect."…

  15. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  16. Sparse representation of Gravitational Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Plastino, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational Sound clips produced by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are considered within the particular context of data reduction. We advance a procedure to this effect and show that these types of signals can be approximated with high quality using significantly fewer elementary components than those required within the standard orthogonal basis framework. Furthermore, a local measure sparsity is shown to render meaningful information about the variation of a signal along time, by generating a set of local sparsity values which is much smaller than the dimension of the signal. This point is further illustrated by recourse to a more complex signal, generated by Milde Science Communication to divulge Gravitational Sound in the form of a ring tone.

  17. Sound Beams with Shockwave Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enflo, B. O.

    2000-11-01

    The beam equation for a sound beam in a diffusive medium, called the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, has a class of solutions, which are power series in the transverse variable with the terms given by a solution of a generalized Burgers’ equation. A free parameter in this generalized Burgers’ equation can be chosen so that the equation describes an N-wave which does not decay. If the beam source has the form of a spherical cap, then a beam with a preserved shock can be prepared. This is done by satisfying an inequality containing the spherical radius, the N-wave pulse duration, the N-wave pulse amplitude, and the sound velocity in the fluid.

  18. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-01

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth’s energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earth’s climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical “parameterizations” that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States

  19. The Sound of Being There

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Nilsson, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    The concept “presence”—often defined as the sensation of “being there”—has received increasing attention in the last decades. Out of the many domains of application, presence is particularly relevant in relation to Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR). Despite the growing attention in the concept pres...... to illustrating how sound production and perception relate to the four constituents of the framework: immersion, illusions of place, illusions of plausibility, and virtual body ownership....

  20. Propagation of sound in oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Advilkar, P.J.

    prestigious institute. I am privileged to express my sincere thanks to JRF’s Roshin Sir, Bajish Sir, for training me both practically and theoretically about various techniques, without which my work would not have reached its completion. I am equally... wrote his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy which included the first mathematical treatment of sound. The modern study of underwater acoustics can be considered to have started in early 19 th century. In 1826, on Lake Geneva, the speed...

  1. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.K.; Bradley, M.T.; Artiss, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author)

  2. Numerical value biases sound localization

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Edward J.; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perce...

  3. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B K; Bradley, M T; Artiss, W G [Human Factors Practical, Dipper Harbour, NB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author) 3 refs.

  4. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, C.; Johansson, A.; Hult, P.; Ask, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D 2 ) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D KY ) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data

  5. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer@imt.liu.se; Johansson, A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hult, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden); Ask, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D {sub 2}) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D {sub KY}) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data.

  6. Acoustic analysis of trill sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, N; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of steady apical trills--trill sounds produced by the periodic vibration of the apex of the tongue--are studied. Signal processing methods, namely, zero-frequency filtering and zero-time liftering of speech signals, are used to analyze the excitation source and the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract system, respectively. Although it is natural to expect the effect of trilling on the resonances of the vocal tract system, it is interesting to note that trilling influences the glottal source of excitation as well. The excitation characteristics derived using zero-frequency filtering of speech signals are glottal epochs, strength of impulses at the glottal epochs, and instantaneous fundamental frequency of the glottal vibration. Analysis based on zero-time liftering of speech signals is used to study the dynamic resonance characteristics of vocal tract system during the production of trill sounds. Qualitative analysis of trill sounds in different vowel contexts, and the acoustic cues that may help spotting trills in continuous speech are discussed.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Castiglioni C, Oechsner M, Goebel HH, Heppner FL, Jung HH. McLeod myopathy revisited: more neurogenic and less ... 130(Pt 12):3285-96. Citation on PubMed Jung HH, Danek A, Frey BM. McLeod syndrome: a ...

  8. Reductionist Challenges to Explanatory Pluralism : Comment on McCauley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eronen, Markus I.

    2009-01-01

    In this comment, I first point out some problems in McCauley's defense of the traditional conception of general analytical levels. Then I present certain reductionist arguments against explanatory pluralism that are not based on the New Wave model of intertheoretic reduction, against which McCauley

  9. Astronauts McNair and Stewart prepare for reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Ronald E. McNair and Robert L. Stewart prepare for the re-entry phase of the shuttle Challenger near the end of the 41-B mission. The are stationed behind the crew commander and pilot. Stewart is already wearing his helmet. McNair is stowing some of his gear.

  10. Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    For synthesizing a wide variety of musical sounds, it is important to understand which acoustic properties of musical instrument sounds are related to specific perceptual features. Some properties are obvious: Amplitude and fundamental frequency easily control loudness and pitch. Other perceptual features are related to sound spectra and how they vary with time. For example, tonal "brightness" is strongly connected to the centroid or tilt of a spectrum. "Attack impact" (sometimes called "bite" or "attack sharpness") is strongly connected to spectral features during the first 20-100 ms of sound, as well as the rise time of the sound. Tonal "warmth" is connected to spectral features such as "incoherence" or "inharmonicity."

  11. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  12. Application of quality assurance to MC and A systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, A.J.; Delvin, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Application of the principles of quality assurance to MC and A has been done at DOE's Savannah River Operations Office. The principles were applied to the functions within the MC and A Branch, including both the functions used to operate the Branch and those used to review the MC and A activities of DOE/SR's contractor. The purpose of this paper is to discuss that application of quality assurance and to show how the principles of quality assurance relate to the functions of a MC and A system, for both a DOE field office and a contractor. The principles (presented as requirements from the NQA-1 standard) are briefly discussed, a method for applying quality assurance is outlined, application at DOE/SR is shown, and application to a contractor's MC and A system is discussed

  13. Psychometric characteristics of single-word tests of children's speech sound production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipsen, Peter; Ogiela, Diane A

    2015-04-01

    Our understanding of test construction has improved since the now-classic review by McCauley and Swisher (1984). The current review article examines the psychometric characteristics of current single-word tests of speech sound production in an attempt to determine whether our tests have improved since then. It also provides a resource that clinicians may use to help them make test selection decisions for their particular client populations. Ten tests published since 1990 were reviewed to determine whether they met the 10 criteria set out by McCauley and Swisher (1984), as well as 7 additional criteria. All of the tests reviewed met at least 3 of McCauley and Swisher's (1984) original criteria, and 9 of 10 tests met at least 5 of them. Most of the tests met some of the additional criteria as well. The state of the art for single-word tests of speech sound production in children appears to have improved in the last 30 years. There remains, however, room for improvement.

  14. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  15. Acromegaly and McCune-Albright Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salenave, Sylvie; Boyce, Alison M.; Collins, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) includes the triad of poly/monostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait spots, and hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies. Acromegaly affects around 20% of MAS patients. Aims: The objective was to review all reported cases of acromegaly associated with MAS. Methods: All studies and case reports of acromegaly in patients with MAS were systematically sought in the world literature up to January 2013. We also included new data (from three unreported cases) and updated data on 23 previously reported patients from our two centers. Results: We reviewed the cases of 112 patients (65 males). Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 24.4 years (range, 3–64). Among the 40 pediatric patients, 23 (57%) had precocious puberty. GH/IGF-1 excess was suggested by accelerated growth in 85% of pediatric cases. Acromegaly was almost always associated with skull base fibrous dysplasia. Modern imaging techniques (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) revealed an adenoma in 54% of the patients (macroadenoma in more than two-thirds). Median GH levels and mean IGF-1 SD score at diagnosis were 57 μg/L (2.8 to 291 μg/L) and 8 (2.3 to 24), respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was present in 81% (mean, 149 μg/L; range, 21–600). Pituitary surgery, performed in 25 cases, very rarely cured the GH/IGF-1 excess. Somatostatin analogs improved GH/IGF-1 levels in most patients but achieved control of acromegaly in only 17 (30%) of 56 patients. Pegvisomant achieved normal IGF-1 levels in 10 of 13 cases. Conclusion: Acromegaly, which is present in 20–30% of patients with MAS, raises particular diagnostic and therapeutic issues. PMID:24517150

  16. Sound radiation contrast in MR phase images. Method for the representation of elasticity, sound damping, and sound impedance changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicke, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    The method presented in this thesis combines ultrasound techniques with the magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT). An ultrasonic wave generates in absorbing media a static force in sound-propagation direction. The force leads at sound intensities of some W/cm 2 and a sound frequency in the lower MHz range to a tissue shift in the micrometer range. This tissue shift depends on the sound power, the sound frequency, the sound absorption, and the elastic properties of the tissue. A MRT sequence of the Siemens Healthcare AG was modified so that it measures (indirectly) the tissue shift, codes as grey values, and presents as 2D picture. By means of the grey values the sound-beam slope in the tissue can be visualized, and so additionally sound obstacles (changes of the sound impedance) can be detected. By the MRT images token up spatial changes of the tissue parameters sound absorption and elasticity can be detected. In this thesis measurements are presented, which show the feasibility and future chances of this method especially for the mammary-cancer diagnostics. [de

  17. Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald's and Subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen C; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Red hair is the null phenotype of MC1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Kimberley A; Shekar, Sri N; Cook, Anthony L; Duffy, David L; Sturm, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    The Melanocortin-1 Receptor (MC1R) is a G-protein coupled receptor, which is responsible for production of the darker eumelanin pigment and the tanning response. The MC1R gene has many polymorphisms, some of which have been linked to variation in pigmentation phenotypes within human populations. In particular, the p.D84E, p.R151C, p.R160W and p.D294 H alleles have been strongly associated with red hair, fair skin and increased skin cancer risk. These red hair colour (RHC) variants are relatively well described and are thought to result in altered receptor function, while still retaining varying levels of signaling ability in vitro. The mouse Mc1r null phenotype is yellow fur colour, the p.R151C, p.R160W and p.D294 H alleles were able to partially rescue this phenotype, leading to the question of what the true null phenotype of MC1R would be in humans. Due to the rarity of MC1R null alleles in human populations, they have only been found in the heterozygous state until now. We report here the first case of a homozygous MC1R null individual, phenotypic analysis indicates that red hair and fair skin is found in the absence of MC1R function.

  19. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions. PMID:22219030

  20. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  1. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  2. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  3. Sound is Multi-Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    First part of this work examines the concept of musical parameter theory and discusses its methodical use. Second part is an annotated catalogue of 33 different students' compositions, presented in their totality with English translations, created between 1985 and 2006 as part of the subject...... Intuitive Music at Music Therapy, AAU. 20 of these have sound files as well. The work thus serves as an anthology of this form of composition. All the compositions are systematically presented according to parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre, density, pulse-no pulse, tempo, stylistic...

  4. Evaluation of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted with the goal of quantifying auditory attributes which underlie listener preference for multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to a panel of forty selected listeners. Scaling of auditory attributes......, as well as overall preference, was based on consistency tests of binary paired-comparison judgments and on modeling the choice frequencies using probabilistic choice models. As a result, the preferences of non-expert listeners could be measured reliably at a ratio scale level. Principal components derived...

  5. Computation of the locus crossing point location of MC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hai-Jun; Li Zhi-Wei; Bu Kai; Sun Zhao-Lin; Nie Hong-Shan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the crossing point property of the i–v hysteresis curve in a memristor–capacitor (MC) circuit is analyzed. First, the ideal passive memristor on the crossing point property of i–v hysteresis curve is studied. Based on the analysis, the analytical derivation with respect to the crossing point location of MC circuit is given. Then the example of MC with linear memristance-versus-charge state map is demonstrated to discuss the drift property of cross-point location, caused by the frequency and capacitance value. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. An Interview with Joe McMann: His Life Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: His Life Lessons" on May 23, 2011. With over 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. Many have been interested in his biography, progression of work at NASA, impact on the U.S. spacesuit, and career accomplishments. This interview highlighted the influences and decision-making methods that impacted his technical and management contributions to the space program. McMann shared information about the accomplishments and technical advances that committed individuals can make.

  7. Epilepsy and McArdle Disease in A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk incecik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available McArdle's disease, defined by the lack of functional glycogen phosphorylase in striated muscle, is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Patients typically suffer from reduced exercise tolerance, with muscle cramps and pain provoked by exercise, along with easy fatigability and weakness after exercise. Following prolonged exertion, contractures, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria may occur. Central nervous system symptoms have rarely been reported in McArdle disease. In this case report, a 13-year-old boy with epilepsy and McArdle's disease is presented. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 5-7

  8. Integration of OpenMC methods into MAMMOTH and Serpent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerby, Leslie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Idaho State Univ., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tumulak, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-01

    OpenMC, a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code focused on neutron criticality calculations, contains several methods we wish to emulate in MAMMOTH and Serpent. First, research coupling OpenMC and the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) has shown promising results. Second, the utilization of Functional Expansion Tallies (FETs) allows for a more efficient passing of multiphysics data between OpenMC and MOOSE. Both of these capabilities have been preliminarily implemented into Serpent. Results are discussed and future work recommended.

  9. Developing and design a website for mc kalla oy

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Henok

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about Website development and design. I have a chance to work with Mc kalla Oy. Mc kalla Oy is a construction company from Kempele which was founded 2011. They have projects in Central-Finland, through Northern Finland to Lapland. This thesis is to develop and design a new website to Mc kalla Oy. Wordpress is used to develop the new website. For the development process I use school server (.opiskelijaprojektit.net). The Thesis contains two main parts designing the ...

  10. Incomplete McCune-Albright Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagehan Aslan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a genetic, non-inheritable disease that can cause bone pain, bone deformities and fracture. It has a large clinic spectrum from benign monostotic fibrous dysplasia to McCune-Albright syndrome. Rare McCune-Albright syndrome is characterized by precocious puberty, cafe au lait spots and fibrous dysplasia. Herein we presented a case who was preferred to hospital with pathological fractures and diagnosed with Incomplet McCune Albright syndrome because of the lack of endocrine hyperfunction and developed early puberty at clinical course.

  11. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  12. Cortical representations of communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Marc A; Cheung, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    This review summarizes recent research into cortical processing of vocalizations in animals and humans. There has been a resurgent interest in this topic accompanied by an increased number of studies using animal models with complex vocalizations and new methods in human brain imaging. Recent results from such studies are discussed. Experiments have begun to reveal the bilateral cortical fields involved in communication sound processing and the transformations of neural representations that occur among those fields. Advances have also been made in understanding the neuronal basis of interaction between developmental exposures and behavioral experiences with vocalization perception. Exposure to sounds during the developmental period produces large effects on brain responses, as do a variety of specific trained tasks in adults. Studies have also uncovered a neural link between the motor production of vocalizations and the representation of vocalizations in cortex. Parallel experiments in humans and animals are answering important questions about vocalization processing in the central nervous system. This dual approach promises to reveal microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic principles of large-scale dynamic interactions between brain regions that underlie the complex phenomenon of vocalization perception. Such advances will yield a greater understanding of the causes, consequences, and treatment of disorders related to speech processing.

  13. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  14. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  15. Neuroanatomic organization of sound memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Michael A; Pitcock, Jeffery A; Calhoun, Vince; Li, Juan; Freeman, Thomas; Hart, John

    2006-11-01

    The neural interface between sensory perception and memory is a central issue in neuroscience, particularly initial memory organization following perceptual analyses. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic regions extracting initial auditory semantic memory information related to environmental sounds. Two distinct anatomic foci were detected in the right superior temporal gyrus when subjects identified sounds representing either animals or threatening items. Threatening animal stimuli elicited signal changes in both foci, suggesting a distributed neural representation. Our results demonstrate both category- and feature-specific responses to nonverbal sounds in early stages of extracting semantic memory information from these sounds. This organization allows for these category-feature detection nodes to extract early, semantic memory information for efficient processing of transient sound stimuli. Neural regions selective for threatening sounds are similar to those of nonhuman primates, demonstrating semantic memory organization for basic biological/survival primitives are present across species.

  16. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  17. First and second sound in He films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.G.; Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Isihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In consideration of a collision integral in the Boltzmann equation and with use of kinetic and hydrodynamical equations, the velocities of the first and second sound in liquid 4 He films are evaluated as functions of temperature, and the attenuation coefficients are obtained. The second sound is 2/sup -1/2/ times the first-sound velocity in the low-temperature and low-frequency limit

  18. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain Jr, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast, simple method for automated data acquisition and visualization of sound directivity, made convenient and accessible via a smartphone app, "Polar Pattern Plotter." The app synchronizes measurements of sound volume with the phone's angular orientation obtained from either compass, gyroscope or accelerometer sensors and produces a graph and exportable data file. It is generalizable to various sound sources and receivers via the use of an input-jack-adaptor to supplant the smar...

  19. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    The availability and flexibility of audio services on various digital platforms have created a high demand for a large range of sound systems. The fundamental components of sound systems such as docking stations, sound bars and wireless mobile speakers consists of a power supply, amplifiers and transducers. Due to historical reasons the design of each of these components are commonly handled separately which are indeed limiting the full performance potential of such systems. To state some exa...

  20. Individual Differences on the McGurk Effect: An Examination with the Autism Trait and Schizotypal Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Ujiie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. This effect may be experienced when a visual of the production of a phoneme is dubbed with a sound recording of a different phoneme being spoken wherein the perceived phoneme is often the third intermediate phoneme. In the present study we examined the potential individual differences in the McGurk effect among 51 healthy students. The results suggested that people with higher scores for schizophrenic or autistic traits, respectively, might report less /ka/ responses (visually captured responses but more /ta/ responses (vision-audio mixed responses in the McGurk condition (visually /pa/ but auditor/ka/. This indicates that such people might show a preference for auditory information over visual information. Both schizophrenia and autism might have deficits in social functioning. If an individual has a poor level of interpersonal skills this would reflect in the result since he/she might not be able to read others' lips automatically.

  1. GPM GROUND VALIDATION KICT NEXRAD MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validaiton KICT NEXRAD MC3E dataset was collected from April 22, 2011 to June 6, 2011 for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment...

  2. Sean McCarthy 7. raamprogrammi teemaline koolitus / Meelis Kadaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadaja, Meelis, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    28. novembril Tallinnas toimunud koolitusest, mille eesmärgiks oli anda juhiseid konkurentsivõimelise projektitaotluse kirjutamiseks Euroopa Liidu seitsmendasse raamprogrammi ja mille viis läbi Sean McCarthy Iirimaalt

  3. McCainiga hakkab rinda pistma Obama / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    USA demokraatide presidendikandidaat Hillary Clinton ei söandanud oma allajäämist Barack Obamale tunnistada. Lisa: Obama ja McCaini seisukohad. Vt. samas: Hillary Clinton võib saada asepresidendi kandidaadiks

  4. McGill's Integrated Civil and Common Law Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Yves-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of McGill University Faculty of Law. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  5. The McDonald’s Inverse Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Hanif Shahbaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a new Inverse Weibull distribution by using the generalized Beta distribution of McDonald (1984. Basic properties of the proposed distribution has been studied. Parameter estimation has been discussed alongside an illustrative example.

  6. Malrotation of the McGhan Style 510 prosthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schots, J.M.; Fechner, M.R.; Hoogbergen, M.M.; Tits, H.W.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anatomically shaped cohesive silicone breast implants are frequently used in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. After successful results with the Style 410 prosthesis, McGhan (Natrelle, Allergan) introduced the Style 510 prosthesis. After using this novel prosthesis, the authors

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION PAWNEE RADAR MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pawnee radar data for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) held in Oklahoma were collected on May 24, 2011 to support the CHILL radar...

  8. Solar Imagery - Composites - Synoptic Maps - McIntosh

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1964 (solar cycle 20) Patrick McIntosh began creating hand-drawn synoptic maps of solar activity, based on Hydrogen alpha (H?) imaging measurements. These...

  9. Reports of MC and A system design workshop subgroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of subgroup reports from the workshop on design of a materials control and accounting system for a low-enrichment fuel fabrication facility is presented. Responses to a MC and A design system questionnaire are also summarized

  10. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father...

  11. Astronauts McDivitt and White look over training plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts James A. McDivitt (left) and Edward H. White II are shown looking over training plans at Cape Kennedy during prelaunch preparations. The NASA Headquarters alternative photo number is 65-H-275.

  12. Charles J. McMahon Interfacial Segregation and Embrittlement Symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vitek, Vaclav

    2003-01-01

    .... McMahon Interfacial Segregation and Embrittlement Symposium: Grain Boundary Segregation and Fracture in Steels was sponsored by ASM International, Materials Science Critical Technology Sector, Structural Materials Division, Materials Processing...

  13. McClintock's challenge in the 21st century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2012-01-01

    In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, "The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize," which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed

  14. Edwin M. McMillan, A biographical sketch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1994-07-01

    Edwin M. McMillan was one of the great scientists of the middle years of this century. He made notable contributions to nuclear, and particle physics, the chemistry of transuranic elements, and accelerator physics

  15. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CHILL RADAR MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CHILL radar data for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) held in Oklahoma were collected while the NASA ER-2 aircraft conducted a...

  16. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  17. The McDonald Modified Weibull Distribution: Properties and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A six parameter distribution so-called the McDonald modified Weibull distribution is defined and studied. The new distribution contains, as special submodels, several important distributions discussed in the literature, such as the beta modified Weibull, Kumaraswamy modified Weibull, McDonald Weibull and modified Weibull distribution,among others. The new distribution can be used effectively in the analysis of survival data since it accommodates monotone, unimodal and bathtub-shaped hazard fu...

  18. On coincidence of Pettis and McShane integrability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2015), s. 83-106 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Pettis integral * McShane integral * MC-filling family Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10587-015-0161-x

  19. Glocalization Marketing Strategy of Mc Donald's Case Study: Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmakova, Liubov

    2017-01-01

    Globalization is spreading worldwide and it is coming together with its norms. These norms are not appreciated worldwide and there are many nations which have significant populations that are opposed to globalization and its norms. Mc Donald’s is a multinational corporation, it is entering and expanding into different markets as a result of globalization. Nevertheless, this should not indicate that it is an easy goal to spread worldwide for Mc Donald’s due to the anti-globalization movements....

  20. McCain, Lieberman ja meie / Marek Strandberg, Indrek Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Strandberg, Marek, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    USA senaatorite, vabariiklase John McCaini ja demokraat Joe Liebermani poolt USA senati menetlusse antud kahest seaduseelnõust, millest esimene kohustab USA presidenti astuma samme Venemaa ajutiseks väljaheitmiseks rikaste riikide ühendusest G7 ja teine on tuntud kui Climate Stewardship Act ehk kliimahoole seaduseelnõu. Artikli autorid Ilmahoole algatusrühmast kutsuvad üles toetama McCaini-Liebermani initsiatiivi, mis kaitseb ka Eesti välispoliitika huve

  1. McKenzie River Subbasin Assessment, Summary Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsea Geospatial, Inc.

    2000-02-01

    This document summarizes the findings of the McKenzie River Subbasin Assessment: Technical Report. The subbasin assessment tells a story about the McKenzie River watershed. What is the McKenzie's ecological history, how is the McKenzie doing today, and where is the McKenzie watershed headed ecologically? Knowledge is a good foundation for action. The more we know, the better prepared we are to make decisions about the future. These decisions involve both protecting good remaining habitat and repairing some of the parts that are broken in the McKenzie River watershed. The subbasin assessment is the foundation for conservation strategy and actions. It provides a detailed ecological assessment of the lower McKenzie River and floodplain, identifies conservation and restoration opportunities, and discusses the influence of some upstream actions and processes on the study area. The assessment identifies restoration opportunities at the reach level. In this study, a reach is a river segment from 0.7 to 2.7 miles long and is defined by changes in land forms, land use, stream junctions, and/or cultural features. The assessment also provides flexible tools for setting priorities and planning projects. The goal of this summary is to clearly and concisely extract the key issues, findings, and recommendations from the full-length Technical Report. The high priority recommended action items highlight areas that the McKenzie Watershed Council can significantly influence, and that will likely yield the greatest ecological benefit. People are encouraged to read the full Technical Report if they are interested in the detailed methods, findings, and references used in this study.

  2. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  3. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  4. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  5. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound......-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound...... from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect...

  6. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Berg, Frits van den; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n=725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low.

  7. Sound Art and Spatial Practices: Situating Sound Installation Art Since 1958

    OpenAIRE

    Ouzounian, Gascia

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the emergence and development ofsound installation art, an under-recognized tradition that hasdeveloped between music, architecture, and media art practicessince the late 1950s. Unlike many musical works, which are concernedwith organizing sounds in time, sound installations organize sounds inspace; they thus necessitate new theoretical and analytical modelsthat take into consideration the spatial situated-ness of sound. Existingdiscourses on “spatial sound” privile...

  8. Otolith research for Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.; Reisenbichler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Otoliths are hard structures located in the brain cavity of fish. These structures are formed by a buildup of calcium carbonate within a gelatinous matrix that produces light and dark bands similar to the growth rings in trees. The width of the bands corresponds to environmental factors such as temperature and food availability. As juvenile salmon encounter different environments in their migration to sea, they produce growth increments of varying widths and visible 'checks' corresponding to times of stress or change. The resulting pattern of band variations and check marks leave a record of fish growth and residence time in each habitat type. This information helps Puget Sound restoration by determining the importance of different habitats for the optimal health and management of different salmon populations. The USGS Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) provides otolith research findings directly to resource managers who put this information to work.

  9. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  10. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  11. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps and Environmental Sounds Rendering for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based ...... a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment....

  12. The influence of environmental sound training on the perception of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Gygi, Brian; Ho, Kim Thien N

    2012-06-01

    Perceptual training with spectrally degraded environmental sounds results in improved environmental sound identification, with benefits shown to extend to untrained speech perception as well. The present study extended those findings to examine longer-term training effects as well as effects of mere repeated exposure to sounds over time. Participants received two pretests (1 week apart) prior to a week-long environmental sound training regimen, which was followed by two posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Spectrally degraded stimuli, processed with a four-channel vocoder, consisted of a 160-item environmental sound test, word and sentence tests, and a battery of basic auditory abilities and cognitive tests. Results indicated significant improvements in all speech and environmental sound scores between the initial pretest and the last posttest with performance increments following both exposure and training. For environmental sounds (the stimulus class that was trained), the magnitude of positive change that accompanied training was much greater than that due to exposure alone, with improvement for untrained sounds roughly comparable to the speech benefit from exposure. Additional tests of auditory and cognitive abilities showed that speech and environmental sound performance were differentially correlated with tests of spectral and temporal-fine-structure processing, whereas working memory and executive function were correlated with speech, but not environmental sound perception. These findings indicate generalizability of environmental sound training and provide a basis for implementing environmental sound training programs for cochlear implant (CI) patients.

  13. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  14. Directional sound radiation from substation transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which acoustical measurements at two substations were analyzed to investigate the directional behaviour of typical arrays having 2 or 3 transformers. Substation transformers produce a characteristic humming sound that is caused primarily by vibration of the core at twice the frequency of the power supply. The humming noise radiates predominantly from the tank enclosing the core. The main components of the sound are harmonics of 120 Hz. Sound pressure level data were obtained for various directions and distances from the arrays, ranging from 0.5 m to over 100 m. The measured sound pressure levels of the transformer tones displayed substantial positive and negative excursions from the calculated average values for many distances and directions. The results support the concept that the directional effects are associated with constructive and destructive interference of tonal sound waves emanating from different parts of the array. Significant variations in the directional sound pattern can occur in the near field of a single transformer or an array, and the extent of the near field is significantly larger than the scale of the array. Based on typical dimensions for substation sites, the distance to the far field may be much beyond the substation boundary and beyond typical setbacks to the closest dwellings. As such, the directional sound radiation produced by transformer arrays introduces additional uncertainty in the prediction of substation sound levels at dwellings within a few hundred meters of a substation site. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  15. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage. [37 FR 13626...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721, Nov...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and at 49...

  19. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  20. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.) ...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2298 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2298 Section 29.2298 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2298 Sound...

  2. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina Port...

  3. Scorescapes : on sound, environment and sonic consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores sound, its image and its role in relating humans and our technologies to the environment. It investigates two related questions: How does sound mediate our relationship to environment? And how can contemporary multidisciplinary art practices articulate and explore this

  4. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  5. Detecting change in stochastic sound sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Skerritt-Davis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to parse our acoustic environment relies on the brain's capacity to extract statistical regularities from surrounding sounds. Previous work in regularity extraction has predominantly focused on the brain's sensitivity to predictable patterns in sound sequences. However, natural sound environments are rarely completely predictable, often containing some level of randomness, yet the brain is able to effectively interpret its surroundings by extracting useful information from stochastic sounds. It has been previously shown that the brain is sensitive to the marginal lower-order statistics of sound sequences (i.e., mean and variance. In this work, we investigate the brain's sensitivity to higher-order statistics describing temporal dependencies between sound events through a series of change detection experiments, where listeners are asked to detect changes in randomness in the pitch of tone sequences. Behavioral data indicate listeners collect statistical estimates to process incoming sounds, and a perceptual model based on Bayesian inference shows a capacity in the brain to track higher-order statistics. Further analysis of individual subjects' behavior indicates an important role of perceptual constraints in listeners' ability to track these sensory statistics with high fidelity. In addition, the inference model facilitates analysis of neural electroencephalography (EEG responses, anchoring the analysis relative to the statistics of each stochastic stimulus. This reveals both a deviance response and a change-related disruption in phase of the stimulus-locked response that follow the higher-order statistics. These results shed light on the brain's ability to process stochastic sound sequences.

  6. Sound Levels in East Texas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Aaron Lynn

    A survey of sound levels was taken in several Texas schools to determine the amount of noise and sound present by size of class, type of activity, location of building, and the presence of air conditioning and large amounts of glass. The data indicate that class size and relative amounts of glass have no significant bearing on the production of…

  7. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally

  8. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ISEE : An Intuitive Sound Editing Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertegaal, R.P.H.; Bonis, E.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents ISEE, an intuitive sound editing environment, as a general sound synthesis model based on expert auditory perception and cognition of musical instruments. It discusses the backgrounds of current synthesizer user interface design and related timbre space research. Of the three

  10. Digital servo control of random sound fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakich, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is necessary to place number of sensors at different positions in sound field to determine actual sound intensities to which test object is subjected. It is possible to determine whether specification is being met adequately or exceeded. Since excitation is of random nature, signals are essentially coherent and it is impossible to obtain true average.

  11. Wide-Screen Cinema and Stereophonic Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysotsky, Michael Z.

    Developments in the techniques of wide screen cinema and stereophonic sound throughout the world are detailed in this book. Particular attention is paid to progress in the Soviet Union in these fields. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet view of stereophonic sound as a vital adjunct in the search for enchanced realism as opposed to the…

  12. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements for housing and sound classification schemes originating from a common INSTA‐proposal in the mid 90’s, but unfortunately being increasingly diversified since then. The present situation impedes development and create barriers for trade and e...

  13. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  14. A Fast Algorithm of Cartographic Sounding Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Haigang; HUA Li; ZHAO Haitao; ZHANG Yongli

    2005-01-01

    An effective strategy and framework that adequately integrate the automated and manual processes for fast cartographic sounding selection is presented. The important submarine topographic features are extracted for important soundings selection, and an improved "influence circle" algorithm is introduced for sounding selection. For automatic configuration of soundings distribution pattern, a special algorithm considering multi-factors is employed. A semi-automatic method for solving the ambiguous conflicts is described. On the basis of the algorithms and strategies a system named HGIS for fast cartographic sounding selection is developed and applied in Chinese Marine Safety Administration Bureau (CMSAB). The application experiments show that the system is effective and reliable. At last some conclusions and the future work are given.

  15. THE SOUND OF CINEMA: TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poznin Vitaly F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a means of creating any product. However, in the onscreen art, it is one of the elements creating the art space of film. Considering the main stages of the development of cinematography, this article explores the influence of technology of sound recording on the creating a special artistic and physical space of film (the beginning of the use a sound in movies; the mastering the artistic means of an audiovisual work; the expansion of the spatial characteristics for the screen sound; and the sound in a modern cinema. Today, thanks to new technologies, the sound in a cinema forms a specific quasirealistic landscape, greatly enhancing the impact on the viewer of the virtual screen images.

  16. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  17. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  18. Sound synthesis and evaluation of interactive footsteps and environmental sounds rendering for virtual reality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-09-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based on physical models. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the ability of subjects to recognize the surface they were exposed to was assessed. In the second experiment, the sound synthesis engine was enhanced with environmental sounds. Results show that, in some conditions, adding a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment.

  19. A McCollough Effect Generated at Binocular Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiujie Weng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Following exposures to alternating gratings with unique combination of orientation and colors, an achromatic grating would appear tinted with its perceived color contingent on the grating's orientation. This orientation-contingent color after effect is called the McCollough effect. The lack of interocular transfer of the McCollough effect suggests that the McCollough effect is primarily established in monocular channels. Here we explored the possibility that the McCollough effect can be induced at a binocular site. During adaptation, a red vertical grating and a green horizontal grating are dichoptically presented to the two eyes. In the ‘binocular rivalry’ condition, these two gratings were constantly presented throughout the adaptation duration and subjects experienced the rivalry between the two gratings. In the ‘physical alternation’ condition, the two dichoptic gratings physically alternated during adaptation, perceptually similar to binocular rivalry. Interestingly, following dichoptic adaptation either in the rivalry condition or in the physical alternation condition, a binocularly viewed achromatic test grating appeared colored depending on its orientation: a vertical grating appeared greenish and a horizontal grating pinkish. In other words, we observed a McCollough effect following dichoptic adaptation, which can only be explained by a binocular site of orientation-contingent color adaptation.

  20. MC rate at NLO for heavy flavour photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toll, Tobias

    2010-02-15

    A Monte Carlo at next-to-leading order (MC rate at NLO) has been constructed for the production of heavy quark flavours in photoproduction. As such, it is the rst Monte Carlo event generator with next-to-leading order (NLO) accuracy for a process in lepton hadron scattering. In order to construct such an MC rate at NLO, the matrix element for the process has to be calculated at NLO and then be matched with a parton shower. When doing this, it is important that none of the parton configurations produced are doubly counted. In this thesis, the concept of a Monte Carlo event generator will be explained, with emphasis on the HERWIG parton shower. Also, different techniques of calculating matrix elements at NLO accuracy will be explained. It will then be shown how the NLO calculation can be matched with the HERWIG parton shower in an MC rate at NLO without double counting, producing unweighted events at NLO-accuracy. Many comparisons are made between the MC rate at NLO here constructed, the HERWIG Monte Carlo and the FMNR NLO calculation. Also many comparisons are made to HERA data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments. It is shown that all HERA data with heavy quarks produced in photoproduction can be described by the MC rate at NLO program constructed in this thesis. (orig.)

  1. The OpenMC Monte Carlo particle transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Paul K.; Forget, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An open source Monte Carlo particle transport code, OpenMC, has been developed. ► Solid geometry and continuous-energy physics allow high-fidelity simulations. ► Development has focused on high performance and modern I/O techniques. ► OpenMC is capable of scaling up to hundreds of thousands of processors. ► Results on a variety of benchmark problems agree with MCNP5. -- Abstract: A new Monte Carlo code called OpenMC is currently under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a tool for simulation on high-performance computing platforms. Given that many legacy codes do not scale well on existing and future parallel computer architectures, OpenMC has been developed from scratch with a focus on high performance scalable algorithms as well as modern software design practices. The present work describes the methods used in the OpenMC code and demonstrates the performance and accuracy of the code on a variety of problems.

  2. MC rate at NLO for heavy flavour photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll, Tobias

    2010-02-01

    A Monte Carlo at next-to-leading order (MC rate at NLO) has been constructed for the production of heavy quark flavours in photoproduction. As such, it is the rst Monte Carlo event generator with next-to-leading order (NLO) accuracy for a process in lepton hadron scattering. In order to construct such an MC rate at NLO, the matrix element for the process has to be calculated at NLO and then be matched with a parton shower. When doing this, it is important that none of the parton configurations produced are doubly counted. In this thesis, the concept of a Monte Carlo event generator will be explained, with emphasis on the HERWIG parton shower. Also, different techniques of calculating matrix elements at NLO accuracy will be explained. It will then be shown how the NLO calculation can be matched with the HERWIG parton shower in an MC rate at NLO without double counting, producing unweighted events at NLO-accuracy. Many comparisons are made between the MC rate at NLO here constructed, the HERWIG Monte Carlo and the FMNR NLO calculation. Also many comparisons are made to HERA data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments. It is shown that all HERA data with heavy quarks produced in photoproduction can be described by the MC rate at NLO program constructed in this thesis. (orig.)

  3. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck Sound...

  4. 77 FR 37318 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort... Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Sound of Independence event in the Santa Rosa Sound, Fort... during the Sound of Independence. During the enforcement period, entry into, transiting or anchoring in...

  5. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral

  6. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  7. Soft computing based feature selection for environmental sound classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakoor, A.; May, T.M.; Van Schijndel, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental sound classification has a wide range of applications,like hearing aids, mobile communication devices, portable media players, and auditory protection devices. Sound classification systemstypically extract features from the input sound. Using too many features increases complexity

  8. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  9. Sound waves in hadronic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    We argue that recent high energy CERN LHC experiments on transverse momenta distributions of produced particles provide us new, so far unnoticed and not fully appreciated, information on the underlying production processes. To this end we concentrate on the small (but persistent) log-periodic oscillations decorating the observed pT spectra and visible in the measured ratios R = σdata(pT) / σfit (pT). Because such spectra are described by quasi-power-like formulas characterised by two parameters: the power index n and scale parameter T (usually identified with temperature T), the observed logperiodic behaviour of the ratios R can originate either from suitable modifications of n or T (or both, but such a possibility is not discussed). In the first case n becomes a complex number and this can be related to scale invariance in the system, in the second the scale parameter T exhibits itself log-periodic oscillations which can be interpreted as the presence of some kind of sound waves forming in the collision system during the collision process, the wave number of which has a so-called self similar solution of the second kind. Because the first case was already widely discussed we concentrate on the second one and on its possible experimental consequences.

  10. McDonaldization, Islamic teachings, and funerary practices in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on George Ritzer's sociological concept of McDonaldization, this article explores the transformation of burial practices in Kuwait. It is argued that traditional, religious, and private ways of dealing with death have been modernized using the fast-food model of McDonald's. This article examines Islamic teachings on burial and how that model has been applied to the traditional Muslim funerary services, including cemetery management, grave excavation, funeral prayers, burial, and condolences, to make them more efficient vis-a-vis more profitable. Based on personal observations and random interviews, the study finds that the state bureaucracy in Kuwait has made burial rituals more efficient, standardized, calculable, and controlled. Furthermore, several associated irrationalities are also considered. Findings suggest that some individuals may not be happy with these changes but there is no popular resistance to McDonaldization of the burial practices, probably due to the authoritarian and welfare nature of the State of Kuwait.

  11. McKenzie River Subbasin Assessment, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsea Geospatial, Inc.

    2000-02-01

    This document details the findings of the McKenzie River Subbasin Assessment team. The goal of the subbasin assessment is to provide an ecological assessment of the McKenzie River Floodplain, identification of conservation and restoration opportunities, and discussion of the influence of some upstream actions and processes. This Technical Report can be viewed in conjunction with the McKenzie River Subbasin Summary or as a stand-alone document. The purpose of the technical report is to detail the methodology and findings of the consulting team that the observations and recommendations in the summary document are based on. This part, Part I, provides an introduction to the subbasin and a general overview. Part II details the specific findings of the science team. Part III provides an explanation and examples of how to use the data that has been developed through this assessment to aid in prioritizing restoration activities. Part III also includes the literature cited and appendices.

  12. On Analyzing LDPC Codes over Multiantenna MC-CDMA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiantenna multicarrier code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA technique has been attracting much attention for designing future broadband wireless systems. In addition, low-density parity-check (LDPC code, a promising near-optimal error correction code, is also being widely considered in next generation communication systems. In this paper, we propose a simple method to construct a regular quasicyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC code to improve the transmission performance over the precoded MC-CDMA system with limited feedback. Simulation results show that the coding gain of the proposed QC-LDPC codes is larger than that of the Reed-Solomon codes, and the performance of the multiantenna MC-CDMA system can be greatly improved by these QC-LDPC codes when the data rate is high.

  13. J.B. McLachlan: a biography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.

    1999-07-01

    This social history and biography of James Bryson McLaughlin (1869-1916) describes McLaughlin's leadership as an educator and instigator in organizing Nova Scotia's coal miners during the labour wars in the 1920s. McLaughlin's background and childhood, education, reputation, religion, family life, health, and death are described. Included are descriptions of the life of coal miners in Cape Breton, radical left politics in Canada and the organizers involved, the political economy of the coal industry, child labour, churches, coal markets and prices, company towns and housing, mining disasters and fatalities, elections, First World War efforts, the depression, immigrants, and strikes. The labour organizations, companies, churches, and politicians involved in the struggles for union acceptance are discussed. 872 refs., 7 figs., 24 photos.

  14. McClintock's challenge in the 21st century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2012-11-13

    In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, "The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize," which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed through her studies of the Dissociation locus, the first mobile genetic element she identified. McClintock described the suite of nuclear events, including transposon activation and various chromosome aberrations and rearrangements, that unfolded in the wake of genetic crosses that brought together two broken chromosomes 9. McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring.

  15. mc1r Pathway regulation of zebrafish melanosome dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Jennifer; Lundegaard, Pia Rengtved; Reynolds, Natalie L

    2008-01-01

    Zebrafish rapidly alter their pigmentation in response to environmental changes. For black melanocytes, this change is due to aggregation or dispersion of melanin in the cell. Dispersion and aggregation are controlled by intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, which increase...... in mammals, and melanosome dispersal in cold-blood vertebrates, the pathway components are highly conserved. However, it has only been assumed that mc1r mediates melanosome dispersal in fish. Here, using morpholino oligonucleotides designed to knockdown mc1r expression, we find that mc1r morphants are unable...... to disperse melanosomes when grown in dark conditions. We also use chemical modifiers of the cAMP pathway, and find an unexpected response to the specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram, in melanosome dispersal. When treated with the drug, melanosomes fail to fully disperse in dark conditions...

  16. Personal Background Interview of Jim McBarron

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBarron, Jim; Wright, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Jim McBarron exhibits a wealth of knowledge gathered from more than 40 years of experience with NASA, EVA, and spacesuits. His biography, progression of work at NASA, impact on EVA and the U.S. spacesuit, and career accomplishments are of interest to many. Wright, from the JSC History Office, conducted a personal background interview with McBarron. This interview highlighted the influences and decision-making methods that impacted McBarron's technical and management contributions to the space program. Attendees gained insight on the external and internal NASA influences on career progression within the EVA and spacesuit, and the type of accomplishments and technical advances that committed individuals can make. He concluded the presentation with a question and answer period that included a brief discussion about close calls and Russian spacesuits.

  17. Non-Wovens as Sound Reducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakova, D.; Seile, A.; Kukle, S.; Plamus, T.

    2018-04-01

    Within the present study, the effect of hemp (40 wt%) and polyactide (60 wt%), non-woven surface density, thickness and number of fibre web layers on the sound absorption coefficient and the sound transmission loss in the frequency range from 50 to 5000 Hz is analysed. The sound insulation properties of the experimental samples have been determined, compared to the ones in practical use, and the possible use of material has been defined. Non-woven materials are ideally suited for use in acoustic insulation products because the arrangement of fibres produces a porous material structure, which leads to a greater interaction between sound waves and fibre structure. Of all the tested samples (A, B and D), the non-woven variant B exceeded the surface density of sample A by 1.22 times and 1.15 times that of sample D. By placing non-wovens one above the other in 2 layers, it is possible to increase the absorption coefficient of the material, which depending on the frequency corresponds to C, D, and E sound absorption classes. Sample A demonstrates the best sound absorption of all the three samples in the frequency range from 250 to 2000 Hz. In the test frequency range from 50 to 5000 Hz, the sound transmission loss varies from 0.76 (Sample D at 63 Hz) to 3.90 (Sample B at 5000 Hz).

  18. Deterministic Approach to Detect Heart Sound Irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mengko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to detect heart sound that does not require machine learning is proposed. The heart sound is a time series event which is generated by the heart mechanical system. From the analysis of heart sound S-transform and the understanding of how heart works, it can be deducted that each heart sound component has unique properties in terms of timing, frequency, and amplitude. Based on these facts, a deterministic method can be designed to identify each heart sound components. The recorded heart sound then can be printed with each component correctly labeled. This greatly help the physician to diagnose the heart problem. The result shows that most known heart sounds were successfully detected. There are some murmur cases where the detection failed. This can be improved by adding more heuristics including setting some initial parameters such as noise threshold accurately, taking into account the recording equipment and also the environmental condition. It is expected that this method can be integrated into an electronic stethoscope biomedical system.

  19. Research and Implementation of Heart Sound Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yutai; Wang, Yanxiang

    Heart sound is one of the most important signals. However, the process of getting heart sound signal can be interfered with many factors outside. Heart sound is weak electric signal and even weak external noise may lead to the misjudgment of pathological and physiological information in this signal, thus causing the misjudgment of disease diagnosis. As a result, it is a key to remove the noise which is mixed with heart sound. In this paper, a more systematic research and analysis which is involved in heart sound denoising based on matlab has been made. The study of heart sound denoising based on matlab firstly use the powerful image processing function of matlab to transform heart sound signals with noise into the wavelet domain through wavelet transform and decomposition these signals in muli-level. Then for the detail coefficient, soft thresholding is made using wavelet transform thresholding to eliminate noise, so that a signal denoising is significantly improved. The reconstructed signals are gained with stepwise coefficient reconstruction for the processed detail coefficient. Lastly, 50HZ power frequency and 35 Hz mechanical and electrical interference signals are eliminated using a notch filter.

  20. Misconceptions About Sound Among Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaén, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the extent to which they are held (quantitative aspect). Our second objective was to explore other misconceptions about wave aspects of sound. We have also considered the degree of consistency in the model of sound used by each student. Forty students answered a questionnaire including open-ended questions. Based on their free, spontaneous answers, the main results were as follows: a large majority of students answered most of the questions regarding the microscopic model of sound according to the scientifically accepted model; however, only a small number answered consistently. The main model misconception found was the notion that sound is propagated through the travelling of air particles, even in solids. Misconceptions and mental-model inconsistencies tended to depend on the engineering programme in which the student was enrolled. However, students in general were inconsistent also in applying their model of sound to individual sound properties. The main conclusion is that our students have not truly internalised the scientifically accepted model that they have allegedly learnt. This implies a need to design learning activities that take these findings into account in order to be truly efficient.