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Sample records for mb size select

  1. Real time data compactor (sparsifier) and 8 megabyte high speed FIFO for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.E.; Knickerbocker, K.L.; Wegner, C.R.; Baumbaugh, B.W.; Ruchti, R.

    1985-10-01

    A Video-Data-Acquisition-System (VDAS) has been developed to record image data from a scintillating glass fiber-optic target developed for High Energy Physics. The major components of the VDAS are a flash ADC, a ''real time'' high speed data compactor, and high speed 8 megabyte FIFO memory. The data rates through the system are in excess of 30 megabytes/second. The compactor is capable of reducing the amount of data needed to reconstruct typical images by as much as a factor of 20. The FIFO uses only standard NMOS DRAMS and TTL components to achieve its large size and high speed at relatively low power and cost

  2. Terabytes to Megabytes: Data Reduction Onsite for Remote Limited Bandwidth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, M.

    2016-12-01

    Inexpensive, battery-powerable embedded computer systems such as the Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi have inspired makers of all ages to create and deploy sensor systems. Geoscientists are also leveraging such inexpensive embedded computers for solar-powered or other low-resource utilization systems for ionospheric observation. We have developed OpenCV-based machine vision algorithms to reduce terabytes per night of high-speed aurora video data down to megabytes of data to aid in automated sifting and retention of high-value data from the mountains of less interesting data. Given prohibitively expensive data connections in many parts of the world, such techniques may be generalizable to more than just the auroral video and passive FM radar implemented so far. After the automated algorithm decides which data to keep, automated upload and distribution techniques are relevant to avoid excessive delay and consumption of researcher time. Open-source collaborative software development enables data audiences from experts through citizen enthusiasts to access the data and make exciting plots. Open software and data aids in cross-disciplinary collaboration opportunities, STEM outreach and increasing public awareness of the contributions each geoscience data collection system makes.

  3. MIBS breadboard ready for testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; de Goeij, Bryan; Boslooper, Erik

    2017-11-01

    MIBS is a spectrometer operating in the thermal infrared wavelength region, designed in frame of the phase A study for the ESA EarthCARE mission as part of the multispectral Imaging instrument MSI, which uses a 2D microbolometer array detector in stead of the more common MCT detectors. Utilization of a microbolometer and using an integrated calibration system, results in a sensor with a size and mass reduction of at least an order of magnitude when compared to currently flying instruments with similar spectral resolution. In order to demonstrate feasiblity a breadboard has been designed, which will be build and aligned in 2006 and will be ready for testing the forth quarter of 2006.

  4. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  5. Detection of genomic variation by selection of a 9 mb DNA region and high throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I Nikolaev

    Full Text Available Detection of the rare polymorphisms and causative mutations of genetic diseases in a targeted genomic area has become a major goal in order to understand genomic and phenotypic variability. We have interrogated repeat-masked regions of 8.9 Mb on human chromosomes 21 (7.8 Mb and 7 (1.1 Mb from an individual from the International HapMap Project (NA12872. We have optimized a method of genomic selection for high throughput sequencing. Microarray-based selection and sequencing resulted in 260-fold enrichment, with 41% of reads mapping to the target region. 83% of SNPs in the targeted region had at least 4-fold sequence coverage and 54% at least 15-fold. When assaying HapMap SNPs in NA12872, our sequence genotypes are 91.3% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 4-fold, and 97.9% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 15-fold. About 81% of the SNPs recovered with both thresholds are listed in dbSNP. We observed that regions with low sequence coverage occur in close proximity to low-complexity DNA. Validation experiments using Sanger sequencing were performed for 46 SNPs with 15-20 fold coverage, with a confirmation rate of 96%, suggesting that DNA selection provides an accurate and cost-effective method for identifying rare genomic variants.

  6. Analysis of DNA restriction fragments greater than 5.7 Mb in size from the centromeric region of human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arn, P H; Li, X; Smith, C; Hsu, M; Schwartz, D C; Jabs, E W

    1991-01-01

    Pulsed electrophoresis was used to study the organization of the human centromeric region. Genomic DNA was digested with rare-cutting enzymes. DNA fragments from 0.2 to greater than 5.7 Mb were separated by electrophoresis and hybridized with alphoid and simple DNA repeats. Rare-cutting enzymes (Mlu I, Nar I, Not I, Nru I, Sal I, Sfi I, Sst II) demonstrated fewer restriction sites at centromeric regions than elsewhere in the genome. The enzyme Not I had the fewest restriction sites at centromeric regions. As much as 70% of these sequences from the centromeric region are present in Not I DNA fragments greater than 5.7 and estimated to be as large as 10 Mb in size. Other repetitive sequences such as short interspersed repeated segments (SINEs), long interspersed repeated segments (LINEs), ribosomal DNA, and mini-satellite DNA that are not enriched at the centromeric region, are not enriched in Not I fragments of greater than 5.7 Mb in size.

  7. ER, p53 and MIB-1 are significantly associated with malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati H Munawer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllodes tumors (PT are rare. We evaluated the expression status of ER, Bcl2, p53, and MIB-1 protein in these tumors. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three tumors were examined using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. Results: ERβ (p <0.001, and p53 (p=0.006 in the stromal component were associated with tumor size. p53 expression was significantly associated with both epithelial and stro­mal components of malignant PTs (p<0.05. In PT, the decreased expressions of p53 and MIB-1 were significantly different with positive Bcl2 protein expression in epi­thelial component (p=0.000. Besides, MIB-1 was also found to be associated with ERα and ERβ in stromal component (p=0.000. Conclusion: The expression of p53 with tumor size and histological grade in PTs may increase risk for malignancy.

  8. Remote MIB item look-up service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko; Boros, S.; Helthuis, Bert

    Despite some deficiencies, the Internet management framework is widely deployed and thousands of Management Information Base (MIB) modules have been defined thus far. These modules are used by implementors of agent software, as well as by managers and management applications, to understand the

  9. Proliferative activity (MIB-1 index) is an independent prognostic parameter in patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of subtypes other than malignant fibrous histiocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bentzen, S M

    1998-01-01

    . The proliferative activity was assessed by use of the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and evaluated in multiple, random systematic sampled fields of vision. The percentage of proliferating cells (the MIB-1 index) ranged between 1% and 85% (median 12%). A significant increase in mean MIB-1 index was seen with increasing...... histological malignancy grade. Variation in the incidence of p53 accumulation and bcl-2 positivity among different histological subtypes was observed. p53 accumulation was frequent in synovial sarcomas and leiomyo- and rhabdomyosarcomas, whereas bcl-2 preferentially was expressed in synovial sarcomas....... Univariate analysis identified patient age, tumour size, histological grade of malignancy, MIB-1 index and p53 accumulation as significant prognostic parameters. Multivariate Cox analysis, including tests for interaction terms between histological subtypes and MIB-1 index, showed independent prognostic...

  10. Biomimetic supercontainers for size-selective electrochemical sensing of molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, Nathan L.; Must, Indrek; Qiao, Yupu; Zhang, Shi-Li; Wang, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    New ionophores are essential for advancing the art of selective ion sensing. Metal-organic supercontainers (MOSCs), a new family of biomimetic coordination capsules designed using sulfonylcalix[4]arenes as container precursors, are known for their tunable molecular recognition capabilities towards an array of guests. Herein, we demonstrate the use of MOSCs as a new class of size-selective ionophores dedicated to electrochemical sensing of molecular ions. Specifically, a MOSC molecule with its cavities matching the size of methylene blue (MB+), a versatile organic molecule used for bio-recognition, was incorporated into a polymeric mixed-matrix membrane and used as an ion-selective electrode. This MOSC-incorporated electrode showed a near-Nernstian potentiometric response to MB+ in the nano- to micro-molar range. The exceptional size-selectivity was also evident through contrast studies. To demonstrate the practical utility of our approach, a simulated wastewater experiment was conducted using water from the Fyris River (Sweden). It not only showed a near-Nernstian response to MB+ but also revealed a possible method for potentiometric titration of the redox indicator. Our study thus represents a new paradigm for the rational design of ionophores that can rapidly and precisely monitor molecular ions relevant to environmental, biomedical, and other related areas.

  11. Brave New World: Frontware, Megabytes, and Integrated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Several experts in the field of college financial administration offer their insights into the emerging relationship between high technology and financial management, focusing on the role of the institution's chief business officer. Topics include efficiency, cost effectiveness, organizational communication, homegrown vs. packaged software…

  12. Estimation of infarct size by myocardial emission computed tomography with thallium-201 and its relation to creatine kinase-MB release after myocardial infarction in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, S.; Nakajima, H.; Murakami, T.

    1982-01-01

    Emission computed tomography (ECT) for thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial imaging was evaluated in estimating infarct size (IS). In 18 patients in whom IS was estimated enzymatically at the time of the acute episode, planar 201 Tl perfusion scintigraphy and ECT with a rotating gamma camera were performed 4 weeks after the first myocardial infarction. From the size of 201 Tl perfusion defects, the infarct area in planar images and the infarct volume in reconsturcted ECT images were measured by computerized planimetry. When scintigraphic IS was compared with the accumulated creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme release (CK-MBr), infarct volume determined from ECT correlated closely with CK-MBr (r=0.89), whereas infarct area measured from planar images correlated less satisfactorily with the enzymatic IS (for an average infarct area from three views, r=0.69; for the largest infarct area, r=0.73). Although conventional scintigraphic evaluation is useful for detecting and localizing infarction, quantification of ischemic injury with this two-dimensional technique has a significant inherent limitation. The ECT approach can provide a more accurate three-dimensional quantitative estimate of infarction, and can corroborate the enzymatic estimate of IS

  13. Estimation of infarct size by myocardial emission computed tomography with 201Tl and its relation to creatine kinase-MB release after myocardial infarction in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, S.; Nakajima, H.; Murakami, T.

    1982-01-01

    We evaluated emission computed tomography (ECT) 201 Tl myocardial imaging in estimating infarct size (IS). In 18 patients in whom IS was estimated enzymatically at the time of the acute episode, planar 201 Tl perfusion scintigraphy and ECT with a rotating gamma camera were performed 4 weeks after the first myocardial infarction. From the size of 201 Tl perfusion defects, the infarct area in planar images and the infarct volume in reconstructed ECT images were measured by computerized planimetry. When scintigraphic IS was compared with the accumulated creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme release (CK-MBr), infarct volume determined from ECT correlated closely with CK-MBr (r . 0.89), whereas infarct area measured from planar images correlated less satisfactorily with the enzymatic IS (for an average infarct area from three views, r . 0.69; for the largest infarct area, r . 0.73). Although conventional scintigraphic evaluation is useful for detecting and localizing infarction, quantification of ischemic injury with this two-dimensional technique has a significant inherent limitation. The ECT approach can provide a more accurate three-dimensional quantitative estimate of infarction, and can corroborate the enzymatic estimate of IS

  14. Selective regain of egfr gene copies in CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer cellular model MDA-MB-468

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Buerger, Horst; Brandt, Burkhard; Greve, Burkhard; Schmidt, Hartmut; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Bartkowiak, Kai; Andreas, Antje; Wieczorek, Marek; Korsching, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Increased transcription of oncogenes like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently caused by amplification of the whole gene or at least of regulatory sequences. Aim of this study was to pinpoint mechanistic parameters occurring during egfr copy number gains leading to a stable EGFR overexpression and high sensitivity to extracellular signalling. A deeper understanding of those marker events might improve early diagnosis of cancer in suspect lesions, early detection of cancer progression and the prediction of egfr targeted therapies. The basal-like/stemness type breast cancer cell line subpopulation MDA-MB-468 CD44 high /CD24 -/low , carrying high egfr amplifications, was chosen as a model system in this study. Subclones of the heterogeneous cell line expressing low and high EGF receptor densities were isolated by cell sorting. Genomic profiling was carried out for these by means of SNP array profiling, qPCR and FISH. Cell cycle analysis was performed using the BrdU quenching technique. Low and high EGFR expressing MDA-MB-468 CD44 + /CD24 -/low subpopulations separated by cell sorting showed intermediate and high copy numbers of egfr, respectively. However, during cell culture an increase solely for egfr gene copy numbers in the intermediate subpopulation occurred. This shift was based on the formation of new cells which regained egfr gene copies. By two parametric cell cycle analysis clonal effects mediated through growth advantage of cells bearing higher egfr gene copy numbers could most likely be excluded for being the driving force. Subsequently, the detection of a fragile site distal to the egfr gene, sustaining uncapped telomere-less chromosomal ends, the ladder-like structure of the intrachromosomal egfr amplification and a broader range of egfr copy numbers support the assumption that dynamic chromosomal rearrangements, like breakage-fusion-bridge-cycles other than proliferation drive the gain of egfr copies. Progressive genome modulation

  15. Florida-specific NTCIP management information base (MIB) for closed-circuit television (CCTV) camera : final draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Description: This following MIB has been developed for use by FDOT. This : proposed Florida-Specific NTCIP Management Information Base (MIB) For : Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) Camera MIB is based on the following : documentations: : NTCIP 120...

  16. Myocardial infarct size vs duration of coronary artery occlusion in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction. Assessment by thallium-201 emission tomography, gated cardiac pool study and CK-MB release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Shunichi; Kambara, Hirofumi; Kadota, Kazunori; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yukisono [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1984-03-01

    Relationship between the duration of coronary artery occlusion and myocardial infarct size was investigated in 24 patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction associated with occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. The duration of coronary artery occlusion was divided into (A) 4 hours or less, (B) 4-10 hours, and (C) 10 hours or more. Defect score obtained by thallium-201 emission computed tomography was significantly greater, and left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower as the duration of coronary artery occlusion increased. Creatine kinase-MB (..sigma..CK-MB) was higher in cases of longer duration of occlusion. However, this was not significant between the groups A and B, suggesting the influence of reperfusion on the ..sigma..CK-MB release. The duration of coronary artery occlusion was considered to be an important factor to determine the infarct size, and significance of early reperfusion was suggested.

  17. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  18. (−)-Xanthatin Selectively Induces GADD45γ and Stimulates Caspase-Independent Cell Death in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuso; Matsuo, Kazumasa; Yaji, Kentaro; Okajima-Miyazaki, Shunsuke; Harada, Mari; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Shindo, Mitsuru; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    exo-Methylene lactone group-containing compounds, such as (−)-xanthatin, are present in a large variety of biologically active natural products, including extracts of Xanthium strumarium (Cocklebur). These substances are reported to possess diverse functional activities, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and anticancer potential. In this study, we synthesized six structurally related xanthanolides containing exo-methylene lactone moieties, including (−)-xanthatin and (+)-8-epi-xanthatin, and examined the effects of these chemically defined substances on the highly aggressive and farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI)-resistant MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line. The results obtained demonstrate that (−)-xanthatin was a highly effective inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 cell growth, inducing caspase-independent cell death, and that these effects were independent of FTase inhibition. Further, our results show that among the GADD45 isoforms, GADD45γ was selectively induced by (−)-xanthatin and that GADD45γ-primed JNK and p38 signaling pathways are, at least in part, involved in mediating the growth inhibition and potential anticancer activities of this agent. Given that GADD45γ is becoming increasingly recognized for its tumor suppressor function, the results presented here suggest the novel possibility that (−)-xanthatin may have therapeutic value as a selective inducer of GADD45γ in human cancer cells, in particular in FTI-resistant aggressive breast cancers. PMID:21568272

  19. Aerosol size characteristics in selected working areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the work done to study the aerosol activity size distributions and their respirable fractions in some selected areas of the Juelich Nuclear Research Center. Anderson cascade impactors were used to find the aerodynamic size ranges of the airborne particles for subsequent analysis of activity associated with each size group. The aerosols were found to follow in general log-normal distributions in the hot cells with values of AMAD between 5 and 10 μm. Measurements in the AVR containment and decontamination laboratory in Uranit GmbH showed deviations from log-normal distribution. In the waste press area the distribution is sometimes log-normal and sometimes not, depending upon the origin of waste. The values of AMAD are in the range of 2 to 4 μm in these areas. The respirable fractions were calculated using ACGIH definition for respirable dust to be < 25% in hot cells and < 60% in other areas. Pulmonary depositions according to ICRP model were < 10% and < 15% respectively. (orig./HP)

  20. ER, p53 and MIB-1 are significantly associated with malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawer, Nurhayati H; Md Zin, Reena; Md Ali, Siti-Aishah; Muhammad, Rohaizak; Ali, Jasmi; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FA) are common while phyllodes tumors (PT) are rare and both tumors are composed of epithelial and stromal components. We evaluated the expression status of ER, Bc12, p53, and MIB-1 protein in these tumors. One hundred and ninety-three tumors comprising of 117 FAs and 76 PTs were examined using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. The mean age of patients with FA was 28.5 years while the mean ages of patients with benign, borderline and malignant PTs were 41.7, 48.6 and 42.1 years, respectively. Also all types of PTs were large (>Scm). ER showed a strong nuclear staining in the epithelial component of all tumors while ER/3 immunoreactivity was detected in both the epithelial and stromal components ofF A and PT. ER/β (pcomponent were associated with tumor size. p53 expression was significantly associated with both the epithelial and stromal components of malignant PTs (pcomponent (p=0.000). In addition, MIB-1 was also found to be associated with ER and ER/3 in the stromal component (p=0.000). The expression of p53 with tumor size and histological grade in PT may increase the risk for malignancy.

  1. Mib1 contributes to persistent directional cell migration by regulating the Ctnnd1-Rac1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Ikeda, Shoko; Watanabe, Saori; Sugawara, Michiko; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2017-10-31

    Persistent directional cell migration is involved in animal development and diseases. The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in F-actin and focal adhesion dynamics. Local Rac1 activity is required for persistent directional migration, whereas global, hyperactivated Rac1 enhances random cell migration. Therefore, precise control of Rac1 activity is important for proper directional cell migration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of Rac1 activity in persistent directional cell migration is not fully understood. Here, we show that the ubiquitin ligase mind bomb 1 (Mib1) is involved in persistent directional cell migration. We found that knockdown of MIB1 led to an increase in random cell migration in HeLa cells in a wound-closure assay. Furthermore, we explored novel Mib1 substrates for cell migration and found that Mib1 ubiquitinates Ctnnd1. Mib1-mediated ubiquitination of Ctnnd1 K547 attenuated Rac1 activation in cultured cells. In addition, we found that posterior lateral line primordium cells in the zebrafish mib1 ta52b mutant showed increased random migration and loss of directional F-actin-based protrusion formation. Knockdown of Ctnnd1 partially rescued posterior lateral line primordium cell migration defects in the mib1 ta52b mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that Mib1 plays an important role in cell migration and that persistent directional cell migration is regulated, at least in part, by the Mib1-Ctnnd1-Rac1 pathway. Published under the PNAS license.

  2. Removal of geosmin and 2-methylisorboneol (2-MIB) in water from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geosmin and 2-methylisorboneol (2-MIB) are major organic pollutants ... The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) in the removal of geosmin and 2-MIB is ... were extracted from water samples by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and ...

  3. Fluctuating survival selection explains variation in avian group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Roche, Erin A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Page, Catherine E

    2016-05-03

    Most animal groups vary extensively in size. Because individuals in certain sizes of groups often have higher apparent fitness than those in other groups, why wide group size variation persists in most populations remains unexplained. We used a 30-y mark-recapture study of colonially breeding cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) to show that the survival advantages of different colony sizes fluctuated among years. Colony size was under both stabilizing and directional selection in different years, and reversals in the sign of directional selection regularly occurred. Directional selection was predicted in part by drought conditions: birds in larger colonies tended to be favored in cooler and wetter years, and birds in smaller colonies in hotter and drier years. Oscillating selection on colony size likely reflected annual differences in food availability and the consequent importance of information transfer, and/or the level of ectoparasitism, with the net benefit of sociality varying under these different conditions. Averaged across years, there was no net directional change in selection on colony size. The wide range in cliff swallow group size is probably maintained by fluctuating survival selection and represents the first case, to our knowledge, in which fitness advantages of different group sizes regularly oscillate over time in a natural vertebrate population.

  4. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Alicino, V; Ionta, B; Bosco, S; Grande, C; Bruno, M; Tranquilli Leali, F M; Ionta, G; Fumagalli, L

    2010-03-11

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer .The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  5. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Artico

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer .The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively.1 Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases. Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67, CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3 and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1 of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers

  6. Granular activated carbon adsorption of MIB in the presence of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R Scott; Kim, Soo Myung; Shimabuku, Kyle; Chae, Seon-Ha; Corwin, Christopher J

    2013-06-15

    Based on the results of over twenty laboratory granular activated carbon (GAC) column runs, models were developed and utilized for the prediction of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) breakthrough behavior at parts per trillion levels and verified with pilot-scale data. The influent MIB concentration was found not to impact the concentration normalized breakthrough. Increasing influent background dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration was found to systematically decrease the GAC adsorption capacity for MIB. A series of empirical models were developed that related the throughput in bed volumes for a range of MIB breakthrough targets to the influent DOM concentration. The proportional diffusivity (PD) designed rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) could be directly used to scale-up MIB breakthrough performance below 15% breakthrough. The empirical model to predict the throughput to 50% breakthrough based on the influent DOM concentration served as input to the pore diffusion model (PDM) and well-predicted the MIB breakthrough performance below a 50% breakthrough. The PDM predictions of throughput to 10% breakthrough well simulated the PD-RSSCT and pilot-scale 10% MIB breakthrough. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MIB-producing cyanobacteria (Planktothrix sp.) in a drinking water reservoir: distribution and odor producing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Junzhi; Chen, Hui; An, Wei; Vogt, Rolf D; Andersen, Tom; Jia, Dongmin; Wang, Jingshi; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    The production of odorant 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in water bodies by Planktothrix sp. have not been understood very well. Through a four-year investigation in Miyun Reservoir, a huge mesotrophic drinking water reservoir known to have the MIB episodes, we found that the Planktothrix sp. bloomed during September and October causing the high levels of MIB in the reservoir. The concentration of MIB and the biomass of MIB-producing cyanobacteria Planktothrix were measured (n = 887) at different sites and depths during different seasons. The results indicated that the shallow region of the reservoir is the major habitat for Planktothrix sp. due to that the light is able to penetrate down to the relatively high concentrations of nutrients close to the sediments. Quantile regression analysis between Planktothrix biomass and MIB concentration shows that the risk of MIB exceeding the odor threshold (15 ng L⁻¹) in water was as high as 90% when the Planktothrix density was more than 4.0 × 10⁵ cells L⁻¹, while the risk was reduced to 10% when the Planktothrix density remained below 1.6 × 10⁴ cells L⁻¹. This study will improve the understanding of the environmental behaviors of Planktothrix sp., and can provide useful information for better management of drinking water lakes/reservoirs experiencing the taste and odor (T&O) problems caused by deep living cyanobacterial species.

  8. Selection dramatically reduces effective population size in HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittler John E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In HIV-1 evolution, a 100–100,000 fold discrepancy between census size and effective population size (Ne has been noted. Although it is well known that selection can reduce Ne, high in vivo mutation and recombination rates complicate attempts to quantify the effects of selection on HIV-1 effective size. Results We use the inbreeding coefficient and the variance in allele frequency at a linked neutral locus to estimate the reduction in Ne due to selection in the presence of mutation and recombination. With biologically realistic mutation rates, the reduction in Ne due to selection is determined by the strength of selection, i.e., the stronger the selection, the greater the reduction. However, the dependence of Ne on selection can break down if recombination rates are very high (e.g., r ≥ 0.1. With biologically likely recombination rates, our model suggests that recurrent selective sweeps similar to those observed in vivo can reduce within-host HIV-1 effective population sizes by a factor of 300 or more. Conclusion Although other factors, such as unequal viral reproduction rates and limited migration between tissue compartments contribute to reductions in Ne, our model suggests that recurrent selection plays a significant role in reducing HIV-1 effective population sizes in vivo.

  9. Equal Susceptibility and Size-selective Mobility in Aeolian Saltation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.; Kok, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Natural wind-eroded soils generally contain a mixture of particle sizes. However, models for aeolian saltation are typically derived for sediment bed surfaces containing only a single particle size. To treat natural mixed beds, models for saltation and associated dust aerosol emission have typically simplified aeolian transport either as a series of non-interacting single particle size beds or as a bed containing only the median or mean particle size. Here, we test these common assumptions underpinning aeolian transport models using measurements of size-resolved saltation fluxes at three natural field sites. We find that a wide range of sand size classes experience "equal susceptibility" to saltation at a single common threshold wind shear stress, contrary to the "selective susceptibility" expected for treatment of a mixed bed as multiple single particle size beds. Furthermore, we observe strong size-selectivity in the mobility of different particle sizes, which is not adequately accounted for in current models. At all field sites, mobility is enhanced for particles that are 0.4-0.8 times the median bed particle diameter, while mobility declines rapidly with increasing particle size above this range. We further observe that the most mobile particles also experience the largest saltation heights, which helps to explain variations in size-selective mobility. These observations refute the common simplification of saltation as a series of non-interacting single particle sizes. Sand transport and dust emission models that use this incorrect assumption can be both simplified and improved by instead using a single particle size representative of the mixed bed.

  10. 10 MB disk platter from CDC 7638

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic disk was one of three which interfaced with various Control Data machines. This single platter came from a Control Data 7638 Disk Storage Subsystem and could contain up to 10MB - about the size of a few MP4's on your iPod.

  11. Uniform deposition of size-selected clusters using Lissajous scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniya, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihide; Hirata, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Size-selected clusters can be deposited on the surface using size-selected cluster ion beams. However, because of the cross-sectional intensity distribution of the ion beam, it is difficult to define the coverage of the deposited clusters. The aggregation probability of the cluster depends on coverage, whereas cluster size on the surface depends on the position, despite the size-selected clusters are deposited. It is crucial, therefore, to deposit clusters uniformly on the surface. In this study, size-selected clusters were deposited uniformly on surfaces by scanning the cluster ions in the form of Lissajous pattern. Two sets of deflector electrodes set in orthogonal directions were placed in front of the sample surface. Triangular waves were applied to the electrodes with an irrational frequency ratio to ensure that the ion trajectory filled the sample surface. The advantages of this method are simplicity and low cost of setup compared with raster scanning method. The authors further investigated CO adsorption on size-selected Pt n (n = 7, 15, 20) clusters uniformly deposited on the Al 2 O 3 /NiAl(110) surface and demonstrated the importance of uniform deposition.

  12. Uniform deposition of size-selected clusters using Lissajous scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beniya, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Hirata, Hirohito [Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Size-selected clusters can be deposited on the surface using size-selected cluster ion beams. However, because of the cross-sectional intensity distribution of the ion beam, it is difficult to define the coverage of the deposited clusters. The aggregation probability of the cluster depends on coverage, whereas cluster size on the surface depends on the position, despite the size-selected clusters are deposited. It is crucial, therefore, to deposit clusters uniformly on the surface. In this study, size-selected clusters were deposited uniformly on surfaces by scanning the cluster ions in the form of Lissajous pattern. Two sets of deflector electrodes set in orthogonal directions were placed in front of the sample surface. Triangular waves were applied to the electrodes with an irrational frequency ratio to ensure that the ion trajectory filled the sample surface. The advantages of this method are simplicity and low cost of setup compared with raster scanning method. The authors further investigated CO adsorption on size-selected Pt{sub n} (n = 7, 15, 20) clusters uniformly deposited on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl(110) surface and demonstrated the importance of uniform deposition.

  13. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  14. Sexual selection and the evolution of brain size in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A

    2006-12-20

    Reproductive competition among males has long been considered a powerful force in the evolution of primates. The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to our understanding of primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and the evolutionary development of brain size is not well studied. The present research examines the evolutionary relationship between brain size and two components of primate sexual selection, sperm competition and male competition for mates. Results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between relative brain size and sperm competition as measured by relative testis size in primates, suggesting sperm competition has not played an important role in the evolution of brain size in the primate order. There is, however, a significant negative evolutionary relationship between relative brain size and the level of male competition for mates. The present study shows that the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting primate monogamy may require greater social acuity and abilities of deception.

  15. Sexual selection and the evolution of brain size in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schillaci

    Full Text Available Reproductive competition among males has long been considered a powerful force in the evolution of primates. The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to our understanding of primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and the evolutionary development of brain size is not well studied. The present research examines the evolutionary relationship between brain size and two components of primate sexual selection, sperm competition and male competition for mates. Results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between relative brain size and sperm competition as measured by relative testis size in primates, suggesting sperm competition has not played an important role in the evolution of brain size in the primate order. There is, however, a significant negative evolutionary relationship between relative brain size and the level of male competition for mates. The present study shows that the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting primate monogamy may require greater social acuity and abilities of deception.

  16. Unravelling anisogamy: egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on morphology in free-swimming sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-07-13

    Gamete dimorphism (anisogamy) defines the sexes in most multicellular organisms. Theoretical explanations for its maintenance usually emphasize the size-related selection pressures of sperm competition and zygote survival, assuming that fertilization of all eggs precludes selection for phenotypes that enhance fertility. In external fertilizers, however, fertilization is often incomplete due to sperm limitation, and the risk of polyspermy weakens the advantage of high sperm numbers that is predicted to limit sperm size, allowing alternative selection pressures to target free-swimming sperm. We asked whether egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on the free-swimming sperm of Galeolaria caespitosa, a marine tubeworm with external fertilization, by comparing relationships between sperm morphology and male fertility across manipulations of egg size and sperm density. Our results suggest that selection pressures exerted by these factors may aid the maintenance of anisogamy in external fertilizers by limiting the adaptive value of larger sperm in the absence of competition. In doing so, our study offers a more complete explanation for the stability of anisogamy across the range of sperm environments typical of this mating system and identifies new potential for the sexes to coevolve via mutual selection pressures exerted by gametes at fertilization. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Perspective: Size selected clusters for catalysis and electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Avik; Curtiss, Larry A.; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Vajda, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Size-selected clusters containing a handful of atoms may possess noble catalytic properties different from nano-sized or bulk catalysts. Size- and composition-selected clusters can also serve as models of the catalytic active site, where an addition or removal of a single atom can have a dramatic effect on their activity and selectivity. In this perspective, we provide an overview of studies performed under both ultra-high vacuum and realistic reaction conditions aimed at the interrogation, characterization, and understanding of the performance of supported size-selected clusters in heterogeneous and electrochemical reactions, which address the effects of cluster size, cluster composition, cluster-support interactions, and reaction conditions, the key parameters for the understanding and control of catalyst functionality. Computational modeling based on density functional theory sampling of local minima and energy barriers or ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is an integral part of this research by providing fundamental understanding of the catalytic processes at the atomic level, as well as by predicting new materials compositions which can be validated in experiments. Finally, we discuss approaches which aim at the scale up of the production of well-defined clusters for use in real world applications.

  18. Size-selective detection in integrated optical interferometric biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Harmen K P; Ymeti, Aurel; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S

    2012-01-01

    We present a new size-selective detection method for integrated optical interferometric biosensors that can strongly enhance their performance. We demonstrate that by launching multiple wavelengths into a Young interferometer waveguide sensor it is feasible to derive refractive index changes from

  19. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we investigated whether stress caused by artificial bidirectional selection for body size has any effect on the levels of FA of different morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae. The realised heritability (h2) was higher in low-line females and high-line males, which suggests an asymmetrical response to ...

  20. Model catalysis by size-selected cluster deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-11-20

    This report summarizes the accomplishments during the last four years of the subject grant. Results are presented for experiments in which size-selected model catalysts were studied under surface science and aqueous electrochemical conditions. Strong effects of cluster size were found, and by correlating the size effects with size-dependent physical properties of the samples measured by surface science methods, it was possible to deduce mechanistic insights, such as the factors that control the rate-limiting step in the reactions. Results are presented for CO oxidation, CO binding energetics and geometries, and electronic effects under surface science conditions, and for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction, ethanol oxidation reaction, and for oxidation of carbon by water.

  1. Corridors of barchan dunes: Stability and size selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersen, P.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Elbelrhiti, H.

    2004-01-01

    state. Second, the propagation speed of dunes decreases with the size of the dune: this leads, through the collision process, to a coarsening of barchan fields. We show that these phenomena are not specific to the model, but result from general and robust mechanisms. The length scales needed...... for these instabilities to develop are derived and discussed. They turn out to be much smaller than the dune field length. As a conclusion, there should exist further, yet unknown, mechanisms regulating and selecting the size of dunes....

  2. Size dependent magnetism of mass selected deposited transition metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, T.

    2002-05-01

    The size dependent magnetic properties of small iron clusters deposited on ultrathin Ni/Cu(100) films have been studied with circularly polarised synchrotron radiation. For X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies, the magnetic moments of size selected clusters were aligned perpendicular to the sample surface. Exchange coupling of the clusters to the ultrathin Ni/Cu(100) film determines the orientation of their magnetic moments. All clusters are coupled ferromagnetically to the underlayer. With the use of sum rules, orbital and spin magnetic moments as well as their ratios have been extracted from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra. The ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moments varies considerably as a function of cluster size, reflecting the dependence of magnetic properties on cluster size and geometry. These variations can be explained in terms of a strongly size dependent orbital moment. Both orbital and spin magnetic moments are significantly enhanced in small clusters as compared to bulk iron, although this effect is more pronounced for the spin moment. Magnetic properties of deposited clusters are governed by the interplay of cluster specific properties on the one hand and cluster-substrate interactions on the other hand. Size dependent variations of magnetic moments are modified upon contact with the substrate. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Stent Graft Sizing and Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L.; Bech, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives and background: The aims of this study were to develop a test of competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) stent graft sizing and selection; to examine the test for evidence of validity; and to explore the experience required for the task. Methods: The test was developed based...... measurements, Mann-Whitney U test could discriminate between experts and novices (p = .002), between experts and intermediates (p = .010), and between novices and intermediates (p = .036). In stent selection the experts performed significantly better than both the novices and the intermediates (p = .002 and p...... of competence in vessel analysis and stent graft selection for endovascular aortic repair. This was supported by strong validity evidence with good internal consistency and discriminatory ability. The tool may be used to facilitate training and certification of future endovascular specialists....

  4. Clinicopathological significance of p16, cyclin D1, Rb and MIB-1 levels in skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-qi Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression of p16, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb and MIB-1 in skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma tissues, and to determine the clinicopathological significance of the above indexes in these diseases. Methods: A total of 100 skull base chordoma, 30 chondrosarcoma, and 20 normal cartilage tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of p16, cyclinD1, Rb and MIB-1 proteins were assessed for potential correlation with the clinicopathological features. Results: As compared to normal cartilage specimen (control, there was decreased expression of p16, and increased expression of cyclin D1, Rb and MIB-1 proteins, in both skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma specimens. MIB-1 LI levels were significantly increased in skull base chordoma specimens with negative expression of p16, and positive expression of cyclin D1 and Rb (P  0.05. However, p16 and MIB-1 levels correlated with the intradural invasion, and expression of p16, Rb and MIB-1 correlated with the number of tumor foci (P < 0.05. Further, the expression of p16 and MIB-1 appeared to correlate with the prognosis of patients with skull base chordoma. Conclusions: The abnormal expression of p16, cyclin D1 and Rb proteins might be associated with the tumorigenesis of skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma. Keywords: p16, Cyclin D1, Rb, MIB-1, Skull base chordoma, Skull base chondrosarcoma

  5. Species selectivity in different sized topless trawl designs: Does size matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Karlsen, Junita Diana

    2015-01-01

    -specific quotas. The toplesstrawl design was developed to improve species-specific selectivity in such fisheries. In a topless trawl,the foot rope is located more forward than the headline to allow fish to escape upwards, whereas theheadline is located in front in traditional trawl designs. In this study we...... Atlantic, topless trawls have been introducedas legal cod-selective trawl designs. However, this study demonstrates that identical gear modificationsmade to similar trawls of different sizes and used in the same fishery can lead to different results....

  6. Laser innovation: wallet-sized exposure history, training record, and identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroupe, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The science of lasers as used in video disks and audio compact disks has made possible very high capacity data storage. A wallet-sized card has been developed, which has a storage capacity of 1 megabyte - approx.800 typewritten pages of information. The data stored can be either machine readable or eye-readable information including photos, signatures, text, graphs, or x-rays. This technology coupled with user-friendly software, an IBM or compatible personal computer, and an optical read/write unit has made it possible to have a credit card size personal file that can be updated instantly. It is possible to have an identification card, an up-to-date complete radiation exposure history, and a training record combined into a single card

  7. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  8. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  9. Medulloblastoma: evaluation of proliferative index by monoclonal antibody Mib-1, its prognostic correlation and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Antonio Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 has been used by researchers in order to retrospectively study paraffin imbibed tumor fragments. The medulloblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in childhood. The objectives were: determination of the mean Mib-1 LI value from these patients, as well as the prognostic value of the method.This retrospective study represents an analysis of the cellular proliferation index of posterior fossa medulloblastomas collected from 22 patients at A.C. Camargo Hospital, from January 1990 to December 1999. The histopathological diagnosis was confirmed by H&E and proliferative index (LI was achived with Mib-1 which detects proliferating cells during G1, G2, S and M phases.The results demostrated that the mean Mib-1 was 30,1%, and ranged from 5,2% to 62,0%.In conclusion, this method has prognostic value, has to be used as routine for patients harboring medulloblastomas and the ones who have PI greater than the mean value found in this study, should be treated aggressively.

  10. Stimulation of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production by actinomycetes after cyclic chlorination in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Yi, Min; Alum, Absar

    2015-01-01

    The impact of fluctuation in chlorine residual on actinomycetes and the production of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were studied in cast-iron and PVC model distribution systems. Actinomycetes were spiked in each system and continued operation for a 12-day non-chlorine experiment, resulting in no changes in actinomycetes and MIB concentrations. Three cyclic chlorination events were performed and chlorine residuals were maintained as follows: 1.0 mg L(-1) for 24 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0.5 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h and 2 mg L(-1) for 24 h. After each chlorination event, 2 -3 log decrease in actinomycetes was noted in both systems. However, within 48 h at 0 mg L(-1) chlorine, the actinomycetes recovered to the pre-chlorination levels. On the contrary, MIB concentration in both systems remained un-impacted after the first cycle and increased by fourfold ( 20 mg L(-1)) after the second cycle, which lasted through the third cycle despite the fact that actinomycetes numbers fluctuated 2-3 logs during this time period. For obtaining biofilm samples from field, water meters were collected from municipality drinking water distribution systems located in central Arizona. The actinomycetes concentration in asbestos cement pipe and cast iron pipe averaged 3.1 × 10(3) and 1.9 × 10(4) CFU cm(-2), respectively. The study shows that production of MIB is associated with changes in chlorine residual in the systems. This is the first report of cyclic chlorine shock as a stimulus for MIB production by actinomycetes in drinking water distribution system's ecology.

  11. Sedimentation and the Economics of Selecting an Optimum Reservoir Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltz, David; White, David C.

    1987-08-01

    This paper attempts to develop an easily reproducible methodology for the economic selection of an optimal reservoir size given an annual sedimentation rate. The optimal capacity is that at which the marginal cost of constructing additional storage capacity is equal to the dredging costs avoided by having that additional capacity available to store sediment. The cost implications of misestimating dredging costs, construction costs, and sediment delivery rates are investigated. In general, it is shown that oversizing is a rational response to uncertainty in the estimation of parameters. The sensitivity of the results to alternative discount rates is also discussed. The theoretical discussion is illustrated with a case study drawn from Highland Silver Lake in southwestern Illinois.

  12. Chlorine dioxide is a size-selective antimicrobial agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Noszticzius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND / AIMS: ClO2, the so-called "ideal biocide", could also be applied as an antiseptic if it was understood why the solution killing microbes rapidly does not cause any harm to humans or to animals. Our aim was to find the source of that selectivity by studying its reaction-diffusion mechanism both theoretically and experimentally. METHODS: ClO2 permeation measurements through protein membranes were performed and the time delay of ClO2 transport due to reaction and diffusion was determined. To calculate ClO2 penetration depths and estimate bacterial killing times, approximate solutions of the reaction-diffusion equation were derived. In these calculations evaporation rates of ClO2 were also measured and taken into account. RESULTS: The rate law of the reaction-diffusion model predicts that the killing time is proportional to the square of the characteristic size (e.g. diameter of a body, thus, small ones will be killed extremely fast. For example, the killing time for a bacterium is on the order of milliseconds in a 300 ppm ClO2 solution. Thus, a few minutes of contact time (limited by the volatility of ClO2 is quite enough to kill all bacteria, but short enough to keep ClO2 penetration into the living tissues of a greater organism safely below 0.1 mm, minimizing cytotoxic effects when applying it as an antiseptic. Additional properties of ClO2, advantageous for an antiseptic, are also discussed. Most importantly, that bacteria are not able to develop resistance against ClO2 as it reacts with biological thiols which play a vital role in all living organisms. CONCLUSION: Selectivity of ClO2 between humans and bacteria is based not on their different biochemistry, but on their different size. We hope initiating clinical applications of this promising local antiseptic.

  13. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Darimont

    Full Text Available Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas, physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing, and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%, camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access

  14. Persistent directional selection on body size and a resolution to the paradox of stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Njal; Rowe, Locke

    2015-09-01

    Directional selection on size is common but often fails to result in microevolution in the wild. Similarly, macroevolutionary rates in size are low relative to the observed strength of selection in nature. We show that many estimates of selection on size have been measured on juveniles, not adults. Further, parents influence juvenile size by adjusting investment per offspring. In light of these observations, we help resolve this paradox by suggesting that the observed upward selection on size is balanced by selection against investment per offspring, resulting in little or no net selection gradient on size. We find that trade-offs between fecundity and juvenile size are common, consistent with the notion of selection against investment per offspring. We also find that median directional selection on size is positive for juveniles but no net directional selection exists for adult size. This is expected because parent-offspring conflict exists over size, and juvenile size is more strongly affected by investment per offspring than adult size. These findings provide qualitative support for the hypothesis that upward selection on size is balanced by selection against investment per offspring, where parent-offspring conflict over size is embodied in the opposing signs of the two selection gradients. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Selective determination of dopamine using quantum-sized gold nanoparticles protected with charge selective ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyuju; Kumar, S. Senthil; Lee, Dongil

    2012-06-01

    We report here the selective determination of dopamine (DA) using quantum-sized gold nanoparticles coated with charge selective ligands. Glutathione protected gold nanoparticles (GS-Au25) were synthesized and immobilized into a sol-gel matrix via thiol linkers. The GS-Au25 modified sol-gel electrode was found to show excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA but no activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid. The role of electrostatic charge in the selective electrocatalytic activity of GS-Au25 was verified by voltammetry of redox markers carrying opposite charges. The pH dependent sensitivity for the determination of DA further confirmed the charge screening effect of GS-Au25. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the selectivity is attained by the selective formation of an electrostatic complex between the negatively charged GS-Au25 and DA cation. The GS-Au25 modified sol-gel electrode also showed excellent selectivity for DA in the presence of an interferent, ascorbic acid.We report here the selective determination of dopamine (DA) using quantum-sized gold nanoparticles coated with charge selective ligands. Glutathione protected gold nanoparticles (GS-Au25) were synthesized and immobilized into a sol-gel matrix via thiol linkers. The GS-Au25 modified sol-gel electrode was found to show excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA but no activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid. The role of electrostatic charge in the selective electrocatalytic activity of GS-Au25 was verified by voltammetry of redox markers carrying opposite charges. The pH dependent sensitivity for the determination of DA further confirmed the charge screening effect of GS-Au25. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the selectivity is attained by the selective formation of an electrostatic complex between the negatively charged GS-Au25 and DA cation. The GS-Au25 modified sol-gel electrode also showed excellent selectivity for DA in the

  16. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase MIB-1 Is Necessary To Form the Nuclear Halo in Caenorhabditis elegans Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Leslie A; Starr, Daniel A

    2018-05-18

    Unlike the classical nuclear envelope with two membranes found in other eukaryotic cells, most nematode sperm nuclei are not encapsulated by membranes. Instead, they are surrounded by a nuclear halo of unknown composition. How the halo is formed and regulated is unknown. We used forward genetics to identify molecular lesions behind three classical fer (fertilization defective) mutations that disrupt the ultrastructure of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm nuclear halo. We found fer-2 and fer-4 alleles to be nonsense mutations in mib-1. fer-3 was caused by a nonsense mutation in eri-3 GFP::MIB-1 was expressed in the germline during early spermatogenesis, but not in mature sperm. mib-1 encodes a conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase homologous to vertebrate Mib1 and Mib2, which function in Notch signaling. Here, we show that mib-1 is important for male sterility and is involved in the regulation or formation of the nuclear halo during nematode spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  17. Evidence of size-selective evolution in the fighting conch from prehistoric subsistence harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dea, Aaron; Shaffer, Marian Lynne; Doughty, Douglas R.; Wake, Thomas A.; Rodriguez, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human (approx. 7 ka) to prehistoric times (approx. 1 ka) and again to the present day. Size at mat...

  18. Coexistence of structured populations with size-based prey selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Martin; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Species with a large adult-offspring size ratio and a preferred predator–prey mass ratio undergo ontogenetic trophic niche shift(s) throughout life. Trophic interactions between such species vary throughout life, resulting in different species-level interaction motifs depending on the ma......Abstract Species with a large adult-offspring size ratio and a preferred predator–prey mass ratio undergo ontogenetic trophic niche shift(s) throughout life. Trophic interactions between such species vary throughout life, resulting in different species-level interaction motifs depending...... on the maximum adult sizes and population size distributions. We explore the assembly and potential for coexistence of small communities where all species experience ontogenetic trophic niche shifts. The life-history of each species is described by a physiologically structured model and species identity...... there is a large scope for coexistence of two species, the scope for coexistence of three species is limited and we conclude that further trait differentiation is required for coexistence of more species-rich size-structured communities....

  19. Selection of inoculum size and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... The aim of this work was to select an inoculum concentration and a ... (UFPEDA 1238 and UFPEDA 1334) were used to ferment a culture medium containing .... quantified by HPLC (Agilent HP 1100, Germany) in an Aminex.

  20. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region in MIB-1 positive cells in non-small cell lung cancer: clinicopathological significance and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyakov, Dmitriy Sergeevich; Avdalyan, Ashot Merudzhanovich; Lazarev, Aleksandr Fedorovich; Lushnikova, Elena Leonidovna; Nepomnyashchikh, Lev Moiseevich

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR)-associated proteins and clinicopathological parameters and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 207 surgical specimens diagnosed as NSCLC were included in this study. Double-staining procedures were performed using antigen Ki-67 (clone MIB-1) and silver nitrate by immunohistochemical and AgNOR-staining methods. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells of NSCLC is related to clinicopathological parameters under the TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) system. The survival of patients with small AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is better than that of patients with large AgNOR area. Molecular, biological (AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells), and clinicopathological (greatest tumor dimension, metastases to regional lymph nodes, histology, and differentiation) parameters are independent prognostic factors of NSCLC. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is related to clinicopathological parameters and survival in NSCLC

  1. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-03-01

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of size on the oxygen electroreduction activity of mass-selected platinum nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Alonso, Francisco; McCarthy, David N; Nierhoff, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A matter of size: The particle size effect on the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction of size-selected platinum clusters was studied. The ORR activity decreased with decreasing Pt nanoparticle size, corresponding to a decrease in the fraction of terraces on the surfaces of the Pt nanopartic...

  3. The Effect of Size on the Oxygen Electroreduction Activity of Mass‐Selected Platinum Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Alonso, Francisco; McCarthy, David Norman; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2012-01-01

    A matter of size: The particle size effect on the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction of size-selected platinum clusters was studied. The ORR activity decreased with decreasing Pt nanoparticle size, corresponding to a decrease in the fraction of terraces on the surfaces of the Pt nanopartic...

  4. Soft landing of size selected clusters in rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.T; Wurth, W.; Ehrke, H-U.; Achleitner, A.

    2003-01-01

    Soft landing of mass selected clusters in rare gas matrices is a technique used to preserve mass selection in cluster deposition. To prevent fragmentation upon deposition, the substrate is covered with rare gas matrices to dissipate the cluster kinetic energy upon impact. Theoretical and experimental studies demonstrate the power of this technique. Besides STM, optical absorption, excitation, and fluorescence experiments, x-ray absorption at core levels can be used as a tool to study soft landing conditions, as will be shown here. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is also well suited to follow diffusion and agglomeration of clusters on surfaces via energy shifts in core level absorption

  5. Size-Selected Ag Nanoparticles with Five-Fold Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer Domingo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using the inert gas aggregation technique. We found the optimal experimental conditions to synthesize nanoparticles at different sizes: 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.3, 2.5 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, 4.5 ± 0.9, and 5.5 ± 0.3 nm. We were able to investigate the dependence of the size of the nanoparticles on the synthesis parameters. Our data suggest that the aggregation of clusters (dimers, trimer, etc. into the active zone of the nanocluster source is the predominant physical mechanism for the formation of the nanoparticles. Our experiments were carried out in conditions that kept the density of nanoparticles low, and the formation of larges nanoparticles by coalescence processes was avoided. In order to preserve the structural and morphological properties, the impact energy of the clusters landing into the substrate was controlled, such that the acceleration energy of the nanoparticles was around 0.1 eV/atom, assuring a soft landing deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed that the nanoparticles were icosahedral in shape, preferentially oriented with a five-fold axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. Our results show that the synthesis by inert gas aggregation technique is a very promising alternative to produce metal nanoparticles when the control of both size and shape are critical for the development of practical applications.

  6. BODY SIZE AND HAREM SIZE IN MALE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS: MANIPULATING SELECTION WITH SEX-SPECIFIC FEEDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Sievert; Langston, Nancy; Gori, Dave

    1996-10-01

    We experimentally manipulated the strength of selection in the field on red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to test hypotheses about contrasting selective forces that favor either large or small males in sexually size dimorphic birds. Selander (1972) argued that sexual selection favors larger males, while survival selection eventually stabilizes male size because larger males do not survive as well as smaller males during harsh winters. Searcy (1979a) proposed instead that sexual selection may be self limiting: male size might be stabilized not by overwinter mortality, but by breeding-season sexual selection that favors smaller males. Under conditions of energetic stress, smaller males should be able to display more and thus achieve higher reproductive success. Using feeders that provisioned males or females but not both, we produced conditions that mimicked the extremes of natural conditions. We found experimental support for the hypothesis that when food is abundant, sexual selection favors larger males. But even under conditions of severe energetic stress, smaller males did not gain larger harems, as the self-limiting hypothesis predicted. Larger males were more energetically stressed than smaller males, but in ways that affected their future reproductive output rather than their current reproductive performance. Stressed males that returned had smaller wings and tails than those that did not return; among returning stressed males, relative harem sizes were inversely related to wing and tail length. Thus, male body size may be stabilized not by survival costs during the non-breeding season, nor by energetic costs during the breeding season, but by costs of future reproduction that larger males pay for their increased breeding-season effort. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Prognostic value of tissue protein expression levels of MIB-1 (Ki-67) in Danish ovarian cancer patients. From the 'MALOVA' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Høgdall, Claus K; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the expression of MIB-1 (Ki-67) in tumour tissues from 808 patients with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate, whether MIB-1 (Ki-67) tissue expression levels correlate with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of the dise...

  8. Guideline for energy conservation in de Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) sector. Megabytes versus Megawatt hours; Richtlijn voor energiebesparing in de ICT-branche. Mb versus Mwh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, J.C.P.; Ligthart, F.A.T.M.; Sijpheer, N.C. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-06-01

    The growth of data traffic to realize telecommunications and internet activities has large impacts on the energy consumption and related CO2 emission. In this report guidelines are given by means of which ICT businesses can quantify their energy consumption and energy saving options can be considered. It also is a first step to exchange of knowledge and information on the subject. At the moment simple and cheap measures can be taken to save 20-40% energy, in particular for cooling purposes.

  9. Reinke’s Edema: investigations on the role of MIB-1 and hepatocyte growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Artico

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Reinke’s edema is a benign disease of the human vocal fold, which mainly affects the sub-epithelial layer of the vocal fold. Micro­scopic observations show a strongly oedematous epithelium with loosened intercellular junctions, a disruption of the extracellular connections between mucosal epithelium and connective tissue, closely adherent to the thyroarytenoid muscle. Thickening of the basal layer of epithelium, known as Reinke’s space, high deposition of fibronectin and chronic inflammatory infiltration it is also visible. We analyzed, together with the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, the expression level of MIB-1 in samples harvested from patients affected by Reinke’s edema, in order to define its biological role and consider it as a possible prognostic factor in the follow-up after surgical treatment. We observed a moderate expression of HGF in the lamina propria of the human vocal fold and in the basal membrane of the mucosal epithelium. Our finding suggests that this growth factor acts as an anti – fibrotic agent in Reinke’s space and affects the fibronectin deposition in the lamina propria. MIB-1, on the contrary, showed a weak expression in the basement membrane of the mucosal epithelium and a total absence in the lamina propria deep layer, thus suggesting that only the superficial layer is actively involved in the reparatory process with a high regenerative capacity, together with a high deposition of fibronectin. The latter is necessary for the cellular connections reconstruction, after the inflammatory infiltration.

  10. Reinke's edema: investigations on the role of MIB-1 and hepatocyte growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Ionta, B; Bruno, M; Greco, A; Ruoppolo, G; De Virgilio, A; Longo, L; De Vincentiis, M

    2010-07-08

    Reinke's edema is a benign disease of the human vocal fold, which mainly affects the sub-epithelial layer of the vocal fold. Microscopic observations show a strongly oedematous epithelium with loosened intercellular junctions, a disruption of the extracellular connections between mucosal epithelium and connective tissue, closely adherent to the thyroarytenoid muscle. Thickening of the basal layer of epithelium, known as Reinke's space, high deposition of fibronectin and chronic inflammatory infiltration it is also visible. We analyzed, together with the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the expression level of MIB-1 in samples harvested from patients affected by Reinke's edema, in order to define its biological role and consider it as a possible prognostic factor in the follow-up after surgical treatment. We observed a moderate expression of HGF in the lamina propria of the human vocal fold and in the basal membrane of the mucosal epithelium. Our finding suggests that this growth factor acts as an antifibrotic agent in Reinke's space and affects the fibronectin deposition in the lamina propria. MIB-1, on the contrary, showed a weak expression in the basement membrane of the mucosal epithelium and a total absence in the lamina propria deep layer, thus suggesting that only the superficial layer is actively involved in the reparatory process with a high regenerative capacity, together with a high deposition of fibronectin. The latter is necessary for the cellular connections reconstruction, after the inflammatory infiltration.

  11. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Linking seasonal home range size with habitat selection and movement in a mountain ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Granados, José Enrique; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús M; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Burón, Daniel; Fandos, Guillermo; Aguado, María Ángeles Párraga; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2018-01-01

    Space use by animals is determined by the interplay between movement and the environment, and is thus mediated by habitat selection, biotic interactions and intrinsic factors of moving individuals. These processes ultimately determine home range size, but their relative contributions and dynamic nature remain less explored. We investigated the role of habitat selection, movement unrelated to habitat selection and intrinsic factors related to sex in driving space use and home range size in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica . We used GPS collars to track ibex across the year in two different geographical areas of Sierra Nevada, Spain, and measured habitat variables related to forage and roost availability. By using integrated step selection analysis (iSSA), we show that habitat selection was important to explain space use by ibex. As a consequence, movement was constrained by habitat selection, as observed displacement rate was shorter than expected under null selection. Selection-independent movement, selection strength and resource availability were important drivers of seasonal home range size. Both displacement rate and directional persistence had a positive relationship with home range size while accounting for habitat selection, suggesting that individual characteristics and state may also affect home range size. Ibex living at higher altitudes, where resource availability shows stronger altitudinal gradients across the year, had larger home ranges. Home range size was larger in spring and autumn, when ibex ascend and descend back, and smaller in summer and winter, when resources are more stable. Therefore, home range size decreased with resource availability. Finally, males had larger home ranges than females, which might be explained by differences in body size and reproductive behaviour. Movement, selection strength, resource availability and intrinsic factors related to sex determined home range size of Iberian ibex. Our results highlight the need to integrate

  13. The impact of Nassau grouper size and abundance on scuba diver site selection and MPA economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since many fisheries are size-selective, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is expected to increase both the average size and abundance of exploited species, such as the valuable but vulnerable Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus ). Increases in mean size and/or abundance of

  14. Cluster processing for 16Mb DRAM production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, A.; Horak, D.

    1989-01-01

    Multichamber and in-situ technology are used to meet the challenge of manufacturing 16-Mb cost/performance DRAMs. The 16-Mb fabrication process is more complex than earlier 1-Mb and 4-Mb chips. Clustering of sequential process steps effectively compensates for both manufacturing complexity and foreign-material (FM) related defect densities. The development time of clusters combining new processes and equipment in multiple automated steps is nearly as long as the product development cycle. This necessitates codevelopment of manufacturing process cluster with technology integration while addressing the factors influencing FM defect generation, processing turnaround time (TAT), manufacturing costs, yield and array cell and support device designs. The advantages of multichamber and in situ processing have resulted in their application throughout the entire 16-Mb DRAM process as appropriate equipment becomes available

  15. Magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus for formation and deposition of size-selected metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    selection is achieved using an electrostatic quadrupole mass selector. The deposited silver clusters are studied using atomic force microscopy. The height distributions show typical relative standard size deviation of 9-13% for given sizes in the range between 5-23 nm. Thus, the apparatus demonstrates good...... capability in formation of supported size-selected metal nanoparticles with controllable coverage for various practical applications....

  16. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A Strickland

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17 on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their

  17. Scale-dependent habitat selection and size-based dominance in adult male American alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  18. Two size-selective mechanisms specifically trap bacteria-sized food particles in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang-Yen, Christopher; Avery, Leon; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2009-11-24

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a filter feeder: it draws bacteria suspended in liquid into its pharynx, traps the bacteria, and ejects the liquid. How pharyngeal pumping simultaneously transports and filters food particles has been poorly understood. Here, we use high-speed video microscopy to define the detailed workings of pharyngeal mechanics. The buccal cavity and metastomal flaps regulate the flow of dense bacterial suspensions and exclude excessively large particles from entering the pharynx. A complex sequence of contractions and relaxations transports food particles in two successive trap stages before passage into the terminal bulb and intestine. Filtering occurs at each trap as bacteria are concentrated in the central lumen while fluids are expelled radially through three apical channels. Experiments with microspheres show that the C. elegans pharynx, in combination with the buccal cavity, is tuned to specifically catch and transport particles of a size range corresponding to most soil bacteria.

  19. AHP-Based Optimal Selection of Garment Sizes for Online Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Garment online shopping has been accepted by more and more consumers in recent years. In online shopping, a buyer only chooses the garment size judged by his own experience without trying-on, so the selected garment may not be the fittest one for the buyer due to the variety of body's figures. Thus, we propose a method of optimal selection of garment sizes for online shopping based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The hierarchical structure model for optimal selection of garment sizes is structured and the fittest garment for a buyer is found by calculating the matching degrees between individual's measurements and the corresponding key-part values of ready-to-wear clothing sizes. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, we provide an example of selecting the fittest sizes of men's bottom. The result shows that the proposed method is useful in online clothing sales application.

  20. The correlation between MIB-1, AgNOR, and caspase-3 apoptosis with chemoradiotherapy response in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iin Kurnia; Devita Tetriana; Budiningsih Siregar; Irwan Ramli; Andriono; Setiawan Soetopo; Tjahya Kurjana; Maringan DL Tobing; Bethy Suryawathi

    2013-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is one of treatments for the locally advanced cervical cancer given by concurrent radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in the same time. Chemoradiotherapy response is influenced by biological factor i.e. cell kinetic that consists of cell proliferation and death. In this research, the correlation between AgNOR, MIB-1 cell proliferation biomarker and the expression of apoptotic caspase-3 with chemoradiotherapy response of cervical cancer has been studied. Twenty one microscopic tissue samples were taken from cervical cancer biopsies before radiotherapy. The tissue samples were stained with AgNOR, whereas MIB-1 and apoptosis caspase-3 in the tissue samples were detected by immunochemistry technique. After the completion of chemoradiotherapy treatment, the clinical response was observed by pelvic control method. The result of this research show that there is no correlation between AgNOR, MIB-1 value with apoptosis (p>0.05) before chemoradiotherapy. Cell proliferation observed by AgNOR and MIB-1 before chemoradiotherapy indicate no correlation with chemoradiotherapy response, however the apoptotic expression shows positive correlation with chemoradiotherapy response. The index of caspase-3 apoptosis obtained from this research can be used for considering the chemoradiotherapy schedule for the cervical cancer patient. (author)

  1. MIB-1 (KI-67) proliferation index and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) protein expression in nephroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.I. Ghanem (Mazen); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); M.K. Sudaryo; R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); A.A. Al-Doray; R.J.M. Nijman (Rien); G.J. van Steenbrugge (Gert Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: A number of studies have indicated that the tumor proliferation marker MIB-1 and cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) expression are of prognostic importance in a variety of cancers. The present study was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of these

  2. Quantitative method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals based on odor sensitivity distribution: illustrated using 2-MIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Cao, Nan; Yang, Min; Gu, Junong; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Ning

    2014-07-01

    Taste and odor (T/O) in drinking water often cause consumer complaints and are thus regulated in many countries. However, people in different regions may exhibit different sensitivities toward T/O. This study proposed a method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals (ORGs) based on the odor sensitivity distribution of the local population. The distribution of odor sensitivity to 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) by the local population in Beijing, China was revealed by using a normal distribution function/model to describe the odor complaint response to a 2-MIB episode in 2005, and a 2-MIB concentration of 12.9 ng/L and FPA (flavor profile analysis) intensity of 2.5 was found to be the critical point to cause odor complaints. Thus the Beijing ORG for 2-MIB was determined to be 12.9 ng/L. Based on the assumption that the local FPA panel can represent the local population in terms of sensitivity to odor, and that the critical FPA intensity causing odor complaints was 2.5, this study tried to determine the ORGs for seven other cities of China by performing FPA tests using an FPA panel from the corresponding city. ORG values between 12.9 and 31.6 ng/L were determined, showing that a unified ORG may not be suitable for drinking water odor regulations. This study presents a novel approach for setting drinking water odor regulations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A change in competitive context reverses sexual selection on male size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, M M; Andrade, M C B

    2009-02-01

    In studies of sexual selection, larger size is often argued to increase male fitness, and relatively smaller males are explained by genetic and/or environmental variation. We demonstrate that a size-development life-history trade-off could underlie the maintenance of a broad, unimodal distribution of size in male redback spiders (Latrodectus hasselti). Larger males are superior in direct competition, but redback males mature rapidly at small size in the presence of females. In field enclosures, we simulated two competitive contexts favouring development of divergent male sizes. Relatively smaller males lost when competing directly, but had 10 times higher fitness than relatively larger males when given the temporal advantage of rapid development. Linear selection gradients confirmed the reversal of selection on size, showing that it is critical to consider life-history decisions underlying the development of traits related to fitness.

  4. Modelling and simulation of size selectivity in diamond mesh trawl cod-ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent

    of the fishing gear. The cod-end is the rearmost part of a trawl where catch accumulates and in which most of the size selection is known to take place. To date, the main method used to assess the selectivity of trawl cod-ends has been to run sea trials followed by statistical analysis of the obtained......Within many fisheries there is a widespread discard of fish. Furthermore, there are several fisheries where fish are caught before reaching the optimal size, leading to an adverse exploitation of the resources. One way to achieve a more optimal exploitation is to improve the size selectivity...

  5. The proliferation marker pKi-67 becomes masked to MIB-1 staining after expression of its tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Broll, Rainer; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Duchrow, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Ki-67 antigen, pKi-67, is one of the most commonly used markers of proliferating cells. The protein can only be detected in dividing cells (G(1)-, S-, G(2)-, and M-phase) but not in quiescent cells (G(0)). The standard antibody to detect pKi-67 is MIB-1, which detects the so-called 'Ki-67 motif' FKELF in 9 of the protein's 16 tandem repeats. To investigate the function of these repeats we expressed three of them in an inducible gene expression system in HeLa cells. Surprisingly, addition of a nuclear localization sequence led to a complete absence of signal in the nuclei of MIB-1-stained cells. At the same time antibodies directed against different epitopes of pKi-67 did not fail to detect the protein. We conclude that the overexpression of the 'Ki-67 motif', which is present in the repeats, can lead to inability of MIB-1 to detect its antigen as demonstrated in adenocarcinoma tissue samples. Thereafter, in order to prevent the underestimation of Ki-67 proliferation indices in MIB-1-labeled preparations, additional antibodies (for example, MIB-21) should be used. Additionally, we could show in a mammalian two-hybrid assay that recombinant pKi-67 repeats are capable of self-associating with endogenous pKi-67. Speculating that the tandem repeats are intimately involved in its protein-protein interactions, this offers new insights in how access to these repeats is regulated by pKi-67 itself.

  6. Evidence of size-selective evolution in the fighting conch from prehistoric subsistence harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Aaron; Shaffer, Marian Lynne; Doughty, Douglas R; Wake, Thomas A; Rodriguez, Felix A

    2014-05-07

    Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human (approx. 7 ka) to prehistoric times (approx. 1 ka) and again to the present day. Size at maturity also fell from early- to late-prehistoric periods, synchronous with an increase in harvesting intensity as other resources became depleted. A consequence of declining size at maturity is that early prehistoric harvesters would have received two-thirds more meat per conch than contemporary harvesters. After exploring the potential effects of selection biases, demographic shifts, environmental change and habitat alteration, these observations collectively implicate prehistoric subsistence harvesting as an agent of size-selective evolution with long-term detrimental consequences. We observe that contemporary populations that are protected from harvesting are slightly larger at maturity, suggesting that halting or even reversing thousands of years of size-selective evolution may be possible.

  7. Body size, swimming speed, or thermal sensitivity? Predator-imposed selection on amphibian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Smolinský, Radovan

    2015-11-02

    Many animals rely on their escape performance during predator encounters. Because of its dependence on body size and temperature, escape velocity is fully characterized by three measures, absolute value, size-corrected value, and its response to temperature (thermal sensitivity). The primary target of the selection imposed by predators is poorly understood. We examined predator (dragonfly larva)-imposed selection on prey (newt larvae) body size and characteristics of escape velocity using replicated and controlled predation experiments under seminatural conditions. Specifically, because these species experience a wide range of temperatures throughout their larval phases, we predict that larvae achieving high swimming velocities across temperatures will have a selective advantage over more thermally sensitive individuals. Nonzero selection differentials indicated that predators selected for prey body size and both absolute and size-corrected maximum swimming velocity. Comparison of selection differentials with control confirmed selection only on body size, i.e., dragonfly larvae preferably preyed on small newt larvae. Maximum swimming velocity and its thermal sensitivity showed low group repeatability, which contributed to non-detectable selection on both characteristics of escape performance. In the newt-dragonfly larvae interaction, body size plays a more important role than maximum values and thermal sensitivity of swimming velocity during predator escape. This corroborates the general importance of body size in predator-prey interactions. The absence of an appropriate control in predation experiments may lead to potentially misleading conclusions about the primary target of predator-imposed selection. Insights from predation experiments contribute to our understanding of the link between performance and fitness, and further improve mechanistic models of predator-prey interactions and food web dynamics.

  8. Estimation of the ancestral effective population sizes of African great apes under different selection regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-08-01

    Reliable estimates of ancestral effective population sizes are necessary to unveil the population-level phenomena that shaped the phylogeny and molecular evolution of the African great apes. Although several methods have previously been applied to infer ancestral effective population sizes, an analysis of the influence of the selective regime on the estimates of ancestral demography has not been thoroughly conducted. In this study, three independent data sets under different selective regimes were used were composed to tackle this issue. The results showed that selection had a significant impact on the estimates of ancestral effective population sizes of the African great apes. The inference of the ancestral demography of African great apes was affected by the selection regime. The effects, however, were not homogeneous along the ancestral populations of great apes. The effective population size of the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was more impacted by the selection regime when compared to the same parameter in the ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. Because the selection regime influenced the estimates of ancestral effective population size, it is reasonable to assume that a portion of the discrepancy found in previous studies that inferred the ancestral effective population size may be attributable to the differential action of selection on the genes sampled.

  9. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1998-01-01

    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  10. Group selection on population size affects life-history patterns in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashey, Farrah; Lively, Curtis M

    2009-05-01

    Selection is recognized to operate on multiple levels. In disease organisms, selection among hosts is thought to provide an important counterbalance to selection for faster growth within hosts. We performed three experiments, each selecting for a divergence in group size in the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. These nematodes infect and kill insect larvae, reproduce inside the host carcass, and emerge as infective juveniles. We imposed selection on group size by selecting among hosts for either high or low numbers of emerging nematodes. Our goal was to determine whether this trait could respond to selection at the group level, and if so, to examine what other traits would evolve as correlated responses. One of the three experiments showed a significant response to group selection. In that experiment, the high-selected treatment consistently produced more emerging nematodes per host than the low-selected treatment. In addition, nematodes were larger and they emerged later from hosts in the low-selected lines. Despite small effective population sizes, the effects of inbreeding were small in this experiment. Thus, selection among hosts can be effective, leading to both a direct evolutionary response at the population level, as well as to correlated responses in populational and individual traits.

  11. Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Foldager, L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid decrease of the stock of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) has provided the incentive to improve the size selectivity in the trawl fishery. Use of escape windows is permitted in the legislation to give means of improving the size selectivity of cod as an alternative to a traditional standard codend....... The history of the use of escape windows in the Baltic Sea cod fishery is reviewed. The present escape windows do not function optimally. The objective of this new experiment was to compare an improved design of escape window, which is placed in the upper panel, with that of standard codend. Three standard...... of the codend selectivity was formulated to analyse the results and determine the effects of codend type, mesh size and other recorded variables. L50 and SR increased significantly with the mesh size. L50 was significantly increased and SR significantly reduced for a window codend with the same window mesh size...

  12. Deposition of Size-Selected Cu Nanoparticles by Inert Gas Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanometer size-selected Cu clusters in the size range of 1–5 nm have been produced by a plasma-gas-condensation-type cluster deposition apparatus, which combines a grow-discharge sputtering with an inert gas condensation technique. With this method, by controlling the experimental conditions, it was possible to produce nanoparticles with a strict control in size. The structure and size of Cu nanoparticles were determined by mass spectroscopy and confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron transmission microscopy (STEM measurements. In order to preserve the structural and morphological properties, the energy of cluster impact was controlled; the energy of acceleration of the nanoparticles was in near values at 0.1 ev/atom for being in soft landing regime. From SEM measurements developed in STEM-HAADF mode, we found that nanoparticles are near sized to those values fixed experimentally also confirmed by AFM observations. The results are relevant, since it demonstrates that proper optimization of operation conditions can lead to desired cluster sizes as well as desired cluster size distributions. It was also demonstrated the efficiency of the method to obtain size-selected Cu clusters films, as a random stacking of nanometer-size crystallites assembly. The deposition of size-selected metal clusters represents a novel method of preparing Cu nanostructures, with high potential in optical and catalytic applications.

  13. Antarctic krill; assessment of mesh size selectivity and escape mortality from trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, Bjørn A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Marine AS. The project will examine krill escape mortality from the codend during a full scale field experiment, model size selectivity and escape mortality in codends including different designs and assess the size selectivity in the trawl body forward of the codend. Based on end results from the preceding...... examinations we will be able to predict size selectivity and escape mortality from the entire trawl body with the appurtenant mortality for different trawl designs......This working paper presents the aims and methodology for a three-year-project (commenced in 2015) assessing size selectivity and escape mortality of Antarctic krill from trawl nets. The project is widely based on acquired experiences from a completed study Net Escapement of Antarctic krill...

  14. Size-selective performance evaluation of candidate aerosol inlets using polydisperse aerosols

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Presented are detailed techniques for the generation, collection, and analysis of polydisperse calibration aerosols for wind tunnel evaluation of size-selective...

  15. Prey size selection and cannibalistic behaviour of juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F F; Qin, J G

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the cannibalistic behaviour of juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer and examined the relationship between prey size selection and energy gain of cannibals. Prey handling time and capture success by cannibals were used to estimate the ratio of energy gain to energy cost in prey selection. Cannibals selected smaller prey despite its capability of ingesting larger prey individuals. In behavioural analysis, prey handling time significantly increased with prey size, but it was not significantly affected by cannibal size. Conversely, capture success significantly decreased with the increase of both prey and cannibal sizes. The profitability indices showed that the smaller prey provides the most energy return for cannibals of all size classes. These results indicate that L. calcarifer cannibals select smaller prey for more profitable return. The behavioural analysis, however, indicates that L. calcarifer cannibals attack prey of all size at a similar rate but ingest smaller prey more often, suggesting that prey size selection is passively orientated rather than at the predator's choice. The increase of prey escape ability and morphological constraint contribute to the reduction of intracohort cannibalism as fish grow larger. This study contributes to the understanding of intracohort cannibalism and development of strategies to reduce fish cannibalistic mortalities. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Social polyandry, parental investment, sexual selection, and evolution of reduced female gamete size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Malte

    2004-01-01

    Sexual selection in the form of sperm competition is a major explanation for small size of male gametes. Can sexual selection in polyandrous species with reversed sex roles also lead to reduced female gamete size? Comparative studies show that egg size in birds tends to decrease as a lineage evolves social polyandry. Here, a quantitative genetic model predicts that female scrambles over mates lead to evolution of reduced female gamete size. Increased female mating success drives the evolution of smaller eggs, which take less time to produce, until balanced by lowered offspring survival. Mean egg size is usually reduced and polyandry increased by increasing sex ratio (male bias) and maximum possible number of mates. Polyandry also increases with the asynchrony (variance) in female breeding start. Opportunity for sexual selection increases with the maximum number of mates but decreases with increasing sex ratio. It is well known that parental investment can affect sexual selection. The model suggests that the influence is mutual: owing to a coevolutionary feedback loop, sexual selection in females also shapes initial parental investment by reducing egg size. Feedback between sexual selection and parental investment may be common.

  17. Pinning of size-selected gold and nickel nanoclusters on graphite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Vece, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/248753355; Paloma, S.; Palmer, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Size-selected gold and nickel nanoclusters are of interest from an electronic, catalytic, and biological point of view. These applications require the deposition of the clusters on a surface, and a key challenge is to retain the cluster size. Here controlled energy impact is used to immobilize the

  18. Protein structure and ionic selectivity in calcium channels: Selectivity filter size, not shape, matters

    OpenAIRE

    Malasics, Attila; Gillespie, Dirk; Nonner, Wolfgang; Henderson, Douglas; Eisenberg, Bob; Boda, Dezső

    2009-01-01

    Calcium channels have highly charged selectivity filters (4 COO− groups) that attract cations in to balance this charge and minimize free energy, forcing the cations (Na+ and Ca2+) to compete for space in the filter. A reduced model was developed to better understand the mechanism of ion selectivity in calcium channels. The charge/space competition (CSC) mechanism implies that Ca2+ is more efficient in balancing the charge of the filter because it provides twice the charge as Na+ while occupy...

  19. Protein structure and ionic selectivity in calcium channels: selectivity filter size, not shape, matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasics, Attila; Gillespie, Dirk; Nonner, Wolfgang; Henderson, Douglas; Eisenberg, Bob; Boda, Dezso

    2009-12-01

    Calcium channels have highly charged selectivity filters (4 COO(-) groups) that attract cations in to balance this charge and minimize free energy, forcing the cations (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) to compete for space in the filter. A reduced model was developed to better understand the mechanism of ion selectivity in calcium channels. The charge/space competition (CSC) mechanism implies that Ca(2+) is more efficient in balancing the charge of the filter because it provides twice the charge as Na(+) while occupying the same space. The CSC mechanism further implies that the main determinant of Ca(2+) versus Na(+) selectivity is the density of charged particles in the selectivity filter, i.e., the volume of the filter (after fixing the number of charged groups in the filter). In this paper we test this hypothesis by changing filter length and/or radius (shape) of the cylindrical selectivity filter of our reduced model. We show that varying volume and shape together has substantially stronger effects than varying shape alone with volume fixed. Our simulations show the importance of depletion zones of ions in determining channel conductance calculated with the integrated Nernst-Planck equation. We show that confining the protein side chains with soft or hard walls does not influence selectivity.

  20. Differences in productive robustness in rabbits selected for reproductive longevity or litter size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard, R; Baselga, M; Blas, E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a line selected for reproductive longevity (LP) to confront productive challenges compared to a line selected during 31 generations for litter size at weaning (V). A total of 133 reproductive rabbit does were used (72 and 61 from LP and V lines,...

  1. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Body size, swimming speed, or thermal sensitivity? Predator-imposed selection on amphibian larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Smolinský, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), č. článku 238. ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Antipredator strategies * Ichthyosaura * Newts * Performance-fitness * Predator –prey interaction * Predator –prey size ratio * Selection differential * Selection experiment * Viability selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  3. Zooplankton size selection relative to gill raker spacing in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, P.; Haddix, T.; Schneidervin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss are one of the most widely stocked salmonids worldwide, often based on the assumption that they will effectively utilize abundant invertebrate food resources. We evaluated the potential for feeding morphology to affect prey selection by rainbow trout using a combination of laboratory feeding experiments and field observations in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. For rainbow trout collected from the reservoir, inter-gill raker spacing averaged 1.09 mm and there was low variation among fish overall (SD = 0.28). Ninety-seven percent of all zooplankton observed in the diets of rainbow trout collected in the reservoir were larger than the interraker spacing, while only 29% of the zooplankton found in the environment were larger than the interraker spacing. Over the size range of rainbow trout evaluated here (200-475 mm), interraker spacing increased moderately with increasing fish length; however, the size of zooplankton found in the diet did not increase with increasing fish length. In laboratory experiments, rainbow trout consumed the largest zooplankton available; the mean size of zooplankton observed in the diets was significantly larger than the mean size of zooplankton available. Electivity indices for both laboratory and field observations indicated strong selection for larger-sized zooplankton. The size threshold at which electivity switched from selection against smaller-sized zooplankton to selection for larger-sized zooplankton closely corresponded to the mean interraker spacing for both groups (???1-1.2 mm). The combination of results observed here indicates that rainbow trout morphology limits the retention of different-sized zooplankton prey and reinforces the importance of understanding how effectively rainbow trout can utilize the type and sizes of different prey available in a given system. These considerations may improve our ability to predict the potential for growth and survival of rainbow trout within and

  4. Modified random hinge transport mechanics and multiple scattering step-size selection in EGS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilderman, S.J.; Bielajew, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The new transport mechanics in EGS5 allows for significantly longer electron transport step sizes and hence shorter computation times than required for identical problems in EGS4. But as with all Monte Carlo electron transport algorithms, certain classes of problems exhibit step-size dependencies even when operating within recommended ranges, sometimes making selection of step-sizes a daunting task for novice users. Further contributing to this problem, because of the decoupling of multiple scattering and continuous energy loss in the dual random hinge transport mechanics of EGS5, there are two independent step sizes in EGS5, one for multiple scattering and one for continuous energy loss, each of which influences speed and accuracy in a different manner. Further, whereas EGS4 used a single value of fractional energy loss (ESTEPE) to determine step sizes at all energies, to increase performance by decreasing the amount of effort expended simulating lower energy particles, EGS5 permits the fractional energy loss values which are used to determine both the multiple scattering and continuous energy loss step sizes to vary with energy. This results in requiring the user to specify four fractional energy loss values when optimizing computations for speed. Thus, in order to simplify step-size selection and to mitigate step-size dependencies, a method has been devised to automatically optimize step-size selection based on a single material dependent input related to the size of problem tally region. In this paper we discuss the new transport mechanics in EGS5 and describe the automatic step-size optimization algorithm. (author)

  5. Natural selection and inheritance of breeding time and clutch size in the collared flycatcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, B C; Kruuk, L E B; Merilä, J

    2003-02-01

    Many characteristics of organisms in free-living populations appear to be under directional selection, possess additive genetic variance, and yet show no evolutionary response to selection. Avian breeding time and clutch size are often-cited examples of such characters. We report analyses of inheritance of, and selection on, these traits in a long-term study of a wild population of the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. We used mixed model analysis with REML estimation ("animal models") to make full use of the information in complex multigenerational pedigrees. Heritability of laying date, but not clutch size, was lower than that estimated previously using parent-offspring regressions, although for both traits there was evidence of substantial additive genetic variance (h2 = 0.19 and 0.29, respectively). Laying date and clutch size were negatively genetically correlated (rA = -0.41 +/- 0.09), implying that selection on one of the traits would cause a correlated response in the other, but there was little evidence to suggest that evolution of either trait would be constrained by correlations with other phenotypic characters. Analysis of selection on these traits in females revealed consistent strong directional fecundity selection for earlier breeding at the level of the phenotype (beta = -0.28 +/- 0.03), but little evidence for stabilising selection on breeding time. We found no evidence that clutch size was independently under selection. Analysis of fecundity selection on breeding values for laying date, estimated from an animal model, indicated that selection acts directly on additive genetic variance underlying breeding time (beta = -0.20 +/- 0.04), but not on clutch size (beta = 0.03 +/- 0.05). In contrast, selection on laying date via adult female survival fluctuated in sign between years, and was opposite in sign for selection on phenotypes (negative) and breeding values (positive). Our data thus suggest that any evolutionary response to selection on

  6. Genome size variation affects song attractiveness in grasshoppers: evidence for sexual selection against large genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. MIB-1, AgNOR AND DNA DISTRIBUTION PARAMETERS AND THEIR PROGNOSTIC VALUE IN NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS OF THE LUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Jütting

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important questions in clinical routine is to find out patients with good or worse prognosis to apply an optimal therapy scheme for each patient. In this study 58 patients with different neuroendocrine tumours of the lung were investigated. Histological sections were prepared with different stainings (MIB-1, AgNOR, Feulgen. By means of high resolution image cytometry stereological parameters were derived which are indicators for proliferation, ploidy and kinetics of the tumours. Cox regression analysis was calculated to test the significance of the parameters with regard to prognosis. The best parameter was MIB-1 which can easily be applied as a clinical standard staining and measurement.

  8. U-Mo Alloy Powder Obtained Through Selective Hydriding. Particle Size Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, S.N.; Bruzzoni, P.; Granovsky, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Hydride-dehydride methods to obtain U-Mo alloy powder for high-density fuel elements have been successfully tested by different authors. One of these methods is the selective hydriding of the α phase (HSα). In the HSα method, a key step is the partial decomposition of the γ phase (retained by quenching) to α phase and an enriched γ phase or U 2 Mo. This transformation starts mainly at grain boundaries. Subsequent hydrogenation of this material leads to selective hydriding of the α phase, embrittlement and intergranular fracture. According to this picture, the particle size of the final product should be related to the γ grain size of the starting alloy. The feasibility of controlling the particle size of the product by changing the γ grain size of the starting alloy is currently investigated. In this work an U-7 wt% Mo alloy was subjected to various heat treatments in order to obtain different grain sizes. The results on the powder particle size distribution after applying the HSα method to these samples show that there is a strong correlation between the original γ grain size and the particle size distribution of the powder. (author)

  9. Differential expression of cyclin Dl in human pituitary tumors: relation to MIB-1 and p27/Kipl labeling indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewedi, I.H.; Osman, W.M.; El Mahdy, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are a common form of endocrine neoplasia. However few studies assessed the expression of the principal cyclin regulating checkpoint exit, cyclin Dl. Cyclin Dl expression in pituitary tumors and its possible relation to MIB-1 and p27/K.ipl labeling indices (Us) was explored. Design: We studied a total of 199 pituitaries, including normal pituitaries (n = 7), pituitary adenomas (n = 187), and pituitary carcinoma (n = 5). All tissues were tested as cores of archived tissue microarrays that were immuno stained for cyclin Dl, MIB-1 and p27 using a standard technique. Tissue cores were subjected to automated analysis to evaluate the staining LIs, Results: No cyclin Dl positive cells in the normal anterior pituitary gland was found. Sparse nuclear staining was noted in pituitary tumors. Higher expression of cyclin Dl was noted in pituitary carcinomas compared to adenomas (p < 0.001), in non-functioning adenomas compared to functioning ones (p < 0.001) in macroadenomas versus micro adenomas (p — 0.017) and in recurrent non recurrent adenomas (p < 0.001). Cyclin Dl LI and MIB-1 LI were related among adenomas (p < 0.001) and carcinomas (p = 0.041). p27 LI was neither related to pituitary adenoma recurrence nor invasion. Conclusions: Expression of cyclin Dl in pituitary tumors is related to cell proliferation, recurrence, and metastatic potential. Nuclear cyclin Dl expression is a good marker of aggressive behavior in pituitary tumors

  10. Immunohistochemical profile of neurotrophins and MIB-1 in jugulotympanic paragangliomas: prognostic value and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; De Vincentiis, M; Ionta, B; Bianchi, E; Bosco, S; Onteleone, M; Fumagalli, L; Magliulo, G

    2012-01-01

    Jugulo-tympanic paragangliomas are the most common primary neoplasm of the middle ear, but little is still known about the histological features differentiating the benign and malignant forms. We investigated, with an immunohistochemical procedure, the expression of neurotrophins with their receptors, in fifteen samples of paragangliomas, and MIB-1 in order to consider them as prognostic factors of malignancy. We observed a general positivity for NGF - TrKA - NT4 - TrKC in the cytoplasm, and a strong expression for BDNF in the extracellular space. MIB-1 was moderate in the nucleus of neoplastic cells, weak in the cytoplasm and totally absent in the extracellular space. The comparison between the clinical recurrences and the rate of cytoplasmatic neurotrophins showed strong immunoreactivity in recurrent patients. It should be emphasized that 2 of the 3 recurrences had a wider distribution of the neutrophins, leading to hypothesize the involvement of these substances in the cell proliferation of glomus tumors. Malignant forms of these rare glomus tumors cannot be clearly identified using MIB-1 as a prognostic marker, although we can affirm that neurotrophins and their receptors can be considered as a panel of potential diagnostic markers to monitor the development of such malignancies. Although the small number of patients does not allow definitive conclusions to be made, our findings showed a possible trend towards significance which requires a more powerful study to evaluate this further.

  11. High sintering resistance of size-selected platinum cluster catalysts by suppressed ostwald ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, Kristina; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Deiana, Davide

    2014-01-01

    on different supports exhibit remarkable intrinsic sintering resistance even under reaction conditions. The observed stability is related to suppression of Ostwald ripening by elimination of its main driving force via size-selection. This study thus constitutes a general blueprint for the rational design...... of sintering resistant catalyst systems and for efficient experimental strategies to determine sintering mechanisms. Moreover, this is the first systematic experimental investigation of sintering processes in nanoparticle systems with an initially perfectly monomodal size distribution under ambient conditions....

  12. Site-specific fragmentation of polystyrene molecule using size-selected Ar gas cluster ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kousuke; Mukai, Gen; Hashinokuchi, Michihiro; Mochiji, Kozo

    2009-01-01

    The secondary ion mass spectrum (SIMS) of a polystyrene thin film was investigated using a size-selected Ar gas cluster ion beam (GCIB). The fragmentation in the SIM spectrum varied by kinetic energy per atom (E atom ); the E atom dependence of the secondary ion intensity of the fragment species of polystyrene can be essentially classified into three types based on the relationship between E atom and the dissociation energy of a specific bonding site in the molecule. These results indicate that adjusting E atom of size-selected GCIB may realize site-specific bond breaking within a molecule. (author)

  13. How is Size Related to Profitability? Post-Consolidation Evidence from Selected Banks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso T. Kolapo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is theoretically believed that increase in firm size would result to increase in firm profitability. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between size and profitability of six banks in Nigeria after the 2005 consolidation exercise. The measure of profitability is return on assets. Employing the static panel data regression method, the study found that size has an insignificant negative relationship with bank profitability. This study concludes that the 2005 consolidation exercise did not enhance the profitability of the selected banks.

  14. Selection of portable tools for use in a size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, L.N.

    1986-07-01

    A range of portable tools are identified for development and eventual use within a remote operations facility for the size reduction of plutonium contaminated materials. The process of selection defines the work to be performed within the facility and matches this to the general categories of suitable tools. Specific commercial tools are then selected or, where none exists, proposals are made for the development of special tools. (author)

  15. Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

  16. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Prause

    Full Text Available Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75 selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  17. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Nicole; Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  18. MIB Probes for measurements of particle and energy fluxes in plasma of Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V. I.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.; Raitses, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetically insulated baffled (MIB) probes and probe arrays that share the simplicity of simple Langmuir probes but supersede them in their ability to make real-time measurements of plasma potential, temperature and energy/particle fluxes in W7-X stellarator plasma are being developed. The probes offer the advantages of direct measurements of the plasma fluid observables, while being non-emitting and electrically floating. The principle of operation of the probe is based on the dependence of the voltage drop in the plasma-probe sheath on the direction of the local magnetic field. The core technology for these probes rests with the use of a special baffling configuration such that electron current to the probe is fully controllable in the closed, open or partially open orientation, by a simple rotation of the baffle with respect to the magnetic field alignment in the plasma. The baffled-probe designs proposed for edge diagnostics will increase the capability to characterize separately plasma properties in real-time for understanding of underlying physics in the edge plasma.

  19. Immunohistochemical profile of various neurotransmitters, neurotrophins and MIB-1 in cholesteatomas of the petrous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Bronzetti, Elena; Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Ionta, Brunella; Alicino, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Anna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Compared to the normal epidermal epithelium, cholesteatomas have altered growth properties characterized by the excessive growth of keratinocytes leading to mucosal destruction. Either congenital or acquired, these lesions, which grow in the middle ear space, the petrous apex or the mastoid of temporal bones, are mostly considered benign skin tumoral lesions. However, many questions remain concerning their pathophysiology. Numerous studies have been proposed to identify those cholesteatoma lesions at risk of recurrence, a possible event that may cause hearing loss. We examined patients with petrous apex or mastoid cholesteatoma in order to analyze the expression of various neurotransmitters, neurotrophins and their receptors and the Ki-67 antigen for identification of a possible relationship between clinical outcome and histopathological behaviour in terms of the proliferative activity of cholesteatomas. Expression of the analyzed molecules was studied using immunohistochemical methods in seven adult patients with petrous apex cholesteatoma who underwent surgical removal of the lesion. Our results, in accordance with published data, confirm that Molecular Immunology Borstel-1 (MIB-1) and certain neurotransmitters could be useful in the prognostic evaluation of the risk of recurrence of aggressive forms of cholesteatoma.

  20. Selective Hydrogenation of Acrolein Over Pd Model Catalysts: Temperature and Particle-Size Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Casey P; Dostert, Karl-Heinz; Schauermann, Swetlana; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-10-24

    The selectivity in the hydrogenation of acrolein over Fe 3 O 4 -supported Pd nanoparticles has been investigated as a function of nanoparticle size in the 220-270 K temperature range. While Pd(111) shows nearly 100 % selectivity towards the desired hydrogenation of the C=O bond to produce propenol, Pd nanoparticles were found to be much less selective towards this product. In situ detection of surface species by using IR-reflection absorption spectroscopy shows that the selectivity towards propenol critically depends on the formation of an oxopropyl spectator species. While an overlayer of oxopropyl species is effectively formed on Pd(111) turning the surface highly selective for propenol formation, this process is strongly hindered on Pd nanoparticles by acrolein decomposition resulting in CO formation. We show that the extent of acrolein decomposition can be tuned by varying the particle size and the reaction temperature. As a result, significant production of propenol is observed over 12 nm Pd nanoparticles at 250 K, while smaller (4 and 7 nm) nanoparticles did not produce propenol at any of the temperatures investigated. The possible origin of particle-size dependence of propenol formation is discussed. This work demonstrates that the selectivity in the hydrogenation of acrolein is controlled by the relative rates of acrolein partial hydrogenation to oxopropyl surface species and of acrolein decomposition, which has significant implications for rational catalyst design. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Patterns of failure after multimodal treatments for high-grade glioma: effectiveness of MIB-1 labeling index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Kazuyuki; Fujii, Osamu; Soejima, Toshinori; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kohmura, Eiji; Sasaki, Ryohei; Sasayama, Takashi; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Mukumoto, Naritoshi; Akasaka, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Masamitsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the recurrence pattern of high-grade glioma treated with a multimodal treatment approach and to evaluate whether the MIB-1 labeling index (LI) could be a useful marker for predicting the pattern of failure in glioblastoma (GB). We evaluated histologically confirmed 131 patients with either anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or GB. A median dose was 60 Gy. Concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy were administered to 111 patients. MIB-1 LI was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Recurrence patterns were categorized according to the areas of recurrence as follows: central failure (recurrence in the 95% of 60 Gy); in-field (recurrence in the high-dose volume of 50 Gy; marginal (recurrence outside the high-dose volume) and distant (recurrence outside the RT field). The median follow-up durations were 13 months for all patients and 19 months for those remaining alive. Among AA patients, the 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 23.1% and 39.2%, respectively, while in GB patients, the rates were 13.3% and 27.6%, respectively. The median survival time was 20 months for AA patients and 15 months for GB patients. Among AA patients, recurrences were central in 68.7% of patients; in-field, 18.8%; and distant, 12.5%, while among GB patients, 69.0% of recurrences were central, 15.5% were in-field, 12.1% were marginal, and 3.4% were distant. The MIB-1 LI medians were 18.2% in AA and 29.8% in GB. Interestingly, in patients with GB, the MIB-1 LI had a strong effect on the pattern of failure (P = 0.014), while the extent of surgical removal (P = 0.47) and regimens of chemotherapy (P = 0.57) did not. MIB-1 LI predominantly affected the pattern of failure in GB patients treated with a multimodal approach, and it might be a useful tool for the management of the disease

  2. Electron impact ionization of size selected hydrogen clusters (H2)N: ion fragment and neutral size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Oleg; Toennies, J Peter

    2008-05-21

    Clusters consisting of normal H2 molecules, produced in a free jet expansion, are size selected by diffraction from a transmission nanograting prior to electron impact ionization. For each neutral cluster (H2)(N) (N=2-40), the relative intensities of the ion fragments Hn+ are measured with a mass spectrometer. H3+ is found to be the most abundant fragment up to N=17. With a further increase in N, the abundances of H3+, H5+, H7+, and H9+ first increase and, after passing through a maximum, approach each other. At N=40, they are about the same and more than a factor of 2 and 3 larger than for H11+ and H13+, respectively. For a given neutral cluster size, the intensities of the ion fragments follow a Poisson distribution. The fragmentation probabilities are used to determine the neutral cluster size distribution produced in the expansion at a source temperature of 30.1 K and a source pressure of 1.50 bar. The distribution shows no clear evidence of a magic number N=13 as predicted by theory and found in experiments with pure para-H2 clusters. The ion fragment distributions are also used to extract information on the internal energy distribution of the H3+ ions produced in the reaction H2+ + H2-->H3+ +H, which is initiated upon ionization of the cluster. The internal energy is assumed to be rapidly equilibrated and to determine the number of molecules subsequently evaporated. The internal energy distribution found in this way is in good agreement with data obtained in an earlier independent merged beam scattering experiment.

  3. The effect of size-selective samplers (cyclones) on XRD response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated five size-selective samplers used in the South African mining industry to determine how their performance affects the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) response when respirable dust samples are analysed for quartz using direct...

  4. An integrated approach for determining the size of hardwood group-selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1999-01-01

    The use of group-selection methods is becoming more widespread as landowners and forest managers attempt to respond to public pressure to reduce the size of clearcut blocks. Several studies have shown that harvesting timber in smaller groups or clumps increases the cost of operations for both cable and ground-based logging systems. Recent regeneration studies have...

  5. Size selectivity of commercial (300 MC) and larger square mesh top ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, size selectivity of a commercial (300 MC) and a larger square mesh top panel (LSMTPC) codend for blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) were tested on a commercial trawl net in the international waters between Turkey and Greece. Trawling, performed during daylight was carried out at depths ...

  6. Cyclohexane selective photocatalytic oxidation by anatase TiO2: influence of particle size and crystallinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Almeida, A.R.; Almeida, Ana R.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study is presented on the effect of crystallite size of Anatase (Hombikat, Sachtleben), varied by calcination at different temperatures up to 800 °C, on photocatalytic activity in cyclohexane selective oxidation. Two different reactors were used to test the materials: a top illumination

  7. Identification of possible factors impacting dental students' ability to locate MB2 canals in maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ellen; Chehroudi, Babak; Coil, Jeffrey M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of the access size and straight-line path of access on third-year dental students' ability to locate a second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first and second molars. One hundred and six third-year dental students at one Faculty of Dentistry performed simulated root canal treatment with the aid of 2x magnification loupes on extracted teeth. A postgraduate endodontic student subsequently made a reasonable search for an untreated MB2 canal with the aid of a dental operating microscope. The mesiobuccal roots were then sectioned horizontally for determination of the canal configuration. The dental students were able to treat an MB2 canal in 15.8 percent of the teeth, but this was not associated with satisfactory access criteria. The postgraduate endodontic student identified an MB2 canal in 54.7 percent of the remaining tooth samples excluding those where the MB2 canal was found by the dental students; this represented 94.3 percent of those teeth confirmed by horizontal sectioning of the root to have an MB2 canal. The postgraduate student troughed, on average, 2.6 mm before negotiating the MB2 canal. As satisfactory access criteria and straight-line path of access did not correlate with the dental students' ability to find a second mesiobuccal canal, this result has important implications for educational goals with respect to endodontic treatment of maxillary molar teeth.

  8. Dal CERN, flusso si dati a una media di 600 megabytes al secondo per dieci giorni consecutivi

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The supercomputer Grid took up successfully its first technologic challenge. Egiht supercomputing centers have supported on internet a continuous flow of data from CERN in Geneva and directed them to seven centers in Europe and United States

  9. Bcl-2 protein expression is associated with p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Shinichi; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Hideya; Nishizaki, Takashi; Higashi, Hidefumi; Era, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown that Bcl-2, which has been established as a key player in the control of apoptosis, plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Bcl-2 and p27 protein expression, p53 protein expression and the proliferation activity as defined by the MIB-1 counts. The prognostic implication of Bcl-2 protein expression in relation to p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts for breast cancer was also evaluated. The immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 protein was evaluated in a series of 249 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast, in which p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts had been determined previously. The Bcl-2 protein expression was found to be decreased in 105 (42%) cases. A decreased Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly correlated with a nuclear grade of III, a negative estrogen receptor, a decreased p27 protein expression, a positive p53 protein expression, positive MIB-1 counts and a positive HER2 protein expression. The incidence of a nuclear grade of III and positive MIB-1 counts increased as the number of abnormal findings of Bcl-2, p27 and p53 protein expressions increased. A univariate analysis indicated a decreased Bcl-2 protein expression to be significantly (p = 0.0089) associated with a worse disease free survival (DFS), while a multivariate analysis indicated the lymph node status and MIB-1 counts to be independently significant prognostic factors for the DFS. The Bcl-2 protein expression has a close correlation with p27 and p53 protein expressions and the proliferation activity determined by MIB-1 counts in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The prognostic value of Bcl-2 as well as p27 and p53 protein expressions was dependent on the proliferation activity in breast cancer

  10. Bcl-2 protein expression is associated with p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizaki Takashi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental studies have shown that Bcl-2, which has been established as a key player in the control of apoptosis, plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Bcl-2 and p27 protein expression, p53 protein expression and the proliferation activity as defined by the MIB-1 counts. The prognostic implication of Bcl-2 protein expression in relation to p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts for breast cancer was also evaluated. Methods The immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 protein was evaluated in a series of 249 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast, in which p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts had been determined previously. Results The Bcl-2 protein expression was found to be decreased in 105 (42% cases. A decreased Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly correlated with a nuclear grade of III, a negative estrogen receptor, a decreased p27 protein expression, a positive p53 protein expression, positive MIB-1 counts and a positive HER2 protein expression. The incidence of a nuclear grade of III and positive MIB-1 counts increased as the number of abnormal findings of Bcl-2, p27 and p53 protein expressions increased. A univariate analysis indicated a decreased Bcl-2 protein expression to be significantly (p = 0.0089 associated with a worse disease free survival (DFS, while a multivariate analysis indicated the lymph node status and MIB-1 counts to be independently significant prognostic factors for the DFS. Conclusion The Bcl-2 protein expression has a close correlation with p27 and p53 protein expressions and the proliferation activity determined by MIB-1 counts in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The prognostic value of Bcl-2 as well as p27 and p53 protein expressions was dependent on the proliferation activity in breast cancer.

  11. Morphological impact on the reaction kinetics of size-selected cobalt oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartling, Stephan; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz; Barke, Ingo; Pohl, Marga-Martina

    2015-01-01

    Apart from large surface areas, low activation energies are essential for efficient reactions, particularly in heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we show that not only the size of nanoparticles but also their detailed morphology can crucially affect reaction kinetics, as demonstrated for mass-selected, soft-landed, and oxidized cobalt clusters in a 6 nm to 18 nm size range. The method of reflection high-energy electron diffraction is extended to the quantitative determination of particle activation energies which is applied for repeated oxidation and reduction cycles at the same particles. We find unexpectedly small activation barriers for the reduction reaction of the largest particles studied, despite generally increasing barriers for growing sizes. We attribute these observations to the interplay of reaction-specific material transport with a size-dependent inner particle morphology

  12. Size-Selective Modes of Aeolian Transport on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.; McLean, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian sand transport is a dominant driver of surface change and dust emission on Mars. Estimates of aeolian sand transport on Earth and Mars rely on terrestrial transport models that do not differentiate between transport modes (e.g., creep vs. saltation), which limits estimates of the critical threshold for transport and the total sand flux during a transport event. A gap remains in understanding how the different modes contribute to the total sand flux. Experiments conducted at the MARtian Surface WInd Tunnel separated modes of transport for uniform and mixed grain size surfaces at Earth and Martian atmospheric pressures. Crushed walnut shells with a density of 1.0 gm/cm3 were used. Experiments resolved grain size distributions for creeping and saltating grains over 3 uniform surfaces, U1, U2, and U3, with median grain sizes of 308 µm, 721 µm, and 1294 µm, and a mixed grain size surface, M1, with median grain sizes of 519 µm. A mesh trap located 5 cm above the test bed and a surface creep trap were deployed to capture particles moving as saltation and creep. Grains that entered the creep trap at angles ≥ 75° were categorized as moving in creep mode only. Only U1 and M1 surfaces captured enough surface creep at both Earth and Mars pressure for statistically significant grain size analysis. Our experiments show that size selective transport differs between Earth and Mars conditions. The median grain size of particles moving in creep for both uniform and mixed surfaces are larger under Earth conditions. (U1Earth = 385 µm vs. U1Mars = 355 µm; M1Earth = 762 vs. M1Mars = 697 µm ). However, particles moving in saltation were larger under Mars conditions (U1Earth = 282 µm; U1Mars = 309 µm; M1Earth = 347 µm; M1Mars = 454 µm ). Similar to terrestrial experiments, the median size of surface creep is larger than the median grain size of saltation. Median sizes of U1, U2, U3 at Mars conditions for creep was 355 µm, 774 µm and 1574 µm. Saltation at Mars

  13. Synthesis and magnetic properties of size-selected CoPt nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournus, F.; Blanc, N.; Tamion, A.; Hillenkamp, M.; Dupuis, V.

    2011-01-01

    CoPt nanoparticles are widely studied, in particular for their potentially very high magnetic anisotropy. However, their magnetic properties can differ from the bulk ones and they are expected to vary with the particle size. In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of well-defined CoPt nanoparticle samples produced in ultrahigh vacuum conditions following a physical route: the mass-selected low energy cluster beam deposition technique. This approach relies on an electrostatic deviation of ionized clusters which allows us to easily adjust the particle size, independently from the deposited equivalent thickness (i.e. the surface or volume particle density in a sample). Diluted samples made of CoPt particles, with different diameters, embedded in amorphous carbon are studied by transmission electron microscopy and superconducting interference device magnetometry, which gives access to the magnetic anisotropy energy distribution. We then compare the magnetic properties of two different particle sizes. The results are found to be consistent with an anisotropy constant (including its distribution) which does not evolve with the particle size in the range considered. - Highlights: → Samples of mass-selected CoPt nanoparticles are synthesized by an original physical method. → The magnetic properties of two different particle sizes are compared. → The anisotropy constant (including its dispersion) does not evolve in the range considered. → These results illustrate some invariance properties of ZFC curves.

  14. Selection Of Suitable Particle Size And Particle Ratio For Japanese Cucumber Cucumis Sativus L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galahitigama GAH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to select the best particle size of coco peat for cucumber nurseries as well as best particle ratio for optimum plant growth and development of cucumber. The experiment was carried out in International Foodstuff Company and Faculty of Agriculture University of Ruhuna Sri Lanka during 2015 to 2016. Under experiment one three types of different particle sizes were used namely fine amp88040.5mm T2 medium 3mm-0.5mm T3 and coarse 4mm T4 with normal coco peat T1 as treatments. Complete Randomized Design CRD used as experimental design with five replicates. Germination percentage number of leaves per seedling seedling height in frequent day intervals was taken as growth parameters. Analysis of variance procedure was applied to analyze the data at 5 probability level. The results revealed that medium size particle media sieve size 0.5mm -3mm of coco peat was the best particle size for cucumber nursery practice when considered the physical and chemical properties of medium particles of coco peat. In the experiment of selecting of suitable particle ratio for cucumber plants the compressed mixture of coco peat particles that contain 70 ww unsieved coco peat 20 ww coarse particles and 10 ww coconut husk chips 5 12mm has given best results for growth performances compared to other treatments and cucumber grown in this mixture has shown maximum growth and yield performances.

  15. Selecting the optimum plot size for a California design-based stream and wetland mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Leila G; Stein, Eric D

    2014-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the extent and distribution of wetlands and streams are the foundation of wetland monitoring, management, restoration, and regulatory programs. Traditionally, these estimates have relied on comprehensive mapping. However, this approach is prohibitively resource-intensive over large areas, making it both impractical and statistically unreliable. Probabilistic (design-based) approaches to evaluating status and trends provide a more cost-effective alternative because, compared with comprehensive mapping, overall extent is inferred from mapping a statistically representative, randomly selected subset of the target area. In this type of design, the size of sample plots has a significant impact on program costs and on statistical precision and accuracy; however, no consensus exists on the appropriate plot size for remote monitoring of stream and wetland extent. This study utilized simulated sampling to assess the performance of four plot sizes (1, 4, 9, and 16 km(2)) for three geographic regions of California. Simulation results showed smaller plot sizes (1 and 4 km(2)) were most efficient for achieving desired levels of statistical accuracy and precision. However, larger plot sizes were more likely to contain rare and spatially limited wetland subtypes. Balancing these considerations led to selection of 4 km(2) for the California status and trends program.

  16. Sample size estimation and sampling techniques for selecting a representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a general understanding of the concepts of sampling as applied to health-related research. Sample Size Estimation: It is important to select a representative sample in quantitative research in order to be able to generalize the results to the target population. The sample should be of the required sample size and must be selected using an appropriate probability sampling technique. There are many hidden biases which can adversely affect the outcome of the study. Important factors to consider for estimating the sample size include the size of the study population, confidence level, expected proportion of the outcome variable (for categorical variables/standard deviation of the outcome variable (for numerical variables, and the required precision (margin of accuracy from the study. The more the precision required, the greater is the required sample size. Sampling Techniques: The probability sampling techniques applied for health related research include simple random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, and multistage sampling. These are more recommended than the nonprobability sampling techniques, because the results of the study can be generalized to the target population.

  17. Enhanced Size Selection in Two-Photon Excitation for CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junsheng; Chábera, Pavel; Pascher, Torbjörn; Messing, Maria E; Schaller, Richard; Canton, Sophie; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2017-10-19

    Cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), with large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section and bright photoluminescence (PL), have been demonstrated as stable two-photon-pumped lasing medium. With two-photon excitation, red-shifted PL spectrum and increased PL lifetime is observed compared with one-photon excitation. We have investigated the origin of such difference using time-resolved laser spectroscopies. We ascribe the difference to the enhanced size selection of NCs by two-photon excitation. Because of inherent nonlinearity, the size dependence of absorption cross-section under TPA is stronger. Consequently, larger size NCs are preferably excited, leading to longer excited-state lifetime and red-shifted PL emission. In a broad view, the enhanced size selection in two-photon excitation of CsPbBr 3 NCs is likely a general feature of the perovskite NCs and can be tuned via NC size distribution to influence their performance within NC-based nonlinear optical materials and devices.

  18. Techniques used by United Kingdom consultant plastic surgeons to select implant size for primary breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W J M; Timmons, M J; Kauser, S

    2015-10-01

    Techniques used to estimate implant size for primary breast augmentation have evolved since the 1970s. Currently no consensus exists on the optimal method to select implant size for primary breast augmentation. In 2013 we asked United Kingdom consultant plastic surgeons who were full members of BAPRAS or BAAPS what was their technique for implant size selection for primary aesthetic breast augmentation. We also asked what was the range of implant sizes they commonly used. The answers to question one were grouped into four categories: experience, measurements, pre-operative external sizers and intra-operative sizers. The response rate was 46% (164/358). Overall, 95% (153/159) of all respondents performed some form of pre-operative assessment, the others relied on "experience" only. The most common technique for pre-operative assessment was by external sizers (74%). Measurements were used by 57% of respondents and 3% used intra-operative sizers only. A combination of measurements and sizers was used by 34% of respondents. The most common measurements were breast base (68%), breast tissue compliance (19%), breast height (15%), and chest diameter (9%). The median implant size commonly used in primary breast augmentation was 300cc. Pre-operative external sizers are the most common technique used by UK consultant plastic surgeons to select implant size for primary breast augmentation. We discuss the above findings in relation to the evolution of pre-operative planning techniques for breast augmentation. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel joint selection methods can reduce sample size for rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials with ultrasound endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John C; Thumboo, Julian; Lye, Weng Kit; Conaghan, Philip G; Chew, Li-Ching; Tan, York Kiat

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether novel methods of selecting joints through (i) ultrasonography (individualized-ultrasound [IUS] method), or (ii) ultrasonography and clinical examination (individualized-composite-ultrasound [ICUS] method) translate into smaller rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical trial sample sizes when compared to existing methods utilizing predetermined joint sites for ultrasonography. Cohen's effect size (ES) was estimated (ES^) and a 95% CI (ES^L, ES^U) calculated on a mean change in 3-month total inflammatory score for each method. Corresponding 95% CIs [nL(ES^U), nU(ES^L)] were obtained on a post hoc sample size reflecting the uncertainty in ES^. Sample size calculations were based on a one-sample t-test as the patient numbers needed to provide 80% power at α = 0.05 to reject a null hypothesis H 0 : ES = 0 versus alternative hypotheses H 1 : ES = ES^, ES = ES^L and ES = ES^U. We aimed to provide point and interval estimates on projected sample sizes for future studies reflecting the uncertainty in our study ES^S. Twenty-four treated RA patients were followed up for 3 months. Utilizing the 12-joint approach and existing methods, the post hoc sample size (95% CI) was 22 (10-245). Corresponding sample sizes using ICUS and IUS were 11 (7-40) and 11 (6-38), respectively. Utilizing a seven-joint approach, the corresponding sample sizes using ICUS and IUS methods were nine (6-24) and 11 (6-35), respectively. Our pilot study suggests that sample size for RA clinical trials with ultrasound endpoints may be reduced using the novel methods, providing justification for larger studies to confirm these observations. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    comparisons showed that mean size decreased across the extinction boundary. This was due to the fact that new originating genera were smaller than the genera that survived. Our results show that there is variability in the relationship between body size and extinction selectivity in various mass extinctions.

  1. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P T; Ogilvie, David

    2015-09-14

    Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children.2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. We applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies for inclusion and

  2. Size-Selective Oxidation of Aldehydes with Zeolite Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane; Laursen, Anders Bo; Kegnæs, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a synthesis and catalytic study of hybrid materials comprised of 1–3 nm sinter-stable Au nanoparticles in MFI-type zeolites. An optional post-treatment in aqua regia effectively remove Au from the external surfaces. The size-selective aerobic aldehyde oxidation verifies that the a......Here, we report a synthesis and catalytic study of hybrid materials comprised of 1–3 nm sinter-stable Au nanoparticles in MFI-type zeolites. An optional post-treatment in aqua regia effectively remove Au from the external surfaces. The size-selective aerobic aldehyde oxidation verifies...... that the active Au is accessible only through the zeolite micropores....

  3. Arrays of Size-Selected Metal Nanoparticles Formed by Cluster Ion Beam Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Zenin, Volodymyr

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of size-selected copper and silver nanoparticles (NPs) on polymers using cluster beam technique is studied. It is shown that ratio of particle embedment in the film can be controlled by simple thermal annealing. Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition, and heat...... with required configurations which can be applied for wave-guiding, resonators, in sensor technologies, and surface enhanced Raman scattering....

  4. Linear and nonlinear surface spectroscopy of supported size selected metal clusters and organic adsorbates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaemer, Martin Georg

    2012-03-08

    The spectroscopic investigation of supported size selected metal clusters over a wide wavelength range plays an important role for understanding their outstanding catalytic properties. The challenge which must be overcome to perform such measurements is the difficult detection of the weak spectroscopic signals from these samples. As a consequence, highly sensitive spectroscopic methods are applied, such as surface Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy and surface Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy. The spectroscopic apparatus developed is shown to have a sensitivity which is high enough to detect sub-monolayer coverages of adsorbates on surfaces. In the measured spectra of small supported silver clusters of the sizes Ag{sub 4}2, Ag{sub 2}1, Ag{sub 9}, and Ag atoms a stepwise transition from particles with purely metallic character to particles with molecule-like properties can be observed within this size range.

  5. Liquidity Determinants of the Selected Banking Sectors and their Size Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Laštůvková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the factors affecting the liquidity of selected bank sectors, as well as their size groups, using panel regression analysis. For higher complexity of the results, multiple dependent variables are used: liquidity creation, outflow and net change. The values are calculated based on the specific method of liquidity risk measurement – gross liquidity flows. The results indicate both multiple effects of some factors on the given variables, as well as isolated influence of factors on a single liquidity form or size group. Thus, when looking for determinants using just one form of liquidity, such as creation, the results need not necessarily comprehensively show the influence of the given factors, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The results also point to the differing behaviours of the size groups and their different sensitivity on the factors; smaller banks have shown higher sensitivity on macroeconomic variables. Higher flexibility in regulation could lead to higher optimization.

  6. The impact of feedstock cost on technology selection and optimum size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Jay B.; Kumar, Amit; Flynn, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Development of biomass projects at optimum size and technology enhances the role that biomass can make in mitigating greenhouse gas. Optimum sized plants can be built when biomass resources are sufficient to meet feedstock demand; examples include wood and forest harvest residues from extensive forests, and grain straw and corn stover from large agricultural regions. The impact of feedstock cost on technology selection is evaluated by comparing the cost of power from the gasification and direct combustion of boreal forest wood chips. Optimum size is a function of plant cost and the distance variable cost (DVC, $ dry tonne -1 km -1 ) of the biomass fuel; distance fixed costs (DFC, $ dry tonne -1 ) such as acquisition, harvesting, loading and unloading do not impact optimum size. At low values of DVC and DFC, as occur with wood chips sourced from the boreal forest, direct combustion has a lower power cost than gasification. At higher values of DVC and DFC, gasification has a lower power cost than direct combustion. This crossover in most economic technology will always arise when a more efficient technology with a higher capital cost per unit of output is compared to a less efficient technology with a lower capital cost per unit of output. In such cases technology selection cannot be separated from an analysis of feedstock cost

  7. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  8. Human Occipital and Parietal GABA Selectively Influence Visual Perception of Orientation and Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Sandberg, Kristian; Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Rees, Geraint

    2017-09-13

    GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the

  9. Human Occipital and Parietal GABA Selectively Influence Visual Perception of Orientation and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby

    2017-01-01

    GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the

  10. The natural selection of organizational and safety culture within a small to medium sized enterprise (SME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) form the majority of Australian businesses. This study uses ethnographic research methods to describe the organizational culture of a small furniture-manufacturing business in southern Australia. Results show a range of cultural assumptions variously 'embedded' within the enterprise. In line with memetics - Richard Dawkin's cultural application of Charles Darwin's theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, the author suggests that these assumptions compete to be replicated and retained within the organization. The author suggests that dominant assumptions are naturally selected, and that the selection can be better understood by considering the cultural assumptions in reference to Darwin's original principles and Frederik Barth's anthropological framework of knowledge. The results are discussed with reference to safety systems, negative cultural elements called Cultural Safety Viruses, and how our understanding of this particular organizational culture might be used to build resistance to these viruses.

  11. Self-selection in size and structure in argon clusters formed on amorphous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Waal, Benjamin W. van de

    2004-07-01

    Argon clusters formed on an amorphous carbon substrate as deposited from the vapor phase were studied by means of transmission high energy electron diffraction using the liquid helium cryostat. Electron diffractograms were analysed on the basis of assumption that there exist a cluster size distribution in samples formed on substrate and multi-shell structures such as icosahedra, decahedra, fcc and hcp were probed for different sizes up to {approx}15 000 atoms. The experimental data were considered as a result of a superposition of diffracted intensities from clusters of different sizes and structures. The comparative analysis was based on the R-factor minimization that was found to be equal to 0.014 for the best fit between experiment and modelling. The total size and structure distribution function shows the presence of 'non-crystallographic' structures such as icosahedra and decahedra with five-fold symmetry that was found to prevail and a smaller amount of fcc and hcp structures. Possible growth mechanisms as well as observed general tendency to self-selection in sizes and structures are presumably governed by confined pore-like geometry in an amorphous carbon substrate.

  12. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  13. The 1990 MB: The first Mars Trojan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowell, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Asteroid 1990 MB was discovered during the course of the Mars and Earth-crossing Asteroid and Comet Survey. An orbit based on a 9-day arc and the asteroid's location near Mars L5 longitude led to speculation that it might be in 1:1 resonance with Mars, analogous to the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter. Subsequent observations strengthened the possibility, and later calculations confirmed it. The most recent orbit shows that the asteroid's semimajor axis is very similar to that of Mars.

  14. Size-selective sorting in bubble streaming flows: Particle migration on fast time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2015-11-01

    Steady streaming from ultrasonically driven microbubbles is an increasingly popular technique in microfluidics because such devices are easily manufactured and generate powerful and highly controllable flows. Combining streaming and Poiseuille transport flows allows for passive size-sensitive sorting at particle sizes and selectivities much smaller than the bubble radius. The crucial particle deflection and separation takes place over very small times (milliseconds) and length scales (20-30 microns) and can be rationalized using a simplified geometric mechanism. A quantitative theoretical description is achieved through the application of recent results on three-dimensional streaming flow field contributions. To develop a more fundamental understanding of the particle dynamics, we use high-speed photography of trajectories in polydisperse particle suspensions, recording the particle motion on the time scale of the bubble oscillation. Our data reveal the dependence of particle displacement on driving phase, particle size, oscillatory flow speed, and streaming speed. With this information, the effective repulsive force exerted by the bubble on the particle can be quantified, showing for the first time how fast, selective particle migration is effected in a streaming flow. We acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under grant number CBET-1236141.

  15. Salts-based size-selective precipitation: toward mass precipitation of aqueous nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Min; Xu, Shu-Hong; Cui, Yi-Ping

    2010-01-19

    Purification is a necessary step before the application of nanocrystals (NCs), since the excess matter in nanoparticles solution usually causes a disadvantage to their subsequent coupling or assembling with other materials. In this work, a novel salts-based precipitation technique is originally developed for the precipitation and size-selective precipitation of aqueous NCs. Simply by addition of salts, NCs can be precipitated from the solution. After decantation of the supernatant solution, the precipitates can be dispersed in water again. By means of adjusting the addition amount of salt, size-selective precipitation of aqueous NCs can be achieved. Namely, the NCs with large size are precipitated preferentially, leaving small NCs in solution. Compared with the traditional nonsolvents-based precipitation technique, the current one is simpler and more rapid due to the avoidance of condensation and heating manipulations used in the traditional precipitation process. Moreover, the salts-based precipitation technique was generally available for the precipitation of aqueous nanoparticles, no matter if there were semiconductor NCs or metal nanoparticles. Simultaneously, the cost of the current method is also much lower than that of the traditional nonsolvents-based precipitation technique, making it applicable for mass purification of aqueous NCs.

  16. A Genetic Algorithm for Selection of Fixed-Size Subsets with Application to Design Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wolters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The R function kofnGA conducts a genetic algorithm search for the best subset of k items from a set of n alternatives, given an objective function that measures the quality of a subset. The function fills a gap in the presently available subset selection software, which typically searches over a range of subset sizes, restricts the types of objective functions considered, or does not include freely available code. The new function is demonstrated on two types of problem where a fixed-size subset search is desirable: design of environmental monitoring networks, and D-optimal design of experiments. Additionally, the performance is evaluated on a class of constructed test problems with a novel design that is interesting in its own right.

  17. Different resource allocation strategies result from selection for litter size at weaning in rabbit does

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savietto, D; Cervera, C; Rodenas, L

    2014-01-01

    diet. The litter size was lower for female rabbits housed in both NF and HC environments, but the extent and timing where this reduction took place differed between generations. In challenging conditions (NF and HC), the average reduction in the reproductive performance of female rabbits from...... a greater reduction at the 3rd parturition (−3.53 kits born alive; Pdifferences between generations in digestible energy intake, milk yield and accretion, and use of body reserves throughout lactation in NC, HC and NF, which together indicate that there were...... different resource allocation strategies in the animals from the different generations. Selection to increase litter size at weaning led to increased reproductive robustness at the onset of an environmental constraint, but failure to sustain the reproductive liability when the challenge was maintained...

  18. Size selective isocyanate aerosols personal air sampling using porous plastic foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Khanh Huynh; Trinh Vu Duc

    2009-01-01

    As part of a European project (SMT4-CT96-2137), various European institutions specialized in occupational hygiene (BGIA, HSL, IOM, INRS, IST, Ambiente e Lavoro) have established a program of scientific collaboration to develop one or more prototypes of European personal samplers for the collection of simultaneous three dust fractions: inhalable, thoracic and respirable. These samplers based on existing sampling heads (IOM, GSP and cassettes) use Polyurethane Plastic Foam (PUF) according to their porosity to support sampling and separator size of the particles. In this study, the authors present an original application of size selective personal air sampling using chemical impregnated PUF to perform isocyanate aerosols capturing and derivatizing in industrial spray-painting shops.

  19. The necessity of microscopy to characterize the optical properties of size-selected, nonspherical aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veghte, Daniel P; Freedman, Miriam A

    2012-11-06

    It is currently unknown whether mineral dust causes a net warming or cooling effect on the climate system. This uncertainty stems from the varied and evolving shape and composition of mineral dust, which leads to diverse interactions of dust with solar and terrestrial radiation. To investigate these interactions, we have used a cavity ring-down spectrometer to study the optical properties of size-selected calcium carbonate particles, a reactive component of mineral dust. The size selection of nonspherical particles like mineral dust can differ from spherical particles in the polydispersity of the population selected. To calculate the expected extinction cross sections, we use Mie scattering theory for monodisperse spherical particles and for spherical particles with the polydispersity observed in transmission electron microscopy images. Our results for calcium carbonate are compared to the well-studied system of ammonium sulfate. While ammonium sulfate extinction cross sections agree with Mie scattering theory for monodisperse spherical particles, the results for calcium carbonate deviate at large and small particle sizes. We find good agreement for both systems, however, between the calculations performed using the particle images and the cavity ring-down data, indicating that both ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate can be treated as polydisperse spherical particles. Our results indicate that having an independent measure of polydispersity is essential for understanding the optical properties of nonspherical particles measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Our combined spectroscopy and microscopy techniques demonstrate a novel method by which cavity ring-down spectroscopy can be extended for the study of more complex aerosol particles.

  20. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend...

  1. Ultrathin self-assembled anionic polymer membranes for superfast size-selective separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Han, Guang Lu; Gong, Yi; Zhu, Ai Mei; Liu, Qing Lin

    2013-10-01

    Nanoporous membranes with superior separation performance have become more crucial with increasing concerns in functional nanomaterials. Here novel ultrahigh permeable nanoporous membranes have been fabricated on macroporous supports by self-assembly of anionic polymer on copper hydroxide nanostrand templates in organic solution. This facile approach has a great potential for the fabrication of ultrathin anionic polymer membranes as a general method. The as-fabricated self-assembled membranes have a mean pore size of 5-12 nm and an adjustable thickness as low as 85 nm. They allow superfast permeation of water, and exhibit excellent size-selective separation properties and good fouling resistance for negatively-charged solutes during filtration. The 85 nm thick membrane has an ultrahigh water flux (3306 l m-2 h-1 bar-1) that is an order of magnitude larger than commercial membranes, and can highly efficiently separate 5 and 15 nm gold nanoparticles from their mixtures. The newly developed nanoporous membranes have a wide application in separation and purification of biomacromolecules and nanoparticles.Nanoporous membranes with superior separation performance have become more crucial with increasing concerns in functional nanomaterials. Here novel ultrahigh permeable nanoporous membranes have been fabricated on macroporous supports by self-assembly of anionic polymer on copper hydroxide nanostrand templates in organic solution. This facile approach has a great potential for the fabrication of ultrathin anionic polymer membranes as a general method. The as-fabricated self-assembled membranes have a mean pore size of 5-12 nm and an adjustable thickness as low as 85 nm. They allow superfast permeation of water, and exhibit excellent size-selective separation properties and good fouling resistance for negatively-charged solutes during filtration. The 85 nm thick membrane has an ultrahigh water flux (3306 l m-2 h-1 bar-1) that is an order of magnitude larger than

  2. Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composites with Size-selected Silver Nanoparticles Fabricated Using Cluster Beam Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammad, Hanif; Juluri, Raghavendra R.; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    based on cluster beam technique allowing the formation of monocrystalline size-selected silver nanoparticles with a ±5–7% precision of diameter and controllable embedment into poly (methyl methacrylate). It is shown that the soft-landed silver clusters preserve almost spherical shape with a slight...... tendency to flattening upon impact. By controlling the polymer hardness (from viscous to soft state) prior the cluster deposition and annealing conditions after the deposition the degree of immersion of the nanoparticles into polymer can be tuned, thus, making it possible to create composites with either...

  3. An Efficient Adaptive Window Size Selection Method for Improving Spectrogram Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibli Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT is an important technique for the time-frequency analysis of a time varying signal. The basic approach behind it involves the application of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT to a signal multiplied with an appropriate window function with fixed resolution. The selection of an appropriate window size is difficult when no background information about the input signal is known. In this paper, a novel empirical model is proposed that adaptively adjusts the window size for a narrow band-signal using spectrum sensing technique. For wide-band signals, where a fixed time-frequency resolution is undesirable, the approach adapts the constant Q transform (CQT. Unlike the STFT, the CQT provides a varying time-frequency resolution. This results in a high spectral resolution at low frequencies and high temporal resolution at high frequencies. In this paper, a simple but effective switching framework is provided between both STFT and CQT. The proposed method also allows for the dynamic construction of a filter bank according to user-defined parameters. This helps in reducing redundant entries in the filter bank. Results obtained from the proposed method not only improve the spectrogram visualization but also reduce the computation cost and achieves 87.71% of the appropriate window length selection.

  4. Tapping insertional torque allows prediction for better pedicle screw fixation and optimal screw size selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Dmitriev, Anton E; Luhmann, Scott J

    2013-08-01

    There is currently no reliable technique for intraoperative assessment of pedicle screw fixation strength and optimal screw size. Several studies have evaluated pedicle screw insertional torque (IT) and its direct correlation with pullout strength. However, there is limited clinical application with pedicle screw IT as it must be measured during screw placement and rarely causes the spine surgeon to change screw size. To date, no study has evaluated tapping IT, which precedes screw insertion, and its ability to predict pedicle screw pullout strength. The objective of this study was to investigate tapping IT and its ability to predict pedicle screw pullout strength and optimal screw size. In vitro human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. Twenty fresh-frozen human cadaveric thoracic vertebral levels were prepared and dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry scanned for bone mineral density (BMD). All specimens were osteoporotic with a mean BMD of 0.60 ± 0.07 g/cm(2). Five specimens (n=10) were used to perform a pilot study, as there were no previously established values for optimal tapping IT. Each pedicle during the pilot study was measured using a digital caliper as well as computed tomography measurements, and the optimal screw size was determined to be equal to or the first size smaller than the pedicle diameter. The optimal tap size was then selected as the tap diameter 1 mm smaller than the optimal screw size. During optimal tap size insertion, all peak tapping IT values were found to be between 2 in-lbs and 3 in-lbs. Therefore, the threshold tapping IT value for optimal pedicle screw and tap size was determined to be 2.5 in-lbs, and a comparison tapping IT value of 1.5 in-lbs was selected. Next, 15 test specimens (n=30) were measured with digital calipers, probed, tapped, and instrumented using a paired comparison between the two threshold tapping IT values (Group 1: 1.5 in-lbs; Group 2: 2.5 in-lbs), randomly assigned to the left or right pedicle on each

  5. A simulation-based attempt to quantify the morphological component of size selection of Nephrops norvegicus in trawl codends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Herrmann, Bent; Madsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The selectivity for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus) in trawl codends generally is poor and the lack of steepness of the selection curve results in high discard rates and/or loss of legal-sized catch. This poor codend selectivity often is attributed to the irregular shape of Nephrops, which to some...

  6. Guidelines for the selection of optimal glenoid augment size for moderate to severe glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Vani; Callanan, Mark; Sharma, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty is technically demanding in regard to implantation of the glenoid component, especially in the setting of increased glenoid deformity and posterior glenoid wear. Augmented glenoid implants are an important and innovative option; however, there is little evidence accessible to surgeons to guide in the selection of the appropriate size augmented glenoid. Solid computer models of commercially available augmented glenoid components (+3, +5, +7) contained within the software allowed placement of the best fit glenoid component within the three-dimensional reconstruct of each patient's scapula. Peg perforation, amount of bone reamed, and amount of medialization were recorded for each augment size. There was strong correlation between the medialization of the joint line and the glenoid retroversion for each augmented component at neutral correction and correction to 6° of retroversion. At neutral, the range of retroversion that restored the anatomic joint line was -3° to -17° with use of the +3 augmented glenoid, -5° to -24° with the +5 augmented glenoid, and -9° to -31° with the +7 augmented glenoid. At 6° of retroversion, the range of retroversion that restored the anatomic joint line was -4° to -21° with use of the +3 augmented glenoid, -7° to -27° with the +5 augmented glenoid, and -9° to -34° with the +7 augmented glenoid. There was a strong correlation between glenoid retroversion and medialization for all augment sizes, supporting the recommendation for glenoid retroversion as the primary guide in selecting the amount of augmentation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. Sexual selection on male size drives the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism via the prolongation of male development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Patrick T; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2016-06-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) arises when the net effects of natural and sexual selection on body size differ between the sexes. Quantitative SSD variation between taxa is common, but directional intraspecific SSD reversals are rare. We combined micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to study geographic SSD variation in closely related black scavenger flies. Common garden experiments revealed stark intra- and interspecific variation: Sepsis biflexuosa is monomorphic across the Holarctic, while S. cynipsea (only in Europe) consistently exhibits female-biased SSD. Interestingly, S. neocynipsea displays contrasting SSD in Europe (females larger) and North America (males larger), a pattern opposite to the geographic reversal in SSD of S. punctum documented in a previous study. In accordance with the differential equilibrium model for the evolution of SSD, the intensity of sexual selection on male size varied between continents (weaker in Europe), whereas fecundity selection on female body size did not. Subsequent comparative analyses of 49 taxa documented at least six independent origins of male-biased SSD in Sepsidae, which is likely caused by sexual selection on male size and mediated by bimaturism. Therefore, reversals in SSD and the associated changes in larval development might be much more common and rapid and less constrained than currently assumed. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Preliminarily study on the maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2017-10-01

    The present study preliminarily examined the differences in maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on four gastropods species (Bellamya aeruginosa, Radix auricularia, Parafossarulus sinensis and Alocinma longicornis) under laboratory conditions. In the maximum handling size trial, five fish from each age group (1-year-old and 2-year-old) and each genotype (transgenic and non-transgenic) of common carp were individually allowed to feed on B. aeruginosa with wide shell height range. The results showed that maximum handling size increased linearly with fish length, and there was no significant difference in maximum handling size between the two genotypes. In the size selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on three size groups of B. aeruginosa. The results show that the two genotypes of C. carpio favored the small-sized group over the large-sized group. In the species selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on thin-shelled B. aeruginosa and thick-shelled R. auricularia, and five pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on two gastropods species (P. sinensis and A. longicornis) with similar size and shell strength. The results showed that both genotypes preferred thin-shelled Radix auricularia rather than thick-shelled B. aeruginosa, but there were no significant difference in selectivity between the two genotypes when fed on P. sinensis and A. longicornis. The present study indicates that transgenic and non-transgenic C. carpio show similar selectivity of predation on the size- and species-limited gastropods. While this information may be useful for assessing the environmental risk of transgenic carp, it does not necessarily demonstrate that transgenic common carp might

  9. Measurement of particle size distribution of soil and selected aggregate sizes using the hydrometer method and laser diffractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Giráldez, J. V.

    2010-05-01

    Soil particle size distribution has been traditionally determined by the hydrometer or the sieve-pipette methods, both of them time consuming and requiring a relatively large soil sample. This might be a limitation in situations, such as for instance analysis of suspended sediment, when the sample is small. A possible alternative to these methods are the optical techniques such as laser diffractometry. However the literature indicates that the use of this technique as an alternative to traditional methods is still limited, because the difficulty in replicating the results obtained with the standard methods. In this study we present the percentages of soil grain size determined using laser diffractometry within ranges set between 0.04 - 2000 μm. A Beckman-Coulter ® LS-230 with a 750 nm laser beam and software version 3.2 in five soils, representative of southern Spain: Alameda, Benacazón, Conchuela, Lanjarón and Pedrera. In three of the studied soils (Alameda, Benacazón and Conchuela) the particle size distribution of each aggregate size class was also determined. Aggregate size classes were obtained by dry sieve analysis using a Retsch AS 200 basic ®. Two hundred grams of air dried soil were sieved during 150 s, at amplitude 2 mm, getting nine different sizes between 2000 μm and 10 μm. Analyses were performed by triplicate. The soil sample preparation was also adapted to our conditions. A small amount each soil sample (less than 1 g) was transferred to the fluid module full of running water and disaggregated by ultrasonication at energy level 4 and 80 ml of sodium hexametaphosphate solution during 580 seconds. Two replicates of each sample were performed. Each measurement was made for a 90 second reading at a pump speed of 62. After the laser diffractometry analysis, each soil and its aggregate classes were processed calibrating its own optical model fitting the optical parameters that mainly depends on the color and the shape of the analyzed particle. As a

  10. A family longevity selection score: ranking sibships by their longevity, size, and availability for study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Hadley, Evan C; Province, Michael; Christensen, Kaare; Rossi, Winifred; Perls, Thomas T; Ash, Arlene S

    2009-12-15

    Family studies of exceptional longevity can potentially identify genetic and other factors contributing to long life and healthy aging. Although such studies seek families that are exceptionally long lived, they also need living members who can provide DNA and phenotype information. On the basis of these considerations, the authors developed a metric to rank families for selection into a family study of longevity. Their measure, the family longevity selection score (FLoSS), is the sum of 2 components: 1) an estimated family longevity score built from birth-, gender-, and nation-specific cohort survival probabilities and 2) a bonus for older living siblings. The authors examined properties of FLoSS-based family rankings by using data from 3 ongoing studies: the New England Centenarian Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and screenees for the Long Life Family Study. FLoSS-based selection yields families with exceptional longevity, satisfactory sibship sizes and numbers of living siblings, and high ages. Parameters in the FLoSS formula can be tailored for studies of specific populations or age ranges or with different conditions. The first component of the FLoSS also provides a conceptually sound survival measure to characterize exceptional longevity in individuals or families in various types of studies and correlates well with later-observed longevity.

  11. Selection on male size, leg length and condition during mate search in a sexually highly dimorphic orb-weaving spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foellmer, Matthias W; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2005-02-01

    Mate search plays a central role in hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Spiders (Araneae) are the only free-living terrestrial taxon where extreme SSD is common. The "gravity hypothesis" states that small body size in males is favoured during mate search in species where males have to climb to reach females, because body length is inversely proportional to achievable speed on vertical structures. However, locomotive performance of males may also depend on relative leg length. Here we examine selection on male body size and leg length during mate search in the highly dimorphic orb-weaving spider Argiope aurantia, using a multivariate approach to distinguish selection targeted at different components of size. Further, we investigate the scaling relationships between male size and energy reserves, and the differential loss of reserves. Adult males do not feed while roving, and a size-dependent differential energy storage capacity may thus affect male performance during mate search. Contrary to predictions, large body size was favoured in one of two populations, and this was due to selection for longer legs. Male size was not under selection in the second population, but we detected direct selection for longer third legs. Males lost energy reserves during mate search, but this was independent of male size and storage capacity scaled isometrically with size. Thus, mate search is unlikely to lead to selection for small male size, but the hypothesis that relatively longer legs in male spiders reflect a search-adapted morphology is supported.

  12. Size- and charge selectivity of glomerular filtration in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A; Vidal, P

    1993-01-01

    Albuminuria is the first clinical event in the development of diabetic nephropathy. We assessed glomerular charge- and size selectivity in 51 patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus of juvenile onset and 11 healthy individuals. Patients were allocated to five groups. The urinary...... techniques and tubular protein reabsorption by excretion of beta 2-microglobulin. Charge selectivity was estimated from the IgG/IgG4 selectivity index. Size selectivity was measured by dextran clearance. Dextran was measured by refractive index detection after fractionation (2 A fractions in the range 26...... macromolecular pathways in the development of diabetic nephropathy....

  13. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  14. Employment and other selected personnel attributes in metallurgical and industrial enterprises of different size - research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pawliczek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of employment and other selected personnel attributes as employees’ affiliations, employees’ benefits, monitoring of employees’ satisfaction, monitoring of work productivity, investments into employees education and obstacles in hiring qualified human resources. The characteristics are benchmarked on the background of enterprise size based on the employees count in the year 2013. The relevant data were collected in Czech industrial enterprises, including metallurgical companies, with the help of university questionnaire research in order to induce synergy effect arising from mutual communication of academy-students-industry. The most important results are presented later in the paper, complemented with discussion based on relevant professional literature sources. The findings suggest that bigger companies check productivity and satisfaction and dismiss employees more frequently, unlike medium companies which do not reduce their workforce and solve the impact of crisis by decreased affiliations, reduced benefits and similar savings.

  15. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  16. POLYMER COMPOSITE FILMS WITH SIZE-SELECTED METAL NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED BY CLUSTER BEAM TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Popok, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Formation of polymer films with size-selected silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) is studied. Polymers are prepared by spin coating while NPs are fabricated and deposited utilizing a magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus. The particle embedding into the films is provided by thermal annealing...... after the deposition. The degree of immersion can be controlled by the annealing temperature and time. Together with control of cluster coverage the described approach represents an efficient method for the synthesis of thin polymer composite layers with either partially or fully embedded metal NPs....... Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition and thermal annealing allows to form ordered arrays of metal NPs on polymer films. Plasticity and flexibility of polymer host and specific properties added by coinage metal NPs open a way for different applications of such composite materials...

  17. Materials selection of surface coatings in an advanced size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Younger, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A materials selection test program was conducted to characterize optimum interior surface coatings for an advanced size reduction facility. The equipment to be processed by this facility consists of stainless steel apparatus (e.g., glove boxes, piping, and tanks) used for the chemical recovery of plutonium. Test results showed that a primary requirement for a satisfactory coating is ease of decontamination. A closely related concern is the resistance of paint films to nitric acid - plutonium environments. A vinyl copolymer base paint was the only coating, of eight paints tested, with properties that permitted satisfactory decontamination of plutonium and also performed equal to or better than the other paints in the chemical resistance, radiation stability, and impact tests

  18. Assembly of tantalum porous films with graded oxidation profile from size-selected nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vidyadhar; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Cassidy, Cathal; Benelmekki, Maria; Bohra, Murtaza; Hawash, Zafer; Baughman, Kenneth W.; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2014-05-01

    Functionally graded materials offer a way to improve the physical and chemical properties of thin films and coatings for different applications in the nanotechnology and biomedical fields. In this work, design and assembly of nanoporous tantalum films with a graded oxidation profile perpendicular to the substrate surface are reported. These nanoporous films are composed of size-selected, amorphous tantalum nanoparticles, deposited using a gas-aggregated magnetron sputtering system, and oxidized after coalescence, as samples evolve from mono- to multi-layered structures. Molecular dynamics computer simulations shed light on atomistic mechanisms of nanoparticle coalescence, which govern the films porosity. Aberration-corrected (S) TEM, GIXRD, AFM, SEM, and XPS were employed to study the morphology, phase and oxidation profiles of the tantalum nanoparticles, and the resultant films.

  19. Osteoporose bei Mb. Bechterew - neue Ansätze

    OpenAIRE

    Obermayer-Pietsch B; Aglas F; Hermann J; Leb G; Tauber G

    1999-01-01

    Eine axiale Osteoporose und daraus resultierende vertebrale Kompressionsfrakturen sind häufige Symptome eines Mb. Bechterew (MbB, Spondylarthritis ankylosans). Als ein möglicher genetischer Faktor der Osteoporose wurde eine Assoziation der Knochendichte (BMD) mit BsmI- und FokI-Polymorphismen im Vitamin D-Rezeptor-(VDR-)Gen publiziert. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden die Beziehungen zwischen diesen Polymorphismen, Knochenstoffwechsel, BMD und Aktivitätsindizes bei Patienten mit MbB untersuc...

  20. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, Raul

    2014-09-01

    Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis) collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  1. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAUL COSTA-PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  2. Charge- and Size-Selective Molecular Separation using Ultrathin Cellulose Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2016-08-30

    To date, it is still a challenge to prepare high-flux and highselectivity microporous membranes thinner than 20 nm without introducing defects. In this work, we report for the first time the application of cellulose membranes for selective separation of small molecules. A freestanding cellulose membrane as thin as 10 nm has been prepared through regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC). The freestanding membrane can be transferred to any desired substrate and shows a normalized flux as high as 700 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 when supported by a porous alumina disc. According to filtration experiments, the membrane exhibits precise size-sieving performances with an estimated pore size between 1.5–3.5 nm depending on the regeneration period and initial TMSC concentration. A perfect discrimination of anionic molecules over neutral species is demonstrated. Moreover, the membrane demonstrates high reproducibility, high scale-up potential, and excellent stability over two months.

  3. Size-selective separation of polydisperse gold nanoparticles in supercritical ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dylan P; Satherley, John

    2009-04-09

    The aim of this study was to use supercritical ethane to selectively disperse alkanethiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles of one size from a polydisperse sample in order to recover a monodisperse fraction of the nanoparticles. A disperse sample of metal nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 1-5 nm was prepared using established techniques then further purified by Soxhlet extraction. The purified sample was subjected to supercritical ethane at a temperature of 318 K in the pressure range 50-276 bar. Particles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, TEM, and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. The results show that with increasing pressure the dispersibility of the nanoparticles increases, this effect is most pronounced for smaller nanoparticles. At the highest pressure investigated a sample of the particles was effectively stripped of all the smaller particles leaving a monodisperse sample. The relationship between dispersibility and supercritical fluid density for two different size samples of alkanethiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles was considered using the Chrastil chemical equilibrium model.

  4. Anisotropic localized surface plasmon resonances in CuS nanoplates prepared by size-selective precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Yasushi; Yamada, Kaoru; Hirose, Tatsunori; Kuzuya, Toshihiro

    2018-05-01

    CuS nanoplates were synthesized by a colloidal method and separated into four fractions of nanoplates with different aspect ratios by a size-selective precipitation. In addition to a strong near infrared absorption band ascribed to the in-plane mode of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we found a weak absorption band on the high frequency tail of the in-plane LSPR band. The frequency of the weak absorption band was almost constant and independent of the aspect ratio, while the in-plane LSPR band exhibited a strong aspect ratio dependence. These characteristics suggested that the weak absorption band is ascribed to the out-of-plane LSPR. Although the out-of-plane LSPR was expected to be difficult to observe for CuS nanoplates due to its low intensity and overlap with the strong in-plane resonance, we could successfully identify the out-of-plane mode by reducing the width of the size distribution and spectral broadening caused thereby.

  5. Particle size distribution variance in untreated urban runoff and its implication on treatment selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the particle size distribution (PSD) of sediment in urban runoff assists in the selection of appropriate treatment systems for sediment removal as systems vary in their ability to remove sediment across different particle size fractions. Variation in PSD in runoff from individual urban surfaces both during and across multiple rain events is not well understood and it may lead to performance uncertainty in treatment systems. Runoff PSDs in international literature were compiled to provide a comparative summary of PSDs from different urban surfaces. To further assess both intra-event and inter-event PSD variation, untreated runoff was collected from road, concrete roof, copper roof, and galvanized roof surfaces within an urban catchment exposed to the same rainfall conditions and analysed for PSD and total suspended solids (TSS). Road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper roofs had high initial TSS that reduced to very low levels under steady state conditions. Despite variation in TSS concentrations, the median particle diameter of the TSS was comparable across the surfaces. Intra-event variation was generally not significant, but substantial inter-event variation was observed, particularly for coarser road and concrete roof surfaces. PSD variation for each surface contributed to a wide range in predicted treatment performance and suggests that short-retention treatment devices carry a high performance risk of not being able to achieve adequate TSS removal across all rain events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feature-size dependent selective edge enhancement of x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.

    1988-01-01

    Morphological filters are nonlinear signal transformations that operate on a picture directly in the space domain. Such filters are based on the theory of mathematical morphology previously formulated. The filt4er being presented here features a ''mask'' operator (called a ''structuring element'' in some of the literature) which is a function of the two spatial coordinates x and y. The two basic mathematical operations are called ''masked erosion'' and ''masked dilation''. In the case of masked erosion the mask is passed over the input image in a raster pattern. At each position of the mask, the pixel values under the mask are multiplied by the mask pixel values. Then the output pixel value, located at the center position of the mask,is set equal to the minimum of the product of the mask and input values. Similarity, for masked dilation, the output pixel value is the maximum of the product of the input and the mask pixel values. The two basic processes of dilation and erosion can be used to construct the next level of operations the ''positive sieve'' (also called ''opening'') and the ''negative sieve'' (''closing''). The positive sieve modifies the peaks in the image whereas the negative sieve works on image valleys. The positive sieve is implemented by passing the output of the masked erosion step through the masked dilation function. The negative sieve reverses this procedure, using a dilation followed by an erosion. Each such sifting operator is characterized by a ''hole size''. It will be shown that the choice of hole size will select the range of pixel detail sizes which are to be enhanced. The shape of the mask will govern the shape of the enhancement. Finally positive sifting is used to enhance positive-going (peak) features, whereas negative enhances the negative-going (valley) landmarks

  7. The Strength and Drivers of Bird-Mediated Selection on Fruit Crop Size: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo X. Palacio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In seed-dispersal mutualisms, the number of fruit a plant displays is a key trait, as it acts as a signal for seed dispersers that entails fruit removal and exportation of reproductive units (fruit crop size hypothesis. Although this hypothesis has gained general acceptance, forces driving the shape and strength of natural selection exerted by birds on fruit crop size remains an unresolved matter. Here, we propose that ecological filters promoting high functional equivalence of interacting partners (similar functional roles translate into similar selection pressures on fruit crop size, enhancing selection strength on this trait. We performed a meta-analysis on 50 seed-dispersal systems to test the hypothesis that frugivorous birds exert positive selection pressure on fruit crop size, and to assess whether different factors expected to act as filters (fruit diameter, fruit type, fruiting season length, bird functional groups, and latitude influence phenotypic selection regimes on this trait. Birds promote larger fruit crop sizes as a general pattern in nature. Short fruiting seasons and a high proportion of species belonging to the same functional group showed higher selection strength on fruit crop size. Also, selection strength on fruit crop size increased for large-fruited species and toward the tropics. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit crop size represents a conspicuous signal advertising the amount of reward to visually driven interacting partners, and that both plant and bird traits, as well as environmental factors, drive selection strength on fruit display traits. Furthermore, our results suggest that the relationship among forces impinged by phenology and frugivore functional roles may be key to understand their evolutionary stability.

  8. Methodology on sizing and selecting thermoelectric cooler from different TEC manufacturers in cooling system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, F.L.; Fok, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The search and selection for a suitable thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to optimize a cooling system design can be a tedious task as there are many product ranges from several TEC manufacturers. Although the manufacturers do provide proprietary manuals or electronic search facilities for their products, the process is still cumbersome as these facilities are incompatible. The electronic facilities often have different user interfaces and functionalities, while the manual facilities have different presentations of the performance characteristics. This paper presents a methodology to assist the designer to size and select the TECs from different manufacturers. The approach will allow designers to find quickly and to evaluate the devices from different TEC manufacturers. Based on the approach, the article introduces a new operational framework for an Internet based thermoelectric cooling system design process that would promote the interaction and collaboration between the designers and TEC manufacturers. It is hoped that this work would be useful for the advancement of future tools to assist designers to develop, analyze and optimize thermoelectric cooling system design in minimal time using the latest TECs available on the market

  9. The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.

  10. Comparison of immune response to lipopolysaccharide of rabbit does selected for litter size at weaning or founded for reproductive longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrian, S; Blas, E; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate differences in maternal lines to the immune response of reproductive rabbit does, a total of 64 animals of two different lines: (1) founded for hyper-longevity and litter size criteria (LP) and (2) selected for litter size at weaning (V) were used. Females were subjected to three diff...

  11. Size-selective predation and predator-induced life-history shifts alter the outcome of competition between planktonic grazers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hülsmann, S.; Rinke, K.; Mooij, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    1.We studied the effect of size-selective predation on the outcome of competition between two differently sized prey species in a homogenous environment. 2. Using a physiologically structured population model, we calculated equilibrium food concentrations for a range of predation scenarios defined

  12. Cluster size selectivity in the product distribution of ethene dehydrogenation on niobium clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnis, J Mark; Escobar-Cabrera, Eric; Thompson, Matthew G K; Jacula, J Paul; Lafleur, Rick D; Guevara-García, Alfredo; Martínez, Ana; Rayner, David M

    2005-08-18

    Ethene reactions with niobium atoms and clusters containing up to 25 constituent atoms have been studied in a fast-flow metal cluster reactor. The clusters react with ethene at about the gas-kinetic collision rate, indicating a barrierless association process as the cluster removal step. Exceptions are Nb8 and Nb10, for which a significantly diminished rate is observed, reflecting some cluster size selectivity. Analysis of the experimental primary product masses indicates dehydrogenation of ethene for all clusters save Nb10, yielding either Nb(n)C2H2 or Nb(n)C2. Over the range Nb-Nb6, the extent of dehydrogenation increases with cluster size, then decreases for larger clusters. For many clusters, secondary and tertiary product masses are also observed, showing varying degrees of dehydrogenation corresponding to net addition of C2H4, C2H2, or C2. With Nb atoms and several small clusters, formal addition of at least six ethene molecules is observed, suggesting a polymerization process may be active. Kinetic analysis of the Nb atom and several Nb(n) cluster reactions with ethene shows that the process is consistent with sequential addition of ethene units at rates corresponding approximately to the gas-kinetic collision frequency for several consecutive reacting ethene molecules. Some variation in the rate of ethene pick up is found, which likely reflects small energy barriers or steric constraints associated with individual mechanistic steps. Density functional calculations of structures of Nb clusters up to Nb(6), and the reaction products Nb(n)C2H2 and Nb(n)C2 (n = 1...6) are presented. Investigation of the thermochemistry for the dehydrogenation of ethene to form molecular hydrogen, for the Nb atom and clusters up to Nb6, demonstrates that the exergonicity of the formation of Nb(n)C2 species increases with cluster size over this range, which supports the proposal that the extent of dehydrogenation is determined primarily by thermodynamic constraints. Analysis of

  13. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  14. Effect of a size-selective biomanipulation on nutrient release by gizzard shad in Florida (USA lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaus M.H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fish removal for biomanipulation is often highly size-selective, our understanding of the nutrient cycling effects of this size-selection is poor. To better understand these effects, we measured nutrient excretion by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum of differing sizes from four central Florida (USA lakes and combined these measures with gillnet biomass and size-structure data to compare lake-wide effects among lakes and years. Direct removal of P in fish tissue ranged from 0.16−1.00 kg·P·ha-1·yr-1. The estimated reduction in P excretion due to harvest ranged from 30.8−202.5 g·P·ha-1·month-1, with effects strongly tied to the biomass and size structure harvested. The amount of P release prevented per kg of fish removed was lower in previously unharvested lakes, due to the initial removal of larger fish with lower mass-specific excretion rates. Gill net mesh size impacted the size distribution of harvested fish, with smaller fish that excrete more P per gram being more vulnerable to smaller mesh sizes. In Lake Apopka, decreasing the mesh size by 1.3 cm yielded P excretion reductions that were 10.7−15.1% larger. Fish harvesting to reduce internal nutrient cycling can be most effective by increasing total harvest and by harvesting smaller size classes over multiple years.

  15. Selective axonal growth of embryonic hippocampal neurons according to topographic features of various sizes and shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Schmidt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available David Y Fozdar1*, Jae Y Lee2*, Christine E Schmidt2–6, Shaochen Chen1,3–5,7,1Departments of Mechanical Engineering, 2Chemical Engineering, 3Biomedical Engineering; 4Center for Nano Molecular Science and Technology; 5Texas Materials Institute; 6Institute of Neuroscience; 7Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA *Contributed equally to this workPurpose: Understanding how surface features influence the establishment and outgrowth of the axon of developing neurons at the single cell level may aid in designing implantable scaffolds for the regeneration of damaged nerves. Past studies have shown that micropatterned ridge-groove structures not only instigate axon polarization, alignment, and extension, but are also preferred over smooth surfaces and even neurotrophic ligands.Methods: Here, we performed axonal-outgrowth competition assays using a proprietary four-quadrant topography grid to determine the capacity of various micropatterned topographies to act as stimuli sequestering axon extension. Each topography in the grid consisted of an array of microscale (approximately 2 µm or submicroscale (approximately 300 nm holes or lines with variable dimensions. Individual rat embryonic hippocampal cells were positioned either between two juxtaposing topographies or at the borders of individual topographies juxtaposing unpatterned smooth surface, cultured for 24 hours, and analyzed with respect to axonal selection using conventional imaging techniques.Results: Topography was found to influence axon formation and extension relative to smooth surface, and the distance of neurons relative to topography was found to impact whether the topography could serve as an effective cue. Neurons were also found to prefer submicroscale over microscale features and holes over lines for a given feature size.Conclusion: The results suggest that implementing physical cues of various shapes and sizes on nerve guidance conduits

  16. Melting of size-selected gallium clusters with 60-183 atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyfer, Katheryne L; Kafader, Jared O; Yalamanchali, Anirudh; Jarrold, Martin F

    2014-07-10

    Heat capacities have been measured as a function of temperature for size-selected gallium cluster cations with between 60 and 183 atoms. Almost all clusters studied show a single peak in the heat capacity that is attributed to a melting transition. The peaks can be fit by a two-state model incorporating only fully solid-like and fully liquid-like species, and hence no partially melted intermediates. The exceptions are Ga90(+), which does not show a peak, and Ga80(+) and Ga81(+), which show two peaks. For the clusters with two peaks, the lower temperature peak is attributed to a structural transition. The melting temperatures for clusters with less than 50 atoms have previously been shown to be hundreds of degrees above the bulk melting point. For clusters with more than 60 atoms the melting temperatures decrease, approaching the bulk value (303 K) at around 95 atoms, and then show several small upward excursions with increasing cluster size. A plot of the latent heat against the entropy change for melting reveals two groups of clusters: the latent heats and entropy changes for clusters with less than 94 atoms are distinct from those for clusters with more than 93 atoms. This observation suggests that a significant change in the nature of the bonding or the structure of the clusters occurs at 93-94 atoms. Even though the melting temperatures are close to the bulk value for the larger clusters studied here, the latent heats and entropies of melting are still far from the bulk values.

  17. Controlling the size and morphology of precipitated calcite particles by the selection of solvent composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka-Łyskawa, Donata; Kościelska, Barbara; Karczewski, Jakub

    2017-11-01

    Precipitated calcium carbonate is used as an additive in the manufacture of many products. Particles with specific characteristics can be obtained by the selection of precipitation conditions, including temperature and the composition of solvent. In this work, calcium carbonate particles were obtained in the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide at 65 °C. Initial Ca(OH)2 suspensions were prepared in pure water and aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol or glycerol of the concentration range up to 20% (vol.). The course of reaction was monitored by conductivity measurements. Precipitated solids were analyzed by FTIR, XRD, SEM and the particles size distribution was determined by a laser diffraction method. The adsorption of ethylene glycol or glycerol on the surface of scalenohedral and rhombohedral calcite was testes by a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The addition of organic solvents changed the viscosity of reaction mixtures, the rate of carbon dioxide absorption and the solubility of inorganic components and therefore influence calcium carbonate precipitation conditions. All synthesized calcium carbonate products were in a calcite form. Scalenohedral calcite crystals were produced when water was a liquid phase, whereas addition of organic solvents resulted in the formation of rhombo-scalenohedral particles. The increase in organic compounds concentration resulted in the decrease of mean particles size from 2.4 μm to 1.7 μm in ethylene glycol solutions and to 1.4 μm in glycerol solutions. On the basis of adsorption tests, it was confirm that calcite surface interact stronger with glycerol than ethylene glycol. The interaction between scalenohedral calcite and used organic additives was higher in comparison to the pure rhombohedral form applied as a stationary phase.

  18. Sexual selection accounts for the geographic reversal of sexual size dimorphism in the dung fly, sepsis punctum (Diptera: Sepsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2012-07-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) varies widely across and within species. The differential equilibrium model of SSD explains dimorphism as the evolutionary outcome of consistent differences in natural and sexual selection between the sexes. Here, we comprehensively examine a unique cross-continental reversal in SSD in the dung fly, Sepsis punctum. Using common garden laboratory experiments, we establish that SSD is male-biased in Europe and female-biased in North America. When estimating sexual (pairing success) and fecundity selection (clutch size of female partner) on males under three operational sex ratios (OSRs), we find that the intensity of sexual selection is significantly stronger in European versus North American populations, increasing with male body size and OSR in the former only. Fecundity selection on female body size also increases strongly with egg number and weakly with egg volume, however, equally on both continents. Finally, viability selection on body size in terms of intrinsic (physiological) adult life span in the laboratory is overall nil and does not vary significantly across all seven populations. Although it is impossible to prove causality, our results confirm the differential equilibrium model of SSD in that differences in sexual selection intensity account for the reversal in SSD in European versus North American populations, presumably mediating the ongoing speciation process in S. punctum. © 2012 The Author(s).

  19. Experimental determination of the energy difference between competing isomers of deposited, size-selected gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D M; Ferrando, R; Palmer, R E

    2018-04-03

    The equilibrium structures and dynamics of a nanoscale system are regulated by a complex potential energy surface (PES). This is a key target of theoretical calculations but experimentally elusive. We report the measurement of a key PES parameter for a model nanosystem: size-selected Au nanoclusters, soft-landed on amorphous silicon nitride supports. We obtain the energy difference between the most abundant structural isomers of magic number Au 561 clusters, the decahedron and face-centred-cubic (fcc) structures, from the equilibrium proportions of the isomers. These are measured by atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, with an ultra-stable heating stage, as a function of temperature (125-500 °C). At lower temperatures (20-125 °C) the behaviour is kinetic, exhibiting down conversion of metastable decahedra into fcc structures; the higher state is repopulated at higher temperatures in equilibrium. We find the decahedron is 0.040 ± 0.020 eV higher in energy than the fcc isomer, providing a benchmark for the theoretical treatment of nanoparticles.

  20. Experience affects the outcome of agonistic contests without affecting the selective advantage of size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Elias, Damian O; Punzalan, David; Mason, Andrew C; Andrade, Maydianne C B

    2009-06-01

    In the field, phenotypic determinants of competitive success are not always absolute. For example, contest experience may alter future competitive performance. As future contests are not determined solely on phenotypic attributes, prior experience could also potentially alter phenotype-fitness associations. In this study, we examined the influence of single and multiple experiences on contest outcomes in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus. We also examined whether phenotype-fitness associations altered as individuals gained more experience. Using both size-matched contests and a tournament design, we found that both winning and losing experience affected future contest success; males with prior winning experience were more likely to win subsequent contests. Although experience was a significant determinant of success in future contests, male weight was approximately 1.3 times more important than experience in predicting contest outcomes. Despite the importance of experience in determining contest outcomes, patterns of selection did not change between rounds. Overall, our results show that experience can be an important determinant in contest outcomes, even in short-lived invertebrates, and that experience alone is unlikely to alter phenotype-fitness associations.

  1. A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A; Ryckman, Judson D; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M

    2014-03-15

    A porous silicon (PSi) grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave (BSW/BSSW) biosensor is demonstrated to size selectively detect the presence of both large and small molecules. The BSW is used to sense large immobilized analytes at the surface of the structure while the BSSW that is confined inside but near the top of the structure is used to sensitively detect small molecules. Functionality of the BSW and BSSW modes is theoretically described by dispersion relations, field confinements, and simulated refractive index shifts within the structure. The theoretical results are experimentally verified by detecting two different small chemical molecules and one large 40 base DNA oligonucleotide. The PSi-BSW/BSSW structure is benchmarked against current porous silicon technology and is shown to have a 6-fold higher sensitivity in detecting large molecules and a 33% improvement in detecting small molecules. This is the first report of a grating-coupled BSW biosensor and the first report of a BSSW propagating mode. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Portion Sizes from 24-Hour Dietary Recalls Differed by Sex among Those Who Selected the Same Portion Size Category on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Park, Song-Yi; Boushey, Carol J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N; Murphy, Suzanne P; Paik, Hee-Young

    2018-05-08

    Accounting for sex differences in food portions may improve dietary measurement; however, this factor has not been well examined. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in reported food portions from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) among those who selected the same portion size category on a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). This study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. Participants (n=319) were members of the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort who completed three 24HDRs and a QFFQ in a calibration study conducted in 2010 and 2011. Portions of individual foods reported from 24HDRs served as the outcome measures. Mean food portions from 24HDRs were compared between men and women who reported the same portion size on the QFFQ, after adjustment for race/ethnicity using a linear regression model. Actual amount and the assigned amount of the selected portion size in the QFFQ were compared using one-sample t test for men and women separately. Of 163 food items with portion size options listed in the QFFQ, 32 were reported in 24HDRs by ≥20 men and ≥20 women who selected the same portion size in the QFFQ. Although they chose the same portion size on the QFFQ, mean intake amounts from 24HDRs were significantly higher for men than for women for "beef/lamb/veal," "white rice," "brown/wild rice," "lettuce/tossed salad," "eggs cooked/raw," "whole wheat/rye bread," "buns/rolls," and "mayonnaise in sandwiches." For men, mean portions of 14 items from the 24HDRs were significantly different from the assigned amounts for QFFQ items (seven higher and seven lower), whereas for women, mean portions of 14 items were significantly lower from the assigned amounts (with five significantly higher). These sex differences in reported 24HDR food portions-even among participants who selected the same portion size on the QFFQ-suggest that the use of methods that account for differences in the portions consumed by men and women when QFFQs are

  3. Structure of superhard tungsten tetraboride: A missing link between MB2 and MB12 higher borides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T.; Turner, Christopher L.; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Superhard metals are of interest as possible replacements with enhanced properties over the metal carbides commonly used in cutting, drilling, and wear-resistant tooling. Of the superhard metals, the highest boride of tungsten—often referred to as WB4 and sometimes as W1–xB3—is one of the most promising candidates. The structure of this boride, however, has never been fully resolved, despite the fact that it was discovered in 1961—a fact that severely limits our understanding of its structure–property relationships and has generated increasing controversy in the literature. Here, we present a new crystallographic model of this compound based on refinement against time-of-flight neutron diffraction data. Contrary to previous X-ray–only structural refinements, there is strong evidence for the presence of interstitial arrangements of boron atoms and polyhedral bonding. The formation of these polyhedra—slightly distorted boron cuboctahedra—appears to be dependent upon the defective nature of the tungsten-deficient metal sublattice. This previously unidentified structure type has an intermediary relationship between MB2 and MB12 type boride polymorphs. Manipulation of the fractionally occupied metal and boron sites may provide insight for the rational design of new superhard metals. PMID:25733870

  4. When bigger is not better: selection against large size, high condition and fast growth in juvenile lemon sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, J D; Feldheim, K A; Gruber, S H; Hendry, A P

    2007-01-01

    Selection acting on large marine vertebrates may be qualitatively different from that acting on terrestrial or freshwater organisms, but logistical constraints have thus far precluded selection estimates for the former. We overcame these constraints by exhaustively sampling and repeatedly recapturing individuals in six cohorts of juvenile lemon sharks (450 age-0 and 255 age-1 fish) at an enclosed nursery site (Bimini, Bahamas). Data on individual size, condition factor, growth rate and inter-annual survival were used to test the 'bigger is better', 'fatter is better' and 'faster is better' hypotheses of life-history theory. For age-0 sharks, selection on all measured traits was weak, and generally acted against large size and high condition. For age-1 sharks, selection was much stronger, and consistently acted against large size and fast growth. These results suggest that selective pressures at Bimini may be constraining the evolution of large size and fast growth, an observation that fits well with the observed small size and low growth rate of juveniles at this site. Our results support those of some other recent studies in suggesting that bigger/fatter/faster is not always better, and may often be worse.

  5. Artificial selection on relative brain size in the guppy reveals costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Rogell, Björn; Bundsen, Andreas; Svensson, Beatrice; Zajitschek, Susanne; Brännström, Ioana; Immler, Simone; Maklakov, Alexei A; Kolm, Niclas

    2013-01-21

    The large variation in brain size that exists in the animal kingdom has been suggested to have evolved through the balance between selective advantages of greater cognitive ability and the prohibitively high energy demands of a larger brain (the "expensive-tissue hypothesis"). Despite over a century of research on the evolution of brain size, empirical support for the trade-off between cognitive ability and energetic costs is based exclusively on correlative evidence, and the theory remains controversial. Here we provide experimental evidence for costs and benefits of increased brain size. We used artificial selection for large and small brain size relative to body size in a live-bearing fish, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and found that relative brain size evolved rapidly in response to divergent selection in both sexes. Large-brained females outperformed small-brained females in a numerical learning assay designed to test cognitive ability. Moreover, large-brained lines, especially males, developed smaller guts, as predicted by the expensive-tissue hypothesis, and produced fewer offspring. We propose that the evolution of brain size is mediated by a functional trade-off between increased cognitive ability and reproductive performance and discuss the implications of these findings for vertebrate brain evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved protein quality in transgenic soybean expressing a de novo synthetic protein, MB-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfang; Schernthaner, Johann; Labbé, Natalie; Hefford, Mary A; Zhao, Jiping; Simmonds, Daina H

    2014-06-01

    To improve soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed nutritional quality, a synthetic gene, MB-16 was introduced into the soybean genome to boost seed methionine content. MB-16, an 11 kDa de novo protein enriched in the essential amino acids (EAAs) methionine, threonine, lysine and leucine, was originally developed for expression in rumen bacteria. For efficient seed expression, constructs were designed using the soybean codon bias, with and without the KDEL ER retention sequence, and β-conglycinin or cruciferin seed specific protein storage promoters. Homozygous lines, with single locus integrations, were identified for several transgenic events. Transgene transmission and MB-16 protein expression were confirmed to the T5 and T7 generations, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of developing seed showed that the transcript peaked in growing seed, 5-6 mm long, remained at this peak level to the full-sized green seed and then was significantly reduced in maturing yellow seed. Transformed events carrying constructs with the rumen bacteria codon preference showed the same transcription pattern as those with the soybean codon preference, but the transcript levels were lower at each developmental stage. MB-16 protein levels, as determined by immunoblots, were highest in full-sized green seed but the protein virtually disappeared in mature seed. However, amino acid analysis of mature seed, in the best transgenic line, showed a significant increase of 16.2 and 65.9 % in methionine and cysteine, respectively, as compared to the parent. This indicates that MB-16 elevated the sulfur amino acids, improved the EAA seed profile and confirms that a de novo synthetic gene can enhance the nutritional quality of soybean.

  7. Genomic selection models for directional dominance: an example for litter size in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona, Luis; Legarra, Andrés; Herring, William; Vitezica, Zulma G

    2018-01-26

    The quantitative genetics theory argues that inbreeding depression and heterosis are founded on the existence of directional dominance. However, most procedures for genomic selection that have included dominance effects assumed prior symmetrical distributions. To address this, two alternatives can be considered: (1) assume the mean of dominance effects different from zero, and (2) use skewed distributions for the regularization of dominance effects. The aim of this study was to compare these approaches using two pig datasets and to confirm the presence of directional dominance. Four alternative models were implemented in two datasets of pig litter size that consisted of 13,449 and 11,581 records from 3631 and 2612 sows genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The models evaluated included (1) a model that does not consider directional dominance (Model SN), (2) a model with a covariate b for the average individual homozygosity (Model SC), (3) a model with a parameter λ that reflects asymmetry in the context of skewed Gaussian distributions (Model AN), and (4) a model that includes both b and λ (Model Full). The results of the analysis showed that posterior probabilities of a negative b or a positive λ under Models SC and AN were higher than 0.99, which indicate positive directional dominance. This was confirmed with the predictions of inbreeding depression under Models Full, SC and AN, that were higher than in the SN Model. In spite of differences in posterior estimates of variance components between models, comparison of models based on LogCPO and DIC indicated that Model SC provided the best fit for the two datasets analyzed. Our results confirmed the presence of positive directional dominance for pig litter size and suggested that it should be taken into account when dominance effects are included in genomic evaluation procedures. The consequences of ignoring directional dominance may affect predictions of breeding values and can lead to biased

  8. The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and proliferative activity detected by antibody MIB-1 in node-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M; Holm-Nielsen, P

    1995-01-01

    The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and tumour proliferative activity was evaluated in a retrospective series of 118 patients with low-risk breast cancer. Low risk was defined as negative axillary nodes, tumour diameter histological evidence...... analysis, both the MIB-1 index and OA-519 expression were of independent prognostic value (2p breast cancer who might benefit from adjuvant therapy....

  9. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Selective laser melting-produced porous titanium scaffolds regenerate bone in critical size cortical bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stok, Johan; Van der Jagt, Olav P; Amin Yavari, Saber; De Haas, Mirthe F P; Waarsing, Jan H; Jahr, Holger; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2013-05-01

    Porous titanium scaffolds have good mechanical properties that make them an interesting bone substitute material for large bone defects. These scaffolds can be produced with selective laser melting, which has the advantage of tailoring the structure's architecture. Reducing the strut size reduces the stiffness of the structure and may have a positive effect on bone formation. Two scaffolds with struts of 120-µm (titanium-120) or 230-µm (titanium-230) were studied in a load-bearing critical femoral bone defect in rats. The defect was stabilized with an internal plate and treated with titanium-120, titanium-230, or left empty. In vivo micro-CT scans at 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed more bone in the defects treated with scaffolds. Finally, 18.4 ± 7.1 mm(3) (titanium-120, p = 0.015) and 18.7 ± 8.0 mm(3) (titanium-230, p = 0.012) of bone was formed in those defects, significantly more than in the empty defects (5.8 ± 5.1 mm(3) ). Bending tests on the excised femurs after 12 weeks showed that the fusion strength reached 62% (titanium-120) and 45% (titanium-230) of the intact contralateral femurs, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds. This study showed that in addition to adequate mechanical support, porous titanium scaffolds facilitate bone formation, which results in high mechanical integrity of the treated large bone defects. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Evolution of floral display in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): direct and correlated responses to selection on flower size and number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, A C; Barrett, S C

    2000-10-01

    Trade-offs between flower size and number seem likely to influence the evolution of floral display and are an important assumption of several theoretical models. We assessed floral trade-offs by imposing two generations of selection on flower size and number in a greenhouse population of bee-pollinated Eichhornia paniculata. We established a control line and two replicate selection lines of 100 plants each for large flowers (S+), small flowers (S-), and many flowers per inflorescence (N+). We compared realized heritabilities and genetic correlations with estimates based on restricted-maximum-likelihood (REML) analysis of pedigrees. Responses to selection confirmed REML heritability estimates (flower size, h2 = 0.48; daily flower number, h2 = 0.10; total flower number, h2 = 0.23). Differences in nectar, pollen, and ovule production between S+ and S- lines supported an overall divergence in investment per flower. Both realized and REML estimates of the genetic correlation between daily and total flower number were r = 1.0. However, correlated responses to selection were inconsistent in their support of a trade-off. In both S- lines, correlated increases in flower number indicated a genetic correlation of r = -0.6 between flower size and number. In contrast, correlated responses in N+ and S+ lines were not significant, although flower size decreased in one N+ line. In addition, REML estimates of genetic correlations between flower size and number were positive, and did not differ from zero when variation in leaf area and age at first flowering were taken into account. These results likely reflect the combined effects of variation in genes controlling the resources available for flowering and genes with opposing effects on flower size and number. Our results suggest that the short-term evolution of floral display is not necessarily constrained by trade-offs between flower size and number, as is often assumed.

  12. Proposal for element size and time increment selection guideline by 3-D finite element method for elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a guideline for selection of element size and time increment by 3-D finite element method, which is applied to elastic wave propagation analysis for a long distance of a large structure. An element size and a time increment are determined by quantitative evaluation of strain, which must be 0 on the analysis model with a uniform motion, caused by spatial and time discretization. (author)

  13. Experimental utilization of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitelli, U. d'Utra; Santos, A. dos; Jerez, R.; Diniz, R.; Fanaro, L.C.C.B.; Abe, A.Y.; Moreira, J.M.L.; Fer, N.; Giada, M.R.; Fuga, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to show the experimental utilization of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor during the last fourteen years. The IPEN/MB-01 is a zero-power critical assembly specially designed to measure integral and differential reactor physics parameters to validate calculational methodologies and related nuclear data libraries. Experiments involving determination of spectral indices, critical mass, relative abundance of delayed neutrons, the inversion point of the isothermal reactivity coefficient and burnable poison are considered the most important experiments. Current experiments at IPEN/MB-01 reactor are also commented. (author)

  14. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it.

  15. Size-selective separation of submicron particles in suspensions with ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Susumu; Oka, Naoyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous suspensions containing silica or polystyrene latex were ultrasonically atomized for separating particles of a specific size. With the help of a fog involving fine liquid droplets with a narrow size distribution, submicron particles in a limited size-range were successfully separated from suspensions. Performance of the separation was characterized by analyzing the size and the concentration of collected particles with a high resolution method. Irradiation of 2.4MHz ultrasound to sample suspensions allowed the separation of particles of specific size from 90 to 320nm without regarding the type of material. Addition of a small amount of nonionic surfactant, PONPE20 to SiO2 suspensions enhanced the collection of finer particles, and achieved a remarkable increase in the number of collected particles. Degassing of the sample suspension resulted in eliminating the separation performance. Dissolved air in suspensions plays an important role in this separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of domain size and interface characteristics on the impact resistance of selected polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viratyaporn, Wantinee

    Nanocomposite technology has advanced considerably in recent years and excellent engineering properties have been achieved in numerous systems. In multiphase materials the enhancement of properties relies heavily on the nature at the interphase region between polymer domains and nanoparticle reinforcements. Strong adhesion between the phases provides excellent load-transfer and good mechanical elastic modulus and strength, whereas weak interaction contributes to crack deflection mechanisms and toughness. Polymer molecules are large and the presence of comparably sized filler particles affects chain gyration, which in turn influences the conformation of the polymer and the properties of the composite. Nanoparticles were incorporated into a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix by means of in situ free radical (bulk) polymerization. Aluminum oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles were added to study the effects of particle chemistry and shape on selected mechanical properties such as impact resistance, which showed significant improvement at a certain loading of zinc oxide. The elongated shape of zinc oxide particles appears to promote crack deflection processes and to introduce a pull-out mechanism similar to that observed in fiber composite systems. Moreover, the thermal stability of PMMA was improved with the addition of nanoparticles, apparently by steric hindrance of polymer chain motion and a second mechanism related to the dipole inducing effect of the oxide particles. The sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy to changes in molecular dipoles was used to study the nature of the polymer/particle interface. The results revealed some interesting aspects of the secondary bonds between polymers and oxides. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the extent of polymerization and changes in polymer conformation. A degree of polymerization of 93% was achieved in neat PMMA, and even when 5.0 v/o of PGMEA was introduced into the system no monomer was detected. However, when

  17. Osteoporose bei Mb. Bechterew - neue Ansätze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermayer-Pietsch B

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eine axiale Osteoporose und daraus resultierende vertebrale Kompressionsfrakturen sind häufige Symptome eines Mb. Bechterew (MbB, Spondylarthritis ankylosans. Als ein möglicher genetischer Faktor der Osteoporose wurde eine Assoziation der Knochendichte (BMD mit BsmI- und FokI-Polymorphismen im Vitamin D-Rezeptor-(VDR-Gen publiziert. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden die Beziehungen zwischen diesen Polymorphismen, Knochenstoffwechsel, BMD und Aktivitätsindizes bei Patienten mit MbB untersucht. Bei 47 MbB-Patienten wurden Aktivitätsindizes und morphologische Parameter sowie BMD-Messungen (Dual-Röntgen-Absorptiometrie an Wirbelsäule und Schenkelhals im Vergleich zu 52 gesunden, altersgleichen Personen erhoben. Die Laborbestimmungen umfaßten biochemische Aktivitätsparameter, HLA-Typisierung sowie Knochenan- und -abbaumarker. Aus peripheren Leukozyten wurde genomische DNA präpariert und mittels Polymerase-Kettenreaktion (PCR und anschließender FokI- und BsmI-Restriktion der VDR-Genotyp nach vorhandenen bzw. fehlenden Schnittstellen (f/b bzw. F/B bestimmt. Bei MbB-Patienten fand sich eine Osteoporose deutlich häufiger als in der Kontrollgruppe. Eine Zuordnung von Aktivitätsindizes, BMD und Knochenstoffwechselparametern zu den Genotypen zeigte bei männlichen MbB-Patienten sowohl eine Assoziation der WS-Knochendichte als auch der Entzündungsmarker mit FokI-, nicht jedoch mit BsmI-Genotypen des VDR. Die pathophysiologischen Mechanismen dieser Assoziation, insbesondere mit der entzündlichen Aktivität des Mb. Bechterew, sind noch ungeklärt. Eine frühzeitige Erfassung des Osteoporoserisikos bei MbB-Patienten mittels molekularbiologischer Tests könnte eine rechtzeitige Prophylaxe und Therapie dieser Komplikation ermöglichen.

  18. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry in certain morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishalakshi, C; Singh, B N

    2009-06-01

    Variation in the subtle differences between the right and left sides of bilateral characters or fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been considered as an indicator of an organism's ability to cope with genetic and environmental stresses during development. However, due to inconsistency in the results of empirical studies, the relationship between FA and stress has been the subject of intense debate. In this study, we investigated whether stress caused by artificial bidirectional selection for body size has any effect on the levels of FA of different morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae. The realised heritability (h2) was higher in low-line females and high-line males, which suggests an asymmetrical response to selection for body size. Further, the levels of FA were compared across 10 generations of selection in different selection lines in both sexes for sternopleural bristle number, wing length, wing-to-thorax ratio, sex combtooth number and ovariole number. The levels of FA differed significantly among generations and selection lines but did not change markedly with directional selection. However, the levels of FA were higher in the G10 generation (at the end of selection) than G0 (at the start of selection) but lower than the G5 generation in different selection lines, suggesting that the levels of FA are not affected by the inbreeding generated during the course of selection. Also, the levels of FA in the hybrids of high and low lines were signifi cantly lower than the parental selection lines, suggesting that FA is influenced by hybridisation. These results are discussed in the framework of the literature available on FA and its relationship with stress.

  19. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-06-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or "plate-sized" fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen's revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (-3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen's revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations.

  20. Effect of field view size and lighting on unique-hue selection using Natural Color System object colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamey, Renzo; Zubair, Muhammad; Cheema, Hammad

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was twofold, first to determine the effect of field view size and second of illumination conditions on the selection of unique hue samples (UHs: R, Y, G and B) from two rotatable trays, each containing forty highly chromatic Natural Color System (NCS) samples, on one tray corresponding to 1.4° and on the other to 5.7° field of view size. UH selections were made by 25 color-normal observers who repeated assessments three times with a gap of at least 24h between trials. Observers separately assessed UHs under four illumination conditions simulating illuminants D65, A, F2 and F11. An apparent hue shift (statistically significant for UR) was noted for UH selections at 5.7° field of view compared to those at 1.4°. Observers' overall variability was found to be higher for UH stimuli selections at the larger field of view. Intra-observer variability was found to be approximately 18.7% of inter-observer variability in selection of samples for both sample sizes. The highest intra-observer variability was under simulated illuminant D65, followed by A, F11, and F2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  2. Supra-annular structure assessment for self-expanding transcatheter heart valve size selection in patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbao; He, Yuxin; Zhu, Qifeng; Gao, Feng; He, Wei; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Qijing; Kong, Minjian; Wang, Jian'an

    2018-04-01

    To explore assessment of supra-annular structure for self-expanding transcatheter heart valve (THV) size selection in patients with bicuspid aortic stenosis (AS). Annulus-based device selection from CT measurement is the standard sizing strategy for tricuspid aortic valve before transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Because of supra-annular deformity, device selection for bicuspid AS has not been systemically studied. Twelve patients with bicuspid AS who underwent TAVR with self-expanding THVs were included in this study. To assess supra-annular structure, sequential balloon aortic valvuloplasty was performed in every 2 mm increments until waist sign occurred with less than mild regurgitation. Procedural results and 30 day follow-up outcomes were analyzed. Seven patients (58.3%) with 18 mm; three patients (25%) with sequential 18 mm, 20 mm; and only two patients (16.7%) with sequential 18 mm, 20 mm, and 22 mm balloon sizing were performed, respectively. According to the results of supra-annular assessment, a smaller device size (91.7%) was selected in all but one patient compared with annulus based sizing strategy, and the outcomes were satisfactory with 100% procedural success. No mortality and 1 minor stroke were observed at 30 d follow-up. The percentage of NYHA III/IV decreased from 83.3% (9/12) to 16.7% (2/12). No new permanent pacemaker implantation and no moderate or severe paravalvular leakage were found. A supra-annular structure based sizing strategy is feasible for TAVR in patients with bicuspid AS. © 2018 The Authors Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Legal size limit implies strong fisheries selection on sexually selected traits in a temperate wrasse providing male-only parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Aleksander Tallaksen Halvorsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops is a temperate wrasse displaying both sex and male dimorphism and is targeted in a size selective commercial fishery which has increased dramatically since 2008. Wrasses are supplied alive to salmon farms as cleaner fish to combat infestations of Salmon lice. In previous studies, growth and maturation has been found to differ among male morphs and sexes and these groups might therefore be targeted unevenly by the size selective fishery. In the present study, we address this by comparing size regulations and fishing practice with data on sex specific growth and maturation from Western and Southern Norway, two regions varying in density and life histories. Two years of field data on density and length measures was used together with a subsample of otoliths to determine sex specific growth patterns. In the region with high density, nesting males were found to grow faster and mature later than sneaker males and females. Here, most nesting males will reach the minimum size as juveniles, one and two years before females and sneakers respectively. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was much less pronounced in the low density region, and relaxed male-male competition over nesting sites seems a likely explanation for this pattern. Intensive harvesting with selective removal of the larger nesting males could potentially lead to short term effect such as sperm limitation and reduced offspring survival and thus affect the productivity of juveniles. In addition, the current fishing regime may select for reduced growth rates and earlier maturation and oppose sexual selection.

  4. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1)...

  5. Predation on rose galls: parasitoids and predators determine gall size through directional selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán László

    Full Text Available Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species' life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls.

  6. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  7. Understanding Boron through Size-Selected Clusters: Structure, Chemical Bonding, and Fluxionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeeva, Alina P.; Popov, Ivan A.; Piazza, Zachary A.; Li, Wei-Li; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai S.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.

    2014-04-15

    /C analogy. It is believed that the electronic transmutation concept will be effective and valuable in aiding the design of new boride materials with predictable properties. The study of boron clusters with intermediate properties between those of individual atoms and bulk solids has given rise to a unique opportunity to broaden the frontier of boron chemistry. Understanding boron clusters has spurred experimentalists and theoreticians to find new boron-based nanomaterials, such as boron fullerenes, nanotubes, two-dimensional boron, and new compounds containing boron clusters as building blocks. Here, a brief and timely overview is presented addressing the recent progress made on boron clusters and the approaches used in the authors’ laboratories to determine the structure, stability, and chemical bonding of size-selected boron clusters by joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies. Specifically, key findings on all-boron hydrocarbon analogues, metal-centered boron wheels, and electronic transmutation in boron clusters are summarized.

  8. Organometallic approach to polymer-protected antibacterial silver nanoparticles: optimal nanoparticle size-selection for bacteria interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Julian; Garcia-Barrasa, Jorge; Lopez-de-Luzuriaga, Jose M.; Monge, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.monge@unirioja.es; Olmos, M. Elena [Universidad de La Rioja, Centro de Investigacion en Sintesis Quimica (CISQ), Departamento de Quimica (Spain); Saenz, Yolanda; Torres, Carmen [Centro de Investigacion Biomedica de La Rioja, Area de Microbiologia Molecular (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    The optimal size-specific affinity of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) towards E. coli bacteria has been studied. For this purpose, Ag NPs coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cellulose acetate (CA) have been prepared using an organometallic approach. The complex NBu{sub 4}[Ag(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2}] has been treated with AgClO{sub 4} in a 1:1 molar ratio giving rise to the nanoparticle precursor [Ag(C{sub 6}F{sub 5})] in solution. Addition of an excess of PVP (1) or CA (2) and 5 h of reflux in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at 66 Degree-Sign C leads to Ag NPs of small size (4.8 {+-} 3.0 nm for PVP-Ag NPs and 3.0 {+-} 1.2 nm for CA-Ag NPs) that coexist in both cases with larger nanoparticles between 7 and 25 nm. Both nanomaterials display a high antibacterial effectiveness against E. coli. The TEM analysis of the nanoparticle-bacterial cell membrane interaction shows an optimal size-specific affinity for PVP-Ag NPs of 5.4 {+-} 0.7 nm in the presence of larger size silver nanoparticles.Graphical AbstractAn organometallic approach permits the synthesis of small size silver nanoparticles (ca 5 nm) as a main population in the presence of larger size nanoparticles. Optimal silver nanoparticle size-selection (5.4 nm) for the interaction with the bacterial membrane is achieved.

  9. Subtle but ubiquitous selection on body size in a natural population of collared flycatchers over 33 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, M; Gustafsson, L

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the magnitude and long-term patterns of selection in natural populations is of importance, for example, when analysing the evolutionary impact of climate change. We estimated univariate and multivariate directional, quadratic and correlational selection on four morphological traits (adult wing, tarsus and tail length, body mass) over a time period of 33 years (≈ 19 000 observations) in a nest-box breeding population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In general, selection was weak in both males and females over the years regardless of fitness measure (fledged young, recruits and survival) with only few cases with statistically significant selection. When data were analysed in a multivariate context and as time series, a number of patterns emerged; there was a consistent, but weak, selection for longer wings in both sexes, selection was stronger on females when the number of fledged young was used as a fitness measure, there were no indications of sexually antagonistic selection, and we found a negative correlation between selection on tarsus and wing length in both sexes but using different fitness measures. Uni- and multivariate selection gradients were correlated only for wing length and mass. Multivariate selection gradient vectors were longer than corresponding vector of univariate gradients and had more constrained direction. Correlational selection had little importance. Overall, the fitness surface was more or less flat with few cases of significant curvature, indicating that the adaptive peak with regard to body size in this species is broader than the phenotypic distribution, which has resulted in weak estimates of selection. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Size-controlled sensitivity and selectivity for the fluorometric detection of Ag+ by homocysteine capped CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Hangzhou; Liang, Zhenhua; Peng, Guihua; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Hengwei

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized water dispersible CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in different sizes and with various capping reagents, and have studied the effects of their size on the sensitivity and selectivity in the fluorometric determination of metal ions, particularly of silver(I). It is found that an increase in the particle size of homocysteine-capped CdTe QDs from 1.7 nm to 3.3 nm and to 3.7 nm enhances both the sensitivity and selectivity of the determination of Ag(I) to give an ultimate limit of detection as low as 8.3 nM. This effect can partially be explained by the better passivation of surface traps on smaller sized QDs via adsorption of Ag(I), thereby decreasing the apparent detection efficiency. In addition, the presence of CdS in the CdTe QDs is likely to play a role. The study demonstrates that an improvement in sensing performance is accomplished by using QDs of fine-tuned particle sizes. Such effects are likely also to occur with other QD-based optical probes. (author)

  11. The extended Price equation quantifies species selection on mammalian body size across the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Brian D; Fox, Jeremy W; Barrón-Ortiz, Christian R; Chew, Amy E; Holroyd, Patricia A; Ludtke, Joshua A; Yang, Xingkai; Theodor, Jessica M

    2015-08-07

    Species selection, covariation of species' traits with their net diversification rates, is an important component of macroevolution. Most studies have relied on indirect evidence for its operation and have not quantified its strength relative to other macroevolutionary forces. We use an extension of the Price equation to quantify the mechanisms of body size macroevolution in mammals from the latest Palaeocene and earliest Eocene of the Bighorn and Clarks Fork Basins of Wyoming. Dwarfing of mammalian taxa across the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), an intense, brief warming event that occurred at approximately 56 Ma, has been suggested to reflect anagenetic change and the immigration of small bodied-mammals, but might also be attributable to species selection. Using previously reconstructed ancestor-descendant relationships, we partitioned change in mean mammalian body size into three distinct mechanisms: species selection operating on resident mammals, anagenetic change within resident mammalian lineages and change due to immigrants. The remarkable decrease in mean body size across the warming event occurred through anagenetic change and immigration. Species selection also was strong across the PETM but, intriguingly, favoured larger-bodied species, implying some unknown mechanism(s) by which warming events affect macroevolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Modelling the attack success of planktonic predators: patterns and mechanisms of prey size selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caparroy, P.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Visser, Andre

    2000-01-01

    of being captured. By combining the attack success model with previously published hydrodynamic models of predator and prey perception, we examine how predator foraging behaviour and prey perceptive ability affect the size spectra of encountered and captured copepod prey. We examine food size spectra of (i......) a rheotactic cruising predator, (ii) a suspension-feeding hovering copepod and (iii) a larval fish. For rheotactic predators such as carnivorous copepods, a central assumption of the model is that attack is triggered by prey escape reaction, which in turn depends on the deformation rate of the fluid created...

  13. Mice divergently selected for high and low basal metabolic rates evolved different cell size and organ mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, S; Bonda-Ostaszewska, E; Czarnołęski, M; Konarzewski, M; Kozłowski, J

    2014-03-01

    Evolution of metabolic rates of multicellular organisms is hypothesized to reflect the evolution of their cell architecture. This is likely to stem from a tight link between the sizes of cells and nuclei, which are expected to be inversely related to cell metabolism. Here, we analysed basal metabolic rate (BMR), internal organ masses and the cell/nucleus size in different tissues of laboratory mice divergently selected for high/low mass-corrected BMR and four random-bred mouse lines. Random-bred lines had intermediate levels of BMR as compared to low- and high-BMR lines. Yet, this pattern was only partly consistent with the between-line differences in cell/nucleus sizes. Erythrocytes and skin epithelium cells were smaller in the high-BMR line than in other lines, but the cells of low-BMR and random-bred mice were similar in size. On the other hand, the size of hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubule cells and duodenum enterocytes were larger in high-BMR mice than other lines. All cell and nucleus sizes were positively correlated, which supports the role of the nucleus in cell size regulation. Our results suggest that the evolution of high BMR involves a reduction in cell size in specialized tissues, whose functions are primarily dictated by surface-to-volume ratios, such as erythrocytes. High BMR may, however, also incur an increase in cell size in tissues with an intense transcription and translation, such as hepatocytes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Substrate Size-Selective Catalysis with Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Højholt, Karen Thrane; Lundegaard, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The Dark Crystal: A hybrid material is reported that is comprised of 1-2 nm sized gold nanoparticles, accessible only through zeolite micropores in a silicalite-1 crystal, as shown by three-dimensional TEM tomography (see picture). Calcination experiments indicate that the embedded nanoparticles...

  15. Raman spectroscopic identification of size-selected airborne particles for quantitative exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, Brian; Gorbunov, Boris; Price, Mark C; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the quantification of chemically distinguished airborne particulate matter, required for health risk assessment. Rather than simply detecting chemical compounds in a sample, we demonstrate an approach for the quantification of exposure to airborne particles and nanomaterials. In line with increasing concerns over the proliferation of engineered particles we consider detection of synthetically produced ZnO crystals. A multi-stage approach is presented whereby the particles are first aerodynamically size segregated from a lab-generated single component aerosol in an impaction sampler. These size fractionated samples are subsequently analysed by Raman spectroscopy. Imaging analysis is applied to Raman spatial maps to provide chemically specific quantification of airborne exposure against background which is critical for health risk evaluation of exposure to airborne particles. Here we present a first proof-of-concept study of the methodology utilising particles in the 2–4 μm aerodynamic diameter range to allow for validation of the approach by comparison to optical microscopy. The results show that the combination of these techniques provides independent size and chemical discrimination of particles. Thereby a method is provided to allow quantitative and chemically distinguished measurements of aerosol concentrations separated into exposure relevant size fractions. (paper)

  16. Plasmonic nanoparticle films for solar cell applications fabricated by size-selective aerosol deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeiffer, T.V.; Ortiz Gonzalez, J.; Santbergen, R.; Tan, H.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    A soft deposition method for incorporating surface plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles within photovoltaic devices was studied. This self-assembly method provides excellent control over both nanoparticle size and surface coverage. Films of spherical Ag nanoparticles with diameter of ?100 nm were

  17. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, S.

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  18. Application of porous foams for size-selective measurements of airborne wheat allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, J.; Pater, A.J. de; Doekes, G.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Exposure to airborne wheat allergen is a well-known cause of bakers' allergy and asthma. Airborne wheat allergen can be measured by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in extracts of inhalable dust samples, but only limited knowledge is available on the size distribution of wheat

  19. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodó sio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, Xabier; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré , P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  20. Selective spatial enhancement: Attentional spotlight size impacts spatial but not temporal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Shen, Elizabeth; Edwards, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An important but often neglected aspect of attention is how changes in the attentional spotlight size impact perception. The zoom-lens model predicts that a small ("focal") attentional spotlight enhances all aspects of perception relative to a larger ("diffuse" spotlight). However, based on the physiological properties of the two major classes of visual cells (magnocellular and parvocellular neurons) we predicted trade-offs in spatial and temporal acuity as a function of spotlight size. Contrary to both of these accounts, however, across two experiments we found that attentional spotlight size affected spatial acuity, such that spatial acuity was enhanced for a focal relative to a diffuse spotlight, whereas the same modulations in spotlight size had no impact on temporal acuity. This likely reflects the function of attention: to induce the high spatial resolution of the fovea in periphery, where spatial resolution is poor but temporal resolution is good. It is adaptive, therefore, for the attentional spotlight to enhance spatial acuity, whereas enhancing temporal acuity does not confer the same benefit.

  1. Spectroscopic evidence for origins of size and support effects on selectivity of Cu nanoparticle dehydrogenation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzke, M E; Dietrich, P J; Ibrahim, M Y S; Al-Bardan, K; Triezenberg, M D; Flaherty, D W

    2017-01-03

    Selective dehydrogenation catalysts that produce acetaldehyde from bio-derived ethanol can increase the efficiency of subsequent processes such as C-C coupling over metal oxides to produce 1-butanol or 1,3-butadiene or oxidation to acetic acid. Here, we use in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and steady state kinetics experiments to identify Cu δ+ at the perimeter of supported Cu clusters as the active site for esterification and Cu 0 surface sites as sites for dehydrogenation. Correlation of dehydrogenation and esterification selectivities to in situ measures of Cu oxidation states show that this relationship holds for Cu clusters over a wide-range of diameters (2-35 nm) and catalyst supports and reveals that dehydrogenation selectivities may be controlled by manipulating either.

  2. A Family Longevity Selection Score: Ranking Sibships by Their Longevity, Size, and Availability for Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Hadley, Evan C; Province, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Family studies of exceptional longevity can potentially identify genetic and other factors contributing to long life and healthy aging. Although such studies seek families that are exceptionally long lived, they also need living members who can provide DNA and phenotype information. On the basis...... of these considerations, the authors developed a metric to rank families for selection into a family study of longevity. Their measure, the family longevity selection score (FLoSS), is the sum of 2 components: 1) an estimated family longevity score built from birth-, gender-, and nation-specific cohort survival...... probabilities and 2) a bonus for older living siblings. The authors examined properties of FLoSS-based family rankings by using data from 3 ongoing studies: the New England Centenarian Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and screenees for the Long Life Family Study. FLoSS-based selection yields families...

  3. Particle size distributions, size concentration relationships, and adherence to hands of selected geologic media derived from mining, smelting, and quarrying activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, Carolyn; Shirai, Jeffry; Kissel, John, E-mail: jkissel@uw.edu

    2011-09-15

    Hand-to-mouth activity, especially in children, is a potentially significant pathway of exposure to soil contaminants. Hand-mouthing behavior is of particular concern in areas impacted by mining, smelting, and quarrying activities as these activities may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in soil. In order to estimate potential exposures to contaminated geologic media attributable to hand-to-mouth contact, it is useful to characterize adherence of those media to skin, as contaminant concentrations in adhered media may differ greatly from unfractionated, whole media concentrations. Such an investigation has been undertaken to aid estimation of exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in nine different geologic media collected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. After establishing the particle size distribution of each medium (fractions < 63 {mu}m, 63-150 {mu}m, 150-250 {mu}m, and 250 {mu}m-2 mm were determined) and target elemental concentrations within each particle size fraction, an active handling protocol involving six volunteers was conducted. Wet media always adhered to a greater extent than dry media and adhered media generally had higher elemental concentrations than bulk media. Regression analyses suggest smaller particle fractions may have higher elemental concentrations. Results of application of a maximum likelihood estimation technique generally indicate that handling of dry media leads to preferential adherence of smaller particle sizes, while handling of wet media does not. Because adhered material can differ greatly in particle size distribution from that found in bulk material, use of bulk concentrations in exposure calculations may lead to poor estimation of actual exposures. Since lead has historically been a metal of particular concern, EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model was used to examine the potential consequences of evaluating ingestion of the selected media assuming concentrations in

  4. A predictive approach to selecting the size of a clinical trial, based on subjective clinical opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalter, D J; Freedman, L S

    1986-01-01

    The 'textbook' approach to determining sample size in a clinical trial has some fundamental weaknesses which we discuss. We describe a new predictive method which takes account of prior clinical opinion about the treatment difference. The method adopts the point of clinical equivalence (determined by interviewing the clinical participants) as the null hypothesis. Decision rules at the end of the study are based on whether the interval estimate of the treatment difference (classical or Bayesian) includes the null hypothesis. The prior distribution is used to predict the probabilities of making the decisions to use one or other treatment or to reserve final judgement. It is recommended that sample size be chosen to control the predicted probability of the last of these decisions. An example is given from a multi-centre trial of superficial bladder cancer.

  5. The impact of sample size and marker selection on the study of haplotype structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several studies of haplotype structures in the human genome in various populations have found that the human chromosomes are structured such that each chromosome can be divided into many blocks, within which there is limited haplotype diversity. In addition, only a few genetic markers in a putative block are needed to capture most of the diversity within a block. There has been no systematic empirical study of the effects of sample size and marker set on the identified block structures and representative marker sets, however. The purpose of this study was to conduct a detailed empirical study to examine such impacts. Towards this goal, we have analysed three representative autosomal regions from a large genome-wide study of haplotypes with samples consisting of African-Americans and samples consisting of Japanese and Chinese individuals. For both populations, we have found that the sample size and marker set have significant impact on the number of blocks and the total number of representative markers identified. The marker set in particular has very strong impacts, and our results indicate that the marker density in the original datasets may not be adequate to allow a meaningful characterisation of haplotype structures. In general, we conclude that we need a relatively large sample size and a very dense marker panel in the study of haplotype structures in human populations.

  6. Photophysics of size-selected InP nanocrystals: Exciton recombination kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Wolters, R.H.; Heath, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    We report here on the size-dependent kinetics of exciton recombination in a III endash V quantum dot system, InP. The measurements reported include various frequency dependent quantum yields as a function of temperature, frequency dependent luminescence decay curves, and time-gated emission spectra. This data is fit to a three-state quantum model which has been previously utilized to explain photophysical phenomena in II endash VI quantum dots. The initial photoexcitation is assumed to place an electron in a (delocalized) bulk conduction band state. Activation barriers for trapping and detrapping of the electron to surface states, as well as activation barriers for surface-state radiationless relaxation processes are measured as a function of particle size. The energy barrier to detrapping is found to be the major factor limiting room temperature band-edge luminescence. This barrier increases with decreasing particle size. For 30 A particles, this barrier is found to be greater than 6 kJ/mol emdash a barrier which is more than an order of magnitude larger than that previously found for 32 A CdS nanocrystals. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Selective partitioning of cholesterol and a model drug into liposomes of varying size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Christiane; Fahr, Alfred; Kuntsche, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The resistance of a lipid bilayer with respect to a bending deformation generally depends on the presence of membrane additives such as sterols, cosurfactants, peptides, and drugs. As a consequence, the partitioning of membrane additives into liposomes becomes selective with respect to liposome s...

  8. Estimating group size: effects of category membership, differential construal and selective exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld, W.; Koomen, W.; van der Pligt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of category membership, differential construal, and selective exposure in consensus estimation concerning the social categorization of religion. 54 involved and less involved Christians and 40 non-believers were asked to estimate the percentage of Christians in the Netherlands

  9. Food selection preference of different ages and sizes of black tiger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it was found that the food selection preference of P. monodon is dependent on the availability of food items in the pond bottom. The tendency to prefer natural food by shrimps was observed when the food was available. The benthic organisms declined at the end of the culture period indicating that the culture ...

  10. Selective laser melting-produced porous titanium scaffolds regenerate bone in critical size cortical bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Stok (Johan); O.P. van der Jagt (Olav); S. Amin Yavari (Saber); M.F.P. de Haas (Mirthe); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); H. Jahr (Holger); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); P. Patka (Peter); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A.A. Zadpoor (Amir Abbas); H.H. Weinans (Harrie)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPorous titanium scaffolds have good mechanical properties that make them an interesting bone substitute material for large bone defects. These scaffolds can be produced with selective laser melting, which has the advantage of tailoring the structure's architecture. Reducing the strut

  11. Model selection for semiparametric marginal mean regression accounting for within-cluster subsampling variability and informative cluster size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2018-03-13

    We propose a model selection criterion for semiparametric marginal mean regression based on generalized estimating equations. The work is motivated by a longitudinal study on the physical frailty outcome in the elderly, where the cluster size, that is, the number of the observed outcomes in each subject, is "informative" in the sense that it is related to the frailty outcome itself. The new proposal, called Resampling Cluster Information Criterion (RCIC), is based on the resampling idea utilized in the within-cluster resampling method (Hoffman, Sen, and Weinberg, 2001, Biometrika 88, 1121-1134) and accommodates informative cluster size. The implementation of RCIC, however, is free of performing actual resampling of the data and hence is computationally convenient. Compared with the existing model selection methods for marginal mean regression, the RCIC method incorporates an additional component accounting for variability of the model over within-cluster subsampling, and leads to remarkable improvements in selecting the correct model, regardless of whether the cluster size is informative or not. Applying the RCIC method to the longitudinal frailty study, we identify being female, old age, low income and life satisfaction, and chronic health conditions as significant risk factors for physical frailty in the elderly. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  12. The Impact of Nutrition and Health Claims on Consumer Perceptions and Portion Size Selection: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Tony; Lavelle, Fiona; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Egan, Bernadette; Collins, Clare E.; Dean, Moira

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims on foods can help consumers make healthier food choices. However, claims may have a ‘halo’ effect, influencing consumer perceptions of foods and increasing consumption. Evidence for these effects are typically demonstrated in experiments with small samples, limiting generalisability. The current study aimed to overcome this limitation through the use of a nationally representative survey. In a cross-sectional survey of 1039 adults across the island of Ireland, respondents were presented with three different claims (nutrition claim = “Low in fat”; health claim = “With plant sterols. Proven to lower cholesterol”; satiety claim = “Fuller for longer”) on four different foods (cereal, soup, lasagne, and yoghurt). Participants answered questions on perceived healthiness, tastiness, and fillingness of the products with different claims and also selected a portion size they would consume. Claims influenced fillingness perceptions of some of the foods. However, there was little influence of claims on tastiness or healthiness perceptions or the portion size selected. Psychological factors such as consumers’ familiarity with foods carrying claims and belief in the claims were the most consistent predictors of perceptions and portion size selection. Future research should identify additional consumer factors that may moderate the relationships between claims, perceptions, and consumption. PMID:29789472

  13. Effect of Inoculant Alloy Selection and Particle Size on Efficiency of Isomorphic Inoculation of Ti-Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J R; Rouat, B; Daloz, D; Bouzy, E; Zollinger, J

    2018-04-25

    The process of isomorphic inoculation relies on precise selection of inoculant alloys for a given system. Three alloys, Ti-10Al-25Nb, Ti-25Al-10Ta, and Ti-47Ta (at %) were selected as potential isomorphic inoculants for a Ti-46Al alloy. The binary Ti-Ta alloy selected was found to be ineffective as an inoculant due to its large density difference with the melt, causing the particles to settle. Both ternary alloys were successfully implemented as isomorphic inoculants that decreased the equiaxed grain size and increased the equiaxed fraction in their ingots. The degree of grain refinement obtained was found to be dependent on the number of particles introduced to the melt. Also, more new grains were formed than particles added to the melt. The grains/particle efficiency varied from greater than one to nearly twenty as the size of the particle increased. This is attributed to the breaking up of particles into smaller particles by dissolution in the melt. For a given particle size, Ti-Al-Ta and Ti-Al-Nb particles were found to have a roughly similar grain/particle efficiency.

  14. The influence of food abundance, food dispersion and habitat structure on territory selection and size of an Afrotropical terrestrial insectivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Newmark, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical insectivorous birds, unlike their temperate counterparts, hold and defend a feeding and breeding territory year-around. However, our understanding of ecological factors influencing territory selection and size in tropical insectivores is limited. Here we examine three prominent hypotheses relating food abundance, food dispersion (spatial arrangement of food items), and habitat structure to territoriality in the Usambara Thrush Turdus roehli. We first compared leaf-litter macro-invertebrate abundance and dispersion, and habitat structure between territories and random sites. We then examined the relation between these same ecological factors and territory size. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion were sparsely and evenly distributed across our study system and did not vary between territories and random sites. In contrast, habitat structure did vary between territories and random sites indicating the Usambara Thrush selects territories with open understorey and closed overstorey habitat. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion within territories of the Usambara Thrush were not associated with habitat structure. We believe the most likely explanation for the Usambara Thrush’s preference for open understorey and closed overstorey habitat relates to foraging behavior. Using information-theoretic model selection we found that invertebrate abundance was the highest-ranked predictor of territory size and was inversely related, consistent with food value theory of territoriality.

  15. The Impact of Nutrition and Health Claims on Consumer Perceptions and Portion Size Selection: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Benson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition and health claims on foods can help consumers make healthier food choices. However, claims may have a ‘halo’ effect, influencing consumer perceptions of foods and increasing consumption. Evidence for these effects are typically demonstrated in experiments with small samples, limiting generalisability. The current study aimed to overcome this limitation through the use of a nationally representative survey. In a cross-sectional survey of 1039 adults across the island of Ireland, respondents were presented with three different claims (nutrition claim = “Low in fat”; health claim = “With plant sterols. Proven to lower cholesterol”; satiety claim = “Fuller for longer” on four different foods (cereal, soup, lasagne, and yoghurt. Participants answered questions on perceived healthiness, tastiness, and fillingness of the products with different claims and also selected a portion size they would consume. Claims influenced fillingness perceptions of some of the foods. However, there was little influence of claims on tastiness or healthiness perceptions or the portion size selected. Psychological factors such as consumers’ familiarity with foods carrying claims and belief in the claims were the most consistent predictors of perceptions and portion size selection. Future research should identify additional consumer factors that may moderate the relationships between claims, perceptions, and consumption.

  16. Morpho morphometrics: Shared ancestry and selection drive the evolution of wing size and shape in Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Nicolas; Panara, Stephen; Zilbermann, Nicolas; Blandin, Patrick; Le Poul, Yann; Cornette, Raphaël; Elias, Marianne; Debat, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wings harbor highly diverse phenotypes and are involved in many functions. Wing size and shape result from interactions between adaptive processes, phylogenetic history, and developmental constraints, which are complex to disentangle. Here, we focus on the genus Morpho (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, 30 species), which presents a high diversity of sizes, shapes, and color patterns. First, we generate a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of these 30 species. Next, using 911 collection specimens, we quantify the variation of wing size and shape across species, to assess the importance of shared ancestry, microhabitat use, and sexual selection in the evolution of the wings. While accounting for phylogenetic and allometric effects, we detect a significant difference in wing shape but not size among microhabitats. Fore and hindwings covary at the individual and species levels, and the covariation differs among microhabitats. However, the microhabitat structure in covariation disappears when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Our results demonstrate that microhabitat has driven wing shape evolution, although it has not strongly affected forewing and hindwing integration. We also found that sexual dimorphism of forewing shape and color pattern are coupled, suggesting a common selective force. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Tangential flow ultrafiltration: a "green" method for the size selection and concentration of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Catherine B; Baker, Joshua D; Stahler, Adam C; Williams, Austin J; Sisco, Jackie N; Trefry, John C; Wooley, Dawn P; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E

    2012-10-04

    Nowadays, AgNPs are extensively used in the manufacture of consumer products,(1) water disinfectants,(2) therapeutics,(1, 3) and biomedical devices(4) due to their powerful antimicrobial properties.(3-6) These nanoparticle applications are strongly influenced by the AgNP size and aggregation state. Many challenges exist in the controlled fabrication(7) and size-based isolation(4,8) of unfunctionalized, homogenous AgNPs that are free from chemically aggressive capping/stabilizing agents or organic solvents.(7-13) Limitations emerge from the toxicity of reagents, high costs or reduced efficiency of the AgNP synthesis or isolation methods (e.g., centrifugation, size-dependent solubility, size-exclusion chromatography, etc.).(10,14-18) To overcome this, we recently showed that TFU permits greater control over the size, concentration and aggregation state of Creighton AgNPs (300 ml of 15.3 μg ml(-1) down to 10 ml of 198.7 μg ml(-1)) than conventional methods of isolation such as ultracentrifugation.(19) TFU is a recirculation method commonly used for the weight-based isolation of proteins, viruses and cells.(20,21) Briefly, the liquid sample is passed through a series of hollow fiber membranes with pore size ranging from 1,000 kD to 10 kD. Smaller suspended or dissolved constituents in the sample will pass through the porous barrier together with the solvent (filtrate), while the larger constituents are retained (retentate). TFU may be considered a "green" method as it neither damages the sample nor requires additional solvent to eliminate toxic excess reagents and byproducts. Furthermore, TFU may be applied to a large variety of nanoparticles as both hydrophobic and hydrophilic filters are available. The two main objectives of this study were: 1) to illustrate the experimental aspects of the TFU approach through an invited video experience and 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of the TFU method for larger volumes of colloidal nanoparticles and smaller volumes of

  18. Combustion characteristics of water-insoluble elemental and organic carbon in size selected ambient aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wittmaack

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC contained in ambient aerosol matter was explored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in combination with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. To ease identification of the particles of interest and to avoid or at least reduce interaction with simultaneously sampled inorganic oxides and salts, the approach used in this work differed in two ways from commonly applied procedures. First, rather than using a mixture of particles of vastly different sizes, as in PM10 or PM2.5, aerosol matter was collected in a 5-stage impactor. Second, the water soluble fraction of the collected matter was removed prior to analysis. Diesel soot particles, which appeared in the well-known form of chain-type aggregates, constituted the major fraction of EC. In contrast, OC containing particles were observed in a variety of shapes, including a sizable amount of bioaerosol matter appearing mostly in the size range above about 1 µm. During heating in ambient air for 1h, diesel soot particles were found to be stable up to 470°C, but complete combustion occurred in a narrow temperature interval between about 480 and 510°C. After diesel soot combustion, minute quantities of 'ash' were observed in the form of aggregated tiny particles with sizes less than 10 nm. These particles could be due to elemental or oxidic contaminants of diesel soot. Combustion of OC was observed over a wide range of temperatures, from well below 200°C to at least 500°C. Incompletely burnt bioaerosol matter was still found after heating to 600°C. The results imply that the EC fraction in aerosol matter can be overestimated significantly if the contribution of OC to a thermogram is not well separated.

  19. Self-sustained carbon monoxide oxidation oscillations on size-selected platinum nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert; Andersen, Thomas; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2013-01-01

    High-quality mass spectrometry data of the oscillatory behavior of CO oxidation on SiO2 supported Pt-nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure have been acquired as a function of pressure, coverage, gas composition and nanoparticle size. The oscillations are self-sustained for several days at constant......, temperature, pressure and CO/O2 ratio. The frequency of the oscillations is very well defined and increases over time. The oscillation frequency is furthermore strongly temperature dependent with increasing temperature resulting in increasing frequency. A plausible mechanism for the oscillations is proposed...

  20. Reduced glomerular size- and charge-selectivity in clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Deckert, T

    1995-01-01

    The pathophysiologic mechanism behind microalbuminuria, a potential atherosclerotic risk factor, was explored by measuring fractional clearances of four endogenous plasma proteins of different size and electric charge (albumin, beta 2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin G4). Twenty......-eight clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin excretion of 6.6-150 micrograms min-1, and 60 matched control subjects were studied. Fractional immunoglobulin G clearance was higher (geometric means (95% confidence intervals)) 3.0 (2.3-3.9) x 10(-6), n = 28, vs. 2.1 (1...

  1. Chemical-Reaction-Controlled Phase Separated Drops: Formation, Size Selection, and Coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Jean David; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2018-02-01

    Phase separation under nonequilibrium conditions is exploited by biological cells to organize their cytoplasm but remains poorly understood as a physical phenomenon. Here, we study a ternary fluid model in which phase-separating molecules can be converted into soluble molecules, and vice versa, via chemical reactions. We elucidate using analytical and simulation methods how drop size, formation, and coarsening can be controlled by the chemical reaction rates, and categorize the qualitative behavior of the system into distinct regimes. Ostwald ripening arrest occurs above critical reaction rates, demonstrating that this transition belongs entirely to the nonequilibrium regime. Our model is a minimal representation of the cell cytoplasm.

  2. Functional polythiophene nanoparticles: Size-controlled electropolymerization and ion selective response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, P.C.; Chi, Qijin; Li, Z.S.

    2007-01-01

    polymerization to form polymer nanoparticles or clusters by which the size of the polymer nanoparticles can further be controlled electrochemically. The electropolymerization was monitored in situ by scanning tunneling microscopy to unravel the dynamics of the process and possible mechanisms. These are further......We have synthesized a thiophene derivative, (4-benzeno-15-crown-5 ether)-thiophene-3-methylene-amine (BTA), which was used as a monomer for electrochemical polymerization on metallic surfaces to prepare functional polymer films. Self-assembly of BTA monomers on Au(111) surfaces promotes ordered...

  3. Prey selectivity of bacterivorous protists in different size fractions of reservoir water amended with nutrients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezbera, Jan; Horňák, Karel; Šimek, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2006), s. 1330-1339 ISSN 1462-2912. [SAME /9./. Helsinky, 21.08.2005-26.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007 Grant - others:MŠM(CZ) 60076658/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : selectivity * flagellates * grazing * fluorescence * reservoir * nutrients Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2006

  4. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    have been published in scientific journals and Paper 3 has been submitted to Fisheries Research. This review will take a broader perspective and will examine the capturing process, which is the basis for the selection process. Moreover, it discusses the existing methods and knowledge in the fields...... different species, including cod, are caught together. Demersal trawling is the predominant fishing method in Denmark, as measured by both catch value and volume. Demersal trawls also account for the highest discard rates of juvenile fish, including cod. The focus of this work was on improving......, and openings. The results show that the morphology-based simulations of size selectivity of cod can be used to explain a large part of both the within-haul and the between-haul variations previously reported from sea trials. The method can further predict the selection parameters (L50 and SR) for cod...

  5. Multivariate modeling of complications with data driven variable selection: Guarding against overfitting and effects of data set size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, Arjen van der; Xu Chengjian; Luijk, Peter van; Veld, Aart A. van’t; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Schilstra, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Multivariate modeling of complications after radiotherapy is frequently used in conjunction with data driven variable selection. This study quantifies the risk of overfitting in a data driven modeling method using bootstrapping for data with typical clinical characteristics, and estimates the minimum amount of data needed to obtain models with relatively high predictive power. Materials and methods: To facilitate repeated modeling and cross-validation with independent datasets for the assessment of true predictive power, a method was developed to generate simulated data with statistical properties similar to real clinical data sets. Characteristics of three clinical data sets from radiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancer patients were used to simulate data with set sizes between 50 and 1000 patients. A logistic regression method using bootstrapping and forward variable selection was used for complication modeling, resulting for each simulated data set in a selected number of variables and an estimated predictive power. The true optimal number of variables and true predictive power were calculated using cross-validation with very large independent data sets. Results: For all simulated data set sizes the number of variables selected by the bootstrapping method was on average close to the true optimal number of variables, but showed considerable spread. Bootstrapping is more accurate in selecting the optimal number of variables than the AIC and BIC alternatives, but this did not translate into a significant difference of the true predictive power. The true predictive power asymptotically converged toward a maximum predictive power for large data sets, and the estimated predictive power converged toward the true predictive power. More than half of the potential predictive power is gained after approximately 200 samples. Our simulations demonstrated severe overfitting (a predicative power lower than that of predicting 50% probability) in a number of small

  6. Size-selective microzooplankton grazing on the phytoplankton in the Curonian Lagoon (SE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Grinienė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates at two sites: freshwater (Nida and brackish water (Smiltyne in the Curonian Lagoon (SE Baltic Sea. Using the size-fractionation approach and dilution experiments, we found that the microzooplankton community was able to remove up to 78% of nanophytoplankton (2–20 μm standing stock and 130% of the total daily primary production in the brackish waters of the lagoon, and up to 83% of standing stock and 76% of the primary production of picophytoplankton (0.2–2 μm in the freshwater part. The observed differences were attributed to the changes in ciliate community size and trophic structure, with larger nano-filterers (30–60 μm dominating the brackish water assemblages and pico-nano filterers (<20 μm and 20–30 μm prevailing in the freshwater part of the lagoon.

  7. Physical Selectivity of Molecularly Imprinted polymers evaluated through free volume size distributions derived from Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasang, T.; Ranganathaiah, C.

    2015-06-01

    The technique of imprinting molecules of various sizes in a stable structure of polymer matrix has derived multitudes of applications. Once the template molecule is extracted from the polymer matrix, it leaves behind a cavity which is physically (size and shape) and chemically (functional binding site) compatible to the particular template molecule. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is a well known technique to measure cavity sizes precisely in the nanoscale and is not being used in the field of MIPs effectively. This method is capable of measuring nanopores and hence suitable to understand the physical selectivity of the MIPs better. With this idea in mind, we have prepared molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with methacrylicacid (MAA) as monomer and EGDMA as cross linker in different molar ratio for three different size template molecules, viz. 4-Chlorophenol (4CP)(2.29 Å), 2-Nephthol (2NP) (3.36 Å) and Phenolphthalein (PP) (4.47Å). FTIR and the dye chemical reactions are used to confirm the complete extraction of the template molecules from the polymer matrix. The free volume size and its distribution have been derived from the measured o-Ps lifetime spectra. Based on the free volume distribution analysis, the percentage of functional cavities for the three template molecules are determined. Percentage of functional binding cavities for 4-CP molecules has been found out to be 70.2% and the rest are native cavities. Similarly for 2NP it is 81.5% and nearly 100% for PP. Therefore, PALS method proves to be very precise and accurate for determining the physical selectivity of MIPs.

  8. Tunable solvation effects on the size-selective fractionation of metal nanoparticles in CO2 gas-expanded solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Madhu; McLeod, M Chandler; Bell, Philip W; Roberts, Christopher B

    2005-12-08

    This paper presents an environmentally friendly, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient process for size-selective fractionation of polydisperse metal nanoparticle dispersions into multiple narrow size populations. The dispersibility of ligand-stabilized silver and gold nanoparticles is controlled by altering the ligand tails-solvent interaction (solvation) by the addition of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as an antisolvent, thereby tailoring the bulk solvent strength. This is accomplished by adjusting the CO2 pressure over the liquid, resulting in a simple means to tune the nanoparticle precipitation by size. This study also details the influence of various factors on the size-separation process, such as the types of metal, ligand, and solvent, as well as the use of recursive fractionation and the time allowed for settling during each fractionation step. The pressure range required for the precipitation process is the same for both the silver and gold particles capped with dodecanethiol ligands. A change in ligand or solvent length has an effect on the interaction between the solvent and the ligand tails and therefore the pressure range required for precipitation. Stronger interactions between solvent and ligand tails require greater CO2 pressure to precipitate the particles. Temperature is another variable that impacts the dispersibility of the nanoparticles through changes in the density and the mole fraction of CO2 in the gas-expanded liquids. Recursive fractionation for a given system within a particular pressure range (solvent strength) further reduces the polydispersity of the fraction obtained within that pressure range. Specifically, this work utilizes the highly tunable solvent properties of organic/CO2 solvent mixtures to selectively size-separate dispersions of polydisperse nanoparticles (2 to 12 nm) into more monodisperse fractions (+/-2 nm). In addition to providing efficient separation of the particles, this process also allows all of the solvent and

  9. Crystallite size distribution of clay minerals from selected Serbian clay deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The BWA (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique for the measurement of the mean crystallite thickness and thickness distributions of phyllosilicates was applied to a set of kaolin and bentonite minerals. Six samples of kaolinitic clays, one sample of halloysite, and five bentonite samples from selected Serbian deposits were analyzed. These clays are of sedimentary volcano-sedimentary (diagenetic, and hydrothermal origin. Two different types of shape of thickness distribution were found - lognormal, typical for bentonite and halloysite, and polymodal, typical for kaolinite. The mean crystallite thickness (T BWA seams to be influenced by the genetic type of the clay sample.

  10. Low-tube-voltage selection for triple-rule-out CTA: relation to patient size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Krissak, Radko [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Hufeland Klinikum GmbH, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bad Langensalza (Germany); Fink, Christian [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); General Hospital Celle, Department of Radiology, Celle (Germany); Bachmann, Valentin; Henzler, Thomas; Meyer, Mathias; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Nance, John W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the relationship between image quality and patient size at 100 kilovoltage (kV) compared to 120 kV ECG-gated Triple-Rule-Out CT angiography (TRO-CTA). We retrospectively included 73 patients (age 64 ± 14 years) who underwent retrospective ECG-gated chest CTA. 40 patients were scanned with 100 kV while 33 patients with 120 kV. Body mass index (BMI), patients' chest circumference (PC) and thoracic surface area (TSA) were recorded. Quantitative image quality was assessed as vascular attenuation in the ascending aorta (AA), pulmonary trunk (PA) and left coronary artery (LCA) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the AA. There was no significant difference in BMI (26.0 ± 4.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.7 kg/m{sup 2}), PC (103 ± 7 vs. 104 ± 10 cm{sup 2}) and TSA (92 ± 15 vs. 91 ± 19 cm{sup 2}) between 100 kV and 120 kV group. Mean vascular attenuation was significantly higher in the 100 kV compared to the 120 kV group (AA 438 vs. 354 HU, PA 460 vs. 349 HU, LCA 370 vs. 299 HU all p < 0.001). SNR was not significantly different, even after adjusting for patient size. Radiation dose was significantly lower in the 100 kV group (10.7 ± 4.1 vs. 20.7 ± 10.7 mSv; p < 0.001). 100 kV TRO-CTA is feasible in normal-to-overweight patients while maintaining image quality and achieving substantial dose reduction. (orig.)

  11. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  12. Reactor IPEN/MB-01 dosimetry using TLDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tássio A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Yoriyaz, Hélio, E-mail: tassio.cavalieri@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a preliminary study on the use of reactor IPEN/MB-01 as standard radiation source for mixed field dosimetry studies. As a first step on this attempt, simulations and experiments, evaluating the neutron and gamma field distributions, were performed and compared. TLDs are widely employed in dose measurements and the TLD 100 / TLD 700 pair conforms with ICRU recommendations for mixed field dosimetry. In this study, TLD irradiations were performed in the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor. IPEN/MB-01 reactor is zero power reactor widely used to perform reactor physics experiments. Its neutron flux distribution is well known for a variety of reactor core configurations. However, the photon fluxes are unknown. A series of experiments with TLD 100 and TLD 700 were performed for two different core configurations (rectangular and cylindrical with a central flux trap). Simulations with MCNP5 for these two configurations were also done, and neutron and gamma fluxes distributions along the core were computed. The responses of TLD 100 and TLD 700 were compared with simulated fluxes and showing a good agreement between them. This paper presents the results of the experiments done so far given the status of the study under way in order to couple IPEN/MB-01 and TLD 100 / 700 pair into a mixed field calibration methodology. (author)

  13. MDT-MB therapy in paucibacillary leprosy: A clinicopathological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends treatment regimens for paucibacillary (PB and multibacillary (MB leprosy, which differ in their duration and components. Hence accurate classification of the disease is required. To overcome difficulties in classification Uniform Multi Drug Therapy (U-MDT has been recommended. AIM : To evaluate the benefit of adding clofazimine to paucibacillary regimens in leprosy patients by measuring clinical and histological resolution. METHODS: Forty-four paucibacillary patients were included in the study. Twenty-two patients were given MDT-PB regimen and the remaining MDT-MB regimen for six months . Skin biopsies were done before the commencement and at the end of treatment. Clinical and histological resolutions were measured according to the standard criteria a laid down. The results were analyzed using Fishers′ test and Crammers′ V test. RESULTS: Clinical improvement was observed in 90.9% in the MB group as compared to 27.3% in the PB group. Regression in the nerve swelling was observed in 70% in the MB group and in 37.5% in the PB group while histological resolution was observed in 72.8% and 54.5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of clofazimine helps to resolve leprosy lesions both clinically and histologically, thus justifying the concept of Uniform MDT regimen for all patients.

  14. Mirrlees MB430 has 23 bar bmep potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    Nominally rates at 1000 bhp per cylinder, the new Mirrlees Blackstone MB430 diesel engine with 430 mm bore and 480 mm stroke runs at 600 rev/min under bmep of 21 bar. Initially the engine has been released at 19 bar with the prospect of uprating to 23 bar bmep in due course. The performance testing of the engine is discussed.

  15. Chemisorption on size-selected metal clusters: activation barriers and chemical reactions for deuterium and aluminum cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrold, M.F.; Bower, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a new approach to investigating chemisorption on size-selected metal clusters. This approach involves investigating the collision-energy dependence of chemisorption using low-energy ion beam techniques. The method provides a direct measure of the activation barrier for chemisorption and in some cases an estimate of the desorption energy as well. They describe the application of this technique to chemisorption of deuterium on size-selected aluminum clusters. The activation barriers increase with cluster size (from a little over 1 eV for Al 10 + to around 2 eV for Al 27 + ) and show significant odd-even oscillations. The activation barriers for the clusters with an odd number of atoms are larger than those for the even-numbered clusters. In addition to chemisorption of deuterium onto the clusters, chemical reactions were observed, often resulting in cluster fragmentation. The main products observed were Al/sub n-1/D + , Al/sub n-2/ + , and Al + for clusters with n + and Al/sub n-1/D + for the larger clusters

  16. A large scale analysis of cDNA in Arabidopsis thaliana: generation of 12,028 non-redundant expressed sequence tags from normalized and size-selected cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamizu, E; Nakamura, Y; Sato, S; Tabata, S

    2000-06-30

    For comprehensive analysis of genes expressed in the model dicotyledonous plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were accumulated. Normalized and size-selected cDNA libraries were constructed from aboveground organs, flower buds, roots, green siliques and liquid-cultured seedlings, respectively, and a total of 14,026 5'-end ESTs and 39,207 3'-end ESTs were obtained. The 3'-end ESTs could be clustered into 12,028 non-redundant groups. Similarity search of the non-redundant ESTs against the public non-redundant protein database indicated that 4816 groups show similarity to genes of known function, 1864 to hypothetical genes, and the remaining 5348 are novel sequences. Gene coverage by the non-redundant ESTs was analyzed using the annotated genomic sequences of approximately 10 Mb on chromosomes 3 and 5. A total of 923 regions were hit by at least one EST, among which only 499 regions were hit by the ESTs deposited in the public database. The result indicates that the EST source generated in this project complements the EST data in the public database and facilitates new gene discovery.

  17. The nearly neutral and selection theories of molecular evolution under the fisher geometrical framework: substitution rate, population size, and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeto-Barry, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Vásquez, Rodrigo A

    2012-06-01

    The general theories of molecular evolution depend on relatively arbitrary assumptions about the relative distribution and rate of advantageous, deleterious, neutral, and nearly neutral mutations. The Fisher geometrical model (FGM) has been used to make distributions of mutations biologically interpretable. We explored an FGM-based molecular model to represent molecular evolutionary processes typically studied by nearly neutral and selection models, but in which distributions and relative rates of mutations with different selection coefficients are a consequence of biologically interpretable parameters, such as the average size of the phenotypic effect of mutations and the number of traits (complexity) of organisms. A variant of the FGM-based model that we called the static regime (SR) represents evolution as a nearly neutral process in which substitution rates are determined by a dynamic substitution process in which the population's phenotype remains around a suboptimum equilibrium fitness produced by a balance between slightly deleterious and slightly advantageous compensatory substitutions. As in previous nearly neutral models, the SR predicts a negative relationship between molecular evolutionary rate and population size; however, SR does not have the unrealistic properties of previous nearly neutral models such as the narrow window of selection strengths in which they work. In addition, the SR suggests that compensatory mutations cannot explain the high rate of fixations driven by positive selection currently found in DNA sequences, contrary to what has been previously suggested. We also developed a generalization of SR in which the optimum phenotype can change stochastically due to environmental or physiological shifts, which we called the variable regime (VR). VR models evolution as an interplay between adaptive processes and nearly neutral steady-state processes. When strong environmental fluctuations are incorporated, the process becomes a selection model

  18. Size selectivity of magnetite core- (Ag/Au) shell nanoparticles for multimodal imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pinki; Upadhyay, Chandan

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic and optical properties of nanomaterials play a significant role in the selection of the materials to be used for contrast enhancement in different biological and cell imaging techniques. These nanoparticles can also be used as drug delivery agents. The calculation of absorption efficiency and surface plasmon resonance wavelength has been performed using Mie theory and MATLAB programs. The study of spectrum calculated indicates the dependence of several optical properties such as resonance and absorption efficiency peak on ratio of core radius to the thickness of shell. A systematic study on the effect of nanoparticle dimension has been presented which clearly indicates that the optical properties can be modulated across the visible and near infrared range by changing these parameters. These properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for their application as multimodal imaging agents as they are also magnetically active and biocompatible.

  19. Glycoprotein CD44 expression in normal, hyperplasic and neoplastic endometrium. An immunohistochemical study including correlations with p53, steroid receptor status and proliferative indices (PCNA, MIB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorianakou, N; Ioachim, E; Mitselou, A; Kitsou, E; Zagorianakou, P; Stefanaki, S; Makrydimas, G; Agnantis, N J

    2003-01-01

    We have studied by immunohistochemistry the presence and localization of CD44, estrogen and progesterone receptors, p53 and proliferative associated indices (MIB1, PCNA) in archival endometrial tissue, in order to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value as well as the possible correlations between them. We examined 186 samples of endometrial tissue (100 endometrial carcinomas of endometrioid type, 40 cases of hyperplasia and 46 of normal endometrium). Patient records were examined for FIGO stage, grade, and depth of myometrial invasion, histology, and lympho-vascular space invasion. Strong membranous immunostaining (> 10% of neoplastic cells) was observed in 45% of the carcinomas. A statistically significant correlation was found in the expression of protein in stromal cells, when compared with epithelial cells (p failed to show any statistical correlation with tumor grade or with vessel invasion. The expression of the protein was lower in FIGO Stage II compared with Stage I (p = 0.03). A positive relation of CD44 expression with progesterone receptor status (p = 0.02) was detected. CD44 expression was also positively associated with the proliferation associated with the proliferative index MIB1 (p = 0.001). CD44 is closely related to the secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and its expression is decreased in hyperplasia (simple or complex with or without atypia) and in cancer cases. These observations suggest that decreased CD44 expression might be functionally involved in the multiple mechanisms of the development and progression of endometrial lesions.

  20. Endocytic pathways involved in PLGA nanoparticle uptake by grapevine cells and role of cell wall and membrane in size selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palocci, Cleofe; Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Donati, Livia; Bramosanti, Marco; Brasili, Elisa; Baldan, Barbara; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-12-01

    PLGA NPs' cell uptake involves different endocytic pathways. Clathrin-independent endocytosis is the main internalization route. The cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in NPs' size selection. In the last years, many studies on absorption and cell uptake of nanoparticles by plants have been conducted, but the understanding of the internalization mechanisms is still largely unknown. In this study, polydispersed and monodispersed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) were synthesized, and a strategy combining the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal analysis, fluorescently labeled PLGA NPs, a probe for endocytic vesicles (FM4-64), and endocytosis inhibitors (i.e., wortmannin, ikarugamycin, and salicylic acid) was employed to shed light on PLGA NP cell uptake in grapevine cultured cells and to assess the role of the cell wall and plasma membrane in size selection of PLGA NPs. The ability of PLGA NPs to cross the cell wall and membrane was confirmed by TEM and fluorescence microscopy. A strong adhesion of PLGA NPs to the outer side of the cell wall was observed, presumably due to electrostatic interactions. Confocal microscopy and treatment with endocytosis inhibitors suggested the involvement of both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis in cell uptake of PLGA NPs and the latter appeared to be the main internalization pathway. Experiments on grapevine protoplasts revealed that the cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in size selection of PLGA NPs. While the cell wall prevents the uptake of PLGA NPs with diameters over 50 nm, the plasma membrane can be crossed by PLGA NPs with a diameter of 500-600 nm.

  1. Selection for growth rate and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Qihua; Dou, Tengfei; Gu, Dahai; Rong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhengtian; Talpur, Mir Zulqarnain; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shanrong; Yan, Shixiong; Tong, Huiquan; Zhao, Sumei; Zhao, Guiping; Su, Zhengchang; Ge, Changrong

    2018-01-01

    The growth hormone / insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) pathway of the somatotropic axis is the major controller for growth rate and body size in vertebrates, but the effect of selection on the expression of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes and their association with body size and growth performance in farm animals is not fully understood. We analyzed a time series of expression profiles of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes in two chicken breeds, the Daweishan mini chickens and Wuding chickens, and the commercial Avian broilers hybrid exhibiting markedly different body sizes and growth rates. We found that growth rate and feed conversion efficiency in Daweishan mini chickens were significantly lower than those in Wuding chickens and Avian broilers. The Wuding and Daweishan mini chickens showed higher levels of plasma GH, pituitary GH mRNA but lower levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA than in Avian broilers. Daweishan mini chickens showed significantly lower levels of plasma IGF-1, thigh muscle and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA than did Avian broilers and Wuding chickens. These results suggest that the GH part of the somatotropic axis is the main regulator of growth rate, while IGF-1 may regulate both growth rate and body weight. Selection for growth performance and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in a breed-, age-, and tissue-specific manner, and manner, and alteration of regulatory mechanisms of these genes might play an important role in the developmental characteristics of chickens. PMID:29630644

  2. Preliminary decommissioning plan of the reactor IPEN-MB01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, Ary de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, many nuclear plants were built and need to be turned off at a certain time because they are close to their recommended time of use is approximately 50 years. So the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), seeks to guide and recommend a set of guidelines for the conduct of activities of nuclear facilities, with special attention to countries that do not have a framework regulatory Legal that sustain the activities of decommissioning. Brazil, so far, does not have a specific standard to guide the steps of the guidelines regarding decommissioning research reactors. However, in March 2011 a study committee was formed with the main task facing the issues of decommissioning of nuclear installations in Brazil, culminating in Resolution 133 of November 8, 2012, a standard project that treat about the Decommissioning of nucleoelectric plants. O Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has two research reactors one being the reactor IPEN/MB-01. The purpose of this master dissertation is to develop a preliminary plan for decommissioning this research reactor, considering the technical documentation of the facility (RAS-Safety Analysis Report), the existing standards of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), as well as IAEA recommendations. In terms of procedures for decommissioning research reactors, this work was based on what is most modern in experiences, strategies and lessons learned performed and documented in IAEA publications covering techniques and technologies for decommissioning. Considering these technical knowledge and due to the peculiarities of the facility, was selected to immediate dismantling strategy, which corresponds to the start of decommissioning activities once the installation is switched off, dividing it into work sectors. As a resource for monitoring and project management of reactor decommissioning and maintenance of records, we developed a database using Microsoft Access 2007, which contain all the items and

  3. Ingestion and selection of suprabenthic crustaceans by small-sized fishes in a lower saltmarsh system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Wakabara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in the lower saltmarsh system of the Arrozal, in the Cananéia lagoon estuarine region (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brazil. Suprabenthic fauna was surveyed Wlth a small sledge and fishes were captured with casting and set nets to analyse: crustacean fauna as food for local fish species; difference in the diet at different times of the year; if there is diet overlap between species and the feeding behaviour of the species analysed. The fauna of Arrozal is poor in species, dominated mainly by Metamysidopsis alongata atlantica, Acartia lilljeborgi, Atylus minikoi, decapod larvae, and reveals a strong seasonal variation. The fishes were ali camivorous with suprabenthic crustacean as their main food resource. Seasonal changes in food supply are also reflected in the diet. Of the 12 flSh species collected six were opportunistlc feeders whereas six others were selective feeders. Food overlap value of 0.08 for ali of the fish community indicates an almost completely distinct food niches. The increased overlapping of summer food between Cathorops spixii and species of Group 11 and between Oligoplites sp and species of Group I seems to have two different explanations: 1 the mmIDishing of food supply for species feeding on benthic originated suprabenthic crustaceans and 2 overabundance of planktonic forms of suprabenthos as well as a period of high feeding activity of fishes with such diet.O presente estudo foi realizado no infralitoral contíguo à marisma, na Ponta do Arrozal, região estuarina lagunar de Cananéia (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brasil. A fauna suprabêntica foi amostrada com uma pequena draga e os peixes capturados com tarrafa e rede de espera, com a finalidade de analisar: a composição de espécies dos crustáceos suprabênticos como itens alimentares dos peixes; diferenças na dieta em diferentes época do ano; se ocorre sobreposição alimentar entre as espécies e o comportamento alimentar: das espécies de peixes

  4. Bell-shaped size selection in a bottom trawl: A case study for Nephrops directed fishery with reduced catches of cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövgren, Johan; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    and size selectivity have motivated the development of selective systems in trawl fisheries that utilize more than one selective device simultaneously. An example can be found in the Swedish demersal trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), which simultaneously aims at avoiding catches...

  5. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  6. Direct observation of enhanced magnetism in individual size- and shape-selected 3 d transition metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibert, Armin; Balan, Ana; Yanes, Rocio; Derlet, Peter M.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Timm, Martin; Fraile Rodríguez, Arantxa; Béché, Armand; Verbeeck, Jo; Dhaka, R. S.; Radovic, Milan; Nowak, Ulrich; Nolting, Frithjof

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are critical building blocks for future technologies ranging from nanomedicine to spintronics. Many related applications require nanoparticles with tailored magnetic properties. However, despite significant efforts undertaken towards this goal, a broad and poorly understood dispersion of magnetic properties is reported, even within monodisperse samples of the canonical ferromagnetic 3 d transition metals. We address this issue by investigating the magnetism of a large number of size- and shape-selected, individual nanoparticles of Fe, Co, and Ni using a unique set of complementary characterization techniques. At room temperature, only superparamagnetic behavior is observed in our experiments for all Ni nanoparticles within the investigated sizes, which range from 8 to 20 nm. However, Fe and Co nanoparticles can exist in two distinct magnetic states at any size in this range: (i) a superparamagnetic state, as expected from the bulk and surface anisotropies known for the respective materials and as observed for Ni, and (ii) a state with unexpected stable magnetization at room temperature. This striking state is assigned to significant modifications of the magnetic properties arising from metastable lattice defects in the core of the nanoparticles, as concluded by calculations and atomic structural characterization. Also related with the structural defects, we find that the magnetic state of Fe and Co nanoparticles can be tuned by thermal treatment enabling one to tailor their magnetic properties for applications. This paper demonstrates the importance of complementary single particle investigations for a better understanding of nanoparticle magnetism and for full exploration of their potential for applications.

  7. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  8. Chemistry and kinetics of size-selected cobalt cluster cations at thermal energies. I. Reactions with CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B. C.; Kerns, K. P.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The chemistry and kinetics of size-selected Co+n cluster-ion (n=2-8) reactions with CO are studied using a selected ion drift tube affixed with a laser vaporization source operated under well-defined thermal conditions. All reactions studied in the present work are found to be association reactions. Their absolute rate constants, which are determined quantitatively, are found to have a strong dependence on cluster size. Similar to the cases of reactions with many other reactants such as H2 and CH4, Co+4 and Co+5 display a higher reactivity toward the CO molecule than do clusters of neighboring size. The multiple-collision conditions employed in the present work have enabled a determination of the maximum coordination number of CO molecules bound onto each Co+n cluster. It is found that the tetramer tends to bond 12 CO molecules, the pentamer 14 CO, hexamer 16 CO, and so on. The results are interpreted in terms of Lauher's calculation and the polyhedral skeletal electron pair theory. All the measured maximum coordination numbers correlate extremely well with the predictions of these theories, except for the trimer where the measured number is one CO less than the predicted value. The good agreement between experiment and theory enables one to gain some insight into the geometric structure of the clusters. Based on the present findings, the cobalt tetramer cation is interpreted to have a tetrahedral structure, the pentamer a trigonal bipyramid, and the hexamer an octahedral structure. Other cluster structures are also discussed.

  9. Atomic density effects on temperature characteristics and thermal transport at grain boundaries through a proper bin size selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Truong Quoc; Kim, BoHung, E-mail: muratbarisik@iyte.edu.tr, E-mail: bohungk@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Namgu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Barisik, Murat, E-mail: muratbarisik@iyte.edu.tr, E-mail: bohungk@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2016-05-21

    This study focuses on the proper characterization of temperature profiles across grain boundaries (GBs) in order to calculate the correct interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) and reveal the influence of GB geometries onto thermal transport. The solid-solid interfaces resulting from the orientation difference between the (001), (011), and (111) copper surfaces were investigated. Temperature discontinuities were observed at the boundary of grains due to the phonon mismatch, phonon backscattering, and atomic forces between dissimilar structures at the GBs. We observed that the temperature decreases gradually in the GB area rather than a sharp drop at the interface. As a result, three distinct temperature gradients developed at the GB which were different than the one observed in the bulk solid. This behavior extends a couple molecular diameters into both sides of the interface where we defined a thickness at GB based on the measured temperature profiles for characterization. Results showed dependence on the selection of the bin size used to average the temperature data from the molecular dynamics system. The bin size on the order of the crystal layer spacing was found to present an accurate temperature profile through the GB. We further calculated the GB thickness of various cases by using potential energy (PE) distributions which showed agreement with direct measurements from the temperature profile and validated the proper binning. The variation of grain crystal orientation developed different molecular densities which were characterized by the average atomic surface density (ASD) definition. Our results revealed that the ASD is the primary factor affecting the structural disorders and heat transfer at the solid-solid interfaces. Using a system in which the planes are highly close-packed can enhance the probability of interactions and the degree of overlap between vibrational density of states (VDOS) of atoms forming at interfaces, leading to a reduced ITR. Thus, an

  10. In search of genetic constraints limiting the evolution of egg size: direct and correlated responses to artificial selection on a prenatal maternal effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, J L; Hutter, P; Tschirren, B

    2016-06-01

    Maternal effects are an important force in nature, but the evolutionary dynamics of the traits that cause them are not well understood. Egg size is known to be a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects with an established genetic basis. In contrast to theoretical expectations for fitness-related traits, there is a large amount of additive genetic variation in egg size observed in natural populations. One possible mechanism for the maintenance of this variation is through genetic constraints caused by a shared genetic basis among traits. Here we created replicated, divergent selection lines for maternal egg investment in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to quantify the role of genetic constraints in the evolution of egg size. We found that egg size responds rapidly to selection, accompanied by a strong response in all egg components. Initially, we observed a correlated response in body size, but this response declined over time, showing that egg size and body size can evolve independently. Furthermore, no correlated response in fecundity (measured as the proportion of days on which a female laid an egg) was observed. However, the response to selection was asymmetrical, with egg size plateauing after one generation of selection in the high but not the low investment lines. We attribute this pattern to the presence of genetic asymmetries, caused by directional dominance or unequal allele frequencies. Such asymmetries may contribute to the evolutionary stasis in egg size observed in natural populations, despite a positive association between egg size and fitness.

  11. Regional 500 mb heights and U.S. 1 000-500 mb thickness prior to the radiosonde era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, P. J.; Sappington, D. E.; Stooksbury, D. E.; Hayden, B. P.

    1990-09-01

    We developed a statistical model relating cyclone track eigenvectors over the U.S., southern Canada, and nearby oceans to a record of mean annual 500 mb heights. The length of the cyclone track record allowed us to calculate mean heights back to 1885. Use of mean annual surface pressure data allowed us to estimate the mean 1 000-500 mb thickness, which was related to mean annual temperature. This temperature calculation is unique in that it cannot suffer from urban or site bias. We find a warming of 1.5°C from the late 19th century to 1955, followed by a drop of 0.7° to 1980. By 1987, the calculated temperatures were 0.3° above the mean for 103 years of record. As an example of regional application, we examine results over the southwestern U.S.

  12. Different expression of MIB1 in primary site of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and its bone marrow deposits, a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malysz J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jozef Malysz,1 Juanita J Evans,2 Malcolm Acon-Laws,3 Michael G Bayerl,1 Michael H Creer1 1Department of Pathology, Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, 2Department of Pathology, St. John Heath – Providence, Southfield, MI, USA; 3Laboratorio de Patologia Hospital Cima, San Jose, Costa Rica Abstract: Evaluation of mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MIB1 (Ki67 proliferation index (PI in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas is increasingly a common addition to classification of lymphoma and staging procedures. Clinicians relay on PI as a surrogate marker of biologic activity; however, no established guidelines have been published whether PI at the primary site of the tumor gives the same answer as evaluation of tumor in staging marrow. In our study, dual immunohistochemical staining for MIB1 and CD20 was performed on tissue from primary site and bone marrow involved by B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma to compare PI for each individual patient. For all patients, MIB1 expression was higher at primary tumor site as compared to staging marrow. Additional analysis was performed to investigate the degree of difference depending on lymphoma morphology. Patients with large cell lymphoma at the primary site and large cell morphology in the marrow (LCL-L, those with large cell morphology at the primary site and small cell morphology in the marrow (LCL-S, and those with small cell morphology at the primary site and small cells in the marrow (SCL-S were compared. As expected, LCL cases had a higher mean PI at the primary site when compared to SCL cases (28.5% vs 2.8%, P=0.0001. In addition, the most significant difference between medullary and extramedullary PI was observed in cases with discordant morphology (LCL-S (21% vs 1.1%, P=0.009. Our results indicate that PI of lymphoma within the bone marrow should not be used as a surrogate prognostic indicator of lymphoma biology in its primary site. Keywords: proliferation index, biologic behavior

  13. Size selected metal clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Optical Absorption Spectra of Small Silver Clusters (5-11) ... Soft Landing and Fragmentation of Small Clusters Deposited in Noble-Gas Films. Harbich, W.; Fedrigo, S.; Buttet, J. Phys. Rev. B 1998, 58, 7428. CO combustion on supported gold clusters. Arenz M ...

  14. Engineering nutritious proteins: improvement of stability in the designer protein MB-1 via introduction of disulfide bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Alain; Williams, Martin; Gagnon, Mylene C; Sasseville, Maxime; Beauregard, Marc

    2002-01-02

    Protein design is currently used for the creation of new proteins with desirable traits. In this laboratory the focus has been on the synthesis of proteins with high essential amino acid content having potential applications in animal nutrition. One of the limitations faced in this endeavor is achieving stable proteins despite a highly biased amino acid content. Reported here are the synthesis and characterization of two disulfide-bridged mutants derived from the MB-1 designer protein. Both mutants outperformed their parent protein MB-1 with their bridge formed, as shown by circular dichroism, size exclusion chromatography, thermal denaturation, and proteolytic degradation experiments. When the disulfide bridges were cleaved, the mutants' behavior changed: the mutants significantly unfolded, suggesting that the introduction of Cys residues was deleterious to MB-1-folding. In an attempt to compensate for the mutations used, a Tyr62-Trp mutation was performed, leading to an increase in bulk and hydrophobicity in the core. The Trp-containing disulfide-bridged mutants did not behave as well as the original MB-1Trp, suggesting that position 62 might not be adequate for a compensatory mutation.

  15. Ethylbenzene Disproportionation on HZSM-5 Zeolite : The Effect of Aluminum Content and Crystal Size on the Selectivity for p-Diethylbenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the effect of MFI aluminum content and crystal size on the selectivity for para-diethylbenzene during ethylbenzene disproportionation. It was observed that the para-diethylbenzene selectivity increased as MFI crystal size increased. The increase in aluminum content caused a decrease in the selectivity for para-diethylbenzene. However, for crystals larger than 8 m m, the decrease in aluminum content had little influence on the selectivity for para-diethylbenzene. The results can be explained by the number of active aluminum sites on the external surface of the crystals.

  16. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    REPORT DATE MAR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessments Of Selected Large-Scale Projects...Volatile EvolutioN MEP Mars Exploration Program MIB Mishap Investigation Board MMRTG Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator MMS Magnetospheric...probes designed to explore the Martian surface, to satellites equipped with advanced sensors to study the earth , to telescopes intended to explore the

  18. Does modifying the thick texture and creamy flavour of a drink change portion size selection and intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, Keri; Chambers, Lucy; Yeomans, Martin R

    2014-02-01

    Previous research indicates that a drink's sensory characteristics can influence appetite regulation. Enhancing the thick and creamy sensory characteristics of a drink generated expectations of satiety and improved its actual satiating effects. Expectations about food also play an important role in decisions about intake, in which case enhancing the thick and creamy characteristics of a drink might also result in smaller portion size selection. In the current study forty-eight participants (24 female) completed four test days where they came into the laboratory for a fixed-portion breakfast, returning two hours later for a mid-morning drink, which they could serve themselves and consume as much as they liked. Over the test days, participants consumed an iso-energetic drink in four sensory contexts: thin and low-creamy; thin and high-creamy; thick and low-creamy; thick and high-creamy. Results indicated that participants consumed less of the thick drinks, but that this was only true of the female participants; male participants consumed the same amount of the four drinks regardless of sensory context. The addition of creamy flavour did not affect intake but the thicker drinks were associated with an increase in perceived creaminess. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across male and female participants and were not affected by the drinks sensory characteristics. The vast majority of participants consumed all of the drink they served themselves indicating that differences in intake reflected portion size decisions. These findings suggest women will select smaller portions of a drink when its sensory characteristics indicate that it will be satiating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of size distribution of starch granules in selected wheat varieties by the Low Angle Laser Light Scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capouchová, I.; Petr, J.; Marešová, D.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the size of wheat starch granules using the method LALLS (Low Angle Laser Light Scattering), followed by the evaluation of the effect of variety, experimental site and intensity of cultivation on the vol. % of the starch A (starch granules > 10 μm) was determined. The total starch content and crude protein content in dry matter of flour T530 in selected collection of five winter wheat varieties were determined. Vol. % of the starch A in evaluated collection of wheat varieties varied between 65.31 and 72.34%. The effect of a variety on the vol. % of starch A seemed to be more marked than the effect of site and intensity of cultivation. The highest vol. % of starch A reached evaluated varieties from the quality group C, i.e. varieties unsuitable for baking utilisation (except variety Contra with high total content of starch in dry matter of flour T530, but relatively low vol. % of starch A). A low vol. % of starch A was also found in the variety Hana (very good variety for baking utilisation). Certain variety differences followed from the evaluation of distribution of starch fractions of starch granules, forming starch A. In the case of varieties Hana, Contra and Siria higher representation of fractions up to 30 μm was recorded, while starch A in the varieties Estica and Versailles was formed in higher degree by size fractions of starch granules over 30 μm and particularly size fraction > 50 μm was greatest in these varieties of all evaluated samples. With increasing total starch content in dry matter of flour T530 the crude protein content decreased; the vol. % of starch A not always increased proportionally with increasing total starch content. (author)

  1. Synergistic action of cisplatin and echistatin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnomysy, Robert; Surażyński, Arkadiusz; Popławska, Bożena; Rysiak, Edyta; Pawłowska, Natalia; Czajkowska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof; Bielawska, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of cisplatin in the presence echistatin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells leads to a reduction of toxic effects associated with the use of cisplatin. The expression of β 1 -integrin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), signaling pathway protein expression: protein kinase B (AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/ERK2), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), and caspase-3 and -9 activity was measured after 24 h of incubation with tested compounds to explain detailed molecular mechanism of induction of apoptosis. The viability of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining assay was performed to detect the induction of apoptosis. Inhibition DNA biosynthesis was determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. The expression of of β 1 -integrin, IGF-IR, AKT, ERK1/ERK2, NFκB, caspase-3 and -9 was evaluated using Western blot. The results suggest that treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 24 h cisplatin plus echistatin severely inhibits cell growth and activates apoptosis by upregulation of caspase-3 and -9 expressions. The effect was stronger than treatment cisplatin and echistatin alone. In this study, we have found that cisplatin plus echistatin treatment decreases collagen biosynthesis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells stronger than the individual compounds. The inhibition was found to be dependent on the β 1 -integrin and IGF receptor activation. A significant reduction of ERK1/ERK2, AKT expression in cancer cells after cisplatin plus echistatin treatment was also found. The cancer cells treated by echistatin, cisplatin, and in particular the combination of both compounds drastically increased expression of NFκB transcription factor. Our results suggest that combined therapy cisplatin plus echistatin is a possible way to improve selectiveness of cisplatin. This

  2. A Simple Small Size and Low Cost Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance for Selective Detection of Fe(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Cennamo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF, has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III. DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO, having high binding affinity for Fe(III, is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III. The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  3. A simple small size and low cost sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for selective detection of Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Alberti, Giancarla; Pesavento, Maria; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Quattrini, Federico; Biesuz, Raffaela; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-03-07

    A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III). DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO), having high binding affinity for Fe(III), is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III)/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III). The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  4. Is portion size selection associated with expected satiation, perceived healthfulness or expected tastiness? A case study on pizza using a photograph-based computer task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, D; Rytz, A; Godinot, N; Ferrage, A; Martin, N

    2017-01-01

    Increasing portion sizes over the last 30 years are considered to be one of the factors underlying overconsumption. Past research on the drivers of portion selection for foods showed that larger portions are selected for foods delivering low expected satiation. However, the respective contribution of expected satiation vs. two other potential drivers of portion size selection, i.e. perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness, has never been explored. In this study, we conjointly explored the role of expected satiation, perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness when selecting portions within a range of six commercial pizzas varying in their toppings and brands. For each product, 63 pizza consumers selected a portion size that would satisfy them for lunch and scored their expected satiation, perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness. As six participants selected an entire pizza as ideal portion independently of topping or brand, their data sets were not considered in the data analyses completed on responses from 57 participants. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that portion size variance was predicted by perceived healthiness and expected tastiness variables. Two sub-groups of participants with different portion size patterns across pizzas were identified through post-hoc exploratory analysis. The explanatory power of the regression model was significantly improved by adding interaction terms between sub-group and expected satiation variables and between sub-group and perceived healthfulness variables to the model. Analysis at a sub-group level showed either positive or negative association between portion size and expected satiation depending on sub-groups. For one group, portion size selection was more health-driven and for the other, more hedonic-driven. These results showed that even when considering a well-liked product category, perceived healthfulness can be an important factor influencing portion size decision. Copyright © 2016

  5. [Knock-down of BCL11A expression in breast cancer cells promotes MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Gui, Chen; Yan, Lijun

    2016-11-01

    Objective To detect the expression and pathological significance of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (BCL11A) in breast cancer and investigate the effect of its silencing on the apoptosis of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. MethodsImmunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of BCL11A in 62 cases of human breast cancer tissues and 8 cases of normal tissues. We synthesized siRNA targeting BCL11A, and then siRNA was transfected into MDA-MB-231 cells. Forty-eight hours later, the suppression effect of siRNA on BCL11A was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. The apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells was detected by flow cytometry. Results The BCL11A protein was mainly expressed in cytoplasm. The expression level of BCL11A in breast cancer tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues. The expression had correlations with tumor grade, tumor stage, while it had no correlations with the patients' age and tumor size. BCL11A-siRNA significantly suppressed the expression of BCL11A mRNA and protein as compared with the control group. MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with BCL11A-siRNA had higher apoptosis rate compared with the control group. Conclusion The BCL11A protein is highly expressed in breast cancer and knock-down of BCL11A promotes the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells.

  6. Size-selective QD@MOF core-shell nanocomposites for the highly sensitive monitoring of oxidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Nan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhiqi; Dang, Fuquan

    2017-01-15

    In this work, we proposed a novel and facile method to monitor oxidase activities based on size-selective fluorescent quantum dot (QD)@metal-organic framework (MOF) core-shell nanocomposites (CSNCPs). The CSNCPs were synthesized from ZIF-8 and CdTe QDs in aqueous solution in 40min at room temperature with stirring. The prepared CdTe@ZIF-8 CSNCPs , which have excellent water dispersibility and stability, displays distinct fluorescence responses to hole scavengers of different molecular sizes (e.g., H 2 O 2 , substrate, and oxidase) due to the aperture limitation of the ZIF-8 shell. H 2 O 2 can efficiently quench the fluorescence of CdTe@ZIF-8 CSNCPs over a linearity range of 1-100nM with a detection limit of 0.29nM, whereas large molecules such as substrate and oxidase have very little effect on its fluorescence. Therefore, the highly sensitive detection of oxidase activities was achieved by monitoring the fluorescence quenching of CdTe@ZIF-8 CSNCPs by H 2 O 2 produced in the presence of substrate and oxidase, which is proportional to the oxidase activities. The linearity ranges of the uricase and glucose oxidase activity are 0.1-50U/L and 1-100U/L, respectively, and their detection limits are 0.024U/L and 0.26U/L, respectively. Therefore, the current QD@MOF CSNCPs based sensing system is a promising, widely applicable means of monitoring oxidase activities in biochemical research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy storage and fecundity explain deviations from ecological stoichiometry predictions under global warming and size-selective predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Jansen, Mieke; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2016-11-01

    A key challenge for ecologists is to predict how single and joint effects of global warming and predation risk translate from the individual level up to ecosystem functions. Recently, stoichiometric theory linked these levels through changes in body stoichiometry, predicting that both higher temperatures and predation risk induce shifts in energy storage (increases in C-rich carbohydrates and reductions in N-rich proteins) and body stoichiometry (increases in C : N and C : P). This promising theory, however, is rarely tested and assumes that prey will divert energy away from reproduction under predation risk, while under size-selective predation, prey instead increase fecundity. We exposed the water flea Daphnia magna to 4 °C warming and fish predation risk to test whether C-rich carbohydrates increase and N-rich proteins decrease, and as a result, C : N and C : P increase under warming and predation risk. Unexpectedly, warming decreased body C : N, which was driven by reductions in C-rich fat and sugar contents while the protein content did not change. This reflected a trade-off where the accelerated intrinsic growth rate under warming occurred at the cost of a reduced energy storage. Warming reduced C : N less and only increased C : P and N : P in the fish-period Daphnia. These evolved stoichiometric responses to warming were largely driven by stronger warming-induced reductions in P than in C and N and could be explained by the better ability to deal with warming in the fish-period Daphnia. In contrast to theory predictions, body C : N decreased under predation risk due to a strong increase in the N-rich protein content that offsets the increase in C-rich fat content. The higher investment in fecundity (more N-rich eggs) under predation risk contributed to this stronger increase in protein content. Similarly, the lower body C : N of pre-fish Daphnia also matched their higher fecundity. Warming and predation risk independently shaped body

  8. Controlled deposition of size-selected MnO nanoparticle thin films for water splitting applications: reduction of onset potential with particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Malak; Haghighat, Shima; Dawlaty, Jahan M.; Kresin, Vitaly V.

    2018-05-01

    Emulating water oxidation catalyzed by the oxomanganese clusters in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants has been a long-standing scientific challenge. The use of manganese oxide films has been explored, but while they may be catalytically active on the surface, their poor conductivity hinders their overall performance. We have approached this problem by using manganese oxide nanoparticles with sizes of 4, 6 and 8 nm, produced in a sputter-gas-aggregation source and soft-landed onto conducting electrodes. The mass loading of these catalytic particles was kept constant and corresponded to 45%–80% of a monolayer coverage. Measurements of the water oxidation threshold revealed that the onset potential decreases significantly with decreasing particle size. The final stoichiometry of the catalytically active nanoparticles, after exposure to air, was identified as predominantly MnO. The ability of such a sub-monolayer film to lower the reaction threshold implies that the key role is played by intrinsic size effects, i.e., by changes in the electronic properties and surface fields of the nanoparticles with decreasing size. We anticipate that this work will serve to bridge the knowledge gap between bulk thick film electrocatalysts and natural photosynthetic molecular-cluster complexes.

  9. Early exposure to nonlethal predation risk by size-selective predators increases somatic growth and decreases size at adulthood in threespined sticklebacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, A. M.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Hankison, S. J.; Langenhof, M. B. W.; Rollins, K.

    Predation has an important influence on life history traits in many organisms, especially when they are young. When cues of trout were present, juvenile sticklebacks grew faster. The increase in body size as a result of exposure to cues of predators was adaptive because larger individuals were more

  10. MB-OFDM-UWB Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coalmine: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruisong; Yang, Wei; You, Kaiming

    2016-12-16

    Safety production of coalmines is a task of top priority which plays an important role in guaranteeing, supporting and promoting the continuous development of the coal industry. Since traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) cannot fully meet the requirements of comprehensive environment monitoring of underground coalmines, wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), enabling the retrieval of multimedia information, are introduced to realize fine-grained and precise environment surveillance. In this paper, a framework for designing underground coalmine WMSNs based on Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Ultra-wide Band (MB-OFDM-UWB) is presented. The selection of MB-OFDM-UWB wireless transmission solution is based on the characteristics of underground coalmines. Network structure and design challenges are analyzed first, which is the foundation for further discussion. Then, key supporting technologies and open research areas in different layers are surveyed, and we provide a detailed literature review of the state of the art strategies, algorithms and general solutions in these issues. Finally, other research issues like localization, information processing, and network management are discussed.

  11. MB-OFDM-UWB Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coalmine: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruisong; Yang, Wei; You, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    Safety production of coalmines is a task of top priority which plays an important role in guaranteeing, supporting and promoting the continuous development of the coal industry. Since traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) cannot fully meet the requirements of comprehensive environment monitoring of underground coalmines, wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), enabling the retrieval of multimedia information, are introduced to realize fine-grained and precise environment surveillance. In this paper, a framework for designing underground coalmine WMSNs based on Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Ultra-wide Band (MB-OFDM-UWB) is presented. The selection of MB-OFDM-UWB wireless transmission solution is based on the characteristics of underground coalmines. Network structure and design challenges are analyzed first, which is the foundation for further discussion. Then, key supporting technologies and open research areas in different layers are surveyed, and we provide a detailed literature review of the state of the art strategies, algorithms and general solutions in these issues. Finally, other research issues like localization, information processing, and network management are discussed. PMID:27999258

  12. Toxicological aspects of photocatalytic degradation of selected xenobiotics with nano-sized Mn-doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Murat, E-mail: murat.ozmen@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Malatya (Turkey); Güngördü, Abbas [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Malatya (Turkey); Erdemoglu, Sema [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Malatya (Turkey); Ozmen, Nesrin [Inonu University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Teaching Program, Malatya (Turkey); Asilturk, Meltem [Akdeniz University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. • The photocatalytic efficiency of the photocatalysts was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. • Toxicity of photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products were determined. • Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality on X. laevis. • Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects. - Abstract: The toxic effects of two selected xenobiotics, bisphenol A (BPA) and atrazine (ATZ), were evaluated after photocatalytic degradation using nano-sized, Mn-doped TiO{sub 2}. Undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis-diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and BET surface area. The photocatalytic efficiency of the undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. The toxicity of the synthesized photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products of BPA and ATZ was determined using frog embryos and tadpoles, zebrafish embryos, and bioluminescent bacteria. Possible toxic effects were also evaluated using selected enzyme biomarkers. The results showed that Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles, but nonfiltered samples caused lethality in zebrafish. Furthermore, Mn-doping of TiO{sub 2} increased the photocatalytic degradation capability of nanoparticles, and it successfully degraded BPA and AZT, but degradation of AZT caused an increase of the lethal effects on both tadpoles and fish embryos. Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects, especially after 2–4 h of degradation. However, biochemical assays showed that both Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} and the degradation by-products caused a significant change of selected biomarkers on X. laevis tadpoles; thus, the ecological risks of Mn

  13. Sex differences in the MB49 syngeneic, murine model of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gilbertson, Shai; Davis, Megan; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina; Kasman, Laura M

    The MB49 syngeneic, murine model of bladder cancer has been widely used for more than 35 years. In humans, bladder cancer is one third as prevalent in women as in men, with a trend toward lower prevalence in parous compared to nulliparous women. Our objective was to determine if the MB49 bladder cancer model reproduces the sex differences observed in humans, and to determine its sensitivity to testosterone and the pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Male and female C57BL/6 mice were implanted with MB49 murine bladder cancer cells, and observed for tumor growth. MB49 dose responses to hCG and dihydrotestosterone were determined in vitro . MB49 tumor growth was significantly greater in male mice than female mice. Pregnancy did not affect MB49 tumor growth in female mice. MB49 cells did not proliferate in response to hCG in vitro and the functional receptor for gonadotropins was absent. Dihydrotestosterone strongly stimulated growth of MB49 cells in vitro . The MB49 murine model of bladder cancer reproduced some aspects of the sex differences observed in humans. Our results suggest that testosterone may stimulate MB49 cell proliferation, which may explain the more rapid MB49 tumor growth observed in male mice.

  14. Morphology, structural properties and reducibility of size-selected CeO2−x nanoparticle films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Spadaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-stoichiometric ceria nanoparticles (NPs were obtained by a gas aggregation source with a magnetron and were mass-selected with a quadrupole mass filter. By varying magnetron power, Ar gas flow, and the length of the aggregation tube, NPs with an average diameter of 6, 9, and 14 nm were synthesized and deposited onto a substrate, thus obtaining NP films. The morphology of the films was studied with scanning electron microscopy, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to gain a deeper insight into the atomic structure of individual NPs. By using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we analyzed the degree of reduction of the NPs of different diameters, before and after thermal treatments in vacuum (reduction cycle and in O2 atmosphere (oxidation cycle at different temperatures. From this analysis we inferred that the size is an important parameter only at intermediate temperatures. As a comparison, we evaluated the reducibility of an ultra-thin ceria film with the same surface to volume ratio as the 9 nm diameter NPs film, observing that NPs are more reducible than the ceria film.

  15. Nasonia Parasitic Wasps Escape from Haller's Rule by Diphasic, Partially Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling and Selective Neuropil Adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Jitte; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Haller's rule states that brains scale allometrically with body size in all animals, meaning that relative brain size increases with decreasing body size. This rule applies both on inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Only 1 species, the extremely small parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens, is

  16. Understanding and predicting size selection in diamond-mesh cod ends for danish seining: A study based on sea trials and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    described by a double logistic selection curve, implying that two different size selection processes occur in the cod end. The double selection process could be explained by an additional selection process occurring through slack meshes. The results imply that the escapement of 46% and 34% of the larger...... Atlantic Cod and Haddock (those above 48 cm), respectively, would be through wide-open or slack meshes. Since these mesh states are only likely to be present in the latest stage of the fishing process (e.g., when the cod end is near the surface), a large fraction of the bigger fish probably escaped near...

  17. Context dependent reversion of tumor phenotype by connexin-43 expression in MDA-MB231 cells and MCF-7 cells: Role of β-catenin/connexin43 association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talhouk, Rabih S.; Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Rahme, Gilbert J.; Hariri, Hanaa H.; Rayess, Tina; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Bazzoun, Dana; Al-Labban, Dania; El-Sabban, Marwan E.

    2013-01-01

    Connexins (Cx), gap junction (GJ) proteins, are regarded as tumor suppressors, and Cx43 expression is often down regulated in breast tumors. We assessed the effect of Cx43 over-expression in 2D and 3D cultures of two breast adenocarcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. While Cx43 over-expression decreased proliferation of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 by 56% and 80% respectively, MDA-MB-231 growth was not altered in 2D cultures, but exhibited 35% reduction in 3D cultures. C-terminus truncated Cx43 did not alter proliferation. Untransfected MCF-7 cells formed spherical aggregates in 3D cultures, and MDA-MB-231 cells formed stellar aggregates. However, MCF-7 cells over-expressing Cx43 formed smaller sized clusters and Cx43 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells lost their stellar morphology. Extravasation ability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced by 60% and 30% respectively. On the other hand, silencing Cx43 in MCF10A cells, nonneoplastic human mammary cell line, increased proliferation in both 2D and 3D cultures, and disrupted acinar morphology. Although Cx43 over-expression did not affect total levels of β-catenin, α-catenin and ZO-2, it decreased nuclear levels of β-catenin in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and in 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cx43 associated at the membrane with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and only in 3D conditions in MDA-MB-231 cells. This study suggests that Cx43 exerts tumor suppressive effects in a context-dependent manner where GJ assembly with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 may be implicated in reducing growth rate, invasiveness, and, malignant phenotype of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells, by sequestering β-catenin away from nucleus. - Highlights: • Cx43 over-expressing MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were grown in 2D and 3D cultures. • Proliferation and growth morphology were affected in a context dependent manner. • Extravasation ability of both MCF

  18. Context dependent reversion of tumor phenotype by connexin-43 expression in MDA-MB231 cells and MCF-7 cells: Role of β-catenin/connexin43 association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talhouk, Rabih S., E-mail: rtalhouk@aub.edu.lb [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Rahme, Gilbert J.; Hariri, Hanaa H.; Rayess, Tina; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Bazzoun, Dana; Al-Labban, Dania [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Sabban, Marwan E., E-mail: me00@aub.edu.lb [Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-12-10

    Connexins (Cx), gap junction (GJ) proteins, are regarded as tumor suppressors, and Cx43 expression is often down regulated in breast tumors. We assessed the effect of Cx43 over-expression in 2D and 3D cultures of two breast adenocarcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. While Cx43 over-expression decreased proliferation of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 by 56% and 80% respectively, MDA-MB-231 growth was not altered in 2D cultures, but exhibited 35% reduction in 3D cultures. C-terminus truncated Cx43 did not alter proliferation. Untransfected MCF-7 cells formed spherical aggregates in 3D cultures, and MDA-MB-231 cells formed stellar aggregates. However, MCF-7 cells over-expressing Cx43 formed smaller sized clusters and Cx43 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells lost their stellar morphology. Extravasation ability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced by 60% and 30% respectively. On the other hand, silencing Cx43 in MCF10A cells, nonneoplastic human mammary cell line, increased proliferation in both 2D and 3D cultures, and disrupted acinar morphology. Although Cx43 over-expression did not affect total levels of β-catenin, α-catenin and ZO-2, it decreased nuclear levels of β-catenin in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and in 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cx43 associated at the membrane with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and only in 3D conditions in MDA-MB-231 cells. This study suggests that Cx43 exerts tumor suppressive effects in a context-dependent manner where GJ assembly with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 may be implicated in reducing growth rate, invasiveness, and, malignant phenotype of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells, by sequestering β-catenin away from nucleus. - Highlights: • Cx43 over-expressing MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were grown in 2D and 3D cultures. • Proliferation and growth morphology were affected in a context dependent manner. • Extravasation ability of both MCF

  19. Measure of thermal neutron flux in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor using 197 Au wire activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has aimed at developing a neutron flux measurement technique by means of detectors activation analysis. The main task of this work was the implementation of this thermal neutron flux measurement technique, using gold wires as activation detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core. The neutron thermal flux spatial distribution was obtained by gold wire activation technique, with wire diameters of 0.125 mm and 0.250 mm in seven selected reactor experimental channels. The values of thermal flux were about 10 9 neutrons/cm 2 .s. This experiment has been the first one conducted with gold wires in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, being this technique implemented for use by experiments in flux mapping of the core

  20. The Prognostic Value of International Prognostic Index and MIB-l Immunostaining of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues and Bone Marrow in Patients with High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assem, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Cell kinetic data are important indicator of the aggressiveness of tumour and clinical response. The Ki-67 antigen plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell proliferation and the expression of this antigen was found to be a valuable indicator for aggressive disease in a variety of neoplastic disorders. Aim of the study: This study aimed to assess the prognostic significance of the expression of Ki-67 antigen in peripheral lymphoid tissues and bone marrow, using the monoclonal antibody MIB-l that is applicable in formaline-fixed paraffin embedded samples in cases with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Material and methods: The MIB-I immunostaining was performed on 96 samples from 48 patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The study was performed on tissue sections, nodal or extra nodal, as well as on BM smears or BM paraffin embedded sections of same patients. Ki-67 index was determined using image analyzer. Results: Forty-five out of the studied 48 cases (93.8%) were positive with a median labelling index of 20.425% (Range, 0-58%). We were able to detect bone marrow involvement by detecting MIB-l positive cells in BM samples of 29 patients who were not morphologically diagnosed to have BM infiltration. There was a strong correlation between BM positivity for Ki-67 and Ki-67 labelling index (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight (58.3%) out of the studied 48 cases achieved complete remission (CR). The median duration of CR was 35 months (range, 8-42 months) and the overall survival at 48 months was 35.4% (median 22 months, 95% CI, 13-31 months). The median Ki-67 index (20.425%) was chosen as a cut-off level for statistical analysis of the variables that influence clinical outcome. The probability of inducing CR was associated with low and low intermediate International Prognostic Index (IPI) whereas a low growth fraction was associated, although not significant, with a trend toward a higher probability of inducing a CR. In univariate analysis, high MIB1 labelling

  1. Soil aggregate stability and size-selective sediment transport with surface runoff as affected by organic residue amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu; Arter, Christian; Liu, Xingyu; Keller, Martin; Schulin, Rainer

    2017-12-31

    Aggregate breakdown influences the availability of soil particles for size-selective sediment transport with surface runoff during erosive rainfall events. Organic matter management is known to affect aggregate stability against breakdown, but little is known about how this translates into rainfall-induced aggregate fragmentation and sediment transport under field conditions. In this study, we performed field experiments in which artificial rainfall was applied after pre-wetting on three pairs of arable soil plots (1.5×0.75m) six weeks after incorporating a mixture of grass and wheat straw into the topsoil of one plot in each pair (OI treatment) but not on the other plot (NI treatment). Artificial rainfall was applied for approximately 2h on each pair at an intensity of 49.1mmh -1 . In both treatments, discharge and sediment concentration in the discharge were correlated and followed a similar temporal pattern after the onset of surface runoff: After a sharp increase at the beginning both approached a steady state. But the onset of runoff was more delayed on the OI plots, and the discharge and sediment concentration were in average only roughly half as high on the OI as on the NI plots. With increasing discharge the fraction of coarse sediment increased. This relationship did not differ between the two treatments. Thus, due to the lower discharge, the fraction of fine particles in the exported sediment was larger in the runoff from the OI plots than from the NI plots. The later runoff onset and lower discharge rate was related to a higher initial aggregate stability on the OI plots. Terrestrial laser scanning proved to be a very valuable method to map changes in the micro-topography of the soil surfaces. It revealed a much less profound decrease in surface roughness on the OI than on the NI plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation Among Six Biologic Factors (p53, p21WAF1, MIB-1, EGFR, HER2, and Bcl-2) and Clinical Outcomes After Curative Chemoradiation Therapy in Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Murakami, Naoya; Asari, Takao; Okuma, Kae; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The expressions of six cell-cycle-associated proteins were analyzed in cervical squamous cell carcinomas in correlation in a search for prognostic correlations in tumors treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy (cCRT). Methods and Materials: The expressions of p53, p21/waf1/cip1, molecular immunology borstel-1 (MIB-1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and Bcl-2 were studied using an immunohistochemical method in 57 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated with cCRT. Patients received cCRT between 1998 and 2005. The mean patient age was 61 years (range, 27-82 years). The number of patients with Stage II, III, and IVA disease was 18, 29, and 10, respectively. Results: The number of patients with tumors positive for p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, HER2, and Bcl-2 was 26, 24, 49, 26, 13, and 11, respectively; no significant correlation was noted. The 5-year overall survival rates of HER2-positive and -negative patients was 76% vs. 44%, which was of borderline significance (p = 0.0675). No significant correlation was noted between overall survival and expressions of p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, and Bcl-2. No correlation was observed between local control and expression of any of the proteins. Conclusion: Expression of HER2 protein had a weak impact of borderline significance on overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with cCRT. However, no clinical associations could be established for p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, and Bcl-2 protein expressions.

  3. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis at a Low Pressure on Subnanometer Cobalt Oxide Clusters: The Effect of Cluster Size and Support on Activity and Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsik; Lee, Byeongdu; Seifert, Sönke; Winans, Randall E.; Vajda, Stefan

    2015-05-21

    In this study, the catalytic activity and changes in the oxidation state during the Fischer Tropsch (FT) reaction was investigated on subnanometer size-selected cobalt clusters deposited on oxide (Al2O3, MgO) and carbon-based (ultrananocrystalline diamond UNCD) supports by temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) combined with in-situ grazing-incidence X-ray absorption characterization (GIXAS). The activity and selectivity of ultrasmall cobalt clusters exhibits a very strong dependence on cluster size and support. The evolution of the oxidation state of metal cluster during the reaction reveals that metal-support interaction plays a key role in the reaction.

  4. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part III. Investigation of European standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Larry A; Kashon, Michael L; Harper, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Lee et al. (Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2014a;58:60-73) introduced an approach to measure pump pulsation (PP) using a real-world sampling train, while the European Standards (EN) (EN 1232-1997 and EN 12919-1999) suggest measuring PP using a resistor in place of the sampler. The goal of this study is to characterize PP according to both EN methods and to determine the relationship of PP between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods. Additional test parameters were investigated to determine whether the test conditions suggested by the EN methods were appropriate for measuring pulsations. Experiments were conducted using a factorial combination of personal sampling pumps (six medium- and two high-volumetric flow rate pumps), back pressures (six medium- and seven high-flow rate pumps), resistors (two types), tubing lengths between a pump and resistor (60 and 90 cm), and different flow rates (2 and 2.5 l min(-1) for the medium- and 4.4, 10, and 11.2 l min(-1) for the high-flow rate pumps). The selection of sampling pumps and the ranges of back pressure were based on measurements obtained in the previous study (Lee et al., 2014a). Among six medium-flow rate pumps, only the Gilian5000 and the Apex IS conformed to the 10% criterion specified in EN 1232-1997. Although the AirChek XR5000 exceeded the 10% limit, the average PP (10.9%) was close to the criterion. One high-flow rate pump, the Legacy (PP=8.1%), conformed to the 10% criterion in EN 12919-1999, while the Elite12 did not (PP=18.3%). Conducting supplemental tests with additional test parameters beyond those used in the two subject EN standards did not strengthen the characterization of PPs. For the selected test conditions, a linear regression model [PPEN=0.014+0.375×PPNIOSH (adjusted R2=0.871)] was developed to determine the PP relationship between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods

  5. The role intuitive decision making plays in project selection in the residential property market: a case study of a medium sized

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Diarmuid

    2013-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed This thesis addresses the role of intuition in project selection in residential property development. The paper provides a comprehensive review of existing literature in relation to project selection and decision making. In addition, the examination of the project files of M.A. Ryan & Sons Ltd., a medium sized property development company, has enabled a case study to be carried out on three projects carried out by the organisation. Through the case study, t...

  6. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive...

  7. BETULINIC ACID WAS MORE CYTOTOXIC TOWARDS THE HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE MDA-MB-231 THAN THE HUMAN PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKAEMIA CELL LINE HL-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LATIFAH SAIFUL YAZAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid (BA is a pentacyclic triterpene found in several botanical sources that has been shown to cause apoptosis in a number of cell lines. This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro cytotoxic properties of BA towards the human mammary carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 and the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line HL-60 and the mode of the induced cell death. The cytotoxicity and mode of cell death of BA were determined using the MTT assay and DNAfragmentation analysis, respectively. In our study, the compound was found to be cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 and HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 58 μg/mL and 134 μg/mL, respectively. Cells treated with high concentrations of BA exhibited features characteristic of apoptosis such as blebbing, shrinking and a number of small cytoplasm body masses when viewed under an inverted light microscope after 24 h. The incidence of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 was further confirmed bythe DNA fragmentation analysis, with the formation of DNA fragments of oligonucleosomal size (180-200 base pairs, giving a ladder-like pattern on agarose gel electrophoresis. BA was more cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 than HL-60 cells, and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells.

  8. Using David Lack's Observations of Finch Beak Size to Teach Natural Selection & the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea M.-K.; Rudge, David W.

    2014-01-01

    One of the key aspects of natural selection is competition, yet the concept of competition is not necessarily emphasized in explanations of natural selection. Because of this, we developed an activity for our class that focuses on competition and provides an example of the effects of competition on natural selection. This hands-on activity models…

  9. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Mekki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. Results The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. Conclusion A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis

  10. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT) tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboldi, Cristina; Guidi, Elena; Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Roperto, Franco; Di Meo, Giulia Pia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Floriot, Sandrine; Boussaha, Mekki; Eggen, André; Ferretti, Luca

    2006-05-23

    The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT) is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis, especially of vesical papillomavirus-associated cancers of

  11. Heavy reflector experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Silva, Graciete Simoes de Andrade e; Mura, Luis Felipe; Fuga, Rinaldo; Jerez, Rogerio; Mendonca, Arlindo Gilson

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The heavy reflector experiments performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility comprise a set of critical configurations employing the standard 28x26-fuel-rod configuration. The heavy reflector either Stainless Steel, Carbon Steel or Nickel plates was placed at one of the faces of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. Criticality is achieved by inserting the control banks BC1 and BC2 to the critical position. 32 plates around 0.3 mm thick were used in the experiment. The chosen distance between last fuel rod row and the first laminate for both type of laminates was 5.5 mm. Considering initially the SS case, the experimental data reveal that the reactivity decreases up to the sixth plate and after that it increases, becomes nearly zero (which was equivalent to initial zero excess reactivity with zero plates) for the 21 plates case and reaches a value of 154.91 pcm when the whole set of 32 plates are inserted in the reflector. This is a very striking result because it demonstrates that when all 32 plates are inserted in the reflector there is a net gain of reactivity. The reactivity behavior demonstrates all the physics events already mentioned in this work. When the number of plates are small (around 6), the neutron absorption in the plates is more important than the neutron reflection and the reactivity decreases. This condition holds up to a point where the neutron reflection becomes more important than the neutron absorption in the plates and the reactivity increases. The experimental data for the Carbon Steel and Nickel case shows the main features of the SS case, but for the Carbon Steel case the reactivity gain is small, thus demonstrating that Carbon Steel or essentially iron has not the reflector capability as the SS laminates do. The measured data of Nickel plates show a higher reactivity gain, thus demonstrating that Nickel is a good reflector. The theoretical analysis employing MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 show that the SS calculated results are in a good

  12. SIZE SELECTION IN DIVING TUFTED DUCKS AYTHYA-FULIGULA EXPLAINED BY DIFFERENTIAL HANDLING OF SMALL AND LARGE MUSSELS DREISSENA-POLYMORPHA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, JJ; VANEERDEN, MR

    1992-01-01

    We studied prey size selection of Tufted Ducks feeding on fresh-water mussels under semi-natural conditions. In experiments with non-diving birds, we found that Tufted Ducks use two techniques to handle mussels. Mussels less than 16 mm in length are strained from a waterflow generated in the bill

  13. Design and capabilities of an experimental setup based on magnetron sputtering for formation and deposition of size-selected metal clusters on ultra-clean surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hannes; Popok, Vladimir; Barke, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of an experimental setup utilizing a magnetron sputtering source for production of beams of ionized size-selected clusters for deposition in ultra-high vacuum is described. For the case of copper cluster formation the influence of different source parameters is studied...

  14. Selection of the Maximum Spatial Cluster Size of the Spatial Scan Statistic by Using the Maximum Clustering Set-Proportion Statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Xiaohua Andrew; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Spatial scan statistics are widely used in various fields. The performance of these statistics is influenced by parameters, such as maximum spatial cluster size, and can be improved by parameter selection using performance measures. Current performance measures are based on the presence of clusters and are thus inapplicable to data sets without known clusters. In this work, we propose a novel overall performance measure called maximum clustering set-proportion (MCS-P), which is based on the likelihood of the union of detected clusters and the applied dataset. MCS-P was compared with existing performance measures in a simulation study to select the maximum spatial cluster size. Results of other performance measures, such as sensitivity and misclassification, suggest that the spatial scan statistic achieves accurate results in most scenarios with the maximum spatial cluster sizes selected using MCS-P. Given that previously known clusters are not required in the proposed strategy, selection of the optimal maximum cluster size with MCS-P can improve the performance of the scan statistic in applications without identified clusters.

  15. A rationally designed amino-borane complex in a metal organic framework: A novel reusable hydrogen storage and size-selective reduction material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo

    2015-01-01

    A novel amino-borane complex inside a stable metal organic framework was synthesized for the first time. It releases hydrogen at a temperature of 78 °C with no volatile contaminants and can be well reused. Its application as a size-selective reduction material in organic synthesis was also demonstrated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  16. Engineering of RuMb: Toward a Green Catalyst for Carbene Insertion Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew W; Vargas, David A; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2017-05-15

    The small, stable heme protein myoglobin (Mb) was modified through cofactor substitution and mutagenesis to develop a new catalyst for carbene transfer reactions. The native heme was removed from wild-type Mb and several Mb His64 mutants (H64D, H64A, H64V), and the resulting apoproteins were reconstituted with ruthenium mesoporphyrin IX (RuMpIX). The reconstituted proteins (RuMb) were characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopy and were used as catalysts for the N-H insertion of aniline derivatives and the cyclopropanation of styrene derivatives. The best catalysts for each reaction were able to achieve turnover numbers (TON) up to 520 for the N-H insertion of aniline, and 350 TON for the cyclopropanation of vinyl anisole. Our results show that RuMb is an effective catalyst for N-H insertion, with the potential to further increase the activity and stereoselectivity of the catalyst in future studies. Compared to native Mb ("FeMb"), RuMb is a more active catalyst for carbene transfer reactions, which leads to both heme and protein modification and degradation and, hence, to an overall much-reduced lifetime of the catalyst. This leads to lower TONs for RuMb compared to the iron-containing analogues. Strategies to overcome this limitation are discussed. Finally, comparison is also made to FeH64DMb and FeH64AMb, which have not been previously investigated for carbene transfer reactions.

  17. Labelling of living mammalian spermatozoa with the fluorescent thiol alkylating agent, monobromobimane (MB): immobilization upon exposure to ultraviolet light and analysis of acrosomal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.M.; Fleming, A.D.; Crozet, N.; Kuehl, T.J.; Kosower, N.S.; Yanagimachi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Living spermatozoa of seven mammalian species were treated with the thiol-alkylating fluorescent labelling compound, monobromobimane (MBBR). MB-labelling alone had no effect on sperm motility, nor on the time course or ability of golden hamster spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction when capacitated in vitro. Exposure of MB-labelled spermatozoa to ultraviolet (UV) light and excitation of the MB fluorochrome resulted in virtually immediate immobilization of the spermatozoa without affecting acrosomal status. UV exposure of unlabelled spermatozoa for up to 30 sec had no effect upon motility. Immobilization of MB-labelled spermatozoa depended on the midpiece being irradiated, as irradiation of the head alone, or of the more distal parts of the principal piece, had little or no effect upon motility. Labelling with MB followed by immobilization of individually selected spermatozoa was most useful for detailing the course and site of occurrence of the acrosome reaction during penetration of the cumulus oophorus by golden hamster spermatozoa in vitro. In these often hyperactivated spermatozoa, precise determination of the acrosomal status could not often otherwise be made due to the difficulty in visualizing the acrosomal region of a vigorously thrashing, hyperactivated spermatozoon. This technique should prove valuable in a variety of studies on sperm motility, capacitation and fertilization, and could also be extended to other cell systems

  18. Modern methods of evaluation existing suppliers and suppliers selected by customer for small and medium-sized companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jurová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On existing conditions on global market (almost identical quality, almost identical purchasing values companies have to definite the total rating of importance of evaluative criteria. In post-crisis period the problem of suppliers’ evaluation is one of the biggest, because companies had to use all resources and all possibilities to develop their own business. Many authors wrote about collaborative planning and warehousing as one of possibilities to optimization work inside supply chain. For this paper define small and medium-sized enterprises (SME as enterprises with the size of maximum 250 em­ployers. In literature was read we couldn’t find information about own system of suppliers evaluation for small and medium-sized enterprises. SME can have some different types of business and in this case need the universal system of eva­lua­tion. The research of this paper is oriented on small and medium-sized enterprises with different types of business. The new theoretical universal method of calculation for evaluation existing suppliers for small and medium-sized enterprises will present in this paper. This theoretical method is based on average values. This method includes traditional evaluative criteria (quality, delivery time and other (mobility of supplier, possibilities of new level of partnership. This method of evaluation can not be used for continual manufacture. New method can improve the total evaluation of supplier in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  19. A 11.7-Mb Paracentric Inversion in Chromosome 1q Detected in Prenatal Diagnosis Associated with Familial Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigola, Maria A; Baena, Neus; Català, Vicenç; Lozano, Iris; Gabau, Elisabet; Guitart, Miriam; Fuster, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Most apparent balanced chromosomal inversions are usually clinically asymptomatic; however, infertility, miscarriages, and mental retardation have been reported in inversion carriers. We present a small family with a paracentric inversion 1q42.13q43 detected in routine prenatal diagnosis. Molecular cytogenetic methods defined the size of the inversion as 11.7 Mb and excluded other unbalanced chromosomal alterations in the patients. Our findings suggest that intellectual disability is caused by dysfunction, disruption, or position effects of genes located at or near the breakpoints involved in this inversion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Gas Phase Structure of Amino Acids: La-Mb Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, I. Pena S.; Sanz, M. E.; Vaquero, V.; Cabezas, C.; Perez, C.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Recent improvements in our laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectrometer such as using Laval-type nozzles and picoseconds Nd:YAG lasers (30 to 150 ps) have allowed a major step forward in the capabilities of this experimental technique as demonstrated by the last results in serine cysteine and threonine^a for which seven, six and seven conformers have been respectively identified. Taking advantage of these improvements we have investigated the natural amino acids metionine, aspartic and glutamic acids and the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with the aim of identify and characterize their lower energy conformers. Searches in the rotational spectra have lead to the identification of seven conformers of metionine, six and five of aspartic and glutamic acids, respectively, and seven for the γ-aminobutyric. These conformers have been unambiguously identified by their spectroscopic constants. In particular the ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, that depend heavily on the orientation of the amino group with respect to the principal inertial axes of the molecule, prove to be a unique tool to distinguish unambigously between conformations with similar rotational constants. For the γ-aminobutyric acid two of the seven observed structures are stablized by an intramolecular interaction n-π*. Two new conformers of proline have been identified together with the two previously observed. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 2009, 11, 617. D. B. Atkinson, M. A. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1995, 66, 4434 S. Blanco, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA2007, 104, 20183. M. E. Sanz, S. Blanco, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,2008, 120, 6312. A. Lesarri, S. Mata, E. J. Cocinero, S. Blanco, J.C. López, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. , 2002, 41, 4673

  1. Selectively Reduced Posterior Corpus Callosum Size in a Population-Based Sample of Young Adults Born with Low Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukland, S M; Westerhausen, R; Plessen, K J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several studies suggest that VLBW is associated with a reduced CC size later in life. We aimed to clarify this in a prospective, controlled study of 19-year-olds, hypothesizing that those with LBWs had smaller subregions of CC than the age-matched controls, even after...... correcting for brain volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirteen survivors of LBW (BW brain. The cross-sectional area of the CC (total callosal area, and the callosal subregions of the genu, truncus......, and posterior third) was measured. Callosal areas were adjusted for head size. RESULTS: The posterior third subregion of the CC was significantly smaller in individuals born with a LBW compared with controls, even after adjusting for size of the forebrain. Individuals who were born with a LBW had a smaller CC...

  2. Design of slurry bubble column reactors: novel technique for optimum catalyst size selection contractual origin of the invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwo, Isaac K [Murrysville, PA; Gidaspow, Dimitri [Northbrook, IL; Jung, Jonghwun [Naperville, IL

    2009-11-17

    A method for determining optimum catalyst particle size for a gas-solid, liquid-solid, or gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) for converting synthesis gas into liquid fuels considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of granular flow, the effect of a volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the liquid and the gas, and the water gas shift reaction. The granular temperature of the catalyst particles representing the kinetic energy of the catalyst particles is measured and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the gas and liquid phases is calculated using the granular temperature. Catalyst particle size is varied from 20 .mu.m to 120 .mu.m and a maximum mass transfer coefficient corresponding to optimum liquid hydrocarbon fuel production is determined. Optimum catalyst particle size for maximum methanol production in a SBCR was determined to be in the range of 60-70 .mu.m.

  3. Ultra-Tuning of the Rare-Earth fcu-MOF Aperture Size for Selective Molecular Exclusion of Branched Paraffins

    KAUST Repository

    Assen, Ayalew Hussen Assen

    2015-10-02

    Using isoreticular chemistry allows the design and construction of a new rare-earth metal (RE) fcu-MOF with a suitable aperture size for practical steric adsorptive separations. The judicious choice of a relatively short organic building block, namely fumarate, to bridge the 12-connected RE hexanuclear clusters has afforded the contraction of the well-defined RE-fcu-MOF triangular window aperture, the sole access to the two interconnected octahedral and tetrahedral cages. The newly constructed RE (Y and Tb) fcu-MOF analogues display unprecedented total exclusion of branched paraffins from normal paraffins. The resultant window aperture size of about 4.7 Å, regarded as a sorbate-size cut-off, enabled a complete sieving of branched paraffins from normal paraffins. The results are supported by collective single gas and mixed gas/vapor adsorption and calorimetric studies.

  4. Ultra-Tuning of the Rare-Earth fcu-MOF Aperture Size for Selective Molecular Exclusion of Branched Paraffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assen, Ayalew H; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Adil, Karim; Bhatt, Prashant M; Xue, Dong-Xu; Jiang, Hao; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-11-23

    Using isoreticular chemistry allows the design and construction of a new rare-earth metal (RE) fcu-MOF with a suitable aperture size for practical steric adsorptive separations. The judicious choice of a relatively short organic building block, namely fumarate, to bridge the 12-connected RE hexanuclear clusters has afforded the contraction of the well-defined RE-fcu-MOF triangular window aperture, the sole access to the two interconnected octahedral and tetrahedral cages. The newly constructed RE (Y(3+) and Tb(3+)) fcu-MOF analogues display unprecedented total exclusion of branched paraffins from normal paraffins. The resultant window aperture size of about 4.7 Å, regarded as a sorbate-size cut-off, enabled a complete sieving of branched paraffins from normal paraffins. The results are supported by collective single gas and mixed gas/vapor adsorption and calorimetric studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Shear-induced formation of vesicles in membrane phases: Kinetics and size selection mechanisms, elasticity versus surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.

    2004-02-01

    Multilamellar vesicles can be formed upon shearing lamellar phases (Lα) and phase-separated lamellar-sponge (Lα/L3) mixtures. In the first case, the vesicle volume fraction is always 100% and the vesicle size is monitored by elasticity (“onion textures”). In the second system the vesicle volume fraction can be tuned from 0 to 100% and the mean size results from a balance between capillary and viscous forces (“Taylor droplets”). However, despite these differences, in both systems we show that the formation of vesicles is a strain-controlled process monitored by a universal primary buckling instability of the lamellae.

  6. Selection for number of live piglets at five-days of age increased litter size and reduced mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjarne; Madsen, Per; Henryon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    . The heritabilities of maternal effect on litter size were 0.079 and 0.095 in Landrace and Yorkshir e. The heritabilities of maternal effect on piglet-mortality rates were 0.069 and 0.082 in Landrace and Yorkshire. The genetic correlation between litter size and mortality rate were unfavourable; and the estimates......-netic gain has reduced the piglet mortality rate by 4 %-points in Landrace and Yorkshire from 2004 to 2010. The genetics gain was confirmed by decreased phenotypic annual mortality rates in the breeding and multiplier herds....

  7. Identification of Novel Human Breast Carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) Cell Growth Modulators from a Carbohydrate-Based Diversity Oriented Synthesis Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, Elena; Innocenti, Riccardo; Biagioni, Alessio; Menchi, Gloria; Bianchini, Francesca; Trabocchi, Andrea

    2016-10-20

    The application of a cell-based growth inhibition on a library of skeletally different glycomimetics allowed for the selection of a hexahydro-2 H -furo[3,2- b ][1,4]oxazine compound as candidate inhibitors of MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Subsequent synthesis of analogue compounds and preliminary biological studies validated the selection of a valuable hit compound with a novel polyhydroxylated structure for the modulation of the breast carcinoma cell cycle mechanism.

  8. Identification of Novel Human Breast Carcinoma (MDA-MB-231 Cell Growth Modulators from a Carbohydrate-Based Diversity Oriented Synthesis Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lenci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of a cell-based growth inhibition on a library of skeletally different glycomimetics allowed for the selection of a hexahydro-2H-furo[3,2-b][1,4]oxazine compound as candidate inhibitors of MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Subsequent synthesis of analogue compounds and preliminary biological studies validated the selection of a valuable hit compound with a novel polyhydroxylated structure for the modulation of the breast carcinoma cell cycle mechanism.

  9. Two-site immunoradiometric assay for the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, V J.C.; Jones, H M; Thompson, R J [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Clinical School

    1981-06-18

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for myocardial creatine kinase MB isoenzyme is described. The method utilizes immobilized anti-human creatine kinase BB antibodies and /sup 125/I-labelled anti-human creatine kinase MM antibodies and can specifically detect creatine kinase MB in the presence of approximately 1000-fold excess of creatine kinase MM or BB. Native kinase MB prepared from human heart and creatine kinase MB prepared by hybridisation of purified human creatine kinase MM and creatine kinase BB appeared to react identically in the assay. Serum estimations on patients with suspected myocardial infarction correlated with the presence of MB band on electrophoresis but preliminary results suggest that the two-site immunoradiometric assay may be more sensitive.

  10. A two-site immunoradiometric assay for the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, V.J.C.; Jones, H.M.; Thompson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for myocardial creatine kinase MB isoenzyme is described. The method utilizes immobilized anti-human creatine kinase BB antibodies and 125 I-labelled anti-human creatine kinase MM antibodies and can specifically detect creatine kinase MB in the presence of approximately 1000-fold excess of creatine kinase MM or BB. Native kinase MB prepared from human heart and creatine kinase MB prepared by hybridisation of purified human creatine kinase MM and creatine kinase BB appeared to react identically in the assay. Serum estimations on patients with suspected myocardial infarction correlated with the presence of MB band on electrophoresis but preliminary results suggest that the two-site immunoradiometric assay may be more sensitive. (Auth.)

  11. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  12. Amino acid availability from selected animal and plant derived feedstuffs for market size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate diet formulations are essential for the commercial production of hybrid striped bass. However, limited information is available regarding nutrient digestibility and amino acid availability of readily-used practical ingredients for different size classes of this taxon. Therefore, two trial...

  13. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    reduce the catch of cod without simultaneously reduce the catch of the target species. To optimise the trade-off between discard and loss of marketable catch, solutions have to be specific to particular fisheries or populations of fish. Papers 1 and 3 provide specific examples of how size- and species...

  14. Is there a metropolitan bias? The relationship between poverty and city size in a selection of developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferré, Céline; Ferreira, Francisco H G; Lanjouw, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides evidence from eight developing countries of an inverse relationship between poverty and city size. Poverty is both more widespread and deeper in very small and small towns than in large or very large cities. This basic pattern is generally robust to the choice of poverty line.

  15. Comparing two psychological interventions in reducing impulsive processes of eating behaviour : Effects on self-selected portion size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koningsbruggen, G.M.; Veling, H.P.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivePalatable food, such as sweets, contains properties that automatically trigger the impulse to consume it even when people have goals or intentions to refrain from consuming such food. We compared the effectiveness of two interventions in reducing the portion size of palatable food that

  16. Selection of the optimum font type and size interface for on screen continuous reading by young adults: an ergonomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jayeeta; Bhattacharyya, Moushum

    2011-12-01

    There is a rapid shifting of media: from printed paper to computer screens. This transition is modifying the process of how we read and understand text. The efficiency of reading is dependent on how ergonomically the visual information is presented. Font types and size characteristics have been shown to affect reading. A detailed investigation of the effect of the font type and size on reading on computer screens has been carried out by using subjective, objective and physiological evaluation methods on young adults. A group of young participants volunteered for this study. Two types of fonts were used: Serif fonts (Times New Roman, Georgia, Courier New) and Sans serif fonts (Verdana, Arial, Tahoma). All fonts were presented in 10, 12 and 14 point sizes. This study used a 6 X 3 (font type X size) design matrix. Participants read 18 passages of approximately the same length and reading level on a computer monitor. Reading time, ranking and overall mental workload were measured. Eye movements were recorded by a binocular eye movement recorder. Reading time was minimum for Courier New l4 point. The participants' ranking was highest and mental workload was least for Verdana 14 point. The pupil diameter, fixation duration and gaze duration were least for Courier New 14 point. The present study recommends using 14 point sized fonts for reading on computer screen. Courier New is recommended for fast reading while for on screen presentation Verdana is recommended. The outcome of this study will help as a guideline to all the PC users, software developers, web page designers and computer industry as a whole.

  17. Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.

    2004-08-01

    We use the exceptional depth of the Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and UDF-parallel Advanced Camera for Surveys fields to study the sizes of high-redshift (z~2-6) galaxies and address long-standing questions about possible biases in the cosmic star formation rate due to surface brightness dimming. Contrasting B-, V-, and i-dropout samples culled from the deeper data with those obtained from the shallower Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, we demonstrate that the shallower data are essentially complete at bright magnitudes to z~0.4", >~3 kpc) low surface brightness galaxies are rare. A simple comparison of the half-light radii of the Hubble Deep Field-North + Hubble Deep Field-South U-dropouts with B-, V-, and i-dropouts from the UDF shows that the sizes follow a (1+z)-1.05+/-0.21 scaling toward high redshift. A more rigorous measurement compares different scalings of our U-dropout sample with the mean profiles for a set of intermediate-magnitude (26.0dropouts from the UDF. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-0.94+0.19-0.25 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). This result is then verified by repeating this experiment with different size measures, low-redshift samples, and magnitude ranges. Very similar scalings are found for all comparisons. A robust measurement of size evolution is thereby demonstrated for galaxies from z~6 to 2.5 using data from the UDF. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  18. A multiple antibiotic and serum resistant oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae MB45 having novel dfrA30, is sensitive to ZnO QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Pinak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe a novel trimethoprim resistance gene cassette, designated dfrA30, within a class 1 integron in a facultatively oligotrophic, multiple antibiotic and human serum resistant test strain, MB45, in a population of oligotrophic bacteria isolated from the river Mahananda; and to test the efficiency of surface bound acetate on zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs as bactericidal agent on MB45. Methods Diluted Luria broth/Agar (10-3 media was used to cultivate the oligotrophic bacteria from water sample. Multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria were selected by employing replica plate method. A rapid assay was performed to determine the sensitivity/resistance of the test strain to human serum. Variable region of class 1 integron was cloned, sequenced and the expression of gene coding for antibiotic resistance was done in Escherichia coli JM 109. Identity of culture was determined by biochemical phenotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on representative trimethoprim resistance-mediating DfrA proteins retrieved from GenBank. Growth kinetic studies for the strain MB45 were performed in presence of varied concentrations of ZnO QDs. Results and conclusions The facultatively oligotrophic strain, MB45, resistant to human serum and ten antibiotics trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, netilmicin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, kanamycin and streptomycin, has been identified as a new strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A novel dfr gene, designated as dfrA30, found integrated in class 1 integron was responsible for resistance to trimethoprim in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain MB45. The growth of wild strain MB45 was 100% arrested at 500 mg/L concentration of ZnO QDs. To our knowledge this is the first report on application of ZnO quantum dots to kill multiple antibiotics and serum resistant K. pneumoniae strain.

  19. FOCEX: A fiber-optic extender for a high speed parallel RS485 data cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.T.; Anderson, J.T.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Franzen, J.W.; Forster, B.G.; Levinson, F.; Rawls, J.; Haber, S.

    1995-05-01

    For longer-distant, high speed data links, optical fibre becomes most cost-effective than copper or other hard wire cable systems. Fermilab supplied to Finisar Corp. of Menlo Park, CA., a set of specifications for card functions, sizes and interconnector pin assignments. Finisar designed and assembled a set of fiber optical P.C. cards using 100 megabyte/sec commercial optoelectronics and a serialization and deserialization HOT-ROD chipset designed by GAZELLE Microcircuits, Inc. (A Tri Quint Semiconductors company). The cooperative effort between Fermilab and Finisar has allowed Fermilab to created a reliable 50 Megabytes/sec (40 bit parallel RS485 DART data bus) cable to cable extender using a virtually invisible Fiber Channel point-to-point(FC-0) fiber optical single-simplex system. The system is easily capable of sustaining a 50 megabytes/sec of data, control and status line throughput at distances of 1625 feet (500 meters) using standard multi-mode fiber

  20. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Relative Suitability Evaluation of Two Methods of Particle-Size Analysis for Selected Soils of Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Lawal; B. R. Singh; G. A. Babaji; P. A. Tsado

    2013-01-01

    The two widely used methods base on the sedimentation principle (Bouyoucos hydrometer and International pipette) for particle-size analysis were comparatively evaluated on soils collected from various locations in Sudan savanna of Nigeria particularly from Sokoto and Zamfara States. The hydrometer method under-estimated the silt and over-estimated the clay content. Also, the hydrometer reading proved difficult and tended to submerge when floated for clay reading in the suspension of very sand...

  2. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima, Hina; Palanisamy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The ...

  3. Identification of selection footprints on the X chromosome in pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    Full Text Available Identifying footprints of selection can provide a straightforward insight into the mechanism of artificial selection and further dig out the causal genes related to important traits. In this study, three between-population and two within-population approaches, the Cross Population Extend Haplotype Homozygosity Test (XPEHH, the Cross Population Composite Likelihood Ratio (XPCLR, the F-statistics (Fst, the Integrated Haplotype Score (iHS and the Tajima's D, were implemented to detect the selection footprints on the X chromosome in three pig breeds using Illumina Porcine60K SNP chip. In the detection of selection footprints using between-population methods, 11, 11 and 7 potential selection regions with length of 15.62 Mb, 12.32 Mb and 9.38 Mb were identified in Landrace, Chinese Songliao and Yorkshire by XPEHH, respectively, and 16, 13 and 17 potential selection regions with length of 15.20 Mb, 13.00 Mb and 19.21 Mb by XPCLR, 4, 2 and 4 potential selection regions with length of 3.20 Mb, 1.60 Mb and 3.20 Mb by Fst. For within-population methods, 7, 10 and 9 potential selection regions with length of 8.12 Mb, 8.40 Mb and 9.99 Mb were identified in Landrace, Chinese Songliao and Yorkshire by iHS, and 4, 3 and 2 potential selection regions with length of 3.20 Mb, 2.40 Mb and 1.60 Mb by Tajima's D. Moreover, the selection regions from different methods were partly overlapped, especially the regions around 22∼25 Mb were detected under selection in Landrace and Yorkshire while no selection in Chinese Songliao by all three between-population methods. Only quite few overlap of selection regions identified by between-population and within-population methods were found. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the genes relevant with meat quality, reproduction and immune were found in potential selection regions. In addition, three out of five significant SNPs associated with hematological traits reported in our genome-wide association study were harbored in

  4. Molecular size is important for the safety and selective inhibition of intrinsic factor Xase for fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lufeng; Li, Junhui; Wang, Danli; Ding, Tian; Hu, Yaqin; Ye, Xingqian; Linhardt, Robert J; Chen, Shiguo

    2017-12-15

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (FCS-Ib) showed potent anticoagulant activities without selectivity. The present study focused on developing safe FCS-Ib oligomers showing selective inhibition of intrinsic factor Xase (anti-FXase) prepared through partial N-deacetylation-deaminative cleavage. The N-deacetylation degree was regulated by reaction time, controlling the resulting oligomer distribution. Structure analysis confirmed the selectivity of degradation, and 12 high purity fractions with trisaccharide-repeating units were separated. In vitro anticoagulant assays indicated a decrease in molecular weight (Mw) dramatically reduced activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), AT-dependent anti-FIIa and anti-FXa activities, while the oligomers retained potent anti-FXase activity until they fell below 3kDa. Meanwhile, human FXII activation and platelet aggregation were markedly reduced with decreasing Mw and were moderate when under 12.0kDa. Thus, fragments of 3-12.0kDa should be safe and effective as selective inhibitors of intrinsic tenase complex for application as clinical anticoagulants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The size selectivity of the main body of a sampling pelagic pair trawl in freshwater reservoirs during the night

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, Milan; Jůza, Tomáš; Prchalová, Marie; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Muška, Milan; Kratochvíl, Michal; Peterka, Jiří; Tušer, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Kubečka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 127, September (2012), s. 56-60 ISSN 0165-7836 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH81046 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : quantitative sampling * gear selectivity * trawl * reservoirs Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2012

  6. Catch and size selectivity of small-scale fishing gear for the smooth-hound shark Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae from the Aegean Turkish coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. CEYHAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Catch rate, CPUE, biomass ratios and size selectivity from traditional longline and trammel nets of Turkish coastal small-scale fisheries were investigated in order to describe the Smooth-hound shark (Mustelus mustelus fishery. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models for the trammel nets inner panel of 150 and 170 mm mesh sizes. Catch composition and proportion of the species were significantly different in longline and trammel nets. While mean CPUE of longline was 119.2±14.3 kg/1000 hooks, these values for 150 and 170 mm trammel nets were 5.3±1.2 kg/1000 m of net and 12.7±3.9 kg/1000 m of net, respectively. Biomass ratios of the by catch to Smooth-hound catch were found to be 1:0.32 for 150 mm trammel net, 1:0.65 for longline and 1:0.73 for 170 mm trammel net. The estimated modal lengths and spreads were found to be 91.1 and 16.2 cm for 150 mm and 103.2 and 18.4 cm for 170 mm, respectively. The modal lengths of the species as well as the spread values increased with mesh size.

  7. Size, growth, and size‐selective mortality of subyearling Chinook Salmon during early marine residence in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Madilyn M.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Chamberlin, Joshua W.; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2018-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, survival can be heavily influenced by size‐selective mortality during juvenile life stages. Understanding how and when size‐selective mortality operates on a population can reveal underlying growth dynamics and size‐selective ecological processes affecting the population and thus can be used to guide conservation efforts. For subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Puget Sound, previous research reported a strong positive relationship between marine survival and body mass during midsummer in epipelagic habitats within Puget Sound, suggesting that early marine growth drives survival. However, a fine‐scale analysis of size‐selective mortality is needed to identify specific critical growth periods and habitats. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe occupancy patterns across estuarine delta, nearshore marine, and offshore epipelagic habitats in Puget Sound; (2) describe changes in FL and weight observed across habitats and time; (3) evaluate evidence for size‐selective mortality; and (4) illustrate how marine survival of the stocks studied may be affected by variation in July weight. In 2014 and 2015, we sampled FLs, weights, and scales from seven hatchery‐origin and two natural‐origin stocks of subyearling Chinook Salmon captured every 2 weeks during out‐migration and rearing in estuary, nearshore, and offshore habitats within Puget Sound. Natural‐origin stocks had more protracted habitat occupancy patterns than hatchery‐origin stocks and were smaller than hatchery‐origin stocks in both years. Regardless of origin, subyearlings were longer and heavier and grew faster in offshore habitats compared to estuary and nearshore habitats. For all stocks, we found little evidence of size‐selective mortality among habitats in Puget Sound. These patterns were consistent in both years. Finally, the weights of subyearlings sampled during July in the offshore habitat predicted Puget Sound‐wide marine

  8. CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE ISOENZYME-MB MASS (CK-MB MASS AND TROPONIN I (cTnI IN DOGS (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millena Vidal Freitas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac markers, especially CK-MB mass and cTnI, have an essential role in both human and veterinary clinical and surgical cardiology, allowing a more precise and accurate diagnosis in myocardial lesions. The goal of this work was to measure these cardiac markers in veterinary medicine, improve their use and provide information about these laboratory methods that allow non-invasive health monitoring of the myocardial cell. Parameters quantification was obtained from sera of healthy dogs examined during routine procedures at the Small Animal Veterinary Hospital of Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro. The human chemiluminescence essay turbo kit (IMMULITE Turbo, Siemens ® test proved to be effective in canine species for both CK-MB mass and cTnI. In addition, the values found for CK-MB will significantly contribute to clinical routine or experimental work with dogs.

  9. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration: A “Green” Method for the Size Selection and Concentration of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Catherine B.; Baker, Joshua D.; Stahler, Adam C.; Williams, Austin J.; Sisco, Jackie N.; Trefry, John C.; Wooley, Dawn P.; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, AgNPs are extensively used in the manufacture of consumer products,1 water disinfectants,2 therapeutics,1, 3 and biomedical devices4 due to their powerful antimicrobial properties.3-6 These nanoparticle applications are strongly influenced by the AgNP size and aggregation state. Many challenges exist in the controlled fabrication7 and size-based isolation4,8 of unfunctionalized, homogenous AgNPs that are free from chemically aggressive capping/stabilizing agents or organic solvents.7-13 Limitations emerge from the toxicity of reagents, high costs or reduced efficiency of the AgNP synthesis or isolation methods (e.g., centrifugation, size-dependent solubility, size-exclusion chromatography, etc.).10,14-18 To overcome this, we recently showed that TFU permits greater control over the size, concentration and aggregation state of Creighton AgNPs (300 ml of 15.3 μg ml-1 down to 10 ml of 198.7 μg ml-1) than conventional methods of isolation such as ultracentrifugation.19 TFU is a recirculation method commonly used for the weight-based isolation of proteins, viruses and cells.20,21 Briefly, the liquid sample is passed through a series of hollow fiber membranes with pore size ranging from 1,000 kD to 10 kD. Smaller suspended or dissolved constituents in the sample will pass through the porous barrier together with the solvent (filtrate), while the larger constituents are retained (retentate). TFU may be considered a "green" method as it neither damages the sample nor requires additional solvent to eliminate toxic excess reagents and byproducts. Furthermore, TFU may be applied to a large variety of nanoparticles as both hydrophobic and hydrophilic filters are available. The two main objectives of this study were: 1) to illustrate the experimental aspects of the TFU approach through an invited video experience and 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of the TFU method for larger volumes of colloidal nanoparticles and smaller volumes of retentate. First

  10. Birth order and sibship size: evaluation of the role of selection bias in a case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, F K; Willett, E V; Simpson, J; Smith, A G; Roman, E

    2007-09-15

    Substantial heterogeneity has been observed among case-control studies investigating associations between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and familial characteristics, such as birth order and sibship size. The potential role of selection bias in explaining such heterogeneity is considered within this study. Selection bias according to familial characteristics and socioeconomic status is investigated within a United Kingdom-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed during 1998-2001. Reported distributions of birth order and maternal age are each compared with expected reference distributions derived using national birth statistics from the United Kingdom. A method is detailed in which yearly data are used to derive expected distributions, taking account of variability in birth statistics over time. Census data are used to reweight both the case and control study populations such that they are comparable with the general population with regard to socioeconomic status. The authors found little support for an association between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and birth order or family size and little evidence for an influence of selection bias. However, the findings suggest that between-study heterogeneity could be explained by selection biases that influence the demographic characteristics of participants.

  11. Laboratory investigations of the effects of predator sex and size on prey selection by the Asian crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, D J.; Filipowicz, A; Baglivo, J A.

    2001-07-30

    Laboratory studies have shown that the nonindigenous Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, readily consumes three species of commercial bivalves: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, and oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Although crabs can eat bivalves of a wide size range, they preferred the smaller prey (Hemigrapsus that occur in the wild, their effectiveness as predators of juvenile bivalves and their large appetites suggest an important role for these predators in restructuring the prey communities in habitats into which they have been introduced.

  12. Selection for stress responsiveness and slaughter stress affect flesh quality in pan-size rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Florence; Cos, Isabelle; Pottinger, Tom G.; Bugeon, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The control of slaughter stress is of importance with regard to both fish welfare and flesh quality. Muscle characteristics and instrumentally measured quality parameters were determined in rainbow trout lines selected for high-responsiveness (HR) or low-responsiveness (LR) of plasma cortisol to an acute confinement stressor. Measurements were made in both unstressed and stressed fish (a 15 min period of confinement before slaughter) from both lines. Compared to LR fish, HR fish were smaller,...

  13. Why and how selection patterns in classroom networks differ between students.The potential influence of networks size preferences, level of information, and group membership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baerveldt, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High school students can select class mates for new friendships using a repertoire of patterns. They can actively pursue new friendships, make use of the existing network structure, and/ or use the scarce and often erroneous information about candidates. In this theoretical paper, we argue that such selection patterns should not be studied as the result of general rules, as is usually done in social network studies. Specifically, we state that network size preferences, the level of information about individual attributes of fellow classmates, and group membership are likely to differ among high school students, and that as a result, also their selection patterns are likely to be different. In this paper we sketch the theoretical articulations between these.

  14. A Breath of Fresh Air in Foraging Theory: The Importance of Wind for Food Size Selection in a Central-Place Forager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Andrea Marina; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana

    2017-09-01

    Empirical data about food size carried by central-place foragers do not often fit with the optimum predicted by classical foraging theory. Traditionally, biotic constraints such as predation risk and competition have been proposed to explain this inconsistency, leaving aside the possible role of abiotic factors. Here we documented how wind affects the load size of a central-place forager (leaf-cutting ants) through a mathematical model including the whole foraging process. The model showed that as wind speed at ground level increased from 0 to 2 km/h, load size decreased from 91 to 30 mm 2 , a prediction that agreed with empirical data from windy zones, highlighting the relevance of considering abiotic factors to predict foraging behavior. Furthermore, wind reduced the range of load sizes that workers should select to maintain a similar rate of food intake and decreased the foraging rate by ∼70% when wind speed increased 1 km/h. These results suggest that wind could reduce the fitness of colonies and limit the geographic distribution of leaf-cutting ants. The developed model offers a complementary explanation for why load size in central-place foragers may not fit theoretical predictions and could serve as a basis to study the effects of other abiotic factors that influence foraging.

  15. Precise and in situ genetic humanization of 6 Mb of mouse immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Lynn E; Karow, Margaret; Stevens, Sean; Auerbach, Wojtek; Poueymirou, William T; Yasenchak, Jason; Frendewey, David; Valenzuela, David M; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Alt, Frederick W; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J

    2014-04-08

    Genetic humanization, which involves replacing mouse genes with their human counterparts, can create powerful animal models for the study of human genes and diseases. One important example of genetic humanization involves mice humanized for their Ig genes, allowing for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice) and also providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human antibodies as therapeutics. However, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which they were genetically humanized. Heretofore, most genetic humanizations have involved disruption of the endogenous mouse gene with simultaneous introduction of a human transgene at a new and random location (so-called KO-plus-transgenic humanization). More recent efforts have attempted to replace mouse genes with their human counterparts at the same genetic location (in situ humanization), but such efforts involved laborious procedures and were limited in size and precision. We describe a general and efficient method for very large, in situ, and precise genetic humanization using large compound bacterial artificial chromosome-based targeting vectors introduced into mouse ES cells. We applied this method to genetically humanize 3-Mb segments of both the mouse heavy and κ light chain Ig loci, by far the largest genetic humanizations ever described. This paper provides a detailed description of our genetic humanization approach, and the companion paper reports that the humoral immune systems of mice bearing these genetically humanized loci function as efficiently as those of WT mice.

  16. Capsid protein VP4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Panjwani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family.

  17. Comparison of the selected conditions of the small and medium-sized enterprise in the Czech Republic and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies classified as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs account for a large proportion of Europe’s economic and professional activity. In practice, 99 % of business in the European Union are SMEs, and they provide two–thirds of all private sector jobs. So small firms are, in fact, the real ­giants of the European economy. Micro–business dominate employment in countries such as Italy 47 % and Poland 41 %, whilst the share of large enterprises in total employment in the United Kingdom is just 46 %.During the recent period of time there have been many researchers from the FBE MUAF in Brno, who focused on the analysis of the small and medium-sized enterprise, e.g. Nerudová (2006; Nerudová and Bohušová (2006; Kubíčková and Presová (2006; Zrůst and Pyšný (2008; Živělová and Zichová (2002.This paper is the part of the Research proposal MSM 6215648904 being solved at the FBE MUAF in Brno.

  18. Selection of window sizes for optimizing occupational comfort and hygiene based on computational fluid dynamics and neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavrakakis, G.M.; Karadimou, D.P.; Zervas, P.L.; Markatos, N.C. [Computational Fluid Dynamics Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Sarimveis, H. [Unit of Process Control and Informatics, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    The present paper presents a novel computational method to optimize window sizes for thermal comfort and indoor air quality in naturally ventilated buildings. The methodology is demonstrated by means of a prototype case, which corresponds to a single-sided naturally ventilated apartment. Initially, the airflow in and around the building is simulated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Local prevailing weather conditions are imposed in the CFD model as inlet boundary conditions. The produced airflow patterns are utilized to predict thermal comfort indices, i.e. the PMV and its modifications for non-air-conditioned buildings, as well as indoor air quality indices, such as ventilation effectiveness based on carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds removal. Mean values of these indices (output/objective variables) within the occupied zone are calculated for different window sizes (input/design variables), to generate a database of input-output data pairs. The database is then used to train and validate Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network input-output ''meta-models''. The produced meta-models are used to formulate an optimization problem, which takes into account special constraints recommended by design guidelines. It is concluded that the proposed methodology determines appropriate windows architectural designs for pleasant and healthy indoor environments. (author)

  19. The Effect of Board Size and Board Composition on Firms Corporate Environmental Disclosure: A Study of Selected Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwalomwa Nil Uwuigbe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems have become major headlines due to the negative effects they bring to the stability of the ecosystem. Thus, the increased awareness of social responsibility or, specifically, environmental concern is now a challenge facing the corporate world. Hence this study tests whether board size and board composition have any association with the level of firms’ corporate environmental disclosure in annual reports. To achieve the objective of this study, a total of 40 listed firms on the floor of the Nigerian stock exchange market were used. Also, the study critically developed and utilized the Kinder Lydenberg Domini (KLD rating scheme to analyze the level of corporate environmental disclosure made by firms in their annual reports for the period 2006-2010. In addition, the simple regression analysis was used to test the research propositions as stated in the study. However, empirical findings from the study reveal that while board size has a significant negative relationship with the level of corporate environmental disclosure; board composition on the other hand has a significant positive relationship with the level of firms’ corporate environmental disclosure in the annual report.

  20. SU-G-IeP1-12: Size Selective Arterial Cerebral Blood Volume Mapping Using Multiple Inversion Time Arterial Spin Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y; Johnston, M; Whitlow, C [Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-salem, NC (United States); Liu, H [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel method for size specific arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) mapping using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), with multiple TI. Methods: Multiple PCASL images were obtained from a subject with TI of [300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000] ms. Each TI pair was averaged six times. Two scans were performed: one without a flow crusher gradient and the other with a crusher gradient (10cm/s in three directions) to remove signals from large arteries. Scan times were 5min. without a crusher gradient and 5.5 min with a crusher gradient. Non-linear fitting algorithm finds the minimum mean squared solution of per-voxel based aCBV, cerebral blood flow, and arterial transit time, and fits the data into a hemodynamic model that represents superposition of blood volume and flow components within a single voxel. Results: aCBV maps with a crusher gradient represent signals from medium and small sized arteries, while those without a crusher gradient represent signals from all sized arteries, indicating that flow crusher gradients can be effectively employed to achieve size-specific aCBV mapping. Regardless of flow crusher, the CBF and ATT maps are very similar in appearance. Conclusion: Quantitative size selective blood volume mapping controlled by a flow crusher is feasible without additional information because the ASL quantification process doesn’t require an arterial input function measured from a large artery. The size specific blood volume mapping is not interfered by sSignals from large arteries do not interfere with size specific aCBV mapping in the applications of interest in for applications in which only medium or small arteries are of interest.

  1. Screening metal-organic frameworks for selective noble gas adsorption in air: effect of pore size and framework topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Marie V; Staiger, Chad L; Perry, John J; Allendorf, Mark D; Greathouse, Jeffery A

    2013-06-21

    The adsorption of noble gases and nitrogen by sixteen metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was investigated using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. The MOFs were chosen to represent a variety of net topologies, pore dimensions, and metal centers. Three commercially available MOFs (HKUST-1, AlMIL-53, and ZIF-8) and PCN-14 were also included for comparison. Experimental adsorption isotherms, obtained from volumetric and gravimetric methods, were used to compare krypton, argon, and nitrogen uptake with the simulation results. Simulated trends in gas adsorption and predicted selectivities among the commercially available MOFs are in good agreement with experiment. In the low pressure regime, the expected trend of increasing adsorption with increasing noble gas polarizabilty is seen. For each noble gas, low pressure adsorption correlates with several MOF properties, including free volume, topology, and metal center. Additionally, a strong correlation exists between the Henry's constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption for all gases and MOFs considered. Finally, we note that the simulated and experimental gas selectivities demonstrated by this small set of MOFs show improved performance compared to similar values reported for zeolites.

  2. Nanometer size diesel exhaust particles are selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons: the role of microglia, phagocytosis, and NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, M L; Wu, X; Pei, Z; Li, G; Wang, T; Qin, L; Wilson, B; Yang, J; Hong, J S; Veronesi, B

    2004-10-01

    The contributing role of environmental factors to the development of Parkinson's disease has become increasingly evident. We report that mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures treated with diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 0.22 microM) (5-50 microg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, as determined by DA-uptake assay and tyrosine-hydroxylase immunocytochemistry (ICC). The selective toxicity of DEP for DA neurons was demonstrated by the lack of DEP effect on both GABA uptake and Neu-N immunoreactive cell number. The critical role of microglia was demonstrated by the failure of neuron-enriched cultures to exhibit DEP-induced DA neurotoxicity, where DEP-induced DA neuron death was reinstated with the addition of microglia to neuron-enriched cultures. OX-42 ICC staining of DEP treated neuron-glia cultures revealed changes in microglia morphology indicative of activation. Intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide were produced from enriched-microglia cultures in response to DEP. Neuron-glia cultures from NADPH oxidase deficient (PHOX-/-) mice were insensitive to DEP neurotoxicity when compared with control mice (PHOX+/+). Cytochalasin D inhibited DEP-induced superoxide production in enriched-microglia cultures, implying that DEP must be phagocytized by microglia to produce superoxide. Together, these in vitro data indicate that DEP selectively damages DA neurons through the phagocytic activation of microglial NADPH oxidase and consequent oxidative insult.

  3. An Evaluation of 700 mb Aircraft Reconnaissance Data for Selected Northwest Pacific Tropical Cyclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    ccesearch flights inte both Atlantic and ncr-.hwust Pacific tropical cyclones. Infcrmation providal by these studies expanded and, in some cases, altered...This assumption iaplies t at the curl of the tangential frictional drag is equal to zero. This further implies that the partial derivative of the sur...20) at 30 NM1, prior to the period of most rapidl deepening, Is reflecti at 60 NNl, and possibly at 90 NMl. In the case of super typhoon. rip (Fig

  4. Normal results of post-race thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in marathon runners with elevated serum MB creatine kinase levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.J.; Silverman, L.M.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Elevated cardiac enzyme values in asymptomatic marathon runners after competition can arise from skeletal muscle through exertional rhabdomyolysis, silent injury to the myocardium, or a combined tissue source. Peak post-race levels of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase are similar to values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Previously reported normal results of infarct-avid myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m pyrophosphate in runners after competition suggest a non-cardiac source but cannot exclude silent injury to the myocardium. Therefore, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in runners immediately after competition together with determination of sequential cardiac enzyme levels. Among 15 runners tested, the average peak in serum MB creatine kinase 24 hours after the race was 128 IU/liter with a cumulative MB creatine kinase release of 117 IU/liter; these values are comparable to those in patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphic results were normal in five runners randomly selected from those who volunteered for determination of sequential blood levels. It is concluded that elevations of serum MB creatine kinase in marathon runners arise from a skeletal muscle source and that thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy is useful to assess runners for myocardial injury when clinical questions arise

  5. Delayed O-methylation of l-DOPA in MB-COMT-deficient mice after oral administration of l-DOPA and carbidopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammimäki, Anne; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Männistö, Pekka T

    2018-04-01

    1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the O-methylation of l-DOPA, dopamine, and other catechols. The enzyme is expressed in two isoforms: soluble (S-COMT), which resides in the cytoplasm, and membrane-bound (MB-COMT), which is anchored to intracellular membranes. 2. To obtain specific information on the functions of COMT isoforms, we studied how a complete MB-COMT deficiency affects the total COMT activity in the body, peripheral l-DOPA levels, and metabolism after l-DOPA (10 mg kg -1 ) plus carbidopa (30 mg kg -1 ) administration by gastric tube in wild-type (WT) and MB-COMT-deficient mice. l-DOPA and 3-O-methyl-l-DOPA (3-OMD) levels were assayed in plasma, duodenum, and liver. 3. We showed that the selective lack of MB-COMT did not alter the total COMT activity, COMT enzyme kinetics, l-DOPA levels, or the total O-methylation of l-DOPA but delayed production of 3-OMD in plasma and peripheral tissues.

  6. Measurements of the neutron energy spectra in the core of IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Fernando Prat Goncalves

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the neutron spectrum measurements in the Reactor IPEN/MB-01 using very thin activation detectors in the metallic form, in reactor core, in moderator region. An articulated device allows that the foils are inserted in the central position of reactor core, ensuring that all the foils are irradiated in the same position. The activation detectors of different materials such Au 197 , Mg 24 , Ti 4 '8, In 115 , Sc 45 and others, were selected to cover a large range of neutron spectrum. After the irradiation, the activation detectors were submitted to a spectrometry gamma by using a system of counting with high purity Germanium, to obtain the saturation activity per target nuclide. The saturation activity is one of the main data of input of unfolding code SANDBP, that through an iterative adjustment, modify the spectrum that better agree with the dataset of code input, composition mainly for measure reaction rate per target nuclide and a initial input spectrum, calculated for Hammer-Technion code, supplying a solution spectrum. (author)

  7. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  8. Resource quality affects weapon and testis size and the ability of these traits to respond to selection in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Daniel A; Munoz, Patricio R; Gezan, Salvador A; Miller, Christine W

    2016-04-01

    The size of weapons and testes can be central to male reproductive success. Yet, the expression of these traits is often extremely variable. Studies are needed that take a more complete organism perspective, investigating the sources of variation in both traits simultaneously and using developmental conditions that mimic those in nature. In this study, we investigated the components of variation in weapon and testis sizes using the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on three natural developmental diets. We show that the developmental diet has profound effects on both weapon and testis expression and scaling. Intriguingly, males in the medium-quality diet express large weapons but have relatively tiny testes, suggesting complex allocation decisions. We also find that heritability, evolvability, and additive genetic variation are highest in the high-quality diet for testis and body mass. This result suggests that these traits may have an enhanced ability to respond to selection during a small window of time each year when this diet is available. Taken together, these results illustrate that normal, seasonal fluctuations in the nutritional environment may play a large role in the expression of sexually selected traits and the ability of these traits to respond to selection.

  9. Physical and transcription map of a 25 Mb region on human chromosome 7 (region q21-q22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, S. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)]|[Hosptial for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Little, S.; Vandenberg, A. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We are interested in the q21-q22 region of chromosome 7 because of its implication in a number of diseases. This region of about 25 Mb appears to be involved in ectrodactyly/ectodermal dysplasia/cleft plate (EEC) and split hand/split foot deformity (SHFD1), as well as myelodysplastic syndrome and acute non-lymphocyte leukemia. In order to identify the genes responsible for these and other diseases, we have constructed a physical map of this region. The proximal and distal boundaries of the region were operationally defined by the microsatellite markers D7S660 and D7S692, which are about 35 cM apart. This region between these two markers could be divided into 13 intervals on the basis of chromosome breakpoints contained in somatic cell hybrids. The map positions for 43 additional microsatellite markers and 25 cloned genes were determined with respect to these intervals. A physical map based on contigs of over 250 YACs has also been assembled. While the contigs encompass all of the known genetic markers mapped to the region and almost cover the entire 25-Mb region, there are 3 gaps on the map. One of these gaps spans a set of DNA markers for which no corresponding YAC clones could be identified. To connect the two adjacent contigs we have initiated cosmid walking with a chromosome 7-specific library (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory). A tiling path of 60 contiguous YAC clones has been assembled and used for direct cDNA selection. Over 300 cDNA clones have been isolated and characterized. They are being grouped into transcription units by Northern blot analysis and screening of full-length cDNA libraries. Further, exon amplification and direct cDNA library screening with evolutionarily conserved sequences are being performed for a 1-Mb region spanning the SHFD1 locus to ensure detection of all transcribed sequences.

  10. Radio-sensitization by Piper longumine of human breast adenoma MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Xin; Yao, Zhi-Feng; Li, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Yong-Biao

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of Piper longumine on radio-sensitization of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and underlying mechanisms. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in vitro and those in logarithmic growth phase were selected for experiments divided into four groups: control, X-ray exposed, Piper longumine, and Piper longumine combined with X-rays. Conogenic assays were performed to determine the radio-sensitizing effects. Cell survival curves were fitted by single-hit multi-target model and then the survival fraction (SF), average lethal dose (D0), quasi-threshold dose (Dq) and sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) were calculated. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM).Western blot assays were employed for expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bc1-2 and Bax) after treatment with Piper longumine and/or X-ray radiation. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by FCM with a DCFH-DA probe. The cloning formation capacity was decreased in the group of piperlongumine plus radiation, which displayed the values of SF2, D0, Dq significantly lower than those of radiation alone group and the sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) of D0 was1.22 and 1.29, respectively. The cell apoptosis rate was increased by the combination treatment of Piper longumine and radiation. Piper longumine increased the radiation-induced intracellular levels of ROS. Compared with the control group and individual group, the combination group demonstrated significantly decreased expression of Bcl-2 with increased Bax. Piper longumine at a non-cytotoxic concentration can enhance the radio-sensitivity of MDA- MB-231cells, which may be related to its regulation of apoptosis-related protein expression and the increase of intracellular ROS level, thus increasing radiation-induced apoptosis.

  11. Non-Gaussian diffusion MR imaging of glioma: comparisons of multiple diffusion parameters and correlation with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ren; Haopeng, Pang; Xiaoyuan, Feng; Jiawen, Zhang; Zhenwei, Yao [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Jinsong, Wu; Chengjun, Yao; Tianming, Qiu [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ji, Xiong [Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Mao, Sheng; Yueyue, Ding [Department of Imaging, Suzhou Children' s Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yong, Zhang [MR Research, GE Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Jianfeng, Luo [Fudan University, Department of Biostatistics, Public Health School, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-15

    This study was conducted to compare the association of Gaussian and non-Gaussian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived parameters with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index (MI) in brain glioma. Sixty-five patients with pathologically confirmed glioma, who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI with 2 b values (0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) and 22 b values (≤5000 s/mm{sup 2}), respectively, were divided into three groups of grade II (n = 35), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 22). Comparisons by two groups were made for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (Dslow), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and heterogeneity index α. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to maximize the area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating grade III + IV (high-grade glioma, HGG) from grade II (low-grade glioma, LGG) and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) from grade II + III (other grade glioma, OGG). Correlations with MI were analyzed for the MRI parameters. On tumor regions, the values of ADC, Dslow, DDC, and α were significantly higher in grade II [(1.37 ± 0.29, 0.70 ± 0.11, 1.39 ± 0.34) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.88 ± 0.05, respectively] than in grade III [(0.99 ± 0.13, 0.55 ± 0.07, 1.04 ± 0.20) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.80 ± 0.03, respectively] and grade IV [(1.03 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.16) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively] (all P < 0.001). The parameter α showed the highest AUCs of 0.950 and 0.922 in discriminating HGG from LGG and GBM from OGG, respectively. Significant correlations with histologic grade and MI were observed for the MRI parameters. The non-Gaussian MRI-derived parameters α and Dslow are superior to ADC in glioma grading, which are comparable with ADC as reliable biomarkers in noninvasively predicting the proliferation level of glioma malignancy. (orig.)

  12. Non-Gaussian diffusion MR imaging of glioma: comparisons of multiple diffusion parameters and correlation with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ren; Haopeng, Pang; Xiaoyuan, Feng; Jiawen, Zhang; Zhenwei, Yao; Jinsong, Wu; Chengjun, Yao; Tianming, Qiu; Ji, Xiong; Mao, Sheng; Yueyue, Ding; Yong, Zhang; Jianfeng, Luo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the association of Gaussian and non-Gaussian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived parameters with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index (MI) in brain glioma. Sixty-five patients with pathologically confirmed glioma, who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI with 2 b values (0, 1000 s/mm 2 ) and 22 b values (≤5000 s/mm 2 ), respectively, were divided into three groups of grade II (n = 35), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 22). Comparisons by two groups were made for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (Dslow), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and heterogeneity index α. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to maximize the area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating grade III + IV (high-grade glioma, HGG) from grade II (low-grade glioma, LGG) and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) from grade II + III (other grade glioma, OGG). Correlations with MI were analyzed for the MRI parameters. On tumor regions, the values of ADC, Dslow, DDC, and α were significantly higher in grade II [(1.37 ± 0.29, 0.70 ± 0.11, 1.39 ± 0.34) (x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and 0.88 ± 0.05, respectively] than in grade III [(0.99 ± 0.13, 0.55 ± 0.07, 1.04 ± 0.20) (x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and 0.80 ± 0.03, respectively] and grade IV [(1.03 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.16) (x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively] (all P < 0.001). The parameter α showed the highest AUCs of 0.950 and 0.922 in discriminating HGG from LGG and GBM from OGG, respectively. Significant correlations with histologic grade and MI were observed for the MRI parameters. The non-Gaussian MRI-derived parameters α and Dslow are superior to ADC in glioma grading, which are comparable with ADC as reliable biomarkers in noninvasively predicting the proliferation level of glioma malignancy. (orig.)

  13. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  14. STS-48 MS Gemar uses laptop during training session in JSC's MB SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar, wearing lightweight headset, enters data into a portable laptop computer on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Gemar is participating in a preflight familiarization session in the MB-SMS located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Visible to Gemar's right is a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and on his left are forward locker mockups.

  15. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Storm, Adam Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake...... measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.......31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0...

  16. Decatropis bicolor (Zucc.) Radlk essential oil induces apoptosis of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanislao Gómez, C C; Aquino Carreño, A; Pérez Ishiwara, D G; San Martín Martínez, E; Morales López, J; Pérez Hernández, N; Gómez García, M C

    2016-08-05

    Decatropis bicolor (Zucc.)Radlk is a plant that has been traditionally used for the treatment of breast cancer in some communities of Mexico. So, the aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of the essential oil of Decatropis bicolor against breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The essential oil obtained from hydrodestillation of leaves of Decatropis bicolor was studied for its biological activity against breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 by MTT assay, Hematoxylin-eosin stain, Annexin V-FITC, TUNEL and western blot assays and for its chemical composition by GC-MS. The results showed a relevant cytotoxic effect of the essential oil towards MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner, with an IC50 of 53.81 ± 1.691 μg/ml but not in the epithelial mammary cell line MCF10A (207.51 ± 3.26 μg/ml). Morphological examination displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells like cell size reduction, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. In addition, the apoptotic rate significantly increased as well as DNA fragmentation and western blot analysis revealed that the essential oil induced apoptosis in the MDA-MB-231 cells via intrinsic pathways due to the activation of Bax, caspases 9 and 3. Phytochemical analysis of the Decatropis bicolor essential oil showed the presence of twenty-three compounds. Major components of the oil were 1,5-cyclooctadiene,3-(methyl-2)propenyl (18.38 %), β-terpineol (8.16 %) and 1-(3-methyl-cyclopent-2-enyl)-cyclohexene (6.12 %). This study suggests that essential oil of Decatropis bicolor has a potential cytotoxic and antitumoral effect against breast cancer cells, with the presence of potential bioactive compounds. Our results contribute to the validation of the anticancer activity of the plant in Mexican traditional medicine.

  17. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  18. Synthesis, structural characterization and selectively catalytic properties of metal-organic frameworks with nano-sized channels: A modular design strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Lingguang; Gu Lina; Hu Gang; Zhang Lide

    2009-01-01

    Modular design method for designing and synthesizing microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with selective catalytical activity was described. MOFs with both nano-sized channels and potential catalytic activities could be obtained through self-assembly of a framework unit and a catalyst unit. By selecting hexaaquo metal complexes and the ligand BTC (BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) as framework-building blocks and using the metal complex [M(phen) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2+ (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) as a catalyst unit, a series of supramolecular MOFs 1-7 with three-dimensional nano-sized channels, i.e. [M 1 (H 2 O) 6 ].[M 2 (phen) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2 .2(BTC).xH 2 O (M 1 , M 2 =Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), or Mn(II), phen=1,10-phenanthroline, BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate, x=22-24), were synthesized through self-assembly, and their structures were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These supramolecular microporous MOFs showed significant size and shape selectivity in the catalyzed oxidation of phenols, which is due to catalytic reactions taking place in the channels of the framework. Design strategy, synthesis, and self-assembly mechanism for the construction of these porous MOFs were discussed. - Grapical abstract: A modular design strategy has been developed to synthesize microporous metal-organic frameworks with potential catalytic activity by self-assembly of the framework-building blocks and the catalyst unit

  19. The effect of fire on habitat selection of mammalian herbivores: the role of body size and vegetation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Stephanie L; Anderson, T Michael; Mayemba, Emilian P; Ritchie, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Given the role of fire in shaping ecosystems, especially grasslands and savannas, it is important to understand its broader impact on these systems. Post-fire stimulation of plant nutrients is thought to benefit grazing mammals and explain their preference for burned areas. However, fire also reduces vegetation height and increases visibility, thereby potentially reducing predation risk. Consequently, fire may be more beneficial to smaller herbivores, with higher nutritional needs and greater risks of predation. We tested the impacts of burning on different sized herbivores' habitat preference in Serengeti National Park, as mediated by burning's effects on vegetation height, live : dead biomass ratio and leaf nutrients. Burning caused a less than 4 month increase in leaf nitrogen (N), and leaf non-N nutrients [copper (Cu), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg)] and a decrease in vegetation height and live : dead biomass. During this period, total herbivore counts were higher on burned areas. Generally, smaller herbivores preferred burned areas more strongly than larger herbivores. Unfortunately, it was not possible to determine the vegetation characteristics that explained burned area preference for each of the herbivore species observed. However, total herbivore abundance and impala (Aepyceros melampus) preference for burned areas was due to the increases in non-N nutrients caused by burning. These findings suggest that burned area attractiveness to herbivores is mainly driven by changes to forage quality and not potential decreases in predation risk caused by reductions in vegetation height. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  20. The Herschel-ATLAS: magnifications and physical sizes of 500-μm-selected strongly lensed galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enia, A.; Negrello, M.; Gurwell, M.; Dye, S.; Rodighiero, G.; Massardi, M.; De Zotti, G.; Franceschini, A.; Cooray, A.; van der Werf, P.; Birkinshaw, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.

    2018-04-01

    We perform lens modelling and source reconstruction of Sub-millimetre Array (SMA) data for a sample of 12 strongly lensed galaxies selected at 500μm in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). A previous analysis of the same data set used a single Sérsic profile to model the light distribution of each background galaxy. Here we model the source brightness distribution with an adaptive pixel scale scheme, extended to work in the Fourier visibility space of interferometry. We also present new SMA observations for seven other candidate lensed galaxies from the H-ATLAS sample. Our derived lens model parameters are in general consistent with previous findings. However, our estimated magnification factors, ranging from 3 to 10, are lower. The discrepancies are observed in particular where the reconstructed source hints at the presence of multiple knots of emission. We define an effective radius of the reconstructed sources based on the area in the source plane where emission is detected above 5σ. We also fit the reconstructed source surface brightness with an elliptical Gaussian model. We derive a median value reff ˜ 1.77 kpc and a median Gaussian full width at half-maximum ˜1.47 kpc. After correction for magnification, our sources have intrinsic star formation rates (SFR) ˜ 900-3500 M⊙ yr-1, resulting in a median SFR surface density ΣSFR ˜ 132 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 (or ˜218 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the Gaussian fit). This is consistent with that observed for other star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts, and is significantly below the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure regulated starburst.

  1. A selective androgen receptor modulator that reduces prostate tumor size and prevents orchidectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Dodds, Robert; Fiordeliso, James; Lanter, James; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of JNJ-26146900 is described. JNJ-26146900 is a nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligand with tissue-selective activity in rats. The compound was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of AR activity. It binds to the rat AR with a K(i) of 400nM and acts as a pure androgen antagonist in an in vitro cell-based assay. Its in vitro profile is similar to the androgen antagonist bicalutamide (Casodex). In intact rats, JNJ-26146900 reduces ventral prostate weight with an oral potency (ED(50)) of 20-30mg/kg, again comparable to that of bicalutamide. JNJ-26146900 prevented prostate tumor growth in the Dunning rat model, maximally inhibiting growth at a dose of 10mg/kg. It slowed tumor growth significantly in a CWR22-LD1 mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer. It was tested in aged male rats for its ability to prevent bone loss and loss of lean body mass following orchidectomy. After 6 weeks of dosing, bone volume decreased by 33% in orchidectomized versus intact vehicle-treated rats with a probability (P) of less than 0.05, as measured by micro-computerized tomography analysis. At a dose of 30mg/kg, JNJ-26146900 significantly reduced castration-induced tibial bone loss as indicated by the following parameters: bone volume, trabecular connectivity, trabecular number and spacing between trabeculae. Bone mineral density decreased from 229+/-34mg/cm(3) of hydroxyapatite to 166+/-26mg/cm(3) following orchidectomy, and was maintained at 194+/-20mg/cm(3) with JNJ-26146900 treatment (Pselective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential for anabolic effects on bone and muscle while maintaining therapeutic efficacy in prostate cancer.

  2. Flavokawain A induces apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 and inhibits the metastatic process in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiah Abu

    Full Text Available The kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum is traditionally known as the pacific elixir by the pacific islanders for its role in a wide range of biological activities. The extract of the roots of this plant contains a variety of interesting molecules including Flavokawain A and this molecule is known to have anti-cancer properties. Breast cancer is still one of the leading diagnosed cancers in women today. The metastatic process is also very pertinent in the progression of tumorigenesis.MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated with several concentrations of FKA. The apoptotic analysis was done through the MTT assay, BrdU assay, Annexin V analysis, cell cycle analysis, JC-1 mitochondrial dye, AO/PI dual staining, caspase 8/9 fluorometric assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot. For the metastatic assays, the in vitro scratch assay, trans-well migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot were employed.We have investigated the effects of FKA on the apoptotic and metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines. FKA induces apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in a dose dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, FKA selectively induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle machinery of MDA-MB231 and G1 arrest in MCF-7. This suggests that FKA's anti-cancer activity is dependent on the p53 status. Moreover, FKA also halted the migration and invasion process in MDA-MB231. The similar effects can be seen in the inhibition of the angiogenesis process as well.FKA managed to induce apoptosis and inhibit the metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. Overall, FKA may serve as a promising candidate in the search of a new anti-cancer drug especially in halting the metastatic process but further in vivo evidence is needed.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marvibaigi

    Full Text Available Scurrula ferruginea (Jack Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184. The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL. The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated.

  4. Konzeption einer Service-MIB

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren ließ sich ein starker Trend hin zum dienstorientierten Management verzeichnen. Betreiber von IT-Diensten gehen verstärkt dazu über, den Betrieb ihrer Infrastrukturen an technischen und organisatorischen Dienstmanagementkonzepten auszurichten und versuchen dadurch, den durch gesteigerte Kundenbedürfnisse und komplexere Diensterbringungsszenarien induzierten Rahmenbedingen zu begegnen. Mit der Einführung neuer Dienstmanagementsysteme wächst allerdings gleichzeitig de...

  5. Effect of phosphorus availability on the selection of species with different ploidy levels and genome sizes in a long-term grassland fertilization experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmarda, Petr; Hejcman, Michal; Březinová, Alexandra; Horová, Lucie; Steigerová, Helena; Zedek, František; Bureš, Petr; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    Polyploidy and increased genome size are hypothesized to increase organismal nutrient demands, namely of phosphorus (P), which is an essential and abundant component of nucleic acids. Therefore, polyploids and plants with larger genomes are expected to be selectively disadvantaged in P-limited environments. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally tested. We measured the somatic DNA content and ploidy level in 74 vascular plant species in a long-term fertilization experiment. The differences between the fertilizer treatments regarding the DNA content and ploidy level of the established species were tested using phylogeny-based statistics. The percentage and biomass of polyploid species clearly increased with soil P in particular fertilizer treatments, and a similar but weaker trend was observed for the DNA content. These increases were associated with the dominance of competitive life strategy (particularly advantageous in the P-treated plots) in polyploids and the enhanced competitive ability of dominant polyploid grasses at high soil P concentrations, indicating their increased P limitation. Our results verify the hypothesized effect of P availability on the selection of polyploids and plants with increased genome sizes, although the relative contribution of increased P demands vs increased competitiveness as causes of the observed pattern requires further evaluation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Pore-Size-Tuned Graphene Oxide Frameworks as Ion-Selective and Protective Layers on Hydrocarbon Membranes for Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Choi, Junghoon; Choi, Chanyong; Heo, Jiyun; Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik; Jung, Hee-Tae; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2018-05-07

    The laminated structure of graphene oxide (GO) membranes provides exceptional ion-separation properties due to the regular interlayer spacing ( d) between laminate layers. However, a larger effective pore size of the laminate immersed in water (∼11.1 Å) than the hydrated diameter of vanadium ions (>6.0 Å) prevents its use in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRFB). In this work, we report an ion-selective graphene oxide framework (GOF) with a d tuned by cross-linking the GO nanosheets. Its effective pore size (∼5.9 Å) excludes vanadium ions by size but allows proton conduction. The GOF membrane is employed as a protective layer to address the poor chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) membranes against VO 2 + in VRFB. By effectively blocking vanadium ions, the GOF/SPAES membrane exhibits vanadium-ion permeability 4.2 times lower and a durability 5 times longer than that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the VRFB with the GOF/SPAES membrane achieves an energy efficiency of 89% at 80 mA cm -2 and a capacity retention of 88% even after 400 cycles, far exceeding results for Nafion 115 and demonstrating its practical applicability for VRFB.

  7. Influence of crystallite size and shape of zeolite ZSM-22 on its activity and selectivity in the catalytic cracking of n-octane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bager, F.; Ernst, S. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    Light olefins belong to the major building blocks for the petrochemical industry, particularly for the production of polymers. It has become necessary to increase the production of light olefins specifically in the case for propene with so called 'on-purpose propene' technologies. One possible route is to increase the amount of propene that can be obtained from Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) by optimizing the catalyst through introducing new additives, which offer a high selectivity to propene. Zeolite ZSM-22 samples with different crystallite sizes and morphologies have been synthesized via hydrothermal syntheses and characterized by powder X-Ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, atomic absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The zeolites in the Broensted-acid form have been tested as catalysts in the catalytic cracking of n-octane as a model hydrocarbon. Clear influences of the crystallite size on the deactivation behavior have been observed. Larger crystals of zeolite ZSM-22 produce an increased amount of coke deposits resulting in a faster deactivation of the catalyst. The experimental results suggest that there is probably some influence of pore diffusion on the catalytic activity of the ZSM-22 sample with the large crystallite size. However a noticeable influence on the general product distribution could not be observed. (orig.)

  8. An efficient one-step condensation and activation strategy to synthesize porous carbons with optimal micropore sizes for highly selective CO₂ adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiacheng; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-21

    A series of microporous carbons (MPCs) were successfully prepared by an efficient one-step condensation and activation strategy using commercially available dialdehyde and diamine as carbon sources. The resulting MPCs have large surface areas (up to 1881 m(2) g(-1)), micropore volumes (up to 0.78 cm(3) g(-1)), and narrow micropore size distributions (0.7-1.1 nm). The CO₂ uptakes of the MPCs prepared at high temperatures (700-750 °C) are higher than those prepared under mild conditions (600-650 °C), because the former samples possess optimal micropore sizes (0.7-0.8 nm) that are highly suitable for CO₂ capture due to enhanced adsorbate-adsorbent interactions. At 1 bar, MPC-750 prepared at 750 °C demonstrates the best CO₂ capture performance and can efficiently adsorb CO₂ molecules at 2.86 mmol g(-1) and 4.92 mmol g(-1) at 25 and 0 °C, respectively. In particular, the MPCs with optimal micropore sizes (0.7-0.8 nm) have extremely high CO₂/N₂ adsorption ratios (47 and 52 at 25 and 0 °C, respectively) at 1 bar, and initial CO₂/N₂ adsorption selectivities of up to 81 and 119 at 25 °C and 0 °C, respectively, which are far superior to previously reported values for various porous solids. These excellent results, combined with good adsorption capacities and efficient regeneration/recyclability, make these carbons amongst the most promising sorbents reported so far for selective CO₂ adsorption in practical applications.

  9. MANAGEMENT BOARD OF 20 NOVEMBER 06 (MB99)

    CERN Multimedia

    Low Voltage/SLHC All Low Voltage Power supply orders have now been placed and the issue is prioritising the deliveries, both within CMS and across all LHC detectors. An LHC-wide schedule has been agreed for November-January 2007 and those for further periods will be negotiated. The first agreed cross-detector model was pro-rata sharing of the production based on the total number required. Monthly meetings with CAEN continue and steps are being taken to increase the delivery rate. A draft delivery schedule to CMS sub-detectors is available, but that for the Muon systems should be reviewed and priorities decided. Commissioning the Uninterruptible Power Supplies will start on December 15th and power to the underground systems at point 5 will be delivered in March 2007. It has been agreed to hold an SLHC Workshop jointly with ATLAS on March 19-21 2007 at CERN. Comments on the SLHC EOI before the December CMS Week are still welcome. ESRs for the ECAL Selective Readout Processor and the Global Calorimeter Trigge...

  10. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, pmovements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management and conservation strategies for this endangered granivore.

  11. Synthesis of nano-sized arsenic-imprinted polymer and its use as As3+ selective ionophore in a potentiometric membrane electrode: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Rashedi, Mariyam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The first arsenic cation-selective membrane electrode was introduced. • A novel procedure was introduced for the preparation of As-imprinted polymer. • It was found that arsenic is recognized by the IIP as As 3+ species. • Nernstian response of 20.4 mV decade −1 and DL of 0.5 μM was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, a new strategy was proposed for the preparation of As (III)-imprinted polymer by using arsenic (methacrylate) 3 as template. Precipitation polymerization was utilized to synthesize nano-sized As (III)-imprinted polymer. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. In order to assembly functional monomers around As (III) ion, sodium arsenite and methacrylic acid were heated in the presence of hydroquinone, leading to arsenic (methacrylate) 3 . The nano-sized As (III) selective polymer was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). It was demonstrated that arsenic was recognized as As 3+ by the selective cavities of the synthesized IIP. Based on the prepared polymer, the first arsenic cation selective membrane electrode was introduced. Membrane electrode was constructed by dispersion of As (III)-imprinted polymer nanoparticles in poly(vinyl chloride), plasticized with di-nonylphthalate. The IIP-modified electrode exhibited a Nernstian response (20.4 ± 0.5 mV decade −1 ) to arsenic ion over a wide concentration range (7.0 × 10 −7 to 1.0 × 10 −1 mol L −1 ) with a lower detection limit of 5.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 . Unlike this, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based membrane electrode was not sensitive to arsenic in aqueous solution. The selectivity of the developed sensor to As (III) was shown to be satisfactory. The sensor was used for arsenic determination in some real samples

  12. Synthesis of nano-sized arsenic-imprinted polymer and its use as As{sup 3+} selective ionophore in a potentiometric membrane electrode: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Taher, E-mail: Alizadeh@uma.ac.ir; Rashedi, Mariyam

    2014-09-16

    Highlights: • The first arsenic cation-selective membrane electrode was introduced. • A novel procedure was introduced for the preparation of As-imprinted polymer. • It was found that arsenic is recognized by the IIP as As{sup 3+} species. • Nernstian response of 20.4 mV decade{sup −1} and DL of 0.5 μM was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, a new strategy was proposed for the preparation of As (III)-imprinted polymer by using arsenic (methacrylate){sub 3} as template. Precipitation polymerization was utilized to synthesize nano-sized As (III)-imprinted polymer. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. In order to assembly functional monomers around As (III) ion, sodium arsenite and methacrylic acid were heated in the presence of hydroquinone, leading to arsenic (methacrylate){sub 3}. The nano-sized As (III) selective polymer was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). It was demonstrated that arsenic was recognized as As{sup 3+} by the selective cavities of the synthesized IIP. Based on the prepared polymer, the first arsenic cation selective membrane electrode was introduced. Membrane electrode was constructed by dispersion of As (III)-imprinted polymer nanoparticles in poly(vinyl chloride), plasticized with di-nonylphthalate. The IIP-modified electrode exhibited a Nernstian response (20.4 ± 0.5 mV decade{sup −1}) to arsenic ion over a wide concentration range (7.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.0 × 10{sup −1} mol L{sup −1}) with a lower detection limit of 5.0 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}. Unlike this, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based membrane electrode was not sensitive to arsenic in aqueous solution. The selectivity of the developed sensor to As (III) was shown to be satisfactory. The sensor was used for arsenic determination in some real samples.

  13. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited

  14. A Spatio-Temporal Model of Phenotypic Evolution in the Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) and Its Implications for Size-Selective Fishing in a Warmer World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrocco, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    neighboring populations is not predicted to occur and in situ directional selection is less likely due to low phenotypic variation. This study has important implications for marine fisheries, since climate-induced phenotypic evolution may compound issues that already exist as a result of size-selective harvest of large, fast-growing fish.

  15. Determination of respirable-sized crystalline silica in different ambient environments in the United Kingdom with a mobile high flow rate sampler utilising porous foams to achieve the required particle size selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Peter; Thorpe, Andrew; Roberts, Paul; Butler, Owen

    2018-06-01

    Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) can cause diseases including silicosis and cancer. Levels of RCS close to an emission source are measured but little is known about the wider ambient exposure from industry emissions or natural sources. The aim of this work is to report the RCS concentrations obtained from a variety of ambient environments using a new mobile respirable (PM4) sampler. A mobile battery powered high flow rate (52 L min-1) sampler was developed and evaluated for particulate aerosol sampling employing foams to select the respirable particle size fraction. Sampling was conducted in the United Kingdom at site boundaries surrounding seven urban construction and demolition and five sand quarry sites. These are compared with data from twelve urban aerosol samples and from repeat measurements from a base line study at a single rural site. The 50% particle size penetration (d50) through the foam was 4.3 μm. Over 85% of predict bias values were with ±10% of the respirable convention, which is based on a log normal curve. Results for RCS from all construction and quarry activities are generally low with a 95 th percentile of 11 μg m-3. Eighty percent of results were less than the health benchmark value of 3 μg m-3 used in some states in America for ambient concentrations. The power cutting of brick and the largest demolition activities gave the highest construction levels. Measured urban background RCS levels were typically below 0.3 μg m-3 and the median RCS level, at a rural background location, was 0.02 μg m-3. These reported ambient RCS concentrations may provide useful baseline values to assess the wider impact of fugitive, RCS containing, dust emissions into the wider environment.

  16. Twenty Percent and a Few Days : Optimising a Bitcoin Majority Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehnker, Ansgar; Chaudhary, Kaylash; Dutle, Aaron; Muñoz, César; Narkawicz, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Bitcoin is a distributed online payment system that organises transactions into blocks. The size of blocks is limited to 1 megabyte, which also limits the number of transactions per second that can be confirmed. This year several attempts have been made to create a fork or a split that removes this

  17. A case of spuriously high CK-MB: Contemplate beyond cardiac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishard Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB is a widely tested enzyme in cardiac disease and thus has important clinical implications. We relate the scenario of a young patient presenting with chest pain whose CK-MB levels remained inordinately elevated despite a normal total CK level, resolution of symptoms and exclusion of coronary artery disease. Further analysis by electrophoresis revealed the presence of a rare molecular variant of creatine kinase: macro-CK type 1. While this may be a benign finding, there are sparse data demonstrating an association with non-cardiac pathologies such as malignancy, endocrinopathies, connective tissue and autoimmune diseases. Thus, after further exclusion of these associated conditions, the patient was reassured on the likely benign nature of macro-CK in this case.

  18. Trammel net size-selectivity for Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål, 1775) and Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775) in coral reef fisheries of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hosny Gabr; Ahmad Osman Mal

    2016-01-01

    The present study estimated the size-selectivity of Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus harak caught in monofilament trammel nets of 50, 56, and 62 mm inner-panel mesh sizes. Fishing was carried out in the coral reef fisheries of Jeddah during the period from June 2013 to March 2014. The selectivity parameters were calculated using the SELECT method implemented in Pasgear 2 software. The normal location, normal scale, log-normal, gamma and bi-modal selectivity models were fitted to the data to es...

  19. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A K S; Weisbjerg, M R; Storm, A C; Nørgaard, P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake, chewing activity, and apparent digestibility. Four grass/clover harvests (Mixtures of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Trifolium repens) were performed from early May to late August at different maturities, at different regrowth stages, and with different clover proportions, resulting in silages with NDF contents of 312, 360, 371, and 446 g/kg DM, respectively, and decreasing NDF digestibility with greater NDF content. Four rumen-fistulated dairy heifers were fed silage at 90% of ad libitum level as the only feed source in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Silage, ingested feed boluses, medial and ventral ruminal digesta, and feces samples were washed with neutral detergent in nylon bags of 10-μm pore size, freeze dried, and divided into small (1 mm) particles by dry-sieving. Chewing activity, rumen pool size, and apparent digestibility were measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0.02). Particle size distributions were similar for digesta from the medial and ventral rumen regardless of NDF content of the silages (P > 0.13). The LP proportion was >30% of particles in the ventral and medial rumen, whereas in the feces, the LP proportion was content of the silages

  20. Gender differences in serum CK-MB mass levels in healthy Braziliansubjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.C. Strunz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase-isoenzyme MB (CK-MB mass assay is one of the laboratory tests used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is recommended, however, that reference limits should take gender and race into account. In the present study, we analyzed the plasma CK-MB mass and troponin levels of 244 healthy volunteers without a personal history of coronary artery disease and with no chronic diseases, muscular trauma or hypothyroidism, and not taking statins. The tests were performed with commercial kits, CK-MB mass turbo kit and Troponin I turbo kit, using the Immulite 1000 analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostic. The values were separated according to gender and showed significant differences by the Mann-Whitney test. Mean (± SD CK-MB mass values were 2.55 ± 1.09 for women (N = 121; age = 41.20 ± 10.13 years and 3.49 ± 1.41 ng/mL for men (N = 123; age = 38.16 ± 11.12 years. Gender-specific reference values at the 99th percentile level, according to the Medicalc statistical software, were 5.40 ng/mL for women and 7.13 ng/mL for men. The influence of race was not considered because of the high miscegenation of the Brazilian population. The CK-MB values obtained were higher than the 5.10 mg/mL proposed by the manufacturer of the laboratory kit. Therefore, decision limits should be related to population and gender in order to improve the specificity of this diagnostic tool, avoiding misclassification of patients

  1. Serum dosage of CPK-MB in dogs with ST deviation by chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L.F. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Although frequently in humans, hypoxic and ischemic heart diseases are poorly documented in dogs, with only few reports of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in this species. Some electrocardiographic findings might suggest myocardium hypoxia/ischemia, like ST segment elevation or depression, but there are no studies showing whether deviations in ST segment are associated to myocardial injury and serum increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK-MB. In order to investigate possible myocardial cells injury in poor perfusion conditions, 38 dogs were studied, 20 with normal electrocardiogram and 18 with ST segment elevation or depression, recorded in lead II, at a paper speed of 50 mm/sec and N sensibility (1mV=1cm. Serum measurement of creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme MB (CPK-MB in normal dogs (group 1 determined control values (in ng/mL, which were compared to those obtained from dogs with deviation (group 2, which allowed confirmation or not of myocardial injury. CPK-MB mean values obtained from dogs in groups 1 and 2 were 0.540ng/ml (SD±0.890ng/mL and 0.440ng/mL (SD±1.106, respectively. At a significance level of 5%, the relation of CPK-MB with age, mass and total creatine phosphokinase (CPK-T was not significant in groups 1 and 2. CPK-MB showed no difference, at 5% level, between groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, it is possible to use the human chemiluminescent immunometric assay kit in canine species and that hypoxia/ischemia revealed by ST segment deviation does not mean significant myocardium injury.

  2. High-efficiency single cell encapsulation and size selective capture of cells in picoliter droplets based on hydrodynamic micro-vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakshakurup, Gopakumar; Lee, Abraham P

    2017-12-05

    Single cell analysis has emerged as a paradigm shift in cell biology to understand the heterogeneity of individual cells in a clone for pathological interrogation. Microfluidic droplet technology is a compelling platform to perform single cell analysis by encapsulating single cells inside picoliter-nanoliter (pL-nL) volume droplets. However, one of the primary challenges for droplet based single cell assays is single cell encapsulation in droplets, currently achieved either randomly, dictated by Poisson statistics, or by hydrodynamic techniques. In this paper, we present an interfacial hydrodynamic technique which initially traps the cells in micro-vortices, and later releases them one-to-one into the droplets, controlled by the width of the outer streamline that separates the vortex from the flow through the streaming passage adjacent to the aqueous-oil interface (d gap ). One-to-one encapsulation is achieved at a d gap equal to the radius of the cell, whereas complete trapping of the cells is realized at a d gap smaller than the radius of the cell. The unique feature of this technique is that it can perform 1. high efficiency single cell encapsulations and 2. size-selective capturing of cells, at low cell loading densities. Here we demonstrate these two capabilities with a 50% single cell encapsulation efficiency and size selective separation of platelets, RBCs and WBCs from a 10× diluted blood sample (WBC capture efficiency at 70%). The results suggest a passive, hydrodynamic micro-vortex based technique capable of performing high-efficiency single cell encapsulation for cell based assays.

  3. The nano-fractal structured tungsten oxides films with high thermal stability prepared by the deposition of size-selected W clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Chemistry, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Dollinger, Andreas; Huether, Lukas; Blankenhorn, Moritz; Koehler, Kerstine; Gantefoer, Gerd [Konstanz University, Department of Physics, Constance (Germany); Seo, Hyun Ook [Sangmyung University, Department of Chemistry and Energy Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Size-selected W{sub n}{sup -} clusters (n = 1650) were deposited on the highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surface at room temperature under high vacuum conditions by utilizing a magnetron sputtering source and a magnet sector field. Moreover, geometrical structure and surface chemical states of deposited clusters were analyzed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The formation of 2-D islands (lateral size ∝150 nm) with multiple dendritic arms was observed by STM, and the structure of the individual W{sub 1650} clusters survived within the dendritic arms. To study the thermal stability of the nano-fractal structure under the atmospheric conditions, the sample was brought to the ambient air conditions and sequentially post-annealed at 200, 300, and 500 C in the air. The nano-fractal structure was maintained after the 1st post-annealing process at 200 C for 1 h in the air, and the subsequent 2nd post-annealing at 300 C (for 1 h, in the air) also did not induce any noticeable change in the topological structure of the sample. The topological changes were observed only after the further post-annealing at a higher temperature (at 500 C, 1 h) in the air. We show high potential use of these nano-structured films of tungsten oxides in ambient conditions. (orig.)

  4. Fabrication and characterization of a nanometer-sized optical fiber electrode based on selective chemical etching for scanning electrochemical/optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Sho; Ueda, Akio; Niwa, Osamu; Suzuki, Koji

    2006-03-15

    We have already reported a method for fabricating ultramicroelectrodes (Suzuki, K. JP Patent, 2004-45394, 2004). This method is based on the selective chemical etching of optical fibers. In this work, we undertake a detailed investigation involving a combination of etched optical fibers with various types of tapered tip (protruding-shape, double- (or pencil-) shape and triple-tapered electrode) and insulation with electrophoretic paint. Our goal is to establish a method for fabricating nanometer-sized optical fiber electrodes with high reproducibility. As a result, we realized pencil-shaped and triple-tapered electrodes that had radii in the nanometer range with high reproducibility. These nanometer-sized electrodes showed well-defined sigmoidal curves and stable diffusion-limited responses with cyclic voltammetry. The pencil-shaped optical fiber, which has a conical tip with a cone angle of 20 degrees , was effective for controlling the electrode radius. The pencil-shaped electrodes had higher reproducibility and smaller electrode radii (r(app) etched optical fiber electrodes. By using a pencil-shaped electrode with a 105-nm radius as a probe, we obtained simultaneous electrochemical and optical images of an implantable interdigitated array electrode. We achieved nanometer-scale resolution with a combination of scanning electrochemical microscopy SECM and optical microscopy. The resolution of the electrochemical and optical images indicated sizes of 300 and 930 nm, respectively. The neurites of living PC12 cells were also successfully imaged on a 1.6-microm scale by using the negative feedback mode of an SECM.

  5. Highly selective solid phase extraction and preconcentration of Azathioprine with nano-sized imprinted polymer based on multivariate optimization and its trace determination in biological and pharmaceutical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Rezayati zad, Zeinab; Taheri, Ali Reza; Rahmatian, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, for first time selective separation and determination of Azathioprine is demonstrated using molecularly imprinted polymer as the solid-phase extraction adsorbent, measured by spectrophotometry at λ max 286 nm. The selective molecularly imprinted polymer was produced using Azathioprine and methacrylic acid as a template molecule and monomer, respectively. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was performed in column for the analyte from pharmaceutical and serum samples. The synthesized polymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In order to investigate the effect of independent variables on the extraction efficiency, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed. The analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy and linear working range were also determined in optimal experimental conditions and the proposed method was applied to analysis of Azathioprine. The linear dynamic range and limits of detection were 2.5–0.01 and 0.008 mg L ‐1 respectively. The recoveries for analyte were higher than 95% and relative standard deviation values were found to be in the range of 0.83–4.15%. This method was successfully applied for the determination of Azathioprine in biological and pharmaceutical samples. - Graphical abstract: A new-nano sized imprinted polymer was synthesized and applied as sorbent in SPE in order to selective recognition, preconcentration, and determination of Azathioprine with the response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design and was successfully investigated for the clean-up of human blood serum and pharmaceutical samples. - Highlights: • The nanosized-imprinted polymer has been synthesized by precipitation polymerization technique. • A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was performed for determination of Azathioprine. • The Azathioprine-molecular imprinting

  6. The effects of prior calcium channel blocker therapy on creatine kinase-MB levels after percutaneous coronary interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Gulmez, Oyku; Atar, Ilyas; Ozin, B?lent; Korkmaz, Mehmet Emin; Atar, Asli; Aydinalp, Alp; Yildirir, Aylin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2008-01-01

    Background: Use of intracoronary calcium channel blockers (CCBs) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to have favorable effects on coronary blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effects of CCBs administrated perorally on creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels in patients undergoing elective PCI. Methods: A total of 570 patients who underwent PCI were evaluated for CK-MB elevation. Patients who were on CCB therapy when admitted to the hospital constituted the CCB group. ...

  7. ARCON96, Radioactive Plume Concentration in Reactor Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ARCON96 was developed to calculate relative concentrations in plumes from nuclear power plants at control room air intakes in the vicinity of the release point. 2 - Methods: ARCON96 implements a straight-line Gaussian dispersion model with dispersion coefficients that are modified to account for low wind meander and building wake effects. Hourly, normalized concentrations (X/Q) are calculated from hourly meteorological data. The hourly values are averaged to form X/Qs for periods ranging from 2 to 720 hours in duration. The calculated values for each period are used to form cumulative frequency distributions. 3 - Restriction on the complexity of the problem: ARCON96 is a single user program. If expanded output is selected by the user, the file includes the hourly input and X/Qs and the intermediate computational results. The output file may exceed a megabyte size

  8. Anti-proliferative effect of biogenic gold nanoparticles against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Suganya, K.S.; Govindaraju, K.; Ganesh Kumar, V.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V.; Changmai, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biosynthesis of stable and well dispersed predominantly spherical gold nanoparticles of size around ∼12.5 nm. • Anticancer assessment of gold nanoparticles on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. • AuNPs were found non toxic to normal HMEC cells. • Flow cytometry results revealed significant arrest in cell proliferation in early G0/G1 to S phase. - Abstract: Breast cancer is a major complication in women and numerous approaches are being developed to overcome this problem. In conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy the post side effects cause an unsuitable effect in treatment of cancer. Hence, it is essential to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease. In the present investigation, a possible route for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using leaf extract of Mimosa pudica and its anticancer efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer cell lines is studied. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be effective in killing cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) which were studied using various anticancer assays (MTT assay, cell morphology determination, cell cycle analysis, comet assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and DAPI staining). Cell morphological analysis showed the changes occurred in cancer cells during the treatment with AuNPs. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis in G_0/G_1 to S phase. Similarly in Comet assay, there was an increase in tail length in treated cells in comparison with the control. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay showed prompt fluorescence in treated cells indicating the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner membrane. PI and DAPI staining showed the DNA damage in treated cells.

  9. Anti-proliferative effect of biogenic gold nanoparticles against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Suganya, K.S. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India); Govindaraju, K., E-mail: govindtu@gmail.com [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India); Ganesh Kumar, V. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India); Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C. [Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V.; Changmai, Niranjan [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Biosynthesis of stable and well dispersed predominantly spherical gold nanoparticles of size around ∼12.5 nm. • Anticancer assessment of gold nanoparticles on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. • AuNPs were found non toxic to normal HMEC cells. • Flow cytometry results revealed significant arrest in cell proliferation in early G0/G1 to S phase. - Abstract: Breast cancer is a major complication in women and numerous approaches are being developed to overcome this problem. In conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy the post side effects cause an unsuitable effect in treatment of cancer. Hence, it is essential to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease. In the present investigation, a possible route for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using leaf extract of Mimosa pudica and its anticancer efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer cell lines is studied. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be effective in killing cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) which were studied using various anticancer assays (MTT assay, cell morphology determination, cell cycle analysis, comet assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and DAPI staining). Cell morphological analysis showed the changes occurred in cancer cells during the treatment with AuNPs. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis in G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} to S phase. Similarly in Comet assay, there was an increase in tail length in treated cells in comparison with the control. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay showed prompt fluorescence in treated cells indicating the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner membrane. PI and DAPI staining showed the DNA damage in treated cells.

  10. Ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum (Mb F52) on dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Mb F52) grown from granules was evaluated against Aedes aegypti eggs over time. Survival of larvae from treated eggs was significantly less when compared with untreated eggs at 7, 10 and 14 days post treatment. Only 27 % of treated eggs produced vi...

  11. Arrival at CERN of the first MB4 DT chambers from Turin

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcos Fernandez Garcia

    2005-01-01

    The largest DT chambers to be installed into the outermost station of the CMS barrel muon detector (MB4) are built by INFN-Turin. The first batch of four chambers, out of 40, arrived at the CERN ISR area on February 2005.

  12. 150 Mb/s wifi transmission over 50m large core diameter step index POF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.; Nieto Munoz, M.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate successful transmission of WiFi signals over 50m step-index plastic optical fibre with 1mm core diameter employing an eye-safe resonant cavity light emitting diode and an avalanche photodetector. The EVM performance of 4.1% at signal data rate of 150Mb/s is achieved.

  13. CYP1-mediated antiproliferative activity of dietary flavonoids in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P.; Ruparelia, Ketan; Arroo, Randolph R.J.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2009-01-01

    Among the different mechanisms proposed to explain the cancer-protecting effect of dietary flavonoids, substrate-like interactions with cytochrome P450 CYP1 enzymes have recently been explored. In the present study, the metabolism of the flavonoids chrysin, baicalein, scutellarein, sinensetin and genkwanin by recombinant CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2 enzymes, as well as their antiproliferative activity in MDA-MB-468 human breast adenocarcinoma and MCF-10A normal breast cell lines, were investigated. Baicalein and 6-hydroxyluteolin were the only conversion products of chrysin and scutellarein metabolism by CYP1 family enzymes, respectively, while baicalein itself was not metabolized further. Sinensetin and genkwanin produced a greater number of metabolites and were shown to inhibit strongly in vitro proliferation of MDA-MB-468 cells at submicromolar and micromolar concentrations, respectively, without essentially affecting the viability of MCF-10A cells. Cotreatment of the CYP1 family inhibitor acacetin reversed the antiproliferative activity noticed for the two flavones in MDA-MB-468 cells to 13 and 14 μM respectively. In contrast chrysin, baicalein and scutellarein inhibited proliferation of MDA-MB-468 cells to a lesser extent than sinensetin and genkwanin. The metabolism of genkwanin to apigenin and of chrysin to baicalein was favored by CYP1B1 and CYP1A1, respectively. Taken together the data suggests that CYP1 family enzymes enhance the antiproliferative activity of dietary flavonoids in breast cancer cells, through bioconversion to more active products.

  14. Experimental determination of neutron lifetimes through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, Eduardo; Diniz, Ricardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP Travessa R-400, 05508-900, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    The neutron lifetimes of the core, reflector, and global were experimentally obtained through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor for five levels of subcriticality. The theoretical Auto Power Spectral Densities were derived by point kinetic equations taking the reflector effect into account, and one of the approaches consider an additional group of delayed neutrons.

  15. Reactivity effect of a heavy water tank as reflector in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Fuga, Rinaldo

    2013-01-01

    This experiment comprises a set of experiments performed in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor and described in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments, specifically the experiment aim to evaluate the reactivity due to the heavy water tank placed at reflector region of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. An aluminum tank was designed to be filled with heavy water and positioned at the west face of the IPEN/MB-01, additionally the experiment was also designed to allow variable heavy water height inside of this tank providing different neutron leakage rate in the west face of the IPEN/MB-01, consequently providing a series of interesting combinations. The measured quantities in the experiment are reactivities and critical control bank positions for several combinations of the control banks and an excess of reactivity of the heavy water tank. The experiment will be simulated using a Monte Carlo code MCNP in order to compare the different critical control bank position. (author)

  16. Contribution of creatine kinase MB mass concentration at admission to early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A. J.; Gorgels, J. P.; van Vlies, B.; Koelemay, M. J.; Smits, R.; Tijssen, J. G.; Haagen, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value at admission of creatine kinase MB mass concentration, alone or in combination with electrocardiographic changes, in suspected myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective study of all consecutive patients admitted within 12 hours after onset of chest pain to

  17. Requirement of carbon dioxide for initial growth of facultative methylotroph, Acidomonas methanolica MB58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Ryoji; Katayama, Hiroko; Tanaka, Mitsuo

    2015-07-01

    The facultative methylotrophic bacterium Acidomonas methanolica MB58 can utilize C1 compounds via the ribulose monophosphate pathway. A large gene cluster comprising three components related to C1 metabolism was found in the genome. From upstream, the first was an mxa cluster encoding proteins for oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde; the second was the rmp cluster encoding enzymes for formaldehyde fixation; and the third was the cbb gene cluster encoding proteins for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation. Examination of CO2 requirements for growth of A. methanolica MB58 cells demonstrated that it did not grow on any carbon source under CO2-free conditions. Measurement of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated enzymatic activity was detected in A. methanolica MB58 at growth phase, regardless of carbon sources. However, methanol dehydrogenase and 3-hexlose-6-phosphate synthase expression was regulated by methanol or formaldehyde; it were detected during growth and apparently differed from ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase expression. These results suggested that A. methanolica MB58 may be initially dependent on autotrophic growth and that carbon assimilation was subsequently coupled with the ribulose monophosphate pathway at early- to mid-log phases during methylotrophic growth. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Apoptotic Effect of the Urtica Dioica Plant Extracts on Breast Cancer Cell Line (MDA- MB- 468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cancer is one of the most causes of mortality in worldwide. Components derived from natural plants that induce apoptosis are used for cancer treatment. Therefore investigation of different herbal components for new anti-cancer drug is one of the main research activities throughout the world. According to low cost, oral consumption and easy access to the public extracts of Urtica dioica, in this study we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of this herb on MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.   Methods: Cytotoxic effect of Urtica dioica extract was measured using MTT assays. To show induction of apoptosis by this plant TUNEL and DNA Fragmentation test were performed.   Results: In the present study dichloromethane extracts noticeably killed cancer cells. IC50 values related to human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-468 were 29.46±1.05 µg/ml in 24 hours and 15.54±1.04 µg/ml in 48 hours. TUNEL test and DNA Fragmentation assay showed apoptotic characteristic in the extract treated cells.   Conclusion: The results showed that MDA-MB-468 cells after treatment with dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica, induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cancer cells which may be useful in the treatment of cancer.

  19. STS-48 MS Buchli and MS Gemar on MB SMS middeck during JSC training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) James F. Buchli (left) and MS Charles D. Gemar listen to instructions while on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Buchli and Gemar are reviewing inflight procedures during this preflight familiarization session held in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  20. Clock generation and distribution for the 130-nm Itanium$^{R}$ 2 processor with 6-MB on-die L3 cache

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, S; Limaye, R D

    2004-01-01

    The clock generation and distribution system for the 130-nm Itanium 2 processor operates at 1.5 GHz with a skew of 24 ps. The Itanium 2 processor features 6 MB of on-die L3 cache and has a die size of 374 mm/sup 2/. Fuse-based clock de-skew enables post-silicon clock optimization to gain higher frequency. This paper describes the clock generation, global clock distribution, local clocking, and the clock skew optimization feature.

  1. Sex differences in gait utilization and energy metabolism during terrestrial locomotion in two varieties of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus selected for different body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh A. Rose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus of standard breed (large and bantam (small varieties, artificial selection has led to females being permanently gravid and sexual selection has led to male-biased size dimorphism. Using respirometry, videography and morphological measurements, sex and variety differences in metabolic cost of locomotion, gait utilisation and maximum sustainable speed (Umax were investigated during treadmill locomotion. Males were capable of greater Umax than females and used a grounded running gait at high speeds, which was only observed in a few bantam females and no standard breed females. Body mass accounted for variation in the incremental increase in metabolic power with speed between the varieties, but not the sexes. For the first time in an avian species, a greater mass-specific incremental cost of locomotion, and minimum measured cost of transport (CoTmin were found in males than in females. Furthermore, in both varieties, the female CoTmin was lower than predicted from interspecific allometry. Even when compared at equivalent speeds (using Froude number, CoT decreased more rapidly in females than in males. These trends were common to both varieties despite a more upright limb in females than in males in the standard breed, and a lack of dimorphism in posture in the bantam variety. Females may possess compensatory adaptations for metabolic efficiency during gravidity (e.g. in muscle specialization/posture/kinematics. Furthermore, the elevated power at faster speeds in males may be linked to their muscle properties being suited to inter-male aggressive combat.

  2. Antibacterial Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerly Vargas Casanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B, containing the RRWQWR motif, were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the designed peptides against E. coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922 and their cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Dimeric and tetrameric peptides showed higher antibacterial activity in both bacteria strains than linear peptides. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the peptides with high antibacterial activity exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against the tested breast cancer cell lines. This cytotoxic effect was fast and dependent on the peptide concentration. The tetrameric molecule containing RRWQWR motif has an optimal cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 22 µM. The evaluated dimeric and tetrameric peptides could be considered as candidates for developing new therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Polyvalence of linear sequences could be considered as a novel and versatile strategy for obtaining molecules with high anticancer activity.

  3. Antibacterial Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Rodríguez Guerra, Jorge Antonio; Umaña Pérez, Yadi Adriana; Leal Castro, Aura Lucía; Almanzar Reina, Giovanni; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny

    2017-09-29

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B, containing the RRWQWR motif, were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the designed peptides against E. coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922) and their cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Dimeric and tetrameric peptides showed higher antibacterial activity in both bacteria strains than linear peptides. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the peptides with high antibacterial activity exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against the tested breast cancer cell lines. This cytotoxic effect was fast and dependent on the peptide concentration. The tetrameric molecule containing RRWQWR motif has an optimal cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 22 µM. The evaluated dimeric and tetrameric peptides could be considered as candidates for developing new therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Polyvalence of linear sequences could be considered as a novel and versatile strategy for obtaining molecules with high anticancer activity.

  4. Highly selective solid phase extraction and preconcentration of Azathioprine with nano-sized imprinted polymer based on multivariate optimization and its trace determination in biological and pharmaceutical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny, E-mail: ss-hosseiny@cc.sbu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 19839-4716, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayati zad, Zeinab [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 19839-4716, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Ali Reza; Rahmatian, Nasrin [Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    In this research, for first time selective separation and determination of Azathioprine is demonstrated using molecularly imprinted polymer as the solid-phase extraction adsorbent, measured by spectrophotometry at λ{sub max} 286 nm. The selective molecularly imprinted polymer was produced using Azathioprine and methacrylic acid as a template molecule and monomer, respectively. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was performed in column for the analyte from pharmaceutical and serum samples. The synthesized polymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In order to investigate the effect of independent variables on the extraction efficiency, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed. The analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy and linear working range were also determined in optimal experimental conditions and the proposed method was applied to analysis of Azathioprine. The linear dynamic range and limits of detection were 2.5–0.01 and 0.008 mg L{sup ‐1} respectively. The recoveries for analyte were higher than 95% and relative standard deviation values were found to be in the range of 0.83–4.15%. This method was successfully applied for the determination of Azathioprine in biological and pharmaceutical samples. - Graphical abstract: A new-nano sized imprinted polymer was synthesized and applied as sorbent in SPE in order to selective recognition, preconcentration, and determination of Azathioprine with the response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design and was successfully investigated for the clean-up of human blood serum and pharmaceutical samples. - Highlights: • The nanosized-imprinted polymer has been synthesized by precipitation polymerization technique. • A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was performed for determination of Azathioprine. • The Azathioprine

  5. Visual characterization and diversity quantification of chemical libraries: 2. Analysis and selection of size-independent, subspace-specific diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliandre, Lionel; Le Guilloux, Vincent; Bourg, Stephane; Morin-Allory, Luc

    2012-02-27

    High Throughput Screening (HTS) is a standard technique widely used to find hit compounds in drug discovery projects. The high costs associated with such experiments have highlighted the need to carefully design screening libraries in order to avoid wasting resources. Molecular diversity is an established concept that has been used to this end for many years. In this article, a new approach to quantify the molecular diversity of screening libraries is presented. The approach is based on the Delimited Reference Chemical Subspace (DRCS) methodology, a new method that can be used to delimit the densest subspace spanned by a reference library in a reduced 2D continuous space. A total of 22 diversity indices were implemented or adapted to this methodology, which is used here to remove outliers and obtain a relevant cell-based partition of the subspace. The behavior of these indices was assessed and compared in various extreme situations and with respect to a set of theoretical rules that a diversity function should satisfy when libraries of different sizes have to be compared. Some gold standard indices are found inappropriate in such a context, while none of the tested indices behave perfectly in all cases. Five DRCS-based indices accounting for different aspects of diversity were finally selected, and a simple framework is proposed to use them effectively. Various libraries have been profiled with respect to more specific subspaces, which further illustrate the interest of the method.

  6. Combination of size selective binding ability of 18-crown-6 dissolved in aqueous phase and extractive properties of an amic acid; toward enhancement of rare earths separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarbali, Reyhaneh; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbanloo, Massomeh [Zanjan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). PhaseEquilibria Research Lab.; Zamani, Abbasali [Zanjan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Science Research Lab.

    2016-11-15

    The separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions by an amic acid, N,N-dioctyldiglycolamic acid (HL), dissolved in carbon tetrachloride has been improved in the presence of 18-crown-6 (18C6) in aqueous phase as a selective masking agent. The interaction between the studied metal ions and 18C6 resulted a shift in the extraction curve of the studied metal ions versus pH toward higher pH region. The displacement of the extraction curves was more pronounced for lanthanum ions and was varied as La(III) > Eu(III) > Er(III). This order of complexing ability of 18C6 toward the studied ions was attributed to the size adaptation of the ions and that of the crown ether cavity. The stability constants of the lanthanide-crown ether complexes in aqueous phase were evaluated. The influence of temperature on the extraction of studied metal ions from aqueous phase in the absence and the presence of 18C6 was tested in the range 298-308 K. This investigation allowed evaluating the thermodynamic parameters associated with the extraction process and those of the complexation of cations by 18C6 in the aqueous phase.

  7. Measure of thermal neutron flux in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor using {sup 197} Au wire activation detectors; Medida do fluxo de neutrons termicos do reator IPEN/MB-01 com detectores de ativacao de fios de {sup 197} Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation has aimed at developing a neutron flux measurement technique by means of detectors activation analysis. The main task of this work was the implementation of this thermal neutron flux measurement technique, using gold wires as activation detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core. The neutron thermal flux spatial distribution was obtained by gold wire activation technique, with wire diameters of 0.125 mm and 0.250 mm in seven selected reactor experimental channels. The values of thermal flux were about 10{sup 9} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.s. This experiment has been the first one conducted with gold wires in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, being this technique implemented for use by experiments in flux mapping of the core 73 refs., 60 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Measure of thermal neutron flux in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor using {sup 197} Au wire activation detectors; Medida do fluxo de neutrons termicos do reator IPEN/MB-01 com detectores de ativacao de fios de {sup 197} Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation has aimed at developing a neutron flux measurement technique by means of detectors activation analysis. The main task of this work was the implementation of this thermal neutron flux measurement technique, using gold wires as activation detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core. The neutron thermal flux spatial distribution was obtained by gold wire activation technique, with wire diameters of 0.125 mm and 0.250 mm in seven selected reactor experimental channels. The values of thermal flux were about 10{sup 9} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.s. This experiment has been the first one conducted with gold wires in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, being this technique implemented for use by experiments in flux mapping of the core 73 refs., 60 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Boehringer immunoinhibition procedure for creatine kinase-MB evaluated and compared with column ion-exchange chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Welle, H. F.; Baartscheer, T.; Fiolet, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In determination of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), the Boehringer immunoinhibition method gives a high and variable blank activity as compared with column-chromatography. Thus a correction must be applied. Furthermore, a second correction of 1% of total creatine kinase activity is necessary

  10. Generation of an approximately 2.4 Mb human X centromere-based minichromosome by targeted telomere-associated chromosome fragmentation in DT40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, W; Critcher, R; Lee, C; Farr, C J

    1999-05-01

    A linear mammalian artificial chromosome (MAC) will require at least three types of functional element: a centromere, two telomeres and origins of replication. As yet, our understanding of these elements, as well as many other aspects of structure and organization which may be critical for a fully functional mammalian chromosome, remains poor. As a way of defining these various requirements, minichromosome reagents are being developed and analysed. Approaches for minichromosome generation fall into two broad categories: de novo assembly from candidate DNA sequences, or the fragmentation of an existing chromosome to reduce it to a minimal size. Here we describe the generation of a human minichromosome using the latter, top-down, approach. A human X chromosome, present in a DT40-human microcell hybrid, has been manipulated using homologous recombination and the targeted seeding of a de novo telomere. This strategy has generated a linear approximately 2.4 Mb human X centromere-based minichromosome capped by two artificially seeded telomeres: one immediately flanking the centromeric alpha-satellite DNA and the other targeted to the zinc finger gene ZXDA in Xp11.21. The chromosome retains an alpha-satellite domain of approximately 1. 8 Mb, a small array of gamma-satellite repeat ( approximately 40 kb) and approximately 400 kb of Xp proximal DNA sequence. The mitotic stability of this minichromosome has been examined, both in DT40 and following transfer into hamster and human cell lines. In all three backgrounds, the minichromosome is retained efficiently, but in the human and hamster microcell hybrids its copy number is poorly regulated. This approach of engineering well-defined chromosome reagents will allow key questions in MAC development (such as whether a lower size limit exists) to be addressed. In addition, the 2.4 Mb minichromosome described here has potential to be developed as a vector for gene delivery.

  11. Short-Run Asset Selection using a Logistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Gonçalves Junior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Investors constantly look for significant predictors and accurate models to forecast future results, whose occasional efficacy end up being neutralized by market efficiency. Regardless, such predictors are widely used for seeking better (and more unique perceptions. This paper aims to investigate to what extent some of the most notorious indicators have discriminatory power to select stocks, and if it is feasible with such variables to build models that could anticipate those with good performance. In order to do that, logistical regressions were conducted with stocks traded at Bovespa using the selected indicators as explanatory variables. Investigated in this study were the outputs of Bovespa Index, liquidity, the Sharpe Ratio, ROE, MB, size and age evidenced to be significant predictors. Also examined were half-year, logistical models, which were adjusted in order to check the potential acceptable discriminatory power for the asset selection.

  12. Growth and enzymological characteristics of a pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium sp. MB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, M V; Kuznetsov, E V; Skladnev, D A; Govorukhina, N I; Sterkin, V E; Tsygankov, Y D

    1992-01-01

    Growth characteristics of batch and continuous cultures of the pink facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium sp. MB1 were determined. The response of a chemostat culture to a pulse increase of methanol concentration was studied. Malate, succinate and oxaloacetate additions to the methanol-supplemented medium decreased batch culture growth inhibition by methanol. The carotenoid content in cells grown in a chemostat decreased with increasing growth rate. The key enzyme activities of C1-metabolism were measured in a chemostat culture at different dilution rates.

  13. Mechanism of Binding to Ebola Virus Glycoprotein by the ZMapp, ZMAb, and MB-003 Cocktail Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Edgar; Bryan, Christopher; Fong, Rachel H.; Barnes, Trevor; Pfaff, Jennifer M.; Mabila, Manu; Rucker, Joseph B.; Doranz, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Cocktails of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that target the surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) are effective in nonhuman primate models and have been used under emergency compassionate-treatment protocols in human patients. However, the amino acids that form the detailed binding epitopes for the MAbs in the ZMapp, ZMAb, and the related MB-003 cocktails have yet to be identified. Other binding properties that define how each MAb functionally interacts with GP—such as affinity, epito...

  14. Lambda-bar, lambda(1) and m(b) in three-flavor (lattice) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeland, Elizabeth D.; Art Inst. of Chicago; Kronfeld, Andreas S.; Simone, James N.; Van de Water, Ruth S.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The heavy-quark expansion for inclusive semi-leptonic B decays introduces Λ and λ1 , which are matrix elements in heavy-quark effective field theory. We review how they can be obtained from an analysis of the heavy quark mass dependence of heavy-light meson masses in lattice QCD. We present preliminary results for the bottom quark mass, mb, using Λ and λ1 for the Bs meson from a 2+1 sea-flavor unquenched calculation

  15. Protein Kinase G facilitates EGFR-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-468 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nicole M.; Ceresa, Brian P., E-mail: brian.ceresa@louisville.edu

    2016-08-15

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with critical implications in cell proliferation, migration, wound healing and the regulation of apoptosis. However, the EGFR has been shown to be hyper-expressed in a number of human malignancies. The MDA-MB-468 metastatic breast cell line is one example of this. This particular cell line hyper-expresses the EGFR and undergoes EGFR-mediated apoptosis in response to EGF ligand. The goal of this study was to identify the kinases that could be potential intermediates for the EGFR-mediated induction of apoptosis intracellularly. After identifying Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase G (PKG) as a plausible intermediate, we wanted to determine the temporal relationship of these two proteins in the induction of apoptosis. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-468 cell viability, which was co-incident with increased PKG activity as measured by VASPSer239 phosphorylation. In addition, we observed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, as well as an increase in apoptosis, in response to two different PKG agonists, 8-Bromo-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP. MDA-MB-468 cells with reduced PKG activity had attenuated EGFR-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that PKG does not induce cell death via transphosphorylation of the EGFR. Instead, PKG activity occurs following EGFR activation. Together, these data indicate PKG as an intermediary in EGFR-mediated cell death, likely via apoptotic pathway.

  16. A 54 Mb 11qter duplication and 0.9 Mb 1q44 deletion in a child with laryngomalacia and agenesis of corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Meena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial Trisomy 11q syndrome (or Duplication 11q has defined clinical features and is documented as a rare syndrome by National Organization of Rare Disorders (NORD. Deletion 1q44 (or Monosomy 1q44 is a well-defined syndrome, but there is controversy about the genes lying in 1q44 region, responsible for agenesis of the corpus callosum. We report a female child with the rare Partial Trisomy 11q syndrome and Deletion 1q44 syndrome. The genomic imbalance in the proband was used for molecular characterization of the critical genes in 1q44 region for agenesis of corpus callosum. Some genes in 11q14q25 may be responsible for laryngomalacia. Results We report a female child with dysmorphic features, microcephaly, growth retardation, seizures, acyanotic heart disease, and hand and foot deformities. She had agenesis of corpus callosum, laryngomalacia, anterior ectopic anus, esophageal reflux and respiratory distress. Chromosome analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 1. Her karyotype was 46,XX,der(1t(1;11(q44;q14pat. The mother had a normal karyotype and the karyotype of the father was 46,XY,t(1;11(q44;q14. SNP array analysis showed that the proband had a 54 Mb duplication of 11q14q25 and a 0.9 Mb deletion of the submicroscopic subtelomeric 1q44 region. Fluorescence Insitu Hybridisation confirmed the duplication of 11qter and deletion of 1qter. Conclusion Laryngomalacia or obstruction of the upper airway is the outcome of increased dosage of some genes due to Partial Trisomy 11q Syndrome. In association with other phenotypic features, agenesis of corpus callosum appears to be a landmark phenotype for Deletion 1q44 syndrome, the critical genes lying proximal to SMYD3 in 1q44 region.

  17. Size-selective pulmonary dose indices for metal-working fluid aerosols in machining and grinding operations in the automobile manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskie, S R; Smith, T J; Hallock, M F; Hammond, S K; Rosenthal, F; Eisen, E A; Kriebel, D; Greaves, I A

    1994-01-01

    The current metal-working fluid exposures at three locations that manufacture automotive parts were assessed in conjunction with epidemiological studies of the mortality and respiratory morbidity experiences of workers at these plants. A rationale is presented for selecting and characterizing epidemiologic exposure groups in this environment. More than 475 full-shift personal aerosol samples were taken using a two-stage personal cascade impactor with median size cut-offs of 9.8 microns and 3.5 microns, plus a backup filter. For a sample of 403 workers exposed to aerosols of machining or grinding fluids, the mean total exposure was 706 micrograms/m3 (standard error (SE) = 21 micrograms/m3). Among 72 assemblers unexposed to machining fluids, the mean total exposure was 187 +/- 10 (SE) micrograms/m3. An analysis of variance model identified factors significantly associated with exposure level and permitted estimates of exposure for workers in the unsampled machine type/metal-working fluid groups. Comparison of the results obtained from personal impactor samples with predictions from an aerosol-deposition model for the human respiratory tract showed high correlation. However, the amount collected on the impactor stage underestimates extrathoracic deposition and overestimates tracheobronchial and alveolar deposition, as calculated by the deposition model. When both the impactor concentration and the deposition-model concentration were used to estimate cumulative thoracic concentrations for the worklives of a subset of auto workers, there was no significant difference in the rank order of the subjects' cumulative concentration. However, the cumulative impactor concentration values were significantly higher than the cumulative deposition-model concentration values for the subjects.

  18. Changes in the relative population size of selected ruminal bacteria following an induced episode of acidosis in beef heifers receiving viable and non-viable active dried yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R; Vyas, D; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the changes in the relative population size (RPS) of select ruminal bacteria and rumen fermentation variables in beef heifers supplemented with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as viable active dried (ADY) or killed dried (KDY) yeast following an induced episode of ruminal acidosis. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 50% forage and 50% grain (dry matter basis) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 28-day periods. Treatments were: (i) control (CTRL; no yeast); (ii) ADY (4 g day -1 providing 10 10  CFU per g; AB Vista, UK); and (iii) KDY (4 g day -1 autoclaved ADY). The acidosis challenge was induced on day 22 and rumen samples were collected on day 15 (baseline; BASE), day 22 (challenge day; CHAL), and on day 29 (168th hour post acid challenge or recovery, REC) of each period. Over the study, duration of pH Yeast supplementation, irrespective of its viability, showed beneficial effects on ruminal pH variables in animals more susceptible to acidosis. Rumen microbial population was altered with the induction of severe acidosis. Most of the changes reverted back to baseline values during the recovery phase. Yeast supplementation reduced subacute rumen acidosis in the most susceptible cattle, but failed to attenuate severe acidosis induced by a grain challenge. The study provided valuable insight into the mechanism by which acidosis affects cattle performance. Individual animal variation in ruminal fermentation partly explained the variability in response to yeast supplementation in the study. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Selected micrometeorological and soil-moisture data at Amargosa Desert Research Site, an arid site near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Mayers, Charles J.; Andraski, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Selected micrometeorological and soil-moisture data were collected at the Amargosa Desert Research Site adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste and hazardous chemical waste facility near Beatty, Nev., 1998-2000. Data were collected in support of ongoing research studies to improve the understanding of hydrologic and contaminant-transport processes in arid environments. Micrometeorological data include precipitation, air temperature, solar radiation, net radiation, relative humidity, ambient vapor pressure, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and soil-heat flux. All micrometeorological data were collected using a 10-second sampling interval by data loggers that output daily mean, maximum, and minimum values, and hourly mean values. For precipitation, data output consisted of daily, hourly, and 5-minute totals. Soil-moisture data included periodic measurements of soil-water content at nine neutron-probe access tubes with measurable depths ranging from 5.25 to 29.75 meters. The computer data files included in this report contain the complete micrometeorological and soil-moisture data sets. The computer data consists of seven files with about 14 megabytes of information. The seven files are in tabular format: (1) one file lists daily mean, maximum, and minimum micrometeorological data and daily total precipitation; (2) three files list hourly mean micrometeorological data and hourly precipitation for each year (1998-2000); (3) one file lists 5-minute precipitation data; (4) one file lists mean soil-water content by date and depth at four experimental sites; and (5) one file lists soil-water content by date and depth for each neutron-probe access tube. This report highlights selected data contained in the computer data files using figures, tables, and brief discussions. Instrumentation used for data collection also is described. Water-content profiles are shown to demonstrate variability of water content with depth. Time-series data are

  20. Clinician-scientist MB/PhD training in the UK: a nationwide survey of medical school policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Ho, Guiyi; Cox, Timothy M

    2015-12-30

    This study surveyed all UK medical schools regarding their Bachelor of Medicine (MB), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) (MB/PhD) training policy in order to map the current training landscape and to provide evidence for further research and policy development. Deans of all UK medical schools registered with the Medical Schools Council were invited to participate in this survey electronically. The number of medical schools that operate institutional MB/PhD programmes or permit self-directed student PhD intercalation. Medical school recruitment procedures and attitudes to policy guidance. 27 of 33 (81%) registered UK medical schools responded. Four (14%) offer an institutional MB/PhD programme. However, of those without institutional programmes, 17 (73%) permit study interruption and PhD intercalation: two do not (one of whom had discontinued their programme in 2013), three were unsure and one failed to answer the question. Regarding student eligibility, respondents cited high academic achievement in medical studies and a bachelor's or master's degree. Of the Medical schools without institutional MB/PhD programmes, 5 (21%) have intentions to establish a programme, 8 (34%) do not and 3 were unsure, seven did not answer. 19 medical schools (70%) considered national guidelines are needed for future MB/PhD programme development. We report the first national survey of MB/PhD training in the UK. Four medical schools have operational institutional MB/PhD programmes, with a further five intending to establish one. Most medical schools permit study interruption and PhD intercalation. The total number MB/PhD students yet to graduate from medical school could exceed 150, with 30 graduating per year. A majority of medical school respondents to this survey believe national guidelines are required for MB/PhD programme development and implementation. Further research should focus on the MB/PhD student experience. Discussion regarding local and national MB/PhD policies between medical

  1. Measurements of the neutron energy spectra in the core of IPEN/MB-01 reactor; Medida do espectro de energia dos neutrons no nucleo do reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Fernando Prat Goncalves

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the neutron spectrum measurements in the Reactor IPEN/MB-01 using very thin activation detectors in the metallic form, in reactor core, in moderator region. An articulated device allows that the foils are inserted in the central position of reactor core, ensuring that all the foils are irradiated in the same position. The activation detectors of different materials such Au{sup 197}, Mg{sup 24}, Ti{sup 4}'8, In{sup 115}, Sc{sup 45} and others, were selected to cover a large range of neutron spectrum. After the irradiation, the activation detectors were submitted to a spectrometry gamma by using a system of counting with high purity Germanium, to obtain the saturation activity per target nuclide. The saturation activity is one of the main data of input of unfolding code SANDBP, that through an iterative adjustment, modify the spectrum that better agree with the dataset of code input, composition mainly for measure reaction rate per target nuclide and a initial input spectrum, calculated for Hammer-Technion code, supplying a solution spectrum. (author)

  2. Measurements of the neutron energy spectra in the core of IPEN/MB-01 reactor; Medida do espectro de energia dos neutrons no nucleo do reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Fernando Prat Goncalves

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the neutron spectrum measurements in the Reactor IPEN/MB-01 using very thin activation detectors in the metallic form, in reactor core, in moderator region. An articulated device allows that the foils are inserted in the central position of reactor core, ensuring that all the foils are irradiated in the same position. The activation detectors of different materials such Au{sup 197}, Mg{sup 24}, Ti{sup 4}'8, In{sup 115}, Sc{sup 45} and others, were selected to cover a large range of neutron spectrum. After the irradiation, the activation detectors were submitted to a spectrometry gamma by using a system of counting with high purity Germanium, to obtain the saturation activity per target nuclide. The saturation activity is one of the main data of input of unfolding code SANDBP, that through an iterative adjustment, modify the spectrum that better agree with the dataset of code input, composition mainly for measure reaction rate per target nuclide and a initial input spectrum, calculated for Hammer-Technion code, supplying a solution spectrum. (author)

  3. Trammel net size-selectivity for Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål, 1775 and Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775 in coral reef fisheries of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hosny Gabr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the size-selectivity of Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus harak caught in monofilament trammel nets of 50, 56, and 62 mm inner-panel mesh sizes. Fishing was carried out in the coral reef fisheries of Jeddah during the period from June 2013 to March 2014. The selectivity parameters were calculated using the SELECT method implemented in Pasgear 2 software. The normal location, normal scale, log-normal, gamma and bi-modal selectivity models were fitted to the data to estimate the selectivity curves. Results indicated that the log-normal model provided the best fit based on the lowest deviance value. Modal lengths estimated from the log-normal selectivity curves are: 19.73, 22.10, and 24.46 cm for H. harid, 18.41, 20.62, and 22.83 cm for L. harak caught with 50, 56 and 62 mm inner-panel mesh sizes, respectively. The length–girth relationship was estimated and described by the linear equation: G = 0.480 + 0.70 L (r2 = 0.95 for H. harid, and G = 0.73 L − 0.65 (r2 = 0.96 for L. harak. For proper management of H. harid and L. harak, the minimum inner-panel mesh size should be 62 mm to catch fish sizes larger than the length at maturity for both species.

  4. Seasonal changes in size selection and intake rate of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus feeding on the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, B.J.; Dirksen, S; Smit, CJ; Bunskoeke, AJ

    1996-01-01

    During the course of spring, Cockles Cerastoderma edule and Mussels Mytilus edulis grow in size, while the condition, as measured by the biomass content of shells of a given size, also increases. Condition temporarily drops when the larger individuals spawn. This study investigates the effects of

  5. Effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage on intake, chewing activity, diet selection and faecal particle size of dairy steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustas, B.-O.; Nørgaard, Peder; Jalali, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage (WCBS) on feed intake, eating and rumination activity, diet selection and faecal particle size in dairy steers. Whole-crop barley was harvested and ensiled in round bales. Eight dairy ste...

  6. Protein synthesis rate measured with l-[1-11C]tyrosine positron emission tomography correlates with mitotic activity and MIB-1 antibody-detected proliferation in human soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaat, B.; Mastik, M.; Molenaar, W.; Kole, A.; Vaalburg, W.; Hoekstra, H.

    1999-01-01

    Protein synthesis rate (PSR) can be assessed in vivo using positron emission tomography with l-[1- 11 C]tyrosine (TYR-PET). Biological activity of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) can be measured in vitro by the mitotic rate and number of proliferating cells. In STS the grade of malignancy, in which the mitotic index plays a major role, is considered to be the major standard in predicting biological tumour behaviour. This study was designed to test the validity of TYR-PET in relation to different histopathological features. In 21 patients with untreated STS, the PSR was measured using TYR-PET. The number of mitoses was counted and tumours were graded according to the grading system of Coindre et al. (Cancer 1986; 58:306-309). Proliferative activity was assessed by immunohistological detection of the Ki-67 nuclear antigen using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. To test the association between the PSR and these tumour parameters, a correlation analysis was performed. A significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between PSR and the Ki-67 proliferation index (R = 0.54), and between PSR and mitotic rate (R = 0.64). There was no correlation between PSR and tumour grade. The present study in malignant soft tissue tumours relates in vivo tumour metabolism as established with TYR-PET to tumour activity measured in vitro and indicates that the non-invasive method of TYR-PET can estimate the mitotic and proliferative activity in STS. (orig.)

  7. Influence of boron vacancies on phase stability, bonding and structure of MB2 (M  =  Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W) with AlB2 type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlqvist, Martin; Rosen, Johanna; Jansson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal diborides in hexagonal AlB 2 type structure typically form stable MB 2 phases for group IV elements (M  =  Ti, Zr, Hf). For group V (M  =  V, Nb, Ta) and group VI (M  =  Cr, Mo, W) the stability is reduced and an alternative hexagonal rhombohedral MB 2 structure becomes more stable. In this work we investigate the effect of vacancies on the B-site in hexagonal MB 2 and its influence on the phase stability and the structure for TiB 2 , ZrB 2 , HfB 2 , VB 2 , NbB 2 , TaB 2 , CrB 2 , MoB 2 , and WB 2 using first-principles calculations. Selected phases are also analyzed with respect to electronic and bonding properties. We identify trends showing that MB 2 with M from group V and IV are stabilized when introducing B-vacancies, consistent with a decrease in the number of states at the Fermi level and by strengthening of the B–M interaction. The stabilization upon vacancy formation also increases when going from M in period 4 to period 6. For TiB 2 , ZrB 2 , and HfB 2 , introduction of B-vacancies have a destabilizing effect due to occupation of B–B antibonding orbitals close to the Fermi level and an increase in states at the Fermi level. (paper)

  8. Emergence of Ebola Virus Escape Variants in Infected Nonhuman Primates Treated with the MB-003 Antibody Cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Kugelman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MB-003, a plant-derived monoclonal antibody cocktail used effectively in treatment of Ebola virus infection in non-human primates, was unable to protect two of six animals when initiated 1 or 2 days post-infection. We characterized a mechanism of viral escape in one of the animals, after observation of two clusters of genomic mutations that resulted in five nonsynonymous mutations in the monoclonal antibody target sites. These mutations were linked to a reduction in antibody binding and later confirmed to be present in a viral isolate that was not neutralized in vitro. Retrospective evaluation of a second independent study allowed the identification of a similar case. Four SNPs in previously identified positions were found in this second fatality, suggesting that genetic drift could be a potential cause for treatment failure. These findings highlight the importance selecting different target domains for each component of the cocktail to minimize the potential for viral escape.

  9. Overexpression of p65 attenuates celecoxib-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitor that has been reported to reduce the risk of breast cancer. In our previous study, celecoxib induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, and its effects were mediated by downregulation of NF-κB signaling. The NF-κB p65/RelA subunit may play a role in cell death through the activation of anti-apoptotic target genes including the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP and Bcl-2 families, and inhibition of protein kinase B/Akt. The aim of the present study was to investigate p65 as the potential target of celecoxib treatment and determine whether p65 overexpression can override the inhibitory effect of celecoxib on NF-κB activity and affect cell survival. Methods The effects of p65 overexpression on celecoxib-inhibited NF-κB transcriptional activity were examined by western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and luciferase reporter gene assay. Cell viability and cell death were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay, and the levels of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and caspase. Anti-apoptotic NF-κB target genes and cell cycle regulators were examined by western blotting to screen for the expression of target genes under direct regulation by p65. Results Overexpression of p65 increased NF-κB transcriptional activity and interfered with celecoxib-mediated apoptosis as assessed by MTT assay and caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP expressions. Exogenously overexpressed p65 upregulated NF-κB-responsive genes, including anti-apoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP, and the cell cycle regulatory gene cyclin D1. However, p65 overexpression did not affect celecoxib-induced p-Akt inactivation, suggesting that celecoxib might have separate molecular mechanisms for regulating Akt signaling independently of its inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional

  10. Determination of buckling in the IPEN/MB-01 Reactor in cylindrical configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgato, Rafael Turrini; Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Aredes, Vitor Ottoni; Silva, Alexandre F. Povoa da; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos; Mura, Luis Felipe L.; Jerez, Rogerio, E-mail: rtpurgato@ipen.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the key parameters in reactor physics is the buckling of a reactor core. It is related to important parameters such as reaction rates, nuclear power operation, fuel burning, among others. In a critical reactor, the buckling depends on the geometric and material characteristics of the reactor core. This paper presents the results of experimental buckling in the reactor IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor in its cylindrical configuration with 28 fuel rods along its diameter. The IPEN/MB-01 is a zero power reactor designed to operate at a maximum power of 100 watts, it is a versatile nuclear facility which allows the simulation of all the characteristics of a large nuclear power reactor and ideal for this type of measurement. We conducted a mapping of neutron flux inside the reactor and thereby determined the total buckling of the cylindrical configuration. The reactor was operated for an hour. Then, the activation of the fuel rods was measured by gamma spectrometry on a rod scanner HPGe detector. We analyzed the gamma photons of the {sup 239}Np (276,6 keV) for neutron capture and the {sup 143}Ce (293,3 keV) for fission on both {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U, respectively. We analyzed the axial and radial directions. Other measurements were performed using wires and gold foils in the radial and axial directions of the reactor core. The results showed that the cylindrical configuration compared to standard rectangular configuration of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor has a higher neutron economy, since in this configuration there is less leakage of neutrons. The Buckling Total obtained from the three methods was 95.84 ± 2.67 m{sup -2}. (author)

  11. Performance evaluation of a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay for CK-MB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Yuan; Fang, Yi-Zhen; Jin, Hong-Wei; Lin, Hua-Yue; Dai, Zhang; Luo, Qing; Li, Hong-Wei; Lin, Yan-Ling; Huang, Shui-Zhen; Gao, Lei; Xu, Fei-Hai; Zhang, Zhong-Ying

    2018-03-31

    To verify and evaluate the performance characteristics of a creatine kinase phosphokinase isoenzymes MB (CK-MB) assay kit, which produced by Xiamen Innodx Biotech Co. Ltd. Evaluation was carried out according to "Guidelines for principle of analysis performance evaluation of in vitro diagnostic reagent." The performance parameters included detection limit, linearity range, reportable range, recovery test, precision verification, interference test, cross-reactivity, matrix effect, and method comparison. The detection limit was 0.1 ng/mL. The assay had clinical linearity over range of 0.1 ng/mL-500 ng/mL. Reportable range was from 0.1 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL. The average percent of recovery was 99.66%. The coefficient of variation (CV) for within-run and between-run of low CK-MB sample was 5.55% and 6.16%, respectively. As for high-level sample, it was 7.88% and 7.80%. In medical decision level, the relative deviation (Bias) of all interference tests was lower than 15%. When the sample had mild-hemolysis; hemoglobin ≤15 g/L; triglyceride ≤17 mmol/L; bilirubin ≤427.5 μmol/L; rheumatoid factor ≤206U/mL, there was no significant interference to be found. Moreover, assay kit had no cross-reaction with CK-MM and CK-BB. At last, total diagnostic accuracy of kit was 93.24%, when compared with refer kit. Overall the results of the verification study indicated the performance of kit is met the requirements of the clinical test. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Suspected resistance of MDT-MB in Multibacillary Leprosy of Hansen's disease: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudo Irawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to multidrug therapy (MDT is one of the complications in the treatment of Hansen’s disease/Morbus Hansen (MH. There are two types of resistancy, which are primary and secondary. MDT-multibacillary (MB resistance must be suspected when no clinical improvement and the acid-fast bacilli (AFB index is not reduced after 12 months of therapy. A 28-year-old woman with paresthesia on her face, arms and legs since 2.5 years ago, accompanied by thickening of the right posterior tibial nerve. The AFB examination showed a bacteriological index (BI of 15/6 and morphological index (MI of 0.50%. The second case, a 42-year-old man came with paresthetic lesions on his face, chest, back, both arms and legs since 2 years ago, accompanied by thickening of ulnar and lateral peroneal nerve. The BI was 12/5 and the MI was 0.40%. Both patients were diagnosed with borderline lepromatous type of MH and received MDT-MB for 12 months. Diagnosis of suspected resistance was established because no clinical improvement or any significant decrease of AFB index after completing the MDT treatment. The patients had secondary resistance after polymerase chain reaction evaluation showed that they were still rifampicin-sensitive. There was clinical improvement and significant decrease in FAB index after the patients continued the MDT-MB treatment with 600 mg additional rifampicin. The diagnosis of bacterial resistance should be made based on clinical evaluation before completion of treatment. Based on the two case reports, the resistance suspected may be secondary. Treatment using additional regimen can be initiated once the resistance has been proven.

  13. The MB2 gene family of Plasmodium species has a unique combination of S1 and GTP-binding domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunjumo Oluwasanmi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification and characterization of novel Plasmodium gene families is necessary for developing new anti-malarial therapeutics. The products of the Plasmodium falciparum gene, MB2, were shown previously to have a stage-specific pattern of subcellular localization and proteolytic processing. Results Genes homologous to MB2 were identified in five additional parasite species, P. knowlesi, P. gallinaceum, P. berghei, P. yoelii, and P. chabaudi. Sequence comparisons among the MB2 gene products reveal amino acid conservation of structural features, including putative S1 and GTP-binding domains, and putative signal peptides and nuclear localization signals. Conclusions The combination of domains is unique to this gene family and indicates that MB2 genes comprise a novel family and therefore may be a good target for drug development.

  14. The MB2 gene family of Plasmodium species has a unique combination of S1 and GTP-binding domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lisa C; Nguyen, Thanh V; Deville, Benoit; Ogunjumo, Oluwasanmi; James, Anthony A

    2004-01-01

    Background Identification and characterization of novel Plasmodium gene families is necessary for developing new anti-malarial therapeutics. The products of the Plasmodium falciparum gene, MB2, were shown previously to have a stage-specific pattern of subcellular localization and proteolytic processing. Results Genes homologous to MB2 were identified in five additional parasite species, P. knowlesi, P. gallinaceum, P. berghei, P. yoelii, and P. chabaudi. Sequence comparisons among the MB2 gene products reveal amino acid conservation of structural features, including putative S1 and GTP-binding domains, and putative signal peptides and nuclear localization signals. Conclusions The combination of domains is unique to this gene family and indicates that MB2 genes comprise a novel family and therefore may be a good target for drug development. PMID:15222903

  15. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  16. Analysis of the IPEN/MB-01 critical unit based on criticality experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Yamaguchi, Mitsuo; Ferreira, Carlos Roberto; Yoriyaz, Helio

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the critical loading of the IPEN/MB-01 was performed by using several reactor cell methodologies. The results obtained by using the coupled NJOY/AMPX-II/HAMMER-TECHNION shows the good quality of the available nuclear data files as well as the methodologies in the Reactor Physics area. The original HAMMER system shows results that are well as the methodologies in the Reactor Physics area. The original HAMMER system shows results that are well outside of the desired quality for a cell code. (author), 15 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  17. The two conformers of acetanilide unraveled using LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Caminati, W.; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    Acetanilide has been investigated by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy. The rotational spectrum of both trans and cis conformers have been analyzed to determine the rotational and 14N quadrupole coupling the constants. The spectrum of the less abundant cis conformer has been assigned for the first time. The doublets observed for this conformer have been interpreted in terms of the tunneling motion between two equivalent non-planar conformations through a small barrier in which the acetamide group and phenyl ring plane are perpendicular. The results are compared with those of the related formanilide.

  18. The fast neutron SEU cross section of a 4 Mb SRAM memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Junior, Evaldo C.F.; Goncalez, Odair L.; Cruz, Marco Aurelio da; Prado, Adriane Cristina Mendes; Federico, Claudio Antonio; Gaspar, Felipe de Barros

    2013-01-01

    The results of a static test of single event upset (SEU) produced by fast neutrons on an ISSI 4Mb SRAM memory are reported in this work. To perform the tests, it was built a platform based on a motherboard which is controlled by microprocessor, whose function is to perform the writing, reading and control of the memories under irradiation. The irradiation was performed with a set of 8 241 Am-Be neutrons source in a quasi-isotropic incidence. The SEU cross was calculated from the accumulated bit flip count. (author)

  19. The effects of prior calcium channel blocker therapy on creatine kinase-MB levels after percutaneous coronary interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Gulmez, Oyku

    2008-01-01

    Oyku Gulmez, Ilyas Atar, Bülent Ozin, Mehmet Emin Korkmaz, Aslı Atar, Alp Aydinalp, Aylin Yildirir, Haldun MuderrisogluBaskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: Use of intracoronary calcium channel blockers (CCBs) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to have favorable effects on coronary blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effects of CCBs administrated perorally on creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels in pa...

  20. The effects of prior calcium channel blocker therapy on creatine kinase-MB levels after percutaneous coronary interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Oyku Gulmez; Ilyas Atar; Bülent Ozin; Mehmet Emin Korkmaz; Asli Atar; et al

    2008-01-01

    Oyku Gulmez, Ilyas Atar, Bülent Ozin, Mehmet Emin Korkmaz, Asli Atar, Alp Aydinalp, Aylin Yildirir, Haldun MuderrisogluBaskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: Use of intracoronary calcium channel blockers (CCBs) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to have favorable effects on coronary blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effects of CCBs administrated perorally on creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels in pat...

  1. FPGA BASED ASYNCHRONOUS PIPELINED MB-OFDM UWB TRANSMITTER BACKEND MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santhi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed which comprises the advantages of asynchronous pipelining techniques and the advantages of FPGAs for implementing a 200Mbps MB-OFDM UWB transmitter digital backend modules. In asynchronous pipelined system, registers are used as in synchronous system. But they are controlled by handshaking signals. Since FPGAs are rich in registers, design and implementation of asynchronous pipelined MBOFDM UWB transmitter on FPGA using four-phase bundled-data protocol is considered in this paper. Novel ideas have also been proposed for designing asynchronous OFDM using Modified Radix-24 SDF and asynchronous interleaver using two RAM banks. Implementation has been performed on ALTERA STRATIX II EP2S60F1020C4 FPGA and it is operating at a speed of 350MHz. It is assured that the proposed MB-OFDM UWB system can be made to work on STRATIX III device with the operating frequency of 528MHz in compliance to the ECMA-368 standard. The proposed scheme is also applicable for FPGA from other vendors and ASIC.

  2. Experimental estimation of moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO_2 fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D_2O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α"M_T(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)

  3. Experimental estimation of moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C., E-mail: rubensrcs@usp.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br, E-mail: credidiomura@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PNV/POLI/USP), SP (Brazil). Arquitetura Naval e Departamento de Engenharia Oceanica; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO{sub 2} fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D{sub 2}O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α{sup M}{sub T}(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)

  4. Hazardous Traffic Event Detection Using Markov Blanket and Sequential Minimal Optimization (MB-SMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify hazardous traffic events is already considered as one of the most effective solutions for reducing the occurrence of crashes. Only certain particular hazardous traffic events have been studied in previous studies, which were mainly based on dedicated video stream data and GPS data. The objective of this study is twofold: (1 the Markov blanket (MB algorithm is employed to extract the main factors associated with hazardous traffic events; (2 a model is developed to identify hazardous traffic event using driving characteristics, vehicle trajectory, and vehicle position data. Twenty-two licensed drivers were recruited to carry out a natural driving experiment in Wuhan, China, and multi-sensor information data were collected for different types of traffic events. The results indicated that a vehicle’s speed, the standard deviation of speed, the standard deviation of skin conductance, the standard deviation of brake pressure, turn signal, the acceleration of steering, the standard deviation of acceleration, and the acceleration in Z (G have significant influences on hazardous traffic events. The sequential minimal optimization (SMO algorithm was adopted to build the identification model, and the accuracy of prediction was higher than 86%. Moreover, compared with other detection algorithms, the MB-SMO algorithm was ranked best in terms of the prediction accuracy. The conclusions can provide reference evidence for the development of dangerous situation warning products and the design of intelligent vehicles.

  5. Influence of body position on muscle deoxy[Hb+Mb] during ramp cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMenna, Fred J; Bailey, Stephen J; Jones, Andrew M

    2010-09-30

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to test the hypothesis that body position alters the sigmoidal response profile of muscle fractional O(2) extraction (estimated using deoxy[Hb+Mb]) during incremental cycle exercise. Seven male subjects (mean±SD age 32±13 years) completed a ramp incremental cycling test to exhaustion (30W/min) in both the supine and upright body positions. The sigmoidal (as opposed to hyperbolic) model that provided the better fit to deoxy[Hb+Mb] data during upright cycling was also present for the supine response; however, the slope of the sigmoid was increased (upright: 0.052±0.012 vs. supine: 0.090±0.036%⋅%P(peak)(-1); Prate (upright: 83±8 vs. supine: 68±19%P(peak)(-1); Pchanges occurred in the absence of a leftward shift of the sigmoid. We also found a significantly greater deltaV(O)₂/deltaW slope above compared to below gas exchange threshold (GET) for both conditions (upright: 9.8±0.5 vs. 8.2±0.9; supine: 10.7±0.9 vs. 8.0±0.8) and for supine compared to upright cycling above GET. These findings suggest that the supine posture affects O₂ extraction and V(O)₂ kinetics to a greater extent as work rate progresses during ramp incremental exercise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PILOT BASED CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES IN MB OFDM SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra wideband (UWB communication is mainly used for short range of communication in wireless personal area networks. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is being used as a key physical layer technology for Fourth Generation (4G wireless communication. OFDM based communication gives high spectral efficiency and mitigates Inter-symbol Interference (ISI in a wireless medium. In this paper the IEEE 802.15.3a based Multiband OFDM (MB OFDM system is considered. The pilot based channel estimation techniques are considered to analyze the performance of MB OFDM systems over Liner Time Invariant (LTI Channel models. In this paper, pilot based Least Square (LS and Least Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE channel estimation technique has been considered for UWB OFDM system. In the proposed method, the estimated Channel Impulse Responses (CIRs are filtered in the time domain for the consideration of the channel delay spread. Also the performance of proposed system has been analyzed for different modulation techniques for various pilot density patterns.

  7. Antimetastatic gene expression profiles mediated by retinoic acid receptor beta 2 in MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallden, Brett; Emond, Mary; Swift, Mari E; Disis, Mary L; Swisshelm, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARβ2) gene modulates proliferation and survival of cultured human breast cancer cells. Previously we showed that ectopic expression of RARβ2 in a mouse xenograft model prevented metastasis, even in the absence of the ligand, all-trans retinoic acid. We investigated both cultured cells and xenograft tumors in order to delineate the gene expression profiles responsible for an antimetastatic phenotype. RNA from MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells transduced with RARβ2 or empty retroviral vector (LXSN) was analyzed using Agilent Human 1A Oligo microarrays. The one hundred probes with the greatest differential intensity (p < 0.004, jointly) were determined by selecting the top median log ratios from eight-paired microarrays. Validation of differences in expression was done using Northern blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We determined expression of selected genes in xenograft tumors. RARβ2 cells exhibit gene profiles with overrepresentation of genes from Xq28 (p = 2 × 10 -8 ), a cytogenetic region that contains a large portion of the cancer/testis antigen gene family. Other functions or factors impacted by the presence of exogenous RARβ2 include mediators of the immune response and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Thirteen of fifteen (87%) of the genes evaluated in xenograft tumors were consistent with differences we found in the cell cultures (p = 0.007). Antimetastatic RARβ2 signalling, direct or indirect, results in an elevation of expression for genes such as tumor-cell antigens (CTAG1 and CTAG2), those involved in innate immune response (e.g., RIG-I/DDX58), and tumor suppressor functions (e.g., TYRP1). Genes whose expression is diminished by RARβ2 signalling include cell adhesion functions (e.g, CD164) nutritional or metabolic processes (e.g., FABP6), and the transcription factor, JUN

  8. In vitro membrane binding and protein binding (IAM MB/PB technology to estimate in vivo distribution: applications in early drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Livia Valko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The drug discovery process can be accelerated by chromatographic profiling of the analogs to model in vivo distribution and the major non-specific binding. A balanced potency and chromatographically determined membrane and protein binding (IAM MB/PB data enable selecting drug discovery compounds for further analysis that have the highest probability to show the desired in vivo distribution behavior for efficacy and reduced chance for toxicity. Although the basic principles of the technology have already appeared in numerous publications, the lack of standardized procedures limited its widespread applications especially in academia and small drug discovery biotech companies. In this paper, the standardized procedures are described that has been trademarked as Regis IAM MB/PB Technology®. Comparison between the Drug Efficiency Index (DEI=pIC50-logVdu+2 and generally used Ligand Lipophilicity Efficiency (LLE has been made, demonstrating the advantage of measured IAM and HSA binding over calculated log P. The power of the proposed chromatographic technology is demonstrated using the data of marketed drugs.

  9. The Role of Equivalence and Order Relations in the Development and Coordination of the Concepts of Unit Size and Number of Units in Selected Conservation Type Measurement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.

    The major purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the development of the concept of a unit of measure and the coordination of unit size and the number of units 2) to relate this development to the development of conservation and 3) to determine the role of equivalence and nonequivalence relations in certain conservation and measurement…

  10. Do small swarms have an advantage when house hunting? The effect of swarm size on nest-site selection by Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaerf, T M; Makinson, J C; Myerscough, M R; Beekman, M

    2013-10-06

    Reproductive swarms of honeybees are faced with the problem of finding a good site to establish a new colony. We examined the potential effects of swarm size on the quality of nest-site choice through a combination of modelling and field experiments. We used an individual-based model to examine the effects of swarm size on decision accuracy under the assumption that the number of bees actively involved in the decision-making process (scouts) is an increasing function of swarm size. We found that the ability of a swarm to choose the best of two nest sites decreases as swarm size increases when there is some time-lag between discovering the sites, consistent with Janson & Beekman (Janson & Beekman 2007 Proceedings of European Conference on Complex Systems, pp. 204-211.). However, when simulated swarms were faced with a realistic problem of choosing between many nest sites discoverable at all times, larger swarms were more accurate in their decisions than smaller swarms owing to their ability to discover nest sites more rapidly. Our experimental fieldwork showed that large swarms invest a larger number of scouts into the decision-making process than smaller swarms. Preliminary analysis of waggle dances from experimental swarms also suggested that large swarms could indeed discover and advertise nest sites at a faster rate than small swarms.

  11. Both natural selection and isolation by distance explain phenotypic divergence in bill size and body mass between South Australian little penguin colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Morphological variation between populations of the same species can arise as a response to genetic variation, local environmental conditions, or a combination of both. In this study, I examined small-scale geographic variation in bill size and body mass in little penguins ( Eudyptula minor ) across five breeding colonies in South Australia separated by penguin colonies.

  12. Relationship between size and geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Significance in selection of high grade nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Ambre, N.V.

    stream_size 15 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ocean_Technol_Perspect_1994_827.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ocean_Technol_Perspect_1994_827.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Size selection in codends made of thin-twined Dyneema netting compared to standard codends: A case study with cod, plaice and flounder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Wienbeck, Harald; Stepputis, D.

    2015-01-01

    In an experimental trawl fishery, diamond mesh codends made out of 2.5 mm flexible Dyneema twinewere tested. The principle aim was to investigate the effect of the number of meshes in the codendcircumference, the number of twines (single or double), and netting orientation (T0 or T90) on the size...

  14. Troponin T or troponin I or CK-MB (or none?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, P O

    1998-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of patients who present with chest pain remains problematical. It has been shown that 11.8-7% of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are sent home from the emergency department (ED). Audit of our own ED has shown the incidence of missed prognostically significant myocardial damage to be 6.7%. Diagnostic criteria for AMI have classically been based on the triad of history, ECG and measurement of cardiac enzymes. The choice of 'cardiac enzymes' has been dictated by the evolution of laboratory techniques, commencing with measurement of aspartate transaminase and progressing to measurement of creatine kinase (CK) and its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB). Measurement of CK-MB has been shown by both clinical studies and rigorous statistical analysis to represent the best test for the diagnosis of AMI. The advent of real time immunoassay together with advances in therapeutic options for management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has resulted in a paradigm shift in the approach to laboratory testing. Immunoassay for CK-MB (CK-MB mass measurement) is diagnostically superior to CK-MB activity measurement and is the test of choice for 'classical' AMI. Development of immunoassays for the cardiac troponins, i.e. cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), has enhanced diagnostic specificity. These measurements are completely specific for cardiac damage, allow quantitation of the extent of infarction and are diagnostically superior to CK-MB measurement. Applications of this specificity have included the differential diagnosis of CK elevation in arduous physical training, detection of myocardial damage after DC cardioversion and prediction of ejection fraction. Of more interest is the utility of these markers in management of patients presenting without clear electrocardiographic changes. Diagnosis and management of patients presenting with ST segment elevation has been clarified by large clinical trials of thrombolytic agents. In such

  15. Differential investment in pre- vs. post-copulatory sexual selection reinforces a cross-continental reversal of sexual size dimorphism in Sepsis punctum (Diptera: Sepsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Blanckenhorn, W