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Sample records for maze john marshall

  1. Continuidade ou ruptura? Uma análise de alguns aspectos da filosofia social de John Stuart Mill, Alfred Marshall e John Maynard Keynes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA VALLADÃO DE MATTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo argumenta que é possível se falar em uma 'tradição' no campo de filosofia social e econômica unindo as obras de J.S. Mill e Alfred Marshall e J.M. Keynes. Essa 'tradição' pode ser caracterizada pelas seguintes concepções: (a pela rejeição moral aos valores aquisitivos do capitalismo; (b pela visão de que o sistema capitalista seria incapaz de resolver de forma espontânea as questões das desigualdades de renda e riqueza e da pobreza; (c pela ideia de que, por uma questão de garantia de liberdade e da diversidade, além de por questões de eficiência econômica, dever-se-ia deixar a iniciativa individual agir livremente nas esferas em que é capaz de engendrar bons resultados, mas que o Estado deveria intervir, quando essa falha, atuando em benefício da coletividade; (d pela crença de que seria possível melhorar significativamente esse sistema por meio de mudanças pontuais e graduais.

  2. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  3. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  4. Unilateral robotic hybrid mini-maze: a novel experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad; Rawashdeh, Badi; Meyer, Mark; Nguyen, Duy; Poston, Robert; Gharagozloo, Farid

    2016-03-01

    A complete Cox maze IV procedure is difficult to accomplish using current endoscopic and minimally invasive techniques. These techniques are hampered by inability to adequately dissect the posterior structures of the heart and place all necessary lesions. We present a novel approach, using robotic technology, that achieves placement of all the lesions of the complete maze procedure. In three cadaveric human models, the technical feasibility of using robotic instruments through the right chest to dissect the posterior structures of the heart and place all Cox maze lesions was performed. The entire posterior aspect of the heart was dissected in the cadaveric model facilitating successful placement of all Cox maze IV lesions with robotic assistance through minimally invasive incisions. The robotic Cox maze IV procedure through the novel right thoracic approach is feasible. This obviates the need for sternotomy and avoids the associated morbidity of the conventional Cox-maze procedure. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The creativity maze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourgeois-Bougrine, Samira; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Botella, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims to address a current gap in our understanding of creativity in screenplay writing by focusing on the cognitive, conative, affective, and environmental factors that come into play at different stages in the creative process. It reports a study employing in-depth interviews...... and or treatment), and, finally, intense periods of writing and rewriting the script. These 3 stages, and, in particular, the multiple and concrete decisions to be taken within each one of them, support a vision of the creative process in this domain metaphorically conceptualized as crossing a maze. Creators...

  6. Secretary Marshall's Employment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    A review of proposed employment strategies and priorities of Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, with regard to training programs, governmental subsidy programs, apprenticeships, private sector jobs, etc. (WL)

  7. John Stachel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. John Stachel. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 3 Issue 8 August 1998 pp 76-92 Reflections. Albert Einstein-The Man Behind the Myths · John Stachel · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  8. Rolling block mazes are PSPACE-complete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a rolling block maze, one or more blocks lie on a rectangular board with square cells. In most mazes, the blocks have size k × m × n where k, m, n are integers that determine the size of the block in terms of units of the size of the board cells. The task of a rolling block maze is to roll a

  9. John Lindsay

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A few weeks ago John Lindsay passed away unexpectedly at his home in St. Genis. With his death we have lost a pioneer in detector electronics and one of the founding fathers of the CERN Electronics Group. John came to CERN in 1956 to join the Electronics Group, which was being formed in the SC Division. He thus participated from the beginning in the design, development, production, commissioning and support of electronics for the experiments at the CERN accelerators, initially at the SC and finally at the SPS. From the University of Glasgow he brought his expertise on pulse height analyzers, which were called kick sorters in those days, and did pioneering work with it in the early CERN experiments. He designed read-out systems for successive generations of detectors, such as wire spark chambers, multiwire proportional chambers, calorimeters, etc., often coming up with innovative solutions. Surely one of his finest moments must have been when he worked on complex detector systems, such as liquid argon calo...

  10. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI) of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  11. [Glass maze in women's leadership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá Heredia, Ester; Ramos López, Amparo; Candela Agulló, Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Psychological gender discrimination explanations have changed over the past thirty years, becoming more complex in order to obtain a better understanding of the social reality. At the present moment, one of the most interesting research areas is the one referring to the 'glass maze' phenomenon in women's management careers. The main purpose of this work is to reveal the theoretical evolution in an attempt to explain the leadership study from a gender perspective. The consecutive hypotheses, starting with the labour sexual division idea, are becoming more interactive in order to understand the current labour-social situation. Social psychology has underlined the role of beliefs, observed via gender stereotyped roles, prejudiced attitudes against women, sexist and neo-sexist ideology, or masculine, feminine and androgynous identity development. New psychological interpretations insist on the variability of the gender concept, where gender is sometimes observed through men and women's behaviours, and other times through those behaviour expectations. But gender is mainly observed though the power relations between men and women during social interactions in labour organizations.

  12. Peter St. John | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John Photo of Peter St. John Peter St. John Researcher III-Chemical Engineering Peter.StJohn @nrel.gov | 303-384-7969 Orcid ID http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7928-3722 Education Peter St. John received his engineering from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 2015. During his Ph.D., St. John applied

  13. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  14. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  15. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  16. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  17. Sex differences in a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: the "17-Box Maze Test".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Abrahams, Sharon; Jussab, Fardin

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated sex differences in spatial memory using a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: a revision on the Nine Box Maze originally developed by called the 17-Box Maze Test herein. The task encourages allocentric spatial processing, dissociates object from spatial memory, and incorporates a within-participants design to provide measures of location and object, working and reference memory. Healthy adult males and females (26 per group) were administered the 17-Box Maze Test, as well as mental rotation and a verbal IQ test. Females made significantly fewer errors on this task than males. However, post hoc analysis revealed that the significant sex difference was specific to object, rather than location, memory measures. These were medium to large effect sizes. The findings raise the issue of task- and component-specific sexual dimorphism in cognitive mapping.

  18. Psychometric Properties of Maze Tasks in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Barth, Amy E.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Maze tasks have appealing properties as progress-monitoring tools, but there is a need for a thorough examination of the psychometric properties of Maze tasks among middle school students. We evaluated form effects, reliability, validity, and practice effects of Maze among students in Grades 6 through 8. We administered the same (familiar) and…

  19. RAINDROP DISTRIBUTIONS AT MAJURO ATOLL, MARSHALL ISLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAINDROPS, MARSHALL ISLANDS ), (*ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION, TROPICAL REGIONS), PARTICLE SIZE, SAMPLING, TABLES(DATA), WATER, ATTENUATION, DISTRIBUTION, VOLUME, RADAR REFLECTIONS, RAINFALL, PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, COMPUTERS

  20. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C

    2010-01-01

    and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes....... Our results show that blindfolded sighted controls outperformed blind participants in the route-learning tasks. This suggests that, contrary to indoor large-scale spaces, navigational skills inside small-scale spaces benefit from visual experience....

  1. A Maze Game on Android Using Growing Tree Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Y. F.

    2018-01-01

    A maze is a type of puzzle games where a player moves in complex and branched passages to find a particular target or location. One method to create a maze is the Growing Tree method. The method creates a tree that has branches which are the paths of a maze. This research explored three types of Growing Tree method implementations for maze generation on Android mobile devices. The layouts produced could be played in first and third-person perspectives. The experiment results showed that it took 17.3 seconds on average to generate 20 cells x 20 cells dynamic maze layouts.

  2. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  3. Multivariate Marshall and Olkin Exponential Minification Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stationary bivariate minification process with bivariate Marshall-Olkin exponential distribution that was earlier studied by Miroslav et al [15]is in this paper extended to multivariate minification process with multivariate Marshall and Olkin exponential distribution as its stationary marginal distribution. The innovation and the ...

  4. St. John's Wort (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The herb St. John's Wort is believed to be helpful in relieving mild to moderate depression, but should only be taken under a physician's supervision. St. John's Wort may clash with other medications or ...

  5. Memory-Enhancing Activity of Palmatine in Mice Using Elevated Plus Maze and Morris Water Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhingra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmatine on memory of Swiss young male albino mice. Palmatine (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p. and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. per se were administered for 10 successive days to separate groups of mice. Effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice was evaluated using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also estimated. Effect of palmatine on scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia was also investigated. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg and physostigmine significantly improved learning and memory of mice, as indicated by decrease in transfer latency using elevated plus maze, and decrease in escape latency during training and increase in time spent in target quadrant during retrieval using Morris water maze. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice. Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine (1 mg/kg was comparable to physostigmine. Palmatine (1 mg/kg significantly reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. Palmatine and physostigmine also significantly reduced brain acetylcholinesterase activity of mice. Thus, palmatine showed memory-enhancing activity in mice probably by inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase activity, through involvement of GABA-benzodiazepine pathway, and due to its antioxidant activity.

  6. Barnes Maze Procedure for Spatial Learning and Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Matthew W

    2018-03-05

    The Barnes maze is a dry-land based rodent behavioral paradigm for assessing spatial learning and memory that was originally developed by its namesake, Carol Barnes. It represents a well-established alternative to the more popular Morris Water maze and offers the advantage of being free from the potentially confounding influence of swimming behavior. Herein, the Barnes maze experimental setup and corresponding procedures for testing and analysis in mice are described in detail.

  7. Marshall funds the Camaldolese monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kracik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikołaj Wolski (1553-1630, founder of the Camaldolese hermitage at Bielany near Cracow, was an exceptionally colourful and interesting personage. He travelled widely in his youth touring the most important European countries and getting familiar with the Renaissance culture. In spite of the fact that he supported a candidate of the House of Hapsburg to the Polish throne, he managed to get appreciation of king Sigismund III, who entrusted him with a position of the Royal Marshal to the Crown and made him his close advisor. Many a time he was sent as an envoy to the pope and monarchs, playing, at the same time, the role of a patron of artists, whom he won not only for the royal palace, but to beautify his own residence in Krzepica. The last 27 years of his life he devoted to the idea of bringing the Camaldolese Order to Cracow and building a hermitage for them on the Bielany Hill. The founder persoally supervised construction works and resided in one of the first monastery houses. As an expression of humbleness he wished to be buried after his death under the threshold of he church in a monk’s robe.

  8. Marshall-smith syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Shi Kyung; Cho, In Chul; Han, Chun Hwan

    2002-01-01

    Marshall-smith syndrome is a rare disease, with about 29 cases reported to date. It is characterized by accelerated bony growth and maturation, phalangeal abnormalities (wide middle and narrow distal phalanges), unusual facial features (prominent eyes, bluish sclerae, coarse eyebrows, an upturned nose, hypoplastic facial bones, and shallow orbits), failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, and psychomotor retardation. This report of the radiologic findings of Marshall-smith syndrome is as, for as we know, the first to be published in Korea

  9. Marshall-Smith syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Shi Kyung; Cho, In Chul; Han, Chun Hwan

    2002-01-01

    Marshall-Smith syndrome is a rare disease, with about 29 cases reported to date. It is characterized by accelerated bony growth and maturation, phalangeal abnormalities (wide middle and narrow distal phalanges), unusual facial features (prominent eyes, bluish sclerae, coarse eyebrows, an upturned nose, hypoplastic facial bones, and shallow orbits), failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, and psychomotor retardation. This report of the radiologic findings of Marshall-Smith syndrome is, as for as we know, the first to be published in Korea

  10. John Dewey, an Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the annual Presidential address of Phi Kappa Phi, presented on May 8, 1962, was John Dewey. Dewey is identified in the public mind chiefly as an educational philosopher. In this address, the author describes the life and work of John Dewey as an indefatigable student of life whose interests ranged, like those of Aristotle, over the…

  11. John P Craig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. John P Craig. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 17 Issue 10 October 2012 pp 924-925 Article-in-a-Box. S N De - An Appreciation · John P Craig · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  12. A John Wilson

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. A John Wilson. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 70-76 Classroom. Inverting Matrices Constructed from Roots of Unity · A John Wilson · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  13. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3 He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  14. Demythologizing John Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    This article takes a brief but critical look at John Dewey's version of pragmatism, his contribution to philosophical scholarship generally as well as his theory and practice of liberalism. (Author/RK)

  15. Sassis tuumamajandus / John Carey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carey, John

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendikandidaadi John McCaini energeetikakava kohaselt tuleks USA-sse ehitada 100 uut tuumaelektrijaama, neist esimesed 45 peaksid valmima aastaks 2030. Tuumaelektrijaamad aitaksid rahuldada USA energiavajadust ning võitleksid ka kliimasoojenemise vastu. Eksperdid on arengukava suhtes kriitilised

  16. Interview with John Milnor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society......This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society...

  17. Commemorating John Dyson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, Julian M.

    2015-03-01

    John Dyson was born on the 7th January 1941 in Meltham Mills, West Yorkshire, England, and later grew up in Harrogate and Leeds. The proudest moment of John's early life was meeting Freddie Trueman, who became one of the greatest fast bowlers of English cricket. John used a state scholarship to study at Kings College London, after hearing a radio lecture by D. M. McKay. He received a first class BSc Special Honours Degree in Physics in 1962, and began a Ph.D. at the University of Manchester Department of Astronomy after being attracted to astronomy by an article of Zdenek Kopal in the semi-popular journal New Scientist. John soon started work with Franz Kahn, and studied the possibility that the broad emission lines seen from the Orion Nebula were due to flows driven by the photoevaporation of neutral globules embedded in a HII region. John's thesis was entitled ``The Age and Dynamics of the Orion Nebula`` and he passed his oral examination on 28th February 1966.

  18. John Deakin: Double Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rousseau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.

  19. John Donne no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Garcez Ghirardi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O leitor fica sem saber a troco do que John Donne lhe surge de repente, num virar de página, e através de períodos que parecem responder a uma pergunta que não foi formulada.(... Ninguém, nem o Sr. Afrânio Coutinho falara, até então, de John Donne,(.... Simplesmente, esse trecho, como inúmeros outros (quase todos do livro, revela que leituras apaixonantes obrigaram o professor Afrânio Coutinho a tomar em seu caderno alguns apontamentos eruditos. (MARTINS 1983 vol.I:621

  20. Problem-solving in English through business mazes

    CERN Document Server

    Farthing, Joni

    1981-01-01

    We choose our job carefully. What we cannot choose are our colleagues - so it's not surprising that conflict and friction can arise in our working relationships. Business Mazes presents such problems for you to solve. Follow a route through the maze ans see the outcome of each decision you make. You may find that the quickest rout isn't always the best, or the easiest, in the long run. Business Mazes is designed for intermediate and advanced level students of English, working alone or in groups. It includes full teaching plans and exercises. The mazes may also be used effectively as an interesting approach to discussion for young people preparing their first job.

  1. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F.; Damiani, R. (Compiler)

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 Marshall Faculty Fellowship Program involved 21 faculty in the laboratories and departments at Marshall Space Flight Center. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2017 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (Appendix A) and the Program Description (Appendix B). The research affected the following six areas: (1) Materials (2) Propulsion (3) Instrumentation (4) Spacecraft systems (5) Vehicle systems (6) Space science The materials investigations included composite structures, printing electronic circuits, degradation of materials by energetic particles, friction stir welding, Martian and Lunar regolith for in-situ construction, and polymers for additive manufacturing. Propulsion studies were completed on electric sails and low-power arcjets for use with green propellants. Instrumentation research involved heat pipes, neutrino detectors, and remote sensing. Spacecraft systems research was conducted on wireless technologies, layered pressure vessels, and two-phase flow. Vehicle systems studies were performed on life support-biofilm buildup and landing systems. In the space science area, the excitation of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission provided insight regarding the propagation of these waves. Our goal is to continue the Marshall Faculty Fellowship Program funded by Center internal project offices. Faculty Fellows in this 2017 program represented the following minority-serving institutions: Alabama A&M University and Oglala Lakota College.

  2. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Marshall Islands. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 20...

  3. John Cale avaldas memuaarid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Rockbändi "The Velvet Underground" asutajaliige John Cale avaldas oma autobiograafia "What's Welsh for Zen?". Koos biograafiakirjanik Victor Bockrisiga kirjutatud teos räägib 60ndate lõpu kultuurielust New Yorgis, koostööst Andy Warholiga jm.

  4. John Hennessey, Barrier Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    John Hennessey lived a remarkable, full life as a professor, as a leader in his field of management and business, and moral, ethical leadership, and as dean at Dartmouth College's Tuck School of Business and provost at the University of Vermont. He was extraordinary on many fronts, a great man who lived in tumultuous times marked by world war as a…

  5. John Archibald Wheeler

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 1. John Archibald Wheeler - Man with Picturesque Imagination. Jayant V Narlikar. General Article Volume 18 Issue 1 January 2013 pp 22-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. John Maynard Smith

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. John Maynard Smith (1920-2004). Featured Scientist Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 110-110. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/11/0110-0110. Resonance ...

  7. Amazeobot : The construction of a maze mapping robot

    OpenAIRE

    REBECCA, WIKSTRÖM; MARTIN, SJÖGREN

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of exploring how a computer can navigate through a maze, this project examines how a robot’s surroundings can be interpreted, mapped and navigated through, by applying common maze solving algorithms. The execution of the project involves infrared sensors used to interpret a controlled environment, consisting of a twodimensional board with paths. Movement and navigation decisions will be made possible by two DCmotorized wheels mounted on a platform, two simple computers and two...

  8. Unbiased classification of spatial strategies in the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Tomer; Madar, Ravit; Clague, Charlotte; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Louzoun, Yoram; Okun, Eitan

    2016-11-01

    Spatial learning is one of the most widely studied cognitive domains in neuroscience. The Morris water maze and the Barnes maze are the most commonly used techniques to assess spatial learning and memory in rodents. Despite the fact that these tasks are well-validated paradigms for testing spatial learning abilities, manual categorization of performance into behavioral strategies is subject to individual interpretation, and thus to bias. We have previously described an unbiased machine-learning algorithm to classify spatial strategies in the Morris water maze. Here, we offer a support vector machine-based, automated, Barnes-maze unbiased strategy (BUNS) classification algorithm, as well as a cognitive score scale that can be used for memory acquisition, reversal training and probe trials. The BUNS algorithm can greatly benefit Barnes maze users as it provides a standardized method of strategy classification and cognitive scoring scale, which cannot be derived from typical Barnes maze data analysis. Freely available on the web at http://okunlab.wix.com/okunlab as a MATLAB application. eitan.okun@biu.ac.ilSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. John Donne no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Garcez Ghirardi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2003n45p77 O leitor fica sem saber a troco do que John Donne lhe surge de repente, num virar de página, e através de períodos que parecem responder a uma pergunta que não foi formulada.(... Ninguém, nem o Sr. Afrânio Coutinho falara, até então, de John Donne,(.... Simplesmente, esse trecho, como inúmeros outros (quase todos do livro, revela que leituras apaixonantes obrigaram o professor Afrânio Coutinho a tomar em seu caderno alguns apontamentos eruditos. (MARTINS 1983 vol.I:621

  10. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  11. John Kenneth Hulm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulm, J.

    1988-01-01

    John Hulm has made profound contributions to the field of superconductivity as a research scientist and as an engineer. He and his colleagues discovered the superconducting materials in commercial use today, and he played a key role in the development of commercial superconducting magnets. Dr. Hulm now serves as Chief Scientist at Westinghouse Electric Corporation. This story describes many milestones in the history of superconductivity and offers personal insight into this distinguished scientist

  12. Sir John Meurig Thomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2013-10-11

    "My greatest achievement has been to combine being a teacher, a researcher, and a popularizer of science for over 50 years. My worst nightmare is to find myself dumbstruck when I am about to give a lecture …︁" This and more about Sir John Meurig Thomas can be found on page 10938. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  14. Bookshelf. John Adams biography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Full text: When John Bertram Adams died on 3 March 1984, CERN lost one of its principal architects. The late Sir John Adams was a very private person who rarely confided in his colleagues. This made the job of his biographer particularly difficult. Michael Crowley- Milling has succeeded admirably, and has performed a very important service. Is it a potted history of CERN, or the story of the building of the PS, or of the SPS? Yes, all of these, but most of all it is a thoughtful and discerning biography and a fitting tribute to a veritable giant of European science and technology. The sub-title,' Engineer Extraordinary' refers not only to John's outstanding ability as a builder of accelerators, but perhaps even more importantly, as a builder of teams and an 'engineer of opinions'. The book describes how John's attention to detail and intuitive engineering skills developed during the early part of his career, when working in radar research, and how he emerged as a natural leader in the building of the CERN PS. Then later, how his statesmanship enabled him to ''...rescue it (the 300 GeV Programme) from seeming political disaster and nurse it through technical problems to a successful conclusion.'' One crucial part of this process described is the visit to CERN in 1970 by Margaret Thatcher, at that time UK Secretary of State for Education and Science, and her subsequent letters of thanks, not only to Bernard Gregory as Director General, but also to John. It is interesting to speculate to what extent the good impression made on that occasion helped many years later, when as Prime Minister Mrs Thatcher decided that Britain should stay in CERN! After the successful commissioning of the SPS, the book goes on to describe the period when the two CERN Laboratories were merged under two Directors General. Unfortunately I found this part a little too low key, given that John and Leon van Hove presided over what was undoubtedly

  15. Marshall Rosenbluth and the Metropolis algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The 1953 publication, 'Equation of State Calculations by Very Fast Computing Machines' by N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth and M. N. Rosenbluth, and M. Teller and E. Teller [J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087 (1953)] marked the beginning of the use of the Monte Carlo method for solving problems in the physical sciences. The method described in this publication subsequently became known as the Metropolis algorithm, undoubtedly the most famous and most widely used Monte Carlo algorithm ever published. As none of the authors made subsequent use of the algorithm, they became unknown to the large simulation physics community that grew from this publication and their roles in its development became the subject of mystery and legend. At a conference marking the 50th anniversary of the 1953 publication, Marshall Rosenbluth gave his recollections of the algorithm's development. The present paper describes the algorithm, reconstructs the historical context in which it was developed, and summarizes Marshall's recollections

  16. Medication usage in Majuro, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Andrew

    2005-03-01

    To conduct a drug utilisation study to determine the top 50 drugs by prescription count, top 50 drugs by cost to government and the top 30 drugs by consumption for Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands for the year 2003. Data was collected from the Majuro Hospital computer dispensing system. All outpatient prescriptions dispensed in the year 2003 were included. The defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was employed. Drug consumption was presented as DDD/1000 population/day. The top 5 drugs by consumption in Majuro for 2003 were glibenclamide (glyburide), enalapril, ferrous sulphate, amoxycillin and ascorbic acid. Values for the DDD/1000 population/day were on average lower than many other countries. This is the first local study of medication usage in the Marshall Islands. It provided some useful baseline data.

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The Faculty Fellowship program was revived in the summer of 2015 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, following a period of diminished faculty research activity here since 2006 when budget cuts in the Headquarters' Education Office required realignment. Several senior Marshall managers recognized the need to involve the Nation's academic research talent in NASA's missions and projects to the benefit of both entities. These managers invested their funds required to establish the renewed Faculty Fellowship program in 2015, a 10-week residential research involvement of 16 faculty in the laboratories and offices at Marshall. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2015 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (appendix A) and the Program Description (appendix B). The research touched on seven areas-propulsion, materials, instrumentation, fluid dynamics, human factors, control systems, and astrophysics. The propulsion studies included green propellants, gas bubble dynamics, and simulations of fluid and thermal transients. The materials investigations involved sandwich structures in composites, plug and friction stir welding, and additive manufacturing, including both strength characterization and thermosets curing in space. The instrumentation projects involved spectral interfero- metry, emissivity, and strain sensing in structures. The fluid dynamics project studied the water hammer effect. The human factors project investigated the requirements for close proximity operations in confined spaces. Another team proposed a controls system for small launch vehicles, while in astrophysics, one faculty researcher estimated the practicality of weather modification by blocking the Sun's insolation, and another found evidence in satellite data of the detection of a warm

  18. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Yu

    Full Text Available Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs. They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  19. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  20. Infant mortality in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, S J; Booth, H

    1988-12-01

    Levy and Booth present previously unpublished infant mortality rates for the Marshall Islands. They use an indirect method to estimate infant mortality from the 1973 and 1980 censuses, then apply indirect and direct methods of estimation to data from the Marshall Islands Women's Health Survey of 1985. Comparing the results with estimates of infant mortality obtained from vital registration data enables them to estimate the extent of underregistration of infant deaths. The authors conclude that 1973 census appears to be the most valid information source. Direct estimates from the Women's Health Survey data suggest that infant mortality has increased since 1970-1974, whereas the indirect estimates indicate a decreasing trend in infant mortality rates, converging with the direct estimates in more recent years. In view of increased efforts to improve maternal and child health in the mid-1970s, the decreasing trend is plausible. It is impossible to estimate accurately infant mortality in the Marshall Islands during 1980-1984 from the available data. Estimates based on registration data for 1975-1979 are at least 40% too low. The authors speculate that the estimate of 33 deaths per 1000 live births obtained from registration data for 1984 is 40-50% too low. In round figures, a value of 60 deaths per 1000 may be taken as the final estimate for 1980-1984.

  1. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of acute sibutramine in female rats in the elevated T-maze and elevated plus-maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Raliny O; de Assunção, Gabriela L M; de Medeiros, Diogo M B; de Sousa Pinto, Icaro A; de Barros, Keizianny S; Soares, Bruno L; André, Eunice; Gavioli, Elaine C; de Paula Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Sibutramine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor indicated for the treatment of obesity. A pre-clinical study showed that acute administration of sibutramine promoted anxiolytic- and panicolytic-like effects in male rats. However, in clinical reports, sibutramine favoured the onset of panic attacks in women. In this study, the effect of sibutramine on experimental anxiety in females and the relevance of different oestrous cycle phases for this effect were analysed. In experiment 1, both male and female rats were submitted to acute intraperitoneal injection of sibutramine or vehicle 30 min. before testing in the elevated T-maze (ETM) and in the open-field test (OF). Females in the pro-oestrus (P), oestrus (E), early dioestrus (ED) and late dioestrus (LD) phases were tested in the ETM and OF (experiment 2) or in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) 30 min. after the injection of sibutramine. Sibutramine impaired the escape response in the ETM in both males and females. This effect was observed for P, E and ED, but not for LD females. Sibutramine altered neither the inhibitory avoidance in the ETM nor the behaviour of females in the EPM. Thus, sibutramine promoted a panicolytic-like effect in female rats cycling at P, E and ED, but not in the LD phase and did not alter behaviours related to anxiety in both ETM and EPM. Considering that pre-clinical studies aiming the screening of anxiolytic drugs employ male rodents, data here obtained reinforce the importance of better understanding the effects of drugs in females. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. John Bertram Adams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    This is the biography of a man obviously much liked and respected. It gives some personal details but is mainly concerned with his scientific work and achievements on major projects. Thus, some background information on those projects is also given as a context to the work of John Adams. The biography is written in sections; early years, the creation of CERN, Adams at CERN 1953-61, Adams and thermonuclear research 1958-69, (which includes his Directorship of the Culham Laboratory), Adams and the Ministry of Technology 1965-66, member for research of the UK Atomic Energy Authority 1966-69, Adams at CERN 1969-84 (as Director General of the SPS, as Executive Director-General of CERN 1979-81 and work at CERN up to 1984). (UK)

  4. Filsafat Multikulturalisme John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Rehayati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terjadinya konflik horizontal yang mengatasnamakan identitas kelompok (etnis, suku, keyakinan dan seterusnya dikarenakan adanya phobia terhadap perbedaan. Padahal perbedaan suatu keniscayaan, karena manusia tidak akan mampu menyeragamkan atau menuntut orang lain untuk sama dengan dirinya, baik pada aspek pemikiran, keyakinan, etnis, suku, budaya, dan sebagainya. Filsafat multikulturalisme John Rawls merupakan alternatif tawaran politik kebudayaan untuk mengatasi konflik horizontal. Menurut Rawls, suatu masyarakat yang adil bukanlah hanya menjamin “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” yang selama ini terkenal dalam prinsip demokrasi. Tetapi, masyarakat yang adil menurutnya adalah adanya pengakuan dan penerimaan terhadap perbedaan dan keberagaman. Pendapatnya ini dia rangkai dalam pokok-pokok pemikirannya tentang keadilan, seperti: Justice as Fairness, Veil of Ignorance, Principle of Equal Liberty, Maximin Rule, Lexical Order dan Reflective Equilibrium.

  5. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F.; Karr, G.

    2017-01-01

    The research projects conducted by the 2016 Faculty Fellows at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center included propulsion studies on propellant issues, and materials investigations involving plasma effects and friction stir welding. Spacecraft Systems research was conducted on wireless systems and 3D printing of avionics. Vehicle Systems studies were performed on controllers and spacecraft instruments. The Science and Technology group investigated additive construction applied to Mars and Lunar regolith, medical uses of 3D printing, and unique instrumentation, while the Test Laboratory measured pressure vessel leakage and crack growth rates.

  6. Maze Procedures for Atrial Fibrillation, From History to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Charles; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2011-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation may result in significant symptoms, (systemic) thrombo-embolism, as well as tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy with cardiac failure, and consequently be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays symptomatic atrial fibrillation can be treated with catheter-based ablation, surgical ablation or hybrid approaches. In this setting a fairly large number of surgical approaches and procedures are described and being practised. It should be clear that the Cox-maze procedure resulted from building up evidence and experience in different steps, while some of the present surgical approaches and techniques are being based only on technical feasibility with limited experience, rather than on a process of consequent methodology. Some of the issues still under debate are whether or not the maze procedure can be limited to the left atrium or even to isolation of the pulmonary veins or that bi-atrial procedures are indicated, whether or not cardiopulmonary bypass is to be applied and which route of exposure facilitates an optimal result. In addition, maze procedures are not procedures guide by electrophysiological mapping. At least in theory not in all patients all lesions of the maze procedures are necessary. A history and aspects of current practise in surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation is presented.

  7. Navigation using sensory substitution in real and virtual mazes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Robert Chebat

    Full Text Available Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision.

  8. Navigation using sensory substitution in real and virtual mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs) can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations) can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision.

  9. What does the CBM-maze test measure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Kendeou, P.; de Jong, P.F.; van den Broek, P.W.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we identified the code-related (decoding, fluency) and language comprehension (vocabulary, listening comprehension) demands of the CBM-Maze test, a formative assessment, and compared them to those of the Gates–MacGinitie test, a standardized summative assessment. The demands of these

  10. Validating the Electric Maze Task as a Measure of Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly W.; Cheatham, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    The Electric Maze Task (EMT) is a novel planning task designed to allow flexible testing of planning abilities across a broad age range and to incorporate manipulations to test underlying planning abilities, such as working-memory and inhibitory control skills. The EMT was tested in a group of 63 typically developing 7- to 12-year-olds.…

  11. Vitreous veils and radial lattice in Marshall syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Jacob W; Mohney, Brian G; Pulido, Jose S; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica

    2008-12-01

    To report the findings of membranous vitreous veils and radial lattice in a child with Marshall syndrome. Observational case report. Retrospective review of medical records and fundus photograph of a 6-year-old boy with Marshall syndrome. Vitreoretinal findings were significant for bilateral membranous vitreous veils and radial lattice degeneration. This case demonstrates the occurrence of vitreous veils and radial lattice degeneration in patients with Marshall syndrome.

  12. John Adams Lecture

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    13 December 2010 14:30 - Council Chamber, Bldg.503-1-001 Accelerator Breakthroughs, Achievements and Lessons from the Tevatron Collider V. Shiltsev / Fermilab’s Accelerator Physics Centre This year we celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first proton-antiproton collisions in the Tevatron. For two and a half decades the Tevatron at Fermilab (Batavia, IL, USA) was a centerpiece of the US and world’s High Energy Physics as the world’s highest energy particle collider at 1.8 TeV center of mass energy. While funding agencies are deciding on a 3-year extension of the Collider Run II operation through 2014, we – in this 2010 John Adams Lecture - will take a look in exciting story of the Tevatron: the story of long preparations, great expectations, numerous difficulties, years of “blood and sweat”, continuous upgrades, exceeding original goals (by a factor of 400) and high emotions. An accelerator scientist prospective will be given on a wide spectrum o...

  13. Fertility and contraception in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, S J; Taylor, R; Higgins, I L; Grafton-Wasserman, D A

    1988-01-01

    Data on fertility and contraception in Micronesian women in the Marshall Islands were collected during a women's health survey in 1985. High total fertility rates were found. The reproductive pattern of many Marshallese women is one that has been associated with adverse health consequences: pregnancies in teenagers and in women over 39 years, high parities of four or more births, and short birth intervals. The practice of breastfeeding is declining in younger women. The prevalence of contraceptive use is low, and the availability of reversible methods is limited. Most contraceptive nonusers would like to practice contraception, but are inhibited by the lack of information about family planning. It is suggested that more attention needs to be given to family planning services in the Marshall Islands, in particular to improving the availability of reversible methods of contraception and of information about family planning. Further research is also needed on how family planning services might best be organized to maximize participation by women and their partners who wish to use such services.

  14. 7-NI and ODQ Disturbs Memory in the Elevated Plus Maze, Morris Water Maze, and Radial Arm Maze Tests in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Oguz; Akar, Furuzan; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an atypical neurotransmitter that causes changes in cognition. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors have been shown to exert some effects on cognition in previous studies; however, the findings have been controversial. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on spatial memory in modified elevated plus maze (mEPM), Morris water maze (MWM), and radial arm maze (RAM) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated via intraperitoneal injections with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (3 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the second-day latency in the mEPM test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the escape latency in second, third, and fourth sessions, decreased the time spent in the escape platform's quadrant, and increased the mean distance to the platform in the probe trial of the MWM test. ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the number of errors, whereas only 7-NI increased the latency in the RAM test. The administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) prior to 7-NI inverted the effects of 7-NI, which supports the role of NO on cognition. Our study shows that the NO/cGMP/GS pathway can regulate spatial memory in mice.

  15. 7-NI and ODQ Disturbs Memory in the Elevated plus Maze, Morris Water Maze, and Radial Arm Maze Tests in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an atypical neurotransmitter that causes changes in cognition. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS and guanylate cyclase (GC inhibitors have been shown to exert some effects on cognition in previous studies; however, the findings have been controversial. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, and a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1 H -[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, on spatial memory in modified elevated plus maze (mEPM, Morris water maze (MWM, and radial arm maze (RAM tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated via intraperitoneal injections with 7-NI (15 mg/kg, ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg, L-arginine (100 mg/kg + 7-NI (15 mg/kg, or physiological saline. ODQ (3 mg/kg and 7-NI (15 mg/kg significantly increased the second-day latency in the mEPM test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg and ODQ (10 mg/kg significantly increased the escape latency in second, third, and fourth sessions, decreased the time spent in the escape platform's quadrant, and increased the mean distance to the platform in the probe trial of the MWM test. ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg and 7-NI (15 mg/kg significantly increased the number of errors, whereas only 7-NI increased the latency in the RAM test. The administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg prior to 7-NI inverted the effects of 7-NI, which supports the role of NO on cognition. Our study shows that the NO/cGMP/GS pathway can regulate spatial memory in mice.

  16. General of the Army George C. Marshall on Operational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    145 and he actively pursued it as an end itself, even personally getting involved in the distribution of chocolate and cigarettes.146 When a...Marshall to Mrs. Thomas B. Coles, 26 October 1927, Ibid., 316. Marshall was happy to move and looking forward to the new duty. 51 Lecture, Fort

  17. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the body weight and other linear parameters of Marshall Broiler for repeatability estimates. A total of one hundred (100) broiler chickens (Marshall) was used in estimating the repeatability of body weight and linear parameters of day old from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) and ...

  18. Multi-laboratory precision of Marshall design related tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Marshall method is still the method of choice for the design of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) in South Africa. During the validation of a HMA mix design, considerable variability was encountered in Marshall test results for the same mix supplied...

  19. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project.

  20. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project

  1. HISTORICAL NOTE JOHN HUNTER (SURGEON) John Hunter FRS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN HUNTER (SURGEON). John Hunter FRS (13 February 1728-16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. He was the husband of Anne Hunter, a teacher, friend and ...

  2. Marshall Application Realignment System (MARS) Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshe, Andrea; Sutton, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    The Marshall Application Realignment System (MARS) Architecture project was established to meet the certification requirements of the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) V2.0 Federal Enterprise Architecture Certification (FEAC) Institute program and to provide added value to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Application Portfolio Management process. The MARS Architecture aims to: (1) address the NASA MSFC Chief Information Officer (CIO) strategic initiative to improve Application Portfolio Management (APM) by optimizing investments and improving portfolio performance, and (2) develop a decision-aiding capability by which applications registered within the MSFC application portfolio can be analyzed and considered for retirement or decommission. The MARS Architecture describes a to-be target capability that supports application portfolio analysis against scoring measures (based on value) and overall portfolio performance objectives (based on enterprise needs and policies). This scoring and decision-aiding capability supports the process by which MSFC application investments are realigned or retired from the application portfolio. The MARS Architecture is a multi-phase effort to: (1) conduct strategic architecture planning and knowledge development based on the DoDAF V2.0 six-step methodology, (2) describe one architecture through multiple viewpoints, (3) conduct portfolio analyses based on a defined operational concept, and (4) enable a new capability to support the MSFC enterprise IT management mission, vision, and goals. This report documents Phase 1 (Strategy and Design), which includes discovery, planning, and development of initial architecture viewpoints. Phase 2 will move forward the process of building the architecture, widening the scope to include application realignment (in addition to application retirement), and validating the underlying architecture logic before moving into Phase 3. The MARS Architecture key stakeholders are most

  3. Resuspension studies in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, J H; Homan, D N; Robison, W L

    1997-07-01

    The contribution of inhalation exposure to the total dose for residents of the Marshall Islands was monitored at occasions of opportunity on several islands in the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. To determine the long-term potential for inhalation exposure, and to understand the mechanisms of redistribution and personal exposure, additional investigations were undertaken on Bikini Island under modified and controlled conditions. Experiments were conducted to provide key parameters for the assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: characterization of the contribution of plutonium in soil-borne aerosols as compared to sea spray and organic aerosols, determination of plutonium resuspension rates as measured by the meteorological flux-gradient method during extreme conditions of a bare-soil vs. a stabilized surface, determination of the approximate individual exposures to resuspended plutonium by traffic, and studies of exposures to individuals in different occupational environments simulated by personal air sampling of workers assigned to a variety of tasks. Enhancement factors (defined as ratios of the plutonium-activity of suspended aerosols relative to the plutonium-activity of the soil) were determined to be less than 1 (typically 0.4 to 0.7) in the undisturbed, vegetated areas, but greater than 1 (as high as 3) for the case studies of disturbed bare soil, roadside travel, and for occupational duties in fields and in and around houses.

  4. Telemedicine in Majuro Hospital, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardane, K J

    2000-09-01

    Since March 1998 up to June 2000, telemedicine activities in Marshall Islands have mainly been for Referrals to Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) in Hawaii. The activities are based on a computer which has the Internet connection and accessories including a digital camera, flatbed scanner with a transparency adapter, color printer, a video printer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope and a video Lens, all of which were donated by Project Akamai in Hawaii. Two sessions of training were conducted by representatives from Akamai Project and from PBMA at the very beginning of the establishment of the unit, to all levels of Health Care Providers in Ministry of Health in Majuro. The computer and Internet facility is available 24 hours. Since March 1998 to June 2000, there had been 144 telemedicine consultations to TAMC. Out of a total of 326 off-island referrals for the same period, approximately 80 patients have been sent to TAMC using the PIHCP/Telemedicine program. This accounts for approximately 25% of total off-island referrals. This represents a significant reduction in cost. In addition to cost reduction the telemedicine unit most important impact is on the health providers, especially the physicians working at Majuro Hospital. Availability of medical information through internet has helped them to feel less isolated from the constantly changing field of medical science.

  5. Dose assessment in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.

    1978-01-01

    Bikini Atoll and Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands were the sites of major U.S. weapons testing from 1948 through 1958. Both the Bikini and Knewetak people have expressed a desire to return to their native Atolls. In 1968 clean-up and resettlement of Bikini was begun. In 1972-73 the initial survey of Enewetak Atoll was conducted and clean-up began in 1977. Surveys have been conducted at both Atolls to establish the concentrations of radionuclides in the biota and to determine the external exposure rates. Subsequent to the surveys dose assessments have been made to determine the potential dose to returning (100) populations at both Atolls. This talk will include discussions of the relative importance of the critical exposure pathways (i.e., external exposure, inhalation, marine, terrestrial and drinking water), the predominant radionuclides contributing to the predicted doses for each pathway, the doses predicted for alternate living patterns, comparison to Federal Guidelines, the comparison between Atolls, some of the social problems created by adherence to Federal Guidelines and the follow-up research identified and initiated to help refine the dose assessments and better predict the long term use of the Atolls (86). (author)

  6. Magic moments with John Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.

    2015-07-15

    John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics.

  7. Magic moments with John Bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.

    2015-01-01

    John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics

  8. Isolated core vs. superficial cooling effects on virtual maze navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer; Cheung, Stephen S

    2007-07-01

    Cold impairs cognitive performance and is a common occurrence in many survival situations. Altered behavior patterns due to impaired navigation abilities in cold environments are potential problems in lost-person situations. We investigated the separate effects of low core temperature and superficial cooling on a spatially demanding virtual navigation task. There were 12 healthy men who were passively cooled via 15 degrees C water immersion to a core temperature of 36.0 degrees C, then transferred to a warm (40 degrees C) water bath to eliminate superficial shivering while completing a series of 20 virtual computer mazes. In a control condition, subjects rested in a thermoneutral (approximately 35 degrees C) bath for a time-matched period before being transferred to a warm bath for testing. Superficial cooling and distraction were achieved by whole-body immersion in 35 degree water for a time-matched period, followed by lower leg immersion in 10 degree C water for the duration of the navigational tests. Mean completion time and mean error scores for the mazes were not significantly different (p > 0.05) across the core cooling (16.59 +/- 11.54 s, 0.91 +/- 1.86 errors), control (15.40 +/- 8.85 s, 0.82 +/- 1.76 errors), and superficial cooling (15.19 +/- 7.80 s, 0.77 +/- 1.40 errors) conditions. Separately reducing core temperature or increasing cold sensation in the lower extremities did not influence performance on virtual computer mazes, suggesting that navigation is more resistive to cooling than other, simpler cognitive tasks. Further research is warranted to explore navigational ability at progressively lower core and skin temperatures, and in different populations.

  9. John locke on personal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  10. John Locke on Personal Identity**

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  11. Navigating a Maze with Balance Board and Wiimote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hoeijmakers, Niek; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    Input from the lower body in human-computer interfaces can be beneficial, enjoyable and even entertaining when users are expected to perform tasks simultaneously. Users can navigate a virtual (game) world or even an (empirical) dataset while having their hands free to issue commands. We compared the Wii Balance Board to a hand-held Wiimote for navigating a maze and found that users completed this task slower with the Balance Board. However, the Balance Board was considered more intuitive, easy to learn and ‘much fun’.

  12. Marshall-Olkin multivariate semi-logistic distribution and minification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olkin multivariate logistic distribution (MO-ML) are introduced and studied. Various characterizations properties of Marshall-Olkin multivariate semi-logistic distribution are investigated and studied. First order autoregressive minification processes ...

  13. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-seven nuclear tests were conducted on two atolls in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. These tests produced radioactive fallout, which even today gives rise to radiation measurable above naturally occurring background levels. Rather than obtain new data, recent estimates of contamination levels in the northern Marshall Islands use measurements made decades ago to calculate present radiation levels. In contrast, we report on timely measurements on three different atolls...

  14. Follow-up radiological surveillance, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The political approvals have been given for the return of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls to their original inhabitants. These two regions, which comprised the Pacific Nuclear Testing Areas from 1946 to 1958, are now being repopulated by their original inhabitants and their families. Recent assessments of internal and external exposure pathways at Bikini and Enewetak have indicated that doses and dose commitments in excess of current radiation protection guidelines are possible or even likely for persons living in these areas. Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, which were downwind of the 1954 Bravo event, also received significant fallout; potential radiological problems exist in these areas as well. In view of this prospect, follow-up environmental monitoring and personnel monitoring programs are being established to maintain our cognizance of radiological conditions, and to make corrective action where necessary. The unexpected finding of detectable amounts (above background) of plutonium in the urine of individuals at Bikini and Rongelap Atolls also raises the possibility of radiological problems in the long term from environmentally-derived plutonium via pathways which are not completely understood. This finding adds further impetus to the surveillance programs for an area where real radiological concerns for the general public are already known to exist. The continuing environmental and personnel monitoring programs which this paper describes are a necessary part of the BNL radiological safety program in the Marshall Islands, which is designed to do the following: (1) elucidate the internal exposure pathways; (2) define the external radiation environment; (3) assess the doses and dose commitments from radioactivity in the environment; (4) provide the feedback necessary to improve existing predictive modelling of radiological trends; and (5) suggest actions which will minimize doses via the more significant pathways. (author)

  15. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  16. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  17. Penentuan Nilai Motorik Halus Anak Dengan Game Magic Maze Menggunakan Metode Mamdani

    OpenAIRE

    Fadly, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Motor development is a very important factor in the development of the whole child. fine motor skills are very important because it affects the other terms of learning in early childhood. Therefore, it made the game Magic Maze to assess motor skills early childhood. Game Magic Maze in this study using Mamdani method in determining the values to a child's fine motor skills. Maze game will be made on the PC. 081402045

  18. Glia protein aquaporin-4 regulates aversive motivation of spatial memory in Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Ying; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Dang, Hui; Ding, Jian-Hua; Fan, Yi; Hu, Gang

    2013-12-01

    Although extensive investigation has revealed that an astrocyte-specific protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) participates in regulating synaptic plasticity and memory, a functional relationship between AQP4 and learning processing has not been clearly established. This study was designed to test our hypothesis that AQP4 modulates the aversive motivation in Morris water maze (MWM). Using hidden platform training, we observed that AQP4 KO mice significantly decreased their swimming velocity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. To test for a relationship between velocities and escape motivation, we removed the platform and subjected a new group of mice similar to the session of hidden platform training. We found that KO mice exhibited a gradual reduction in swimming velocity, while WT mice did not alter their velocity. In the subsequent probe trial, KO mice after no platform training significantly decreased their mean velocity compared with those KO mice after hide platform training. However, all of KO mice were not impaired in their ability to locate a visible, cued escape platform. Our findings, along with a previous report that AQP4 regulates memory consolidation, implicate a novel role for this glial protein in modulating the aversive motivation in spatial learning paradigm. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. John Leask Lumley: Whither Turbulence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, Sidney; Warhaft, Zellman

    2018-01-01

    John Lumley's contributions to the theory, modeling, and experiments on turbulent flows played a seminal role in the advancement of our understanding of this subject in the second half of the twentieth century. We discuss John's career and his personal style, including his love and deep knowledge of vintage wine and vintage cars. His intellectual contributions range from abstract theory to applied engineering. Here we discuss some of his major advances, focusing on second-order modeling, proper orthogonal decomposition, path-breaking experiments, research on geophysical turbulence, and important contributions to the understanding of drag reduction. John Lumley was also an influential teacher whose books and films have molded generations of students. These and other aspects of his professional career are described.

  20. Titular Tilting in John Ashbery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2008-01-01

    Among the numerous poems published by the American poet John Ashbery since his debut in 1956 one finds a few that specifically deal with the issue of entitlement. These poems do not appear in one single of his volumes, but are disseminated throughout Ashbery’s career and production. Their occurre......Among the numerous poems published by the American poet John Ashbery since his debut in 1956 one finds a few that specifically deal with the issue of entitlement. These poems do not appear in one single of his volumes, but are disseminated throughout Ashbery’s career and production....... Their occurrence neither follows any particular plan, nor do they form part of a larger poetic or thematic whole in the volumes where they have been published. Rather, they are perhaps better characterized as “typically atypical of Ashbery’s poetry” – to put it in paradoxical terms used by John Shoptaw in his 1994...

  1. Organização empresarial em Alfred Marshall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Kerstenetzky

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Encontra-se na obra de Marshall uma abordagem ao ambiente empresarial que difere de sua tradicionalmente considerada contribuição à economia. Embora Marshall seja o fundador da vertente do equilíbrio parcial da microeconomia, seu trabalho no tema da organização empresarial é muito mais rico do que esta contribuição específica. O artigo explora a análise de cunho histórico e institucional desenvolvida por Marshall no tema da firma, dos mercados e dos ambientes empresariais. Como resultado, sugere que Marshall pode ser apontado como precursor de abordagens contemporâneas ao tema, como a abordagem das capacitações organizacionais, e da grande corporação americana, de autores como Berle e Means e Chandler.We can find in Marshall’s works an approach to business environments that is different from his traditionally accepted contribution to mainstream economics. Though Marshall is indeed the founder of the partial equilibrium analysis branch of traditional microeconomics, his work on the theme of business is much richer than his specific contribution to microeconomics. The article explores Marshall's institutional and historical analysis of firms, markets and of business environments. As an outcome, it suggests that Marshall can be pointed out as a forerunner of modern approaches to the theme, like Berle and Means’s and Chandler’s works on corporations, and the capabilities approach to the theory of the firm.

  2. The Poetry of John Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay examines the poetry of John Dewey, 101 poems in total. Characteristic of the rhymed and metered poetry of the period, they show a very human side of Dewey. This analysis argues that many of his poems deal with existential themes--love, finitude, and God, for example. On a deeper level these poems are also show connections to Dewey's…

  3. An Interview with John Liontas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim

    2017-01-01

    John I. Liontas, Ph.D. is an associate professor of foreign languages, English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), and technology in education and second language acquisition (TESLA), and director and faculty of the TESLA doctoral program at the University of South Florida. Dr. Liontas is a distinguished thought leader, author, and…

  4. John Dewey, Gothic and Modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, James S.

    2010-01-01

    It is argued here that understanding John Dewey's thought as that of a prodigal liberal or a fellow traveller does not capture the complexity of his work. It is also important to recognise the portion of his work that is "historie morale." In the very best sense it is epic, encapsulating the hopes and dreams of a history of the American people in…

  5. Rees, Prof. Lord Martin (John)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1991 Honorary. Rees, Prof. Lord Martin (John) FRS. Date of birth: 23 June 1942. Address: Emeritus professor of Cosmology & Astrophysics, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, U.K.. Contact: Office: (+44-1223) 33 7548

  6. The Art of John Biggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2010-01-01

    In their 2005 exhibit of John Biggers' work, the New Orleans Museum of Art described it as being inspired by "African art and culture, the injustices of a segregated United States, the stoic women in his own family, and the heroes of everyday survival." In this article, the author describes how her students reinterpreted Biggers' work.…

  7. Dr. John Marburger visits DESY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Dr. John Marburger, Director of the United States Office of Science and Technology Policy, visited the research center DESY in Hamburg. The American physicist wanted to inform himself about the status of the TESLA X-ray laser and the TESLA linear collider as well as the international collaboration at DESY (1/2 page).

  8. Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig FRS. Date of birth: 15 December 1932. Address: Department of Materials Science and, Metallurgy, New Museums Site, 27, Babbage ... Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more.

  9. John Dalton (1766–1844)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    of matter and the development of science in the world, especially in. Europe. During ... He belonged to a family of Quakers. (Society of ... During this period, Dalton came under the influence of John Gough, who suggested that he maintain a ...

  10. Changing patterns of brain activation during maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, J D; Gold, J M; Esposito, G; Ostrem, J L; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    1998-05-18

    Recent research has found that patterns of brain activation involving the frontal cortex during novel task performance change dramatically following practice and repeat performance. Evidence for differential left vs. right frontal lobe activation, respectively, during episodic memory encoding and retrieval has also been reported. To examine these potentially related issues regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 15 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) during the naive and practiced performance of a maze task paradigm. SPM analysis indicated a largely right-sided, frontal lobe activation during naive performance. Following training and practice, performance of the same maze task elicited a more posterior pattern of rCBF activation involving posterior cingulate and precuneus. The change in the pattern of rCBF activation between novel and practiced task conditions agrees with results found in previous studies using repeat task methodology, and indicates that the neural circuitry required for encoding novel task information differs from that required when the same task has become familiar and information is being recalled. The right-sided preponderance of activation during naive performance may relate to task novelty and the spatially-based nature of the stimuli, whereas posterior areas activated during repeat performance are those previously found to be associated with visuospatial memory recall. Activation of these areas, however, does not agree with previously reported findings of left-sided activation during verbal episodic memory encoding and right-sided activation during retrieval, suggesting different neural substrates for verbal and visuospatial processing within memory. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    John Pendry John Inglesfield and Pedro Echenique write: John Pendry's 65th birthday is on 4 July 2008, and this issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to him, with articles by friends, colleagues, and former students. By any standards, John Pendry is a great scientist, who has made—and continues to make—an enormous contribution to physics; the wide range of his interests is reflected in the scope of these articles. Not many scientists can establish a completely new and unexpected area of research, but this has been John's achievement in the last few years in the field of metamaterials, materials whose electromagnetic properties depend on their structure rather than the materials of which the structure is built. In this way, structures with effectively negative electrical permittivity and negative magnetic permeability can be constructed, demonstrating negative refraction; through metamaterials scientists now have access to properties not found in nature, and never previously explored experimentally. Never a week goes by without a potential new application of metamaterials, whether it is perfect lensing, or the cloak of invisibility. This has certainly led to tremendous visibility for John himself, with guest lectures all over the world, and radio and television appearances. John Pendry's first paper was published exactly 40 years ago, 'Analytic properties of pseudopotentials' [1], and since then he has published 310 articles at the latest count. But this first paper already reflected something of the way John works. His PhD project, with Volker Heine at the Cavendish Laboratory, was to interpret the scattering of low energy electrons from surfaces, the technique of LEED which was to become the method of choice for determining surface structure. Although the energy of the electrons in LEED is relatively low—say 50 eV—it is much higher than the energy of the conduction electrons, for which pseudopotentials had been devised, and John

  12. CBM Maze-Scores as Indicators of Reading Level and Growth for Seventh-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Siuman; Espin, Christine A.; Stevenson, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test.…

  13. A computer vision-based automated Figure-8 maze for working memory test in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Samuel F; Song, Eun Young; Jung, Min Whan; Kim, Jeansok J

    2006-09-30

    The benchmark test for prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated working memory in rodents is a delayed alternation task utilizing variations of T-maze or Figure-8 maze, which requires the animals to make specific arm entry responses for reward. In this task, however, manual procedures involved in shaping target behavior, imposing delays between trials and delivering rewards can potentially influence the animal's performance on the maze. Here, we report an automated Figure-8 maze which does not necessitate experimenter-subject interaction during shaping, training or testing. This system incorporates a computer vision system for tracking, motorized gates to impose delays, and automated reward delivery. The maze is controlled by custom software that records the animal's location and activates the gates according to the animal's behavior and a control algorithm. The program performs calculations of task accuracy, tracks movement sequence through the maze, and provides other dependent variables (such as running speed, time spent in different maze locations, activity level during delay). Testing in rats indicates that the performance accuracy is inversely proportional to the delay interval, decreases with PFC lesions, and that animals anticipate timing during long delays. Thus, our automated Figure-8 maze is effective at assessing working memory and provides novel behavioral measures in rodents.

  14. Walkable self-overlapping virtual reality maze and map visualization demo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serubugo, Sule; Skantarova, Denisa; Evers, Nicolaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places.......This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places....

  15. Disentangling the cognitive components supporting Austin Maze performance in left versus right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Julia; Thomas, Hannah J; Dzafic, Ilvana; Williams, Rebecca J; Reutens, David C; Spooner, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological tests requiring patients to find a path through a maze can be used to assess visuospatial memory performance in temporal lobe pathology, particularly in the hippocampus. Alternatively, they have been used as a task sensitive to executive function in patients with frontal lobe damage. We measured performance on the Austin Maze in patients with unilateral left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with and without hippocampal sclerosis, compared to healthy controls. Performance was correlated with a number of other neuropsychological tests to identify the cognitive components that may be associated with poor Austin Maze performance. Patients with right TLE were significantly impaired on the Austin Maze task relative to patients with left TLE and controls, and error scores correlated with their performance on the Block Design task. The performance of patients with left TLE was also impaired relative to controls; however, errors correlated with performance on tests of executive function and delayed recall. The presence of hippocampal sclerosis did not have an impact on maze performance. A discriminant function analysis indicated that the Austin Maze alone correctly classified 73.5% of patients as having right TLE. In summary, impaired performance on the Austin Maze task is more suggestive of right than left TLE; however, impaired performance on this visuospatial task does not necessarily involve the hippocampus. The relationship of the Austin Maze task with other neuropsychological tests suggests that differential cognitive components may underlie performance decrements in right versus left TLE. © 2013.

  16. CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.; Espin, C.A.; Stevenson, C.E.

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status,

  17. Effects of Amphetamine and β-Endorphin Fragments on Maze Performance in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, S. de; Bohus, B.

    1990-01-01

    Fragments of β-endorphin and amphetamine cause similar effects in some tests of maze behavior in rats. The present study served to compare the influence of amphetamine and two β-endorphin fragments [β-endorphin (βE)-(2-9) and βE-(2-16)] on maze behavior in more detail. In Experiment I no significant

  18. Nogo-A downregulation impairs place avoidance in the Carousel maze but not spatial memory in the Morris water maze

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrásek, Tomáš; Prokopová, Iva; Bahník, Štěpán; Schönig, K.; Berger, S.; Valeš, Karel; Tews, B.; Schwab, M. E.; Bartsch, D.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, Jan 2014 (2014), s. 42-49 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/10/J032; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 365911 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Nogo-A * spatial navigation * cognitive coordination * spatial mazes * transgenic rat model Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.652, year: 2014

  19. A comparison of the calculation methods of the maze shielding dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqian; Li Junli; Li Pengyu; Tao Yinghua

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a theoretical calculating method for the dose rate of the maze of the low-energy accelerators or high-energy accelerators, based on the NCRP report Nos.49, 51 and 151. The multi-legged maze of the Miyun CT workshop of the NUCTECH Company Limited and the arc maze of the radiation laboratory of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences were calculated using this method. The calculating results were compared with the MCNP simulating results and the measured results. For the commonly estimation of the maze dose rate, as long as the parameters chosen properly, this method can give a conservative result, and save time from simulation. It's hoped that this work could offer a reference for the maze design and the dose estimation method in the aftertime. (authors)

  20. John Adams and his times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, E.

    1986-01-01

    In this first John Adams' Memorial Lecture, an outline is given of his work, especially from the beginning of CERN in 1952 until his death in 1984. The historical survey covers John Adams' technical and managerial contributions to the development of CERN and its accelerators, as well as to fusion research in Britain and Europe. Exemplified by his role as member and president of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), Adams' interest in international co-operation is also stressed. In the spirit of this great European, arguments are given for CERN to continue to be the first-rate high-energy physics laboratory which it has been in the past. (orig.)

  1. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  2. Is John Locke a democrat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

      Over recent years there has been a tendency to present John Locke as an equalitarian democrat (Ashcraft) and being close to the political views of the levellers (Waldron). This is not a completely new interpretation (Kendall, 1941), but contrasts with the prevalent view presented in textbooks (......, criteria for a democratic process, and the institutions of polyarchy. The conclusion has implications for the relationship between political liberalism and constitutionalism on the one hand and democracy on the other....

  3. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.

  4. A Conversation with John Nelder

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    John Ashworth Nelder was born in 1924 in Dulverton, Somerset, England. He received his secondary education in nearby Tiverton at Blundell's, a "public" [that is to say, privately funded] school that he attended as a day pupil. In 1942, he entered Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge University, to read mathematics. His studies were interrupted after one year by war service and he trained as an RAF navigator in South Africa. He returned to Cambridge in 1946 and complete his studies, graduating a "...

  5. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  6. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  7. Paule Marshall and the search for the African diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gikandi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Fiction of Paule Marshall: Reconstructions of History, Culture, and Gender. DOROTHY HAMER DENNISTON. Knoxville: University of Tennesee Press, 1995. xxii + 187 pp. (Paper US$ 15.00 Toward Wholeness in Paule Marshall's Fiction. JOYCE PETTIS. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1995. xi + 173 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.50 Black and Female: Essays on Writings by Black Women in the Diaspora. BRITA LINDBERG-SEYERSTED. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1994. 164 pp. (Paper n.p. Literary history has not been very kind to Paule Marshall. Even in the early 1980s when literature produced by African-American women was gaining prominence among general readers and drawing the attention of critics, Marshall was still considered to be an enigmatic literary figure, somehow important in the canon but not one of its trend setters. As Mary Helen Washington observed in an influential afterword to Brown Girl, Brownstones, although Marshall had been publishing novels and short stories since the early 1950s, and was indeed the key link between African-American writers of the 1940s and those of the 1960s, she was just being "discovered" in the 1980s. While there has always been a small group of scholars, most notably Kamau Brathwaite, who have called attention to the indispensable role Marshall has played in the shaping of the literary canon of the African Diaspora, and of her profound understanding of the issues that have affected the complex formation and survival of African-derived cultures in the New World, many critics have found it difficult to locate her within the American, African-American, and Caribbean traditions that are the sources of her imagination and the subject of her major works. Marshall has embraced all these cultures in more profound ways than her more famous contemporaries have, but she has not gotten the accolades that have gone to lesser writers like Alice Walker. It is indeed one of the greatest injustices of

  8. Redwood River at Marshall, Minnesota; Feasibility Report for Flood Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    fertility is quite high, re- flected in high annual agricultural yields during non-drought periods. The climate of the study area is... livestock and dairy operations. Median family income for Marshall residents in 1970 was $9,856 with a per capita income of $2,840. The Marshall area is...plain Sa.6. at anoter site. Substantial ban ntt tralit>𔃻s jutS ni . p acosw alea . Likely comversian 4 -hlnor iont-tel preseTs Siited t.-i ’attt

  9. Use of an Eight-arm Radial Water Maze to Assess Working and Reference Memory Following Neonatal Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Penley, Stephanie C.; Gaudet, Cynthia M.; Threlkeld, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid ...

  10. Walt Disney visited Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Walt Disney toured the West Test Area during his visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center on April 13, 1965. The three in center foreground are Karl Heimburg, Director, Test Division; Dr. von Braun, Director, MSFC; and Walt Disney. The Dynamic Test Stand with the S-1C stage being installed is in the background.

  11. Revolution i detailhandlen? Om Marshall-plan, studierejser og selvbetjeningsbutikker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Bjerrum Fossat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen undersøger, hvordan udbredelsen af selvbetjeningsbutikker i Danmark var en del af Marshall-planens målsætning. Ved at fokusere på en af de rejser om selvbetjening, der blev arrangeret i Marshall-regi, kan det vises, hvordan oprettelsen af selvbetjeningsbutikker både var i overensstemmelse med amerikanske og danske ønsker. I den danske detailhandel var især kooperationen interesseret i de nye principper, men der fandtes også skeptiske stemmer, der advarede mod de amerikanske ideer.AbstractThe article explores how the dissemination of self-service shops in Denmark was an integral part of the Marshall Plan. Focusing on one of those journeys under the auspices of the Marshall Plan to study such self-service shops in the USA, the article shows how the creation of self-service shops was in accordance with American as well as Danish aspirations. In the Danish retailing business, particularly the cooperative movement was interested in the new principles, even if sceptical voices cautioned against these American ideas. Outside these circles, the Danish unions and employers’ organizations supported the intentions to modernize what they considered an expensive link in the retail trade. The gain in productivity pursued by the industry was considered to depend not only on increasing consumption, but also on standardized goods and mass consumption.

  12. 46 CFR 199.203 - Marshalling of liferafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.203 Marshalling of liferafts. (a) Each passenger vessel must have a lifeboat or rescue boat for each six liferafts when— (1) Each lifeboat and rescue boat is loaded with its full complement of persons; and (2) The...

  13. Testing for Marshall-Lerner hypothesis: A panel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nur Najwa; Sek, Siok Kun

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between real exchange rate and trade balances are documented in many theories. One of the theories is the so-called Marshall-Lerner condition. In this study, we seek to test for the validity of Marshall-Lerner hypothesis, i.e. to reveal if the depreciation of real exchange rate leads to the improvement in trade balances. We focus our study in ASEAN-5 countries and their main trade partners of U.S., Japan and China. The dynamic panel data of pooled mean group (PMG) approach is used to detect the Marshall-Lerner hypothesis among ASEAN-5, between ASEAN-5 and U.S., between ASEAN-5 and Japan and between ASEAN-5 and China respectively. The estimation is based on the autoregressive Distributed Lag or ARDL model for the period of 1970-2012. The paper concludes that Marshal Lerner theory does not hold in bilateral trades in four groups of countries. The trade balances of ASEAN5 are mainly determined by the domestic income level and foreign production cost.

  14. Revolution i detailhandlen? Om Marshall-plan, studierejser og selvbetjeningsbutikker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Bjerrum Fossat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen undersøger, hvordan udbredelsen af selvbetjeningsbutikker i Danmark var en del af Marshall-planens målsætning. Ved at fokusere på en af de rejser om selvbetjening, der blev arrangeret i Marshall-regi, kan det vises, hvordan oprettelsen af selvbetjeningsbutikker både var i overensstemmelse med amerikanske og danske ønsker. I den danske detailhandel var især kooperationen interesseret i de nye principper, men der fandtes også skeptiske stemmer, der advarede mod de amerikanske ideer. Abstract The article explores how the dissemination of self-service shops in Denmark was an integral part of the Marshall Plan. Focusing on one of those journeys under the auspices of the Marshall Plan to study such self-service shops in the USA, the article shows how the creation of self-service shops was in accordance with American as well as Danish aspirations. In the Danish retailing business, particularly the cooperative movement was interested in the new principles, even if sceptical voices cautioned against these American ideas. Outside these circles, the Danish unions and employers’ organizations supported the intentions to modernize what they considered an expensive link in the retail trade. The gain in productivity pursued by the industry was considered to depend not only on increasing consumption, but also on standardized goods and mass consumption.

  15. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    records of Marshall Broiler chickens to be more alike is low. Repeatability and variance ... the feed efficiency as well as performance ... Body weight is regarded as a function of frame work or size of the ... an animal‟s life time. ... Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke. Akintola ... measured with a weighing balance calibrated ...

  16. Report on a few Octocorals from Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verseveldt, J.

    1972-01-01

    In 1969 Dr. Arthur G. Humes, Boston University, Massachusetts, U.S.A., collected a number of octocorals at Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. He found that most of these corals were the hosts of copepods, just like the corals collected by him in the waters north-west of Madagascar (vide Verseveldt,

  17. T.H. Marshall og det moderne medborgerskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    The major theme of this article is the theory of citizenship put forward by British Sociologist T. H. Marshall in his famous 1949 essay Citizenship and Social Class. The academic interpretations and political uses (and abuses) of Marshall’s seminal, yet both immensely illuminating and evidently...

  18. John W. Daly - An Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    John W. Daly was engaged in groundbreaking basic research for nearly 50 years at NIH in Bethesda, Maryland. A primary focus of his research included the discovery, structure elucidation, synthesis and pharmacology of alkaloids and other biologically active natural products. However, he earned further acclaim in other areas that included the investigation of the structure-activity relationships for agonists/antagonists at adenosine, adrenergic, histamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine receptors. In addition he was a pioneer in studies of the modulation and functional relationships for systems involving calcium, cyclic nucleotides, ion channels and phospholipids and in the mechanism of actions of caffeine and other xanthines. PMID:26160996

  19. A tribute to John Gibbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Russell M.

    2002-04-28

    This article provides an overview of the published research of John Gibbon. It describes his experimental research on scalar timing and his development of scalar timing theory. It also describes his methods of research which included mathematical analysis, conditioning methods, psychophysical methods and secondary data analysis. Finally, it describes his application of scalar timing theory to avoidance and punishment, autoshaping, temporal perception and timed behavior, foraging, circadian rhythms, human timing, and the effect of drugs on timed perception and timed performance of Parkinson's patients. The research of Gibbon has shown the essential role of timing in perception, classical conditioning, instrumental learning, behavior in natural environments and in neuropsychology.

  20. Chronic prenatal caffeine exposure impairs novel object recognition and radial arm maze behaviors in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soellner, Deborah E; Grandys, Theresa; Nuñez, Joseph L

    2009-12-14

    In this report, we demonstrate that chronic prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of caffeine disrupts novel object recognition and radial arm maze behaviors in adult male and female rats. Pregnant dams were administered either tap water or 75 mg/L caffeinated tap water throughout gestation. Oral self-administration in the drinking water led to an approximate maternal intake of 10mg/kg/day, equivalent to 2-3 cups of coffee/day in humans based on a metabolic body weight conversion. In adulthood, the offspring underwent testing on novel object recognition, radial arm maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Prenatal caffeine exposure was found to impair 24-h memory retention in the novel object recognition task and impair both working and reference memory in the radial arm maze. However, prenatal caffeine exposure did not alter Morris water maze performance in either a simple water maze procedure or in an advanced water maze procedure that included reversal and working memory paradigms. These findings demonstrate that chronic oral intake of caffeine throughout gestation can alter adult cognitive behaviors in rats.

  1. Characterization of the rat exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze with Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Julián; Bosco, Geraldine G; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C

    2010-11-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an animal model of anxiety used to study the effect of different drugs on the behavior of the animal. It consists of a plus-shaped maze with two open and two closed arms elevated 50cm from the floor. The standard measures used to characterize exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze are the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms. In this work, we use Markov chains to characterize the exploratory behavior of the rat in the elevated plus-maze under three different conditions: normal and under the effects of anxiogenic and anxiolytic drugs. The spatial structure of the elevated plus-maze is divided into squares, which are associated with states of a Markov chain. By counting the frequencies of transitions between states during 5-min sessions in the elevated plus-maze, we constructed stochastic matrices for the three conditions studied. The stochastic matrices show specific patterns, which correspond to the observed behaviors of the rat under the three different conditions. For the control group, the stochastic matrix shows a clear preference for places in the closed arms. This preference is enhanced for the anxiogenic group. For the anxiolytic group, the stochastic matrix shows a pattern similar to a random walk. Our results suggest that Markov chains can be used together with the standard measures to characterize the rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-09-13

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation.

  3. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-09-01

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation.

  4. Spatial memory impairment in Morris water maze after electroconvulsive seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Maria; Hallin, Thord; Broms, Jonas; Ekstrand, Joakim; Tingström, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for severe major depression, but some patients suffer from retrograde memory loss after treatment. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, have repeatedly been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, and multiple ECS treatments cause retrograde amnesia in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Since recent studies propose that addition of newborn hippocampal neurons might degrade existing memories, we investigated whether the memory impairment after multiple ECS treatments is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments, or if it is the result of a delayed effect after a single ECS. We used the hippocampus-dependent memory task Morris water maze (MWM) to evaluate spatial memory. Rats were exposed to an 8-day training paradigm before receiving either a single ECS or sham treatment and tested in the MWM 24 h, 72 h, or 7 days after this treatment, or multiple (four) ECS or sham treatments and tested 7 days after the first treatment. A single ECS treatment was not sufficient to cause retrograde amnesia whereas multiple ECS treatments strongly disrupted spatial memory in the MWM. The retrograde amnesia after multiple ECS is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments rather than a delayed effect after a single ECS.

  5. John Donne no Brasil John Donne no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Garcez Ghirardi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O leitor fica sem saber a troco do que John Donne lhe surge de repente, num virar de página, e através de períodos que parecem responder a uma pergunta que não foi formulada.(... Ninguém, nem o Sr. Afrânio Coutinho falara, até então, de John Donne,(.... Simplesmente, esse trecho, como inúmeros outros (quase todos do livro, revela que leituras apaixonantes obrigaram o professor Afrânio Coutinho a tomar em seu caderno alguns apontamentos eruditos. (MARTINS 1983 vol.I: 621 A citação acima, extraída de um artigo de Wilson Martins (in O Estado de São Paulo, 25/02/54, ilustra bem a posição reservada a John Donne, até então, por aqueles que, no Brasil, se dedicavam aos estudos de literatura. “A troco do que” - perguntava o autor - deveria ser o leitor de Correntes Cruzadas confrontado com o nome de Donne? Quem, até aquele momento, dele se ocupara? Ninguém, respondia o erudito articulista (nem mesmo o Sr. Afrânio Coutinho, embora reconhecendo que o nome do poeta pudesse ter sido fonte de algumas “leituras apaixonantes” . Interessava-lhe apontar enfaticamente, porém, que a lembrança de Donne surgia de maneira gratuita, desligada de qualquer argumentação ou contexto que a preparas se ou justificasse. Não apenas Afrânio Coutinho silenciara sobre a obra de Donne em seu livro; ninguém, de fato, havia, até aquele momento, dedicado, ao poeta, qualquer atenção mais demorada. Curiosamente, o próprio artigo, assim como o livro nele discutido, atestava, no entanto, que o esquecimento do nome de Donne estava por findar.

  6. John Strong 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon Cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers.  He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such has been the lasting impact of these measurements that the paper on the pion form-factor had been cited 323 times up to the time of J...

  7. John Greenleaf's life of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the life and career of John E. Greenleaf, PhD. It complements an interview of Dr. Greenleaf sponsored by the American Physiological Society Living History Project found on the American Physiological Society website. Dr. Greenleaf is a "thought leader" and internationally renowned physiologist, with extensive contributions in human systems-level environmental physiology. He avoided self-aggrandizement and believed that deeds rather than words define one's legacy. Viewed another way, however, Greenleaf's words define his deeds: 48% of his 185 articles are first author works, which is an unusually high proportion for a scientist of his stature. He found that writing a thorough and thoughtful discussion section often led to novel ideas that drove future research. Beyond Greenleaf's words are the many students, postdocs, and collaborators lucky enough to have worked with him and thus learn and carry on his ways of science. His core principles included the following: avoid research "fads," embrace diversity, be the first subject in your own research, adhere to rules of fiscal responsibility, and respect administrative forces-but never back down from them when you know you are right. Greenleaf's integrity ensured he was usually right. He thrived on the axiom of many successful scientists: avoid falling in love with hypotheses, so that when unexpected findings appear, they arouse curiosity instead of fear. Dr. Greenleaf's legacy will include the John and Carol Greenleaf Award for prolific environmental and exercise-related publication in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

  8. Discussion on the optimization design on mazes of medical linear accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Lei; Zhang Wenyi; Liu Baiqun; Hou Changsong; Zhao Lancai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the differences on the design and evaluation between the L-type and Z-type mazes of typical medical electric linear accelerator. Methods: The study is conducted by choosing some typical medical electric linear accelerators used in China, further analyzing on the running conditions of the accelerators in the mode of MV-X-ray, and referring to the late NCRP Report 51 and other references. Results: The radiation levels at the access to therapy room are effectively reduced by Z-type mazes. Conclusions: The Z-type mazes are advisable during the optimization design. (authors)

  9. Activation of the hippocampal complex during tactile maze solving in congenitally blind subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Schneider, Fabien C; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their lack of vision, congenitally blind subjects are able to build and manipulate cognitive maps for spatial navigation. It is assumed that they thereby rely more heavily on echolocation, proprioceptive signals and environmental cues such as ambient temperature and audition to compensate...... imaging (fMRI) in congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted participants while they navigated through a tactile multiple T-maze. Both groups learned the maze task at a similar pace. In blind participants, tactile maze navigation was associated with increased BOLD responses in the right hippocampus...

  10. John Tyndall's religion: a fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Both contemporaries and historians have focused on the high-profile 1874 Belfast Address in which John Tyndall was widely perceived as promulgating atheism. Although some historians have instead interpreted him as a pantheist or an agnostic, it is clear that any such labels do not accurately capture Tyndall's religious position throughout his life. By contrast, this paper seeks to chart Tyndall's religious journey from 1840 (when he was in his late teens) to the autumn of 1848 when he commenced his scientific studies at Marburg. Although he had been imbued with his father's stern conservative Irish Protestantism and opposition to Catholicism, as a youth he seems for a time to have been attracted to Methodism. Later, however, he questioned and rejected his father's religious views and was increasingly drawn to the more spiritual outlook of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Thomas Carlyle, along with a more radical attitude to politics.

  11. Inflorescence development in petunia: through the maze of botanical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Rob; Kusters, Elske; Koes, Ronald

    2010-05-01

    Flowering plants have developed many ways to arrange their flowers. A flower-bearing branch or system of branches is called an inflorescence. The number of flowers that an inflorescence contains ranges from a single flower to endless flower-clusters. Over the past centuries, botanists have classified inflorescences based on their morphology, which has led to an unfortunate maze of complex botanical terminology. With the rise of molecular developmental biology, research has become increasingly focused on how inflorescences develop, rather than on their morphology. It is the decisions taken by groups of stem cells at the growing tips of shoots, called meristems, on when and where to produce a flower or a shoot that specify the course of inflorescence development. Modelling is a helpful aid to follow the consequences of these decisions for inflorescence development. The so-called transient model can produce the broad inflorescence types: cyme, raceme, and panicle, into which most inflorescences found in nature can be classified. The analysis of several inflorescence branching mutants has led to a solid understanding of cymose inflorescence development in petunia (Petunia hybrida). The cyme of petunia is a distinct body plan compared with the well-studied racemes of Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, which provides an excellent opportunity to study evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) related questions. However, thus far, limited use has been made of this opportunity, which may, at least in part, be due to researchers getting lost in the terminology. Some general issues are discussed here, while focusing on inflorescence development in petunia.

  12. Comparing Exploration Strategies for Q-learning in Random Stochastic Mazes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, Arryon; Drugan, Madalina; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Balancing the ratio between exploration and exploitation is an important problem in reinforcement learning. This paper evaluates four different exploration strategies combined with Q-learning using random stochastic mazes to investigate their performances. We will compare: UCB-1, softmax,

  13. Modified radial v/s biatrial maze for atrial fibrillation in rheumatic valvular heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid A. Sayed

    2014-09-01

    Discussion: In patients with AF undergoing rheumatic valvular surgery, radiofrequency radial approach is as effective as modified Cox's maze III for conversion to NSR with better atrial transport function.

  14. Sex differences in vicarious trial-and-error behavior during radial arm maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, H A; Denenberg, V H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated sex differences in VTE behavior in rats during radial arm maze learning. Females made more VTEs than males, although there were no sex differences in learning. Further, VTEs and errors were positively correlated during the latter testing sessions in females, but not in males. This sex difference may be a reflection of differences between the sexes in conflict behavior or cognitive strategy while solving the maze.

  15. Maze solving algorithm and its programs using Z-80 assembler language for a robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeno, J; Mukaidono, M

    1982-01-01

    In the first part the formation of a maze problem is introduced and the outline of this algorithm to solve a maze is explained in the second part. The third part describes the detail of this program, and the final part shows the program which has been developed using Z-80 assembler language. This program has portability for other robots using Z-80 microprocessors. 7 references.

  16. Behavioral consequences of predator stress in the rat elevated T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, Erika Mondin; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Zangrossi, Helio

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the behavioral reactions of rodents to predators have greatly contributed to the understanding of defense-related human psychopathologies such as anxiety and panic.We here investigated the behavioral consequences of exposing male Wistar rats to a live cat using the elevated T-maze test of anxiety. This test allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and escape, which in terms of pathology have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorders, respectively. For comparative reasons, the effects of exposure to the cat were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze. The results showed that a 5-min exposure to the cat selectively facilitated inhibitory avoidance acquisition, an anxiogenic effect, without affecting escape expression in the elevated T-maze. This was seen immediately but not 30 min after contact with the predator. This short-lived anxiogenic effect was also detected in the elevated plus-maze. Previous administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (2 mg/kg) decreased the immediate avoidance response to the predator and the neophobic reaction to a dummy cat used as a control stimulus. The drug also impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition in the elevated T-maze, indicating an anxiolytic effect, without affecting escape performance. The results indicate that the state of anxiety evoked during contact with the predator generalizes to both elevated plus- and T-mazes, impacting on defensive responses associated with generalized anxiety disorder.

  17. Marshall ̶ Olkin Distributions : Advances in Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Fabrizio; Mulinacci, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in the theory and practice of Marshall-Olkin distributions. These distributions have been increasingly applied in statistical practice in recent years, as they make it possible to describe interesting features of stochastic models like non-exchangeability, tail dependencies and the presence of a singular component. The book presents cutting-edge contributions in this research area, with a particular emphasis on financial and economic applications. It is recommended for researchers working in applied probability and statistics, as well as for practitioners interested in the use of stochastic models in economics. This volume collects selected contributions from the conference “Marshall-Olkin Distributions: Advances in Theory and Applications,” held in Bologna on October 2-3, 2013.

  18. Contemporary distributions of Cs-137 in Marshall Islands soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Rosenstock, L.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons ranging from tens of kT to 15 MT of TNT were conducted by the United States at two sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The test areas are now parts of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Resolutions of health related problems or property damage resulting from the weapons tests were assumed by a Nuclear Claims Tribunal which was funded for this purpose. This paper describes the results of a survey conducted in 1988 which was designed to determine whether a potential connection exists between local fallout and the incidence of radiogenic disease among Marshallese residents of islands in the greater vicinity of the two test areas. Soil samples were collected from two southern atolls as controls, and from five northern sites to look for higher cesium-137 levels which may have been contributed by tropospheric fallout from the weapons tests

  19. General results for the Marshall and Olkin's family of distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAGNER BARRETO-SOUZA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marshall and Olkin (1997 introduced an interesting method of adding a parameter to a well-established distribution. However, they did not investigate general mathematical properties of their family of distributions. We provide for this family of distributions general expansions for the density function, explicit expressions for the moments and moments of the order statistics. Several especial models are investigated. We discuss estimation of the model parameters. An application to a real data set is presented for illustrative purposes.

  20. Marshall syndrome in a young child, a reality

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Chiriac, Madalina Ionela; Diaconescu, Smaranda; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith; Rusu, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recurrent fever syndrome, known as the Marshall syndrome (MS), is a clinical entity that includes several clinical features, such as: fever (39?40?C) that occurs repeatedly at variable intervals (3?8 weeks) and in episodes of 3 to 6 days, cervical adenopathy, pharyngitis, and aphthous stomatitis. The diagnosis of MS is one of exclusions; laboratory data is nonspecific and no abnormalities correlated with MS have been detected thus far. Methods: The authors report the case...

  1. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137 Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240 Pu and 241 Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y -1 . The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y -1 to 4.5 mSv y -1 . The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Republic of the Marshall Islands; Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper outlines economic developments in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) since independence in 1986, focusing on the challenges posed by dependence on foreign grants, and progress toward achieving budgetary self-reliance. Like most other Pacific islands, the RMI faces a variety of geographical constraints, including limited land area, poor soil, the dispersion of the islands, and the remoteness from major markets. The public sector plays a dominant role in the e...

  3. Radiological analyses of Marshall Islands environmental samples, 1974--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Cua, F.T.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported from the radiological analysis of environmental samples collected in the Marshall Islands during 1974 through 1976. Most of the samples were collected on or near the Bikini Atoll and included plants, soil, fish, catchment water, and sediments, with emphasis on local marine and terrestrial food items. Data are presented from γ spectral analysis and the content of 90 Sr and transuranic elements in the samples

  4. The neurological legacy of John Russell Reynolds (1828-1896).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, M J

    2007-04-01

    Sir John Russell Reynolds was an eminent and highly influential physician in the Victorian era who held the Presidencies of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and of the British Medical Association. He was the protégée of the great experimental physiologist, Marshall Hall, who discovered the reflex arc, and succeeded to Hall's clinical practice in London. Reynolds' thought and clinical activities linked the emerging British neurology of the first half of the 19th century with its blossoming, particularly in London, from 1860 onwards. In his writings Reynolds was the first English author to apply the approach to classification of neurological disorders that is still often used, though now in modified form. He was also the first to enunciate the notion of positive and negative symptoms arising from neurological disease and to suggest their pathogenesis, and was arguably the originator of the influential concept that an idiopathic disease, epilepsy, existed, one to be distinguished from 'epileptiform' seizures due to brain pathology.

  5. La Argentina y el Plan Marshall: promesas y realidades Argentina and the Marshall Plan: promises and realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rapoport

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los intereses y prioridades de la política económica externa de los Estados Unidos y las complejas relaciones entre Washington y el gobierno de Buenos Aires en relación a la puesta en marcha del Plan Marshall de reconstrucción de Europa Occidental. La no participación de la Argentina en él dificultó su proceso de industrialización al restringir su comercio con el viejo continente e impedirle obtener las divisas necesarias para comprar en los EEUU, proveedor fundamental de los bienes que necesitaba.The article analyze both the interests and priorities of the foreign economic policy of the United States and the complex relationship between Washington and the peronist government when President Truman impose the Marshall Plan in Europe making more difficult the industrialisation of Argentina.

  6. Compensation for the victims of the Marshall Islands nuclear testing programme: the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscoe, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal was established in 1988 pursuant to legislation enacted by the Republic of the Marshall Islands as part of its obligations under the Compact of Free Association between it and the United States (ratified 1986) and an associated Compact implementation agreement. The Tribunal is generally considered to be the last hope for compensation for a large number of Marshallese who claim to have suffered injury or damage as a result of the United States Nuclear Testing Programme in the Marshall Islands, 1946 - 1958. Under the Compact, the United States admitted liability for injuries and damages suffered by Marshallese as a result of the Testing Programme and made provision for the payment of compensation. In return, the Republic agreed to espouse, on behalf of it and its citizens, all current and future claims for compensation against the United States. The Tribunal has been given a most challenging and unique assignment: - to identify and compensate the victims of the Testing Programme, with a potentially limited sum of money, an indefinite number of victims, and with cultural, environmental and political circumstances which are not altogether conducive to Western concepts associated with compensating people for damages and personal injuries suffered as a result of a wrongful act. The paper will describe the Tribunal's role in compensating the victims of the Testing Programme. It will highlight a number of legal, social and cultural difficulties in establishing and operating a scheme to compensate people for damages and injuries suffered or commenced up to forty years previously. (author)

  7. Results of clinical application of the modified maze procedure as concomitant surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Robbert C.; Akin, Sakir; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Kik, Charles; Takkenberg, Johanna J.M.; Bogers, Ad J.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The classic cut-and-sew maze procedure is successful in 85–95% of patients. However, the technical complexity has prompted modifications of the maze procedure. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of the maze treatment performed at our institution. METHODS From March 2001 until February 2009, 169 patients underwent a modified maze procedure for atrial fibrillation at the Erasmus MC, Rotterdam. Patient characteristics, surgical procedure and follow-up data were obtained by reviewing the medical charts and consulting with the referring physicians. The efficacy of the procedure as measured by AF recurrence was analysed with a repeated measurements model. The quality of life of the patients was assessed with the SF-36 (a short-form health survey with 36 questions) questionnaire and compared with that of the general Dutch population. RESULTS Of the 169 patients who underwent a modified maze procedure, 163 had their maze procedure as a concomitant procedure. The 30-day mortality rate was 4.7% (n = 8). The rate of post-procedural AF recurrence varied significantly over time (P < 0.0001). Decreased left ventricular function, increased age and higher preoperative creatinine levels were predictors of AF recurrence. Quality of life, as measured with the SF-36 questionnaire, was comparable with that of the Dutch population for all health domains. CONCLUSIONS Concomitant maze is a relatively safe treatment that eliminates atrial fibrillation in the majority of patients, although the probability of recurrent AF increases with the passage of time. Decreased left ventricular function, increased age and higher preoperative creatinine levels are associated with an increased risk of AF recurrence. PMID:23103720

  8. Elevated mazes as animal models of anxiety: effects of serotonergic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone H. Pinheiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews reported results about the effects of drugs that act upon the serotonergic neurotransmission measured in three elevated mazes that are animal models of anxiety. A bibliographic search has been performed in MEDLINE using different combinations of the key words X-maze, plus-maze, T-maze, serotonin and 5-HT, present in the title and/or the abstract, with no time limit. From the obtained abstracts, several publications were excluded on the basis of the following criteria: review articles that did not report original results, species other than the rat, intracerebral drug administration alone, genetically manipulated rats, and animals having any kind of experimental pathology. The reported results indicate that the effect of drugs on the inhibitory avoidance task performed in the elevated T-maze and on the spatio temporal indexes of anxiety measured in the X and plus mazes correlate with their effect in patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. In contrast, the drug effects on the one-way escape task in the elevated T-maze predict the drug response of panic disorder patients. Overall, the drug effects assessed with the avoidance task in the T-maze are more consistent than those measured through the anxiety indexes of the X and plus mazes. Therefore, the elevated T-maze is a promising animal model of generalized anxiety and panic disorder.No presente artigo, revisamos resultados publicados relatando efeitos de drogas que atuam na neurotransmissão serotonérgica medidos em três labirintos elevados, que são modelos animais de ansiedade. Realizamos uma busca bibliográfica no MEDLINE, usando diferentes combinações das palavras-chave: X-maze, plus-maze, T-maze, serotonin e 5-HT, presentes no título ou no resumo, sem limite de tempo. Dos resumos obtidos, vários foram excluídos com base nos seguintes critérios: artigos de revisão que não continham resultados originais, espécies diferentes do rato, apenas inje

  9. Younger apes and human children plan their moves in a maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2014-02-01

    Planning defined as the predetermination of a sequence of actions towards some goal is crucial for complex problem solving. To shed light on the evolution of executive functions, we investigated the ontogenetic and phylogenetic origins of planning. Therefore, we presented all four great apes species (N=12) as well as 4- and 5-year-old human preschoolers (N=24) with a vertical maze task. To gain a reward placed on the uppermost level of the maze, subjects had to move the reward to the bottom through open gaps situated at each level of the maze. In total, there were ten gaps located over three of the maze's levels, and free passage through these gaps could be flexibly blocked using multiple traps. Due to the decision tree design of the maze, the subjects had to plan their actions depending on the trap configuration up to two steps ahead to successfully retrieve the reward. We found that (1) our measure of planning was negatively correlated with age in nonhuman apes, (2) younger apes as well as 5-year-old children planned their moves up to two steps ahead whereas 4-year-olds were limited to plan one step ahead, and (3) similar performance but different underlying limitations between apes and children. Namely, while all species of nonhuman apes were limited by a lack of motor control, human children exhibited a shortage in shifting their attention across a sequence of subgoals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. WIT Diversity Talk with John Ellis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ellis, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Sudeshna Datta Cockerill, CERN Ombudsperson, will interview John Ellis, a renown British theoretical physicist with a long career both at CERN and externally. John Ellis has also been awarded several prizes for his work in physics. Among many other outstanding roles and positions, he was Division Leader of the Theory Division at CERN from 1988-1994. John Ellis is currently Clerk Maxwell Professor of Theoretical Physics at King's College London.

  12. A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Affan, I A M; Evans, S C; Qutub, M; Hugtenburg, R P

    2018-03-01

    Simulations with the FLUktuierende KAskade (FLUKA) Monte Carlo code were used to establish the possibility of introducing lead to cover the existing concrete walls of a linear accelerator treatment room maze, in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. In the present work, a pilot study performed at Singleton Hospital in Swansea was used to pioneer the use of lead sheets of various thicknesses to absorb scattered low energy photons in the maze. The dose reduction was considered to be due to the strong effect of the photoelectric interaction in lead resulting in attenuation of the back-scattered photons. Calculations using FLUKA with mono-energetic photons were used to represent the main components of the x-ray spectrum up to 10 MV. Mono-energetic photons were used to enable the study of the behaviour of each energy component from the associated interaction processes. The results showed that adding lead of 1 to 4 mm thickness to the walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 80%. Subsequent scatter dose measurements performed at the maze entrance of an existing treatment room with lead sheet of 1.3 mm thickness added to the maze walls and floor supported the results from the simulations. The dose reduction at the maze entrance with the lead in place was up to 50%. The variation between simulation and measurement was attributed to the fact that insufficient lead was available to completely cover the maze walls and floor. This novel proposal of partly, or entirely, covering the maze walls with lead a few millimetres in thickness has implications for the design of linear accelerator treatment rooms since it has the potential to provide savings, in terms of space and costs, when an existing maze requires upgrading in an environment where space is limited and the maze length cannot be extended sufficiently to reduce the dose.

  13. Remediation and rehabilitation programmes in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Following cessation of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands in 1958 the northern atolls have been subject to extensive studies of their radiological status with a view to the return of displaced residents. In the case of Bikini an assessment was most recently carried out at the request of the Marshall Islands Government by the IAEA, based on data obtained through the DOE funded studies of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Nationwide Radiological Study undertaken for the Marshall Islands Government. For a diet of entirely local foodstuffs the mean adult annual dose to residents could be about 15 mSv, and greater than a generic reference level for intervention of 10 mSv/a. A more likely diet with some imported foods, however, would incur annual doses of about 4 mSv. Remediation in the form of potassium fertilizer application, which suppresses the uptake of Cs-137 in plants, has been recommended. In the case of Rongelap Atoll, conditions for resettlement were established in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between US Government agencies and the Rongelap community. This required that annual doses to the maximally exposed resident not exceed I mSv. A number of independent evaluations and reviews found that some residents could exceed this compliance level and again remediation measures have been recommended, primarily the application of potassium to soil. It is, however, doubtful whether any remediation is justifiable on solely radiological grounds. The Rongelap MOU also specified an activity concentration limit for transuranics in soil, but this additional constraint could be considered confusing and unnecessary, particularly when it appeared to have no derivable connection to the compliance dose value. (author)

  14. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  15. Marshall Mathers, Eminem og Slim Shady : Vanhellig treenighet

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelen, Olav Inge Kamsvåg

    2008-01-01

    Denne oppgaven er en undersøkelse i Eminems imagekonstruksjoner. Ved hjelp av performansteori ønsker jeg å belyse hvordan Eminem bruker, og spiller på, forskjellige identiteter i musikken sin, og hvordan dette påvirker folks oppfatning av ham. Som oppgavens tittel foreslår, ser jeg primært på identitetene eller personaene Marshall Mathers, Eminem og Slim Shady. Jeg argumenterer for at disse bør leses som forskjellige personer, i motsetning til tre navn på samme person. Jeg foretar en lesni...

  16. The Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: data and dose assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Conrado, C L; Eagle, R J; Brunk, J L; Jokela, T A; Mount, M E; Phillips, W A; Stoker, A C; Stuart, M L; Wong, K M

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137Cs. 90Sr is the second most significant radionuclide via ingestion. External gamma exposure from 137Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240Pu and 241Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y(-1) to 2.1 mSv y(-1). The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y(-1). The combined dose from both background and bomb related radionuclides ranges from slightly

  17. Findings of the Marshall Islands nationwide radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Marshall Islands were affected by nuclear weapon tests carried out over the period 1946-1958, and particularly from the Bravo detonation on 1 March 1954, which deposited heavy fallout on the islands of Rongelap atoll about 100 miles to the east of Bikini. Surveys of residual radioactivity of the northern atolls of the Marshalls group had been carried out by the US Department of Energy, but continuing concerns about health effects of exposure to fallout, particularly thyroid disease, led the Marshall Islands government in 1989 to set up a study of residual radioactivity across the entire country. A study of residual radioactivity on all significant atolls and islands was carried out by ground surveys during 1990-94. The study was supervised by an international panel of 5 non US scientists. The measurements included portable gamma spectrometer measurements at points on a grid pattern, with associated soil samples and periodic soil profile and vegetation samples. From these measurements external exposure rates from deposited fallout have been calculated, and estimates made of the ingestion doses which might be received by resident populations consuming diets made up of differing amounts of locally produced foodstuffs. On the basis of a survey of dietary intake by a Rongelap community a current diet (containing 18% of foods from local sources) and a more traditional diet (75% from local sources) were used for comparison purposes. Measurements were made on 432 islands of the 29 atolls and 5 islands that make up the Marshalls group. Atolls in the latitude range 9-12 degrees north have Cs-137 soil concentrations which are elevated above levels expected from global fallout. Over 90% of the radiation dose from residual fallout is attributable to Cs-137, and arises primarily from dietary intake. Doses to actual or hypothetical residents are about 4 times greater for traditional as compared with current diets. For four atolls there are some islands where

  18. Cancer in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Eugène; Reddy, Ravi; Gunawardane, Kamal; Briand, Kennar; Riklon, Sheldon; Soe, Tin; Balaoing, Grace Anne Diaz

    2004-09-01

    This study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, assessed cancer awareness and service needs in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Findings suggest that cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the RMI and is, in part, a consequence of 12 years of nuclear testing in this region of the Pacific. However, cancer-related services are lacking. Assistance is needed to establish a national cancer registry, to increase public awareness about cancer and related risk factors, and to develop and implement a cancer prevention and screening program.

  19. Mathematical methods to model rodent behavior in the elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Rafael; Tejada, Julián; Bosco, Geraldine G; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C

    2013-11-15

    The elevated plus maze is a widely used experimental test to study anxiety-like rodent behavior. It is made of four arms, two open and two closed, connected at a central area forming a plus shaped maze. The whole apparatus is elevated 50 cm from the floor. The anxiety of the animal is usually assessed by the number of entries and duration of stay in each arm type during a 5-min period. Different mathematical methods have been proposed to model the mechanisms that control the animal behavior in the maze, such as factor analysis, statistical inference on Markov chains and computational modeling. In this review we discuss these methods and propose possible extensions of them as a direction for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  1. Effects of rolipram and zaprinast on learning and memory in the Morris water maze and radial arm maze tests in naive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, F; Mutlu, O; Celikyurt, I K; Ulak, G; Erden, F; Bektas, E; Tanyeri, P

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE) improved recognition memory and counteracted spatial learning impairment induced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in recent studies. Aim of this study was to investigate effects of rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor and zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, on learning and memory in Morris water maze (MWM) and radial arm maze (RAM) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated subchronically with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) for 6 days in the MWM test and acutely before the retention trial of radial arm maze test. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased escape latency between 2(nd) and 5(th) sessions, while zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased escape latency only in 2(nd) session. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly increased time spent in escape platform's quadrant in probe trial of MWM test; only rolipram decreased mean distance to platform, while zaprinast had no effect on mean distance to platform. Zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased number of errors compared to control group, while rolipram (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) had no effect on number of errors in retention trial of RAM test. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased time spent to complete retention trial (latency) compared to control group. Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in MWM, while zaprinast seems to have more memory enhancing effects compared to rolipram in radial arm maze test. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. John Smithi kaks palet / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2003-01-01

    Näitus "John Smith. Marko ja Kaido" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Kaido Ole ja Marko Mäetamm esindavad rühmitusena "John Smith" Eestit 2003. a. Veneetsia biennaalil. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Päevast päeva", lk. 90-96

  3. John of Salisbury on Aristotelian Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    The First substantial treatment of John of Salisbury's views on Aristotelian science. Important for our understanding of the reception of Aristotle's works and for the history of theories of science.......The First substantial treatment of John of Salisbury's views on Aristotelian science. Important for our understanding of the reception of Aristotle's works and for the history of theories of science....

  4. John Kotter on Leadership, Management and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Excerpts from interview with John Kotter, Konosuke Matsushita Professor of Leadership at the Harvard Business School, about his thoughts on the role of the superintendent as leader and manager. Describes his recent book "John P. Kotter on What Leaders Really Do," 1999. Lists eight-step change process from his book "Leading Change," 1996. (PKP)

  5. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina; Champey, Patrick; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; Ranganathan, Jaganathan; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Parker, Theodore; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to obtain spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra of the solar atmosphere in the 6-24 Å (0.5-2.0 keV) range. The instrument consists of a single shell Wolter Type-I telescope, a slit, and a spectrometer comprising a matched pair of grazing incidence parabolic mirrors and a planar varied-line space diffraction grating. The instrument is designed to achieve a 50 mÅ spectral resolution and 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along a +/-4-arcminute long slit, and launch is planned for 2019. We report on the status and our approaches for fabrication and alignment for this novel optical system. The telescope and spectrometer mirrors are replicated nickel shells, and are currently being fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The diffraction grating is currently under development by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); because of the strong line spacing variation across the grating, it will be fabricated through e-beam lithography.

  6. The Marshall Islands radioassay quality assurance program. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Robison, W.L.; Kehl, S.; Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive quality assurance program to provide high quality data and assessments in support of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Program has been developed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Quality assurance objectives begin with the premise of providing integrated and cost-effective program support (to meet wide-ranging programmatic needs, scientific peer review, and build public confidence) and continue through from design and implementation of large-scale field programs, sampling and sample preparation, radiometric and chemical analyses, documentation of quality assurance/quality control practices, exposure assessments, and dose/risk assessments until publication. The basic structure of the radioassay quality assurance/quality control program can be divided into four essential elements: (1) sample and data integrity control, (2) instrument validation and calibration, (3) method performance testing, validation, development and documentation, and (4) periodic peer review and on-site assessments. While the quality assurance objectives are tailored towards a single research program and the evaluation of major exposure pathways/critical radionuclides pertinent to the Marshall Islands, quality assurance practices that are consistent with proposed criteria designed for laboratory accreditation were attempted to be developed. (author)

  7. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship

  8. Dose assessment activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Graham, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Dose assessments, both retrospective and prospective, comprise one important function of a radiological study commissioned by the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government in late 1989. Estimating past or future exposure requires the synthesis of information from historical data, results from a recently completed field monitoring program, laboratory measurements, and some experimental studies. Most of the activities in the RMI to date have emphasized a pragmatic rather than theoretical approach. In particular, most of the recent effort has been expended on conducting an independent radiological monitoring program to determine the degree of deposition and the geographical extent of weapons test fallout over the nation. Contamination levels on 70% of the land mass of the Marshall Islands were unknown prior to 1994. The environmental radioactivity data play an integral role in both retrospective and prospective assessments. One recent use of dose assessment has been to interpret environmental measurements of radioactivity into annual doses that might be expected at every atoll. A second use for dose assessment has been to determine compliance with dose action level for the rehabitation of Rongelap Island. Careful examination of exposure pathways relevant to the island lifestyle has been necessary to accommodate these purposes. Finally, an examination is underway of gummed film, fixed-instrument, and aerial survey data accumulated during the 1950's by the Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. AEC. This article gives an overview of these many different activities and a summary of recent dose assessments

  9. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  10. Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Anim Cogn DOI 10.1007/s10071-012-0503-0 Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat Lydia du Toit ? Nigel C. Bennett ? Alecia Nickless ? Martin J. Whiting L. du Toit , A. Nickless , M. J. Whiting (email) School...

  11. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  12. Little and often? Maintaining continued performance in an automated T-maze for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Pajor, Edmond A; Garner, Joseph P

    2011-02-01

    Operant and maze tasks in mice are limited by the small number of trials possible in a session before mice lose motivation. We hypothesized that by manipulating reward size and session length, motivation, and hence performance, would be maintained in an automated T-maze. We predicted that larger rewards and shorter sessions would improve acquisition; and smaller rewards and shorter sessions would maintain higher and less variable performance. Eighteen C57BL/6J mice (9 per sex) acquired (criterion 8/10 correct) and performed a spatial discrimination, with one of 3 reward sizes (.02, .04, or .08 g) and one of 3 session schedules (15, 30, or 45 min sessions). Each mouse had a total of 360 min of access to the maze per night, for two nights, and averaged 190 trials. Analysis used split-plot GLM with contrasts testing for linear effects. Acquisition of the discrimination was unaffected by reward size or session length/interval. After-criterion average performance improved as reward size decreased. After-criterion variability in performance was also affected. Variability increased as reward size increased. Session length/interval did not affect any outcome. We conclude that an automated maze, with suitable reward sizes, can sustain performance with low variability, at 5-10 times faster than traditional methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested--simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing…

  14. MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, 1-2 (2002), s. 221-225 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * elevated plus-maze * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  15. Cognitive and Neural Determinants of Response Strategy in the Dual-Solution Plus-Maze Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Elvira; Costantini, Vivian J. A.; Massaro, Antonio; Mandolesi, Georgia; Vanni, Valentina; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Response strategy in the dual-solution plus maze is regarded as a form of stimulus-response learning. In this study, by using an outcome devaluation procedure, we show that it can be based on both action-outcome and stimulus-response habit learning, depending on the amount of training that the animals receive. Furthermore, we show that…

  16. Anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats: grooming microstructure and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Maurício S; Couto-Pereira, Natividade S; Souza, Marilise F; Azeredo, Lucas A; Ferri, Marcelo K; Dalprá, Walesca L; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2012-06-05

    Grooming behavior is an adaptation to a stressful environment that can vary in accordance with stress intensity. Direct and indirect GABA(A) receptor agonists decrease duration, frequency, incorrect transitions and uninterrupted bouts of grooming. Hormonal variation during the different phases of the estrous cycle of female rats also changes the grooming behavior. It is known that GABA(A) agonists and endogenous hormones change anxiety-like behaviors observed in the elevated plus maze test, a classical animal model of anxiety. This study was designed to determine the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats in different estrous phases and to correlate anxiety behaviors in the elevated plus maze and grooming microstructure tests. Our results show that female rats displayed higher anxiety-like behavior scores during the estrus and proestrus phases in the elevated plus maze and that clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg; i.p.) had an anxiolytic effect that was independent of the estrous phase. Grooming behaviors were higher in the proestrus phase but were decreased by clonazepam administration, independent of the estrous phase, demonstrating the anxiolytic effect of this drug in both animal models. Grooming behaviors were moderately associated with anxiolytic-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test. Here, we describe the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam and the influence of estrous phase on anxiety. Moreover, we show that the grooming microstructure test is a useful tool for detecting anxiolytic-like behaviors in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand

  18. Hippocampal activation during the recall of remote spatial memories in radial maze tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesiger, Magdalene I; Cressey, John C; Boublil, Brittney; Koenig, Julie; Melvin, Neal R; Leutgeb, Jill K; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Temporally graded retrograde amnesia is observed in human patients with medial temporal lobe lesions as well as in animal models of medial temporal lobe lesions. A time-limited role for these structures in memory recall has also been suggested by the observation that the rodent hippocampus and entorhinal cortex are activated during the retrieval of recent but not of remote memories. One notable exception is the recall of remote memories for platform locations in the water maze, which requires an intact hippocampus and results in hippocampal activation irrespective of the age of the memory. These findings raise the question whether the hippocampus is always involved in the recall of spatial memories or, alternatively, whether it might be required for procedural computations in the water maze task, such as for calculating a path to a hidden platform. We performed spatial memory testing in radial maze tasks to distinguish between these possibilities. Radial maze tasks require a choice between spatial locations on a center platform and thus have a lesser requirement for navigation than the water maze. However, we used a behavioral design in the radial maze that retained other aspects of the standard water maze task, such as the use of multiple start locations and retention testing in a single trial. Using the immediate early gene c-fos as a marker for neuronal activation, we found that all hippocampal subregions were more activated during the recall of remote compared to recent spatial memories. In areas CA3 and CA1, activation during remote memory testing was higher than in rats that were merely reexposed to the testing environment after the same time interval. Conversely, Fos levels in the dentate gyrus were increased after retention testing to the extent that was also observed in the corresponding exposure control group. This pattern of hippocampal activation was also obtained in a second version of the task that only used a single start arm instead of multiple

  19. 78 FR 21862 - Revision to United States Marshals Service Fees for Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ....). List of Subjects in 28 CFR Part 0 Authority delegations (Government agencies), Government employees... Marshals Service employee, agent, or contractor. This proposed fee increase reflects the current costs to.... Marshals Service employee, agent, or contractor, plus travel costs and any other out-of- pocket expenses...

  20. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...This action removes the reference to the Kwajalein Tactacial Air Navigation (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This action corrects the legal descriptions for the Class E airspace areas in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands.

  1. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  2. 2008 St. Johns County, FL Countywide Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne terrestrial LiDAR was collected for St. Johns County, FL. System Parameters/Flight Plan. The LiDAR system acquisition parameters were developed based on a...

  3. John Dewey--Philosopher and Educational Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Kandan

    2015-01-01

    John Dewey was an American philosopher and educator, founder of the philosophical movement known as pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leader of the progressive movement in education in the United States.

  4. Vähesed head portfellihaldurid / John Mauldin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mauldin, John

    2005-01-01

    USA investeerimisnõustaja olulisematest põhimõtetest ja -reeglitest portfellihaldurite valikul. Investeerimissüsteemi analüüsist, minevikutootluse väheolulisusest ja fondimaailmas ellujäämisvõimalustest. Vt. samas: John Maudlin

  5. John Bell and the Identical Twins

    CERN Multimedia

    1984-01-01

    A biographical profile of John S.Bell is presented based on extensive interviews the author had with Bell. Bell’s vierws on the quantum theory are presented along with a simple explanation of his idenity.

  6. Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Yalof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory (CGT was used to identify a main concern of online students in higher education. One of the main impediments to studying online is a sense of isolation and lack of access to support systems as students navigate through complex requirements of their online programs. Hypothetical probability statements illustrate the imbalance between heightened needs of virtual learners and perceived inadequate support provided by educational institutions. The core variable, marshaling resources, explains how peer supports sustain motivation toward successful program completion. Understanding the critical contribution virtual interpersonal networks make towards maximizing resources by group problem solving is a significant aspect of this theory. Keywords: Online learning, e-learning, personal learning networks, peer networks

  7. Nanotechnology Concepts at Marshall Space Flight Center: Engineering Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B.; Kaul, R.; Shah, S.; Smithers, G.; Watson, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the art and science of building materials and devices at the ultimate level of finesse: atom by atom. Our nation's space program has need for miniaturization of components, minimization of weight, and maximization of performance, and nanotechnology will help us get there. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Engineering Directorate is committed to developing nanotechnology that will enable MSFC missions in space transportation, space science, and space optics manufacturing. MSFC has a dedicated group of technologists who are currently developing high-payoff nanotechnology concepts. This poster presentation will outline some of the concepts being developed including, nanophase structural materials, carbon nanotube reinforced metal and polymer matrix composites, nanotube temperature sensors, and aerogels. The poster will outline these concepts and discuss associated technical challenges in turning these concepts into real components and systems.

  8. Gamma spectroscopy analysis of archived Marshall Island soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.; Hoffman, K.; Lavelle, K.; Trauth, A.; Glover, S.E.; Connick, W.; Spitz, H.; LaMont, S.P.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four samples of archival Marshall Islands soil were subjected to non-destructive, broad energy (17 keV-2.61 MeV) gamma-ray spectrometry analysis using a series of different high-resolution germanium detectors. These archival samples were collected in 1967 from different locations on Bikini Atoll and were contaminated with a range of fission and activation products, and other nuclear material from multiple weapons tests. Unlike samples collected recently, these samples have been stored in sealed containers and have been unaffected by approximately 50 years of weathering. Initial results show that the samples contained measurable but proportionally different concentrations of plutonium, 241 Am, and 137 Cs, and 60 Co. (author)

  9. Crowd-Sourced Radio Science at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; McTernan, J. K.; Suggs, R. M.; Rawlins, L.; Krause, L. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adams, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    August 21, 2017 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the total solar eclipse on high frequency (HF) radio propagation and ionospheric variability. In Marshall Space Flight Center's partnership with the US Space and Rocket Center (USSRC) and Austin Peay State University (APSU), we engaged citizen scientists and students in an investigation of the effects of an eclipse on the mid-latitude ionosphere. Activities included fieldwork and station-based data collection of HF Amateur Radio frequency bands and VLF radio waves before, during, and after the eclipse to build a continuous record of changing propagation conditions as the moon's shadow marched across the United States. Post-eclipse radio propagation analysis provided insights into ionospheric variability due to the eclipse.

  10. Gregory Merkel Tours Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Gregory A. Merkel (left), high school student from Springfield, Massachusetts, is pictured here with Harry Coons of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during a visit to the center. Merkel was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  11. Translating The Infinities by John Banville

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Abigail Piccinini

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - John Banville’s talent as a prose stylist is widely recognized. The polished elegance of his phrases constitutes a continuing and fascinating challenge for his translator, due to the intricacies of the source text, its manifold registers and lexical choices. In his novel The Infinities, in Italian Teoria degli Infiniti, John Banville takes cue from Kleist’s Amphytrion to devise a novel where classicality interweaves with science and science fiction through the invention of a world ...

  12. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  13. Thermal Stir Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Solid state welding processes have become the focus of welding process development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike fusion weld processes such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA), electron beam (EB), etc., solid state welding processes do not melt the material during welding. The resultant microstructure can be characterized as a dynamically recrystallized morphology much different than the casted, dentritic structure typical of fusion weld processes. The primary benefits of solid state processes over fusion weld processes include superior mechanic properties and the elimination of thermal distortion and residual stresses. These solid state processes attributes have profoundly influenced the direction of advanced welding research and development within the NASA agency. Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) is a new solid state welding process being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the weld process can be decoupled for independent control. An induction coil induces energy into a workpiece to attain a desired plastic temperature. An independently controlled stir rod, captured within non-rotating containment plates, then stirs the plasticized material followed by forging plates/rollers that work the stirred weld joint. The independent control (decoupling) of heating, stirring and forging allows, theoretically, for the precision control of microstructure morphology. The TSW process is being used to evaluate the solid state joining of Haynes 230 for ARES J-2X applications. It is also being developed for 500-in (12.5 mm) thick commercially pure grade 2 titanium for navy applications. Other interests include Inconel 718 and stainless steel. This presentation will provide metallurgical and mechanical property data for these high melting temperature alloys.

  14. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmar, M; Nikolić, D; Kuzmanović, A; Kuzmanović, Z; Ganezer, K

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door. The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen. The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze. This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product φ·E at the screen.

  15. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    John W. Firor, a former Director of the High Altitude Observatory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and a founder of the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society, died of Alzheimer's disease in Pullman, Washington on November 5, 2007, he was 80. He was born in Athens Georgia on October 18, 1927, where his father was a professor of agricultural economics. John had an unusually diverse scientific career. His interest in physics and astrophysics began while serving in the army, during which time he was assigned to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he guarded highly radioactive materials (many have heard him describe how informal the protections were compared to later times). After his service he returned to college and graduated in physics from Georgia Tech in 1949. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1954, writing his thesis on cosmic rays under John Simpson. John Firor would later remark that: "If you needed cosmic rays to actually do anything, you are sunk." That thought, partly in jest, may help explain his motivation for moving to so many new scientific and management pursuits. John moved from cosmic ray physics to radio astronomy (particularly of the Sun) when he began work at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, where he remained until 1961. During this time, he met Walter Orr Roberts, then the Director of the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) in Boulder, Colorado. HAO was then affiliated with the University of Colorado. In 1959, a movement began to upgrade the atmospheric sciences in the United States by establishing a National Center, where the largest, most important atmospheric research problems could be addressed. Roberts became the first Director of NCAR, as well as the first president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the consortium of universities that was commissioned to manage and staff the new Center. HAO became a

  16. 78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps... Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In 1997, the Lower Colorado River... regulations to reflect changes in ownership and responsibilities of flood control management of Marshall Ford...

  17. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam...

  18. Dose assessment activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L; Graham, J C

    1996-10-01

    Dose assessments, both retrospective and prospective, comprise one important function of a radiological study commissioned by the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government in late 1989. Estimating past or future exposure requires the synthesis of information from historical data, results from a recently completed field monitoring program, laboratory measurements, and some experimental studies. Most of the activities in the RMI to date have emphasized a pragmatic rather than theoretical approach. In particular, most of the recent effort has been expended on conducting an independent radiological monitoring program to determine the degree of deposition and the geographical extent of weapons test fallout over the nation. Contamination levels on 70% of the land mass of the Marshall Islands were unknown prior to 1994. The environmental radioactivity data play an integral role in both retrospective and prospective assessments. One recent use of dose assessment has been to interpret environmental measurements of radioactivity into annual doses that might be expected at every atoll. A second use for dose assessment has been to determine compliance with a dose action level for the rehabilitation of Rongelap Island. Careful examination of exposure pathways relevant to the island lifestyle has been necessary to accommodate these purposes. Examples of specific issues studied include defining traditional island diets as well as current day variations, sources of drinking water, uses of tropical plants including those consumed for food and for medicinal purposes, the nature and microvariability of plutonium particles in the soil and unusual pathways of exposure, e.g., that which might be associated with cooking and washing outdoors and inadvertent soil ingestion. A study on the prevalence of thyroid disease is also being conducted and the geographic pattern of disease may be useful as a bioindicator of the geographic pattern of exposure to radioiodine. Finally, an

  19. Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog: the role of spatial versus olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François; Cabrera, Felipe; Corujo, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The golden hamster's (Mesocricetus auratus) performance on radial maze tasks has not been studied a lot. Here we report the results of a spatial memory task that involved eight food stations equidistant from the center of a circular platform. Each of six male hamsters depleted the food stations along successive choices. After each choice and a 5-s retention delay, the hamster was brought back to the center of the platform for the next choice opportunity. When only one baited station was left, the platform was rotated to evaluate whether olfactory traces guided hamsters' choices. Results showed that despite the retention delay hamsters performed above chance in searching for food. The choice distributions observed during the rotation probes were consistent with spatial memory and could be explained without assuming guidance by olfactory cues. The radial maze analog we devised could be useful in furthering the study of spatial memory in hamsters.

  20. Shielding of radiation fields generated by 252Cf in a concrete maze. Part 2 -- Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasso, A.; Ipe, N.E.; Reyna, A.

    1998-03-01

    A streaming experiment performed in a concrete maze of shape and size typical of a radiotherapy room was simulated with the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The purpose of the calculation was to test the performance of the code in the low energy neutron range, and at the same time to provide additional information which could help in optimizing shielding of medical facilities. Instrument responses were calculated at different maze locations for several experimental configurations and were compared with measurements. In addition, neutron and gamma fluence, ambient dose equivalent and effective dose were calculated at the same positions. Both sources used in the experiment, namely a bare 252 Cf source and one shielded by a tungsten shell 5 cm thick, were considered in the simulation

  1. Shielding of radiation fields generated by {sup 252}Cf in a concrete maze. Part 2 -- Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, A.; Ipe, N.E.; Reyna, A. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; McCall, R.C. [McCall Associates, Woodside, CA (US)

    1998-03-01

    A streaming experiment performed in a concrete maze of shape and size typical of a radiotherapy room was simulated with the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The purpose of the calculation was to test the performance of the code in the low energy neutron range, and at the same time to provide additional information which could help in optimizing shielding of medical facilities. Instrument responses were calculated at different maze locations for several experimental configurations and were compared with measurements. In addition, neutron and gamma fluence, ambient dose equivalent and effective dose were calculated at the same positions. Both sources used in the experiment, namely a bare {sup 252}Cf source and one shielded by a tungsten shell 5 cm thick, were considered in the simulation.

  2. Model testing of a 10-kg high explosive blast attenuation maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacigalupi, C.M.; Burton, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basement area of the proposed High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory includes 10-kg HE assembly and process cells, and a 10-kg corridor for the transport of up to 10 kg of HE from the receiving dock to the cells and to the experimental firing tanks. Previous model experiments developed a process cell-maze configuration that attenuated the effects of an accidental 10-kg detonation to acceptable levels (maximum of 10 to 11 psi reflected). This document reports 1/8-scale model tests conducted to confirm the maze design and to determine the blast pressures in adjacent areas in the final HEAF building configuration. In addition, pressure/time information was obtained at selected points in the model expansion chamber to provide the architect-engineer with information for structural design

  3. Solving the pre-marshalling problem to optimality with A* and IDA*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Voß, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel solution approach to the container pre-marshalling problem using the A* and IDA* algorithms combined with several novel branching and symmetry breaking rules that significantly increases the number of pre-marshalling instances that can be solved to optimality. A* and IDA......* are graph search algorithms that use heuristics combined with a complete graph search to find optimal solutions to problems. The container pre-marshalling problem is a key problem for container terminals seeking to reduce delays of inter-modal container transports. The goal of the container pre...

  4. Range Reference Atmosphere 0-70 Km Altitude. Kwajalein Missile Range, Kwajalein, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    DOCUMENT 360-82 KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE KWAJALEIN, MARSHALL ISLANDS RANGE REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE 0-70 KM ALTITUDE, C00 L’’I METEOROLOGY GROUP .RANGE...34Reference Atmosphere (Part 1), Kwajale 4n Missile Range, Kwajalein, Marshall Islands ," ADA002664. * 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revorsae d. If necoeewy...CLASSIFICATION OF TIlS PAGE (Whe~n Data EnterecD -v DOCUMENT 360-82 Vo- KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE KWAJALEIN, MARSHALL ISLANDS RANGE REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE 0-70 km

  5. Comparisons of Online Reading Paradigms: Eye Tracking, Moving-Window, and Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This study compares four methodologies used to examine online sentence processing during reading. Specifically, self-paced, non-cumulative, moving-window reading (Just et al. in "J Exp Psychol Gen" 111:228-238, 1982), eye tracking (see e.g., Rayner in "Q J Exp Psychol" 62:1457-1506, 2009), and two versions of the maze task (Forster et al. in…

  6. Obituary: John Louis Perdrix, 1926-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, D. Wayne

    2006-12-01

    John Perdrix, astronomical historian and co-founder of the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, died on 27 June 2005. John Louis Perdrix was born in Adelaide, Australia, on 30 June 1926. After studying chemistry at Melbourne Technical College and working in industry, he joined the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation's Division of Minerals and Geochemistry. In 1974 the Division relocated to the Western Australian capital, Perth, and John spent the rest of his working life there involved in geochemical research. From his teenage years John had a passion for astronomy, which he fine-tuned through the Astronomical Society of Victoria and the Victorian Branch of the British Astronomical Association. He was very active in both groups, serving as President of the former and Secretary/Treasurer of the latter. He was also an FRAS, and a member of the AAS, the BAA parent body, and the IAU (Commission 41)?no mean feat for an Australian amateur astronomer. Throughout his life, he was a strong advocate of close amateur-professional relations. John's main research interest was history of astronomy, and over the years he wrote a succession of research papers, mainly about aspects of Australian astronomy. His well-researched and neatly-illustrated papers on the Melbourne Observatory and the Great Melbourne Telescope are classics, and when the Observatory's future was in the balance they played a key role in the State Government's decision to convert this unique facility into a museum precinct. To support his research activities, John built up an amazing library that developed its own distinctive personality and quickly took over his house and garage before invading commercial storage facilities! Apart from writing papers, John had an even greater passion for editing and publishing. From 1985 to 1997 he produced the Australian Journal of Astronomy, and in 1998 this was replaced by the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage (JAH2). Both

  7. Effect of single and fractionated x-irradiation on maze learning ability of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Isao

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-six-day-old male ddk mice at the starting of the investigation were used as subjects through the experiment for 64 weeks. After 15 days' preliminary training, and 16 times of weekly trial training using complete maze, 15 mice received a single 224 rads of x-rays (S group), another 15 mice received two 112 rads spaced two weeks apart (F group) and another 15 mice were sham-irradiated (Control group). Then those mice were tested on the multiple T-maze with nine-choice points and change of performance was observed in terms of errorchoices by giving one test trial a week. We introduced the concept of ''confusional trials'' as an index for surmising to what extent mice failed to exhibit good maze learning habits. In the results, the F group showed significantly worse performance than the two other groups at early stages, opposite to it the S group exhibited the same, but at late stages after irradiation. The worse performance of F group should be considered to be due to the psychological after-effect to fractionated irradiation and that for S group could be assumed to be due to the acceleration of aging by the irradiation. (auth.)

  8. Memory-impairing effects of local anesthetics in an elevated plus-maze test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Blatt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-training intracerebroventricular administration of procaine (20 µg/µl and dimethocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, local anesthetics of the ester class, prolonged the latency (s in the retention test of male and female 3-month-old Swiss albino mice (25-35 g body weight; N = 140 in the elevated plus-maze (mean ± SEM for 10 male mice: control = 41.2 ± 8.1; procaine = 78.5 ± 10.3; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 58.7 ± 12.3; 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 109.6 ± 5.73; for 10 female mice: control = 34.8 ± 5.8; procaine = 55.3 ± 13.4; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 59.9 ± 12.3 and 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 61.3 ± 11.1. However, lidocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, an amide class type of local anesthetic, failed to influence this parameter. Local anesthetics at the dose range used did not affect the motor coordination of mice exposed to the rota-rod test. These results suggest that procaine and dimethocaine impair some memory process(es in the plus-maze test. These findings are interpreted in terms of non-anesthetic mechanisms of action of these drugs on memory impairment and also confirm the validity of the elevated plus-maze for the evaluation of drugs affecting learning and memory in mice

  9. Radiation protection of cyclotron vault with maze in PET Cyclotron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Marko

    2003-01-01

    The PET Cyclotron center (PCC) is a complex for production, research and application of positron radiopharmaceuticals for PET (Positron Emission Tomography), which was commissioned this year (2004) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Positron radionuclides are produced by 18/9 MeV proton/deuteron cyclotron CYCLONE 18/9. Radiation protection of personnel and inhabitants against ionizing radiation in the PCC is solved with regard to the ICRP recommendations and Slovak regulatory system, protection rules and criteria and optimization of radiation protection. In the article comparisons of calculated and measured neutron and gamma dose equivalent rates around the CYCLONE 18/9 and at various points behind the shielding of cyclotron vault with maze are presented. Description of the CYCLONE 18/9 as a source of angular distribution of neutron energy spectra (production of 18 F was considered) was simulated by Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Code MCNP4B was used for shielding calculation of cyclotron vault with maze. Neutron energy spectra behind the shielding were measured by Bonner spectrometer. The values of neutron dose equivalent, which were calculated and measured around the CYCLONE 18/9 and at various points behind the shielding of cyclotron vault with maze, are within the range of factor 2. (authors)

  10. Place and Response Learning in the Open-field Tower Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Campolattaro, Matthew M; Toufexis, Donna J; Mabry, Erin A

    2015-10-28

    This protocol describes how the Open-field Tower Maze (OFTM) paradigm is used to study spatial learning in rodents. This maze is especially useful for examining how rats learn to use a place- or response-learning to successfully navigate in an open-field arena. Additionally, this protocol describes how the OFTM differs from other behavioral maze paradigms that are commonly used to study spatial learning in rodents. The OFTM described in this article was adapted from the one previously described by Cole, Clipperton, and Walt (2007). Specifically, the OFTM was created to test spatial learning in rodents without the experimenter having to consider how "stress" might play a role as a confounding variable. Experiments have shown that stress-alone can significantly affect cognitive function(1). The representative results section contains data from an experiment that used the OFTM to examine the effects of estradiol treatment on place- and response-learning in adult female Sprague Dawley rats(2). Future studies will be designed to examine the role of the hippocampus and striatum in place- and response-learning in the OFTM.

  11. Declarative virtual water maze learning and emotional fear conditioning in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Marion; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Feige, Bernd; Landmann, Nina; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Baglioni, Chiara; Hemmerling, Johanna; Durand, Diana; Frase, Lukas; Klöppel, Stefan; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2018-05-02

    Healthy sleep restores the brain's ability to adapt to novel input through memory formation based on activity-dependent refinements of the strength of neural transmission across synapses (synaptic plasticity). In line with this framework, patients with primary insomnia often report subjective memory impairment. However, investigations of memory performance did not produce conclusive results. The aim of this study was to further investigate memory performance in patients with primary insomnia in comparison to healthy controls, using two well-characterized learning tasks, a declarative virtual water maze task and emotional fear conditioning. Twenty patients with primary insomnia according to DSM-IV criteria (17 females, three males, 43.5 ± 13.0 years) and 20 good sleeper controls (17 females, three males, 41.7 ± 12.8 years) were investigated in a parallel-group study. All participants completed a hippocampus-dependent virtual Morris water maze task and amygdala-dependent classical fear conditioning. Patients with insomnia showed significantly delayed memory acquisition in the virtual water maze task, but no significant difference in fear acquisition compared with controls. These findings are consistent with the notion that memory processes that emerge from synaptic refinements in a hippocampal-neocortical network are particularly sensitive to chronic disruptions of sleep, while those in a basic emotional amygdala-dependent network may be more resilient. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Development of locomotor activity of rat pups in figure-eight mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1985-05-01

    In a series of four experiments, social and experiential factors that influence the development of motor activity in rat pups were examined. Motor activity was monitored from postnatal Days 13 to 21 as photocell interruptions in figure-eight mazes and comparisons were made between pups maintained in a nest box containing a dam and siblings and allowed access to the maze for 23 hr/day, pups tested daily for 1 hr/day vs pups tested only on postnatal Days 15, 18, or 21, pups tested daily for either 5 min, 30 min, or 1 hr/day, and pups tested daily for 30 min/day either singly in a maze, paired with a littermate, or paired with an anesthetized pup of the same age. A monotonic increase in activity was seen for nest-box testing, minimal developmental change was seen for pups tested on only a single day or for pups tested with an anesthetized pup, whereas all other groups showed an inverted U-shaped profile of activity which was influenced by the duration of testing and/or the presence of a littermate. These data emphasize the relevance of environmental factors as determinants of preweaning behavior.

  13. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Pinnell

    Full Text Available With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems. As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours.

  14. Food restriction affects Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Chen, Yanmei; Li, Liane; Wang, Yumei; Kong, Xiangyang; Wang, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    The ambiguous effects of food restriction (FR) on cognition in rodents have been mostly explored in the aged brain by a variety of paradigms, in which either rewards or punishments are involved. This study aims to examine the effects of chronic and acute FR with varying intensities on spatial recognition memory in developing mice. We have used a Y-maze task that is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments. In chronic FR, mice had 70-30% chow of control for seven weeks. In acute FR, mice were food restricted for 12-48h before the tests. We found that chronic FR had no effect on the preference of mice for novelty in the Y-maze, but severe FR (50-30% of control) caused impairment on spatial recognition memory. The impairment significantly correlated with the slow weight growth induced by FR. Acute FR also did not affect the novelty preference of mice, but either improved or impaired the memory retention. These data suggest chronic FR impairs Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice depending on FR intensity and individual tolerability of the FR. Moreover, acute FR exerts diverse effects on the memory, either positive or negative. Our findings have revealed new insights on the effects of FR on spatial recognition memory in developing animals. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Greenhouse, N.A.; Knight, G.; Craighead, E.C.

    1980-07-01

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns

  16. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish 137 Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. 137 Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. 137 Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average 137 Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22±4 μSv. For Utirik, the dose was 33± 3 μSv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2±2 μSv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 μSv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab

  17. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  18. Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This photo (a frontal view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

  19. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  20. Measles outbreak in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Terri B; Dayan, Gustavo H; Langidrik, Justina R; Nandy, Robin; Edwards, Russell; Briand, Kennar; Konelios, Mailynn; Marin, Mona; Nguyen, Huong Q; Khalifah, Anthony P; O'leary, Michael J; Williams, Nobia J; Bellini, William J; Bi, Daoling; Brown, Cedric J; Seward, Jane F; Papania, Mark J

    2006-04-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection. Measles transmission can be prevented through high population immunity (>or=95%) achieved by measles vaccination. In the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), no measles cases were reported during 1989-2002; however, a large measles outbreak occurred in 2003. Reported 1-dose measles vaccine coverage among children aged 12-23 months varied widely (52-94%) between 1990 and 2000. RMI is a Pacific island nation (1999 population: 50,840). A measles case was defined as fever, rash, and cough, or coryza, or conjunctivitis, in an RMI resident between July 13 and November 7, 2003. A vaccination campaign was used for outbreak control. Of the 826 reported measles cases, 766 (92%) occurred in the capital (Majuro). There were 186 (23%) cases in infants aged or=15 years. The attack rate was highest among infants (Majuro atoll: 213 cases/1,000 infants). Among cases aged 1-14 years, 281 (59%) reported no measles vaccination before July 2003. There were 100 hospitalizations and 3 deaths. The measles H1 genotype was identified. The vaccination campaign resulted in 93% coverage among persons aged 6 months to 40 years. Interpretation Populations without endemic measles transmission can accumulate substantial susceptibility and be at risk for large outbreaks when measles virus is imported. 'Islands' of measles susceptibility may develop in infants, adults, and any groups with low vaccine coverage. To prevent outbreaks, high population immunity must be sustained by maintaining and documenting high vaccine coverage.

  1. Mapping nuclear craters on Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, John C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed geologic analysis of two nuclear test craters at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, on behalf of the Defense Nuclear Agency. A multidisciplinary task force mapped the morphology, surface character, and subsurface structure of two craters, OAK and KOA. The field mapping techniques include echo sounding, sidescan sonar imaging, single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiling, a seismic refraction survey, and scuba and submersible operations. All operations had to be navigated precisely and correlatable with subsequent drilling and sampling operations. Mapping with a high degree of precision at scales as large as 1:1500 required corrections that often are not considered in marine mapping. Corrections were applied to the bathymetric data for location of the echo- sounding transducer relative to the navigation transponder on the ship and for transducer depth, speed of sound, and tidal variations. Sidescan sonar, single-channel seismic reflection, and scuba and submersible data were correlated in depth and map position with the bathymetric data to provide a precise, internally consistent data set. The multichannel and refraction surveys were conducted independently but compared well with bathymetry. Examples drawn from processing the bathymetric, sidescan sonar, and single- channel reflection data help illustrate problems and procedures in precision mapping.

  2. Hyperuricemia in the inhabitants of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Jamner, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Annual medical examinations are conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a population of Marshallese who were accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954, for a comparison population, and for all inhabitants of the atolls of Rongelap and Utirik. Disease surveillance includes analysis of serum samples. Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels are common along Pacific populations, and modifying environmental factors have been investigated as a cause for this finding. The authors have studied SUA levels of people living in the Marshall Islands, and have found elevated values similar to those reported for other Micronesian populations. The nearly Gaussian distribution of individual serum uric acid values for men, and for women less than or equal to45 years of age, indicates that the elevation is due to a regularized increase in serum uric acid rather than to a subpopulation that has pathologic hyperuricemia. The higher serum uric acid levels appear, therefore, to be normal for the Marshallese, a conclusion supported by the infrequency of clinical gout in the population tested

  3. Improve services project -- Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langidrik, J

    1995-01-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands has 60 dispensary sites, each staffed by 1 health assistant, to cover 80-800 people/site on 34 atolls. Until the spring of 1994, only curative services were available on a regular basis, and preventive services were provided by traveling health teams from the urban centers. In 1994, the health assistants in selected outer islands were trained to administer immunizations from vaccines which are sent regularly by air. Additional project sites are being selected. In 1993, 2 dispensaries initiated a project to 1) increase the number of women with access to prenatal care during the first trimester, 2) increase immunization levels, 3) improve access to preventive services, and 4) improve reporting and record-keeping systems. This project includes an important training component for the health assistant, the wife of the health assistant, the traditional birth attendant, the youth peer educator, community leaders, and a member of the local council. By 1994, this project was expanded to 13 dispensaries on 2 atolls. In 1995, 18 more dispensaries on 4 more atolls will be able to offer these additional services.

  4. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for 241 Am, 6569 for 137 Cs, 4535 for 239+240 Pu, 4431 for 90 Sr, 1146 for 238 Pu, 269 for 241 Pu, and 114 each for 239 Pu and 240 Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included

  5. Bathymetry (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  6. The Bildungsroman in Cameroon Anglophone Literature: John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the bildungsroman genre in postcolonial Cameroon Anglophone fiction through a textual analysis of John Nkemngong Nkengasong's Across the Mongolo and Margaret Afuh's Born before Her Time. It seeks to show that these two writers have borrowed a foreign genre and successfully manipulated ...

  7. Capitalism in Six Westerns by John Ford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The economic and institutional analysis of capitalism can be illustrated through John Ford's Westerns. This article focuses on six classics by Ford that show the move toward modern order, the creation of a new society, and the rule of law. Economic features are pervading, from property rights and contracts to markets, money, and trade. Ford has…

  8. John Dewey in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Morgan K.

    2017-01-01

    John Dewey was a pragmatist, progressivist, educator, philosopher, and social reformer (Gutek, 2014). Dewey's various roles greatly impacted education, and he was perhaps one of the most influential educational philosophers known to date (Theobald, 2009). Dewey's influence on education was evident in his theory about social learning; he believed…

  9. Preparing for Citizenship: Bring Back John Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The paper traces the development of citizenship in the curriculum in England since the 1960s, emerging particularly from the Crick report. It argues for lessons to be learnt from John Dewey's "Democracy and education", the centenary of which is being celebrated this year.

  10. We, John Dewey's Audience of Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcus Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests that John Dewey's "Democracy and Education" does not describe education in an existing society, but it conveys a utopia, in the sense coined by Mannheim: utopian thought aims at instigating actions towards the transformation of reality, intending to attain a better world in the future. Today's readers of Dewey (his…

  11. Jean Piaget's Debt to John Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Jean Piaget became a veritable institution unto himself in education and psychology, largely as the result of his developmental-stage theory advanced over the second quarter of the twentieth century. Not until Piaget was 73 did he make mention of John Dewey's work at Dewey's laboratory school, founded in 1894 at the University of Chicago. But here…

  12. John Deweys kritik af liberal education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with John Dewey's aversion against liberal education and his concern about a 'dual track' educational system separating liberal education and vocational education. It investigates the reason why Dewey maintains that the philosophical 'dualisms' culminate in the question on vocation....

  13. Astronaut John Glenn Enters Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.

  14. The Johns Hopkins Hospital: A Summer Internship

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Adam Smith, a native of Richmond, Indiana, is an advanced pharmacy practice student in the College of Pharmacy at Purdue University. In this article, he describes how career exploration through a summer internship with The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland solidified his desire to pursue a career in pharmacy administration.

  15. John R. Commons: Pioneer in Labor Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack

    1989-01-01

    John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)

  16. John Maynard Smith (1920-2004)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. John Maynard Smith (1920-2004) - “One of the last Grand Evolutionary Theorists of the 20th Century”. Vidyanand Nanjundiah. General Article Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 70-78 ...

  17. In Memoriam: Dr. Frank John Fenner

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast reflects on one of the greatest pioneers in virology, Dr. Frank John Fenner. Dr. Frederick Murphy, a member of EID's editorial board and the Institute of Medicine, and professor of Pathology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, shares professional and personal stories of Dr. Frank Fenner.

  18. Obituary: John Leroy Climenhaga, 1916-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Colin

    2009-01-01

    John Leroy Climenhaga was born on 7 November 1916 on a farm some 10 km from Delisle, a small town on the Canadian prairies, located about 50 km south-west of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and died at his home in Victoria, British Columbia, on 27 May 2008. His parents, Reuben and Elizabeth (nee Bert) Climenhaga, were farming folk, and he carried their honest and open attitude to the world throughout his life. John was the seventh born, and last to die, of their ten children. His father also served as an ordained minister of the Brethren in Christ. In early adulthood, John worked on his father's farm, but then attended the University of Saskatchewan, obtaining a B.A. with Honors in Mathematics and Physics and an M.A. in Physics, in 1945 and 1949 respectively. Between these events he worked as a Physics Instructor at Regina College from 1946 to 1948. In 1949 Climenhaga joined the faculty of Victoria College, as one of only two physicists in a small institution that was then part of the University of British Columbia. He remained in Victoria for the rest of his career, playing a major role in the College's growth into a full-fledged university, complete with thriving graduate programs in physics and astronomy as well as in many other fields. He served as Head of the Physics Department during the 1960s, a period which saw the College become the University of Victoria, with a full undergraduate program in Physics, and campaigned successfully for the establishment of a program in Astronomy, which began in 1965. From 1969 until 1972 he held the position of Dean of Arts and Science, and championed the university's participation in the Tri-University Meson Facility, whose high-current medium-energy beam was ideal for the production and study of mesons and their physics. That period was a turbulent one in the university's history, but John's integrity and his balanced and fair-minded approach to conflicts were of immeasurable importance in steering the young institution through it

  19. El último libro de John Strachey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcías Martán Góngora

    1965-08-01

    Full Text Available Fue muy largo el sendero ideológico que hubo de recorrer el inglés John Strachey en la busqueda íntima de una respuesta a su inquirir constante. En su viaje interior escuchó, a la siniestra, también la voz de las sirenas socialistas.

  20. John Smith - eesti kunstnik / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2006-01-01

    Marko Mäetamme ja Kaido Ole kollektiivsest loomingust, mida esitatakse John Smithi autorinime all, mõnda ka salapärase J. Smithi nn. biograafiast. Illustratsiooniks J. Smith'i "Jumalate maailm I (fragment). Õli, lõuend, 2002. Erakogu

  1. John Dewey on Philosophy and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Maughn; Granger, David

    2012-01-01

    John Dewey was not a philosopher of education in the now-traditional sense of a doctor of philosophy who examines educational ends, means, and controversies through the disciplinary lenses of epistemology, ethics, and political theory, or of agenda-driven schools such as existentialism, feminism, and critical theory. Rather, Dewey was both an…

  2. Bathymetry (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  3. Utility of finger maze test for learning and memory abilities in infants of cynomolgus monkeys exposed to thiamazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayumi; Arima, Akihiro; Kato, Hirohito; Ebihara, Shizufumi

    2014-11-01

    A new type of learning and memory test using a finger maze was conducted in infant cynomolgus monkeys that were exposed to thiamazole (2 and 3.5 mg/kg per day to pregnant animals orally) during the fetal period (gestational days 120 to 150). We modified Tsuchida's original finger maze test method by reducing the number of trials per day and simplifying the criteria for achievement of training, and we added a long-term memory test. In the memory test, thiamazole-exposed infants required greater time to complete the finger maze test than the control infants although no effect was noted in the training or learning test. The results suggest that an impaired long-term memory could be detected by our modified finger maze test. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  4. Obituary: John J. Hillman, 1938-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanover, Nancy

    2007-12-01

    John J. Hillman, a dedicated NASA civil servant, spectroscopist, astrophysicist, planetary scientist, and mentor, died on February 12, 2006 of ocular melanoma at his home in Columbia, Maryland. His professional and personal interests were wide-reaching and varied, and he devoted his career to the advancement of our understanding of the beauty and wonder in the world around us. His love of nature, art, and science made him a true Renaissance man. John was born in Fort Jay, New York, on November 22, 1938, and was raised in Washington, D.C. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Physics from American University in 1967, 1970, and 1975, respectively. He began working at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, then in its infancy, in 1969, juggling a full-time position as a Research Physicist, the completion of his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and a young family. His background in molecular spectroscopy enabled him to apply his skills to numerous disciplines within NASA: infrared and radio astronomy; electronic, vibrational, and rotational structure of interstellar molecules; solar and stellar atmospheres; and planetary atmospheres. He published more than 70 journal papers in these disciplines. He was a frequent contributor to the Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, and possessed a rare ability to bridge the gap between laboratory and remote sensing spectroscopy, bringing scientists from different disciplines together to understand our Universe. The last fifteen years of John's career were devoted to the development of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) cameras. He championed this technology as a low-cost, low-power alternative to traditional imaging cameras for in situ or remotely sensed planetary exploration. It was within this context that I got to know John, and eventually worked closely with him on the demonstration and application of this technology for planetary science using ground-based telescopes in New Mexico, California

  5. Marshall properties of asphalt concrete using crumb rubber modified of motorcycle tire waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the effect of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) of motorcycle tire waste on Marshall properties of asphalt mix. Two types of aggregate gradation, asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC) and asphalt concrete base (ACB), and CRM passing #50 sieve size were used. Seven levels of CRM content were investigated in this study, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, and 6% by weight of aggregate. Marshall test is conducted on Marshall specimens. The specimens are tested in their optimum binder content (OBC). The results indicate that CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste increases the Marshall stability of the both mix, ACWC and ACB. In addition, 1% CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste of the total mix weight is the best mix.

  6. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  7. Field Marshal Erich Von Manstein and the Operational Art at the Battle of Kharkov

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Field Marshal Erich von Manstein was one of Hitler's most competent generals. He was a master of maneuver warfare who orchestrated the counterattacks of Germany's Army Group South during the Winter Campaign of 1942-43...

  8. Field Marshal Sir William J. Slim - Paragon of Moral and Ethical Courage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baylor, Richard

    1998-01-01

    ... during the most desperate and brutal times. This paper looks closely at Field Marshal Slim's ethical development and leadership during his younger years, his senior leader years, and his later years...

  9. Maze Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rounds Seminar Series & Daily Conferences Fellowships and Residencies School of Perfusion Technology Education Resources Library & Learning Resource Center CME Resources THI Journal THI Cardiac Society Register for the Cardiac Society ...

  10. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands an...

  11. Neural correlates of olfactory and visual memory performance in 3D-simulated mazes after intranasal insulin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Mutic, Smiljana; Benedict, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    This fMRI study intended to establish 3D-simulated mazes with olfactory and visual cues and examine the effect of intranasally applied insulin on memory performance in healthy subjects. The effect of insulin on hippocampus-dependent brain activation was explored using a double-blind and placebo-controlled design. Following intranasal administration of either insulin (40IU) or placebo, 16 male subjects participated in two experimental MRI sessions with olfactory and visual mazes. Each maze included two separate runs. The first was an encoding maze during which subjects learned eight olfactory or eight visual cues at different target locations. The second was a recall maze during which subjects were asked to remember the target cues at spatial locations. For eleven included subjects in the fMRI analysis we were able to validate brain activation for odor perception and visuospatial tasks. However, we did not observe an enhancement of declarative memory performance in our behavioral data or hippocampal activity in response to insulin application in the fMRI analysis. It is therefore possible that intranasal insulin application is sensitive to the methodological variations e.g. timing of task execution and dose of application. Findings from this study suggest that our method of 3D-simulated mazes is feasible for studying neural correlates of olfactory and visual memory performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A New Reading of Shakespeare's King John.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Peter D.

    1995-12-01

    Shakespeare wrote King John c.1594, six years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and ~ 50 years after publication of the Copernican heliocentric hypothesis. It is said to be the most unhistorical of the History Plays, ``anomalous'', ``puzzling'', and ``odd'', and as such it has engendered far more than the customary range of interpretive opinion. I suggest that the play alerts Elizabethans not just to military and political threats, but to a changing cosmic world view, all especially threatening as they arise in Catholic countries. (a) Personification characterizes the play. John personifies the old order, while Arthur and the Dauphin's armies personify the new. I suggest that Shakespeare decenters King John just as Copernicus decentered the world. (b) Hubert menaces Arthur's eyes for a whole scene (4.1), but the need for such cruelty is not explained and is especially odd as Arthur is already under sentence of death (3.3.65-66). This hitherto unexplained anomaly suggests that the old order fears what the new might see. (c) Eleanor's confession is made only to Heaven and to her son the King (1.1.42-43), yet by echoing and word play the Messenger from France later reveals to John that he is privy to it (4.2.119-124). This circumstance has not been questioned heretofore. I suggest that the Messenger is like the wily Hermes (Mercury), chief communicator of the gods and patron of the sciences; by revealing that he moves in the highest circles, he tells John that he speaks with an authority that transcends even that of a king. The message from on high presages more than political change; it warns of a new cosmic and religious world order (d) Most agree that John is a weak king, so Shakespeare must have suspected flaws in the old ways. He would have known that Tycho Brahe's new star of 1572, the comet of 1577, and the 1576 model of his compatriot Thomas Digges, were shattering old ideas. (e) The tensions of the play are not resolved because in 1594 the new order was

  13. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Marshallagia marshalli and phylogenetic implications for the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao-Miao; Han, Liang; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wang, Shu-Qing; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Marshallagia marshalli (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) infection can lead to serious parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep, goat, and wild ruminant, causing significant socioeconomic losses worldwide. Up to now, the study concerning the molecular biology of M. marshalli is limited. Herein, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of M. marshalli and examined its phylogenetic relationship with selected members of the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea using Bayesian inference (BI) based on concatenated mt amino acid sequence datasets. The complete mt genome sequence of M. marshalli is 13,891 bp, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes supported the monophylies of the families Haemonchidae, Molineidae, and Dictyocaulidae with strong statistical support, but rejected the monophyly of the family Trichostrongylidae. The determination of the complete mt genome sequence of M. marshalli provides novel genetic markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of M. marshalli and its congeners.

  14. Prediction of Marshall Parameters of Modified Bituminous Mixtures Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Khuntia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the application of artificial neural networks (ANN and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM for prediction of Marshall parameters obtained from Marshall tests for waste polyethylene (PE modified bituminous mixtures. Waste polyethylene in the form of fibres processed from utilized milk packets has been used to modify the bituminous mixes in order to improve their engineering properties. Marshall tests were carried out on mix specimens with variations in polyethylene and bitumen contents. It has been observed that the addition of waste polyethylene results in the improvement of Marshall characteristics such as stability, flow value and air voids, used to evaluate a bituminous mix. The proposed neural network (NN model uses the quantities of ingredients used for preparation of Marshall specimens such as polyethylene, bitumen and aggregate in order to predict the Marshall stability, flow value and air voids obtained from the tests. Out of two techniques used, the NN based model is found to be compact, reliable and predictable when compared with LS-SVM model. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to identify the importance of the parameters considered.

  15. Marshall Space Flight Center's Virtual Reality Applications Program 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1993-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. Other NASA Centers, most notably Ames Research Center (ARC), have contributed to the development of the VR enabling technologies and VR systems. This VR technology development has now reached a level of maturity where specific applications of VR as a tool can be considered. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, validate, and utilize VR as a Human Factors design and operations analysis tool and to assess and evaluate VR as a tool in other applications (e.g., training, operations development, mission support, teleoperations planning, etc.). The long-term goals of this technology program is to enable specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process and develop more effective training and mission support systems. The capability to perform specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process is required to better refine and validate requirements during the requirements definition phase. This leads to a more efficient design process where perturbations caused by late-occurring requirements changes are minimized. A validated set of VR analytical tools must be developed to enable a more efficient process for the design and development of space systems and operations. Similarly, training and mission support systems must exploit state-of-the-art computer-based technologies to maximize training effectiveness and enhance mission support. The approach of the VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical

  16. Marshall Space Flight Center's Impact Testing Facility Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finchum, Andy; Hubbs, Whitney; Evans, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Impact Testing Facility (ITF) serves as an important installation for space and missile related materials science research. The ITF was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960s, then played a major role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As NASA became more interested in launch debris and in-flight impact concerns, the ITF grew to include research in a variety of impact genres. Collaborative partnerships with the DoD led to a wider range of impact capabilities being relocated to MSFC as a result of the closure of Particle Impact Facilities in Santa Barbara, California. The Particle Impact Facility had a 30 year history in providing evaluations of aerospace materials and components during flights through rain, ice, and solid particle environments at subsonic through hypersonic velocities. The facility s unique capabilities were deemed a "National Asset" by the DoD. The ITF now has capabilities including environmental, ballistic, and hypervelocity impact testing utilizing an array of air, powder, and two-stage light gas guns to accommodate a variety of projectile and target types and sizes. Numerous upgrades including new instrumentation, triggering circuitry, high speed photography, and optimized sabot designs have been implemented. Other recent research has included rain drop demise characterization tests to obtain data for inclusion in on-going model development. The current and proposed ITF capabilities range from rain to micrometeoroids allowing the widest test parameter range possible for materials investigations in support of space, atmospheric, and ground environments. These test capabilities including hydrometeor, single/multi-particle, ballistic gas guns, exploding wire gun, and light gas guns combined with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Code (SPHC) simulations represent the widest range of impact test capabilities in the country.

  17. Geochemistry and petrology of basaltic rocks from the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alice S.; Schwab, William C.; Haggerty, Janet A.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of volcanic rock was recovered from the flanks of seamounts, guyots, atolls, and islands in the Ratak chain of the Marshall Islands on the U.S. Geological Survey cruise L9-84-CP. The main objective of this cruise was to study the distribution and composition of ferromanganese oxide crusts. Preliminary results of managanese crust composition are reported by Schwab et al. (1985) and detailed studies are in preparation (Schwab et al., 1986). A total of seven seafloor edifices were studied using 12 khz, 3.5 khz and air gun seismic reflection, chain dredge and box corer. Bathymetry and ship track lines are presented by Schwab and Bailey (1985). Of the seven edifices surveyed two support atolls (Majuro and Taongi) and one is a tiny island (Jemo). Dredge locations and water depths are given in Table 1 and dredge locations are shown in Figure 1. Due to equipment failures depths of dredge hauls were limited to shallow depth for all except the first two sites occupied. Recovery consisted mostly of young, poorly-consolidated limestone of fore-reef slope deposit and minor volcanogenic breccia and loose talus. The breccia and pieces of talus are thickly encrusted with ferromanganese oxide, whereas the young limestone is only coated by a thin layer. Four of the seven sites surveyed yielded volcanic rock. The volcanic rock, volumetrically a minor part of each dredge haul, consists mostly of lapilli and cobble-size clasts in a calcareous matrix or as loose talus. Most clasts show evidence of reworking, being sub- to well rounded, sometimes with a thin ferromanganese crust of their own. This paper reports preliminary findings on the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rock recovered.

  18. Science Outreach at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, George

    2002-07-01

    At the end of World War II Duane Deming, an internationally known economist enunciated what later came to be called "Total Quality Management" (TQM). The basic thrust of this economic theory called for companies and governments to identify their customers and to do whatever was necessary to meet their demands and to keep them satisfied. It also called for companies to compete internally. That is, they were to build products that competed with their own so that they were always improving. Unfortunately most U.S. corporations failed to heed this advice. Consequently, the Japanese who actively sought Deming's advice and instituted it in their corporate planning, built an economy that outstripped that of the U.S. for the next three to four decades. Only after U.S. corporations reorganized and fashioned joint ventures which incorporated the tenets of TQM with their Japanese competitors did they start to catch up. Other institutions such as the U.S. government and its agencies and schools face the same problem. While the power of the U.S. government is in no danger of being usurped, its agencies and schools face real problems which can be traced back to not heeding Deming's advice. For example, the public schools are facing real pressure from private schools and home school families because they are not meeting the needs of the general public, Likewise, NASA and other government agencies find themselves shortchanged in funding because they have failed to convince the general public that their missions are important. In an attempt to convince the general public that its science mission is both interesting and important, in 1998 the Science Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) instituted a new outreach effort using the interact to reach the general public as well as the students. They have called it 'Science@NASA'.

  19. John C. Carapanayiotis (1909-1999): the Greek radiologist and pioneer of physiatry in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Christos S; Balanika, Alexia P; Carapanayiotis, Olga J; Hesketh, Graeme; Sgantzos, Markos N

    2017-12-01

    John C. Carapanayiotis was specialized in physical medicine and rehabilitation in the USA in 1948, at a time when the medical world in post-war Greece was ignorant of this specific medical specialty, and the political, economic and social backdrop was incapable of accepting and understanding the wealth of scientific knowledge that he was trying to introduce. At this point it should be noted that the specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation was established in Greece in 1973. John C. Carapanayiotis was a member of the American Congress of Physical Medicine during the 1950's. In the same period, he expressed interest, on behalf of the New York University, in the establishment of a Physical Therapy Clinic in Greece, which would be granted unlimited funding by the Marshal Plan. His efforts clashed constantly with the backward mentality of his time, with the entrenched conservatism and with the bureaucratic red tape. Unfortunately, he was far ahead of his time and was condemned to the same fate as all other visionaries and pioneers in the way that his knowledge and scientific background were not put into practice for decades to come.

  20. John Holt Stanway: Gone to Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, J.

    2008-01-01

    John Holt Stanway (1799Ð1872) was an amateur astronomer who lived in Manchester, England until 1845. He was in contact with the English Ôgrand amateurÕ astronomer, William Henry Smyth, who supported him for Fellowship of the Royal Astronomical Society and evidently advised him on how to build and equip an observatory. Apparently, Stanway had an observatory at Chorlton-cum-Hardy in 1837. In 1845, Stanway left for the United States in response to serious business problems. En route, he met Ashbel Smith, a representative of the government of the Republic of Texas, who convinced Stanway to go to Texas. There he changed his name to John H. Smythe Stanley and settled in Houston, where he re-established his observatory. He became a commercial photographer and wrote about astronomy and other scientific subjects in Houston newspapers until his death in 1872.

  1. In Memoriam: Dr. Frank John Fenner

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-22

    This podcast reflects on one of the greatest pioneers in virology, Dr. Frank John Fenner. Dr. Frederick Murphy, a member of EID's editorial board and the Institute of Medicine, and professor of Pathology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, shares professional and personal stories of Dr. Frank Fenner.  Created: 4/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/26/2011.

  2. 65 Year Birthday Celebration's Prof. John Ellis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    On 13 September, physicists from around the world joined John Ellis at a colloquium to celebrate his 65th birthday, and as he ended his long career as a distinguished CERN staff member and joins King’s College London. Here he is in the audience with fellow theorists, Nobel laureate Gerard ’t Hooft and Chris Llewellyn Smith, former director-general of CERN.

  3. John Dewey's Visits to Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    John Dewey visited Hawai'i on three separate occasions. Of all three trips, by far the most important, as far as Dewey's influence on education in Hawai'i is concerned, was in 1899 when he came with his wife, Alice Chipman Dewey, to help launch the University Extension program in Honolulu. The Deweys' second trip was a very brief one--twenty years…

  4. Historical Footage of John Glenn Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    The Friendship mission launch on the 20th day of February marked the first time that an American attempts to orbit the Earth. Historical footage of John Glenn's suit up, ride out to the launch pad, countdown, liftoff, booster engine cutoff, and separation of the booster engine escape tower is shown. Views of the Earth, Glenn's manual control of the electrical fly-by wire system, and the recovery of the landing vehicle from the ocean are presented.

  5. Book in three volumes of dr. John Puricha: Theology and pedagogy of St. John Chrysostom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the is latest work of Bishop Dr John Puric, by its importance, analytically decorated works, an impressive and voluminous number of facts happy including pedagogical Serbian public. Specifically, our pedagogical public is missing in this way displayed the Orthodox point of view of observation pedagogical crown and top categories. Episkom John was the there / volume work attempted to provide the interested reader the personality profile of any precise data from the conception of St. John Crisostom by looking at the same time as its pedagogy, and theology. Moreover these two concepts and bringing them to their assence, John episcope them actually connects into one inseparable unity. Therefore, this work has a multiple value and importance esportance especially for educators, who have not tried or had the oppotunality to see and understand the pedagogy of Orthodox theology in general, decorated with the ideas of Saint John Chrysostom special. Mindfullpeace as heir and successor creative Cappadocia 'novonikejske' trijadologije, St. John Chrystom recognizes the statut of Divine pedagogy educational philanthropy and philanthropic saving of pedagogy in each of the three Divine Persons. God the Father is this part, written by Bishop John, and from the perspective of John Chrysostom, is uncreated and unborn educationak philanthropy source of grace of the Holy Trinity. God the Son, and of the Father, uncreated etrinilly born, only begotten Son of God, newborn Logos, Jesus Christ the God/ man, BewAdam is alive and saving, hypostatic Ikonomija God, great mystery of the faith- God is reported in the body, the Divine Krishna- resurrect pedagogy, in which the comic-eschatologiocal Body, Church of Heaven and Earth, The Secret New Substances contain - the salvation of all creation, all creatures animate and inanimate. The salvation of man and the world, in the Divine dispensation and the pedagogy of salvation invation involve all there persons of the Holy

  6. Obituary: John Daniel Kraus, 1910-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, John D., Jr.; Marhefka, Ronald J.

    2005-12-01

    John Daniel Kraus, 94, of Delaware, Ohio, director of the Ohio State University "Big Ear" Radio Observatory, physicist, inventor, and environmentalist died 18 July 2004 at his home in Delaware, Ohio. He was born on 28 June 1910 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He received a Bachelor of Science in 1930, a Master of Science in 1931, and a PhD in physics in 1933 (at 23 years of age), all from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. During the 1930s at Michigan, he was involved in physics projects, antenna consulting, and in atomic-particle-accelerator research using the University of Michigan's premier cyclotron. Throughout the late 1920s and the 1930s, John was an avid radio amateur with call sign W8JK. He was back on the air in the 1970s. In 2001 the amateur radio magazine CQ named him to the inaugural class of its Amateur Radio Hall of Fame. He developed many widely used innovative antennas. The "8JK closely spaced array" and the "corner reflector" were among his early designs. Edwin H. Armstrong wrote John in July 1941 indicating in part, "I have read with interest your article in the Proceedings of the Institute on the corner reflector...Please let me congratulate you on a very fine piece of work." Perhaps John's most famous invention, and a product of his intuitive reasoning process, is the helical antenna, widely used in space communications, on global positioning satellites, and for other applications. During World War II, John was in Washington, DC as a civilian scientist with the U.S. Navy responsible for "degaussing" the electromagnetic fields of steel ships to make them safe from magnetic mines. He also worked on radar countermeasures at Harvard University's Radio Research Laboratory. He received the U.S. Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award for his war work. In 1946 he took a faculty position at Ohio State University, becoming professor in 1949, and retiring in 1980 as McDougal Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Astronomy. Even so, he never retired

  7. Individual differences in the elevated plus-maze and the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanislau, Celio; Ramos, Anna Carolina; Ferraresi, Paula Daniele; Costa, Naiara Fernanda; de Carvalho, Heloisa Maria Cotta Pires; Batistela, Silmara

    2011-01-01

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus composed of enclosed and open (elevated) arms and time spent in the open arms by a rat can be increased/decreased by anxiolytic/anxiogenic agents. In the forced swim test, floating behavior is used as an index of behavioral despair and can be decreased by antidepressant agents. As the comorbidity between anxiety and depression is a remarkable issue in human behavioral disorders, a possible relationship between the behaviors seen in the cited tests is of great relevance. In the present study, fifty-four male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were submitted to a plus-maze session and to a 2-day forced swim protocol. According to their time in the open arms, they were divided into three groups: Low Open, Medium Open and High Open. Some plus-maze measures were found to be coherent with time in the open arms and are suggested to also be reliable anxiety indexes. In the forced swim test, the Low Open group showed decreases in floating duration from forced swim Session 1 to Session 2, an alteration opposite to that observed in the other groups (particularly, the Medium Open group). The Low Open group also showed increases in floating latency, again in sharp contrast with the alteration found in the other groups. Accordingly, positive and negative correlation were found between time in the open arms and floating duration and latency, respectively. Results are compared to previous studies and mediation of the effect by reactivity to aversive stimulation or alterations induced by open arm exposure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial memory deficits in a virtual reality eight-arm radial maze in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Elena A; Astur, Robert S; West, Jeffrey T; Griego, Jacqueline A; Rowland, Laura M

    2012-03-01

    Learning and memory impairments are present in schizophrenia (SZ) throughout the illness course and predict psychosocial function. Abnormalities in prefrontal and hippocampal function are thought to contribute to SZ deficits. The radial arm maze (RAM) is a test of spatial learning and memory in rodents that relies on intact prefrontal and hippocampal function. The goal of the present study was to investigate spatial learning in SZ using a virtual RAM. Thirty-three subjects with SZ and thirty-nine healthy controls (HC) performed ten trials of a virtual RAM task. Subjects attempted to learn to retrieve four rewards each located in separate arms. As expected, subjects with SZ used more time and traveled more distance to retrieve rewards, made more reference (RM) and working memory (WM) errors, and retrieved fewer rewards than HC. It is important to note that the SZ group did learn but did not reach the level of HC. Whereas RM errors decreased across trials in the SZ group, WM errors did not. There were no significant relationships between psychiatric symptom severity and maze performance. To our knowledge, use of a virtual 8-arm radial maze task in SZ to assess spatial learning is novel. Impaired virtual RAM performance in SZ is consistent with studies that examined RAM performance in animal models of SZ. Results provide further support for compromised prefrontal and hippocampal function underlying WM and RM deficits in SZ. The virtual RAM task could help bridge preclinical and clinical research for testing novel drug treatments of SZ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photon dose evaluation at the entrance of radiotherapy bunkers without maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, Alessandro; Salata, Camila

    2017-01-01

    Radiation protection has become an important field of study, as the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy increased along the years. According to the ALARA principles, shielding is one of the most efficient ways to minimize radiation exposure. Linear accelerators for radiotherapy treatment can lead to a considerable risk due to radiation for public and workers if proper shielding is not calculated. Mazeless rooms for LINACS are becoming more usual, as they need less space to be constructed, but, on the other hand they are more expensive. The doors of those kinds of rooms are an important point, as they will have to be thicker in mazelles room to proper shield the radiation. The NCRP 151 lays out the general considerations for the shielding calculation of standard rooms, with mazes, but there are no specific recommendations for mazeless rooms on literature. The work herein presented evaluated the absorbed dose in a room model without maze, which will be constructed soon in Brazil. The applicant calculated the thickness of the door as if it was a room with maze, and the authors used computational simulation wit MCNP code to simulate the same room, and calculated the door thickness as if it was a secondary barrier. The dose limit considered was for public occupation, 1 mSv/sem, and the energy beam was of 6 MeV. The simulated results showed that the applicant calculation thickness for the door was underestimated in 88%. The obtained results are important to establish a better methodology for shielding calculation of mazeless radiotherapy rooms that are becoming more common in Brazil. (author)

  10. Photon dose evaluation at the entrance of radiotherapy bunkers without maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, Alessandro; Salata, Camila, E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: camila.salata@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection has become an important field of study, as the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy increased along the years. According to the ALARA principles, shielding is one of the most efficient ways to minimize radiation exposure. Linear accelerators for radiotherapy treatment can lead to a considerable risk due to radiation for public and workers if proper shielding is not calculated. Mazeless rooms for LINACS are becoming more usual, as they need less space to be constructed, but, on the other hand they are more expensive. The doors of those kinds of rooms are an important point, as they will have to be thicker in mazelles room to proper shield the radiation. The NCRP 151 lays out the general considerations for the shielding calculation of standard rooms, with mazes, but there are no specific recommendations for mazeless rooms on literature. The work herein presented evaluated the absorbed dose in a room model without maze, which will be constructed soon in Brazil. The applicant calculated the thickness of the door as if it was a room with maze, and the authors used computational simulation wit MCNP code to simulate the same room, and calculated the door thickness as if it was a secondary barrier. The dose limit considered was for public occupation, 1 mSv/sem, and the energy beam was of 6 MeV. The simulated results showed that the applicant calculation thickness for the door was underestimated in 88%. The obtained results are important to establish a better methodology for shielding calculation of mazeless radiotherapy rooms that are becoming more common in Brazil. (author)

  11. [Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Guo-qin; Jin, Ru-feng; Zhao, Wei-kang

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the method of analyzing repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS 11.0, and offer a reference statistical method to clinical and basic medicine researchers who take the design of repeated measures. Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise. Firstly, Mauchly's test of sphericity should be used to judge whether there were relations among the repeatedly measured data. If any (PSPSS statistical package is available to fulfil this process.

  12. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl pyridine (MPEP reverses maze learning and PSD-95 deficits in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réno Michelle Gandhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in intellectual disability and other debilitating symptoms including impairment of visual-spatial functioning. FXS is the only single-gene disorder that is highly co-morbid with autism spectrum disorder and can therefore provide insight into its pathophysiology. Lack of FMRP results in altered group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR signalling, which is a target for putative treatments. The Hebb-Williams (H-W mazes are a set of increasingly complex spatial navigation problems that depend on intact hippocampal and thus mGluR-5 functioning. In the present investigation, we examined whether an antagonist of mGluR-5 would reverse previously described behavioural deficits in Fmr1 KO mice. Mice were trained on a subset of the H-W mazes and then treated with either 20 mg/kg of an mGluR-5 antagonist, 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl pyridine (MPEP; n = 11 or an equivalent dose of saline (n = 11 prior to running test mazes. Latency and errors were dependent variables recorded during the test phase. Immediately after completing each test, marble-burying behavior was assessed which confirmed that the drug treatment was pharmacologically active during maze learning. Although latency was not statistically different between the groups, MPEP treated Fmr1 KO mice made significantly fewer errors on mazes deemed more difficult suggesting a reversal of the behavioural deficit. MPEP treated mice were also less perseverative and impulsive when navigating mazes. Furthermore, MPEP treatment reversed PSD-95 protein deficits in Fmr1 KO treated mice, whereas levels of a control protein (β-tubulin remained unchanged. These data further validate MPEP as a potentially beneficial treatment for FXS. Our findings also suggest that adapted H-W mazes may be a useful tool to document alterations in behavioural functioning following pharmacological

  13. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Cotesworth Slessor and the Anglo-American Air Power Alliance, 1940-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Connolly, Corvin

    2001-01-01

    .... He played a remarkable and extensive role in building the Anglo-American air power partnership as an air planner on the Royal Air Force Staff, the British Chiefs of Staff, and the Combined Chiefs of Staff...

  14. John Paul College: The Professional Renewal Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Mundie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available John Paul College, a K-12 School in Queensland, Australia, recognises the centrality of classroom teachers to the ongoing improvement of student outcomes. The college has implemented a multi-tiered professional renewal and assessment process. These changes of emphasis are the result of significant research and subsequent/associated professional discussion and were supported during the EBA decision-making in 2012. The professional renewal process at John Paul College guides teachers through a cycle of goal setting (related to any aspect of teacher practice which aims to improve student learning and achievement; ongoing discussion between the teacher and a mentor which determines actions; directed classroom observations (3 per term and associated pre and post reflection/discussion; leading to application of changed practice toward achieving the criteria of the goals. The principles of the professional renewal program are to:  enhance development along accepted school-wide, team and department goals;  encourage professional pedagogical reflections and conversations with a colleague/mentor;  motivate improved performance and highlight the next steps in a teacher’s development. Through the introduction of professional renewal, attestation and exemplary teacher processes, the leadership and teachers of John Paul College have achieved an appropriate and innovative balance between self-directed, peer supported/directed and college-wide, strategic initiatives. Each member of the teaching team, from graduate to senior leaders are actively engaged in personalised programs of professional growth which is specifically aimed at improved learning and outcomes of the college’s students.

  15. The John Zink Hamworthy combustion handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Despite the length of time it has been around, its importance, and vast amounts of research, combustion is still far from being completely understood. Issues regarding the environment, cost, and fuel consumption add further complexity, particularly in the process and power generation industries. Dedicated to advancing the art and science of industrial combustion, The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook, Second Edition: Volume 3 - Applications offers comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of equipment used in the process and power generation industries. Under the leadership of Charles E. Baukal

  16. Suehiro Jurisprudence and John R. Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.

    This is a comparative history study at the interface of industrial / employment relations and stakeholder theory. The focus concerns decades of post-World War II Japanese and U.S. path dependent national divergence from common labor legislation enactments separated by only 15 years: 1933...... or Suehiro hōgaku) document a dramatic, fascinating historical parting of two nations due to Japanese deep appreciation of the labor law and institutional economics research legacy of John R. Commons, the father of U.S. industrial relations. Understanding this common, shared source opens industrial relations...

  17. Part Twelve. The Voyages of John Matthias

    OpenAIRE

    Printz-Påhlson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    In August 1974, when the Watergate scandal was moving into its last phase, the American poet John Matthias returned to his home, in South Bend, Indiana, after a year’s stay in England, traveling on the Polish ocean-liner Stefan Bathory. In June of 1976 he set out to sea again, this time on a Russian ship, the Mikhail Lermontov, in order to spend another year in England, as a Visiting Fellow in Poetry in Clare Hall, Cambridge. The voyages took approximately nine days each, and on both ships he...

  18. John Locke on persons and personal identity

    OpenAIRE

    Boeker, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    John Locke claims both that ‘person’ is a forensic term and that personal identity consists in sameness of consciousness. The aim of my dissertation is to explain and critically assess how Locke links his moral and legal account of personhood to his account of personal identity in terms of sameness of consciousness. My interpretation of Locke’s account of persons and personal identity is embedded in Locke’s sortal-dependent account of identity. Locke’s sortal-dependent ac...

  19. Remembering John M. Olson (1929-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Robert E; Brune, Daniel C; Olson, Jon C

    2018-02-19

    Here we provide reflections of and a tribute to John M. Olson, a pioneering researcher in photosynthesis. We trace his career, which began at Wesleyan University and the University of Pennsylvania, and continued at Utrech in The Netherlands, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Odense University in Denmark. He was the world expert on pigment organization in the green photosynthetic bacteria, and discovered and characterized the first chlorophyll-containing protein, which has come to be known as the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein. He also thought and wrote extensively on the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. We include personal comments from Brian Matthews, Raymond Cox, Paolo Gerola, Beverly Pierson and Jon Olson.

  20. On the tenth value distance of the photon field along the maze of high-energy linear accelerator vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Chin, Lee M

    2018-03-01

    There is a wide range in the reported photon tenth value distance (TVD) in the maze of high-energy linear accelerator vaults. In order to gain insight into the appropriate use of the TVD value during door design, we performed measurements of the photon dose in the maze of four vaults. In addition, our study represents the first to describe a scenario where an inner borated polyethylene (BPE) door for neutron shielding is installed in the maze downstream to Point A, the point on the maze centerline that is just visible from the isocenter. The measurements were made along the maze centerline at 1 m above the floor. In all cases, the accelerator operated at a nominal energy of 15 MV. Of the four vaults, three were equipped with an inner BPE door at a distance of 1.0-2.1 m downstream to Point A. The door was made of 10.16 cm (4″) BPE sandwiched between two 0.635 cm (1/4″) steel face plates. The photon dose in the maze without a BPE door decreases exponentially with a characteristic TVD of 6 m beyond a distance of 2.5 m from Point A. The presence of a BPE door in an identical vault not only reduces the photon intensity in the maze by about an order of magnitude, but also softens the energy spectrum with a shortened TVD of 4.7 m, significantly lessening the shielding burden at the outer maze entrance. In contrast to the common use of Point A as the reference point to specify distance, the photon dose in the maze with a BPE door located downstream to Point A can be satisfactorily described as exponential functions of the distance measured from the door, which shows good consistency among the three vaults of different room parameters. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Use of an eight-arm radial water maze to assess working and reference memory following neonatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penley, Stephanie C; Gaudet, Cynthia M; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2013-12-04

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). Re-entries into arms that have already been used for escape during a testing session (and thus the escape platform has been removed) and re-entries into reference memory arms are indicative of working memory deficits. Alternatively, first entries into reference memory arms are indicative of reference memory deficits. We used this maze to compare performance of rats with neonatal brain injury and sham controls following induction of hypoxia-ischemia and show significant deficits in both working and reference memory after eleven days of testing. This protocol could be easily modified to examine many other models of learning impairment.

  2. A Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) to assess spatial behavior in open-field and structured mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlier, Frédéric; Arleo, Angelo; Petit, Géraldine H; Lefort, Julie M; Fouquet, Céline; Burguière, Eric; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2013-05-15

    Spatial navigation calls upon mnemonic capabilities (e.g. remembering the location of a rewarding site) as well as adaptive motor control (e.g. fine tuning of the trajectory according to the ongoing sensory context). To study this complex process by means of behavioral measurements it is necessary to quantify a large set of meaningful parameters on multiple time scales (from milliseconds to several minutes), and to compare them across different paradigms. Moreover, the issue of automating the behavioral analysis is critical to cope with the consequent computational load and the sophistication of the measurements. We developed a general purpose Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) that provides an integrated architecture consisting of a data management system (implemented in MySQL), a core analysis toolbox (in MATLAB), and a graphical user interface (in JAVA). Its extensive characterization of trajectories over time, from exploratory behavior to goal-oriented navigation with decision points using a wide range of parameters, makes NAT a powerful analysis tool. In particular, NAT supplies a new set of specific measurements assessing performances in multiple intersection mazes and allowing navigation strategies to be discriminated (e.g. in the starmaze). Its user interface enables easy use while its modular organization provides many opportunities of extension and customization. Importantly, the portability of NAT to any type of maze and environment extends its exploitation far beyond the field of spatial navigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel radial water tread maze tracks age-related cognitive decline in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no treatment and cure for age-related dementia and cognitive impairment in humans. Mice suffer from age-related cognitive decline just as people do, but assessment is challenging because of cumbersome and at times stressful performance tasks. We developed a novel radial water tread (RWT maze and tested male C57BL/6 (B6 and C57BL/6 x Balb/c F1 (CB6F1 mice at ages 4, 12, 20, and 28 months. B6 mice showed a consistent learning experience and memory retention that gradually decreased with age. CB6F1 mice showed a moderate learning experience in the 4 and 12 month groups, which was not evident in the 20 and 28 month groups. In conclusion, CB6F1 mice showed more severe age-related cognitive impairment compared to B6 mice and might be a suitable model for intervention studies. In addition, the RWT maze has a number of operational advantages compared to currently accepted tasks and can be used to assess age-related cognition impairment in B6 and CB6F1 mice as early as 12 months of age.

  4. Influence of magnetic field on zebrafish activity and orientation in a plus maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, Elena A; Pavlova, Vera V; Nepomnyashchikh, Valentin A; Krylov, Viacheslav V

    2016-01-01

    We describe an impact of the geomagnetic field (GMF) and its modification on zebrafish's orientation and locomotor activity in a plus maze with four arms oriented to the north, east, south and west. Zebrafish's directional preferences were bimodal in GMF: they visited two arms oriented in opposed directions (east-west) most frequently. This bimodal preference remained stable for same individuals across experiments divided by several days. When the horizontal GMF component was turned 90° clockwise, the preference accordingly shifted by 90° to arms oriented to the north and south. Other modifications of GMF (reversal of both vertical and horizontal GMF components; reversal of vertical component only; and reversal of horizontal component only) did not exert any discernible effect on the orientation of zebrafish. The 90° turn of horizontal component also resulted in a significant increase of fish's locomotor activity in comparison with the natural GMF. This increase became even more pronounced when the horizontal component was repeatedly turned by 90° and back with 1min interval between turns. Our results show that GMF and its variations should be taken into account when interpreting zebrafish's directional preferences and locomotor activity in mazes and other experimental devices. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Water Associated Zero Maze: A novel rat test for long term traumatic re-experiencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, freezing and startle behaviors in the context of a previously experienced stress are taken as an indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-like symptoms in rats. However, PTSD is characterized by large individual variations of symptoms. In order to take into consideration the complex and long term distinctive variations in effects of trauma exposure additional behavioral measures are required.The current study used a novel behavioral test, the Water Associated Zero Maze (WAZM. This test was planned to enable a formation of an association between the context of the maze and an underwater trauma or swim stress in order to examine the impact of exposure to the context which immediately precedes a stressful or a traumatic experience on rat's complex behavior. Rats were exposed to the WAZM and immediately after to an underwater trauma or short swim. One month later rats were re-exposed to the context of the WAZM while their behavior was video recorded. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the amygdala was measured 90 min after this exposure.The results of the current study indicate that the WAZM can be used to discern behavioral changes measured a long time after the actual traumatic or stressful events. Furthermore, the behavioral changes detected were accompanied by changes of c-Fos expression in the amygdala of exposed rats. We suggest that the WAZM can be used to model traumatic memories re-experiencing in rodent models of human stress-related pathologies such as PTSD.

  6. Air-kerma evaluation at the maze entrance of HDR brachytherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades, M C; Granero, D; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J; Papagiannis, P; Siebert, F A

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of procedures for evaluating the design of brachytherapy (BT) facilities for radiation protection purposes, the methodology used for external beam radiotherapy facilities is often adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the NCRP 151 methodology for estimating the air-kerma rate at the door in BT facilities. Such methodology was checked against Monte Carlo (MC) techniques using the code Geant4. Five different facility designs were studied for 192 Ir and 60 Co HDR applications to account for several different bunker layouts. For the estimation of the lead thickness needed at the door, the use of transmission data for the real spectra at the door instead of the ones emitted by 192 Ir and 60 Co will reduce the lead thickness by a factor of five for 192 Ir and ten for 60 Co. This will significantly lighten the door and hence simplify construction and operating requirements for all bunkers. The adaptation proposed in this study to estimate the air-kerma rate at the door depends on the complexity of the maze: it provides good results for bunkers with a maze (i.e. similar to those used for linacs for which the NCRP 151 methodology was developed) but fails for less conventional designs. For those facilities, a specific Monte Carlo study is in order for reasons of safety and cost-effectiveness. (paper)

  7. Air-kerma evaluation at the maze entrance of HDR brachytherapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, M C; Granero, D; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J; Papagiannis, P; Siebert, F A

    2014-12-01

    In the absence of procedures for evaluating the design of brachytherapy (BT) facilities for radiation protection purposes, the methodology used for external beam radiotherapy facilities is often adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the NCRP 151 methodology for estimating the air-kerma rate at the door in BT facilities. Such methodology was checked against Monte Carlo (MC) techniques using the code Geant4. Five different facility designs were studied for (192)Ir and (60)Co HDR applications to account for several different bunker layouts.For the estimation of the lead thickness needed at the door, the use of transmission data for the real spectra at the door instead of the ones emitted by (192)Ir and (60)Co will reduce the lead thickness by a factor of five for (192)Ir and ten for (60)Co. This will significantly lighten the door and hence simplify construction and operating requirements for all bunkers.The adaptation proposed in this study to estimate the air-kerma rate at the door depends on the complexity of the maze: it provides good results for bunkers with a maze (i.e. similar to those used for linacs for which the NCRP 151 methodology was developed) but fails for less conventional designs. For those facilities, a specific Monte Carlo study is in order for reasons of safety and cost-effectiveness.

  8. Assessment of anxiety in open field and elevated plus maze using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecorps, Benjamin; Rödel, Heiko G; Féron, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Due to their direct inaccessibility, affective states are classically assessed by gathering concomitant physiological and behavioral measures. Although such a dual approach to assess emotional states is frequently used in different species including humans, the invasiveness of procedures for physiological recordings particularly in smaller-sized animals strongly restricts their application. We used infrared thermography, a non-invasive method, to assess physiological arousal during open field and elevated plus maze tests in mice. By measuring changes in surface temperature indicative of the animals' emotional response, we aimed to improve the inherently limited and still controversial information provided by behavioral parameters commonly used in these tests. Our results showed significant and consistent thermal responses during both tests, in accordance with classical physiological responses occurring in stressful situations. Besides, we found correlations between these thermal responses and the occurrence of anxiety-related behaviors. Furthermore, initial temperatures measured at the start of each procedure (open field, elevated plus maze), which can be interpreted as a measure of the animals' initial physiological arousal, predicted the levels of activity and of anxiety-related behaviors displayed during the tests. Our results stress the strong link between physiological correlates of emotions and behaviors expressed during unconditioned fear tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of the Open Field Maze to measure locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibenhener, Michael L; Wooten, Michael C

    2015-02-06

    Animal models have proven to be invaluable to researchers trying to answer questions regarding the mechanisms of behavior. The Open Field Maze is one of the most commonly used platforms to measure behaviors in animal models. It is a fast and relatively easy test that provides a variety of behavioral information ranging from general ambulatory ability to data regarding the emotionality of the subject animal. As it relates to rodent models, the procedure allows the study of different strains of mice or rats both laboratory bred and wild-captured. The technique also readily lends itself to the investigation of different pharmacological compounds for anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects. Here, a protocol for use of the open field maze to describe mouse behaviors is detailed and a simple analysis of general locomotor ability and anxiety-related emotional behaviors between two strains of C57BL/6 mice is performed. Briefly, using the described protocol we show Wild Type mice exhibited significantly less anxiety related behaviors than did age-matched Knock Out mice while both strains exhibited similar ambulatory ability.

  10. The dorsal tegmental noradrenergic projection: an analysis of its role in maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D C; Price, M T; Fibiger, H C

    1976-04-01

    The hypothesis that the noradrenergic projection from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus is an important neural substrate for learning was evaluated. Maze performance was studied in rats receiving either electrolytic lesions of LC or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the dorsal tegmental noradrenergic projection. The LC lesions did not disrupt the acquisition of a running response for food reinforcement in an L-shaped runway, even though hippocampal-cortical norepinephrine (NE) was reduced to 29%. Greater telencephalic NE depletions (to 6% of control levels) produced by 6-OHDA also failed to disrupt the acquisition of this behavior or to impair the acquisition of a food-reinforced position habit in a T-maze. Neither locomotor activity nor habituation to a novel environment was affected by the 6-OHDA lesions. Rats with such lesions were, however, found to be significantly more distractible than were controls during the performance of a previously trained response. The hypothesis that telencephalic NE is of fundamental importance in learning was not supported. The data suggest that this system may participate in attentional mechanisms.

  11. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Virtual water maze learning in human increases functional connectivity between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Daniel G; Mantini, Dante; Coxon, James P; D'Hooge, Rudi; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that functional connectivity between remote brain regions can be modulated by task learning or the performance of an already well-learned task. Here, we investigated the extent to which initial learning and stable performance of a spatial navigation task modulates functional connectivity between subregions of hippocampus and striatum. Subjects actively navigated through a virtual water maze environment and used visual cues to learn the position of a fixed spatial location. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected before and after virtual water maze navigation in two scan sessions conducted 1 week apart, with a behavior-only training session in between. There was a large significant reduction in the time taken to intercept the target location during scan session 1 and a small significant reduction during the behavior-only training session. No further reduction was observed during scan session 2. This indicates that scan session 1 represented initial learning and scan session 2 represented stable performance. We observed an increase in functional connectivity between left posterior hippocampus and left dorsal caudate that was specific to scan session 1. Importantly, the magnitude of the increase in functional connectivity was correlated with offline gains in task performance. Our findings suggest cooperative interaction occurs between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate during awake rest following the initial phase of spatial navigation learning. Furthermore, we speculate that the increase in functional connectivity observed during awake rest after initial learning might reflect consolidation-related processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rising oceans, climate change, food aid, and human rights in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Ingrid; Yamada, Seiji; Wong, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts are expected to produce more frequent, longer and unpredictable drought periods with further saltwater intrusion in the Marshall Islands. As a result, a significant return to traditional food cropping is unlikely. This will lead to an increased dependence on food aid, especially in the outer atoll populations. An examination of the nutritional content of food aid suggests it is likely to lead to poor health outcomes. Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. The authors argue that the health impacts of the supplemental imported diet, combined with migration to population centers, may result in an even greater prevalence of chronic diseases, and exert pressures that lead to more communicable disease, further exacerbating the syndemics in the Marshall Islands. The authors conclude that food aid donors and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government have human rights obligations to ensure that the people in the Marshall Islands have access to adequate nutrition. Accordingly, donors and the government should re-examine the content of food and ensure it is of sufficient quality to meet the right to health obligations.

  14. The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo

    2007-01-01

    Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989. The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5-10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent an

  15. MPI Enhancements in John the Ripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Edward R; Lin, Michael; Skoczen, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    John the Ripper (JtR) is an open source software package commonly used by system administrators to enforce password policy. JtR is designed to attack (i.e., crack) passwords encrypted in a wide variety of commonly used formats. While parallel implementations of JtR exist, there are several limitations to them. This research reports on two distinct algorithms that enhance this password cracking tool using the Message Passing Interface. The first algorithm is a novel approach that uses numerous processors to crack one password by using an innovative approach to workload distribution. In this algorithm the candidate password is distributed to all participating processors and the word list is divided based on probability so that each processor has the same likelihood of cracking the password while eliminating overlapping operations. The second algorithm developed in this research involves dividing the passwords within a password file equally amongst available processors while ensuring load-balanced and fault-tolerant behavior. This paper describes John the Ripper, the design of these two algorithms and preliminary results. Given the same amount of time, the original JtR can crack 29 passwords, whereas our algorithms 1 and 2 can crack an additional 35 and 45 passwords respectively.

  16. MPI Enhancements in John the Ripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Edward R.; Lin, Michael; Skoczen, Wesley

    2010-11-01

    John the Ripper (JtR) is an open source software package commonly used by system administrators to enforce password policy. JtR is designed to attack (i.e., crack) passwords encrypted in a wide variety of commonly used formats. While parallel implementations of JtR exist, there are several limitations to them. This research reports on two distinct algorithms that enhance this password cracking tool using the Message Passing Interface. The first algorithm is a novel approach that uses numerous processors to crack one password by using an innovative approach to workload distribution. In this algorithm the candidate password is distributed to all participating processors and the word list is divided based on probability so that each processor has the same likelihood of cracking the password while eliminating overlapping operations. The second algorithm developed in this research involves dividing the passwords within a password file equally amongst available processors while ensuring load-balanced and fault-tolerant behavior. This paper describes John the Ripper, the design of these two algorithms and preliminary results. Given the same amount of time, the original JtR can crack 29 passwords, whereas our algorithms 1 and 2 can crack an additional 35 and 45 passwords respectively.

  17. The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo

    2007-03-23

    Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989. The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5-10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent

  18. John Dewey’s Feminist Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vaamonde Gamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how feminism welcomed and was influenced by the pragmatism of John Dewey. While in real terms his impact on European feminism has been minimal, this was not the case in contemporary America. In this article we study both how Dewey’s ideas were received amongst American feminists, as well as certain aspects of his thinking that could be enormously useful in present-day debates between critical and postmodern feminists. We compare the Deweyan and feminist arguments against the traditional dualisms that acted as philosophical support for social inequality, paying particular attention to mind–body dualism, and the consequent undervaluation of physical and emotional wellbeing. We also show that John Dewey’s proposals were, in fact, more radical than those of the feminists of the day. Indeed, democracy has to be understood as a way of life that affects every dimension of experience, and is crucial to the personal and social growth that enables the unjust social inequalities between men and women to be overcome.

  19. John Napier life, logarithms, and legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Havil, Julian

    2014-01-01

    John Napier (1550–1617) is celebrated today as the man who invented logarithms—an enormous intellectual achievement that would soon lead to the development of their mechanical equivalent in the slide rule: the two would serve humanity as the principal means of calculation until the mid-1970s. Yet, despite Napier’s pioneering efforts, his life and work have not attracted detailed modern scrutiny. John Napier is the first contemporary biography to take an in-depth look at the multiple facets of Napier’s story: his privileged position as the eighth Laird of Merchiston and the son of influential Scottish landowners; his reputation as a magician who dabbled in alchemy; his interest in agriculture; his involvement with a notorious outlaw; his staunch anti-Catholic beliefs; his interactions with such peers as Henry Briggs, Johannes Kepler, and Tycho Brahe; and, most notably, his estimable mathematical legacy. Julian Havil explores Napier’s original development of logarithms, the motivations for his approa...

  20. Green Monopropellant Status at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pierce, Charles W.; Pedersen, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is continuing investigations into the use of green monopropellants as a replacement for hydrazine in spacecraft propulsion systems. Work to date has been to push technology development through multiple activities designed to understand the capabilities of these technologies. Future work will begin to transition to mission pull as these technologies are mature while still keeping a solid goal of pushing technology development as opportunities become available. The AF-M315E activities began with hot-fire demonstration testing of a 1N monopropellant thruster in FY 14 and FY15. Following successful completion of the preliminary campaign, changes to the test stand to accommodate propellant conditioning capability and better control of propellant operations was incorporated to make testing more streamlined. The goal is to conduct hot-fire testing with warm and cold propellants using the existing feed system and original thruster design. Following the 1N testing, a NASA owned 100 mN thruster will be hot-fire tested in the same facility to show feasibility of scaling to smaller thrusters for cubesat applications. The end goal is to conduct a hot-fire test of an integrated cubesat propulsion system using an SLM printed propellant tank, an MSFC designed propulsion system electronic controller and the 100 mN thruster. In addition to the AF-M315E testing, MSFC is pursuing hot-fire testing with LMP-103S. Following our successful hot-fire testing of the 22N thruster in April 2015, a test campaign was proposed for a 440N LMP-103S thruster with Orbital ATK and Plasma Processes. This activity was funded through the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) ACO funding call in the last quarter of CY15. Under the same funding source a test activity with Busek and Glenn Research Center for testing of 5N AF-M315E thrusters was proposed and awarded. Both activities are in-work with expected completion of hot-fire testing by the end of FY17. MSFC is

  1. The role of marshall and rotterdam score in predicting 30-day outcome of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, A. M. P.; Akbar, T. Y. M.; Nasution, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, especially in the young population. To predict the outcome of TBI, Marshall, and Rotterdam–CT Scan based scoring was mostly used. As many studies showed conflicting results regarding of the usage of both scoring, this study aims to determine the correlation between Rotterdam and Marshall scoring system with outcome in 30 days and found correlation among them. In 120 subjects with TBI that admitted to Adam Malik General Hospital, we found a significant association of both scorings with the 30-day Glasgow Outcome Score. Therefore, we recommend the use of Marshall and Rotterdam CT Score in initial assessment as a good predictor for patients with TBI.

  2. Translating The Infinities by John Banville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Abigail Piccinini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - John Banville’s talent as a prose stylist is widely recognized. The polished elegance of his phrases constitutes a continuing and fascinating challenge for his translator, due to the intricacies of the source text, its manifold registers and lexical choices. In his novel The Infinities, in Italian Teoria degli Infiniti, John Banville takes cue from Kleist’s Amphytrion to devise a novel where classicality interweaves with science and science fiction through the invention of a world where the ancient gods intermingle with the humans while waiting for the death of Adam Godley, a famous mathematician who explained how an infinity of worlds exist and interact with each other. To translate this book I had not only to work extensively on lexis and style, but also to do considerable research to render the many literary and non literary references. Some examples of these struggles with the source text during the translation process are given in the present paper. Riassunto - John Banville, autore irlandese noto per la sua prosa raffinata, scrive in una lingua che rappresenta una sfida continua e affascinante per chi lo traduce. La sua complessità stilistica, che sfrutta molteplici registri linguistici e si avvale di scelte lessicali cui spesso è arduo trovare un traducente italiano soddisfacente, costringe il traduttore a fare ricorso a tutte le sottigliezze del proprio mestiere per restituire quanto più possibile l’eleganza dell’originale nella propria lingua. Nel romanzo The Infinities, tradotto in italiano come Teoria degli infiniti (Guanda, Parma 2011, Banville prende spunto dall’Anfitrione di Kleist per costruire un romanzo che guarda alla classicità sconfinando in un misto di scienza e fantascienza con la concezione di un’infinità di mondi paralleli teorizzata dal matematico Adam Godley, il protagonista morente al cui capezzale si radunano uomini e antichi dei in attesa che il cerchio della vita e della morte si compia

  3. [Cox/maze III procedure combined with mitral valve replacement in treatment of rheumatic mitral valve disease with atrial fibrilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rukun; Wang, Yongqing; Chen, Yongbing; Chen, Suocheng

    2002-06-25

    To compare the curative effect of Cox/maze III procedure combined with mitral replacement and that of mitral valve replacement (MVR). Fifty-six patients suffering from rheumatic heart disease with atrial fibrillation (AF) were treated by Cox/maze III procedure combined with MVR (maze group). Another 56 age, sex, and heart function-matched patients with the same diagnosis underwent MVR alone during the same period. Warfarin was administered after operation in both groups. Comparison of operative complication and curative effects was made. The aortic cross-clamp time and cardio pulmonary bypass time (CPB) were longer in maze group than in MVT group (75 +/- 22 min vs 41 +/- 11 min, P Atrial contractility was restored in all patients with sinus rhythm. One year after operation, 98.18% patients' cardiac function changed to grade and 1.82% changed to grade II. In MVR group AF disappeared after operation temporarily for 24 hours in 7 patients and re-appeared, and AF disappeared in one patients for 2 years so far. One year after operation, the cardiac function of 94.6% patients in MVR group changed to grade I, of 3.6% patients to grade II, and of 1.8% patients to grade III. No serious hemorrhage relate d to anticoagulant therapy happened. One patient in MVR group suffered from hemiplegia due to cerebral embolism. The late mortality was 1.8% on maze group amd 3.6% in MVR group. Cox/maze III procedure combined with NVR is safe and effective in treating rheumatic heart disease with AF.

  4. Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Phillips

    Full Text Available Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(° so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1 absence of alternative directional cues (2, rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3 electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds.

  5. Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John B; Youmans, Paul W; Muheim, Rachel; Sloan, Kelly A; Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Anderson, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze) have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus) water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(°) so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1) absence of alternative directional cues (2), rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3) electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats) have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds.

  6. John Hejduk's Pursuit of an Architectural Ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reflected, artistic practices and design-based research are drastically expanding fields within architectural academia. However, the interest in uniting theory and practice is not entirely new. Just a few decades ago, before a ‘death of theory’ was proclaimed, questions of architectural epistemol......Reflected, artistic practices and design-based research are drastically expanding fields within architectural academia. However, the interest in uniting theory and practice is not entirely new. Just a few decades ago, before a ‘death of theory’ was proclaimed, questions of architectural...... epistemology, of the language(s) of architecture, were indeed of profound interest to the discipline. This essay returns to and examines the investigatory practices of John Hejduk in an attempt to identify a poetic method asserting difference through repetition and primarily grounded in the medium...

  7. John Lumley's Contributions to Turbulence Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    We recall the contributions that John Lumley made to turbulence modeling in the 1970s and 1980s. In these early days, computer power was feeble by today's standards, and eddy-viscosity models were prevalent in CFD. Lumley recognized, however, that second-moment closures represent the simplest level at which the physics of turbulent flows can reasonably be represented. This is especially true when the velocity field is coupled to scalar fields through buoyancy, as in the atmosphere and oceans. While Lumley was not the first to propose second-moment closures, he can be credited with establishing the rational approach to constructing such closures. This includes the application of various invariance principles and tensor representation theorems, imposing the constraints imposed by realizability, and of course appealing to experimental data in simple, canonical flows. These techniques are now well-accepted and have found application far beyond second-moment closures.

  8. John Stuart Mill's Philosophy of Persuasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Ruth McCabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In his youth, John Stuart Mill followed his father’s philosophy of persuasion but, in 1830, Mill adopted a new philosophy of persuasion, trying to lead people incrementally towards the truth from their original stand-points rather than engage them antagonistically. Understanding this change helps us understand apparent contradictions in Mill’s cannon, as he disguises some of his more radical ideas in order to bring his audience to re-assess and authentically change their opinions. It also suggests a way of re-assessing the relationship between Mill’s public and private works, to which we should look if we are attempting to understand his thought.

  9. El constitucionalismo según John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gargarella

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El término “democracia” se encuentra completamente ausente del famoso libro de John Rawls, Teoría de la justicia. En Liberalismo político, en cambio, Rawls discute varios de los muchos temas sobre los que el concepto de democracia nos invita a reflexionar. En este escrito concentro mi atención en una de esas discusiones: la tensión entre constitucionalismo y democracia. Más específicamente, procuro examinar de qué modo Rawls trata de afirmar el doble compromiso que toda constitución quiere honrar, esto es, el compromiso con el ideal de la autonomía individual, y el compromiso con el ideal del auto-gobierno colectivo.

  10. What John Browne actually said at Stanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1997, the Chief Executive of BP, John Browne, delivered a speech on global climate change at Stanford University, California. A shortened version of the speech is presented. BP have accepted the possibility of a link between greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and are basing their policies on that acceptance. The company is committed to a step-by-step process, involving both action to develop solutions and continuing research to improve knowledge, that will balance the requirements of economic development and environmental protection. Five specific steps are outlined. These are: the monitoring and controlling of carbon dioxide emissions in all aspects of the company's operations increasing the level of support given to continuing scientific work on climate change; technology transfer and joint implementation with other parties to limit and reduce net emission levels; the development of alternative energy sources, in particular, solar power; contributing to the public policy debate in search of wider global answers to the problem. (Author)

  11. John Adams and CERN: Personal Recollections

    CERN Document Server

    Brianti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    By any standards, John Adams had a most remarkable career. He was involved in three important, emerging technologies, radar, particle accelerators and controlled fusion, and had an outstanding impact on the last two. Without a university education, he attained hierarchical positions of the highest level in prestigious national and international organizations. This article covers the CERN part of his career, by offering some personal insights into the different facets of his contributions to major accelerator projects, from the first strong-focusing synchrotron, the PS, to the SPS and its conversion to a proton–antiproton collider. In particular, it outlines his abilities as a leader of an international collaboration, which has served as an example for international initiatives in other disciplines.

  12. John B. Little Center Annual Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demple, Bruce F.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Symposium of the John B. Little Center for Radiation Sciences and Environmental Health at the Harvard School of Public Health seeks to educate radiobiologists and biomedical scientists in related areas on the leading research related to the effects of ionizing radiation and related environmental agents in biological systems. This effort seeks to further the training of individuals in this field, and to foment productive interactions and collaborations among scientists at Harvard and with other institutions. The Symposium attracts world-class scientists as speakers, and a broad cross-section of attendees from academic, government, and industrial research centers, as well as editorial staff from leading scientific publications. In order to maintain this quality, funding to support the travel and local expenses of invited speakers is sought, along with funds to allow use of appropriate conference facilities.

  13. General Relativity and John Archibald Wheeler

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2010-01-01

    Observational and experimental data pertaining to gravity and cosmology are changing our view of the Universe. General relativity is a fundamental key for the understanding of these observations and its theory is undergoing a continuing enhancement of its intersection with observational and experimental data. These data include direct observations and experiments carried out in our solar system, among which there are direct gravitational wave astronomy, frame dragging and tests of gravitational theories from solar system and spacecraft observations. This book explores John Archibald Wheeler's seminal and enduring contributions in relativistic astrophysics and includes: the General Theory of Relativity and Wheeler's influence; recent developments in the confrontation of relativity with experiments; the theory describing gravitational radiation, and its detection in Earth-based and space-based interferometer detectors as well as in Earth-based bar detectors; the mathematical description of the initial value pro...

  14. John B. Little Center Annual Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demple, Bruce F.

    2007-11-02

    The Annual Symposium of the John B. Little Center for Radiation Sciences and Environmental Health at the Harvard School of Public Health seeks to educate radiobiologists and biomedical scientists in related areas on the leading research related to the effects of ionizing radiation and related environmental agents in biological systems. This effort seeks to further the training of individuals in this field, and to foment productive interactions and collaborations among scientists at Harvard and with other institutions. The Symposium attracts world-class scientists as speakers, and a broad cross-section of attendees from academic, government, and industrial research centers, as well as editorial staff from leading scientific publications. In order to maintain this quality, funding to support the travel and local expenses of invited speakers is sought, along with funds to allow use of appropriate conference facilities.

  15. John Dewey and early Chicago functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, A

    2001-11-01

    John Dewey and James Angell are regarded respectively as the founder and systematizer of the Chicago school of functional psychology. The early Chicago school traditionally has been portrayed as a unified theoretical approach based primarily on William James's naturalist theory of mental processes. It is argued in this article that although the psychology systematized by Angell bore a close affinity to James's naturalism, Dewey's own psychology was based primarily on the neo-Hegelian philosophy of Thomas Hill Green. Through a review of a number of Dewey's major writings, Green's neo-Hegelian philosophy is shown to have influenced Dewey's views on psychological concepts such as reaction, emotion, and perception during the formative period of the Chicago school. The interpretation of Dewey's psychology developed in this article leads to the conclusion that early Chicago functionalism should not be regarded as a unified theoretical approach.

  16. John Locke and the right to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanov Ilija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available John Locke was a great thinker and many works have been devoted to clear up his theories. One of the most significant, stated in his principal work, Two Treatises of Government, is the theory of the right to resistance. It was a bit revolutionary then, and to a large extent it is today. Domination of legal positivism is negation of that, by Locke, natural right. However, the fact is that in recent times the resistance to the established power occurs in a number of countries and in different forms, so that the idea of the right to resistance becomes live question again. In this regard it is interesting to consider Locke's viewpoint on this important issue and to determine whether his theory on the resistance is applicable in modern societies.

  17. John Ruskin and the Savage Gothic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances S. Connelly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John Ruskin’s provocative theories concerning Gothic art and architecture bear serious consideration in light of the formative debates concerning “primitive” art and its relation to modern European society. Like many primitivists, Ruskin’s advocacy for the medieval was motivated by a reformist zeal concerning the state of modern industrial Europe. He differs markedly in his ideas concerning the value and uses of the "savage” Gothic for modern audiences. Ruskin rejected the random borrowing of stylistic elements, stressing instead the artisanal process and the communal role of Gothic monuments. It is also significant that Ruskin problematises the relationship between “primitive” and modern by repeatedly acknowledging his position as a modern viewer and emphasising the process through which he makes (artisan-like his interpretive history of the Gothic. Rejecting the mastering gaze, Ruskin constantly reminds readers that their view of this pre-modern work is fragmentary and disjunctive.

  18. Caruso St John y Robert Smithson: Interferencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Hernández Pezzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Los discursos cruzados son el soporte común del presente número de Cuadernos. El cruce que planteamos tiene como protagonistas al artista Robert Smithson y a los arquitectos Adam Caruso y Peter St John. Estos últimos hacen mención del trabajo del artista norteamericano para explicar su proyecto de remodelación de Stortorget, la plaza de la catedral en el centro de Kalmar, Suecia. A partir de aquí, comenzamos una exploración del trabajo y las preocupaciones de ambos que nos permite dibujar convergencias y sintonías procesuales por encima de las diferencias temáticas, ideológicas y estilísticas. Al disponer en paralelo la obra de Smithson y Caruso St John descubrimos vibraciones y resonancias que muestran una interacción productiva de sus preocupaciones. La materia se convierte en sus propuestas en un objeto activo y sensible, un depósito energético con el que operar. El traslado de piedras en Stortorget convoca la memoria de la ciudad del mismo modo que el basalto y la sal del Spiral Jetty, erosionados por el tiempo, nos hablan de procesos abiertos. El tiempo y la memoria pasan a ser soportes estratégicos con los que construyen sus miradas. Los objetos se disuelven en las relaciones que establecen con su entorno produciendo equilibrios frágiles e instantáneos. De esta manera el artículo pretende generar un vórtice de reflexión, una espiral en cuyo recorrido se manifiesten las tensiones parciales del cruce propuesto, sus fijezas momentáneas.

  19. Alternative Constructions of Treason in the Angevin Political World: Traïson in the History of William Marshal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. WHITE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available After some nobles and other fighting men surrendered Rochester castle to King John in 1215, John wanted to hang the nobles but refrained from doing so on the advice of one of his military captains. Would hanging the nobles for making war on the king have been lawful? This question about the law of treason has provoked inconclusive debate among historians who have sought to determine whether, in this period, making war against the English king was legally classified as lèse-majesté (crimen laesae majestatis, proditio or infidelitas. This article, however, asks whether the nobles whom John wanted to hang were guilty of traïson, as this vernacular term was used in the History of William Marshal (c. 1230. On this basis, the paper concludes that in all probability, the nobles who held Rochester against the king would not have been condemned as traitors, at least by their aristocratic peers.Cuando en 1215 ciertos nobles y otros combatientes se rindieron y entregaron el castillo de Rochester al rey Juan éste quiso colgarles, pero el consejo de uno de sus nobles le hizo absternerse. ¿Habría sido legítimo condenar a la horca a los que habían guerreado contra el rey? Cuestiones relativas al derecho de traición al intentar determinar si la guerra contra el rey de Inglaterra fue considerada en la época un crimen laesae majestatis, proditio, o infidelitas, según la definición que dan a estos términos las fuentes latinas, han suscitado debates interminables entre los historiadores. Este artículo, por el contrario, se pregunta si los nobles que el rey Juan deseaba colgar eran o no culpables de traición, en el sentido vernáculo del término que es usado en L’histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal (hacia 1230. Sobre esta base, la conclusión del artículo es que los nobles que ocuparon el castillo de Rochester, casi con total seguridad, no habrían sido condenados como traidores, al menos por sus pares.

  20. Delayed-matching-to-place Task in a Dry Maze to Measure Spatial Working Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Krukowski, Karen; Jopson, Timothy; Rosi, Susanna

    2017-07-05

    The delayed-matching-to-place (DMP) dry maze test is a variant of DMP water maze (Steele and Morris, 1999; Faizi et al. , 2012) which measures spatial working/episodic-like learning and memory that depends on both hippocampal and cortical functions (Wang and Morris, 2010; Euston et al. , 2012). Using this test we can detect normal aging related spatial working memory decline, as well as trauma induced working memory deficits. Furthermore, we recently reported that fractionated whole brain irradiation does not affect working memory in mice (Feng et al. , 2016). Here we describe the experimental setup and procedures of this behavioral test.

  1. Effects of environmentally differential rearing upon maze performance in prenatally irradiated microcephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M.L.; Inouye, M.; Kiyono, S.; Shibagaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 100 rads of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. Control pregnant rats were sham-irradiated on the same gestation day. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched, standard colony, and impoverished conditions for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. All the prenatally X-irradiated rats were microcephalic: their mean cerebral wet weight was 15.5% less than controls. The effect of X-irradiation was not significant in error scores and running times, whereas the effect of environment was significant in these items; initial and total error scores and running times were decreased in enriched groups compared to impoverished groups in controls as well as in X-irradiated animals

  2. Remembering Places in Space: A Human Analog Study of the Morris Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Sylvia; Allen, Gary L.; Wedell, Douglas H.

    We conducted a human analog study of the Morris Water Maze, with individuals indicating a remembered location in a 3 m diameter arena over different intervals of time and with different memory loads. The primary focus of the study was to test a theory of how varying cue location and number of cues affects memory for spatial location. As expected, memory performance, as measured by proximity to the actual location, was negatively affected by increasing memory load, increasing delay interval, and decreasing the number of cues. As memory performance decremented, bias effects increased and were in accordance with the cue-based memory model described by Fitting, Wedell and Allen (2005). Specifically, remembered locations were biased toward the nearest cue and error decreased with more cues. These results demonstrate that localization processes that apply to small two-dimensional task fields may generalize to a larger traversable task field.

  3. Clearing out a maze: A model of chemotactic motion in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tanja; Voigtmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We study the anomalous dynamics of a biased "hungry" (or "greedy") random walk on a percolating cluster. The model mimics chemotaxis in a porous medium: In close resemblance to the 1980s arcade game PAC-MA N ®, the hungry random walker consumes food, which is initially distributed in the maze, and biases its movement towards food-filled sites. We observe that the mean-squared displacement of the process follows a power law with an exponent that is different from previously known exponents describing passive or active microswimmer dynamics. The change in dynamics is well described by a dynamical exponent that depends continuously on the propensity to move towards food. It results in slower differential growth when compared to the unbiased random walk.

  4. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  5. Separating defence and civilian radioactive waste programs in Nevada: can the public navigate the maze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Nevada is at the centre of public policy debate with regards to high and low level radioactive waste disposal. Nevada's Yucca Mountain is the only site under consideration for a US geologic repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and defence high level waste. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has long been a low level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the Department of Energy (DOE) defence waste and is now expected to take even more LLW as the preferred site for a regional or centralised disposal facility. Furthermore, the primary mission at NTS, defence, continues to add more contamination to the site. Combined, these facts present a public policy enigma, confused further by the intentional separation of the programs by DOE, even though all are essentially conducted at the same site. Involving the public in policy decisions for these programs is a dilemma because the public does not make the same artificial distinctions between them as DOE, DOE credibility suffers from past public involvement efforts conducted during an era of Cold War secrecy and because DOE public involvement programs are operated independently, with little or no co-operation between programs. The public does not know where it fits into the DOE decision-making process or if it impacts the policy decisions being made that affect it. This paper examines the complex maze of radioactive policy and bureaucracy in order to unveil the enigma Nevada residents face. Are they able to navigate this maze to effectively participate in government policy and decision-making? Or, will they remain confused by the government bureaucracy which deliberately makes a mess of the situation and seeks to exploit a politically weak state with large tracts of federally controlled land? lt further evaluates the effect this enigma has in producing acceptable public policy for radioactive waste disposal in the US, the role of public participation in that policy, and the reason the public is disillusioned and disengaged in the

  6. Improving Students’ English Pronunciation Ability Through Go Fish Game and Maze Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Astuti Wahyu Nurhayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem highlighted in this research is the low pronunciation ability of Kindergarten students in Al-Irsyad  Madiun  that is caused by (1 the uninteresting activities in learning English; (2 the students' difficulties in pronunciating English words; (3 the students' low motivation in learning. The theoretical review includes the young learners characteristics, games in language, games for young learners. The procedure of the research consists of identifying the problem, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the result of the research. In this research, the researcher acts as the teacher who conducts the action research in the classroom and she is helped by the classsroom teacher. In collecting the data, the researcher uses observational technique supported with tests. In analyzing the data, the researcher uses the field notes, teacher's diaries, students ‘work supported with the cassette recording and photograph,then also compares the result of the students' pre-test and post-test to answer the research questions. There is significant improvement in the result of pre-test and post-test of cycle 1 and 2. In cycle 1, t0 (2.55734 is higher than tt (1.73 and in cycle 2, t0 (6.765738 is also higher than tt (1.73. From these two results, therefore, h0 is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (ha is accepted. They practice their pronunciation through taking turn and asking each other for cards to match those they have in their hands, arranging a word and sticking on alphabet, pronunciating the word, giving the meaning, hen making a sentence such as Go Fish Game and Maze Game. By conducting these games, using interesting media, creating various interesting tasks and activities can increase the students' motivation in learning English and pronunciation ability.Keywords: Improving, pronunciation, ability,  go fish and Maze games

  7. Learning about cognition risk with the radial-arm maze in the developmental neurotoxicology battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction has been found in epidemiological studies to be among the most sensitive impairments associated with developmental exposure to a variety of environmental contaminants from heavy metals to polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and pesticides. These chemicals have been also shown to impair cognitive function after developmental exposure in experimental animal models. The radial-arm maze (RAM) has proven to be a sensitive and reliable way to assess both learning and memory in a variety of species, most often in rats and mice. The RAM is a very adaptable test method that takes advantage of rodents' instinct to explore new places in the environment to forage. That is, rodents do not need to be trained to run through the maze; they will normally do this from the initial session of testing. Training with differential reinforcement for arm choices provides a more rigorous test of learning and memory. The RAM is quite adaptable for assessing various aspects of cognition. Although the RAM has been mostly used to assess spatial learning and memory, it can be configured to assess non-spatial memory as well. Both working and reference memory can be easily distinguished. The RAM can be run with both appetitive (food reinforced) and aversive (water escape) motivators. The RAM has been found to be sensitive to a wide variety of developmental toxicants including heavy metals such as mercury and pesticides such as chlorpyrifos. There is an extremely rich literature especially with rats showing the effects of many types of brain lesions and drug effects so that the participation of a wide variety of neural systems in RAM performance is known. These systems, notably the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and acetylcholine and glutamate neurotransmitter systems, are the same neural systems that have been shown in humans to be critical for learning and memory. This considerably aids the interpretation of neurobehavioral toxicity studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. The Promises of “Young Europe”: Cultural Diplomacy, Cosmopolitanism, and Youth Culture in the Films of the Marshall Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mehring

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marshall Plan films played a crucial role in US cultural diplomacy. This paper will analyze how European film makers of the Marshall Plan used docudramas to envisage a multi-ethnic and cosmopolitan “young Europe” free from the political baggage of the past.

  9. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall, 1934-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Jeremiah P.; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2007-12-01

    John Norris Bahcall, one of the most creative and influential astrophysicists of his generation — a scientist who helped prove what makes the Sun shine and helped make the Hubble Space Telescope a reality — passed away in Pasadena, California, on 17 August 2005. Bahcall died peacefully in his sleep from a rare blood disorder. For the past 35 years, Bahcall was the Richard Black Professor of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he created one of the leading astrophysics programs in the world. Active and working to the end, Bahcall said that he was always grateful for a full and happy life that exceeded his wildest expectations. Bahcall died as he lived, surrounded by the family he loved, embracing life to its fullest, happy, working and joking to the end. Bahcall's stellar career encompassed seminal contributions in numerous fields of astrophysics as well as extraordinary leadership on behalf of the scientific community, including the American Astronomical Society, the American Physical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, NASA, and Congress. Bahcall's contributions made him one of the scientific leaders of his time. He had been recognized by numerous awards including the 1998 National Medal of Science from President Clinton, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Medal of the Swedish Royal Academy, the Dan David Award, the Fermi Award, the first Hans Bethe Prize, the Franklin Medal, the Comstock Prize in physics, NASA's Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the top awards of the American Astronomical Society — including the Russell Award, the Heineman Prize, and the Warner Prize. Bahcall was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1976 and to the American Philosophical Society in 2001. He was the recipient of Honorary Degrees from numerous universities around the world. Bahcall's scientific interests and expertise ranged from neutrino

  10. Breathing Silence. An interview with John Palmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Scuderi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The interview focuses on some aspects of the composer’s work with electronics. Palmer, described by the critics as «undoubtedly the most visionary composer of his generation» speaks about the composers and musical works that have had a major impact on him. He also mentions the friendship with John Cage, his numerous travels – with particular emphasis on Japan – and the influence of Eastern culture on his musical mind. The composer discusses the notion of causality explored in Renge-Kyo, the meditative nature of Transient and Inwards, and spirituality as the central theme of both acousmatic works In the Temple and I Am. The electronic medium is also por- trayed as a mirror of an intense and vivid preoccupation for intimacy and perpetual search for timbral qualities that by now characterize most of his music. Another important aspect of Palmer’s work mentioned in the interview is the collaboration with some established performers and its importance for the realization of a musical work.

  11. John Bardeen and the theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrieffer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Bardeen's knowledge of the experimental data had bounded the theory of superconductivity quite tightly before B, C and S developed their theory. When one speaks with John Bardeen's friends about him, one frequently hears words such as brilliant, quiet, persistent, generous, visionary, athletic, kind, thoughtful and remarkable. It is the author's good fortune to have the chance to recount some incidents from his life that are connected with the theory of superconductivity. This article draws on the author's personal memories; his many other friends and colleagues will set down their own recollections elsewhere. The evolution of the microscopic theory of superconductivity closely parallels the scientific life of Joh Bardeen. Starting with his PhD dissertation, done under the guidance of Eugene Wigner, he spent much of his life developing an understanding of electron interaction effects and transport properties of metals, semiconductors and superconductors. His fascination with the remarkable phenomenon of superconductivity goes back to his graduate student days at Princeton. Although interrupted during the war years and in the late 1940's at Bell Labs, he returned to this perplexing topic when he moved to the University of Illinois in 1951. 20 refs., 7 figs

  12. The life and works of John Napier

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Brian; Corrigan, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, all five of John Napier’s works have been brought together in English in a single volume, making them more accessible than ever before. His four mathematical works were originally published in Latin: two in his lifetime (1550–1617), one shortly after he died, and one over 200 years later. The authors have prepared three introductory chapters, one covering Napier himself, one his mathematical works, and one his religious work. The former has been prepared by one of Napier’s descendants and contains many new findings about Napier’s life to provide the most complete biography of this enigmatic character, whose reputation has previously been overshadowed by rumour and speculation. The latter has been written by an academic who was awarded a PhD for his thesis on Napier at the University of Edinburgh, and it provides the most lucid and coherent coverage available of this abstruse and little understood work. The chapter on Napier’s mathematical texts has been authored by an experienced...

  13. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Charles R P

    2016-02-01

    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said.

  14. John Stuart Mill on socialism and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Sales Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n1p17 Este artigo mostra que o tipo de socialismo proposto por John Stuart Mill é marcado por uma forte preocupação com a controlabilidade do poder econômico e político. Ele rejeitou enfaticamente os modelos centralistas de socialismo por entender que eles levam a uma grande concentração de poder que compromete a liberdade. Para J. S. Mill, o socialismo deve ser implantado lentamente a partir de reformas amplamente discutidas que favoreçam a cidadania econômica dos trabalhadores, promovam a participação deles nas decisões referentes ao processo produtivo e em associações voluntárias. J. S. Mill acreditava que a competição econômica é essencial para o adequado funcionamento de uma economia socialista. Ele não esperava que tal economia se tornasse uma realidade em um futuro próximo.

  15. Open letter to Pope John Paul II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F

    1991-01-01

    In an Open Letter to Pope John Paul II, written on World Population Day (July 11) 1991, Dr. Fred Sai, President of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), called for a dialogue on voluntary family planning as a means of avoiding unwanted pregnancy. A half million women die each year from pregnancy-related causes--a death toll that could be dramatically reduced by universal access to low cost, effective contraception. Family planning further represents the best protection against abortion. The Catholic Church's vehement opposition to abortion and family planning methods other than periodic abstinence is in marked contrast to its support to human rights in other settings. The Church has supported struggles for economic ju stice in and among nations, sided with the poor, and advocated for transitions to democracy. At the same time, the family planning movement--which has as its overall objective the protection of the health and welfare of women, children, and families--is viewed by the Vatican as a vehicle for the enslavement rather than liberation of women. The opening of a sensitive dialogue between the Catholic Church and supporters of voluntary family planning could help couples make sound moral decisions about their families and contribute to saving the lives of millions of women, most of them poor.

  16. Did John B. Watson Really "Found" Behaviorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John C

    2014-05-01

    Developments culminating in the nineteenth century, along with the predictable collapse of introspective psychology, meant that the rise of behavioral psychology was inevitable. In 1913, John B. Watson was an established scientist with impeccable credentials who acted as a strong and combative promoter of a natural science approach to psychology when just such an advocate was needed. He never claimed to have founded "behavior psychology" and, despite the acclaim and criticism attending his portrayal as the original behaviorist, he was more an exemplar of a movement than a founder. Many influential writers had already characterized psychology, including so-called mental activity, as behavior, offered many applications, and rejected metaphysical dualism. Among others, William Carpenter, Alexander Bain, and (early) Sigmund Freud held views compatible with twentieth-century behaviorism. Thus, though Watson was the first to argue specifically for psychology as a natural science, behaviorism in both theory and practice had clear roots long before 1913. If behaviorism really needs a "founder," Edward Thorndike might seem more deserving, because of his great influence and promotion of an objective psychology, but he was not a true behaviorist for several important reasons. Watson deserves the fame he has received, since he first made a strong case for a natural science (behaviorist) approach and, importantly, he made people pay attention to it.

  17. John Wheeler, 1933 - 1959: Particles and Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kenneth

    2009-05-01

    During the early part of his career, John Archibald Wheeler made an astonishing number of contributions to nuclear and particle physics, as well as to classical electrodynamics, often in collaboration with another physicist. He was also a major contributor to the Manhattan Project (in Chicago and Hanford rather than Los Alamos), and, following World War II, became an influential scientific cold warrior. His early achievements in physics include the calculated scattering of light by light (with Gregory Breit), the prediction of nuclear rotational states (with Edward Teller), the theory of fission (with Niels Bohr), action-at-a-distance electrodynamics (with Richard Feynman), the theory of positronium, the universal weak interaction (with Jayme Tiomno), and the proposed use of the muon as a nuclear probe particle. He gained modest fame as the person who identified xenon 135 as a reactor poison. His Project Matterhorn contributed significantly to the design of the H bomb, and his Project 137, which he had hoped would flower into a major defense lab, served as the precursor to the Jason group.

  18. PREFACE: John Desmond Bernal: Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Vincent

    2007-02-01

    This meeting, held in the Limerick Institute of Technology, on Thursday 1 June 2006, was organised by the Munster Group of the Institute of Physics in Ireland to commemorate the life and work of John Desmond Bernal. Bernal, was born in Nenagh in 1901. Alan Mackay, who worked with Bernal at Birkbeck College coins the word 'Polytropic' to describe Bernal. He was active and hugely influential in a wide range of areas such as science, politics and society, and was instrumental in the creation of whole new areas of intellectual endeavour such as the 'science of science', molecular biology, and operations research. Andrew Brown's analogy for Bernal's mind is that 'it was like a diamond—beautifully structured, multifaceted and dazzling to behold'. In relation to Bernal, Helena Sheehan states that: 'His legacy is complex. All the more so because he was marxist in philosophy, communist in politics, polyamorous in sexuality.'. Like religion, these are areas that conventional scientists tend to shy away from or at the very least consign to very separate and often neglected 'compartments'. According to Sheehan, 'Bernal came to marxism seriously and intelligently. He found in its philosophical framework a structure in which he could live, think, create, pursue science, act politically and develop further. It opened him radically to the world, rather than closing him down or constricting him, as critics imply.'. And his contributions to science and to society are significant and enduring. Just two areas of 'his science' were addressed in some detail at this meeting. Martin Caffrey treats the area of structural biology in the context of modern developments but focusing on Bernal's role in its evolution. John Finney gives an account of Bernal's 'two bouts of activity' on the structure of water and as Bernal's last PhD student he gives unique insights on how Bernal worked and why he 'did science'. Bernal writes in response to a well wisher on his 70th birthday: 'I am sure that

  19. Prospects for the Use of Social Media Marketing Instruments in Health Promotion by Polish Marshal Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Syrkiewicz-S´witała

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion.Methodology14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed.FindingsThe number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93% performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%. More than half of the surveyed offices (56% did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25% or YouTube (6%. Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting. Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns.ValueThe use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.

  20. Impact of Aggregate Gradation and Filler Type on Marshall Properties of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC is the top layer in the pavement structure, the material should be able to sustain stresses caused by direct traffic loading. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of aggregate gradation and mineral filler type on Marshall Properties. A detailed laboratory study is carried out by preparing asphalt mixtures specimens using locally available materials including asphalt binder (40-50 penetration grade, two types of aggregate gradation representing SCRB and ROAD NOTE 31 specifications and two types of mineral filler including limestone dust and coal fly ash. Four types of mixtures were prepared and tested. The first type included SCRB specification and limestone dust, the second type included SCRB specification and coal fly ash, the third types included ROAD NOTE 31 specification and limestone dust and the fourth type included ROAD NOTE 31 specification and coal fly ash. The optimum asphalt content of each type of mixtures was determined using Marshall Method of mix design. 60 specimen were prepared and tested with dimension of 10.16 cm in diameter and 6.35 cm in height. Results of this study indicated that aggregate gradation and filler type have a significant effect on optimum asphalt content and Marshall Properties. From the experimental data, it was observed that the value of Marshall Stability is comparatively higher when using fly ash as filler as compared to limestone dust.

  1. STS-47 MS Davis trains at Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall SFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, wearing the Autogenic Feedback Training System 2 suit and lightweight headset, reviews a Payload Systems Handbook in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mockup during training at the Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. View provided with alternate number 92P-137.

  2. 78 FR 23563 - LWD, Inc. Superfund Site; Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9805-2; CERCLA-04-2013-3751] LWD, Inc. Superfund Site... costs concerning the LWD, Inc., Superfund Site located in Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky. The... V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name LWD, Inc., Superfund Site by one of the following...

  3. Conservation Controversy: Sparrow, Marshall, and the Mi’kmaq of Esgenoôpetitj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. King

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the interplay between the Sparrow and Marshall decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, and the sovereigntist and traditionalist convictions of the Mi’kmaq of the Esgenoôpetitj/BurntChurch First Nation, as expressed in the conservationist language of the Draft for the Esgenoopotitj First Nations (EFN Fishery Act (Fisheries Policy. With the Supreme Court of Canada’s decision in Sparrow, conservation became an important justification available to the Canadian government to support its regulatory infringement on aboriginal and treaty rights. Ten years later, in Marshall, the Court recognized the treaty rights of the Mi’kmaq to a limited commercial fishery. The EFN Fishery Act, written to govern thecontroversial post-Marshall fishery in Esgenoôpetitj (also known as the Burnt Church First Nation demonstrates that for the Mi’kmaq, scientific management, traditional knowledge, sovereignty and spirituality are understood in a holistic philosophy. The focus placed on conservation by the courts, and the managementfocusedapproach taken by the government at Esgenoôpetitj have led to government policy which treats conservation simply as a resource access and management problem. Conservation, which the Court deems“uncontroversial” in Sparrow, is a politically loaded ideal in post-Marshall Burnt Church.

  4. Violence Prevention at Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School. Summary Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Jocelyn; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Downey, P. Mitchell; Lowry, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    This summary brief is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Researchers from the Justice Policy Center conducted an assessment of the school's violence prevention…

  5. D-day Message from General Eisenhower to General Marshall. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamel, Wynell B.; Blondo, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the D-Day assault on Normandy's beaches in 1944 was critically important to the Allied war effort and ultimately to the security of all nations. Presents a lesson plan based on a message drafted in the early hours of D-Day by General Dwight D. Eisenhower and sent to his superior, General George C. Marshall. (CFR)

  6. In-Space Manufacturing at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center: Enabling Technologies for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Quincy; Johnston, Mallory; Ordonez, Erick; Ryan, Rick; Prater, Tracie; Werkeiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing(ISM)activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long duration spaceflight safely and sustainably.

  7. A PROGRAM OF ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE MARSHALL COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL SERVICE AREA, LEWISBURG, TENNESSEE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNES, JOHN O., JR.

    THE NEED FOR AN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE MARSHALL COUNTY (TENNESSEE) HIGH SCHOOL SERVICE AREA WAS STUDIED THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES COMPLETED BY 207 ADULTS, EXAMINATION OF SCHOOL AND GOVERNMENT RECORDS, AND PERSONAL INTERVIEWS. IT WAS FOUND THAT OVER HALF OF THE AREA RESIDENTS WERE NOT HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES, AND THAT MANY ADULTS DESIRED MORE…

  8. Republic of the Marshall Islands: Pursuing a Sustainable and Resilient Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the work that the Republic of the Marshall Islands are doing in a variety of renewable energy activities with support from the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and outlines additional opportunities for involvement by other international donors.

  9. Prospects for the Use of Social Media Marketing Instruments in Health Promotion by Polish Marshal Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkiewicz-S Witała, Magdalena; Romaniuk, Piotr; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Lar, Katarzyna; Holecki, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion. 14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed. The number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93%) performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%). More than half of the surveyed offices (56%) did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25%) or YouTube (6%). Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting). Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns. The use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.

  10. "O Bottom, Thou Art Translated": Directing a Bilingual Dream in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A unique production of Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream" was staged in early 2004 by students of the Marshall Islands High School, Majuro, in the Central Pacific. The play's director, Andrew Garrod, describes the rehearsal process and performance of the play, in which the school students were supported by undergraduates from the…

  11. Nähtamatu näitleja / Yoshi Oida, Lorna Marshall ; tõlk. Peeter Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oida, Yoshi

    2004-01-01

    Jaapani näitlejaYoshi Oida näitlemisest erinevates traditsioonilistes jaapani teatristiilides, aga ka lääne stiili näidendites. Katkendid tema raamatust "Nähtamatu näitleja", mille kaasautor on Lorna Marshall. "The Invisible Actor", Methuen, 1997). Järgneb

  12. Nähtamatu näitleja / Yoshi Oida, Lorna Marshall ; tõlk. Peeter Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oida, Yoshi

    2005-01-01

    Jaapani näitlejaYoshi Oida näitlemisest erinevates traditsioonilistes jaapani teatristiilides, aga ka lääne stiili näidendites. Katkendid tema raamatust "Nähtamatu näitleja", mille kaasautor on Lorna Marshall. "The Invisible Actor", Methuen, 1997). Algus: TMK 2004, nr.12. Järg nr. 2, lk. 27-32

  13. Maailma tippkonsultant: ka miljardär alustab praegu nullist / Marshall Goldsmith ; intervjueerinud Kristjan Otsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldsmith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Maailma juhtivate ärinõustajate hulka kuuluv Marshall Goldsmith vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad majanduskriisi põhjuseid, muutusi nende juhtide käitumises, kes on harjunud olema võitjad, juhtide käitumist muutunud maailmas ning majanduslanguse kestvust

  14. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein...

  15. The Major in Cultural Context: Choosing Liberal Arts in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, C. A.; Krawczyk, Ewa B.

    2017-01-01

    Choosing a major is part of liberal arts (LA) education in American-accredited colleges across the world. In global second-language (L2) contexts, the choice of major is shaped by local cultural factors. This study of 192 undergraduates at an English-medium-of-instruction (EMI) college in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) used a survey,…

  16. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  17. The spatial distribution of errors made by rats in Hebb-Williams type mazes in relation to the spatial properties of the blind alleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, S. de; Bohus, B.

    The various configurations in series of Hebb-Williams type of mazes, which are used to measure problem solving behaviour in rats, differ markedly in structure. The relationship between error behaviour and spatial maze structure in control rats tested in a number of pharmacological experiments is

  18. Induction of habits in rats by a forced-choice procedure in T-maze and the effect of pre-test free exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Anette; Hau, Jann

    2009-01-01

    the opportunity to explore the entire maze immediately before the free-choice challenge after 200 forced-choice trials, this resulted in a large variation in the choice pattern of the individual rats, and a subgroup of rats choose the newly opened maze arm in 95-100% of the 20 free-choice trials....

  19. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  20. The Canine Sand Maze: An Appetitive Spatial Memory Paradigm Sensitive to Age-Related Change in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvin, Hannah E.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Valenzuela, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aged dogs exhibit a spectrum of cognitive abilities including a syndrome similar to Alzheimer's disease. A major impediment to research so far has been the lack of a quick and accurate test of visuospatial memory appropriate for community-based animals. We therefore report on the development and validation of the Canine Sand Maze. A 4.5-m-diameter…

  1. Interactions between the toxin kid of the bacterial parD system and the antitoxins Kis and MazE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.B.; Monti, M.C.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.; Santos-Sierra, S.; Folkers, G.E.; Lemonnier, M.; Diaz-Orejas, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Boelens, R.

    2007-01-01

    The proteins Kid and Kis are the toxin and antitoxin, respectively, encoded by the parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1. Kis prevents the inhibition of E. coli cell growth caused by the RNA cleavage activity of Kid. Overproduction of MazE, the chromosome-encoded homologue of Kis, has been

  2. Can Passive Touch Be Better than Active Touch? A Comparison of Active and Passive Tactile Maze Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In a comparison of the performance of active and passive mechanically yoked subjects who learned their way through a tactile maze, it was shown that active subjects made more errors and took a greater number of trials to reach criterion than did passive subjects. (Author)

  3. Fear-potentiation in the elevated plus-maze test depends on stressor controllability and fear conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S M; Bohus, B; de Boer, Sietse

    The purpose of the study was to determine which stressor qualities (escapable vs. inescapable stress and unconditioned vs. conditioned stress) can potentiate fear in the elevated plus-maze. While inescapable stress potentiated fear, escapable stress did not, but escapable stress increased the

  4. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ameliorates age-related deficits in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Daniel G; Hankosky, Emily R; Gulley, Joshua M; Juraska, Janice M

    2017-03-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is commonly supplemented to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations and has potential as a nootropic. Previously, we have shown that in both male and female rats, long-term HMB supplementation prevents age-related dendritic shrinkage within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and improves cognitive flexibility and working memory performance that are both age- and sex-specific. In this study, we further explore the cognitive effects by assessing visuospatial learning and memory with the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 11months of age to model human menopause. At 12months of age, male and female rats received relatively short- or long-term (1- or 7-month) dietary HMB (450mg/kg/dose) supplementation twice a day prior to testing. Spatial reference learning and memory was assessed across four days in the water maze with four trials daily and a probe trial on the last day. Consistent with previous work, there were age-related deficits in water maze performance in both sexes. However, these deficits were ameliorated in HMB-treated males during training and in both sexes during probe trial performance. Thus, HMB supplementation prevented the age-related decrement in water maze performance, especially in male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. From John Lee to John Gottman: Recognizing Intra- and Interpersonal Differences to Promote Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kimberly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Extension agents work with a variety of families, there is a desperate need to further our understanding of how to educate diverse communities on a family-related topic. Focused on assisting those teaching marital education to a diverse population, this study attempts to understand how individual differences impact relationship satisfaction and marital communication. Based on John Gottman’s research on marital communication and John Lee’s six loves styles, 653 participants completed a survey to further understanding of the relationship between inter- and intrapersonal variables. Results revealed that marital communication and love styles accounted for 54.6% of the variance in marital satisfaction regardless of difference in demographics. Results of this study provide a resource for educators and practitioners to use with diverse clientele, while also emphasizing the need to understand both intra- and interpersonal variables when working with families.

  7. John Stuart Mill, John Rawls y Amartya Sen, los tres nombres de la equidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Lopera

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Tres autores como John Stuart Mill, John Rawls y Amartia Sen son objeto de análisis en este artículo que estudia el tema de la equidad en un contexto que se caracteriza por el abandono casi generalizado del estudio de los valores en relación a los grandes problemas económicos; el artículo defiende como necesaria la recuperación de las preocupaciones éticas en la ciencia económica. La segunda parte, presenta una bibliografía reciente presentada como respuesta a la obra de John Rawls a partir de 1985, cuando este autor da el llamado giro desde su teoría de la justicia como equidad hacia un reciente liberalismo político, período de gran interés para comprender las discusiones actuales de la filosofía política y el futuro de la discusión interdisciplinaria con la economía.

  8. Findings of the first comprehensive radiological monitoring program of the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Graham, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Marshall Islands was the primary site of the United States atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific. From 1946 through 1958, 66 atomic weapons were detonated in the island country. For several decades, monitoring was conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (or its predecessor agencies) on the test site atolls and neighboring atolls. However, 70% of the land area of the over 1,200 islands in the Marshall Islands was never systematically monitored prior to 1990. For the 5-y period from 1990 through 1994, the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands undertook an independent program to assess the radiological conditions throughout its 29 atolls. The scientific work was performed under the auspices of the Section 177 Agreement of the Compact of Free Association, U.S. public law 99-239, signed in 1986 by President Ronald Reagan. Although the total land area of the nations is a scant 180 km 2 , the islands are distributed over 6 X 10 5 km 2 of ocean. Consequently, logistics and instrumentation were main considerations, in addition to cultural and language issues. The objective of this paper is to report findings for all atolls of the Marshall Islands on the 137 Cs areal inventory (Bq m -2 ) and the external effective dose-rate (mSv y -1 ), the projected internal effective dose-rate (mSv y -1 ) from an assumed diet model, and surface soil concentrations of 239,240 Pu (Bq kg -1 ) for selected northern atolls. Interpretation is also provided on the degree of contamination above global fallout levels. This report provides the first comprehensive summary of the radiological conditions throughout the Marshall Islands. 37 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab

  9. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eGarthe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis.In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons.We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the DG facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places.In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped.

  10. Multivariate temporal pattern analysis applied to the study of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze: methodological and conceptual highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Magnusson, M S; Roy, V; Arabo, A; Sorbera, F; Santangelo, A; Faulisi, F; Crescimanno, G

    2014-08-30

    Aim of this article is to illustrate the application of a multivariate approach known as t-pattern analysis in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. By means of this multivariate approach, significant relationships among behavioral events in the course of time can be described. Both quantitative and t-pattern analyses were utilized to analyze data obtained from fifteen male Wistar rats following a trial 1-trial 2 protocol. In trial 2, in comparison with the initial exposure, mean occurrences of behavioral elements performed in protected zones of the maze showed a significant increase counterbalanced by a significant decrease of mean occurrences of behavioral elements in unprotected zones. Multivariate t-pattern analysis, in trial 1, revealed the presence of 134 t-patterns of different composition. In trial 2, the temporal structure of behavior become more simple, being present only 32 different t-patterns. Behavioral strings and stripes (i.e. graphical representation of each t-pattern onset) of all t-patterns were presented both for trial 1 and trial 2 as well. Finally, percent distributions in the three zones of the maze show a clear-cut increase of t-patterns in closed arm and a significant reduction in the remaining zones. Results show that previous experience deeply modifies the temporal structure of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze. In addition, this article, by highlighting several conceptual, methodological and illustrative aspects on the utilization of t-pattern analysis, could represent a useful background to employ such a refined approach in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of a modified Maze procedure on the atrial hormonal function and level of myocardial damage markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Zheleznev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF in patients with valvular heart disease remains one of the most pressing problems in cardiac surgery. The purpose of the study was to determine the dynamics of proANP and myocardial damage markers depending on a modification of the radiofrequency (RF Maze procedure used. The study involved 86 patients operated over a period from November 2007 to December 2010. A concomitant RF Maze procedure during mitral valve (MV surgery was performed in two groups of the cohort; in group 1 it was the standard Maze IV scheme, in group 2 it was the modified one. In both groups we assessed the levels of proANP and myocardial damage markers. In group 1 a more significant decrease in proANP (by 4 times was seen as compared to group 2 (by half. In group 1, the pleural effusion rate was 46.2%, and thoracocentesis rate reached 25.6%. In group 2, the corresponding rates were lower,14.9% and 27.7%. During the first postoperative day there was an increase in creatine phosphokinase MB fraction and Troponin T in both groups, and the rise was significantly higher in group 1. It should be noted that modified Maze IV RF ablation results in 80% freedom from AF, which is consistent with that of the standard Maze IV scheme. In patients with left atrial ablation the proANP secretion is less prominent early after surgery, and myocardial damage is lower in comparison with biatrial ablation.

  12. La herencia igualitarista de John Rawls

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    Puyol González, Ángel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the indisputable achievements of John Rawls work has been the revitalisation of the concept of equality in the ethics and political philosophy of the last few years. He has removed it from the monopoly of the ideologies that have had better or worse luck throughout the entire twentieth century and returned it to the analytical and conceptual rigor of philosophy. Moreover, he has done so with the added virtue of harmonising the value of equality with the values of freedom and efficiency, which is an effort that is not always valued with sufficient understanding. There is no doubt about the influence of Rawls theory of justice on current egalitarian thinking that, in some way, has been, and is still being, built -following -or diverging from the wake opened by the philosopher from Harvard. In this article, I analyse the main debates that are going on about Rawlsian egalitarianism and I point out some possible future orientation. In the first place, I set out the two great egalitarian arguments in Rawls work stemming, respectively, from a person's moral conception and the moral arbitrariness of the individual' s social and natural contingencies. Afterwards, I explore the problems of both arguments insisting, on one hand, on the inadequacy of the Kantian moral personality as a foundation for an egalitarian theory and, on the other hand, on the inconsistency of luck egalitarianism as an egalitarian extension of Rawls theory. In third place, I demonstrate that the main egalitarian problem in Rawls work comes from the concept of equality and equity void of solidarity. I conclude, finally, that justice as fairness should be contrasted with justice as fraternity.

    Uno de los logros indiscutibles de la obra de John Rawls ha sido la revitalización del concepto de igualdad en la ética y la filosofía política de los últimos años, desmonopolizándolo de las ideologías que han recorrido con mejor o peor fortuna todo el siglo xx y devolvi

  13. Lenguaje, realidad social y poder: John Searle

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    Nelson Jair Cuchumbé Holguín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analiza cómo John Searle explica la instauración o la destrucción del poder convencional. El punto de partida es que la explicación de Searle se sustenta en la idea del poder convencional, entendido como un acontecimiento único que hace parte de la realidad social constituida por el lenguaje, lo cual permite expresar que cuando un acto de habla performativo es realizado en circunstancias apropiadas por un agente se sigue la imposición de la función de estatus al acontecimiento, la comprensión de la fuerza explicativa de las reglas constitutivas, la ejecución de poderes deónticos y la creación de un nuevo hecho institucional. No obstante, tal formulación deja por fuera la actitud de riesgo de los participantes en la creación o destrucción de los poderes que componen los hechos institucionales. Para demostrar este punto de partida, en primer lugar, se ubica el aporte filosófico de Searle sobre el lenguaje en términos de la perspectiva pragmática. En segundo lugar, se muestra que desde el lenguaje la intencionalidad colectiva impone funciones de estatus que crean formas de poderes deónticos. Para concluir, se afirma que el mantenimiento o la destrucción del poder convencional no se agota en las reglas constitutivas ni en las funciones de estatus, sino que se complementa con la actitud de riesgo desarrollarla por los participantes en el momento en que hacen uso del lenguaje. El análisis de la información recogida, mediante la reseña crítica, se realizó utilizando herramientas del enfoque metodológico reconstructivo conceptual.

  14. Case definition terminology for paratuberculosis (Johne's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, R J; Begg, D J; de Silva, K; Purdie, A C; Dhand, N K; Plain, K M

    2017-11-09

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is an economically significant condition caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. However, difficulties in diagnosis and classification of individual animals with the condition have hampered research and impeded efforts to halt its progressive spread in the global livestock industry. Descriptive terms applied to individual animals and herds such as exposed, infected, diseased, clinical, sub-clinical, infectious and resistant need to be defined so that they can be incorporated consistently into well-understood and reproducible case definitions. These allow for consistent classification of individuals in a population for the purposes of analysis based on accurate counts. The outputs might include the incidence of cases, frequency distributions of the number of cases by age class or more sophisticated analyses involving statistical comparisons of immune responses in vaccine development studies, or gene frequencies or expression data from cases and controls in genomic investigations. It is necessary to have agreed definitions in order to be able to make valid comparisons and meta-analyses of experiments conducted over time by a given researcher, in different laboratories, by different researchers, and in different countries. In this paper, terms are applied systematically in an hierarchical flow chart to enable classification of individual animals. We propose descriptive terms for different stages in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis to enable their use in different types of studies and to enable an independent assessment of the extent to which accepted definitions for stages of disease have been applied consistently in any given study. This will assist in the general interpretation of data between studies, and will facilitate future meta-analyses.

  15. Models of anxiety: responses of mice to novelty and open spaces in a 3D maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, A; Michalikova, S; van Rensburg, R; Chazot, P L

    2006-11-01

    The present report describes the emotional responses of different strains of mice to exposure to a novel open space model of anxiety using a 3D spatial navigation task. The 3D maze is modification of the radial maze with flexible arms that can be raised above or lowered below the horizontal level of a central platform. To access the arms animals need to cross a bridge linking the arms to the central platform. In this model, mice are exposed to novelty in an unfamiliar open space setting with no safe alternative. Fear from novelty is compounded with the need to explore. The drive to escape and the drive to approach are intermingled making this open space model radically different from the current models of anxiety which provide animals with the choice between safe and anxiogenic spaces. In a series of experiments, we examined the behaviour of different groups of mice from C57, C3H, CD1 and Balb/c strains. In the first experiment, different groups of C57 mice were tested in one of the three arms configurations. In the second experiment, C57 mice were compared to C3H mice. In the third experiment, C57 mice were compared to CD1 and Balb/c mice in the raised arm configuration over three successive sessions. In the fourth experiment, we examined the behaviour of C57 mice in the lowered arm configuration with an open and an enclosed central. In the final experiment, we examined the difference between C57 and C3H mice of both genders. Using several spatio-temporal parameters of the transition responses between central platform, bridges and arms, we have been able to show consistent results demonstrating significant differences between C57 and C3H mice, and between Balb/c and both C57 and CD1 mice. C3H appear more anxious than C57 mice, and Balb/c mice seem more anxious than C57 and CD1 mice. We also observed significant differences between sexes in C3H mice but not in C57 mice. C3H male mice appear more anxious than C3H female mice and than both C57 male and female mice

  16. A novel elevated plus-maze procedure to avoid the one-trial tolerance problem

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    Peggy eSchneider

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The elevated plus-maze (EPM test is one of the most commonly used behavioural assays to evaluate anxiety-related behaviour in rodents. It is a rather economic test which usually uses a short (5 min protocol and does not require conditioning of the animals. The critical measure for anxiety is the time spent in the open arms of the maze. A confounding problem of the EPM is the so called one-trial tolerance (OTT, characterised by a marked decrease of open arm exploration in spite of treatment with anxiolytic acting benzodiazepines upon re-exposure to the EPM. This consistent finding is often raised as an evidence for the inappropriateness to re-test rodents in the EPM. However, a reliable re-test paradigm would broaden the usability and effectiveness of this test.Therefore, we tested how a prolongation of the inter-trial interval to 28 days (instead of the usual 24 hours, and an additional change of the testing room would affect the open arm time and other behaviours on the EPM. In two experiments, drug naive Wistar rats were exposed to the EPM on trial 1, and treated intraperitoneally with either vehicle or midazolam (0.25 mg/kg 30 min before trial 2. Then, trial 2 (28 days after trial 1 was carried out in either the same testing room (Exp. 1 or a second unfamiliar room (Exp. 2.Twenty-eight days after trial 1 the open arm time of the rats in the vehicle treated control rats of both experimental groups was comparable to that of the first trial, independent of the testing room. Most importantly, we found that the treatment with the benzodiazepine midazolam had a significantly anxiolytic-like (i.e. increase of open arm time effect in trial 2 only when conducted in the previously unfamiliar testing room (Exp. 2. We suggest that in order to reliably re-test the EPM and to prevent confounding effects due to the OTT, an inter-trial interval of 28 days and a change in testing rooms reinstates anxiolytic-like actions of benzodiazepines

  17. Obituary: Michael John Klein, 1940-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel

    2006-12-01

    Michael John Klein died on 14 May 2005 at home in South Pasadena, California. The cause of death was tongue cancer that metastasized to the lungs. He was a non-smoker. Mike was a passionate radio astronomer, a trusted astronomical observer, an educator and a family man. Mike was born on 19 January 1940 in Ames, Iowa, the son of Florence Marie (Graf) and Fred Michael Klein. His mother was a homemaker, and his father was a banker. Mike had two older sisters, Lois Jean (Klein) Flauher and Marilyn June (Klein) Griffin. In 1962, Mike married his high school sweetheart Barbara Dahlberg, who survives him along with their three children, Kristin Marie (Klein) Shields, Michael John Klein Jr., Timothy Joel Klein, and six grandchildren. Mike developed a love for astronomy early in his life, and credited an early morning, newspaper-delivery route that he had at age twelve, which took him outside well before sunrise. He told family members that as he walked along his route, he stared into the sky and wondered what everything was. He studied sky charts, located stars, and began to understand how the planets shifted their positions relative to the stars each day. Another big influence in Mike's life was his brother in-law, Jim Griffin. Jim helped Mike understand that his passion for science did not have to remain a hobby, but could and should become a career. Jim's encouragement led Mike to attend Iowa State University in Ames, where he earned a BS in electrical engineering in 1962. Mike then started graduate school in electrical engineering at Michigan State, but after one semester transferred to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he earned an MS (1966) and PhD (1968) in astronomy. His doctoral dissertation, under the direction of Professor Fred Haddock, was based on extensive observations of the planets and examined the physical and thermal properties of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Mike was awarded a Resident Research Associate position at JPL by the National

  18. Obituary: Michael John Seaton, 1923-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil; Nahar, Sultana

    2007-12-01

    Professor Michael John Seaton, hailed as the "Father of Atomic Astrophysics," passed away on May 29, 2007. He was one of the few Honorary Fellows of both the American Astronomical Society and the American Physical Society, so honored for his monumental contributions to both physics and astronomy. Mike Seaton was born on January 16, 1923 in Bristol, England. He attended Wallington County High School. But his leftist political activities, even at that stage, led to his expulsion, though he was eventually allowed to matriculate. He enlisted in the Royal Air Force as a navigator during the Second World War, and flew many dangerous missions. His legendary concentration and precision are reflected in the following anecdote. Once after a bombing mission his aircraft was lost in fog over the Alps. Seaton calculated the position and coordinates in flight to guide the aircraft. When the fog lifted, the crew found themselves flying perilously close to the mountains, but made it safely back. His associates often said, "A Seaton calculation is carried out as if his life depended on it." After the War he was admitted to University College London (UCL) as an undergraduate. Thereafter, he spent all of his professional career at UCL. Seaton received his Batchelor's degree in 1948, and his Ph.D. in 1951. His tenure at UCL coincided with the golden age of atomic astrophysics, for he was largely responsible for it. Seaton was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1967, and as President of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) in 1978. He was the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate from the Observatoire de Paris, an Honorary D.Sc. from the Queen's University of Belfast, the Gold Medal for Astronomy by the RAS, the Guthrie Medal by the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society Hughes award for lifetime work by the RAS, and several other prestigious awards. Nevertheless, as Alex Dalgarno recently remarked, Seaton was not part of the establishment because he chose not to be. Though rooted in

  19. THE NCI STUDIES ON RADIATION DOSES AND CANCER RISKS IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI, National Institutes of Health) was requested by the U.S. Congress in 2004 to assess the number of radiation-related illnesses to be expected among the people of the Marshall Islands from nuclear tests conducted there during 1946-1958. A thorough analysis conducted by the NCI concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear devices tested in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall ...

  20. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibagaki, M.; Seo, M.; Asano, T.; Kiyono, S.

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  1. The psychostimulant modafinil facilitates water maze performance and augments synaptic potentiation in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Marian; Lyons, Declan G; Barlow, Sally; González Reyes, Rodrigo E; O'Mara, Shane M

    2010-01-01

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug used widely for the treatment of narcolepsy, which also has additional positive effects on cognition. Here, we investigate the effects of modafinil on behavioural performance and synaptic plasticity in rats. Improved acquisition in the water maze task was observed in animals that underwent chronic treatment with modafinil. We found that the distance traveled and escape latency were reduced after the first day in chronically-treated rats, compared to controls. Importantly, swim velocity was similar for both groups, excluding pharmacological effects on motor skills. We also found that modafinil increases synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of urethane-anaesthetized rats; modafinil induced a robust augmentation of the population spike, evident after application of 2 bursts of 200 Hz high-frequency stimulation. Furthermore, the modafinil-dependent enhancement of postsynaptic potentials correlated selectively with theta rhythm augmentation. We propose that modafinil may facilitate hippocampal-associated spatial representation via increased theta-related hippocampal plasticity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex differences in a virtual water maze: an eye tracking and pupillometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Jackson, Carl P T; Skelton, Ron W

    2008-11-21

    Sex differences in human spatial navigation are well known. However, the exact strategies that males and females employ in order to navigate successfully around the environment are unclear. While some researchers propose that males prefer environment-centred (allocentric) and females prefer self-centred (egocentric) navigation, these findings have proved difficult to replicate. In the present study we examined eye movements and physiological measures of memory (pupillometry) in order to compare visual scanning of spatial orientation using a human virtual analogue of the Morris Water Maze task. Twelve women and twelve men (average age=24 years) were trained on a visible platform and had to locate an invisible platform over a series of trials. On all but the first trial, participants' eye movements were recorded for 3s and they were asked to orient themselves in the environment. While the behavioural data replicated previous findings of improved spatial performance for males relative to females, distinct sex differences in eye movements were found. Males tended to explore consistently more space early on while females demonstrated initially longer fixation durations and increases in pupil diameter usually associated with memory processing. The eye movement data provides novel insight into differences in navigational strategies between the sexes.

  3. Cox-Maze III procedure with valvular surgery in an autopneumonectomized patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Destructive pulmonary inflammation can leave patients with only a single functional lung, resulting in anatomical and physiological changes that may interfere with subsequent cardiac surgeries. Such patients are vulnerable to perioperative cardiopulmonary complications. Herein, we report the first case, to our knowledge, of an autopneumonectomized patient who successfully underwent a modified Cox-Maze III procedure combined with valvular repairs. The three major findings in this case can be summarized as follows: (1 a median sternotomy with peripheral cannulations, such as femoral cannulations, can provide an optimal exposure and prevent the obstruction of vision that may occur as a result of multiple cannulations through a median sternotomy; (2 a modified septal incision combined with biatrial incisions facilitate adequate exposure of the mitral valve; and (3 the aggressive use of intraoperative ultrafiltration may be helpful for the perioperative managements as decreasing pulmonary water contents, thereby avoiding the pulmonary edema associated with secretion of inflammatory cytokines during a cardiopulmonary bypass. We also provide several suggestions for achieving similar satisfactory surgical outcomes in patients with a comparable condition.

  4. The Cox-maze IV procedure in its second decade: still the gold standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaengsri, Chawannuch; Schill, Matthew R; Khiabani, Ali J; Schuessler, Richard B; Melby, Spencer J; Damiano, Ralph J

    2018-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and the treatment options include medical treatment and catheter-based or surgical interventions. AF is a major cause of stroke, and its prevalence is increasing. The surgical treatment of AF has been revolutionized over the past 2 decades through surgical innovation and improvements in endoscopic imaging, ablation technology and surgical instrumentation. The Cox-maze (CM) procedure, which was developed by James Cox and introduced clinically in 1987, is a procedure in which multiple incisions are created in both the left and the right atria to eliminate AF while allowing the sinus impulse to reach the atrioventricular node. This procedure became the gold standard for the surgical treatment of AF. Its latest iteration is termed the CM IV and was introduced in 2002. The CM IV replaced the previous cut-and-sew method (CM III) by replacing most of the incisions with a combination of bipolar radiofrequency and cryoablation. The use of ablation technologies, made the CM IV technically easier, faster and more amenable to minimally invasive approaches. The aims of this article are to review the indications and preoperative planning for the CM IV, to describe the operative technique and to review the literature including comparisons of the CM IV with the previous cut-and-sew method. Finally, this review explores future directions for the surgical treatment of patients with AF.

  5. An elevated plus-maze in mixed reality for studying human anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Biedermann, Daniel G; Wenzlaff, Frederike; Kurjak, Tim; Nouri, Sawis; Auer, Matthias K; Wiedemann, Klaus; Briken, Peer; Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Fuss, Johannes

    2017-12-21

    A dearth of laboratory tests to study actual human approach-avoidance behavior has complicated translational research on anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is the gold standard to assess approach-avoidance behavior in rodents. Here, we translated the EPM to humans using mixed reality through a combination of virtual and real-world elements. In two validation studies, we observed participants' anxiety on a behavioral, physiological, and subjective level. Participants reported higher anxiety on open arms, avoided open arms, and showed an activation of endogenous stress systems. Participants' with high anxiety exhibited higher avoidance. Moreover, open arm avoidance was moderately predicted by participants' acrophobia and sensation seeking, with opposing influences. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled experiment, GABAergic stimulation decreased avoidance of open arms while alpha-2-adrenergic antagonism increased avoidance. These findings demonstrate cross-species validity of open arm avoidance as a translational measure of anxiety. We thus introduce the first ecologically valid assay to track actual human approach-avoidance behavior under laboratory conditions.

  6. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Rodriguez, Diego Armando; Duenas Gomez, Zulma Janeth

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  7. Immediate response strategy and shift to place strategy in submerged T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asem, Judith S A; Holland, Peter C

    2013-12-01

    A considerable amount of research has demonstrated that animals can use different strategies when learning about, and navigating within, their environment. Since the influential research of Packard and McGaugh (1996), it has been widely accepted that, early in learning, rats use a flexible dorsal hippocampal-dependent place strategy. As learning progresses, they switch to a less effortful and more automatic dorsolateral caudate-dependent response strategy. However, supporting literature is dominated by the use of appetitively motivated tasks, using food reward. Because motivation often plays a crucial role in guiding learning, memory, and behavior, we examined spatial learning strategies of rats in an escape-motivated submerged T-maze. In Experiment 1, we observed rapid learning and the opposite pattern as that reported in appetitively motivated tasks. Rats exhibited a response strategy early in learning before switching to a place strategy, which persisted over extensive training. In Experiment 2, we replicated Packard and McGaugh's (1996) observations, using the apparatus and procedures as in Experiment 1, but with food reward instead of water escape. Mechanisms for, and implications of, this motivational modulation of spatial learning strategy are considered.

  8. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM. Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old were force-fed daily with 6.0 μL/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n=6 or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control (CO group; n=6 for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME in the NSO-treated group.

  9. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n = 6) or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control) (CO group; n = 6) for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME) in the NSO-treated group.

  10. The scientific learning approach using multimedia-based maze game to improve learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Wawan; Hafitriani, Sarah; Prabawa, Harsa Wara

    2016-02-01

    The objective of curriculum 2013 is to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, which leads to improving the quality of learning. The scientific approach and supported empowerment media is one approach as massaged of curriculum 2013. This research aims to design a labyrinth game based multimedia and apply in the scientific learning approach. This study was conducted in one of the Vocational School in Subjects of Computer Network on 2 (two) classes of experimental and control. The method used Mix Method Research (MMR) which combines qualitative in multimedia design, and quantitative in the study of learning impact. The results of a survey showed that the general of vocational students like of network topology material (68%), like multimedia (74%), and in particular, like interactive multimedia games and flash (84%). Multimediabased maze game developed good eligibility based on media and material aspects of each value 840% and 82%. Student learning outcomes as a result of using a scientific approach to learning with a multimediabased labyrinth game increase with an average of gain index about (58%) and higher than conventional multimedia with index average gain of 0.41 (41%). Based on these results the scientific approach to learning by using multimediabased labyrinth game can improve the quality of learning and increase understanding of students. Multimedia of learning based labyrinth game, which developed, got a positive response from the students with a good qualification level (75%).

  11. Easy rider: monkeys learn to drive a wheelchair to navigate through a complex maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Stephanie; Guthrie, Martin; Goillandeau, Michel; Nguyen, Tho Hai; Orignac, Hugues; Gross, Christian; Boraud, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The neurological bases of spatial navigation are mainly investigated in rodents and seldom in primates. The few studies led on spatial navigation in both human and non-human primates are performed in virtual, not in real environments. This is mostly because of methodological difficulties inherent in conducting research on freely-moving monkeys in real world environments. There is some incertitude, however, regarding the extrapolation of rodent spatial navigation strategies to primates. Here we present an entirely new platform for investigating real spatial navigation in rhesus monkeys. We showed that monkeys can learn a pathway by using different strategies. In these experiments three monkeys learned to drive the wheelchair and to follow a specified route through a real maze. After learning the route, probe tests revealed that animals successively use three distinct navigation strategies based on i) the place of the reward, ii) the direction taken to obtain reward or iii) a cue indicating reward location. The strategy used depended of the options proposed and the duration of learning. This study reveals that monkeys, like rodents and humans, switch between different spatial navigation strategies with extended practice, implying well-conserved brain learning systems across different species. This new task with freely driving monkeys provides a good support for the electrophysiological and pharmacological investigation of spatial navigation in the real world by making possible electrophysiological and pharmacological investigations.

  12. Unraveling cognitive traits using the Morris water maze unbiased strategy classification (MUST-C) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Tomer; Madar, Ravit; Louzon, Yoram; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Okun, Eitan

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of spatial cognitive learning in rodents is a central approach in neuroscience, as it enables one to assess and quantify the effects of treatments and genetic manipulations from a broad perspective. Although the Morris water maze (MWM) is a well-validated paradigm for testing spatial learning abilities, manual categorization of performance in the MWM into behavioral strategies is subject to individual interpretation, and thus to biases. Here we offer a support vector machine (SVM) - based, automated, MWM unbiased strategy classification (MUST-C) algorithm, as well as a cognitive score scale. This model was examined and validated by analyzing data obtained from five MWM experiments with changing platform sizes, revealing a limitation in the spatial capacity of the hippocampus. We have further employed this algorithm to extract novel mechanistic insights on the impact of members of the Toll-like receptor pathway on cognitive spatial learning and memory. The MUST-C algorithm can greatly benefit MWM users as it provides a standardized method of strategy classification as well as a cognitive scoring scale, which cannot be derived from typical analysis of MWM data. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ageing and spatial reversal learning in humans: findings from a virtual water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, R; Foreman, N; Leplow, B

    2014-08-15

    Deterioration in spatial memory with normal ageing is well accepted. Animal research has shown spatial reversal learning to be most vulnerable to pathological changes in the brain, but this has never been tested in humans. We studied ninety participants (52% females, 20-80 yrs) in a virtual water maze with a reversal learning procedure. Neuropsychological functioning, mood and personality were assessed to control moderator effects. For data analysis, participants were subdivided post hoc into groups aged 20-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-64 and 65-80 yrs. Initial spatial learning occurred in all age groups but 65-80-yrs-olds never reached the level of younger participants. When tested for delayed recall of spatial memory, younger people frequented the target area but those over 65 yrs did not. In spatial reversal learning, age groups over 45 yrs were deficient and the 65-80-yrs-olds showed no evidence of reversal. Spatial measures were associated with neuropsychological functioning. Extraversion and measures of depression moderated the age effect on the learning index with older introverted and non-depressed individuals showing better results. Measures of anxiety moderated the age effect on reversal learning with older people having higher anxiety scores showing a preserved reversal learning capability. Results confirmed age to be a major factor in spatial tasks but further showed neuropsychological functioning, psycho-affective determinants and personality traits to be significant predictors of individual differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of zolpidem on sedation, anxiety, and memory in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Karina A; Patti, Camilla L; Sanday, Leandro; Fernandes-Santos, Luciano; Oliveira, Larissa C; Poyares, Dalva; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Zolpidem (Zolp), a hypnotic drug prescribed to treat insomnia, may have negative effects on memory, but reports are inconsistent. We examined the effects of acute doses of Zolp (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory formation (learning, consolidation, and retrieval) using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task. Mice were acutely treated with Zolp 30 min before training or testing. In addition, the effects of Zolp and midazolam (Mid; a classic benzodiazepine) on consolidation at different time points were examined. The possible role of state dependency was investigated using combined pre-training and pre-test treatments. Zolp produced a dose-dependent sedative effect, without modifying anxiety-like behavior. The pre-training administration of 5 or 10 mg/kg resulted in retention deficits. When administered immediately after training or before testing, memory was preserved. Zolp post-training administration (2 or 3 h) impaired subsequent memory. There was no participation of state dependency phenomenon in the amnestic effects of Zolp. Similar to Zolp, Mid impaired memory consolidation when administered 1 h after training. Amnestic effects occurred when Zolp was administered either before or 2-3 h after training. These memory deficits are not related to state dependency. Moreover, Zolp did not impair memory retrieval. Notably, the memory-impairing effects of Zolp are similar to those of Mid, with the exception of the time point at which the drug can modify consolidation. Finally, the memory effects were unrelated to sedation or anxiolysis.

  15. Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelucci M.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied some of the characteristics of the improving effect of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, using an animal model of learning and memory. Groups of 12 adult male Wistar rats receiving caffeine (0.3-30 mg/kg, ip, in 0.1 ml/100 g body weight administered 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before the test session were tested in the spatial version of the Morris water maze task. Post-training administration of caffeine improved memory retention at the doses of 0.3-10 mg/kg (the rats swam up to 600 cm less to find the platform in the test session, P<=0.05 but not at the dose of 30 mg/kg. Pre-test caffeine administration also caused a small increase in memory retrieval (the escape path of the rats was up to 500 cm shorter, P<=0.05. In contrast, pre-training caffeine administration did not alter the performance of the animals either in the training or in the test session. These data provide evidence that caffeine improves memory retention but not memory acquisition, explaining some discrepancies among reports in the literature.

  16. Applications of the Morris water maze in translational traumatic brain injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura B; Velosky, Alexander G; McCabe, Joseph T

    2018-05-01

    Acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently accompanied by persistent cognitive symptoms, including executive function disruptions and memory deficits. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) is the most widely-employed laboratory behavioral test for assessing cognitive deficits in rodents after experimental TBI. Numerous protocols exist for performing the test, which has shown great robustness in detecting learning and memory deficits in rodents after infliction of TBI. We review applications of the MWM for the study of cognitive deficits following TBI in pre-clinical studies, describing multiple ways in which the test can be employed to examine specific aspects of learning and memory. Emphasis is placed on dependent measures that are available and important controls that must be considered in the context of TBI. Finally, caution is given regarding interpretation of deficits as being indicative of dysfunction of a single brain region (hippocampus), as experimental models of TBI most often result in more diffuse damage that disrupts multiple neural pathways and larger functional networks that participate in complex behaviors required in MWM performance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. John Calvin and John Locke on the Sensus Divinitatis and Innatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Caleb Clanton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Inheritors of the Calvinist Reformed tradition have long disagreed about whether knowledge of God’s nature and existence can be or need be acquired inferentially by means of the standard arguments of natural theology. Nonetheless, they have traditionally coalesced around the thought that some sense or awareness of God is naturally implanted or innate in human beings. A root of this orientation can be found in John Calvin’s discussion of the sensus divinitatis in the first book of The Institutes of the Christian Religion. This paper outlines a pedagogical strategy for organizing and evaluating Calvin’s treatment of the sensus divinitatis, chiefly by putting it in tension with John Locke’s polemic against innatism in Book I of An Essay concerning Human Understanding. I begin by reconstructing Calvin’s depiction of the sensus divinitatis, as well as his case for thinking that it is innate. I then explain how Locke’s critique of innatism offers a fairly direct response to Calvin and, hence, a useful framework for exploring the limits of Calvin’s treatment of the sensus divinitatis.

  18. Un cas particulier du scénario dans l'apprentissage des langues : le labyrinthe (action maze Action Mazes: a special case of the scenario for language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Rézeau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En didactique des langues l'approche actionnelle et les scénarios sont d'actualité, en lien avec les Tice (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication pour l'Enseignement. Cependant, des activités de type labyrinthe (action mazes, courantes dans les années 1980 et souvent portées sur les micro-ordinateurs de l'époque, semblent quelque peu tombées dans l'oubli. Cet article entend montrer qu'il est relativement aisé de concevoir et de réaliser de telles activités sur une plateforme d'enseignement à distance telle que Moodle. Nous analyserons également l'impact d'une activité de type labyrinthe sur une population d'étudiants dans le cadre d'un enseignement d'anglais de type Lansad (langues pour spécialistes d'autres disciplines.The development of ICT in language teaching concurs with an interest in task-based approaches and scenarios. Surprisingly, however, such activities as "adventure games" and "action mazes" which were quite popular in CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning in the 1980s seem to have fallen into oblivion. This article aims at demonstrating that it is relatively easy to design and implement "action mazes" on an LMS (Learning Management System such as Moodle. We shall then analyse the impact of an "action maze" learning activity on a population of students of ESP (English for Specific Purposes.

  19. On the biopsychosocial model: the example of political economic causes of diabetes in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Palafox, N

    2001-10-01

    Biomedical reductionism, the unwritten theory underlying the practice of medicine, is being supplanted by the biopsychosocial model. The explanatory power of the biopsychosocial model, however, is hampered by an inadequate mechanism to account for the social production of disease. We examine diabetes in the Marshall Islands to explore a conceptual approach that incorporates ecology, history, and political economy into the biopsychosocial model. The use of the Marshall Islands by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear war has led to ecological destruction, population displacement, and economic dependency. The consequence at the biological level has been an epidemic of weight gain, altered metabolism, and diabetes. A political economic perspective reveals that such outcomes are the result of decisions made by those who do not live with these decisions. Such a perspective points the way for social engagement and political work toward justice and health.

  20. Radiological-dose assessments of atolls in the northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1983-04-01

    The Marshall Islands in the Equatorial Pacific, specifically Enewetak and Bikini Atolls, were the site of US nuclear testing from 1946 through 1958. In 1978, the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey was conducted to evaluate the radiological conditions of two islands and ten atolls downwind of the proving grounds. The survey included aerial external gamma measurements and collection of soil, terrestrial, and marine samples for radionuclide analysis to determine the radiological dose from all exposure pathways. The methods and models used to estimate doses to a population in an environment where natural processes have acted on the source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 y, data bases developed for the models, and results of the radiological dose analyses are described

  1. Carotenoid status among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Mary V; Palafox, Neal A; Dancheck, Barbara; Ricks, Michelle O; Briand, Kennar; Semba, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Although carotenoids are known to be important dietary sources of vitamin A, there have been few epidemiological studies that have characterized the serum concentrations of major dietary carotenoids among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of serum pro-vitamin A carotenoids (alpha -carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), and retinol among 278 children, aged 1-5 y, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Marshall Islands have extremely low serum concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids and interventions are needed to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids among Marshallese children.

  2. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  3. Development of a NEW Vector Magnetograph at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Hagyard, Mona; Gary, Allen; Smith, James; Adams, Mitzi; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the Experimental Vector Magnetograph that has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This instrument was designed to improve linear polarization measurements by replacing electro-optic and rotating waveplate modulators with a rotating linear analyzer. Our paper will describe the motivation for developing this magnetograph, compare this instrument with traditional magnetograph designs, and present a comparison of the data acquired by this instrument and original MSFC vector magnetograph.

  4. Brigadier General Marsena Patrick, Provost Marshal General for the Army of the Potomac

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    professionals. Just as the populations of the states reflected, attendance by cadets from northern states was approximately double that of cadets from southern...the department of the Provost Marshals within his own division, and extending his jurisdiction over the surrounding country beyond the range of...a curse to it; and refugees from taxation and conscription at home are fattening upon the plunder obtained here.”298 He moved to establish firmer

  5. Republic of the Marshall Islands. Energy Project Development Options and Technical Assessment (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Misty Dawn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The advancement of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies continues to be fluid. There are many technical opportunities and strategies that can be utilized to guide communities to deploy cost-effective commercial alternative energy options; however, to achieve aggressive economic, environmental, and security goals, it requires a comprehensive, integrated approach. This document reports on the initial findings of an energy assessment that was conducted for the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

  6. Pemanfaatan Limbah Batu Marmer Sebagai Pengganti Agregat Kasar Pada Campuran Aspal Beton Terhadap Karakteristik Marshall

    OpenAIRE

    Syaiful Amal, Andi; Saleh, Chairil

    2015-01-01

    PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH BATU MARMER SEBAGAI PENGGANTI AGREGAT KASAR PADA CAMPURAN ASPAL BETON TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK MARSHALLThe Implementation Of Stone Marble Waste For Changer The Aggregate Rough To Mix Aplhalt Concrete Characteristics Of MarshalAndi Syaiful Amal1 & Chairil Saleh21,2Jurusan Teknik Sipil – Fakultas Teknik Univ. Muhammadiyah MalangAlamat Korespondensi : Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 246 Malang 65144Email : The waste of marble stone is waste produced when manu...

  7. General of the Army George C. Marshall’s Strategic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Depression to perform conservation tasks in rural areas.31 In 1938, Marshall moved to the War Plans Division of the General Staff. Unbeknownst to...125 US Army Center of Military History, “Omar Nelson Bradley: The Centennial ,” US Army, 2006...Omar Nelson Bradley: The Centennial .” US Army, 2006. Accessed April 2, 2017. http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/bradley/bradley.htm. Watson

  8. Casting Net Assessment: Andrew W. Marshall and the Epistemic Community of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    lasting impression on Marshall. Ford Madox Ford’s The March of Literature, which traced the progression of the literary genre from Confucius’s day on...Decision Makers. New York: Free Press, 1986. BIBLIOGRAPHY 94 “New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957” [name: Kitty Last, year: 1915, micro- film serial...family history library film : 2340794]. http:// search.ancestry.com. Nixon, Richard. To secretary of state et al. Memorandum, subject: Organi- zation and

  9. Radiological assessments for resettlement of Rongelap in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Committee on Radiological Safety in the Marshall Islands was established by the National Research Council in response to a request from the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assist the department in evaluating radiological conditions on certain atolls in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, especially Rongelap Atoll. The need stems from the provisions of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) established between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the US in 1992. That agreement sets out criteria and stipulations pertaining to the resettlement of Rongelap Atoll. The issue of resettlement itself originated in the desire for the people of the Marshall Islands to return to the atolls from which they were evacuated as a consequence of nuclear-weapons testing by the US during the 1940s and 1950s. The National Research Council was asked to review the scientific studies undertaken by the US Department of Energy to determine if reliable and modern scientific methodology was being used to assess the potential hazard, if any, to persons who might return to live on Rongelap Atoll. A crucial provision of the MOU is that resettlement will occur only if no person returning to Rongelap and substituting on a native-foods-only diet will receive a calculated annual whole-body radiation dose equivalent of more than 100 mrem above background. The MOU also presents an action level of 17 pCi/g for the concentration of transuranic contamination, i.e., plutonium and americium, in soils below which mitigation will be considered unnecessary

  10. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall)

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Pandey; Ajit Kumar Chaturvedi; Rudal Prasad Chaudhary; Rajendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedli...

  11. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pirchl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux , blue (1.3–2.3 lux, and red light (0.8–1.4 lux affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. However, dim blue and red light significantly reduced spatial learning of female rats in the 8-arm radial maze in the last training session (session 5. In conclusion, we suggest that female Sprague Dawley rats show reduced learning under blue and red light.

  12. Carribean migration and the construction of a black diaspora identity in Paul Marshall's Brown Girl, Brownstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Chin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses the novel 'Brown girl, brownstones' (1959 by Paule Marshall. Author argues that this novel offers a complex and nuanced understanding of how Caribbean migration impacts upon cultural identity, and how this cultural identity is dynamically produced, rather than static. He describes how the novel deals with Barbadian migrants to the US in the 1930s and 1940s, and further elaborates on how through this novel Marshall problematizes common dichotomies, such as between the public and the private, and between racial (black and ethnic (Caribbean identity. Furthermore, he indicates that Marshall through her representation of the Barbadian community, foregrounds the central role of women in the production of Caribbean identity in the US. In this, he shows, Bajan women's talk from the private sphere is very important. Further, the author discusses how the Barbadian identity is broadened to encompass Caribbean and African Americans in the novel, thus creating transnational black diaspora connections, such as by invoking James Baldwin and Marcus Garvey.

  13. Moeda, crédito e ciclos econômicos em Marshall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Fornazier Meyrelles Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo tem por objetivo examinar os elementos centrais da análise de Alfred Marshall sobre as flutuações cíclicas, contemplando o papel da especulação e do crédito nesse contexto. A primeira seção contém breve introdução ao assunto. A seguir, tratam-se das contribuições de Marshall sobre os determinantes das taxas de juros normal e de mercado, bem como a sua reformulação da Teoria Quantitativa da Moeda. Após, apresenta-se a sua explicação dos ciclos econômicos, na qual se articulam em uma mesma estrutura os elementos teóricos expostos nas seções anteriores. Ao final, uma comparação da teoria monetária de Marshall com as contribuições de Irving Fisher e Knut Wicksell é realizada, destacando-se os pontos de contato, bem como de distanciamento, entre esses proeminentes teóricos neoclássicos dos fenômenos monetários. Elabora-se ainda uma versão dinâmica formal do modelo marshalliano dos ciclos, incluída em apêndice.

  14. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study: an international cooperative scientific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Simon, S L; Trott, K R; Fujimori, K; Nakashima, N; Arisawa, K; Schoemaker, M J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer.

  15. Cobalt- and platinum-rich ferromanganese crusts and associated substrate rocks from the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Schwab, W.C.; Davis, A.

    1988-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts cover most hard substrates on seafloor edifices in the central Pacific basin. Crust samples and their associated substrates from seven volcanic edifices of Cretaceous age along the Ratak chain of the Marshall Islands are discussed. The two most abundant substrate lithologies recovered were limestone, dominantly fore-reef slope deposits, and volcanic breccia composed primarily of differentiated alkalic basalt and hawaiite clasts in a phosphatized carbonate matrix. The degree of mass wasting on the slopes of these seamounts is inversely correlated with the thickness of crusts. Crusts are generally thin on limestone substrate. Away from areas of active mass-wasting processes, and large atolls, crusts may be as thick as 10 cm maximum. The dominant crystalline phase in the Marshall Islands crusts is ??-MnO2 (vernadite). High concentrations of cobalt, platinum and rhodium strongly suggest that the Marshall Islands crusts are a viable source for these important metals. Many metals and the rare earth elements vary significantly on a fine scale through most crusts, thus reflecting the abundances of different host mineral phases in the crusts and changes in seawater composition with time. High concentrations of cobalt, nickel, titanium, zinc, lead, cerium and platinum result from a combination of their substitution in the iron and manganese phases and their oxidation potential. ?? 1988.

  16. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event.

  17. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  18. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  19. NEWS: John Goronwy Jones (1920-1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennison, Brenda M.

    2000-05-01

    John Goronwy Jones Gron Jones, as he was known to all, was a champion of Physics Education and his death, shortly before his eightieth birthday, robbed physics teachers of a colleague who fought many battles on their behalf. He was not shy of taking issue with anyone in authority who might be putting forward policies which would harm his great love: Physics Education and Physics Teaching. His photograph shows a man with an impish grin, looking friend and foe alike straight in the eye, before delivering the death blow to an argument which was founded on less than common sense. At other times he would listen patiently to the woes of colleagues before offering them fatherly/grandfatherly advice so that whoever was on the receiving end would go away feeling better for the encounter. Gron was born in Swansea and educated at Lewis Boys Grammar School in Glamorgan before entering University College Cardiff first of all as a mathematician before graduating in Physics in 1941. After his war service in the RAF, working on signals and radar development, he returned to do an MSc in X-ray crystallography before completing a PGCE in Bristol. What then passed for teacher training in all institutions left him wary of returning to train teachers himself but after 14 years spent teaching physics in three schools he returned to Cardiff and began a 25 year career in teacher training. He and his two colleagues, Clifford Othen (chemistry) and Douglas Hillier (biology) built up the Cardiff Science Centre as a focus for initial and in-service science teacher training in South Wales. The triumvirate was well known and a power to be reckoned with. They created links between the University Science Departments and the Schools. Gron knew the local schools and their physics teachers intimately. Cardiff became a focus for science education both nationally and internationally. He was a frequent attender at both ICPE (International Commission for Physics Education) and GIREP (International Physics

  20. Decreased proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus after exposure to the Morris water maze and its reversal by fluoxetine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náměstková, Kateřina; Šimonová, Zuzana; Syková, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 1 (2005), s. 26-32 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/03/1189; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Antidepressant * Water maze * Neurogenesis Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2005

  1. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar. There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory.

  2. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Smith

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar. There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory.

  3. Negative transfer effects between reference memory and working memory training in the water maze in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Sponton, Lucas Ezequiel; Soria, Gonzalo Jose; Dubroqua, Sylvain; Singer, Philipp; Feldon, Joram; Gargiulo, Pascual A; Yee, Benjamin K

    2018-02-26

    The water maze is one of the most widely employed spatial learning paradigms in the cognitive profiling of genetically modified mice. Oftentimes, tests of reference memory (RM) and working memory (WM) in the water maze are sequentially evaluated in the same animals. However, critical difference in the rules governing efficient escape from the water between WM and RM tests is expected to promote the adoption of incompatible mnemonic or navigational strategies. Hence, performance in a given test is likely poorer if it follows the other test instead of being conducted first. Yet, the presence of such negative transfer effects (or proactive interference) between WM and RM training in the water maze is often overlooked in the literature. To gauge whether this constitutes a serious concern, the present study determined empirically the magnitude, persistence, and directionality of the transfer effect in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. We contrasted the order of tests between two cohorts of mice. Performance between the two cohorts in the WM and RM tests were then separately compared. We showed that prior training of either test significantly reduced performance in the subsequent one. The statistical effect sizes in both directions were moderate to large. Although extended training could overcome the deficit, it could re-emerge later albeit in a more transient fashion. Whenever RM and WM water maze tests are conducted sequentially in the same animals - regardless of the test order, extra caution is necessary when interpreting the outcomes in the second test. Counterbalancing test orders between animals is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology for the Stars: Extending Our Reach. [Research and Technology: 1995 Annual Report of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Studies, Research, Technology, and Technology Transfer projects are summarized in this report. The focus of the report is on the three spotlights at MSFC in 1995: space transportation technology, microgravity research, and technology transfer.

  5. Naine ei tohi, mida mees võib : Angela Marshall ei suutnud provotseerida ulatuslikku kunstiväitlust / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    1998-01-01

    Los Angelese kunstniku Angela Marshalli näitus- müük Londonis Decima Gallerys. Kunstisündmus seisnes ostja portreteerimises, millele lisandus seksuaalakt. Piltide tegemisel kasutas kunstnik huulepulka.

  6. Tribes of Men: John Joseph Mathews and Indian Internationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenski, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses John Joseph Mathews and Indian internationalism. As an old man, Osage intellectual, writer, and historian, John Joseph Mathews recalled his expatriation from the United States during the 1920s. After growing up in Pawhuska, Oklahoma, seat of the Osage Nation, where he had been born in 1894 to a white mother…

  7. a speech act analysis of John 9: 35

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of Jesus' utterance in relation to the Johannine son of man: a speech act analysis of John 9: 35: research. ... In order to accomplish that, this article will examine the significance of Jesus' utterance in John 9: 35, which contains some difficulty in interpreting the meaning of the title Son of Man.

  8. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  9. The History of Heart Surgery at The Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nishant D; Alejo, Diane E; Cameron, Duke E

    2015-01-01

    Johns Hopkins has made many lasting contributions to cardiac surgery, including the discovery of heparin and the Blalock-Taussig Shunt, which represents the dawn of modern cardiac surgery. Equally important, Johns Hopkins has trained some of the world's leaders in academic cardiac surgery, and is committed to training the future leaders in our specialty. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The effect of Resveratrol flavonoid on learning and memory in passive avoidance and Y maze in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nasri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes type I is accompanied with disturbances in cognitive skills, memory and learning. In this research, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol chronic treatment on learning and memory in diabetic male rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control, resveratrol-treated control, diabetic and resveratrol-treated diabetic groups. We used streptozotosin for inducing diabetes. Resveratrol (10mg/kg I.p. was administered for 8 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, passive avoidance test and Y-maze task were used. For Statistical analysis, SPSS software and paired T-test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results: Resveratrol decreased serum glucose in diabetic rats (P<0.01. In passive avoidance learning, there wasn’t any significant difference in initial latency between diabetic and treated- diabetic group. Also, a significant decrease of step latency was observed in diabetic and treated diabetic rats (P<0.01. In Y maze, Resveratrol improved alternation percentage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Probably due to different mechanism of long term and short term memory, long term resveratrol treatment didn’t improve memory and learning in passive avoidance learning. In Y maze, method for determining the spatial memory, resveratrol improved spatial memory in diabetic rats. Resveratrol not only regulates glucose in diabetic rats but also it improves short term memory.

  11. Selective impairment of subcategories of long-term memory in mice with hippocampal lesions accessed by the olfactory tubing maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillan, F A; Marchetti, E; Soumireu-Mourat, B; Roman, F S

    2005-03-30

    A new apparatus, the olfactory tubing maze for mice, was developed recently to study learning and memory processes in mice in regard to their ethological abilities. As in humans, BALB/c mice with selective bilateral lesions of the hippocampal formation showed selective impairment of subcategories of long-term memory when tested with the olfactory tubing maze. After three learning sessions, control mice reached a high percentage of correct responses. They consistently made the olfactory-reward associations, but antero-dorsal and postero-ventral hippocampal-lesioned mice did not. However, all lesioned mice learned the paradigm and the timing of the task as fast and as well as control mice. These data suggest that the olfactory tubing maze can be used to study subcategories of memory, such as declarative and non-declarative memory, which are similar in some respects to those observed in humans. Consequently, possible memory effects of classical approaches (i.e., pharmacological or lesion studies) or genetic modifications in transgenic or gene-targeting mice can be effectively analyzed using this new apparatus.

  12. John Stuart Mill: utilitarismo e liberalismo = John Stuart Mill: utilitarianism and liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Mauro Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meu objetivo, neste trabalho, é investigar a compatibilidade das teses utilitaristas e liberais de John Stuart Mill. Apresentarei, inicialmente, os principais críticos da filosofia moral e política de Mill, para os quais o discípulo de Bentham teria abandonado o utilitarismo ou, ainda, não esclarecido suficientemente seu princípio da liberdade, o que o tornaria um pensador assistemático e inconsistente. Minha tese é contrária a tais interpretações, uma vez que sustenta ser Mill consistente. Em seguida, defenderei uma interpretação do princípio da liberdade e da individualidade, procurando demonstrar que seu utilitarismo é compatível com seu liberalismo

  13. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  14. Obituary: John Allen Eddy (1931-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2011-12-01

    and eventual impacts of environmental changes of all kinds. In 2004 they moved to Tucson, where Eddy worked for NASA at the National Solar Observatory until the time of his death. Author's Note: A principal source of information is the interview with John A. Eddy by Spencer Weart on 21 April 1999, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA, www.aip.org/history/ohilist/22910.html. See also the obituary by Peter Foukal in Physics Today, January 2010, pp. 60-61.

  15. Obituary: John Beverley Oke, 1928-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James Edward

    2004-12-01

    John Beverley (Bev) Oke passed away of heart failure early on 2 March 2004 at his Victoria, B.C. home. Bev's insatiable scientific curiosity led to fundamental contributions in many areas of stellar and extragalactic astronomy, including the development of advanced instrumentation for the largest optical telescopes and the mentoring of scores of grateful students and colleagues. Bev Oke was born in Sault Ste. Marie, ON, Canada on 23 March 1928, the son of Lyla Parteshuk and the Rev. C. Clare Oke. He entered the University of Toronto in 1945 to study physics with a steadily increasing fraction of astronomy, receiving his BA in 1949. Summer employment at the David Dunlap Observatory (DDO, 1948) and at the Dominion Observatory (Ottawa, 1949, 1950) sealed his interest in astronomy as a career. For his MA thesis (1950, Toronto), performed under theoretician Ralph Williamson, he made interior models of the Sun, and was proud to have proved that the proton-proton cycle was indeed the source of solar energy. Upon entering Princeton University he worked with Martin Schwarzschild on stellar interiors models and Lyman Spitzer on interstellar lines. A lifelong friendship with Alan Sandage began during Bev's second year while Alan was a post-doc at Princeton. During Bev's third year he spent three months in Pasadena with Lyman obtaining data for his thesis on Of stars. While in Pasadena he began a second life-long collaboration with Jesse Greenstein, an astronomer whose approach to science Bev deeply respected. In the small field of astronomy in that era, Bev wrote to DDO Director Jack Heard indicating the nearing completion of his PhD studies and his interest in a position. This led to a lectureship at the University of Toronto (1953-1956), followed by an Assistant Professorship (1956-1958). Bev's interest in instruments began at this time, when he built a device to convert photographic density to intensity, and worked with DDO engineer-machinist Jerry Longworth to implement

  16. Anamnesis and the Silent Narrator in Plato and John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L. Parsenios

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gospel of John is often compared to the dialogues of Plato by those who connect Johannine theology and Platonic philosophy. The comparison operates on the level of ideas. The present paper does not ignore issues of theology and philosophy but grounds a comparison of John and Plato first and foremost on the literary level. In several key places in John 1, 3, and 14, the Johannine narrator recedes from view and is unexpectedly silent where one would expect a narrator’s comment to organize the conversations and interactions between characters in John. Plato also renders the voice of the narrator silent in a dialogue like the Theaetetus. This paper argues that John and Plato both suppress the narrator’s voice in order to further their anamnetic efforts and to make later generations not only readers but participants in their original conversations.

  17. Strategic neuronal encoding in medial prefrontal cortex of spatial working memory in the T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Mailman, Richard B

    2018-05-02

    Strategic neuronal encoding in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the rat was correlated with spatial working memory (sWM) assessed by behavior in the T-maze. Neurons increased their firing rate around choice, with the increase largely occurring before choice as a prospective encode of behavior. This could be classified as sensitive-to-spatial information or sensitive-to-choice outcome. The sensitivity-to-spatial choice was defined by distinct firing rate changes before left- or right-choice. The percentage of left-choice sensitive neurons was not different from the percentage of right-choice sensitive neurons. There was also location-related neuronal activity in which neurons fired at distinct rates when rats were in a left- or right-location. More neurons were sensitive to left-location, as most of them were recorded from rats preferring to enter the right-location. The sensitivity to outcome was defined by a distinct firing rate around correct or error choice. Significantly more neurons were sensitive to error outcome, and, among these, more preferred to encode prospectively, increasing firing in advance of an error outcome. Similar to single neuron activity, the mPFC enhanced its neuronal network as measured by the oscillation of local field potential. The maximum power of oscillation was around choice, and occurred slightly earlier before error versus before correct outcome. Thus, sWM modulation in the mPFC includes not only spatial, but also outcome-related inputs, and neuronal ensembles monitor behavioral outcome to make strategic adjustments ensuring successful task performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Late outcomes after the Cox maze IV procedure for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Matthew C; Lancaster, Timothy S; Miller, Jacob R; Sinn, Laurie A; Schuessler, Richard B; Moon, Marc R; Melby, Spencer J; Maniar, Hersh S; Damiano, Ralph J

    2015-11-01

    The Cox maze IV procedure (CMPIV) has been established as the gold standard for surgical ablation; however, late outcomes using current consensus definitions of treatment failure have not been well described. To compare to reported outcomes of catheter-based ablation, we report our institutional outcomes of patients who underwent a left-sided or biatrial CMPIV at 5 years of follow-up. Between January 2002 and September 2014, data were collected prospectively on 576 patients with AF who underwent a CMPIV (n = 532) or left-sided CMPIV (n = 44). Perioperative variables and long-term freedom from AF, with and without AADs, were compared in multiple subgroups. Follow-up at any time point was 89%. At 5 years, overall freedom from AF was 93 of 119 (78%), and freedom from AF off AADs was 77 of 177 (66%). No differences were found in freedom from AF, with or without AADs, at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years for patients with paroxysmal AF (n = 204) versus with persistent/longstanding persistent AF (n = 305), or for those who underwent standalone versus a concomitant CMP. Duration of preoperative AF and hospital length of stay were the best predictors of failure at 5 years. The outcomes of the CMPIV remain good at late follow-up. The type of preoperative AF or the addition of a concomitant procedure did not affect late success. The results of the CMPIV remain superior to those reported for catheter ablation and other forms of surgical AF ablation, especially for patients with persistent or longstanding AF. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of single and combined gabapentin use in elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Fatma Sultan; Ismailoglu, Sule; Kaygisiz, Bilgin; Oner, Setenay

    2014-10-01

    Gabapentin, a third-generation antiepileptic drug, is a structural analogue of γ-aminobutyric acid, which is an important mediator of central nervous system. There is clinical data indicating its effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects and mechanisms of gabapentin in rats. Female Spraque-Dawley rats weighing 250±20 g were used. A total of 13 groups were formed, each containing 8 rats: gabapentin (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg), amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), sertraline (5 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg), ketamine (10 mg/kg), gabapentin 20 mg/kg was also combined with amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), sertraline (5 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg). All the drugs were used intraperitoneally as single dose. Saline was administered to the control group. Elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests were used as experimental models of anxiety and depression, respectively. It was observed that gabapentin showed an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effect in all doses in rats. Its antidepressant effect was found to be the same as the antidepressant effects of amitriptyline and sertraline. There was no change in the antidepressant effect when gabapentin was combined with amitriptyline and ketamine, but there was an increase when combined with sertraline and diazepam. Gabapentin and amitriptyline showed similar anxiolytic effect, whereas ketamine and diazepam had more potent anxiolytic effect compared with them. These data suggest that gabapentin may possess antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects.

  20. Lesions of reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei impair radial maze win-shift performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrook, Jacqueline R; Mair, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei are major sources of thalamic input to hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. We compared effects of lesions in ReRh and other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex on tasks affected by lesions in terminal fields innervated by these nuclei, including: visuospatial reaction time (VSRT), a measure of sensory guided responding; serial VSRT, a measure of action sequence learning; and win/shift radial arm maze (RAM) measures of spatial memory. ReRh lesions affected RAM, but not VSRT or serial VSRT performance. The effects of caudal intralaminar lesions were doubly dissociated from ReRh lesions, affecting VSRT, but not RAM or serial VSRT performance. Rostral intralaminar lesions did not produce significant impairments, other than a subgroup with larger lesions that were impaired performing a delayed RAM task. Combined lesions damaging all three sites produced RAM deficits comparable to ReRh lesions and VSRT deficits comparable to caudal intralaminar lesions. Thus there was no indication that deficits produced by lesions in one site were exacerbated significantly by the cumulative effect of damage in other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex. The effects of ReRh lesions provide evidence that these nuclei affect memory functions of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The double dissociation observed between the effects of ReRh and caudal intralaminar nuclei provides evidence that different nuclei within the midline-intralaminar complex affect distinct aspects of cognition consistent with the effects of lesions in the terminal fields they innervate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Molecular mechanisms for the destabilization and restabilization of reactivated spatial memory in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ryang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory retrieval is not a passive process. Recent studies have shown that reactivated memory is destabilized and then restabilized through gene expression-dependent reconsolidation. Molecular studies on the regulation of memory stability after retrieval have focused almost exclusively on fear memory, especially on the restabilization process of the reactivated fear memory. We previously showed that, similarly with fear memories, reactivated spatial memory undergoes reconsolidation in the Morris water maze. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which reactivated spatial memory is destabilized and restabilized remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism that regulates the stability of the reactivated spatial memory. Results We first showed that pharmacological inactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR in the hippocampus or genetic inhibition of cAMP-responsible element binding protein (CREB-mediated transcription disrupted reactivated spatial memory. Finally, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and L-type voltage gated calcium channels (LVGCCs in the hippocampus blocked the disruption of the reactivated spatial memory by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Conclusions Our findings indicated that the reactivated spatial memory is destabilized through the activation of CB1 and LVGCCs and then restabilized through the activation of NMDAR- and CREB-mediated transcription. We also suggest that the reactivated spatial memory undergoes destabilization and restabilization in the hippocampus, through similar molecular processes as those for reactivated contextual fear memories, which require CB1 and LVGCCs for destabilization and NMDAR and CREB for restabilization.

  2. A single center's experience with pacemaker implantation after the Cox maze procedure for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ad, Niv; Holmes, Sari D; Ali, Rabia; Pritchard, Graciela; Lamont, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    The Cox maze procedure (CM) is safe and effective for all atrial fibrillation (AF) types. A recent randomized trial found alarming rates of pacemaker implantation (PMI) during hospitalization after CM. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of PMI and its impact on outcomes after CM. Incidence of PMI was captured for all CM patients (2005-2015; N = 739). Data were collected prospectively. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine risk factors for PMI. Propensity score matching was conducted between concomitant CM patients and patients without surgical ablation since 2011. Fifty-two patients (7.0%) had in-hospital PMI after CM. Most common primary indication for PMI was sick sinus syndrome (67%), followed by complete heart block (23%) and sinus bradycardia (10%). The only risk factor for in-hospital PMI was type of procedure (P = .020). Patients with multiple valve procedures were at greatest risk (P = .004-.035). STS-defined perioperative outcomes were similar for patients with and without in-hospital PMI. Sinus rhythm off antiarrhythmic drugs were similar by PMI. After propensity score matching (n = 180 per group), in-hospital PMI was similar in CM patients and those without surgical ablation (5% vs 4%, P = .609). This study demonstrated lower incidence of PMI after CM procedures than recently reported. When indicated, PMI was not associated with increased short- or long-term morbidity or inferior freedom from atrial arrhythmia. Efforts to increase surgeon training with the CM procedure and postoperative management awareness are warranted to improve rhythm outcome and minimize adverse events and PMI. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of lactation on motor activity and elevated plus maze behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating rats show less noise-induced freezing and fewer inhibitory responses on the 6th day post-delivery when submitted to water and food deprivation in a classical conflict paradigm. Lactating mice go more often to the illuminated chamber in a light-dark cage and stay longer in it than virgin females. The present study was designed to assess the influence of this physiological state, i.e. lactation, on the elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field behavior in adult female rats. Total (TL and central (CL locomotion and rearing (RF frequencies were measured in an open-field. Number of entries into the open and closed arms as well as the time spent in each of these arms were measured in the EPM. Percent time spent and number of entries into the open arms were calculated and compared. In the open-field, TL was significantly decreased (115 ± 10.6 vs 150 ± 11.6 while CL and RF did not differ from those presented by virgin rats. In the EPM, lactating rats displayed a significant reduction in percent time spent (10.9 ± 1.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.3 in the open arms as well as a tendency to a reduction in percent entries into the open arms (35.7 ± 4.7 vs 45.7 ± 4.3. These results show that the physiological state of lactation modulates the open-field and EPM behaviors in rats

  4. John Dewey: Su filosofia y filosofia de la educacion (John Dewey: His Philosophy and Philosophy of Education). Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper forms part of an investigation about how the philosophy of John Dewey (1859-1952) can illuminate the practice of the teaching of English as a foreign language. The paper seeks to interpret and synthesize John Dewey's philosophical works to construct a "Deweyian lens" with which to analyze and evaluate the field of the teaching…

  5. Preoperative study of the surface ECG for the prognosis of atrial fibrillation maze surgery outcome at discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, Antonio; Rieta, José Joaquín; Alcaraz, Raúl; Hornero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Cox-maze surgery is an effective procedure for terminating atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients requiring open-heart surgery associated with another heart disease. After the intervention, regardless of the patient's rhythm, all are treated with oral anticoagulants and antiarrhythmic drugs prior to discharge. Furthermore, patients maintaining AF before discharge could also be treated with electrical cardioversion (ECV). In view of this, a preoperative prognosis of the patient's rhythm at discharge would be helpful for optimizing drug therapy planning as well as for advancing ECV therapy. This work analyzes 30 preoperative electrocardiograms (ECGs) from patients suffering from AF in order to predict the Cox-maze surgery outcome at discharge. Two different characteristics of the AF pattern have been studied. On the one hand, the atrial activity (AA) organization, which provides information about the number of propagating wavelets in the atria, was investigated. AA organization has been successfully used in previous studies related to spontaneous reversion of paroxysmal AF and to the outcome of ECV. To assess organization, the dominant atrial frequency (DAF) and sample entropy (SampEn) have been computed. On the other hand, the second characteristic studied was the fibrillatory wave (f-wave) amplitude, which has been demonstrated to be a valuable indicator of the Cox-maze surgery outcome in previous studies. Moreover, this parameter has been obtained through a new methodology, based on computing the f-wave average power (fWP). Finally, all the computed indices were combined in a decision tree in order to improve prediction capability. Results for the DAF yielded a sensitivity (Se), a specificity (Sp) and an accuracy (Acc) of 61.54%, 82.35% and 73.33%, respectively. For SampEn the values were 69.23%, 76.00% and 73.33%, respectively, and for fWP they were 92.31%, 82.35% and 86.67%, respectively. Finally, the decision tree combining the three parameters

  6. Discursive investigation into John's internalised spirit identity and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... Learning about John's community from the history and experiences of South Africa reminds us of .... In addition to the illustrated recent views, ..... idenfity in South Africa, Germany and Canada, Sun Press, Stellenbosch.

  7. The Inner Child and Other Conceptualizations of John Bradshaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordan, Terry

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed John Bradshaw on radio talk show. Bradshaw contributed to a greater understanding of factors that foster and maintain substance abuse and dysfunctional families. Focused on his concept of the inner child. (JBJ)

  8. St. John Shallow-water Ground Validation Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The...

  9. John Pope - Failure at Second Battle of Bull Run

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morio, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Was the failure of the Army of Virginia at the Second Battle of Bull Run a result of General John Pope being a failure as a leader or were there other circumstances that helped him in his loss? Conclusion...

  10. Festivals, cultural intertextuality, and the Gospel of John's rhetoric of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... offers a good starting place for exploring their interface with ..... Millar, F., 1977, The Emperor in the Roman World, Duckworth, London. ... Yee, G., 1989, Jewish feasts and the Gospel of John, Michael Glazier, Wilmington.

  11. Biographical Sketch: John Royal Moore, MD 1899–1988

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This biographical sketch on John R. Moore corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: Cartilaginous-cup Arthroplasty in Ununited Fractures of the Neck of the Femur (1948), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-011-1974-z.

  12. Exploring the Universe with John Milton and Mary Shelley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, David

    1989-01-01

    Presents an approach to teaching John Milton's "Paradise Lost" in conjunction with Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein." Notes that a study of these works stimulates vigorous discussions on theological and moral issues, human nature, and the cultural past and future. (MM)

  13. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  14. John White on Philosophy of Education and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    John White offers a provocative characterization of philosophy of education. In this brief reaction, I evaluate the characterization and urge the maintenance of a strong connection between philosophy of education and philosophy.

  15. Reflections on Cambridge: John Maynard Keynes at King's College Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2012-01-01

    .mp4 video file The economist John Maynard Keynes spent much of his life in Cambridge, connected to King's College. Alan Macfarlane reflects on a few aspects of his life and work. Filmed by Xu Bei in 2010

  16. John Malkovich ikka oskab / Kätlin Kaldmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldmaa, Kätlin, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Edinburghi filmifestivalil esilinastus "Colour Me Kubrick" (stsenarist Anthony Frewin, režissöör Brian Cook, peaosas John Malkovich) mehest, kes režissööri eluajal 1996.a. esines Stanley Kubrick'una

  17. Dairy cow feeding space requirements assessed in a Y-maze choice test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja-Lang, F C; Roberts, D J; Healy, S D; Lawrence, A B; Haskell, M J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of proximity to a dominant cow on a low-ranking cow's willingness to feed was assessed using choice tests. The main aim of the experiment was to determine the feeding space allowance at which the majority of subordinate cows would choose to feed on high-palatability food (HPF) next to a dominant cow rather than feeding alone on low-palatability food (LPF). Thirty Holstein-Friesian cows were used in the study. Half of the cows were trained to make an association between a black bin and HPF and a white bin and LPF, and the other half were trained with the opposite combination. Observations of pair-wise aggressive interactions were observed during feeding to determine the relative social status of each cow. From this, dominant and subordinate cows were allocated to experimental pairs. When cows had achieved an HPF preference with an 80% success rate in training, they were presented with choices using a Y-maze test apparatus, in which cows were offered choices between feeding on HPF with a dominant cow and feeding on LPF alone. Four different space allowances were tested at the HPF feeder: 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, and 0.75 m. At the 2 smaller space allowances, cows preferred to feed alone (choices between feeding alone or not for 0.3- and 0.45-m tests were significantly different). For the 2 larger space allowances, cows had no significant preferences (number of choices for feeding alone or with a dominant). Given that low-status cows are willing to sacrifice food quality to avoid close contact with a dominant animal, we suggest that the feeding space allowance should be at least 0.6m per cow whenever possible. However, even when space allowances are large, it is clear that some subordinate cows will still prefer to avoid proximity to dominant individuals. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Memorial—John A. Washington II, M.D.▿

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    John A. Washington II, M.D., former Head of Clinical Microbiology at the Mayo Clinic from 1972 to 1986 and Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the Cleveland Clinic from 1986 to 1992, died on 5 September 2010 at the age of 74. John was an internationally recognized, widely respected leader in the disciplines of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases, authoring more than 450 scientific articles, books, and book chapters and training scores of pathology residents and clinical mi...

  19. A brief history of people and events related to atomic weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L

    1997-07-01

    The events related to nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands began at the end of WWII when the U.S. began an initiative to determine the effect of nuclear weapons on naval vessels and on the performance of military personnel. The first tests took place in 1946 even though the area known as Micronesia was not entrusted to the U.S. by the United Nations until 1947. Beginning with the first relocation of the Bikini people to Rongerik Atoll in 1946, the saga of the Marshall Islands involvement in the atomic age began. Although the testing program was limited to the years 1946 through 1958, many of the consequences and events related to the testing program continued over the decades since. That story is still ongoing with programs currently underway to attempt to resettle previously displaced communities, remediate contaminated islands, and to settle claims of damages to individuals and communities. The history of the years subsequent to 1958 are a mixed chronicle of a few original scientific investigations aimed at understanding the coral atoll environment, continued surveillance of the acutely exposed Marshallese, some efforts at cleanup and remediation, numerous monitoring programs and many studies repeated either for credibility purposes, to satisfy international demands or because the changing state of knowledge of radiation protection has necessitated us to rethink earlier beliefs and conclusions about late health effects and social consequences. The objective of this paper is to briefly note many of the historical and political events, scientific studies, persons and publications from 1946 to the present that relate to atomic weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

  20. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers.

  1. First John structure resolved: Exegetical analysis, Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron J. Bigalke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous attempts have been suggested regarding the structure of First John. The only nearly unanimous agreement amongst commentators is concerning the prologue (1:1–4 and the conclusion (5:13–21. The lack of unanimity can be frustrating for the majority of those who seek to understand the macrostructure of the First Epistle of John. Consequentially, some commentators have opined that it is impossible to determine a notable structure of First John, and the epistle is thus regarded as a relatively imprecise series of various thoughts that were composed on the basis of mere association. Many exegetes have therefore proposed suggested outlines to aid the understanding of First John as opposed to providing genuine efforts to articulate a discernable structure of the epistle. The final part of this exegetical analysis seeks to demonstrate that exegetes need not succumb to such pessimism because there does appear to be a discernable structure to First John. Providing and stating resolve concerning the First John structure is fundamental for understanding the revealed contents of the epistle.

  2. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Adams, M.; Smith, S.; Hraba, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirror and polarimeter.

  3. Anestesia em paciente com síndrome de Marshall-Smith: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; Fonseca, Neuber Martins; Ruzi, Roberto Araújo; Temer, Paulo Cezar Silva

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A síndrome Marshall-Smith é uma doença rara, caracterizada por dismorfismo facial, acelerada maturação óssea, atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e anormalidade das vias aéreas. Os pacientes com essa síndrome apresentam grande probabilidade de complicações anestésicas, sobretudo com relação ao manejo das vias aéreas. Há poucos dados na literatura anestésica a respeito desta síndrome. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar as dificuldades e a conduta anestésica...

  4. Development of a EUV Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Pavelitz, Steve; Kobayashi, Ken; Robinson, Brian; Cirtain, Johnathan; Gaskin, Jessica; Winebarger, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe a new EUV test facility that is being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test EUV telescopes. Two flight programs, HiC - high resolution coronal imager (sounding rocket) and SUVI - Solar Ultraviolet Imager (GOES-R), set the requirements for this new facility. This paper will discuss those requirements, the EUV source characteristics, the wavelength resolution that is expected and the vacuum chambers (Stray Light Facility, Xray Calibration Facility and the EUV test chamber) where this facility will be used.

  5. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  6. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI. The Bucholz AAF geographic coordinates information was updated in the Kwajalein Island Class E airspace descriptions in 2011, but was inadvertently overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This action ensures the safety of aircraft operating in the Kwajalein Island airspace area. This is an administrative action and does not affect the operating requirements of the airspace.

  7. Screening adult tuberculosis patients for diabetes mellitus in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasa, J N; Brostrom, R; Ram, S; Kumar, A M V; Seremai, J; Hauma, M; Paul, I A; Langidrik, J R

    2014-06-21

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the screening of adult TB patients for diabetes (DM) using glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Of 62 patients registered between July 2010 and December 2012, 28 (45%) had DM. The only significant difference in baseline characteristics between those with and those without DM was higher age in those with DM. Two-month sputum smears and cultures were also not different between the two groups. Despite the limited sample size, this study shows that screening TB patients for DM in Ebeye is feasible and worthwhile and that it should be continued.

  8. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kehl, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martinelli, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tumey, S. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Langston, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tamblin, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tibon, S. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Chee, L. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Aisek, Jr., A. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); DeDrum, Z. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Mettao, M. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Henson, J. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands)

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utrōk Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utrōk Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utrōk Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrōk Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  9. Effect of a water-maze procedure on the redox mechanisms in brain parts of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andreevna Krivova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze (MWM is a tool for assessment of age-related cognitive deficits. In our work, MWM was used for appraisal of cognitive deficits in 11-month-old rats and investigation of the effect exerted by training in the Morris water maze on the redox mechanisms in rat brain parts. Young adult (3-month-old and aged (11-month-old male rats were trained in the water maze. Intact animals of the corresponding age were used as the reference groups. The level of pro- and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue homogenates was assessed using the chemiluminescence method.Cognitive deficits were found in 11-month-old rats: at the first day of training they showed only 30% of successful MWM trials. However, at the last training day the percentage of successful trials was equal for young adult and aged animals. This indicates that cognitive deficits in aged rats can be reversed by MWM training. Therewith, the MWM spatial learning procedure itself produces changes in different processes of redox homeostasis in 11-month-old and 3-month-old rats as compared to intact animals. Young adult rats showed a decrease in prooxidant capacity in all brain parts, while 11-month-old rats demonstrated an increase in antioxidant capacity in the olfactory bulb, pons + medulla oblongata and frontal lobe cortex. Hence, the MWM procedure activates the mechanisms that restrict the oxidative stress in brain parts. The obtained results may be an argument for further development of the animal training procedures aimed to activate the mechanisms responsible for age-related cognitive deficits. This may be useful not only for the development of training procedures applicable to human patients with age-related cognitive impairments, but also for their rehabilitation.

  10. The transfer from survey (map-like) to route representations into Virtual Reality Mazes: effect of age and cerebral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Laura; Rusconi, Maria Luisa; Scarabelli, Chiara; Stampatori, Chiara; Mattioli, Flavia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-31

    To go from one place to another, we routinely generate internal representations of surrounding spaces, which can include egocentric (body-centred) and allocentric (world-centred) coordinates, combined into route and survey representations.Recent studies have shown how both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel and are joined to support behaviour according to the task.Our study investigated the transfer from survey (map-like) to route representations in healthy and brain-damaged subjects. The aim was two-fold: first, to understand how this ability could change with age in a sample of healthy participants, aged from 40 to 71 years old; second, to investigate how it is affected after a brain lesion in a 8 patients' sample, with reference to specific neuropsychological frames. Participants were first required to perform the paper and pencil version of eight mazes, then to translate the map-like paths into egocentric routes, in order to find the right way into equivalent Virtual Reality (VR) mazes.Patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including a specific investigation of some topographical orientation components. As regards the healthy sample, we found age-related deterioration in VR task performance. While education level and gender were not found to be related to performance, global cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination), previous experience with computer and fluidity of navigation into the VR appeared to influence VR task results.Considering the clinical sample, there was a difficulty in performing the VR Maze task; executive functions and visuo-spatial abilities deficits appeared to be more relevant for predicting patients' results. Our study suggests the importance of developing tools aimed at investigating the survey to route transfer ability in both healthy elderly and clinical samples, since this skill seems high cognitive demanding and sensitive to cognitive decline.Human-computer interaction

  11. Diazepam-stress interactions in the rat: effects on autoanalgesia and a plus-maze model of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taukulis, H K; Goggin, C E

    1990-03-01

    On six occasions spaced at least a week apart, two groups of rats were subjected to a variety of stressful conditions consisting of a restraint/bright light complex, either alone or in combination with a tail pinch, whole-body inversion, or partial immersion in cold water. One of these groups was injected with diazepam (2.0 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the stressors, while the other group experienced the drug in their home cages the following day. A third group also received the diazepam but was not exposed to the stressors. In three test sessions all animals were injected with either diazepam or saline and were then exposed to a novel stressor: a plus-maze used as a screening device for anxiolytic drugs. This was immediately followed by a tail-flick measure of analgesia. The longest tail-flick latencies, indicating stress-induced analgesia ("autoanalgesia"), were observed in the group that had not been exposed to stress prior to testing. The other two groups exhibited substantially shorter latencies but did not differ from one another, thus showing a "stress inoculation" effect that was uninfluenced by diazepam. In the plus-maze, diazepam tends to increase the amount of time rats will spend in the two exposed arms of the maze relative to the two enclosed arms. This effect was significantly attenuated in the group that had previously experienced the variety of stressors after a diazepam injection, suggesting a learned association between drug and stress that resulted in a diminution of the drug's anxiolytic property.

  12. Identifying the appropriate time for deep brain stimulation to achieve spatial memory improvement on the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jihyeon; Chang, Won Seok; Chang, Jin Woo

    2017-03-07

    The possibility of using deep brain stimulation (DBS) for memory enhancement has recently been reported, but the precise underlying mechanisms of its effects remain unknown. Our previous study suggested that spatial memory improvement by medial septum (MS)-DBS may be associated with cholinergic regulation and neurogenesis. However, the affected stage of memory could not be distinguished because the stimulation was delivered during the execution of all memory processes. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the stage of memory affected by MS-DBS. Rats were administered 192 IgG-saporin to lesion cholinergic neurons. Stimulation was delivered at different times in different groups of rats: 5 days before the Morris water maze test (pre-stimulation), 5 days during the training phase of the Morris water maze test (training-stimulation), and 2 h before the Morris water maze probe test (probe-stimulation). A fourth group of rats was lesioned but received no stimulation. These four groups were compared with a normal (control) group. The most effective memory restoration occurred in the pre-stimulation group. Moreover, the pre-stimulation group exhibited better recall of the platform position than the other stimulation groups. An increase in the level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was observed in the pre-stimulation group; this increase was maintained for 1 week. However, acetylcholinesterase activity in the pre-stimulation group was not significantly different from the lesion group. Memory impairment due to cholinergic denervation can be improved by DBS. The improvement is significantly correlated with the up-regulation of BDNF expression and neurogenesis. Based on the results of this study, the use of MS-DBS during the early stage of disease may restore spatial memory impairment.

  13. Effects of acute or chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency in a modified water maze task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn K Acheson

    Full Text Available Ethanol is well known to adversely affect frontal executive functioning, which continues to develop throughout adolescence and into young adulthood. This is also a developmental window in which ethanol is misused by a significant number of adolescents. We examined the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency using a modified water maze task. During acquisition, rats were trained to find a stable visible platform onto which they could escape. During the test phase, the stable platform was converted to a visible floating platform (providing no escape and a new hidden platform was added in the opposite quadrant. The hidden platform was the only means of escape during the test phase. In experiment 1, adolescent animals received ethanol (1.0 g/kg 30 min before each session during the test phase. In experiment 2, adolescent animals received chronic intermittent ethanol (5.0 g/kg for 16 days (PND30 To PND46 prior to any training in the maze. At PND72, training was initiated in the same modified water maze task. Results from experiment 1 indicated that acute ethanol promoted behavioral disinhibition and inefficiency. Experiment 2 showed that chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence appeared to have no lasting effect on behavioral disinhibition or new spatial learning during adulthood. However, chronic ethanol did promote behavioral inefficiency. In summary, results indicate that ethanol-induced promotion of perseverative behavior may contribute to the many adverse behavioral sequelae of alcohol intoxication in adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the long-term effect of adolescent chronic ethanol exposure on behavioral efficiency is similar to that observed after chronic exposure in humans.

  14. The transfer from survey (map-like to route representations into Virtual Reality Mazes: effect of age and cerebral lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stampatori Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To go from one place to another, we routinely generate internal representations of surrounding spaces, which can include egocentric (body-centred and allocentric (world-centred coordinates, combined into route and survey representations. Recent studies have shown how both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel and are joined to support behaviour according to the task. Our study investigated the transfer from survey (map-like to route representations in healthy and brain-damaged subjects. The aim was two-fold: first, to understand how this ability could change with age in a sample of healthy participants, aged from 40 to 71 years old; second, to investigate how it is affected after a brain lesion in a 8 patients' sample, with reference to specific neuropsychological frames. Methods Participants were first required to perform the paper and pencil version of eight mazes, then to translate the map-like paths into egocentric routes, in order to find the right way into equivalent Virtual Reality (VR mazes. Patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including a specific investigation of some topographical orientation components. Results As regards the healthy sample, we found age-related deterioration in VR task performance. While education level and gender were not found to be related to performance, global cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination, previous experience with computer and fluidity of navigation into the VR appeared to influence VR task results. Considering the clinical sample, there was a difficulty in performing the VR Maze task; executive functions and visuo-spatial abilities deficits appeared to be more relevant for predicting patients' results. Conclusions Our study suggests the importance of developing tools aimed at investigating the survey to route transfer ability in both healthy elderly and clinical samples, since this skill seems high cognitive

  15. John Hejduk ja tema Wall House 2 = John Hejduk and his Wall House 2 / Vilen Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnapu, Vilen, 1948-

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika arhitekt John Hejdukist ja tema mõjust 20. sajandi lõpukümnendite arhitektuurimõttele. Ka 1973. aastal projekteeritud eramust Wall House 2, mis valmis alles 2001. aastal Groningenis. Kommentaar Soome arhitektuuriprofessor Juhani Pallasmaalt

  16. Improvement of Radiation Safety in Radiotherapy Facilities: Catering for Neutrons Outside Short Mazes in 10MV Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, R.

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that neutron leakage cannot be neglected at 10MV when direct access doors are used or when short mazes, typically less than 7 metres in length, are employed. The majority of radiotherapy facilities in Africa have Co-60 machines installed that are now being replaced by linear accelerators. The in-coming linear accelerators are being installed in the same bunkers that were designed for Co-60 energy ranges albeit with some shielding modifications. The modifications do not alter the length of the maze and where the maze length is less than 7 metres, neutron leakage will occur in 10MV linear accelerators. There is lack of capacity within the regulatory bodies in Africa to handle this changeover from a technical and equipment perspective. The justification of medical exposures ensures that the benefits to the patients substantially outweigh any risks that the patient may incur. As such, the justification process needs to be implemented through the effective use of evidence-based referral guidelines and clinical audits. In the case of most African countries, medical diagnostic exposures of patients are not underpinned by an effective justification system. This, coupled with the scenario where physicians own outpatient diagnostic centres to which they refer patients (self-referral) increases the conflict of physicians due to dual roles as professionals and businessmen, further compromising on patient protection. Nuclear security is the responsibility of the Member State and requires that a number of key stakeholders work closely together. In the case of research reactors and nuclear power plants, this cooperation is evident and functional. However, this does not extend to the use of high-activity radioactive sources in medicine (category 1&2) where in most cases the regulators seem to be the only authority having oversight on the security of these sources without the benefit of direct input and collaboration of other key security stakeholders. This

  17. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    OpenAIRE

    Pirchl, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Humpel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux) , blue (1.3–2.3 lux), and red light (0.8–1.4 lux) affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials) under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. ...

  18. Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the hippocampus in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwegler Herbert

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper we review a series of experiments showing that heritable variations in the size of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields correlate with performance in spatial, but not non-spatial radial-maze tasks. Experimental manipulation of the size of this projection by means of early postnatal hyperthyroidism produces the effects predicted from the correlations obtained with inbred mouse strains. Although the physiological mechanisms behind these correlations are unknown as yet, several lines of evidence indicate that these correlations are causal.

  19. A genetic algorithm for optimization of neural network capable of learning to search for food in a maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budilova, E. V.; Terekhin, A. T.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1994-09-01

    A hypothetical neural scheme is proposed that ensures efficient decision making by an animal searching for food in a maze. Only the general structure of the network is fixed; its quantitative characteristics are found by numerical optimization that simulates the process of natural selection. Selection is aimed at maximization of the expected number of descendants, which is directly related to the energy stored during the reproductive cycle. The main parameters to be optimized are the increments of the interneuronal links and the working-memory constants.

  20. Influence of spatial and temporal manipulations on the anxiolytic efficacy of chlordiazepoxide in mice previously exposed to the elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, A; Rodgers, R J

    1999-11-01

    It has been widely reported that the anxiolytic efficacy of benzodiazepines in the elevated plus-maze test is abolished in subjects (rats or mice) that have been given a single prior undrugged experience of the test apparatus. The present series of experiments was designed to further characterise the key experiential determinants of this intriguing phenomenon in Swiss Webster mice. Using a standard 5 min test duration for both trials, Experiment 1 confirmed the anxiolytic efficacy of chlordiazepoxide (CDP; 5-20 mg/kg) in mice naive to the plus-maze, but a virtual elimination of drug effects in animals that had been pre-exposed to the maze 24 h earlier. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that, while extending the duration of initial exposure to 10 min did not prevent the loss of CDP (10 mg/kg) efficacy in a standard-duration second trial, increasing the duration of both trials reinstated an anxiolytic profile for the compound. Finally, although trial 1 confinement to an open arm did not compromise CDP efficacy when animals were subsequently allowed to freely explore the maze (Experiment 4), closed arm confinement during initial exposure abolished the drug's anxiolytic action upon retest (Experiment 5). In contrast to previous findings in rats, these data suggest that the experientially induced loss of benzodiazepine efficacy in the mouse plus-maze depends rather critically upon prior discovery and exploration of relatively safe areas of the maze (i.e. closed arms). Results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the absence of an anxiolytic response to benzodiazepines in plus-maze-experienced subjects reflects the acquisition of an open arm phobia during trial 1.