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Sample records for maxwell relaxation time

  1. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  2. Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)

  3. Continuous relaxation time spectrum of α-process in glass-like B2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenev, G.M.; Lomovskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    α-process of relaxation of glass-like B 2 O 3 was investigated in a wide temperature range. Continuous spectrum of relaxation times H(τ) for this process was constructed, using data of dynamic methods of investigation. It is shown that increase of temperature of α-process investigation leads to change of glass-like BaO 3 structure in such a way, that H(τ) spectrum tends to the maxwell one with a unit relaxation time

  4. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  5. The nonlinear Maxwell-type model for viscoelastoplastic materials: simulation of temperature influence on creep, relaxation and strain-stress curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Khokhlov

    2017-04-01

    restrictions on material functions and their comparison to typical test curves of stable viscoelastoplastic materials. It is proved that the viscosity coefficient and the “modulus of elasticity” of the model and their ratio (i.e. relaxation time of the associated linear Maxwell model should be decreasing functions of temperature. This requirements are proved to provide an adequate qualitative simulation of a dozen basic phenomena expressing an increase of material compliance (a decrease of tangent modulus and yield stress, in particular, strengthening of strain rate sensitivity and acceleration of dissipation, relaxation, creep and plastic strain accumulation with temperature growth.

  6. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using The Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that we currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Karr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  7. NMR relaxation times of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.; Aziz, H.; Basir, Z.

    1994-01-01

    NMR relaxation times T sub 1 and T sub 2 of natural rubber latex have been measured at 25 degree C on a pulsed NMR spectrometer. The work focuses on the variation of the relaxation times with the amount of water content from 0% to 50%. The water content was adjusted by centrifuging and removing a certain amount of water from the sample. The data were analysed using a biexponential fitting procedure which yields simultaneously either T sub 1a and T sub 1b or T sub 2a and T sub 2b. The amount of solid was compared with the known amount of dry rubber content

  8. Time-integration methods for finite element discretisations of the second-order Maxwell equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmany, D.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.

    This article deals with time integration for the second-order Maxwell equations with possibly non-zero conductivity in the context of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method DG-FEM) and the $H(\\mathrm{curl})$-conforming FEM. For the spatial discretisation, hierarchic

  9. Maxwell's fishpond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsler, Paul; Tan Jiajun; Thio, Timothy C Y; Trant, Claire; Kandapper, Navin

    2012-01-01

    Most of us will have at some time thrown a pebble into water, and watched the ripples spread outwards and fade away. But now there is also a way to reverse the process, and make those ripples turn around and reconverge again, …and again, and again. To do this we have designed the Maxwell's fishpond, a water wave or ‘transformation aquatics’ version of the Maxwell's fisheye lens (Tyc et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 115004; Luneburg 1964 Mathematical Theory of Optics). These are transformation devices where wave propagation on the surface of a sphere is modelled using a flat device with spatially varying properties. And just as for rays from a point source on a sphere, a wave disturbance in a Maxwell's fisheye or fishpond spreads out at first, but then reforms itself at its opposite (or complementary) point. Here we show how such a device can be made for water waves, partly in friendly competition with comparable electromagnetic devices (Ma et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 033016) and partly as an accessible and fun demonstration of the power of transformation mechanics. To the eye, our Maxwell's fishpond was capable of reforming a disturbance up to five times, although such a feat required taking considerable care, close observation, and a little luck. (paper)

  10. Current relaxation time scales in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1987-02-01

    An approximate normal mode analysis of plasma current diffusion in tokamaks is presented. The work is based on numerical solutions of the current diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for a broad range of plasma conductivity profile shapes. Three classes of solutions are considered which correspond to three types of tokamak operation. Convenient approximations to the three lowest eigenvalues in each class are presented and simple formulae for the current relaxation time scales are given

  11. Hybrid resonance and long-time asymptotic of the solution to Maxwell's equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Després, Bruno, E-mail: despres@ann.jussieu.fr [Laboratory Jacques Louis Lions, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, Boîte courrier 187, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Weder, Ricardo, E-mail: weder@unam.mx [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-126, DF 01000 (Mexico)

    2016-03-22

    We study the long-time asymptotic of the solutions to Maxwell's equation in the case of an upper-hybrid resonance in the cold plasma model. We base our analysis in the transfer to the time domain of the recent results of B. Després, L.M. Imbert-Gérard and R. Weder (2014) [15], where the singular solutions to Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain were constructed by means of a limiting absorption principle and a formula for the heating of the plasma in the limit of vanishing collision frequency was obtained. Currently there is considerable interest in these problems, in particular, because upper-hybrid resonances are a possible scenario for the heating of plasmas, and since they can be a model for the diagnostics involving wave scattering in plasmas. - Highlights: • The upper-hybrid resonance in the cold plasma model is considered. • The long-time asymptotic of the solutions to Maxwell's equations is studied. • A method based in a singular limiting absorption principle is proposed.

  12. Paramagnetic relaxation effects in perturbed angular correlations for arbitrary electronic relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, C.; Spanjaard, D.; Hartmann-Boutron, F.

    1975-01-01

    Previous perturbation treatments of paramagnetic relaxation effects in γγ PAC were limited to the case of very short electronic relaxation times. This limitation is circumvented by invoking a new perturbation theory recently elaborated by Hirst and others for handling relaxation effects in Moessbauer spectra. Under the assumption of spherical electronic relaxation the perturbation factors are computed as functions of certain relaxation parameters which are directly related to the microscopic relaxation Hamiltonian. The results are compared to those of the stochastic theory of Scherer and Blume [fr

  13. Relaxation Processes and Time Scale Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the response function may be immediately recognized as being 14 of the Kubo - Green type in the classical regime. Given this general framework, it is now...b as a function of temperature is 24 equivalent to the Vogel-Beuche-Fulcher empirical law for viscosity or the Williams-Landel-Ferry empirical law...relaxation times. With the weighted sum in the form of an integral , one can write exp(-(t/T)b ] = f dT’g(r’) exp[-(t/T’)], O

  14. A negative-norm least-squares method for time-harmonic Maxwell equations

    KAUST Repository

    Copeland, Dylan M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a negative-norm least-squares finite element discretization method for the dimension-reduced time-harmonic Maxwell equations in the case of axial symmetry. The reduced equations are expressed in cylindrical coordinates, and the analysis consequently involves weighted Sobolev spaces based on the degenerate radial weighting. The main theoretical results established in this work include existence and uniqueness of the continuous and discrete formulations and error estimates for simple finite element functions. Numerical experiments confirm the error estimates and efficiency of the method for piecewise constant coefficients. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Partial Fourier analysis of time-harmonic Maxwell's equations in axisymmetric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, Boniface

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the Fourier method for treating time-harmonic Maxwell's equations in three-dimensional axisymmetric domains with non-axisymmetric data. The Fourier method reduces the three-dimensional boundary value problem to a system of decoupled two-dimensional boundary value problems on the plane meridian domain of the axisymmetric domain. The reduction process is fully described and suitable weighted spaces are introduced on the meridian domain to characterize the two-dimensional solutions. In particular, existence and uniqueness of solutions of the two-dimensional problems is proved and a priori estimates for the solutions are given. (author)

  16. Re-inventing electromagnetics - Supercomputing solution of Maxwell's equations via direct time integration on space grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taflove, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present state and future directions of applying finite-difference and finite-volume time-domain techniques for Maxwell's equations on supercomputers to model complex electromagnetic wave interactions with structures. Applications so far have been dominated by radar cross section technology, but by no means are limited to this area. In fact, the gains we have made place us on the threshold of being able to make tremendous contributions to non-defense electronics and optical technology. Some of the most interesting research in these commercial areas is summarized. 47 refs

  17. Application of the Maxwell-Wagner-Hanai effective medium theory to the analysis of the interfacial polarization relaxations in conducting composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adohi, B J-P; Bouanga, C Vanga; Fatyeyeva, K; Tabellout, M

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to explain the interfacial polarization phenomenon in conducting composite films is proposed. HCl-doped poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyamide-6 (PA-6) matrices with embedded polyaniline (PANI) particles as filler were investigated and analysed, combining dielectric spectroscopy and AFM electrical images with the effective medium theory analysis. Up to three relaxation peaks attributed to the interfacial polarization phenomena were detected in the studied frequency range (0.1 Hz-1 MHz). The AFM electrical images revealed that the doped PA-6/PANI composite can be modelled as a single-type particle medium and the PET/PANI one as a two-type particle medium. A simple dielectric loss expression was derived from the Maxwell-Wagner-Hanai mixture equation and was applied to the experimental data to identify the interfaces involved in each of the relaxation peaks. The parameter values (permittivity, conductivity, volume fraction of the PANI particles) were found to agree well with the measured one, hence validating the models.

  18. An elementary solution of the Maxwell equations for a time-dependent source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, R; Villarroel, D

    2002-01-01

    We present an elementary solution of the Maxwell equations for a time-dependent source consisting of an infinite solenoid with a current density that increases linearly with time. The geometrical symmetries and the time dependence of the current density make possible a mathematical treatment that does not involve the usual technical difficulties, thus making this presentation suitable for students that are taking a first course in electromagnetism. We also show that the electric field generated by the solenoid can be used to construct an exact solution of the relativistic equation of motion of the electron that takes into account the effect of the radiation. In particular, we derive, in an almost trivial way, the formula for the radiation rate of an electron in circular motion

  19. Universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon gases

    OpenAIRE

    Pelc, M.; Marciak-Kozlowska, J.; Kozlowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon fermionic gases. We argue that the universal relaxation time tau(i) is equal tau(i)=h/m square v(i) where v(i)=alpha(i)c and alpha(1)=0.15 for nucleon gas and alpha(2)=1/137 for electron gas, c=light velocity. With the universal relaxation time we formulate the thermal Proca equation for fermionic gases. Key words: universal relaxation time, thermal universal Proca equation.

  20. A one-to-one correspondence between the static Einstein-Maxwell and stationary Einstein-vacuum space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan

    1989-01-01

    A one-to-one correspondence is established between the static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations and the stationary solutions of the Einstein-vacuum equations, that enables one to directly write down a solution for the one from a known solution of the other, and conversely, by a simple transcription. The directness of the correspondence is achieved by writing the metric for static Einstein-Maxwell space-times in a coordinate system and a gauge adapted to the two-centre problem and the metric for stationary Einstein-vacuum space-times in a coordinate system and a gauge adapted to black holes with event horizons. (author)

  1. Relaxation time in confined disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamati, H.; Korutcheva, E.

    2006-05-01

    The dynamic critical behavior of a quenched hypercubic sample of linear size L is considered within the 'random T c ' field theoretical model with purely relaxation dynamic (Model A). The dynamic finite size scaling behavior is established and analyzed when the system is quenched from a homogeneous phase towards its critical temperature. The obtained results are compared to those reported in the literature. (author)

  2. Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in linear dispersive media with absorption for scattering and propagation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rose M.; Hagness, Susan C.; Taflove, Allen

    1991-01-01

    The initial results for femtosecond pulse propagation and scattering interactions for a Lorentz medium obtained by a direct time integration of Maxwell's equations are reported. The computational approach provides reflection coefficients accurate to better than 6 parts in 10,000 over the frequency range of dc to 3 x 10 to the 16th Hz for a single 0.2-fs Gaussian pulse incident upon a Lorentz-medium half-space. New results for Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors are shown and compared with previous analyses. The present approach is robust and permits 2D and 3D electromagnetic pulse propagation directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  3. Relaxation Time of High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous water plays a fundamental role in astrophysics, cryoelectron microscopy, hydration of matter, and our understanding of anomalous liquid water properties. Yet, the characteristics of the relaxation processes taking place in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) are unknown. We here reveal that the relaxation processes in HDA at 110-135 K at 0.1-0.2 GPa are of collective and global nature, resembling the alpha relaxation in glassy material. Measured relaxation times suggest liquid-like relaxation characteristics in the vicinity of the crystallization temperature at 145 K. By carefully relaxing pressurized HDA for several hours at 135 K, we produce a state that is closer to the ideal glass state than all HDA states discussed so far in literature.

  4. Static and time-dependent solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-Yukawa fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, K.B.; Khan, M.Q.

    1977-01-01

    An exact solution of Einstein-Maxwell-Yukawa field equations has been obtained in a space-time with a static metric. A critical analysis reveals that the results previously obtained by Patel (Tensor New Sci.; 29:237 (1975)), Singh (Gen. Rel. Grav.; 6:657 (1974)), and Taub (Ann. Math.; 53:472 (1951)) are particular cases of the present solution. The singular behaviour of the solution is also discussed in this paper. Further, extending the technique developed by Janis et al (Phys. Rev.; 186:1729 (1969)), for static fields, to the case of nonstatic fields, an exact time-dependent axially symmetric solution of EMY fields has been obtained. The present solution in the nonstatic case is nonsingular in the sense of Bonnor (J. Math. Mech.; 6:203 (1957)) and presents a generalization of the results obtained by Misra (Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc.; 58:711 (1962)) to the case when a zero-mass scalar field coexists with a source free electromagnetic field. (author)

  5. Lifshitz quasinormal modes and relaxation from holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybesma, Watse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369283074; Vandoren, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830739

    2015-01-01

    We obtain relaxation times for field theories with Lifshitz scaling and with holographic duals Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity theories. This is done by computing quasinormal modes of a bulk scalar field in the presence of Lifshitz black branes. We determine the relation between relaxation time and

  6. A moving mesh method with variable relaxation time

    OpenAIRE

    Soheili, Ali Reza; Stockie, John M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a moving mesh adaptive approach for solving time-dependent partial differential equations. The motion of spatial grid points is governed by a moving mesh PDE (MMPDE) in which a mesh relaxation time \\tau is employed as a regularization parameter. Previously reported results on MMPDEs have invariably employed a constant value of the parameter \\tau. We extend this standard approach by incorporating a variable relaxation time that is calculated adaptively alongside the solution in orde...

  7. Immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann Method Using Two Relaxation Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Hayashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM using a two-relaxation time model (TRT is proposed. The collision operator in the lattice Boltzmann equation is modeled using two relaxation times. One of them is used to set the fluid viscosity and the other is for numerical stability and accuracy. A direct-forcing method is utilized for treatment of immersed boundary. A multi-direct forcing method is also implemented to precisely satisfy the boundary conditions at the immersed boundary. Circular Couette flows between a stationary cylinder and a rotating cylinder are simulated for validation of the proposed method. The method is also validated through simulations of circular and spherical falling particles. Effects of the functional forms of the direct-forcing term and the smoothed-delta function, which interpolates the fluid velocity to the immersed boundary and distributes the forcing term to fixed Eulerian grid points, are also examined. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1 the proposed method does not cause non-physical velocity distribution in circular Couette flows even at high relaxation times, whereas the single-relaxation time (SRT model causes a large non-physical velocity distortion at a high relaxation time, (2 the multi-direct forcing reduces the errors in the velocity profile of a circular Couette flow at a high relaxation time, (3 the two-point delta function is better than the four-point delta function at low relaxation times, but worse at high relaxation times, (4 the functional form of the direct-forcing term does not affect predictions, and (5 circular and spherical particles falling in liquids are well predicted by using the proposed method both for two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.

  8. Approximation of the eigenvalue problem for the time harmonic Maxwell system by continuous Lagrange finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    We propose and analyze an approximation technique for the Maxwell eigenvalue problem using H1-conforming finite elements. The key idea consists of considering a mixed method controlling the divergence of the electric field in a fractional Sobolev space H-α with α ∈ (1/2, 1). The method is shown to be convergent and spectrally correct. © 2011 American Mathematical Society.

  9. Time constant of logarithmic creep and relaxation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2001-07-15

    Full Text Available length and hardness which vary logarithmically with time. For dimensional reasons, a logarithmic variation must involve a time constant tau characteristic of the process, so that the deformation is proportional to ln(t/tau). Two distinct mechanisms...

  10. Relaxation time of acoustically disturbed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, K.S.; Abrahamyan, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The conservation time of an acoustic structure in plasma after relieving of external acoustic influence is investigated. Dependences of the conservation time on discharge parameters are presented. It is asserted that the plasma becomes an anisotropic uniaxial medium with an acoustic superlattice under the acoustic influence

  11. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V; Stapf, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Stapf, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution.

  13. Algebraic relaxation of a time correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.; Kumar, C.N.; Tankeshwar, K.

    2004-06-01

    A second order non-linear differential equation obtained from Mori's integro- differential equation is shown to transform to another form which provides algebraic decay to a time correlation function. Involved parameters in algebraic formula are related to exact properties of the corresponding correlation function. The model has been used to study a sol-gel system which is known, experimentally, to exhibit a power law decay to stress auto-correlation function. The expression obtained for the viscosity shows a logarithmic divergence at some critical value of the parameter. Some features of the model have also been tested using available information about Lennard-Jones fluids. (author)

  14. Momentum and angular momentum in the H-space of asymptotically flat, Einstein-Maxwell space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallidy, W.; Ludvigsen, M.

    1979-01-01

    New definitions are proposed for the momentum and angular momentum of Einstein-Maxwell fields that overcome the deficiencies of earlier definitions of these terms and are appropriate to the new H-space formulations of space-time. Definitions are made in terms of the Winicour-Tamburino linkages applied to the good cuts of Cj + . The transformations between good cuts then correspond to the translations and Lorentz transformations at points in H-space. For the special case of Robinson-Trautman type II space-times, it is shown that the definitions of momentum and angular momentum yield previously published results. (author)

  15. On the classical Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics, the electron inertia problem, and the Feynman proper time paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prykarpatsky, A.K.; Bogolubov, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The classical Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Lorentz-type force equations are rederived in the framework of the Feynman proper time paradigm and the related vacuum field theory approach. The classical Ampere law origin is rederived, and its relationship with the Feynman proper time paradigm is discussed. The electron inertia problem is analyzed in detail within the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and the related pressure-energy compensation principle of stochastic electrodynamics. The modified Abraham-Lorentz damping radiation force is derived and the electromagnetic electron mass origin is argued

  16. Fourier transform distribution function of relaxation times; application and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2015-01-01

    A simple Fourier transform (FT) method is presented for obtaining a Distribution Function of Relaxation Times (DFRT) for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data. By using a special data extension procedure the FT is performed over the range from -∞ ≤ lnω ≤ + ∞. The integration procedure is

  17. Influence of relaxation times on the Bloch-Siegert shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Long Van

    1981-01-01

    A new method for calculations of Bloch-Siegert shifts in resonances between excited states with the inclusion of relaxation times is given. It will be shown that in this case the definition of the resonance given by I. Bialynicka-Birula is in agreement with the criterion defining the resonance used by D.A. Andrews and G. Newton. (author)

  18. Hyperpolarized nanodiamond with long spin-relaxation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, Ewa; Gaebel, Torsten; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David E. J.; Reilly, David J.

    2015-10-01

    The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance, such as 13C-labelled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarization technique is the inherently short spin-relaxation times, typically nanodiamond can be hyperpolarized at cryogenic and room temperature without the use of free radicals, and, owing to their solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 h. Combined with the already established applications of nanodiamonds in the life sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.

  19. Nernst effect beyond the relaxation-time approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Pikulin, D. I.; Hou, Chang-Yu; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in the Nernst effect in cuprate superconductors, we calculate this magneto-thermo-electric effect for an arbitrary (anisotropic) quasiparticle dispersion relation and elastic scattering rate. The exact solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation is compared with the commonly used relaxation-time approximation. We find qualitative deficiencies of this approximation, to the extent that it can get the sign wrong of the Nernst coefficient. Ziman's improvement of the...

  20. NMR relaxation times in human brain tumors (preliminary results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, L.; Certaines, J. de; Chatel, M.; Menault, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since the early work of Damadian in 1971, proton NMR studies of tumors has been well documented. Present study concerns the spin-lattice T 1 and spin-spin T 2 relaxation times of normal dog brain according to the histological differentiation and of 35 human benignant or malignant tumors. The results principally show T 2 important variations between white and gray substance in normal brain but no discrimination between malignant and benignant tumors [fr

  1. Relativistic extension of a charge-conservative finite element solver for time-dependent Maxwell-Vlasov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, D.-Y.; Moon, H.; Omelchenko, Y. A.; Teixeira, F. L.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate modeling of relativistic particle motion is essential for physical predictions in many problems involving vacuum electronic devices, particle accelerators, and relativistic plasmas. A local, explicit, and charge-conserving finite-element time-domain (FETD) particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm for time-dependent (non-relativistic) Maxwell-Vlasov equations on irregular (unstructured) meshes was recently developed by Moon et al. [Comput. Phys. Commun. 194, 43 (2015); IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1353 (2016)]. Here, we extend this FETD-PIC algorithm to the relativistic regime by implementing and comparing three relativistic particle-pushers: (relativistic) Boris, Vay, and Higuera-Cary. We illustrate the application of the proposed relativistic FETD-PIC algorithm for the analysis of particle cyclotron motion at relativistic speeds, harmonic particle oscillation in the Lorentz-boosted frame, and relativistic Bernstein modes in magnetized charge-neutral (pair) plasmas.

  2. Instability of the time splitting scheme for the one-dimensional and relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system

    CERN Document Server

    Huot, F; Bertrand, P; Sonnendrücker, E; Coulaud, O

    2003-01-01

    The Time Splitting Scheme (TSS) has been examined within the context of the one-dimensional (1D) relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell model. In the strongly relativistic regime of the laser-plasma interaction, the TSS cannot be applied to solve the Vlasov equation. We propose a new semi-Lagrangian scheme based on a full 2D advection and study its advantages over the classical Splitting procedure. Details of the underlying integration of the Vlasov equation appear to be important in achieving accurate plasma simulations. Examples are given which are related to the relativistic modulational instability and the self-induced transparency of an ultra-intense electromagnetic pulse in the relativistic regime.

  3. Spin current relaxation time in thermally evaporated pentacene films

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Yasuo; Kondo, Takuya; Teki, Yoshio; Shikoh, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    The spin current relaxation time [tau] in thermally evaporated pentacene films was evaluated with the spin-pump-induced spin transport properties and the charge current transport properties in pentacene films. Under an assumption of a diffusive transport of the spin current in pentacene films, the zero-field mobility and the diffusion constant of holes in pentacene films were experimentally obtained to be ~8.0x10^-7 m^2/Vs and ~2.0x10^-8 m^2/s, respectively. Using those values and the previou...

  4. The effects of some parameters on the calculated 1H NMR relaxation times of cell water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivula, A.; Suominen, K.; Kiviniitty, K.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of some parameters on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times is calculated and a comparison between the calculated relaxation times with the results of different measurements is made. (M.S.)

  5. On The Flow of Maxwell Fluid Between Two Walls Induced By A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flow of a Maxwell fluid between two side walls induced by a constant accelerating plate is revisited. In the present investigation, we employed asymptotic technique by assuming small and large relaxation times λ. We proved the uniqueness of our solution based on some simplifying assumption; the result shows that λ ...

  6. The shear and bulk relaxation times from the general correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present two quantum field theoretical analyses on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we discuss how to find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times. Next, we provide results on the shear viscosity relaxation time obtained within the diagrammatic approach for the massless λϕ4 theory.

  7. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Xu Aiguo; Zhang Guangcai; Li Yingjun

    2011-01-01

    We present an energy-conserving multiple-relaxation-time finite difference lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows. The collision step is first calculated in the moment space and then mapped back to the velocity space. The moment space and corresponding transformation matrix are constructed according to the group representation theory. Equilibria of the nonconserved moments are chosen according to the need of recovering compressible Navier-Stokes equations through the Chapman-Enskog expansion. Numerical experiments showed that compressible flows with strong shocks can be well simulated by the present model. The new model works for both low and high speeds compressible flows. It contains more physical information and has better numerical stability and accuracy than its single-relaxation-time version. - Highlights: → We present an energy-conserving MRT finite-difference LB model. → The moment space is constructed according to the group representation theory. → The new model works for both low and high speeds compressible flows. → It has better numerical stability and wider applicable range than its SRT version.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and relaxation time mapping of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, Steven Donald

    2001-07-01

    The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of water in concrete is presented. This thesis will approach the problem of MR imaging of concrete by attempting to design new methods, suited to concrete materials, rather than attempting to force the material to suit the method. A number of techniques were developed, which allow the spatial observation of water in concrete in up to three dimensions, and permits the determination of space resolved moisture content, as well as local NMR relaxation times. These methods are all based on the Single-Point Imaging (SPI) method. The development of these new methods will be described, and the techniques validated using phantom studies. The study of one-dimensional moisture transport in drying concrete was performed using SPI. This work examined the effect of initial mixture proportions and hydration time on the drying behaviour of concrete, over a period of three months. Studies of drying concrete were also performed using spatial mapping of the spin-lattice (T1) and effective spin-spin (T2*) relaxation times, thereby permitting the observation of changes in the water occupied pore surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) as a function of drying. Results of this work demonstrated changes in the S/V due to drying, hydration and drying induced microcracking. Three-dimensional MRI of concrete was performed using SPRITE (Single-Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement) and turboSPI (turbo Single Point Imaging). While SPRITE allows for weighting of MR images using T 1 and T2*, turboSPI allows T2 weighting of the resulting images. Using relaxation weighting it was shown to be possible to discriminate between water contained within a hydrated cement matrix, and water in highly porous aggregates, used to produce low-density concrete. Three dimensional experiments performed using SPRITE and turboSPI examined the role of self-dessication, drying, initial aggregate saturation and initial mixture conditions on the transport of moisture between porous

  9. Ovarian chocolate cysts. Staging with relaxation time in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Tanaka, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kono, Michio

    1988-10-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 +- 91 msec for stage II, 356 +- 126 msec for stage III and 208 +- 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery.

  10. Dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times on magnetic field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Wu, Yong; Martens, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) the relaxation time of the magnetization in response to externally applied magnetic fields is determined by the Brownian and Néel relaxation mechanisms. Here the authors investigate the dependence of the relaxation times on the magnetic field strength and the implications for MPI and MPS. Methods: The Fokker–Planck equation with Brownian relaxation and the Fokker–Planck equation with Néel relaxation are solved numerically for a time-varying externally applied magnetic field, including a step-function, a sinusoidally varying, and a linearly ramped magnetic field. For magnetic fields that are applied as a step function, an eigenvalue approach is used to directly calculate both the Brownian and Néel relaxation times for a range of magnetic field strengths. For Néel relaxation, the eigenvalue calculations are compared to Brown's high-barrier approximation formula. Results: The relaxation times due to the Brownian or Néel mechanisms depend on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. In particular, the Néel relaxation time is sensitive to the magnetic field strength, and varies by many orders of magnitude for nanoparticle properties and magnetic field strengths relevant for MPI and MPS. Therefore, the well-known zero-field relaxation times underestimate the actual relaxation times and, in particular, can underestimate the Néel relaxation time by many orders of magnitude. When only Néel relaxation is present—if the particles are embedded in a solid for instance—the authors found that there can be a strong magnetization response to a sinusoidal driving field, even if the period is much less than the zero-field relaxation time. For a ferrofluid in which both Brownian and Néel relaxation are present, only one relaxation mechanism may dominate depending on the magnetic field strength, the driving frequency (or ramp time), and the phase of the magnetization relative to the

  11. Time-independent integral equation for Maxwell's system. Application of radar cross section computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujols, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    We prove that the scattering operator for the wave equation in the exterior of an non-homogeneous obstacle exists. Its distribution kernel is represented by a time-dependent boundary integral equation. A space-time integral variational formulation is developed for determining the current induced by the scattering of an electromagnetic wave by an homogeneous object. The discrete approximation of the variational problem using a finite element method in both space and time leads to stable convergent schemes, giving a numerical code for perfectly conducting cylinders. (author) [fr

  12. Gupta-Bleuler Quantization of the Maxwell Field in Globally Hyperbolic Space-Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Strohmaier, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    We give a complete framework for the Gupta-Bleuler quantization of the free electromagnetic field on globally hyperbolic space-times. We describe one-particle structures that give rise to states satisfying the microlocal spectrum condition. The field algebras in the so-called Gupta-Bleuler representations satisfy the time-slice axiom, and the corresponding vacuum states satisfy the microlocal spectrum condition. We also give an explicit construction of ground states on ultrastatic space-times. Unlike previous constructions, our method does not require a spectral gap or the absence of zero modes. The only requirement, the absence of zero-resonance states, is shown to be stable under compact perturbations of topology and metric. Usual deformation arguments based on the time-slice axiom then lead to a construction of Gupta-Bleuler representations on a large class of globally hyperbolic space-times. As usual, the field algebra is represented on an indefinite inner product space, in which the physical states form a positive semi-definite subspace. Gauge transformations are incorporated in such a way that the field can be coupled perturbatively to a Dirac field. Our approach does not require any topological restrictions on the underlying space-time.

  13. Time-dependent Bloch-Maxwell modelling of 1 mJ, 200 fs seeded soft x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitoun, Ph.; Oliva, E.; Fajardo, M.; Velarde, P.; Ros, D.; Sebban, S.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Seeding of high harmonic generation in a soft x-ray plasma amplifier has been first proposed and tested by T. Ditmire and collaborators. The experiment demonstrated low amplification (*2), with a very strong background coming from the soft x-ray laser ASE. Later seeding experiments reached very high amplification factors (up to 600) in both gas (Ph. Zeitoun et al.) and solid amplifiers (Wang et at.). Surprisingly, solid amplifiers extracted less energy (90 nJ) than gas amplifier (∼ 1 μJ) with equivalent pump energy. We recently demonstrated that 50-100 μJ is achievable with adequate plasma tailoring. However, this energy is still low as compared to the 10 mJ per pulse demonstrated on the ASE soft x-ray laser running at PALS facility (Czech Republic). In order to model the seeding process of PALS soft x-ray laser, we developed a time-dependent Bloch-Maxwell model that solves coherently the pumping, amplification and saturation processes. We demonstrated that direct seeding, with femtosecond pulse, a soft x-ray plasma amplifier having gain duration of several 100s of picosecond cannot extract the stored energy keeping the output beam energy in the 100 μJ range. We proposed and fully modelled a new seeding scheme that allows to achieve 10 mJ, 200 fs soft x-ray laser.

  14. A Compact Unconditionally Stable Method for Time-Domain Maxwell's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher order unconditionally stable methods are effective ways for simulating field behaviors of electromagnetic problems since they are free of Courant-Friedrich-Levy conditions. The development of accurate schemes with less computational expenditure is desirable. A compact fourth-order split-step unconditionally-stable finite-difference time-domain method (C4OSS-FDTD is proposed in this paper. This method is based on a four-step splitting form in time which is constructed by symmetric operator and uniform splitting. The introduction of spatial compact operator can further improve its performance. Analyses of stability and numerical dispersion are carried out. Compared with noncompact counterpart, the proposed method has reduced computational expenditure while keeping the same level of accuracy. Comparisons with other compact unconditionally-stable methods are provided. Numerical dispersion and anisotropy errors are shown to be lower than those of previous compact unconditionally-stable methods.

  15. Significance of focal relaxation times in head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inao, Suguru; Furuse, Masahiro; Saso, Katsuyoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Izawa, Akira

    1987-11-01

    Serial examinations by nuclear magnetic resonance-computed tomography were carried out in 35 head-injured patients aged 7 to 77 years. The injuries were classified as cerebral contusion (nine cases), acute epidural hematoma (eight cases), acute cerebral swelling (two cases), and chronic subdural hematoma (16 cases). The results of 92 measurements were divided into two groups: acute stage (within 3 days of injury) and chronic stage (2 weeks or longer after injury). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T/sub 1/) of brain tissue adjacent to chronic subdural hematoma were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. A Fonar QED 80-alpha system was used for magnetic resonance imaging and measurement of focal T/sub 1/. The T/sub 1/ values at the region of interest were measured 3 to 5 times by the field focusing technique (468 gauss in the focused spot), and the mean value was used for evaluation. The standard T/sub 1/ values obtained from healthy subjects were 290 +- 41 msec in the cerebral cortex and 230 +- 34 msec in the white matter. Prolongation of T/sub 1/ in perifocal brain gradually shortened over time and normalized in the chronic stage. The degree of contusional edema may have been reflected in alterations in T/sub 1/. In contrast, parenchymal injury resulted in a progressive T/sub 1/ elevation, which far exceeded 500 msec in the chronic stage. Such time courses of T/sub 1/ may indicate irreversible tissue damage. There were no noticeable changes in tissue T/sub 1/ over time in patients with acute diffuse cerebral swelling or those who underwent evacuation of acute epidural or chronic subdural hematomas. The underlying pathophysiology in such situations seems to be not brain edema but cerebral hyperemia. In the presence of ischemia, the T/sub 1/ value was prolonged in the early stage, reflecting progression of is chemic edema. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Hydrogen-1 NMR relaxation time studies in membrane: anesthetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, L.M.A.; Fraceto, L.; Paula, E. de; Franzoni, L.; Spisni, A.

    1997-01-01

    The study of local anesthetics'(LA) interaction with model phospholipid membranes is justified by the direct correlation between anesthetic's hydrophobicity and its potency/toxicity. By the same reason, uncharged LA species seems to play a crucial role in anesthesia. Most clinically used LA are small amphiphilics with a protonated amine group (pKa around 8). Although both charged (protonated) and uncharged forms can coexist at physiological pH, it has been shown (Lee, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 514:95, 1978; Screier et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 769:231, 1984) that the real anesthetic pka can be down-shifted, due to differential partition into membranes, increasing the ratio of uncharged species at pH 7.4. We have measured 1 H-NMR longitudinal relaxation times (T 1 ) for phospholipid and three local anesthetics (tetracaine, lidocaine, benzocaine), in sonicated vesicles at a 3:1 molar ratio. All the LA protons have shown smaller T 1 in this system than in isotropic phases, reflecting LA immobilization caused by insertion in the membrane. T 1 values for the lipid protons in the presence of LA were analyzed, in an attempt to identify specific LA:lipid contact regions. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic scaling of α-relaxation time and viscosity stems from the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the coupling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K L; Habasaki, J; Prevosto, D; Capaccioli, S; Paluch, Marian

    2012-07-21

    By now it is well established that the structural α-relaxation time, τ(α), of non-associated small molecular and polymeric glass-formers obey thermodynamic scaling. In other words, τ(α) is a function Φ of the product variable, ρ(γ)/T, where ρ is the density and T the temperature. The constant γ as well as the function, τ(α) = Φ(ρ(γ)/T), is material dependent. Actually this dependence of τ(α) on ρ(γ)/T originates from the dependence on the same product variable of the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation time, τ(β), or the primitive relaxation time, τ(0), of the coupling model. To support this assertion, we give evidences from various sources itemized as follows. (1) The invariance of the relation between τ(α) and τ(β) or τ(0) to widely different combinations of pressure and temperature. (2) Experimental dielectric and viscosity data of glass-forming van der Waals liquids and polymer. (3) Molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, the Lewis-Wahnström model of ortho-terphenyl, 1,4 polybutadiene, a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, and a molten salt 2Ca(NO(3))(2)·3KNO(3) (CKN). (4) Both diffusivity and structural relaxation time, as well as the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in CKN obey thermodynamic scaling by ρ(γ)/T with the same γ. (5) In polymers, the chain normal mode relaxation time, τ(N), is another function of ρ(γ)/T with the same γ as segmental relaxation time τ(α). (6) While the data of τ(α) from simulations for the full LJ binary mixture obey very well the thermodynamic scaling, it is strongly violated when the LJ interaction potential is truncated beyond typical inter-particle distance, although in both cases the repulsive pair potentials coincide for some distances.

  18. T2 relaxation time is related to liver fibrosis severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Luiz; Uppal, Ritika; Alford, Jamu; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Yamada, Suguru; Tanabe, Kenneth; Chung, Raymond T.; Lauwers, Gregory; Chew, Michael L.; Boland, Giles W.; Sahani, Duhyant V.; Vangel, Mark; Hahn, Peter F.; Caravan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The grading of liver fibrosis relies on liver biopsy. Imaging techniques, including elastography and relaxometric, techniques have had varying success in diagnosing moderate fibrosis. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the T2-relaxation time of hepatic parenchyma and the histologic grade of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C undergoing both routine, liver MRI and liver biopsy, and to validate our methodology with phantoms and in a rat model of liver fibrosis. Methods This study is composed of three parts: (I) 123 patients who underwent both routine, clinical liver MRI and biopsy within a 6-month period, between July 1999 and January 2010 were enrolled in a retrospective study. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T using dual-echo turbo-spin echo equivalent pulse sequence. T2 relaxation time of liver parenchyma in patients was calculated by mono-exponential fit of a region of interest (ROI) within the right lobe correlating to histopathologic grading (Ishak 0–6) and routine serum liver inflammation [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)]. Statistical comparison was performed using ordinary logistic and ordinal logistic regression and ANOVA comparing T2 to Ishak fibrosis without and using AST and ALT as covariates; (II) a phantom was prepared using serial dilutions of dextran coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. T2 weighed imaging was performed by comparing a dual echo fast spin echo sequence to a Carr-Purcell-Meigboom-Gill (CPMG) multi-echo sequence at 1.5 T. Statistical comparison was performed using a paired t-test; (III) male Wistar rats receiving weekly intraperitoneal injections of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) control (n=4 rats); diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for either 5 (n=5 rats) or 8 weeks (n=4 rats) were MR imaged on a Bruker Pharmascan 4.7 T magnet with a home-built bird-cage coil. T2 was quantified by using a mono-exponential fitting algorithm on multi-slice multi

  19. Spin-lattice relaxation times and knight shift in InSb and InAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Grande, S.

    1976-01-01

    For a dominant contact interaction between nuclei and conduction electrons the relaxation rate is deduced. The extreme cases of degenerate and non-degenerate semiconductors are separately discussed. At strong degeneracy the product of the Knight shift and relaxation time gives the Korringa relation for metals. Measurements of the NMR spin-lattice relaxation times of 115 InSb and 115 InAs were made between 4.2 and 300 K for strongly degenerated samples. The different relaxation mechanisms are discussed and the experimental and theoretical results are compared. (author)

  20. Investigation of the proteins relaxation time in human blood serum; Badania relaksacyjne bialek surowicy krwi II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blicharska, B.; Klauza, M. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the results of human blood serum proteins relaxation time measurements by means of NMR method are presented. The measurements have been done for three samples of human blood: i/laudably ii/leukemia iii/granulomas. The dependences of the relaxation time on the temperature are also presented. 3 refs, 4 figs.

  1. Time dependence of volcano inflation: mass influx or viscoelastic relaxation? Insights from Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Distinguishing magma chamber pressurization from relaxation of a viscoelastic aureole surrounding the chamber based on geodetic measurements has remained challenging. Elastic models with mass inflow proportional to the pressure difference between the chamber and a deep reservoir predict exponentially decaying flux. For a spherical chamber surrounded by a Maxwell viscoelastic shell with pressure dependent recharge, the surface deformation is the sum of two exponentials (Segall, 2016). GPS displacements following eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland in 2004 and 2011 exhibit rapid post-eruptive inflation (time scale of 0.1 yr), followed by inflation with a much longer time constant. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion with the viscoelastic model shows the GPS time series can be fit with viscosity of 2e16 Pa-s, and a relatively incompressible magma, B = beta_c/ (beta_m + beta_c) > 0.6, where beta_m and beta_c are chamber and magma compressibility. The latter appears to conflict with the ratio of erupted volume to geodetically inferred source volume change, rv 10, obtained for the best fitting spherical (Mogi ) source (Hreinsdóttir, 2014). Since rv = 1/B, this implies a relatively compressible melt, B 0.1. Reexamination of the co-eruptive GPS and tilt data with the more general ellipsoidal model of Cervelli (2013), reveals that the best fitting sources are oblate (b/a 3), deeper, and with larger volume changes, rv 3, relative to spherical models. Oblate magma chambers are consistent with seismic tomography. FEM calculations including free surface effects lead to even larger co-eruptive volume changes, smaller rv and hence larger B. I conclude that the data are consistent with rapid post-eruptive inflation driven by viscoelastic relaxation with a relatively incompressible magma, although other interpretations will be discussed.

  2. Dark and bright solitons for the two-dimensional complex modified Korteweg-de Vries and Maxwell-Bloch system with time-dependent coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhova, G.; Ozat, N.; Yesmakhanova, K.; Bekova, G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present Lax pair for two-dimensional complex modified Korteweg-de Vries and Maxwell-Bloch (cmKdV-MB) system with the time-dependent coefficient. Dark and bright soliton solutions for the cmKdV-MB system with variable coefficient are received by Darboux transformation. Moreover, the determinant representation of the one-fold and two-fold Darboux transformation for the cmKdV-MB system with time-dependent coefficient is presented.

  3. A fractional model with parallel fractional Maxwell elements for amorphous thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dong; Liang, Yingjie; Xiao, Rui

    2018-01-01

    We develop a fractional model to describe the thermomechanical behavior of amorphous thermoplastics. The fractional model is composed of two parallel fractional Maxwell elements. The first fractional Maxwell model is used to describe the glass transition, while the second component is aimed at describing the viscous flow. We further derive the analytical solutions for the stress relaxation modulus and complex modulus through Laplace transform. We then demonstrate the model is able to describe the master curves of the stress relaxation modulus, storage modulus and loss modulus, which all show two distinct transition regions. The obtained parameters show that the modulus of the two fractional Maxwell elements differs in 2-3 orders of magnitude, while the relaxation time differs in 7-9 orders of magnitude. Finally, we apply the model to describe the stress response of constant strain rate tests. The model, together with the parameters obtained from fitting the master curve of stress relaxation modulus, can accurately predict the temperature and strain rate dependent stress response.

  4. The relaxation time of processes in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ailing; Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relaxation time (RT) of the steady-state correlation function in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system under the presence of multiplicative and additive white noises and time delay. The noise correlation parameter λ can produce a critical behavior in the RT as functions of the multiplicative noise intensity D, the additive noise intensity Q and the time delay τ. That is, the RT decreases as the noise intensities D and Q increase, and increases as the time delay τ increases below the critical value of λ. However, above the critical value, the RT first increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases as D, Q and τ increase, i.e. a noise intensity D or Q and a time delay τ exist, at which the time scales of the relaxation process are at their largest. In addition, the additive noise intensity Q can also produce a critical behavior in the RT as a function of λ. The noise correlation parameter λ first increases the RT of processes, then decreases it below the critical value of Q. Above the critical value, λ increases it.

  5. Giant deviation of a relaxation time from generalized Newtonian theory in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. We performed two types of relaxation experiments starting from a steady shear in a parallel-plate rheometer, followed either by stopping the top plate rotation and measuring the transient torque relaxation or by removing the torque on the plate and measuring the transient rotation of the tool. We found that at low effective weight fraction ϕeffmodel. The regime where the relaxation was inconsistent with the generalized Newtonian model was the same where we found positive normal stress during relaxation, and in some cases we found an oscillatory response, suggestive of a solidlike structure consisting of a system-spanning contact network of particles. This regime also corresponds to the same packing fraction range where we consistently found discontinuous shear thickening in rate-controlled, steady-state measurements. The relaxation time in this range scales with the inverse of the critical shear rate at the onset of shear thickening, which may correspond to a contact relaxation time for nearby particles in the structure to flow away from each other. In this range, the relaxation time was the same in both stress- and rate-controlled relaxation experiments, indicating the relaxation time is more intrinsic than an effective viscosity in this range and is needed in addition to the steady-state viscosity function to describe transient flows. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the generalized Newtonian prediction was found to be as large as four orders of magnitude, and extrapolations diverge in the limit as ϕeff→ϕc as the generalized Newtonian prediction approaches 0. This quantitative discrepancy indicates the relaxation is not controlled by the dissipative terms in the constitutive relation. At the highest weight fractions, the relaxation time scales were measured to be on the order of ˜1 s. The fact that this time scale is

  6. Maxwell Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    most effective style of leadership. (Courtesy Photo, Air University Press) Air University Press Directory Maxwell Links Welcome Leadership Joint Land Use Study Heritage Pamphlet Maxwell Driving Tour (No releases 'A Discourse on Winning and Losing' "Developing Your Full Range of Leadership" focuses

  7. The influence of measurement and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaobin; Zhou Youhe; Tu Shandong

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the magnetization and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors (HTSC) under varying magnetic field is studied using the fundamental electromagnetic field equations and the thermal diffusion equation; temperature variety corresponding to flux jump is also discussed. We find that for a low sweep rate of the applied magnetic field, the measurement and relaxation times can reduce flux jump and to constrain the number of flux jumps, even stabilizing the HTSC, since much heat produced by the motion of magnetic flux can transfer into coolant during the measurement and relaxation times. As high temperature superconductors are subjected to a high sweep rate or a strong pulsed magnetic field, magnetization undergoes from stability or oscillation to jump for different pause times. And the period of temperature oscillation is equal to the measurement and relaxation time.

  8. Isotope effect on hydrated electron relaxation dynamics studied with time-resolved liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2016-05-01

    The excited state relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron in H2O and D2O are investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy in a liquid microjet. The data show that the initial excited state decays on a time scale of 75 ± 12 fs in H2O and 102 ± 8 fs in D2O, followed by slower relaxation on time scales of 400 ± 70 fs and 390 ± 70 fs that are isotopically invariant within the precision of our measurements. Based on the time evolution of the transient signals, the faster and slower time constants are assigned to p → s internal conversion (IC) of the hydrated electron and relaxation on the ground electronic state, respectively. This assignment is consistent with the non-adiabatic mechanism for relaxation of the hydrated electron and yields an isotope effect of 1.4 ± 0.2 for IC of the hydrated electron.

  9. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  10. Quantifying NMR relaxation correlation and exchange in articular cartilage with time domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhiot, Sarah E.; Zong, Fangrong; Maneval, James E.; June, Ronald K.; Galvosas, Petrik; Seymour, Joseph D.

    2018-02-01

    Measured nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation data in articular cartilage has been shown to be multi-exponential and correlated to the health of the tissue. The observed relaxation rates are dependent on experimental parameters such as solvent, data acquisition methods, data analysis methods, and alignment to the magnetic field. In this study, we show that diffusive exchange occurs in porcine articular cartilage and impacts the observed relaxation rates in T1-T2 correlation experiments. By using time domain analysis of T2-T2 exchange spectroscopy, the diffusive exchange time can be quantified by measurements that use a single mixing time. Measured characteristic times for exchange are commensurate with T1 in this material and so impacts the observed T1 behavior. The approach used here allows for reliable quantification of NMR relaxation behavior in cartilage in the presence of diffusive fluid exchange between two environments.

  11. T2 relaxation times of irradiated vertebral bone marrow in patients with seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A; Maris, T; Vlahos, L

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to demonstrate the effects of localized radiotherapy on lumbar vertebral bone marrow with the use of quantitative MRI with measurements of T2 relaxation times. Ten patients with early stage testicular seminoma with a history of radiation therapy to a "dog-leg" field including the lumbar vertebrae underwent MR imaging of their lumbar spine using a 0.5 Tesla magnet. Five healthy subjects and two nonirradiated patients were imaged as well. The intervals from the beginning of radiotherapy to MRI examination varied from 1.5 to 52 months, and the radiation dose ranged from 3000-4200 cGy. The T2 relaxation times of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow and subcutaneous fat were calculated for each subject. Postirradiation bone marrow in irradiated seminoma patients exhibited significantly longer T2 relaxation times than nonirradiated bone marrow in controls (71.1 vs. 63.6 ms, p = 0.047, t-test). The differences between the T2 relaxation times of bone marrow and subcutaneous fat for each subject allowed for even better differentiation between irradiated patients and controls (10.4 vs. 0.4 ms, p = 0.0004, t-test). Postirradiation bone marrow had significantly longer T2 relaxation times than subcutaneous fat in irradiated patients (N = 10, 71.1 vs. 60.7 ms, p = 0.00009, t-test), while nonirradiated bone marrow had T2 relaxation times not statistically different from subcutaneous fat in nonirradiated subjects (N = 7, 63.6 vs. 63.2 ms). Measurements of T2 relaxation times of bone marrow enabled us to differentiate between irradiated seminoma patients and controls. Postirradiation bone marrow undergoes late radiation effects resulting in longer T2 relaxation times than nonirradiated bone marrow and subcutaneous fat.

  12. Thermal relaxation time of a mixture of relativistic electrons and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.A.; Hacyan, S.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a relativistic binary mixture is studied by means of a fully covariant formalism. Assuming both components to differ slightly in temperature, an application of the relativistic Boltzmann equation yields general expressions for the energy transfer rate and for the relaxation time of the system. The resulting relation is then applied to a mixture of relativistic electrons and neutrinos to obtain numerical values of its relaxation time. (author)

  13. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time in mixed alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannus, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using magneto-optic techniques the ground state spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of 'F' centers in mixed Alkali Halide cristals (KCl-KBr), was studied. A computer assisted system to optically measure short relaxation times (approx. = 1mS), was described. The technique is based on the measurement of the Magnetic Circular Dicroism (MCD) presented by F centers. The T1 magnetic field dependency at 2 K (up to 65 KGauss), was obtained as well as the MCD spectra for different relative concentration at the mixed matrices. The theory developed by Panepucci and Mollenauer for F centers spin-lattice relaxation in pure matrices was modified to explain the behaviour of T1 in mixed cristals. The Direct Process results (T approx. = 2.0 K) compared against that theory shows that the main relaxation mecanism, up to 25 KGauss, continues to be phonon modulation of the hiperfine iteraction between F electrons and surrounding nuclei. (Author) [pt

  14. Real-time relaxation and kinetics in hot scalar QED: Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de; Holman, R.; Kumar, S.P.; Pisarski, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The real time evolution of non-equilibrium expectation values with soft length scales ∼k -1 >(eT) -1 is solved in hot scalar electrodynamics, with a view towards understanding relaxational phenomena in the QGP and the electroweak plasma. We find that the gauge invariant non-equilibrium expectation values relax via power laws to asymptotic amplitudes that are determined by the quasiparticle poles. The long time relaxational dynamics and relevant time scales are determined by the behavior of the retarded self-energy not at the small frequencies, but at the Landau damping thresholds. This explains the presence of power laws and not of exponential decay. In the process we rederive the HTL effective action using non-equilibrium field theory. Furthermore we obtain the influence functional, the Langevin equation and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the soft modes, identifying the correlators that emerge in the classical limit. We show that a Markovian approximation fails to describe the dynamics both at short and long times. We find that the distribution function for soft quasiparticles relaxes with a power law through Landau damping. We also introduce a novel kinetic approach that goes beyond the standard Boltzmann equation by incorporating off-shell processes and find that the distribution function for soft quasiparticles relaxes with a power law through Landau damping. We find an unusual dressing dynamics of bare particles and anomalous (logarithmic) relaxation of hard quasiparticles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Attractors of relaxation discrete-time systems with chaotic dynamics on a fast time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikov, Oleg V.; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new type of relaxation systems is considered. Their prominent feature is that they comprise two distinct epochs, one is slow regular motion and another is fast chaotic motion. Unlike traditionally studied slow-fast systems that have smooth manifolds of slow motions in the phase space and fast trajectories between them, in this new type one observes, apart the same geometric objects, areas of transient chaos. Alternating periods of slow regular motions and fast chaotic ones as well as transitions between them result in a specific chaotic attractor with chaos on a fast time scale. We formulate basic properties of such attractors in the framework of discrete-time systems and consider several examples. Finally, we provide an important application of such systems, the neuronal electrical activity in the form of chaotic spike-burst oscillations.

  16. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.

    2016-07-01

    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  17. Hybrid Vlasov–Fokker–Planck–Maxwell simulations of fast electron transport and the time dependance of K-shell excitation in a mid-Z metallic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A G R; Sherlock, M; Ridgers, C P; Kuranz, C; Drake, R P

    2013-01-01

    Using a hybrid Vlasov–Fokker–Planck–Maxwell code coupled to calculations using a modified relativistic binary-encounter Bethe model of ionizing collisions we study the time and space dependence of K α photon generation by a fast electron beam injected into a solid density copper plasma target. The electron beam is chosen to be representative of that expected to be generated by a picosecond duration, ∼10 19 W cm −2 intensity laser. K α photons are produced as electrons reflux laterally across the target and are slowed and thermalized by collisions with, and Ohmic heating of, the background fluid over a ∼10 ps timescale, which dictates the timescale for K α emission. The results show reasonable agreement with recent experimental results in terms of both the yield and time dependance. We show how lateral expansion of the electrons can be imaged in the K α radiation. (paper)

  18. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  19. Time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in nanostructured copper: Stress relaxation tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Guo-Yong; Zhai, Hui-Ru; Dai, L.H.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, stress relaxation tests, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted on coarse-grained (cg), nanograined (ng), and nanotwinned (nt) copper at temperatures of 22 °C (RT), 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, and 75 °C. The comprehensive investigations provide sufficient information for the building-up of a formula to describe the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation and clarify the relationship among the strain rate sensitivity parameter, stress exponent, and activation volume. The typically experimental curves of logarithmic plastic strain rate versus stress exhibited a three staged relaxation process from a linear high stress relaxation region to a subsequent nonlinear stress relaxation region and finally to a linear low stress relaxation region, which only showed-up at the test temperatures higher than 22 °C, 22 °C, and 30 °C, respectively, in the tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens. The values of stress exponent, stress-independent activation energy, and activation volume were determined from the experimental data in the two linear regions. The determined activation parameters, HRTEM images, and MD simulations consistently suggest that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation is predominant in all tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens in the initial linear high stress relaxation region at the five relaxation temperatures, whereas in the linear low stress relaxation region, the grain boundary (GB) diffusion-associated deformation is dominant in the ng- and cg-Cu specimens, while twin boundary (TB) migration, i.e., twinning and detwinning with parallel partial dislocations, governs the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in the nt-Cu specimens.

  20. Space and time dynamical heterogeneity in glassy relaxation. The role of democratic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appignanesi, G A; Rodriguez Fris, J A

    2009-01-01

    In this work we review recent computational advances in the understanding of the relaxation dynamics of supercooled glass-forming liquids. In such a supercooled regime these systems experience a striking dynamical slowing down which can be rationalized in terms of the picture of dynamical heterogeneities, wherein the dynamics can vary by orders of magnitude from one region of the sample to another and where the sizes and timescales of such slowly relaxing regions are expected to increase considerably as the temperature is decreased. We shall focus on the relaxation events at a microscopic level and describe the finding of the collective motions of particles responsible for the dynamical heterogeneities. In so doing, we shall demonstrate that the dynamics in different regions of the system is not only heterogeneous in space but also in time. In particular, we shall be interested in the events relevant to the long-time structural relaxation or α relaxation. In this regard, we shall focus on the discovery of cooperatively relaxing units involving the collective motion of relatively compact clusters of particles, called 'democratic clusters' or d-clusters. These events have been shown to trigger transitions between metabasins of the potential energy landscape (collections of similar configurations or structures) and to consist of the main steps in the α relaxation. Such events emerge in systems quite different in nature such as simple model glass formers and supercooled amorphous water. Additionally, another relevant issue in this context consists in the determination of a link between structure and dynamics. In this context, we describe the relationship between the d-cluster events and the constraints that the local structure poses on the relaxation dynamics, thus revealing their role in reformulating structural constraints. (topical review)

  1. Correlation of carrier localization with relaxation time distribution and electrical conductivity relaxation in silver-nanoparticle-embedded moderately doped polypyrrole nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2014-02-01

    The electrical conductivity relaxation in moderately doped polypyrrole and its nanocomposites reinforced with different proportion of silver nanoparticles was investigated in both frequency and time domain. An analytical distribution function of relaxation times is constructed from the results obtained in the frequency domain formalism and is used to evaluate the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type decay function in the time domain. The thermal evolution of different relaxation parameters was analyzed. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity, estimated from the average conductivity relaxation time is observed to depend strongly on the nanoparticle loading and follows Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The extent of charge carrier localization calculated from the VRH mechanism is well correlated to the evidences obtained from the structural characterizations of different nanostructured samples.

  2. Time Resolved Broadband Terahertz Relaxation Dynamics of Electron in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David G.

    We investigated the transient response of the solvated electron in water ejected by photodetachment from potassium ferrocyanide using time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TSTS). Ultrabroadband THz transients are generated and detected by a two-color femtosecond-induced air plasma and air biased...

  3. Only through perturbation can relaxation times be estimated

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditlevsen, S.; Lánský, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 5 (2012), 050102-5 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0282; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : stochastic diffusion * parameter estimation * time constant Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.313, year: 2012

  4. Incorporation of exact boundary conditions into a discontinuous galerkin finite element method for accurately solving 2d time-dependent maxwell equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2013-01-01

    A scheme that discretizes exact absorbing boundary conditions (EACs) to incorporate them into a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (TD-DG-FEM) is described. The proposed TD-DG-FEM with EACs is used for accurately characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on two-dimensional waveguides. Numerical results demonstrate the proposed method\\'s superiority over the TD-DG-FEM that employs approximate boundary conditions and perfectly matched layers. Additionally, it is shown that the proposed method can produce the solution with ten-eleven digit accuracy when high-order spatial basis functions are used to discretize the Maxwell equations as well as the EACs. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  5. Dielectric relaxation and hydrogen bonding interaction in xylitol-water mixtures using time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rander, D. N.; Joshi, Y. S.; Kanse, K. S.; Kumbharkhane, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The measurements of complex dielectric permittivity of xylitol-water mixtures have been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz-30 GHz using a time domain reflectometry technique. Measurements have been done at six temperatures from 0 to 25 °C and at different weight fractions of xylitol (0 xylitol-water can be well described by Cole-Davidson model having an asymmetric distribution of relaxation times. The dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant and relaxation time for the mixtures have been evaluated. The molecular interaction between xylitol and water molecules is discussed using the Kirkwood correlation factor ( g eff ) and thermodynamic parameter.

  6. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Daedzinski, Bernard J. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kim, Dong Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component.

  7. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal; Daedzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component

  8. Spin-relaxation time in the impurity band of wurtzite semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborenea, Pablo I.; Wellens, Thomas; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A.

    2017-09-01

    The spin-relaxation time for electrons in the impurity band of semiconductors with wurtzite crystal structure is determined. The effective Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian is taken as the source of the spin relaxation at low temperature and for doping densities corresponding to the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition. The spin-flip hopping matrix elements between impurity states are calculated and used to set up a tight-binding Hamiltonian that incorporates the symmetries of wurtzite semiconductors. The spin-relaxation time is obtained from a semiclassical model of spin diffusion, as well as from a microscopic self-consistent diagrammatic theory of spin and charge diffusion in doped semiconductors. Estimates are provided for particularly important materials. The theoretical spin-relaxation times compare favorably with the corresponding low-temperature measurements in GaN and ZnO. For InN and AlN we predict that tuning of the spin-orbit coupling constant induced by an external potential leads to a potentially dramatic increase of the spin-relaxation time related to the mechanism under study.

  9. Real-time observation of cascaded electronic relaxation processes in p-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiaoli; Deng, Xulan; Long, Jinyou; Wang, Yanmei; Abulimiti, Bumaliya; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Ultrafast electronic relaxation processes following two photoexcitation of 400 nm in p-Fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated utilizing time-resolved photoelectron imaging coupled with time-resolved mass spectroscopy. Cascaded electronic relaxation processes started from the electronically excited S2 state are directly imaged in real time and well characterized by two distinct time constants of 85 ± 10 fs and 2.4 ± 0.3 ps. The rapid component corresponds to the lifetime of the initially excited S2 state, including the structure relaxation from the Franck-Condon region to the conical intersection of S2/S1 and the subsequent internal conversion to the highly excited S1 state. While, the slower relaxation constant is attributed to the further internal conversion to the high levels of S0 from the secondarily populated S1 locating in the channel three region. Moreover, dynamical differences with benzene and toluene of analogous structures, including, specifically, the slightly slower relaxation rate of S2 and the evidently faster decay of S1, are also presented and tentatively interpreted as the substituent effects. In addition, photoelectron kinetic energy and angular distributions reveal the feature of accidental resonances with low-lying Rydberg states (the 3p, 4s and 4p states) during the multi-photon ionization process, providing totally unexpected but very interesting information for pFT.

  10. Chemical exchange effects during refocusing pulses in constant-time CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint, Wazo; Ishima, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    In the analysis of the constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CT-CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiment, chemical exchange parameters, such as rate of exchange and population of the exchanging species, are typically optimized using equations that predict experimental relaxation rates recorded as a function of effective field strength. In this process, the effect of chemical exchange during the CPMG pulses is typically assumed to be the same as during the free-precession. This approximation may introduce systematic errors into the analysis of data because the number of CPMG pulses is incremented during the constant-time relaxation period, and the total pulse duration therefore varies as a function of the effective field strength. In order to estimate the size of such errors, we simulate the time-dependence of magnetization during the entire constant time period, explicitly taking into account the effect of the CPMG pulses on the spin relaxation rate. We show that in general the difference in the relaxation dispersion profile calculated using a practical pulse width from that calculated using an extremely short pulse width is small, but under certain circumstances can exceed 1 s -1 . The difference increases significantly when CPMG pulses are miscalibrated

  11. Photoacoustic Determination of Non-radiative Relaxation Time of Absorbing Centers in Maize Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2017-07-01

    Using non-destructive photothermal techniques, it is possible to characterize non-homogenous materials to obtain its optical and thermal properties through photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). In photoacoustic (PA) phenomena, there are transient states of thermal excitation, when samples absorb the incident light; these states manifest an excitation process that generates the PA signal, being in direct relation with the non-radiative relaxation times with the sample absorbent centers. The objective of this study was to determine the non-radiative relaxation times associated with different absorbent centers of corn seeds ( Zea mays L.), by using PAS. A frequency scan was done at different wavelengths (350 nm, 470 nm and 650 nm) in order to obtain the non-radiative relaxation times with different types of maize seeds.

  12. The time-dependence of exchange-induced relaxation during modulated radio frequency pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Dennis J; Michaeli, Shalom; Garwood, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The problem of the relaxation of identical spins 1/2 induced by chemical exchange between spins with different chemical shifts in the presence of time-dependent RF irradiation (in the first rotating frame) is considered for the fast exchange regime. The solution for the time evolution under the chemical exchange Hamiltonian in the tilted doubly rotating frame (TDRF) is presented. Detailed derivation is specified to the case of a two-site chemical exchange system with complete randomization between jumps of the exchanging spins. The derived theory can be applied to describe the modulation of the chemical exchange relaxation rate constants when using a train of adiabatic pulses, such as the hyperbolic secant pulse. Theory presented is valid for quantification of the exchange-induced time-dependent rotating frame longitudinal T1rho,ex and transverse T2rho,ex relaxations in the fast chemical exchange regime.

  13. Energy-level statistics and time relaxation in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruver, J.L.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Aliaga, J.; Mello, P.A.; Proto, A.N.

    1997-05-01

    We study a quantum-mechanical system, prepared, at t = 0, in a model state, that subsequently decays into a sea of other states whose energy levels form a discrete spectrum with given statistical properties. An important quantity is the survival probability P(t), defined as the probability, at time t, to find the system in the original model state. Our main purpose is to analyze the influence of the discreteness and statistical properties of the spectrum on the behavior of P(t). Since P(t) itself is a statistical quantity, we restrict our attention to its ensemble average , which is calculated analytically using random-matrix techniques, within certain approximations discussed in the text. We find, for , an exponential decay, followed by a revival, governed by the two-point structure of the statistical spectrum, thus giving a nonzero asymptotic value for large t's. The analytic result compares well with a number of computer simulations, over a time range discussed in the text. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig

  14. Observation of relaxation on time scale of core hole decay by coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    It is shown by a many-body theory that when the relaxation time of a metastable core hole state(s) to the most stable one is comparable to or shorter than core hole decay time of the former state(s), a comparison between the singles (noncoincidence) photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) spectrum and the coincidence one provides a direct evidence of the relaxation. In principle the variation with photoelectron kinetic energy of relaxation (or charge transfer (CT)) time can be determined. By singles measurement the correlation of a photoelectron generated by creation of the metastable states not only with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the same core hole state but also with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the stable state via relaxation of the metastable state, is completely lost, unless only the metastable state is observed by PES, whereas the correlation often manifests directly in the coincidence spectra. Thus, compared to the coincidence spectroscopy the singles one is often much less capable of elucidating the competition between relaxation and core hole decay of a metastable state. Such examples are discussed

  15. On-chip Brownian relaxation measurements of magnetic nanobeads in the time domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    the time and frequency domain methods on Brownian relaxation detection of clustering of streptavidin coated magnetic beads in the presence of different concentrations of biotin-conjugated bovine serum albumin and obtain comparable results. In the time domain, a measurement is carried out in less than 30 s...

  16. Deconvolution analysis to determine relaxation time spectra of internal friction peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new method for analysis of an internal friction vs temperature peak to obtain an approximation of the spectrum of relaxation time responsible for the peak is described. This method, referred to as direct spectrum analysis (DSA), is shown to provide an accurate estimate of the distribution of relaxation times. The method is validated for various spectra, and it is shown that: (1) It provides approximations to known input spectra which replicate the position, amplitude, width and shape with good accuracy (typically 10%). (2) It does not yield approximations which have false spectral peaks

  17. Relaxation time measurements of white and grey matter in multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Appel, B.; Moens, E.; Academisch Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp

    1987-01-01

    In a patient population of some 450 with definite, probable, and possible multiple sclerosis referred to us for MRI, some 40 suffering from definite MS were chosen randomly for relaxation time measurements of plaque-free grey and white matter. T 1 values could not be used for diagnostic purposes owing to their broad standard deviation. Overall white matter T 2 was slightly higher in MS patients than in a non-MS population (94 ms versus 89 ms). Because these changes are not visible in MR images, relaxation time measurements may prove valuable for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  18. Menstrual variation of breast volume and T2 relaxation times in cyclical mastalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Zainab; Brooks, Jonathan; Percy, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Hormonal activity causes breast volume to change during the menstrual cycle. One possible cause of this volume change is thought to be due to water retention or oedema within the tissues. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the variation in breast volume and 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to measure T 2 relaxation times which are known to increase with increasing tissue water content. We hypothesised that an increase in breast volume will elevate T 2 relaxation due to the presence of an increased water content within the breast. T 2 Relaxation time and volume were studied in fifteen control subjects and in a cohort of eight patients with cyclical mastalgia in order to determine whether changes in breast volume and T 2 relaxation times differed in controls and patients during menses, ovulation and premenses. Method: Breast volume was determined by the Cavalieri method in combination with point counting techniques on MR images and T 2 relaxation times of the water and fat in a voxel of breast tissue were obtained using 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Results: Statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated highly significant differences in breast volume between the three stages of the cycle (p 2 of fat or water did not depend on stage of cycle. T-tests demonstrated no significant differences in T 2 of water or fat between patient and control groups. The average T 2 relaxation time of water was lowest in the patient and control groups during ovulation and highest in the patient group during premenses. Conclusion: We have performed the first combined volumetric and spectroscopic study of women with cyclical mastalgia and demonstrated that the global changes in volumes and T 2 were not significantly different from normal menstrual variations

  19. The effects of bone on proton NMR relaxation times of surrounding liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. A.; Genant, H. K.; Dunham, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary attempts by our group at UCSF to assess fat content of vertebral marrow in the lumbar spine using relaxation time information demonstrated that the presence of trabecular bone affects relaxation times. The objective of this work was a thorough study of the effects of bone on NMR relaxation characteristics of surrounding liquids. Trabecular bone from autopsy specimens was ground up and sifted into a series of powders with graded densities ranging from 0.3 gm/cc to 0.8 gm/cc. Each powder was placed first in n-saline and then in cottonseed oil. With spectroscopy, spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and effective spin-spin relaxation times (T2*) were measured for each liquid in each bone powder. As bone density and surface to volume ratio increased, T1 decreased faster for saline than for oil. T2* decreased significantly for both water and oil as the surface to volume ratio increased. It was concluded that effects of water on T1 could be explained by a surface interaction at the bone/liquid interface, which restricted rotational and translational motion of nearby molecules. The T1s of oil were not affected since oil molecules are nonpolar, do not participate in significant intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and therefore would not be expected to interact strongly with the bone surface. Effects on T2* could be explained by local magnetic field inhomogeneities created by discontinuous magnetic susceptibility near the bone surface. These preliminary results suggest that water in contact with trabecular bone in vivo will exhibit shortened relaxation times.

  20. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  1. Large lateral photovoltaic effect with ultrafast relaxation time in SnSe/Si junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianjie; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Chang; Zhang, Yang; Song, Bingqian; Zhang, Lingli; Liu, Weilong; Lv, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Sui, Yu, E-mail: suiyu@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Jinke [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States); Song, Bo, E-mail: songbo@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, we report a large lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) with ultrafast relaxation time in SnSe/p-Si junctions. The LPE shows a linear dependence on the position of the laser spot, and the position sensitivity is as high as 250 mV mm{sup −1}. The optical response time and the relaxation time of the LPE are about 100 ns and 2 μs, respectively. The current-voltage curve on the surface of the SnSe film indicates the formation of an inversion layer at the SnSe/p-Si interface. Our results clearly suggest that most of the excited-electrons diffuse laterally in the inversion layer at the SnSe/p-Si interface, which results in a large LPE with ultrafast relaxation time. The high positional sensitivity and ultrafast relaxation time of the LPE make the SnSe/p-Si junction a promising candidate for a wide range of optoelectronic applications.

  2. Isotope effect on hydrated electron relaxation dynamics studied with time-resolved liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neumark, Daniel M., E-mail: dneumark@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-14

    The excited state relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O are investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy in a liquid microjet. The data show that the initial excited state decays on a time scale of 75 ± 12 fs in H{sub 2}O and 102 ± 8 fs in D{sub 2}O, followed by slower relaxation on time scales of 400 ± 70 fs and 390 ± 70 fs that are isotopically invariant within the precision of our measurements. Based on the time evolution of the transient signals, the faster and slower time constants are assigned to p → s internal conversion (IC) of the hydrated electron and relaxation on the ground electronic state, respectively. This assignment is consistent with the non-adiabatic mechanism for relaxation of the hydrated electron and yields an isotope effect of 1.4 ± 0.2 for IC of the hydrated electron.

  3. 31-P Relaxation times of metabolic compounds in tumors grafted in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, C.; Benabid, A.L.; Jacrot, M.; Riondel, J.; Albrand, J.P.; Decorps, M.

    1985-08-01

    The observation that water proton relaxation rates were longer in tumors than in normal tissues provided a basis for the detection of human tumors by the NMR imaging technique. To evaluate the potentiality of 31-P NMR spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool of the pathological state of tissues, T1 and T2 relaxation times have been measured for the phosphates of ATP, inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphomonoesters (PME) and phosphocreatine (PCr) in the 31-P NMR spectra obtained in vivo for normal rat brain and rat brain tumors implanted in nude mice

  4. Transverse magnetic field effects on the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 measured by 55Mn-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D.

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal (H Z ) and transverse (H T ) magnetic field dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 in its S=10 ground state was measured by NMR. The minima in the relaxation time at the fields for level crossing are due to the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The shortening of the relaxation time under the application of H T is shown to be due mainly to the reduction of the energy barrier

  5. Distribution of relaxation times in (KBr)/sub 0.5/(KCN)/sub 0.5/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birge, N.O.; Jeong, Y.H.; Nagel, S.R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Susman, S.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the dielectric response of (KBr)/sub 0.5/(KCN)/sub 0.5/ covering nine decades of frequency are reported. We have shown how the relaxation times proliferate as the temperature is lowered. The anomalously wide distribution of relaxation times can be generated from a Gaussian distribution of energy barriers. As temperature is decreased not only does the spread of relaxation times increase, but more importantly the width of the distribution of activation energies itself increases

  6. Experimental investigations of relaxation times of gel electrolytes during polymerization by MR methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, Radim; Vondrák, J.; Bartušek, Karel; Sedlaříková, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2013), s. 2109-2114 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Gel electrolyte * Relaxation times * Polarization * Nuclear magnetic resonance Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2013

  7. Time stepping free numerical solution of linear differential equations: Krylov subspace versus waveform relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.; Oseledets, I.V.; Tyrtyshnikov, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, we propose an efficient implementation of the continuous time waveform relaxation method based on block Krylov subspaces. Second, we compare this new implementation against Krylov subspace methods combined with the shift and invert technique.

  8. Source of non-arrhenius average relaxation time in glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1998-01-01

    then discuss a recently proposed model according to which the activation energy of the average relaxation time is determined by the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid to create space needed for a "flow event". In this model, which is based on the fact that intermolecular interactions...

  9. MR pulse sequences for selective relaxation time measurements: a phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Jensen, M

    1990-01-01

    a Siemens Magnetom wholebody magnetic resonance scanner operating at 1.5 Tesla was used. For comparison six imaging pulse sequences for relaxation time measurements were tested on the same phantom. The spectroscopic pulse sequences all had an accuracy better than 10% of the reference values....

  10. Estimation of T2 relaxation time of breast cancer: Correlation with clinical, imaging and pathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.

  11. Simulation of Cavity Flow by the Lattice Boltzmann Method using Multiple-Relaxation-Time scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Seung Yeob; Kang, Ha Nok; Seo, Jae Kwang; Yun, Ju Hyeon; Zee, Sung Quun

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) has gained much attention for its ability to simulate fluid flows, and for its potential advantages over conventional CFD method. The key advantages of LBM are, (1) suitability for parallel computations, (2) absence of the need to solve the time-consuming Poisson equation for pressure, and (3) ease with multiphase flows, complex geometries and interfacial dynamics may be treated. The LBM using relaxation technique was introduced by Higuerea and Jimenez to overcome some drawbacks of lattice gas automata(LGA) such as large statistical noise, limited range of physical parameters, non- Galilean invariance, and implementation difficulty in three-dimensional problem. The simplest LBM is the lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook(LBGK) equation, which based on a single-relaxation-time(SRT) approximation. Due to its extreme simplicity, the lattice BGK(LBGK) equation has become the most popular lattice Boltzmann model in spite of its well-known deficiencies, for example, in simulating high-Reynolds numbers flow. The Multiple-Relaxation-Time(MRT) LBM was originally developed by D'Humieres. Lallemand and Luo suggests that the use of a Multiple-Relaxation-Time(MRT) models are much more stable than LBGK, because the different relaxation times can be individually tuned to achieve 'optimal' stability. A lid-driven cavity flow is selected as the test problem because it has geometrically singular points in the flow, but geometrically simple. Results are compared with those using SRT, MRT model in the LBGK method and previous simulation data using Navier-Stokes equations for the same flow conditions. In summary, LBM using MRT model introduces much less spatial oscillations near geometrical singular points, which is important for the successful simulation of higher Reynolds number flows

  12. TOMROP: a sequence for determining the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graumann, R.; Barfuss, H.; Fischer, H.; Hentschel, D.; Oppelt, A.

    1987-01-01

    We developed the pulse sequence TOMROP (T One by Multiple Read Out Pulses) for determining precisely the spatial distribution of the longitudinal relaxation time T 1 in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): a series of small-angle selection pulses is used to read out longitudinal magnetization from its initial state till thermal equilibrium. Hence, one measurement will produce several images with different T 1 weightings whose pixel brilliance depends exponentially from read-out time. T 1 can be determined from these independent of initial magnetization and selection pulse angle. The measuring time corresponds to the time needed in multi-echo imaging for the determination of the transversal relaxation time T 2 . We demonstrate this new method using head images of volunteers produced with a 0.23 T test facility. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Isothermal structural relaxation of Fe40Ni40B20 metallic glass in the relaxation times spectrum model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csach, K; Haruyama, O; Kasardova, A; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The structural relaxation of amorphous as-quenched Fe40Ni40B20 sample was investigated during isothermal annealing at temperatures close to 400 degrees C by: (i) the residual electrical resistance measured at liquid N-2 temperature; (ii) the in-situ electrical resistance; and (iii) the length

  14. Relaxation of the vibrational distribution function in N2 time varying discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitelli, M.; Gorse, C.; Ricard, A.

    1981-01-01

    Relaxation of the electron and vibrational distribution functions have been calculated in function of residence time in nitrogen electrical discharges and post-discharges. In the discharge the vibrational temperature get bigger with the residence time for t -2 s. In the post-discharge the vibrational distribution is evolving in such a manner that the high levels are overpopulated as the low vibrational level population is dropping

  15. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of the Cartilage Cap of Osteochondromas

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon; Laor, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition tim...

  16. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of generalized Maxwell fluids in a rectangular micropump under an AC electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Guangpu [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Jian, Yongjun, E-mail: jianyj@imu.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Chang, Long [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051 (China); Buren, Mandula [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China)

    2015-08-01

    By using the method of separation of variables, an analytical solution for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field through a two-dimensional rectangular micropump is reduced. By the numerical computation, the variations of velocity profiles with the electrical oscillating Reynolds number Re, the Hartmann number Ha, the dimensionless relaxation time De are studied graphically. Further, the comparison with available experimental data and relevant researches is presented. - Highlights: • MHD flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field is analyzed. • The MHD flow is confined to a two-dimensional rectangular micropump. • Analytical solution is obtained by using the method of separation of variables. • The influences of related parameters on the MHD velocity are discussed.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of generalized Maxwell fluids in a rectangular micropump under an AC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangpu; Jian, Yongjun; Chang, Long; Buren, Mandula

    2015-01-01

    By using the method of separation of variables, an analytical solution for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field through a two-dimensional rectangular micropump is reduced. By the numerical computation, the variations of velocity profiles with the electrical oscillating Reynolds number Re, the Hartmann number Ha, the dimensionless relaxation time De are studied graphically. Further, the comparison with available experimental data and relevant researches is presented. - Highlights: • MHD flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field is analyzed. • The MHD flow is confined to a two-dimensional rectangular micropump. • Analytical solution is obtained by using the method of separation of variables. • The influences of related parameters on the MHD velocity are discussed

  19. Investigation of dielectric relaxation in systems with hierarchical organization: From time to frequency domain and back again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, Koki [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Raicu, Valerică, E-mail: vraicu@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Relaxation in fractal structures was investigated theoretically starting from a simple model of a Cantorian tree and kinetic equations linking the change in the number of particles (e.g., electrical charges) populating each branch of the tree and their transfer to other branches or to the ground state. We numerically solved the system of differential equations obtained and determined the so-called cumulative distribution function of particles, which, in dielectric or mechanical relaxation parlance, is the same as the relaxation function of the system. As a physical application, we studied the relationship between the dielectric relaxation in time-domain and the dielectric dispersion in the frequency-domain. Upon choosing appropriate rate constants, our model described accurately well-known non-exponential and non-Debye time- and frequency-domain functions, such as stretched exponentials, Havrilliak–Negami, and frequency power law. Our approach opens the door to applying kinetic models to describe a wide array of relaxation processes, which traditionally have posed great challenges to theoretical modeling based on first principles. - Highlights: • Relaxation was investigated for a system of particles flowing through a Cantorian tree. • A set of kinetic equations was formulated and used to compute the relaxation function of the system. • The dispersion function of the system was computed from the relaxation function. • An analytical method was used to recover the original relaxation function from the dispersion function. • This formalism was used to study dielectric relaxation and dispersion in fractal structures.

  20. The Influence of the Relaxation Time on the Dynamic Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palici Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic behavior of perovskite solar cells by focusing on the relaxation time τ, which corresponds to the slow de-polarization process from an initial bias pre-poled state. The dynamic electrical model (DEM is employed for simulating the J-V characteristics for different bias scan rates and pre-poling conditions. Depending on the sign of the initial polarization normal or inverted hysteresis may be induced. For fixed pre-poling conditions, the relaxation time, in relation to the bias scan rate, governs the magnitude of the dynamic hysteresis. In the limit of large τ the hysteretic effects are vanishing for the typical range of bias scan rates considered, while for very small τ the hysteresis is significant only when it is comparable with the measurement time interval.

  1. Optimal Configuration for Relaxation Times Estimation in Complex Spin Echo Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Baselice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pathologies can be identified by evaluating differences raised in the physical parameters of involved tissues. In a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI framework, spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation time parameters play a major role in such an identification. In this manuscript, a theoretical study related to the evaluation of the achievable performances in the estimation of relaxation times in MRI is proposed. After a discussion about the considered acquisition model, an analysis on the ideal imaging acquisition parameters in the case of spin echo sequences, i.e., echo and repetition times, is conducted. In particular, the aim of the manuscript consists in providing an empirical rule for optimal imaging parameter identification with respect to the tissues under investigation. Theoretical results are validated on different datasets in order to show the effectiveness of the presented study and of the proposed methodology.

  2. Measurement of short transverse relaxation times by pseudo-echo nutation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Maude; Moyne, Christian; Canet, Daniel

    2018-07-01

    Very short NMR transverse relaxation times may be difficult to measure by conventional methods. Nutation experiments constitute an alternative approach. Nutation is, in the rotating frame, the equivalent of precession in the laboratory frame. It consists in monitoring the rotation of magnetization around the radio-frequency (rf) field when on-resonance conditions are fulfilled. Depending on the amplitude of the rf field, nutation may be sensitive to the two relaxation rates R1 and R2. A full theoretical development has been worked out for demonstrating how these two relaxation rates could be deduced from a simple nutation experiment, noticing however that inhomogeneity of the rf field may lead to erroneous results. This has led us to devise new experiments which are the equivalent of echo techniques in the rotating frame (pseudo spin-echo nutation experiment and pseudo gradient-echo experiment). Full equations of motion have been derived. Although complicated, they indicate that the sum of the two relaxation rates can be obtained very accurately and not altered by rf field inhomogeneity. This implies however an appropriate data processing accounting for the oscillations which are superposed to the echo decays and, anyway, theoretically predicted. A series of experiments has been carried out for different values of the rf field amplitude on samples of water doped with a paramagnetic compound at different concentrations. Pragmatically, as R1 can be easily measured by conventional methods, its value is entered in the data processing algorithm which then returns exclusively the value of the transverse relaxation time. Very consistent results are obtained that way.

  3. Geometric Implications of Maxwell's Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felix T.

    2015-03-01

    Maxwell's synthesis of the varied results of the accumulated knowledge of electricity and magnetism, based largely on the searching insights of Faraday, still provide new issues to explore. A case in point is a well recognized anomaly in the Maxwell equations: The laws of electricity and magnetism require two 3-vector and two scalar equations, but only six dependent variables are available to be their solutions, the 3-vectors E and B. This leaves an apparent redundancy of two degrees of freedom (J. Rosen, AJP 48, 1071 (1980); Jiang, Wu, Povinelli, J. Comp. Phys. 125, 104 (1996)). The observed self-consistency of the eight equations suggests that they contain additional information. This can be sought as a previously unnoticed constraint connecting the space and time variables, r and t. This constraint can be identified. It distorts the otherwise Euclidean 3-space of r with the extremely slight, time dependent curvature k (t) =Rcurv-2 (t) of the 3-space of a hypersphere whose radius has the time dependence dRcurv / dt = +/- c nonrelativistically, or dRcurvLor / dt = +/- ic relativistically. The time dependence is exactly that of the Hubble expansion. Implications of this identification will be explored.

  4. El Dimoni de Maxwell

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2010-01-01

    El dimoni de Maxwell és el resultat d'un experiment mental que va proposar el físic escocès James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), que si es complís amenaçaria la validesa de la segona llei de la termodinàmica. Segons aquest experiment, seria possible la transmissió de calor d'un cos a un altre de més calent sense cap altre canvi. S'hi ex- posen diverses solucions, que van des de la interacció entre la mesura i el sistema mesurat, fins a la teoria de la informació. Aquest article, origi...

  5. Menstrual variation of breast volume and T{sub 2} relaxation times in cyclical mastalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zainab [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: zay@liverpool.ac.uk; Brooks, Jonathan [Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Percy, Dave [Centre for Operational Research and Applied Statistics, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    Purpose: Hormonal activity causes breast volume to change during the menstrual cycle. One possible cause of this volume change is thought to be due to water retention or oedema within the tissues. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the variation in breast volume and {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to measure T{sub 2} relaxation times which are known to increase with increasing tissue water content. We hypothesised that an increase in breast volume will elevate T{sub 2} relaxation due to the presence of an increased water content within the breast. T{sub 2} Relaxation time and volume were studied in fifteen control subjects and in a cohort of eight patients with cyclical mastalgia in order to determine whether changes in breast volume and T{sub 2} relaxation times differed in controls and patients during menses, ovulation and premenses. Method: Breast volume was determined by the Cavalieri method in combination with point counting techniques on MR images and T{sub 2} relaxation times of the water and fat in a voxel of breast tissue were obtained using {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Results: Statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated highly significant differences in breast volume between the three stages of the cycle (p < 0.0005) with breast volume being greatest premenstrually. Patients did not exhibit an increase in volume premenstrually, significantly above controls. T{sub 2} of fat or water did not depend on stage of cycle. T-tests demonstrated no significant differences in T{sub 2} of water or fat between patient and control groups. The average T{sub 2} relaxation time of water was lowest in the patient and control groups during ovulation and highest in the patient group during premenses. Conclusion: We have performed the first combined volumetric and spectroscopic study of women with cyclical mastalgia and demonstrated that the global changes in volumes and T{sub 2} were not significantly different from normal

  6. In vivo measurements of T1 relaxation times of 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    The T1 relaxation times were estimated for 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle. Five healthy volunteers were examined in a 1.5 Tesla wholebody imaging system using an inversion recovery pulse sequence. The calculated T1 relaxation times ranged from 5.517 sec for phosphocreatine to 3.603 sec...

  7. Mathematics and Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H

    2010-01-01

    The universality of mathematics and Maxwell's equations is not shared by specific plasma models. Computations become more reliable, efficient and transparent if specific plasma models are used to obtain only the information that would otherwise be missing. Constraints of high universality, such as those from mathematics and Maxwell's equations, can be obscured or lost by integrated computations. Recognition of subtle constraints of high universality is important for (1) focusing the design of control systems for magnetic field errors in tokamaks from perturbations that have little effect on the plasma to those that do, (2) clarifying the limits of applicability to astrophysics of computations of magnetic reconnection in fields that have a double periodicity or have B-vector =0 on a surface, as in a Harris sheet. Both require a degree of symmetry not expected in natural systems. Mathematics and Maxwell's equations imply that neighboring magnetic field lines characteristically separate exponentially with distance along a line. This remarkably universal phenomenon has been largely ignored, though it defines a trigger for reconnection through a critical magnitude of exponentiation. These and other examples of the importance of making distinctions and understanding constraints of high universality are explained.

  8. 13C NMR relaxation times of hepatic glycogen in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Lihsin; Laughlin, M.R.; Rothman, D.L.; Shulman, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    The field dependence of relaxation times of the C-1 carbon of glycogen was studied in vitro by natural-abundance 13 C NMR. T 1 is strongly field dependent, while T 2 does not change significantly with magnetic field. T 1 and T 2 were also measured for rat hepatic glycogen enriched with [1- 13 C]glucose in vivo at 4.7 T, and similar relaxation times were observed as those obtained in vitro at the same field. The in vitro values of T 1 were 65 ± 5 ms at 2.1 T, 142 ± 10 ms at 4.7 T, and 300 ± 10 ms at 8.4 T, while T 2 values were 6.7 ± 1 ms at 2.1 T, 9.4 ± 1 ms at 4.7 T, and 9.5 ± 1 ms at 8.4 T. Calculations based on the rigid-rotor nearest-neighbor model give qualitatively good agreement with the T 1 field dependence with a best-fit correlation time of 6.4 x 10 -9 s, which is significantly smaller than τ M , the estimated overall correlation time for the glycogen molecule (ca. 10 -5 s). A more accurate fit of T 1 data using a modified Lipari and Szabo approach indicates that internal fast motions dominate the T 1 relaxation in glycogen. On the other hand, the T 2 relaxation is dominated by the overall correlation time τ M while the internal motions are almost but not completely unrestricted

  9. Using Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy to Characterize the Glass Transition Time of Polydextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin G; Kindle, Michael L; Carter, Brady P

    2015-06-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was used to characterize the glass transition time, tg , of polydextrose, where the glass transition temperature, Tg , and water activity, aw (relative humidity), were held constant during polydextrose relaxation. The tg was determined from a shift in the peak frequency of the imaginary capacitance spectrum with time. It was found that when the peak frequency reaches 30 mHz, polydextrose undergoes glass transition. Glass transition time, tg , is the time for polydextrose to undergo glass transition at a specific Tg and aw . Results lead to a modified state diagram, where Tg is depressed with increasing aw . This curve forms a boundary: (a) below the boundary, polydextrose does not undergo glass transition and (b) above the boundary, polydextrose rapidly undergoes glass transition. As the boundary curve is specified by a tg value, it can assist in the selection of storage conditions. An important point on the boundary curve is at aw = 0, where Tg0 = 115 °C. The methodology can also be used to calculate the stress-relaxation viscosity of polydextrose as a function of Tg and aw , which is important when characterizing the flow properties of polydextrose initially in powder form. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Deducting the temperature dependence of the structural relaxation time in equilibrium far below the nominal Tg by aging the decoupled conductivity relaxation to equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Ngai, K L; Paluch, M

    2014-05-07

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy we investigate the changes in the conductivity relaxation times τσ observed during the physical aging of the protic ionic conductor carvedilol dihydrogen phosphate (CP). Due to the large decoupling of ion diffusion from host molecule reorientation, the ion conductivity relaxation time τσ(Tage,tage) can be directly measured at temperatures Tage below Tg for exceedingly long aging times tage till τσ(Tage,tage) has reached the equilibrium value τσ(eq)(Tage). The dependence of τσ(Tage,tage) on tage is well described by the stretched exponential function, τσ(Tage, tage) = Aexp[-((tage)/(τage(Tage)))(β)] + τσ(eq)(Tage), where β is a constant and τage(Tage) can be taken as the structural α-relaxation time of the equilibrium liquid at T = Tage. The value of τσ(eq)(Tage) obtained after 63 days long annealing of CP, deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHσ) dependence of τσ(T) determined from data taken above Tg and extrapolated down to Tage. Concurrently, τage(Tage) also deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHα) dependence. The results help to answer the longstanding question of whether the VFTH dependence of τσ(T) as well as the structural α-relaxation time τα(T) holds or not in the equilibrium liquid state far below Tg.

  11. State of health assessment for lithium batteries based on voltage–time relaxation measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Issam; Briat, Olivier; Gyan, Philippe; Vinassa, Jean Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calendar aging under different storage conditions for three different battery technologies studied. • Two scenarios of aging under power cycling at two different temperatures investigated for one battery technology. • Relaxation profile of battery voltage just after full charge is highly correlated to aging. • Linear dependence between just after charge open circuit voltage and remaining capacity demonstrated. • No computational method and direct prediction of battery state of health or remaining capacity. - Abstract: The performance of lithium batteries degrades over time. The degradation rate strongly depends on stress conditions during use and even at rest. Thus, accurate and rapid diagnosis of battery state of health (SOH) is necessary for electric vehicle manufacturers to manage their vehicle fleets and warranties. This paper demonstrates a simple method for assessing SOH related to battery energy capability (SOH E ). The presented method is based on the monitoring of U relax over aging. U relax is the open-circuit voltage of the battery measured after full charging and 30 min of rest. A linear dependence between U relax and remaining capacity is noted. This correlation is demonstrated for three different commercial battery technologies (different chemistries) aged under different calendar and power cycling aging conditions. It was determined that the difference between two U relax voltages measured at two different aging states is proportional to SOH E decay. The mean error of the linear model is less than 2% for certain cases. This method could also be a highly useful and rapid tool for a complete battery pack diagnosis.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times for human lung cancer and lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Kurita, Daisaku; Ohta, Takashi; Haida, Munetaka; Ohta, Yasuyo; Suda, Syuichi; Fukuzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , for lung cancer tissue, and other samples of lung tissue obtained from surgical specimens. The samples were nine squamous cell carcinomas, five necrotic squamous cell carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, two benign mesotheliomas, and 13 fibrotic lungs. The relaxation times were measured with a 90 MHz NMR spectrometer and the results were correlated with histological changes. The values of T 1 and T 2 for squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma were significantly longer than those of adenocarcinoma and fibrotic lung tissue. There were no significant differences in values of T 1 and T 2 between adenocarcinoma and lung tissue. The values of T 1 and T 2 for benign mesothelioma were similar to those of squamous cell carcinoma, which suggested that increases in T 1 and T 2 are not specific to malignant tissues. (author)

  13. Accuracy and Numerical Stabilty Analysis of Lattice Boltzmann Method with Multiple Relaxation Time for Incompressible Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradipto; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is the novel method for simulating fluid dynamics. Nowadays, the application of LBM ranges from the incompressible flow, flow in the porous medium, until microflows. The common collision model of LBM is the BGK with a constant single relaxation time τ. However, BGK suffers from numerical instabilities. These instabilities could be eliminated by implementing LBM with multiple relaxation time. Both of those scheme have implemented for incompressible 2 dimensions lid-driven cavity. The stability analysis has done by finding the maximum Reynolds number and velocity for converged simulations. The accuracy analysis is done by comparing the velocity profile with the benchmark results from Ghia, et al and calculating the net velocity flux. The tests concluded that LBM with MRT are more stable than BGK, and have a similar accuracy. The maximum Reynolds number that converges for BGK is 3200 and 7500 for MRT respectively.

  14. Temperature dependence of relaxation times in proton components of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kagayaki; Iwabuchi, Taku; Saito, Kensuke; Obara, Makoto; Honda, Masatoshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    We examined the temperature dependence of relaxation times in proton components of fatty acids in various samples in vitro at 11 tesla as a standard calibration data for quantitative temperature imaging of fat. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T 1 , of both the methylene (CH 2 ) chain and terminal methyl (CH 3 ) was linearly related to temperature (r>0.98, P 2 signal for calibration and observed the signal with 18% of CH 3 to estimate temperature. These findings suggested that separating the fatty acid components would significantly improve accuracy in quantitative thermometry for fat. Use of the T 1 of CH 2 seems promising in terms of reliability and reproducibility in measuring temperature of fat. (author)

  15. Dielectric Relaxation Studies of 2-Butoxyethanol with Aniline and Substituted Anilines Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeevanandham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex dielectric spectra of 2-butoxyethanol with aniline and substituted anilines like aniline, o-chloroaniline, m-chloroaniline, o-anisidine and m-anisidine binary mixtures in the composition of different volumes of percent (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% have been measured as a function of frequency between 10 MHz and 30 GHz at 298.15 K. The dielectric parameters like static dielectric constant ε0 and relaxation time τ have been obtained by using least square fit method. By using these parameters ε0,τ, effective Kirkwood correlation factor geff, corrective Kirkwood correlation factor gf, Bruggeman factor fB, excess dielectric constant εE, and excess inverse relaxation time 1/τE values are calculated and discussed to yield information on the dipolar alignment and molecular rotation of the binary liquid mixtures. From all the derived dielectric parameters, molecular interactions are interpreted through hydrogen bonding.

  16. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.I.; Majurin, M.L.; Komu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.)

  17. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, K.I. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Majurin, M.L. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Komu, M. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.).

  18. Characterization of relaxation processes in interacting vortex matter through a time-dependent correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe C

    2015-01-01

    Vortex lines in type-II superconductors display complicated relaxation processes due to the intricate competition between their mutual repulsive interactions and pinning to attractive point or extended defects. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations for an interacting elastic line model with either point-like or columnar pinning centers. From measurements of the space- and time-dependent height-height correlation function for lateral flux line fluctuations, we extract a characteristic correlation length that we use to investigate different non-equilibrium relaxation regimes. The specific time dependence of this correlation length for different disorder configurations displays characteristic features that provide a novel diagnostic tool to distinguish between point-like pinning centers and extended columnar defects. (paper)

  19. Evaluation of relaxation time measurements by magnetic resonance imaging. A phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1987-01-01

    Several circumstances may explain the great variation in reported proton T1 and T2 relaxation times usually seen. This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of relaxation time measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) operating at 1.5 tesla. Using a phantom of nine boxes with different...... concentrations of CuSO4 and correlating the calculated T1 and T2 values with reference values obtained by two spectrometers (corrected to MRI-proton frequency = 64 MHz) we found a maximum deviation of about 10 per cent. Measurements performed on a large water phantom in order to evaluate the homogeneity...... in the imaging plane showed a variation of less than 10 per cent within 10 cm from the centre of the magnet in all three imaging planes. Changing the gradient field strength apparently had no influence on the T2 values recorded. Consequently diffusion processes seem without significance. It is concluded...

  20. Relaxation Behavior by Time-Salt and Time-Temperature Superpositions of Polyelectrolyte Complexes from Coacervate to Precipitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samim Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexation between anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes results in solid-like precipitates or liquid-like coacervate depending on the added salt in the aqueous medium. However, the boundary between these polymer-rich phases is quite broad and the associated changes in the polymer relaxation in the complexes across the transition regime are poorly understood. In this work, the relaxation dynamics of complexes across this transition is probed over a wide timescale by measuring viscoelastic spectra and zero-shear viscosities at varying temperatures and salt concentrations for two different salt types. We find that the complexes exhibit time-temperature superposition (TTS at all salt concentrations, while the range of overlapped-frequencies for time-temperature-salt superposition (TTSS strongly depends on the salt concentration (Cs and gradually shifts to higher frequencies as Cs is decreased. The sticky-Rouse model describes the relaxation behavior at all Cs. However, collective relaxation of polyelectrolyte complexes gradually approaches a rubbery regime and eventually exhibits a gel-like response as Cs is decreased and limits the validity of TTSS.

  1. Effects of distribution function nonequilibrium tails on relaxation and transfer processes in rarefied gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yu.N.; Mikhalitsyn, A.N.; Yanenko, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of the nonmonotone relaxation process are studied in a gas of pseudo-Maxwell molecules. Basic results are obtained by a direct numerical integration of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. The evolution of initial distributions being finite or having exponential asymptotics of tails was researched. In particular, initial data obtained by selective excitation (absorption) against the Maxwell background encountered in laser physics problems have been considered. It is shown that under conditions of a developed effect of nonmonotone relaxation the overpopulation in the velocity range 4 <= upsilon <= 10 exceeds on the average 2-3 times the equilibrium value. For the given particles energy the excitation is preserved during t = 5/6 and the total relaxation time of the overpopulation wave reaches t asymptotically equals 20. The amplitudes and the relaxation time of overpopulation in the ''cupola'' region of distribution are substantially lower than in the case of a developed effect in the tail. The influence of the effect on the kinetics of threshold chemical reaction is studied. From the results it follows that in the process of nonmonotone relaxation the mean rates of binary threshold reactions can exceed more than twice the equilibrium values. This estimate is valid for all power like intermolecular repulsive potentials from the pseudo-Maxwell model up to rigid spheres. Time intervals over which the mean reaction rate exceeds considerably the equilibrium one make from 5 to 15 mean free path times increasing with the decrease in the potential ''rigidity''. (author)

  2. The modified relaxation time function: A novel analysis technique for relaxation processes. Application to high-temperature molybdenum internal friction peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteo, C.L.; Lambri, O.A.; Zelada-Lambri, G.I.; Sorichetti, P.A.; Garcia, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The modified relaxation time (MRT) function, which is based on a general linear viscoelastic formalism, has several important mathematical properties that greatly simplify the analysis of relaxation processes. In this work, the MRT is applied to the study of the relaxation damping peaks in deformed molybdenum at high temperatures. The dependence of experimental data from these relaxation processes with temperature are adequately described by a Havriliak-Negami (HN) function, and the MRT makes it possible to find a relation between the parameters of the HN function and the activation energy of the process. The analysis reveals that for the relaxation peak appearing at temperatures below 900 K, the physical mechanism is related to a vacancy-diffusion-controlled movement of dislocations. In contrast, when the peak appears at temperatures higher than 900 K, the damping is controlled by a mechanism of diffusion in the low-temperature tail of the peak, and in the high-temperature tail of the peak the creation plus diffusion of vacancies at the dislocation line occurs

  3. Method of moving frames to solve time-dependent Maxwell's equations on anisotropic curved surfaces: Applications to invisible cloak and ELF propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sehun

    2017-07-01

    Applying the method of moving frames to Maxwell's equations yields two important advancements for scientific computing. The first is the use of upwind flux for anisotropic materials in Maxwell's equations, especially in the context of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Upwind flux has been available only to isotropic material, because of the difficulty of satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions in anisotropic media. The second is to solve numerically Maxwell's equations on curved surfaces without the metric tensor and composite meshes. For numerical validation, spectral convergences are displayed for both two-dimensional anisotropic media and isotropic spheres. In the first application, invisible two-dimensional metamaterial cloaks are simulated with a relatively coarse mesh by both the lossless Drude model and the piecewisely-parametered layered model. In the second application, extremely low frequency propagation on various surfaces such as spheres, irregular surfaces, and non-convex surfaces is demonstrated.

  4. The water proton spin-lattice relaxation times in virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensin, G.; Gaggelli, E.; Tiezzi, E.; Valensin, P.E.; Bianchi Bandinelli, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    The water proton spin-lattice relaxation times in HEp-2 cell cultures were determined immediately after 1 h of polio-virus adsorption. The shortening of the water T 1 was closely related to the multiplicity of infection, allowing direct inspections of the virus-cell interaction since the first steps of the infectious cycle. Virus-induced structural and conformational changes of cell constituents were suggested to be detectable by NMR investigation of cell water. (Auth.)

  5. MAXWELL3, 3-D FEM Electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MAXWELL3 is a linear, time domain, finite element code designed for simulation of electromagnetic fields interacting with three-dimensional objects. The simulation region is discretized into 6-sided, 8-nodded elements which need not form a logically regular grid. Scatterers may be perfectly conducting or dielectric. Restart capability and a Muer-type radiating boundary are included. MAXWELL3 can be run in a two-dimensional mode or on infinitesimally thin geometries. The output of time histories on surfaces, or shells, in addition to volumes, is allowed. Two post-processors are included - HIST2XY, which splits the MAXWELL3 history file into simple xy data files, and FFT A BS, which performs fast Fourier transformations on the xy data. 2 - Method of solution: The numerical method requires that the model be discretized with a mesh generator. MAXWELL3 then uses the mesh and computes the time domain electric and magnetic fields by integrating Maxwell's divergence-free curl equations over time. The output from MAXWELL3 can then be used with a post-processor to get the desired information in a graphical form. The explicit time integration is done with a leap-frog technique that alternates evaluating the electric and magnetic fields at half time steps. This allows for centered time differencing accurate in second order. The algorithm is naturally robust and requires no parameters. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: MAXWELL3 has no mesh generation capabilities. Anisotropic, nonlinear, and magnetic materials cannot be modeled. Material interfaces only account for dielectric changes and neglect any surface charges that would be present at the surface of a partially conducting material. The radiation boundary algorithm is only accurate for normally incident fields and becomes less accurate as the angle of incidence increases. Thus, only models using scattered fields should use the radiation boundary. This limits MAXWELL3

  6. Determining the structural relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical Telmisartan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrjanowicz, K; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ngai, K L [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5320 (United States)

    2010-03-31

    By using the dielectric relaxation method proposed recently by Casalini and Roland (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 035701), we were able to determine the structural alpha-relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical, Telmisartan. Normally, deep in the glassy state tau{sub a}lpha is so long that it cannot be measured but tau{sub b}eta, which is usually much shorter, can be directly determined. The method basically takes advantage of the connection between the alpha-relaxation and the secondary beta-relaxation of the Johari-Goldstein kind, including a relation between their relaxation times tau{sub a}lpha and tau{sub b}eta, respectively. Thus, tau{sub a}lpha of Telmisartan were determined by monitoring the change of the dielectric beta-loss, epsilon'', with physical aging time at temperatures well below the vitrification temperature. The values of tau{sub a}lpha were compared with those expected by the coupling model (CM). Unequivocal comparison cannot be made in the case of Telmisartan because its beta-loss peak is extremely broad, and the CM predicts only an order of magnitude agreement between the primitive relaxation frequency and the beta-peak frequency. We also made an attempt to analyze all isothermal and aging susceptibility data after transformation into the electric modulus representation. The tau{sub a}lpha found in the glass state by using the method of Casalini and Roland in the modulus representation are similar to those obtained in the susceptibility representation. However, it is remarkable that the stretching parameter beta{sub KWWM} = 0.51 in the electric modulus representation gives more precise fits to the aging data than in the susceptibility representation with beta{sub KWW} = 0.61. Our results suggest that the electric modulus representation may be useful as an alternative to analyze aging data, especially in the case of highly polar glassformers having a large ratio of low frequency and high frequency dielectric

  7. Two-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method and its application to advective-diffusive-reactive transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Siliang; Hilpert, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based on single-relaxation-time (SRT) or multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operators is widely used in simulating flow and transport phenomena. The LBM based on two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision operators possesses strengths from the SRT and MRT LBMs, such as its simple implementation and good numerical stability, although tedious mathematical derivations and presentations of the TRT LBM hinder its application to a broad range of flow and transport phenomena. This paper describes the TRT LBM clearly and provides a pseudocode for easy implementation. Various transport phenomena were simulated using the TRT LBM to illustrate its applications in subsurface environments. These phenomena include advection-diffusion in uniform flow, Taylor dispersion in a pipe, solute transport in a packed column, reactive transport in uniform flow, and bacterial chemotaxis in porous media. The TRT LBM demonstrated good numerical performance in terms of accuracy and stability in predicting these transport phenomena. Therefore, the TRT LBM is a powerful tool to simulate various geophysical and biogeochemical processes in subsurface environments.

  8. Bulk viscosity of strongly interacting matter in the relaxation time approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Hauksson, Sigtryggur; Shen, Chun; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2018-04-01

    We show how thermal mean field effects can be incorporated consistently in the hydrodynamical modeling of heavy-ion collisions. The nonequilibrium correction to the distribution function resulting from a temperature-dependent mass is obtained in a procedure which automatically satisfies the Landau matching condition and is thermodynamically consistent. The physics of the bulk viscosity is studied here for Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein gases within the Chapman-Enskog and 14-moment approaches in the relaxation time approximation. Constant and temperature-dependent masses are considered in turn. It is shown that, in the small mass limit, both methods lead to the same value of the ratio of the bulk viscosity to its relaxation time. The inclusion of a temperature-dependent mass leads to the emergence of the βλ function in that ratio, and it is of the expected parametric form for the Boltzmann gas, while for the Bose-Einstein case it is affected by the infrared cutoff. This suggests that the relaxation time approximation may be too crude to obtain a reliable form of ζ /τR for gases obeying Bose-Einstein statistics.

  9. Pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for cavitation bubble collapse with high density ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Ming-Lei; Zhu Chang-Ping; Yao Cheng; Yin Cheng; Jiang Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the cavitation bubble collapse is a fundamental issue for the bubble collapse application and prevention. In the present work, the modified forcing scheme for the pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model developed by Li Q et al. [Li Q, Luo K H and Li X J 2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 053301] is adopted to develop a cavitation bubble collapse model. In the respects of coexistence curves and Laplace law verification, the improved pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is investigated. It is found that the thermodynamic consistency and surface tension are independent of kinematic viscosity. By homogeneous and heterogeneous cavitation simulation, the ability of the present model to describe the cavitation bubble development as well as the cavitation inception is verified. The bubble collapse between two parallel walls is simulated. The dynamic process of a collapsing bubble is consistent with the results from experiments and simulations by other numerical methods. It is demonstrated that the present pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is applicable and efficient, and the lattice Boltzmann method is an alternative tool for collapsing bubble modeling. (paper)

  10. On fictitious domain formulations for Maxwell's equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahmen, W.; Jensen, Torben Klint; Urban, K.

    2003-01-01

    We consider fictitious domain-Lagrange multiplier formulations for variational problems in the space H(curl: Omega) derived from Maxwell's equations. Boundary conditions and the divergence constraint are imposed weakly by using Lagrange multipliers. Both the time dependent and time harmonic formu...

  11. Asymptotic description of two metastable processes of solidification for the case of large relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanov, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    The non-isothermal Cahn-Hilliard equations in the n-dimensional case (n = 2,3) are considered. The interaction length is proportional to a small parameter, and the relaxation time is proportional to a constant. The asymptotic solutions describing two metastable processes are constructed and justified. The soliton type solution describes the first stage of separation in alloy, when a set of ''superheated liquid'' appears inside the ''solid'' part. The Van der Waals type solution describes the free interface dynamics for large time. The smoothness of temperature is established for large time and the Mullins-Sekerka problem describing the free interface is derived. (author). 46 refs

  12. Relaxation dynamics and thermophysical properties of vegetable oils using time-domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkamble, Anil A; Sonsale, Rahul P; Kanshette, Mahesh S; Kabara, Komal B; Wananje, Kunal H; Kumbharkhane, Ashok C; Sarode, Arvind V

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric relaxation studies of vegetable oils are important for insights into their hydrogen bonding and intermolecular dynamics. The dielectric relaxation and thermo physical properties of triglycerides present in some vegetable oils have been measured over the frequency range of 10 MHz to 7 GHz in the temperature region 25 to 10 °C using a time-domain reflectometry approach. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric constants and dielectric loss factors were determined for coconut, peanut, soya bean, sunflower, palm, and olive oils. The dielectric permittivity spectra for each of the studied vegetable oils are explained using the Debye model with their complex dielectric permittivity analyzed using the Havriliak-Negami equation. The dielectric parameters static permittivity (ε 0 ), high-frequency limiting static permittivity (ε ∞ ), average relaxation time (τ 0 ), and thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (∆F τ ), enthalpy (∆H τ ), and entropy of activation (∆S τ ) were also measured. Calculation and analysis of these thermodynamic parameters agrees with the determined dielectric parameters, giving insights into the temperature dependence of the molecular dynamics of these systems.

  13. Magnetic resonance studies on the brain edema by the administration of the osmotic agents; Special references to the relaxation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niino, Masaki; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Nakamura, Katsumi; Yatsushiro, Kazutaka; Kadota, Koki (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Sasahira, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Toshiro; Shimooki, Susumu

    1990-03-01

    Changes of proton relaxation times (T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}) and MR imaging of the brain edema by the administration of the osmotic agents (mannitol or glycerol) were studied. Subjects were 11 patients who were composed of 4 gliomas, 2 metastatic brain tumors, 2 meningiomas, 2 hypertensive intracerebral hematomas, and a C-P angle tumor. 20% mannitol or 10% glycerol 550 ml was rapidly injected intravenously. Scanning was done before injection, just after injection, and post injection until 2 hours with passing times. We regarded the peritumoral or perihemorrahgical low density area on the CT scan as the edema, and then, relaxation times of the edema was obtained from the ROI of the calculated images corresponding to the surrounding low density area on the CT scan. The results were as follows. (1) In general, relaxation times of the edema showed a tendency to decrease after injection of the osmotic agents. Normal white matter, in the same way, showed the decreasing tendency, but the degree of the decreasing was more clearly in the edematous areas than in the white matter. (2) The changes of relaxation times did not show a uniform pattern. In most cases, relaxation times decreased just after injection. But in a few cases, relaxation times increased just after injection, transiently. In some cases, decreased relaxation times continued more than 2 hours, in the other cases, relaxation times increased at 2 hours. (3) The changes of relaxation times thought to be varied by some factors, that is --kinds of the lesions causing edema, degree of malignancy of the lesions, or phase of edema (acute or chronic) etc. (4) Osmotic agents were supposed to dehydrate the edematous lesions. In the current MR systems, there are considerably large standard deviations and inequality in the magnetic field, therefore, further investigations should be done moreover. (author).

  14. Elastic models for the non-Arrhenius relaxation time of glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short-time...... elastic properties are all determined by just one effective, temperature-dependent force constant). We finally discuss the connection between the elastic models and two well-established research fields of condensed-matter physics: point defects in crystals and solid-state diffusion....

  15. Elastic models for the Non-Arrhenius Relaxation Time of Glass-Forming Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short-time...... elastic properties are all determined by just one effective, temperature-dependent force constant). We finally discuss the connection between the elastic models and two well-established research fields of condensed-matter physics: point defects in crystals and solid-state diffusion....

  16. T(2) relaxation time of hyaline cartilage in presence of different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Edzard; Settles, Marcus; Diederichs, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The transverse relaxation time, T(2), of native cartilage is used to quantify cartilage degradation. T(2) is frequently measured after contrast administration, assuming that the impact of gadolinium-based contrast agents on cartilage T(2) is negligible. To verify this assumption the depth-dependent variation of T(2) in the presence of gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoteridol was investigated. Furthermore, the r(2)/r(1) relaxivity ratios were quantified in different cartilage layers to demonstrate differences between T(2) and T(1) relaxation effects. Transverse high-spatial-resolution T(1)- and T(2)-maps were simultaneously acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner before and after contrast administration in nine bovine patellae using a turbo-mixed sequence. The r(2)/r(1) ratios were calculated for each contrast agent in cartilage. Profiles of T(1), T(2) and r(2)/r(1) across cartilage thickness were generated in the absence and presence of contrast agent. The mean values in different cartilage layers were compared for global variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test and pairwise using the Mann-Whitney U-test. T(2) of unenhanced cartilage was 98 +/- 5 ms at 1 mm and 65 +/- 4 ms at 3 mm depth. Eleven hours after contrast administration significant differences (p cartilage thickness were close to 1.0 (range 0.9-1.3). At 1.5 T, T(2) decreased significantly in the presence of contrast agents, more pronounced in superficial than in deep cartilage. The change in T(2) relaxation rate was similar to the change in T(1). Cartilage T(2) measurements after contrast administration will lead to systematic errors in the quantification of cartilage degradation. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Graham

    2008-05-28

    This paper presents a brief history of electromagnetic theory from ancient times up to the work of Maxwell and the advent of Einstein's special theory of relativity. It is divided into five convenient periods and the intention is to describe these developments for the benefit of a lay scientific audience and with the minimum of technical detail.

  18. Maxwell and the classical wave particle dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J T

    2008-05-28

    Maxwell's equations are one of the greatest theoretical achievements in physics of all times. They have survived three successive theoretical revolutions, associated with the advent of relativity, quantum mechanics and modern quantum field theory. In particular, they provide the theoretical framework for the understanding of the classical wave particle dualism.

  19. Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T and 7.0 T: a comparison of relaxation times and image contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Caroline D; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Bangerter, Neal K; Hargreaves, Brian A; Gold, Garry E

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the relaxation times of musculoskeletal tissues at 3.0 T and 7.0 T, and to use these measurements to select appropriate parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T. We measured the T₁ and T₂ relaxation times of cartilage, muscle, synovial fluid, bone marrow and subcutaneous fat at both 3.0 T and 7.0 T in the knees of five healthy volunteers. The T₁ relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo inversion recovery sequence with six inversion times. The T₂ relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo sequence with seven echo times. The accuracy of both the T₁ and T₂ measurement techniques was verified in phantoms at both magnetic field strengths. We used the measured relaxation times to help design 7.0 T musculoskeletal protocols that preserve the favorable contrast characteristics of our 3.0 T protocols, while achieving significantly higher resolution at higher SNR efficiency. The T₁ relaxation times in all tissues at 7.0 T were consistently higher than those measured at 3.0 T, while the T₂ relaxation times at 7.0 T were consistently lower than those measured at 3.0 T. The measured relaxation times were used to help develop high resolution 7.0 T protocols that had similar fluid-to-cartilage contrast to that of the standard clinical 3.0 T protocols for the following sequences: proton-density-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), T₂-weighted FSE, and 3D-FSE-Cube. The T₁ and T₂ changes were within the expected ranges. Parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T can be optimized based on these values, yielding improved resolution in musculoskeletal imaging with similar contrast to that of standard 3.0 T clinical protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T and 7.0 T: A comparison of relaxation times and image contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Caroline D.; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Bangerter, Neal K.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Gold, Garry E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the relaxation times of musculoskeletal tissues at 3.0 T and 7.0 T, and to use these measurements to select appropriate parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T. Materials and methods: We measured the T 1 and T 2 relaxation times of cartilage, muscle, synovial fluid, bone marrow and subcutaneous fat at both 3.0 T and 7.0 T in the knees of five healthy volunteers. The T 1 relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo inversion recovery sequence with six inversion times. The T 2 relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo sequence with seven echo times. The accuracy of both the T 1 and T 2 measurement techniques was verified in phantoms at both magnetic field strengths. We used the measured relaxation times to help design 7.0 T musculoskeletal protocols that preserve the favorable contrast characteristics of our 3.0 T protocols, while achieving significantly higher resolution at higher SNR efficiency. Results: The T 1 relaxation times in all tissues at 7.0 T were consistently higher than those measured at 3.0 T, while the T 2 relaxation times at 7.0 T were consistently lower than those measured at 3.0 T. The measured relaxation times were used to help develop high resolution 7.0 T protocols that had similar fluid-to-cartilage contrast to that of the standard clinical 3.0 T protocols for the following sequences: proton-density-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), T 2 -weighted FSE, and 3D-FSE-Cube. Conclusion: The T 1 and T 2 changes were within the expected ranges. Parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T can be optimized based on these values, yielding improved resolution in musculoskeletal imaging with similar contrast to that of standard 3.0 T clinical protocols

  1. Radiation self-polarization of electrons moving in a magnetic field. [Vector spin operator, relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V G; Dorofeev, O F; Sokolov, A A; Ternov, I M; Khalilov, V R [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-03-11

    When electrons move in a magnetic field, synchrotron radiation gives rise to transitions accompanied by the electron spin reorientation. In this case, it is essential that the transition probability depends on the spin orientation; as a result electron polarization takes place with the spin orientation being predominantly opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. This effect has been called ''radiative self-polarization of electrons''. The present work is concerned with the question how the choice of the spin operator will affect the self-polarization degree and relaxation time. The problem has been solved for a vector spin operator.

  2. One-Dimensional Problem of a Conducting Viscous Fluid with One Relaxation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angail A. Samaan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a magnetohydrodynamic model of boundary-layer equations for conducting viscous fluids. This model is applied to study the effects of free convection currents with thermal relaxation time on the flow of a viscous conducting fluid. The method of the matrix exponential formulation for these equations is introduced. The resulting formulation together with the Laplace transform technique is applied to a variety problems. The effects of a plane distribution of heat sources on the whole and semispace are studied. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically for the problem.

  3. Application of Generalized Fractional Thermoelasticity Theory with Two Relaxation Times to an Electromagnetothermoelastic Thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abd El-Latief

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional mathematical model of Maxwell’s equations in an electromagnetic field and the fractional generalized thermoelastic theory associated with two relaxation times are applied to a 1D problem for a thick plate. Laplace transform is used. The solution in Laplace transform domain has been obtained using a direct method and its inversion is calculated numerically using a method based on Fourier series expansion technique. Finally, the effects of the two fractional parameters (thermo and magneto on variable fields distributions are made. Numerical results are represented graphically.

  4. Predicting how nanoconfinement changes the relaxation time of a supercooled liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Errington, Jeffrey R; Truskett, Thomas M; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2013-12-06

    The properties of nanoconfined fluids can be strikingly different from those of bulk liquids. A basic unanswered question is whether the equilibrium and dynamic consequences of confinement are related to each other in a simple way. We study this question by simulation of a liquid comprising asymmetric dumbbell-shaped molecules, which can be deeply supercooled without crystallizing. We find that the dimensionless structural relaxation times-spanning six decades as a function of temperature, density, and degree of confinement-collapse when plotted versus excess entropy. The data also collapse when plotted versus excess isochoric heat capacity, a behavior consistent with the existence of isomorphs in the bulk and confined states.

  5. MR spectroscopy of liver in overweight children and adolescents: Investigation of 1H T2 relaxation times at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S.; Thisted, Ebbe; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate T 2 relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Subjects: The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. 1 H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T 2 relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T 2 relaxation effects were calculated. Results: T 2 values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T 2 values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and T 2 relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r = 0.038, P = 0.79); (2) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and fat content (r = 0.057, P = 0.69); (3) between T 2 relaxation times of water and fat content (r = 0.160, P = 0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T 2 corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r = 0.97 for TE = 45, r = 0.93 for TE = 75, r = 0.89 for TE = 105, P 1 H MRS at 3 T is an effective technique for measuring hepatic fat content in overweight and obese children and adolescents. It is necessary to measure T 2 relaxation values and to correct the spectra for the T 2 relaxation effects in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the hepatic fat content.

  6. Coupled kinetic equations for fermions and bosons in the relaxation-time approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Maksymiuk, Ewa; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2018-02-01

    Kinetic equations for fermions and bosons are solved numerically in the relaxation-time approximation for the case of one-dimensional boost-invariant geometry. Fermions are massive and carry baryon number, while bosons are massless. The conservation laws for the baryon number, energy, and momentum lead to two Landau matching conditions, which specify the coupling between the fermionic and bosonic sectors and determine the proper-time dependence of the effective temperature and baryon chemical potential of the system. The numerical results illustrate how a nonequilibrium mixture of fermions and bosons approaches hydrodynamic regime described by the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate forms of the kinetic coefficients. The shear viscosity of a mixture is the sum of the shear viscosities of fermion and boson components, while the bulk viscosity is given by the formula known for a gas of fermions, however, with the thermodynamic variables characterising the mixture. Thus, we find that massless bosons contribute in a nontrivial way to the bulk viscosity of a mixture, provided fermions are massive. We further observe the hydrodynamization effect, which takes place earlier in the shear sector than in the bulk one. The numerical studies of the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse pressures show, to a good approximation, that it depends on the ratio of the relaxation and proper times only. This behavior is connected with the existence of an attractor solution for conformal systems.

  7. Kubo formulae for the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times and the scalar field theory shear $\\tau_\\pi$ calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we provide a quantum field theoretical study on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times, respectively. They are found by examining response functions of the stress-energy tensor. We use general properties of correlation functions and the gravitational Ward identity to parametrize analytical structures of the Green functions describing both sound and diffusion mode. We find that the hydrodynamic limits of the r...

  8. Kubo formulas for the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times and the scalar field theory shear τπ calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we provide a quantum field theoretical study on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times, respectively. They are found by examining response functions of the stress-energy tensor. We use general properties of correlation functions and the gravitational Ward identity to parametrize analytical structures of the Green functions describing both sound and diffusion mode. We find that the hydrodynamic limits of the real parts of the respective energy-momentum tensor correlation functions provide us with the method of computing both the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times. Next, we calculate the shear viscosity relaxation time using the diagrammatic approach in the Keldysh basis for the massless λ ϕ4 theory. We derive a respective integral equation which enables us to compute η τπ and then we extract the shear relaxation time. The relaxation time is shown to be inversely related to the thermal width as it should be.

  9. Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T 1) and Spin-Spin (T 2) Relaxation Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K.

    The measurement of very short spin-lattice, or longitudinal, relaxation (SLR) times (i.e., 10-10 Misra, 1998), and polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions (Pescia et al., 1999a; Pescia et al. 1999b). The ability to measure such fast SLR data on amorphous Si and copper-chromium-tin spinel led to an understanding of the role of exchange interaction in affecting spin-lattice relaxation, while the data on polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions provided evidence of spin-fracton relaxation (Pescia et al., 1999a, b). But such fast SLR times are not measurable by the most commonly used techniques of saturation- and inversion-recovery (Poole, 1982; Alger, 1968), which only measure spin-lattice relaxation times longer than 10-6 s. A summary of relevant experimental data is presented in Table 1.

  10. Detection of early gamma-postirradiation effects in murine spleen by proton NMR relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, G; Lewa, C J; Ramee, M P; Husson, F; De Certaines, J D

    2001-01-01

    It was our aim to evaluate the potential of proton relaxation times for the early detection of radiation-induced spleen changes. Female Swiss mice were irradiated with doses ranging from 0.05 Gy to 4 Gy. The body weight, the spleen weight and the spleen water content of single animals were determined. Measurements of longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) proton relaxation times of the spleen samples were performed in a 0.47 T spectrometer. Histological examinations of the control and irradiated organs were performed. NMR measurements during the first five days after irradiation showed that total body gamma-irradiation with doses from 1.5 Gy to 4 Gy results in decreasing T1 of the murine spleen. Significant shortening in T2 was observed for the spleen of animals irradiated with a dose of 4 Gy. Histological examinations demonstrated subnormal architecture in slices derived from animals irradiated with 2 Gy and 4 Gy. The fluctuations of the spleen T1 and T2 of irradiated mice are correlated with relative spleen weight and can be used to estimate radiation induced changes in this organ.

  11. Towards quantitative measurements of relaxation times and other parameters in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofts, P.S.; Du Boulay, E.P.G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The nature and physical significance of the relaxation times T1 and T2 and of proton density are described. Methods of measuring T1 and T2 are discussed with emphasis on the establishment of precision and the maintenance of accuracy. Reported standards of success are briefly reviewed. We expect sensitivities of the order of 1% to be achievable in serial studies. Although early hopes of disease diagnosis by tissue characterisation were not realised, strict scientific method and careful calibration have made it pracitcable to apply relaxation time measurement to research into disease process. Serial measurements in patients and correlation with similar studies in animal models, biopsy results and autopsy material taken together have provided new knowledge about cerebral oedema, water compartmentation, alcoholism and the natural history of multiple sclerosis. There are prospects of using measurement to monitor treatment in other diseases with diffuse brain abnormalities invisible on the usual images. Secondarily derived parameters and notably the quantification of blood-brain barrier defect after injection of Gadolinium-DTPA also offer prospects of valuable data. (orig.)

  12. Quasiparticle energy distribution and relaxation times in a tunnel-injected superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirtley, J.R.; Kent, D.S.; Langenberg, D.N.; Kaplan, S.B.; Chang, J.; Yang, C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are reported in which a nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution was created in a dirty Al film by tunnel injection and probed using a second tunnel junction. The distribution was found to have the form of a quasithermal distribution characterized by an effective temperature greater than the ambient bath temperature and dependent on injection level, plus small sharp structures which originate in structures in the injected quasiparticle distribution due to gap-edge peaks in the quasiparticle density of states. A systematic theoretical analysis of these structures correctly predicts their shapes and relative amplitudes. The amplitudes show directly the presence of branch imbalance in the nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution. Using the theoretical model, inelastic quasiparticle relaxation and elastic branch mixing times, as functions of energy and temperature, are extracted from the experimental data without need for phonon-trapping corrections. The qualitative and quantitative behavior of these times is in reasonable accord with theoretical expectations and the results of other experiments. Experiments of the type reported here are shown to provide a kind of spectroscopy of tunnel-injection and quasiparticle-relaxation processes in superconductors

  13. Evaluation of PHB/Clay nanocomposite by spin-lattice relaxation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bruno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB based on nanocomposites containing different amounts of a commercial organically modified clay (viscogel B7 were prepared employing solution intercalation method. Three solvents, such as: CHCl3, dimethylchloride (DMC and tetrahydrofuran (THF were used. The relationship among the processing conditions; molecular structure and intermolecular interaction, between both nanocomposite components, were investigated using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, as a part of characterization methodology, which has been used by Tavares et al. It involves the hydrogen spin-lattice relaxation time, T1H, by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, employing low field NMR. X ray diffraction was also employed because it is a conventional technique, generally used to obtain the first information on nanocomposite formation. Changes in PHB crystallinity were observed after the organophilic nanoclay had been incorporated in the polymer matrix. These changes, in the microstructure, were detected by the variation of hydrogen nuclear relaxation time values and by X ray, which showed an increase in the clay interlamelar space due to the intercalation of the polymer in the clay between lamellae. It was also observed, for both techniques, that the solvents affect directly the organization of the crystalline region, promoting a better intercalation, considering that they behave like a plasticizer.

  14. Discuss the value of T2 relaxation time in the research of femorotibial joint biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jinglian; Song Lingling; Liang Biling; Ye Ruixin; Yun Wenjuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of T 2 relaxation time in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage of knee joint. Methods: Knees of 20 healthy adults and 19 osteoarthritis patients were examined with sagittal 8-echo sequence. The T 2 value of cartilage was calculated. The T 2 values in the superficial and deeper cartilage of femoral and tibial joint were compared, so did between the osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults. Results: The T 2 values in the superficial and the deeper tibital cartilage were (48.8±6.3) ms, (44.3±5.7) ms, respectively. The T 2 values in the superficial and deeper femoral cartilage were (52.1±5.7) ms, (47.7±5.3) ms, respectively. There was a significant difference between superficial and deeper femoral cartilage (t=3.148 and t=3.384, P 2 value in the tibial cartilage of osteoarthritis patients was (56.0±9.1) ms and was higher than that of healthy adults. There was a significant difference between osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults (t=-3.446, P 2 relaxation time can be used in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage and has a application value in clinical diagnosis. (authors)

  15. Double Scaling in the Relaxation Time in the β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, Yuri V.; Onorato, Miguel

    2018-04-01

    We consider the original β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou system; numerical simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that, for a finite number of masses, a statistical equilibrium state is reached independently of the initial energy of the system. Using ensemble averages over initial conditions characterized by different Fourier random phases, we numerically estimate the time scale of equipartition and we find that for very small nonlinearity it matches the prediction based on exact wave-wave resonant interaction theory. We derive a simple formula for the nonlinear frequency broadening and show that when the phenomenon of overlap of frequencies takes place, a different scaling for the thermalization time scale is observed. Our result supports the idea that the Chirikov overlap criterion identifies a transition region between two different relaxation time scalings.

  16. Anisotropy of the nuclear magnetic relaxation times induced in solid 3He by modulation of the dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, G.

    1976-01-01

    Anisotropic nuclear relaxation times have been measured in solid 3 He samples grown at constant pressure, in the Larmor frequency range 1.5MHz-5MHz where the main relaxation mechanism is the modulation of the dipolar interaction by exchange or by motion of the vacancies. The second order calculation made by Harris for the exchange induced relaxation regime is extended to the regime where vacancy motion dominates. The theory is further refined by considering the fourth moment anisotropy effect on the spectral densities. This latter calculation yields a frequency dependent anisotropic contribution to T 1 which agrees qualitatively with the data, unlike the simpler results by Harris [fr

  17. Extracting energy and structure properties of glass-forming liquids from structural relaxation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwen

    2012-04-18

    A comprehensive examination of the kinetic liquid model (Wang et al 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 455104) is carried out by fitting the structural relaxation time of 26 different glass-forming liquids in a wide temperature range, including most of the well-studied materials. Careful analysis of the compiled reported data reveals that experimental inaccuracies should not be overlooked in any 'benchmark test' of relating theories or models (e.g. in Lunkenheimer et al 2010 Phys. Rev. E 81 051504). The procedure, accuracy, ability, and efficiency of the kinetic liquid model are discussed in detail and in comparison with other available fitting methods. In general, the kinetic liquid model could be verified by 17 of the 26 compiled data sets and can serve as a meaningful approximative method for analyzing these liquids. Nonetheless, further experimental examinations in a wide temperature range are needed and are called for. Through fitting, the microscopic details of these liquids are extracted, namely, the enthalpy, entropy, and cooperativity in structural relaxation, which may facilitate further quantitative analysis to both the liquidus and glassy states of these materials.

  18. Multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann modeling of the acoustic field generated by focused transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Feng; Guo, Xiasheng; Tu, Juan; Cheng, Jianchun; Zhang, Dong

    The high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become an attractive therapeutic tool for the noninvasive tumor treatment. The ultrasonic transducer is the key component in HIFU treatment to generate the HIFU energy. The dimension of focal region generated by the transducer is closely relevant to the safety of HIFU treatment. Therefore, it is essential to numerically investigate the focal region of the transducer. Although the conventional acoustic wave equations have been used successfully to describe the acoustic field, there still exist some inherent drawbacks. In this work, we presented an axisymmetric isothermal multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) model with the Bouzidi-Firdaouss-Lallemand (BFL) boundary condition in cylindrical coordinate system. With this model, some preliminary simulations were firstly conducted to determine a reasonable value of the relaxation parameter. Then, the validity of the model was examined by comparing the results obtained with the LBM results with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation and the Spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for the focused transducers with different aperture angles, respectively. In addition, the influences of the aperture angle on the focal region were investigated. The proposed model in this work will provide significant references for the parameter optimization of the focused transducer for applications in the HIFU treatment or other fields, and provide new insights into the conventional acoustic numerical simulations.

  19. Instrumentation problems in the measurement of relaxation time T1 in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy-Willig, A.; Roucayrol, J.C.; Bittoun, J.; Courtieu, J.

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal relaxation (T 1 ) of protons is a sensitive though non specific tool of tissue characterization. T 1 measurement from magnetic resonance images is unprecise, due to several phenomena that we review: time intervals shorter than in spectroscopic sequences; flip angle inhomogeneity; slice selection and spin echoes. In vivo the molecular inhomogeneity can prevent to measure a true T 1 ; motion and blood flow are important causes of errors. The relative effects of these factors are examined from in vitro and in vivo images acquired at 1.5 T. From a mono-echo single-slice saturation sequence reliable values of T 1 are obtained in vitro, the measurement time being compatible with clinical imaging. In vivo, problems due to various causes of motions are still unresolved [fr

  20. Three-dimensional simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Gui Chen; Chuan-Hu Zhang; Yun-Tian Feng; Qi-Cheng Sun; Feng Jin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LBM) for Bingham plastics which overcomes numerical instabilities in the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids for the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) model. The MRT-LBM and several related mathematical models are briefly described. Papanastasiou’s modified model is incorporated for better numerical stability. The impact of the relaxation parameters of the model is studied in detail. The MRT-L...

  1. Entropic multiple-relaxation-time multirange pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feifei; Mazloomi Moqaddam, Ali; Kang, Qinjun; Derome, Dominique; Carmeliet, Jan

    2018-03-01

    An entropic multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann approach is coupled to a multirange Shan-Chen pseudopotential model to study the two-phase flow. Compared with previous multiple-relaxation-time multiphase models, this model is stable and accurate for the simulation of a two-phase flow in a much wider range of viscosity and surface tension at a high liquid-vapor density ratio. A stationary droplet surrounded by equilibrium vapor is first simulated to validate this model using the coexistence curve and Laplace's law. Then, two series of droplet impact behavior, on a liquid film and a flat surface, are simulated in comparison with theoretical or experimental results. Droplet impact on a liquid film is simulated for different Reynolds numbers at high Weber numbers. With the increase of the Sommerfeld parameter, onset of splashing is observed and multiple secondary droplets occur. The droplet spreading ratio agrees well with the square root of time law and is found to be independent of Reynolds number. Moreover, shapes of simulated droplets impacting hydrophilic and superhydrophobic flat surfaces show good agreement with experimental observations through the entire dynamic process. The maximum spreading ratio of a droplet impacting the superhydrophobic flat surface is studied for a large range of Weber numbers. Results show that the rescaled maximum spreading ratios are in good agreement with a universal scaling law. This series of simulations demonstrates that the proposed model accurately captures the complex fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfacial physical processes for a wide range of Reynolds and Weber numbers at high density ratios.

  2. Maxwell's Enduring Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, Malcolm

    2016-07-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Figure credits; Part I. To 1874: 1. Physics in the nineteenth century; 2. Mathematics and physics in Cambridge in the nineteenth century; Part II. 1874 to 1879: 3. The Maxwell era; Part III. 1879 to 1884: 4. Rayleigh's Quinquennium; Part IV. 1884 to 1919: 5. The challenges facing J. J. Thomson; 6. The J. J. Thomson era, 1884-1900 - the electron; 7. The Thomson era, 1900-19 - atomic structure; Part V. 1919 to 1937: 8. Rutherford at McGill and Manchester Universities - new challenges in Cambridge; 9. The Rutherford era - the radioactivists; 10. Rutherford era - the seeds of the new physics; Part VI. 1938 to 1953: 11. Bragg and the war years; 12. Bragg and the post-war years; Part VII. 1953 to 1971: 13. The Mott era - an epoch of expansion; 14. The Mott era - radio astronomy and high energy physics; 15. The Mott era - the growth of condensed matter physics; Part VIII. 1971 to 1982: 16. The Pippard era - a new laboratory and a new vision; 17. The Pippard era - radio astronomy, high energy physics and laboratory astrophysics; 18. The Pippard era - condensed matter physics; Part IX. 1984 to 1995: 19. The Edwards era - a new epoch of expansion; 20. The Edwards era - new directions in condensed matter physics; 21. The Edwards era - high energy physics and radio astronomy; Part X. 1995 to present: 22. Towards the new millennium and beyond; 23. The evolution of the New Museums site; Notes; Bibliography; Author index; Index.

  3. Geology of Maxwell Montes, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.; Peterfreund, A. R.; Zisk, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Maxwell Montes represent the most distinctive topography on the surface of Venus, rising some 11 km above mean planetary radius. The multiple data sets of the Pioneer missing and Earth based radar observations to characterize Maxwell Montes are analyzed. Maxwell Montes is a porkchop shaped feature located at the eastern end of Lakshmi Planum. The main massif trends about North 20 deg West for approximately 1000 km and the narrow handle extends several hundred km West South-West WSW from the north end of the main massif, descending down toward Lakshmi Planum. The main massif is rectilinear and approximately 500 km wide. The southern and northern edges of Maxwell Montes coincide with major topographic boundaries defining the edge of Ishtar Terra.

  4. Relaxation time T/sub 1/ and bound water fraction of muscle by NMR imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Yamane, T.; Tateno, Y.; Torii, S.; Matsumura, K.

    1986-05-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of NMR-CT in the diagnostic investigation of muscle disorders, proton NMR-CT imaging was performed and muscle longitudinal relaxation (T1) times were measured in 20 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and normal controls (NC). In addition, the bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the measured T1 value in appropriate cases. Results show that in DMD muscle T1 values were above normal in the early clinical stages, declined rapidly with progress of the disease, and reached the same low level as the subcutaneous fat. This decrease of T1 values was not uniform for all muscles, being most prominent in gluteus maximus and least in sartorius and gracilis. In NC muscle BWF increased with maturation under the age of 10 years, and became fixed beyond that. In the early stages of DMD, BWF was below normal.

  5. Study of relaxation times of nanocomposites of starch/montmorillonite employing low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Luciana M.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its various applications and features, especially in therapies for controlled release of pharmaceuticals, polymers are among the most widely used excipients in pharmaceutical technology. One of the most promising nanocomposites is formed from organic polymer and inorganic clay minerals. Nanocomposites of starch/montmorillonite were prepared employing solution intercalation and characterized by proton spin-lattice relaxation time, through NMR relaxometry. The characterization of nanocomposites was done by X-ray diffraction and by nuclear magnetic resonance. The results showed that nanostructured films were obtained by intercalation from solution. Furthermore, the use of low field NMR, T1H, provided more precise information about the movement of materials, being complementary to the results obtained by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  6. T2 relaxation time in MR imaging of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, J.R.; McKay, A.; Mueller, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    To measure the T2 relaxation times of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma and to evaluate the influence of field strength and lung inflation on T2. Five healthy volunteers and five patients with diffuse lung disease were imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T. Excised normal pig lung was imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T and analyzed in a spectrometer at 2.0 T. Single-echo (Hahn) pulse sequences (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 msec) were compared with multiecho trains (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill [CPMG] at 0.15 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20-40-60... 240 msec) and 2.0 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 1, 2, 3,..., 10msec). T2 relaxation times calculated from single-echo sequences showed considerable variation between 0.15 and 2.0 T. T2 also changed with lung inflation. However, the T2 measurements on CPMG sequences did not change significantly (P > .05) with field strength and were only minimally affected by lung inflation. The mean ± SD T2 values for normal lung were 99 ± 8 and for abnormal lung were 84 ± 17. Lung parenchyma T2 measurements obtained with the use of conventional single-echo pulse sequences are variable and inaccurate because of inflation and field strength dependent magnetic susceptibility effects that lead to rapid nonrecoverable dephasing. The results indicate that multiecho sequences with appropriately short echo spacings yield more reproducible determinations of T2, which are independent of field strength and less dependent on lung inflation

  7. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  8. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T 1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  9. An anisotropic linear thermo-viscoelastic constitutive law - Elastic relaxation and thermal expansion creep in the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettermann, Heinz E.; DeSimone, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    A constitutive material law for linear thermo-viscoelasticity in the time domain is presented. The time-dependent relaxation formulation is given for full anisotropy, i.e., both the elastic and the viscous properties are anisotropic. Thereby, each element of the relaxation tensor is described by its own and independent Prony series expansion. Exceeding common viscoelasticity, time-dependent thermal expansion relaxation/creep is treated as inherent material behavior. The pertinent equations are derived and an incremental, implicit time integration scheme is presented. The developments are implemented into an implicit FEM software for orthotropic material symmetry under plane stress assumption. Even if this is a reduced problem, all essential features are present and allow for the entire verification and validation of the approach. Various simulations on isotropic and orthotropic problems are carried out to demonstrate the material behavior under investigation.

  10. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  11. Understanding generalized inversions of nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T2, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T2 provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T2 distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T2 is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form -ant_e^k (where n is the number and te the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T2 distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries.

  12. Direct measurements of relaxation times of phosphorus metabolites in the human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.; Krahe, T.; Neubauer, S.; Hillenbrand, H.; Entzeroth, C.; Horn, M.; Lackner, K.; Ertl, G.

    1992-01-01

    The T 1 relaxation times of the phosphorus metabolites in human heart muscle measurable by 31 P-MR spectra were determined in 12 individuals using a 1.5 Tesla system. Several spectra were recorded consecutively with a pulse repetition time of 1.6s to 24 s. The T 1 times of creatine phosphate (CP), of γ-, α-, β-adenosintriphosphate (ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) together with anorganic phosphate) and phosphodiester (PDE) showed mean measurements of 6.1±0.5, 5.4±0.5, 5.0±0.5, 5.8±1.0, 7.6±1.0, and 5.0±1.0s (M±SE). The accuracy of the ISIS technique was tested with a special phantom. T 1 times were also measured in standard solutions (20mM CP, 10mM ATP); CP was 8.7±0.2s and γ-ATP was 9.9±0.7s. Corrections for partially saturated 31 P-MR spectra - at least for CP/ATP ratios - are relatively small. (orig.) [de

  13. The study of NMR relaxation time spectra multi-exponential inversion based on Lloyd–Max optimal quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuewei; Kong, Li; Cheng, Jingjing; Wu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The multi-exponential inversion of a NMR relaxation signal plays a key role in core analysis and logging interpretation in the formation of porous media. To find an efficient metod of inverting high-resolution relaxation time spectra rapidly, this paper studies the effect of inversion which is based on the discretization of the original echo in a time domain by using a simulation model. This paper analyzes the ill-condition of discrete equations on the basis of the NMR inversion model and method, determines the appropriate number of discrete echoes and acquires the optimal distribution of discrete echo points by the Lloyd–Max optimal quantization method, in considering the inverse precision and computational complexity comprehensively. The result shows that this method can effectively improve the efficiency of the relaxation time spectra inversion while guaranteeing inversed accuracy. (paper)

  14. Long Spin-Relaxation Times in a Transition-Metal Atom in Direct Contact to a Metal Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Jan; Ternes, Markus; Steinbrecher, Manuel; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wiebe, Jens

    2018-03-14

    Long spin-relaxation times are a prerequisite for the use of spins in data storage or nanospintronics technologies. An atomic-scale solid-state realization of such a system is the spin of a transition-metal atom adsorbed on a suitable substrate. For the case of a metallic substrate, which enables the direct addressing of the spin by conduction electrons, the experimentally measured lifetimes reported to date are on the order of only hundreds of femtoseconds. Here, we show that the spin states of iron atoms adsorbed directly on a conductive platinum substrate have a surprisingly long spin-relaxation time in the nanosecond regime, which is comparable to that of a transition metal atom decoupled from the substrate electrons by a thin decoupling layer. The combination of long spin-relaxation times and strong coupling to conduction electrons implies the possibility to use flexible coupling schemes to process the spin information.

  15. Improve Image Quality of Transversal Relaxation Time PROPELLER and FLAIR on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, N.; Alam, D. Y.; Jamaluddin, M.; Samad, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that uses the interaction between the magnetic field and the nuclear spins. MRI can be used to show disparity of pathology by transversal relaxation time (T2) weighted images. Some techniques for producing T2-weighted images are Periodically Rotated Overlapping Parallel Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR). A comparison of T2 PROPELLER and T2 FLAIR parameters in MRI image has been conducted. And improve Image Quality the image by using RadiAnt DICOM Viewer and ENVI software with method of image segmentation and Region of Interest (ROI). Brain images were randomly selected. The result of research showed that Time Repetition (TR) and Time Echo (TE) values in all types of images were not influenced by age. T2 FLAIR images had longer TR value (9000 ms), meanwhile T2 PROPELLER images had longer TE value (100.75 - 102.1 ms). Furthermore, areas with low and medium signal intensity appeared clearer by using T2 PROPELLER images (average coefficients of variation for low and medium signal intensity were 0.0431 and 0.0705, respectively). As for areas with high signal intensity appeared clearer by using T2 FLAIR images (average coefficient of variation was 0.0637).

  16. Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible

  17. Maxwell electrodynamics subjected to quantum vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Gevorkyan, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) equations. For a model of “white noise” fluctuations, using ML equations, a second order partial differential equation is found which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the “ground state” energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of the vacuum quantum field fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum with a 2D compactified subspace. Their influence on the refraction indexes of vacuum is studied.

  18. Lineshape theory of pigment-protein complexes: How the finite relaxation time of nuclei influences the exciton relaxation-induced lifetime broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.renger@jku.at [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-07-21

    In pigment-protein complexes, often the excited states are partially delocalized and the exciton-vibrational coupling in the basis of delocalized states contains large diagonal and small off-diagonal elements. This inequality may be used to introduce potential energy surfaces (PESs) of exciton states and to treat the inter-PES coupling in Markov and secular approximations. The resulting lineshape function consists of a Lorentzian peak that is broadened by the finite lifetime of the exciton states caused by the inter-PES coupling and a vibrational sideband that results from the mutual displacement of the excitonic PESs with respect to that of the ground state. So far analytical expressions have been derived that relate the exciton relaxation-induced lifetime broadening to the Redfield [T. Renger and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9997 (2002)] or modified Redfield [M. Schröder, U. Kleinekathöfer, and M. Schreiber, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084903 (2006)] rate constants of exciton relaxation, assuming that intra-PES nuclear relaxation is fast compared to inter-PES transfer. Here, we go beyond this approximation and provide an analytical expression, termed Non-equilibrium Modified Redfield (NeMoR) theory, for the lifetime broadening that takes into account the finite nuclear relaxation time. In an application of the theory to molecular dimers, we find that, for a widely used experimental spectral density of the exciton-vibrational coupling of pigment-protein complexes, the NeMoR spectrum at low-temperatures (T < 150 K) is better approximated by Redfield than by modified Redfield theory. At room temperature, the lifetime broadening obtained with Redfield theory underestimates the NeMoR broadening, whereas modified Redfield theory overestimates it by a similar amount. A fortuitous error compensation in Redfield theory is found to explain the good performance of this theory at low temperatures. Since steady state spectra of PPCs are often measured at low temperatures

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on brain edema. Time course of /sup 1/H-NMR relaxation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, S; Horikawa, Y; Tanaka, C; Hirakawa, K; Nishikawa, H [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    1. The state of water in normal and edematous brain tissue was studied by measurement of proton longitudinal (T/sub 1/) and transverse (T/sub 2/) relaxation times using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. 2. In control rats, T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ of water showed one component, which was more fast in white matter. Those values displayed 1.07 - 1.18 sec. of T/sub 1/ and 75 - 76 msec. of T/sub 2/. 3. When rat brain was injured by cold, T/sub 1/ was observed to become longer (1.18 - 1.27 sec.), and T/sub 2/ was observed be separated into two components, the faster T/sub 2/ (45 - 50 msec.) and slower T/sub 2/ (100 - 105 msec.), in both gray and white matter of the injured side. 4. In triethyltin (TET) induced brain edema, elongation of T/sub 1/ (1.2 sec.) and remarkable separation of T/sub 2/, faster T/sub 2/ (75 msec.) and slower T/sub 2/ (400 - 450 msec.), were observed in white matter. 5. In both cold and TET induced edema, slower T/sub 2/ fraction is suggested to be the extracellular space and faster T/sub 2/ fraction, intracellular. 6. T/sub 2/ changes precede the water content changes in cold injury, and parallel in TET induced edema. Those changes of relaxation times are reversible. 7. T/sub 2/ changes of water is more sensitive than the T/sub 1/ for the detection of production and disappearance of brain edema. 8. These results disclose the dynamic movements of water during the course of brain edema and offered significant information of the clinical application of NMR-CT.

  20. Real-Time Observation of Ultrafast Intraband Relaxation and Exciton Multiplication in PbS Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala’a O.

    2014-03-19

    We examine ultrafast intraconduction band relaxation and multiple-exciton generation (MEG) in PbS quantum dots (QDs) using transient absorption spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. The intraconduction band relaxation can be directly and excellently resolved spectrally and temporally by applying broadband pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and detect the wavelengths around the exciton absorption peak, which is located in the near-infrared region. The time-resolved data unambiguously demonstrate that the intraband relaxation time progressively increases as the pump-photon energy increases. Moreover, the relaxation time becomes much shorter as the size of the QDs decreases, indicating the crucial role of spatial confinement in the intraband relaxation process. Additionally, our results reveal the systematic scaling of the intraband relaxation time with both excess energy above the effective energy band gap and QD size. We also assess MEG in different sizes of the QDs. Under the condition of high-energy photon excitation, which is well above the MEG energy threshold, ultrafast bleach recovery due to the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple electron-hole pairs provides conclusive experimental evidence for the presence of MEG. For instance, we achieved quantum efficiencies of 159, 129 and 106% per single-absorbed photon at pump photoexcition of three times the band gap for QDs with band gaps of 880 nm (1.41 eV), 1000 nm (1.24 eV) and 1210 nm (1.0 eV), respectively. These findings demonstrate clearly that the efficiency of transferring excess photon energy to carrier multiplication is significantly increased in smaller QDs compared with larger ones. Finally, we discuss the Auger recombination dynamics of the multiple electron-hole pairs as a function of QD size.

  1. 31P spin-lattice relaxation time measurements in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Eiji; Maeda, Munehiro; Kuki, Satoru; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) of phosphorus compounds in the perfused heart, liver, kidney and erythrocytes of rats were measured by the DESPOT (Driven-equilibrium single-pulse observation of T 1 ) method at 8.45 T. This method is a rapid and accurate technique for the measurement of T 1 values. T 1 values of phosphomonoesters (PME), 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and three phosphates of ATP were ranged from 0.15±0.02 sec (β-ATP in the liver) to 8.5±1.6 sec (PDE in the kidney). T 1 value of β-ATP in the liver was 1/4-1/5 of those in the mandibular gland, heart, erythrocytes and kidney. T 1 values obtained from biological materials are useful for selecting the optimal pulse repetition times and pulse angles to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of 13 P spectra, and for correcting distortions of signal intensities in the spectra. (author)

  2. Two-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for the anisotropic dispersive Henry problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Camas, Borja; Tsai, Frank T.-C.

    2010-02-01

    This study develops a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with a two-relaxation-time collision operator (TRT) to cope with anisotropic heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and anisotropic velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion in the saltwater intrusion problem. The directional-speed-of-sound technique is further developed to address anisotropic hydraulic conductivity and dispersion tensors. Forcing terms are introduced in the LBM to correct numerical errors that arise during the recovery procedure and to describe the sink/source terms in the flow and transport equations. In order to facilitate the LBM implementation, the forcing terms are combined with the equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) to create pseudo-EDFs. This study performs linear stability analysis and derives LBM stability domains to solve the anisotropic advection-dispersion equation. The stability domains are used to select the time step at which the lattice Boltzmann method provides stable solutions to the numerical examples. The LBM was implemented for the anisotropic dispersive Henry problem with high ratios of longitudinal to transverse dispersivities, and the results compared well to the solutions in the work of Abarca et al. (2007).

  3. Nonmaxwell relaxation in disordered media: Physical mechanisms and fractional relaxation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhincheev, V.E.

    2004-12-01

    The problem of charge relaxation in disordered systems has been solved. It is shown, that due to the inhomogeneity of the medium the charge relaxation has a non-Maxwell character. The two physical mechanisms of a such behavior have been founded. The first one is connected with the 'fractality' of conducting ways. The second mechanism of nonexponential non-Maxwell behavior is connected with the frequency dispersion of effective conductivity of heterogeneous medium, initially consisting of conducting phases without dispersion. The new generalized relaxation equations in the form of fractional temporal integro-differential equations are deduced. (author)

  4. Reduced Vlasov-Maxwell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helluy, P.; Navoret, L.; Pham, N.; Crestetto, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Maxwell-Vlasov system is a fundamental model in physics. It can be applied to plasma simulations, charged particles beam, astrophysics, etc. The unknowns are the electromagnetic field, solution to the Maxwell equations and the distribution function, solution to the Vlasov equation. In this paper we review two different numerical methods for Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. The first method is based on a coupling between a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Maxwell solver and a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) Vlasov solver. The second method only uses a DG approach for the Vlasov and Maxwell equations. The Vlasov equation is first reduced to a space-only hyperbolic system thanks to the finite-element method. The two numerical methods are implemented using OpenCL in order to achieve high performance on recent Graphic Processing Units (GPU). We obtained interesting speedups, but we also observe that the PIC method is the most expensive part of the computation. Therefore we propose another fully Eulerian approach. Thanks to a decomposition of the distribution function on velocity basis functions, we obtain a reduced Vlasov model, which appears to be a hyperbolic system of conservation laws written only in the (x,t) space. We can thus adapt very easily our DG solver to the reduced model

  5. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-06-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  6. Ab initio relaxation times and time-dependent Hamiltonians within the steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilki; von Spakovsky, Michael R.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum systems driven by time-dependent Hamiltonians are considered here within the framework of steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT) and used to study the thermodynamic characteristics of such systems. In doing so, a generalization of the SEAQT framework valid for all such systems is provided, leading to the development of an ab initio physically relevant expression for the intrarelaxation time, an important element of this framework and one that had as of yet not been uniquely determined as an integral part of the theory. The resulting expression for the relaxation time is valid as well for time-independent Hamiltonians as a special case and makes the description provided by the SEAQT framework more robust at the fundamental level. In addition, the SEAQT framework is used to help resolve a fundamental issue of thermodynamics in the quantum domain, namely, that concerning the unique definition of process-dependent work and heat functions. The developments presented lead to the conclusion that this framework is not just an alternative approach to thermodynamics in the quantum domain but instead one that uniquely sheds new light on various fundamental but as of yet not completely resolved questions of thermodynamics.

  7. Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Approach to Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Li Yingjun; Xu Aiguo; Zhang Guangcai

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present paper are twofold. At first, we further study the Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model proposed in [Europhys. Lett. 90 (2010) 54003]. We discuss the reason why the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure is not needed in the construction of transformation matrix M; point out a reason why the Kataoka-Tsutahara model [Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 035701 (R)] is only valid in subsonic flows. The von Neumann stability analysis is performed. Secondly, we carry out a preliminary quantitative study on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using the proposed MRT LB model. When a shock wave travels from a light medium to a heavy one, the simulated growth rate is in qualitative agreement with the perturbation model by Zhang-Sohn. It is about half of the predicted value by the impulsive model and is closer to the experimental result. When the shock wave travels from a heavy medium to a light one, our simulation results are also consistent with physical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Diffusion relaxation times of nonequilibrium isolated small bodies and their solid phase ensembles to equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility of obtaining analytical estimates in a diffusion approximation of the times needed by nonequilibrium small bodies to relax to their equilibrium states based on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient is considered. This coefficient is expressed as the product of the self-diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor. A set of equations for the diffusion transport of mixture components is formulated, characteristic scales of the size of microheterogeneous phases are identified, and effective mass transfer coefficients are constructed for them. Allowing for the developed interface of coexisting and immiscible phases along with the porosity of solid phases is discussed. This approach can be applied to the diffusion equalization of concentrations of solid mixture components in many physicochemical systems: the mutual diffusion of components in multicomponent systems (alloys, semiconductors, solid mixtures of inert gases) and the mass transfer of an absorbed mobile component in the voids of a matrix consisting of slow components or a mixed composition of mobile and slow components (e.g., hydrogen in metals, oxygen in oxides, and the transfer of molecules through membranes of different natures, including polymeric).

  9. Experimental study of electric field influence on low temperature long-time relaxation in crystalline ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, S.; Kolac, M.; Sahling, A.

    1987-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements with polycrystalline Pb 0.915 La 0.085 x(Zr 0.65 Ti 0.35 )O 3 were performed at helium temperatures in electric field E (0 ≤ E ≤ 4.3 kV/cm). Heat release after cooling from T 1 (1.3 K ≤ T 1 ≤ 35 K) to T 0 =1.3 K is very similar to that in amorphous metals and dielectrics. Experimental results disagree with the standard tunneling model. The observed release may be explained assuming the existence of a maximum energy is an element of f in the distribution function. The maximum relaxation time τ max was found as a function of T 1 . A similar heat release is observed after switching on or off the electric field. In dependent of T for 1.1 K ≤ T ≤ 3 K, proportional to E 2 with τ max ∼ E. No heat release was observed in the KH 2 PO 4 single crystal

  10. On a two-relaxation-time D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model for the Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weifeng; Wang, Liang; Yong, Wen-An

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the stability of some lattice kinetic schemes. First, we show that a recently proposed lattice kinetic scheme is a two-relaxation-time model different from those in the literature. Second, we analyze the stability of the model by verifying the Onsager-like relation. In addition, a necessary stability criterion for hyperbolic relaxation systems is adapted to the lattice Boltzmann method. As an application of this criterion, we find some necessary stability conditions for a previously proposed lattice kinetic scheme. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the necessary stability conditions.

  11. Transverse magnetic field effects on the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 measured by {sup 55}Mn-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D

    2003-05-01

    The longitudinal (H{sub Z}) and transverse (H{sub T}) magnetic field dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 in its S=10 ground state was measured by NMR. The minima in the relaxation time at the fields for level crossing are due to the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The shortening of the relaxation time under the application of H{sub T} is shown to be due mainly to the reduction of the energy barrier.

  12. Time course of action and endotracheal intubating conditions of Org 9487, a new short-acting steroidal muscle relaxant; a comparison with succinylcholine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; van den Broek, L; Proost, JH; Verbaan, BW; Hennis, PJ

    In a randomized study, we evaluated lag time (time from the end of injection of muscle relaxant until the first depression of the train-of-four response [TOF]), onset time (time from the end of injection of muscle relaxant until the maximum depression of the first twitch of the TOF [T1]),

  13. Intraindividual comparison of T1 relaxation times after gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA administration for cardiac late enhancement imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeblin, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.doeblin@charite.de [Department of Cardiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Schilling, Rene, E-mail: rene.schilling@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Moritz, E-mail: moritz.wagner@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Luhur, Reny, E-mail: renyluhur@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.huppertz@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Imaging Science Institute, Charité, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.hamm@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Taupitz, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.taupitz@harite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate T1-relaxation times of chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) using gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) over time and to determine the optimal imaging window for late enhancement imaging with both contrast agents. Material and methods: Twelve patients with CMI were prospectively included and examined on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) system using relaxivity-adjusted doses of gadobutrol (0.15 mmol/kg) and Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) in random order. T1-relaxation times of remote myocardium (RM), infarcted myocardium (IM), and left ventricular cavity (LVC) were assessed from short-axis TI scout imaging using the Look–Locker approach and compared intraindividually using a Wilcoxon paired signed-rank test (α < 0.05). Results: Within 3 min of contrast agent administration (CA), IM showed significantly lower T1-relaxation times than RM with both contrast agents, indicating beginning cardiac late enhancement. Differences between gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA in T1-relaxation times of IM and RM were statistically not significant through all time points. However, gadobutrol led to significantly higher T1-relaxation times of LVC than Gd-DTPA from 6 to 9 min (220 ± 15 ms vs. 195 ± 30 ms p < 0.01) onwards, resulting in a significantly greater ΔT1 of IM to LVC at 9–12 min (−20 ± 35 ms vs. 0 ± 35 ms, p < 0.05) and 12–15 min (−25 ± 45 ms vs. −10 ± 60 ms, p < 0.05). Using Gd-DTPA, comparable ΔT1 values were reached only after 25–35 min. Conclusion: This study indicates good delineation of IM to RM with both contrast agents as early as 3 min after administration. However, we found significant differences in T1 relaxation times with greater ΔT1 IM–LVC using 0.15 mmol/kg gadobutrol compared to 0.20 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA after 9–15 min post-CA suggesting earlier differentiability of IM and LVC using gadobutrol.

  14. Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for MHD Three-Dimensional Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Stretching Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M

    2016-01-01

    This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.

  15. The influence of temperature, viscosity and pH on the relaxation time T1 in flowing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toczylowska, B.

    1995-01-01

    The designed and constructed at the Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering facility for the relaxation time (T 1 ) measurements of liquids flow has been presented. The influence of temperature, viscosity and pH has been determined for several liquids, especially physiological fluids

  16. Comparative study of the sensitivity of ADC value and T2 relaxation time for early detection of Wallerian degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Lu Guangming; Zee Chishing

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Wallerian degeneration (WD), the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injuries, is associated with poor neurological outcome. There is some quantitative MR imaging techniques used to estimate the biologic changes secondary to delayed neuronal and axonal losses. Our purpose is to assess the sensitivity of ADC value and T 2 relaxation time for early detection of WD. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish in vivo Wallerian degeneration model of CNS by ipsilateral motor-sensory cortex ablation. 5 days after cortex ablation, multiecho-T 2 relaxometry and multi-b value DWI were acquired by using a 7 T MR imaging scanner. ADC-map and T 2 -map were reconstructed by post-processing. ROIs are selected according to pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, medulla oblongata to upper cervical spinal cord to measure ADC value and T 2 relaxation time of healthy side and affected side. The results were compared between the side with cortical ablation and the side without ablation. Results: Excluding ablated cortex, ADC values of the corticospinal tract were significantly increased (P 2 relaxation time was observed between the affected and healthy sides. Imaging findings were correlated with histological examinations. Conclusion: As shown in this animal experiment, ADC values could non-invasively demonstrate the secondary degeneration involving descending white matter tracts. ADC values are more sensitive indicators for detection of early WD than T 2 relaxation time.

  17. James Clerk Maxwell: Life and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Maxwell's life and science are presented with an account of the progression of Maxwell's research on electromagnetic theory. This is appropriate for the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies, 2015. Maxwell's own confidence in his 1865 electromagnetic theory of light is examined, along with some of the difficulties he faced and the difficulties faced by some of his followers. Maxwell's interest in radiation pressure and electromagnetic stress is addressed, as well as subsequent developments. Some of Maxwell's other contributions to physics are discussed with an emphasis on the kinetic and molecular theory of gases. Maxwell's theistic perspective on science is illustrated, accompanied by examples of perspectives on Maxwell and his science provided by his peers and accounts of his interactions with those peers. Appendices examine the peer review of Maxwell's 1865 electromagnetic theory paper and the naming of the Maxwell Garnett effective media approximation and provide various supplemental perspectives. From Maxwell's publications and correspondence there is evidence he had a high regard for Michael Faraday. Examples of Maxwell's contributions to electromagnetic terminology are noted. - Highlights: • Maxwell’s 1865 “Dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field” is examined. • Maxwell affirmed confidence in his electromagnetic wave theory in his 1873 Treatise. • Discussion includes views and unpublished correspondence of Maxwell's contemporaries. • His contemporaries noticed the depth and breadth of Maxwell’s thought. • Maxwell’s contemporaries noticed his theistic perspective concerning science.

  18. Interaction study of polyisobutylene with paraffins by NMR using the evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times for hydrogen nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Rosana G.G.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times of 1 H for polyisobutylene/paraffin systems, were obtained using the classic inversion recovery technique, and also through Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) techniques varying the contact time and also by the delayed contact time pulse sequence. NMR results showed that the polyisobutylene/paraffin systems in which high molecular weight paraffins were used, is heterogeneous. However, for paraffins with low molecular weight, the system presents good homogeneity. (author)

  19. In-vivo measurement of proton relaxation time (T1 and T2) in paediatric brain by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumura, Michio

    1986-01-01

    The clinical application of MRI led to the detailed imaging of the three-dimentional structure of the brain. Thus, significant information has been obtained with respect to the diagnosis of various diseases, rating severity, evaluation of curative effects, etc. On the other hand, the proportion of the comparative length of the relaxation time to the signal intensity of the images (especially the Spin-Echo image) was not necessarily linear. Consquently, the evaluation of severity was not easy to make. However, if we can obtain T 1 and T 2 precisely as the parameters costituting the images, it will be possible to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties. Further, the usefulness of MRI in activities such as determining the water metabolism of the brain is expected to increase even more. By means of VISTA-MR (0.15 Tesla, resistive magnet ; Picker International Co.) we measured the proton relaxation time (spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) and spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 )) of various intracerebral lesions in paediatric cases. As the control group, 43 children, 4 adolescents and 6 adults were used. The T 1 and T 2 in the normal infantile cases prolonged significantly as compared with adult case. Thereafter, they become shortened by aging. In the age of two or three years, they reach the normal level of adult case. In the cases of degenerative disease, brain tumor, and cerebral contusion, the remarkable prolongation of both T 1 and T 2 , compared with normal value of the same age was observed. In the cases of brain atrophy and epilepsy, T 1 and T 2 were slightly short or within normal value of the same age. In the cases of intracerebral hemorrhage, T 1 was shortened. The in-vivo proton relaxation time obtained by MRI have various limits, but they can be a noninvasive and useful index in evaluation of severity or curative effects in various cerebral diseases. (author)

  20. Thermal behaviour of the ESR Relaxation time in slightly dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwachheim, G.; Machado, S.F.; Tsallis, C.

    1978-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of the ESR relaxation rate in slightly dirty superconductors is discussed for both exchange and spin-orbit interactions between the conduction electrons and the impurities. The sensibility to the electronic density of states is exhibited by using, in a modified BCS framework, an heuristic analytic form which avoids two of three defects of a previous similar treatment. The sudden increase (decrease) of the relaxation rate immediately below the critical temperature for the exchange (spin-orbit) case is confirmed. Reasonable agreement with experimental data in LaRu 2 ; Gd is obtained [pt

  1. Simulation of turbulent flow over staggered tube bundles using multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon; Choi, Hyun Gyung

    2014-01-01

    A turbulent fluid flow over staggered tube bundles is of great interest in many engineering fields including nuclear fuel rods, heat exchangers and especially a gas cooled reactor lower plenum. Computational methods have evolved for the simulation of such flow for decades and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is one of the attractive methods due to its sound physical basis and ease of computerization including parallelization. In this study to find computational performance of the LBM in turbulent flows over staggered tubes, a fluid flow analysis code employing multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is developed based on a 2-dimensional D2Q9 lattice model and classical sub-grid eddy viscosity model of Smagorinsky. As a first step, fundamental performance MRT-LBM is investigated against a standard problem of a flow past a cylinder at low Reynolds number in terms of drag forces. As a major step, benchmarking of the MRT-LBM is performed over a turbulent flow through staggered tube bundles at Reynolds number of 18,000. For a flow past a single cylinder, the accuracy is validated against existing experimental data and previous computations in terms of drag forces on the cylinder. Mainly, the MRT-LBM computation for a flow through staggered tube bundles is performed and compared with experimental data and general purpose computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses with standard k-ω turbulence and large eddy simulation (LES) equipped with turbulence closures of Smagrinsky-Lilly and wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model. The agreement between the experimental and the computational results from the present MRT-LBM is found to be reasonably acceptable and even comparable to the LES whereas the computational efficiency is superior. (orig.)

  2. Simulation of turbulent flow over staggered tube bundles using multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon; Choi, Hyun Gyung [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear and Energy Engineering Dept.

    2014-02-15

    A turbulent fluid flow over staggered tube bundles is of great interest in many engineering fields including nuclear fuel rods, heat exchangers and especially a gas cooled reactor lower plenum. Computational methods have evolved for the simulation of such flow for decades and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is one of the attractive methods due to its sound physical basis and ease of computerization including parallelization. In this study to find computational performance of the LBM in turbulent flows over staggered tubes, a fluid flow analysis code employing multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is developed based on a 2-dimensional D2Q9 lattice model and classical sub-grid eddy viscosity model of Smagorinsky. As a first step, fundamental performance MRT-LBM is investigated against a standard problem of a flow past a cylinder at low Reynolds number in terms of drag forces. As a major step, benchmarking of the MRT-LBM is performed over a turbulent flow through staggered tube bundles at Reynolds number of 18,000. For a flow past a single cylinder, the accuracy is validated against existing experimental data and previous computations in terms of drag forces on the cylinder. Mainly, the MRT-LBM computation for a flow through staggered tube bundles is performed and compared with experimental data and general purpose computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses with standard k-ω turbulence and large eddy simulation (LES) equipped with turbulence closures of Smagrinsky-Lilly and wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model. The agreement between the experimental and the computational results from the present MRT-LBM is found to be reasonably acceptable and even comparable to the LES whereas the computational efficiency is superior. (orig.)

  3. Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Binding and relaxation behavior of Coumarin-153 in lecithin-taurocholate mixed micelles: A time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Debdeep; Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Hazra, Partha; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2005-09-01

    The microenvironment of the bile salt-lecithin mixed aggregates has been investigated using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The steady state spectra show that the polarity of the bile salt is higher compared to lecithin vesicles or the mixed aggregates. We have observed slow solvent relaxation in bile salt micelles and lecithin vesicles. The solvation time is gradually slowed down due to gradual addition of the bile salt in lecithin vesicles. Addition of bile salt leads to the tighter head group packing in lecithin. Thus, mobility of the water molecules becomes slower and consequently the solvation time is also retarded. We have observed bimodal slow rotational relaxation time in all these systems.

  5. A study on magnetic relaxation times of various organs and body fluids using superconducting magnetic resonance imaging system part I: measurement of relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in various portions of brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Man Chang; Kim, Chu Wan

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertake to determine if routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging sequences using only two different repetition times (TRs) and with only two sequential echo times (TEs) can be used to measure reproducible relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time for normal brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid using a 2.0T superconducting system. In 47 patients 6 different anatomic sites were measured. For each anatomic location, the mean and standard deviation of these values were determined. On T1-weighted (SE 500msec/30msec) images, in globus pallidus and thalamus, of the CSF, cortical gray matter and retrobulbar fat tissue varied more, with a standard deviation of 11-14% on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted (SE 3000msec/30msec and 3000msec/80msec) images, the relative signal intensity of all anatomic regions varied more than on T1-weighted images. The standard deviation of T2 relaxation times also varied from 10% (fat tissue) to 18% (CSF). These variations might be due to partial volume averaging, signal alteration of CSF secondary to CSF pulsatile motion, etc. Knowing that relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation times calculated from routine imaging sequences are reproducible in only limited area, these normal ranges can be used to investigate changes occurring in disease states of the limited regions.

  6. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  7. Escape time, relaxation, and sticky states of a softened Henon-Heiles model: Low-frequency vibrational mode effects and glass relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2018-04-01

    Here we study the relaxation of a chain consisting of three masses joined by nonlinear springs and periodic conditions when the stiffness is weakened. This system, when expressed in their normal coordinates, yields a softened Henon-Heiles system. By reducing the stiffness of one low-frequency vibrational mode, a faster relaxation is enabled. This is due to a reduction of the energy barrier heights along the softened normal mode as well as for a widening of the opening channels of the energy landscape in configurational space. The relaxation is for the most part exponential, and can be explained by a simple flux equation. Yet, for some initial conditions the relaxation follows as a power law, and in many cases there is a regime change from exponential to power-law decay. We pinpoint the initial conditions for the power-law decay, finding two regions of sticky states. For such states, quasiperiodic orbits are found since almost for all components of the initial momentum orientation, the system is trapped inside two pockets of configurational space. The softened Henon-Heiles model presented here is intended as the simplest model in order to understand the interplay of rigidity, nonlinear interactions and relaxation for nonequilibrium systems such as glass-forming melts or soft matter. Our softened system can be applied to model β relaxation in glasses and suggest that local reorientational jumps can have an exponential and a nonexponential contribution for relaxation, the latter due to asymmetric molecules sticking in cages for certain orientations.

  8. Monte Carlo computation of correlation times of independent relaxation modes at criticality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloete, H.W.J.; Nightingale, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate aspects of universality of Glauber critical dynamics in two dimensions. We compute the critical exponent $z$ and numerically corroborate its universality for three different models in the static Ising universality class and for five independent relaxation modes. We also present

  9. Modelling of loading, stress relaxation and stress recovery in a shape memory polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J; Bonner, M; Ward, I M

    2014-09-01

    A multi-element constitutive model for a lactide-based shape memory polymer has been developed that represents loading to large tensile deformations, stress relaxation and stress recovery at 60, 65 and 70°C. The model consists of parallel Maxwell arms each comprising neo-Hookean and Eyring elements. Guiu-Pratt analysis of the stress relaxation curves yields Eyring parameters. When these parameters are used to define the Eyring process in a single Maxwell arm, the resulting model yields at too low a stress, but gives good predictions for longer times. Stress dip tests show a very stiff response on unloading by a small strain decrement. This would create an unrealistically high stress on loading to large strain if it were modelled by an elastic element. Instead it is modelled by an Eyring process operating via a flow rule that introduces strain hardening after yield. When this process is incorporated into a second parallel Maxwell arm, there results a model that fully represents both stress relaxation and stress dip tests at 60°C. At higher temperatures a third arm is required for valid predictions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SU-F-I-63: Relaxation Times of Lipid Resonances in NAFLD Animal Model Using Enhanced Curve Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K-H; Yoo, C-H; Lim, S-I; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relaxation time of methylene resonance in comparison with other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner using a four-channel animal coil. Eight more Sprague-Dawley rats in the same baseline weight range were housed with ad libitum access to water and a high-fat (HF) diet (60% fat, 20% protein, and 20% carbohydrate). In order to avoid large blood vessels, a voxel (0.8×0.8×0.8 cm{sup 3}) was placed in a homogeneous area of the liver parenchyma during free breathing. Lipid relaxations in NC and HF diet rats were estimated at a fixed repetition time (TR) of 6000 msec, and multi echo time (TEs) of 40–220 msec. All spectra for data measurement were processed using the Advanced Method for Accurate, Robust, and Efficient Spectral (AMARES) fitting algorithm of the Java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface (jMRUI) package. Results: The mean T2 relaxation time of the methylene resonance in normal-chow diet was 37.1 msec (M{sub 0}, 2.9±0.5), with a standard deviation of 4.3 msec. The mean T2 relaxation time of the methylene resonance was 31.4 msec (M{sub 0}, 3.7±0.3), with a standard deviation of 1.8 msec. The T2 relaxation times of methylene protons were higher in normal-chow diet rats than in HF rats (p<0.05), and the extrapolated M{sub 0} values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p<0.005). The excellent linear fit with R{sup 2}>0.9971 and R{sup 2}>0.9987 indicates T2 relaxation decay curves with mono-exponential function. Conclusion: In in vivo, a sufficient spectral resolution and a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved, so that the data measured over short TE values can be extrapolated back to TE = 0 to produce better estimates of the relative weights of the spectral components. In the short term, treating the effective decay rate as exponential is an adequate approximation.

  11. FDTD for Hydrodynamic Electron Fluid Maxwell Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxue Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we develop a numerical method for solving the three dimensional hydrodynamic electron fluid Maxwell equations that describe the electron gas dynamics driven by an external electromagnetic wave excitation. Our numerical approach is based on the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method for solving the Maxwell’s equations and an explicit central finite difference method for solving the hydrodynamic electron fluid equations containing both electron density and current equations. Numerical results show good agreement with the experiment of studying the second-harmonic generation (SHG from metallic split-ring resonator (SRR.

  12. An open-source software tool for the generation of relaxation time maps in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messroghli, Daniel R; Rudolph, Andre; Abdel-Aty, Hassan; Wassmuth, Ralf; Kühne, Titus; Dietz, Rainer; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times represent characteristic tissue properties that can be quantified with the help of specific imaging strategies. While there are basic software tools for specific pulse sequences, until now there is no universal software program available to automate pixel-wise mapping of relaxation times from various types of images or MR systems. Such a software program would allow researchers to test and compare new imaging strategies and thus would significantly facilitate research in the area of quantitative tissue characterization. After defining requirements for a universal MR mapping tool, a software program named MRmap was created using a high-level graphics language. Additional features include a manual registration tool for source images with motion artifacts and a tabular DICOM viewer to examine pulse sequence parameters. MRmap was successfully tested on three different computer platforms with image data from three different MR system manufacturers and five different sorts of pulse sequences: multi-image inversion recovery T1; Look-Locker/TOMROP T1; modified Look-Locker (MOLLI) T1; single-echo T2/T2*; and multi-echo T2/T2*. Computing times varied between 2 and 113 seconds. Estimates of relaxation times compared favorably to those obtained from non-automated curve fitting. Completed maps were exported in DICOM format and could be read in standard software packages used for analysis of clinical and research MR data. MRmap is a flexible cross-platform research tool that enables accurate mapping of relaxation times from various pulse sequences. The software allows researchers to optimize quantitative MR strategies in a manufacturer-independent fashion. The program and its source code were made available as open-source software on the internet

  13. An open-source software tool for the generation of relaxation time maps in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne Titus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In magnetic resonance (MR imaging, T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times represent characteristic tissue properties that can be quantified with the help of specific imaging strategies. While there are basic software tools for specific pulse sequences, until now there is no universal software program available to automate pixel-wise mapping of relaxation times from various types of images or MR systems. Such a software program would allow researchers to test and compare new imaging strategies and thus would significantly facilitate research in the area of quantitative tissue characterization. Results After defining requirements for a universal MR mapping tool, a software program named MRmap was created using a high-level graphics language. Additional features include a manual registration tool for source images with motion artifacts and a tabular DICOM viewer to examine pulse sequence parameters. MRmap was successfully tested on three different computer platforms with image data from three different MR system manufacturers and five different sorts of pulse sequences: multi-image inversion recovery T1; Look-Locker/TOMROP T1; modified Look-Locker (MOLLI T1; single-echo T2/T2*; and multi-echo T2/T2*. Computing times varied between 2 and 113 seconds. Estimates of relaxation times compared favorably to those obtained from non-automated curve fitting. Completed maps were exported in DICOM format and could be read in standard software packages used for analysis of clinical and research MR data. Conclusions MRmap is a flexible cross-platform research tool that enables accurate mapping of relaxation times from various pulse sequences. The software allows researchers to optimize quantitative MR strategies in a manufacturer-independent fashion. The program and its source code were made available as open-source software on the internet.

  14. DEVICE FOR MEASURMENT OF RELAXATION TIME OF THE BLEACHED STATE OF OPTICAL MATERIALS BY THE «PUMP-PROBE» METHOD IN SUB-ΜS TIME DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Glazunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive shutters to control the duration of the light pulses is an important aspect in the miniature and microchip lasers. One of the key spectroscopic characteristics which determine the properties of the material, which can be used as a passive shutter is relaxation time of its bleached state.We describe a device for determination of relaxation time of the bleached state in optical materials by the «pump-probe» method in the sub-μs time domain. This device allows one to determine relaxation times for materials which absorb at the light wavelength of 1.5 μm, e.g., materials doped with cobalt ions Co2+. The results of test examinations of the device are described, and the relaxation time of the bleached state of Co2+ ions is measured for a novel material – transparent glass-ceramics with Co2+:Ga2 O3 nanophase – amounting to 190 ± 6 ns. 

  15. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of Proximal Tibiofibular Cartilage by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, Sun Yong; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Background: The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) can be considered the fourth compartment of the knee joint. However, there have been no studies of the T2 values (T2 relaxation time) of PTFJ cartilage. Purpose: To assess the T2 values of PTFJ cartilage at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to show the clinical utility of T2 values of PTFJ cartilage for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Material and Methods: 118 patients who had knee MR imaging and knee radiography were enrolled. MRI was performed using a 3T MRI scanner, and T2 maps were calculated from a sagittal multi-echo acquisition. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were positioned within PTFJ cartilage and medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage. The average T2 value and standard deviation (SD) of each ROI were recorded. Using PTFJ cartilage as a standard reference, the T2 index ((MFC/PTFJ)x100) and T2SD index ((MFCSD/PTFJSD)x100) were calculated. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean and SD of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage. Correlation analyses were performed among the parameters age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, means and SDs of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage, T2 index, and T2SD index. Results: PTFJ cartilage had a significantly shorter T2 value than did MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). ROIs within PTFJ cartilage showed significantly smaller SDs than did those within MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). The average T2 value and SD of MFC and the T2SD index showed a positive correlation to the KL score (P<0.05). The correlation coefficients for the average T2 value, SD, and T2SD index of MFC were R=0.203, 0.254, and 0.268, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between T2 values of PTFJ cartilage and KL score (P=0.643). Conclusion: PTFJ cartilage showed shorter and more homogeneous T2 values with a small SD than did MFC cartilage, regardless of the degree of OA at femorotibial compartments. PTFJ cartilage may be a useful internal standard reference to diagnose OA and would be

  16. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of Proximal Tibiofibular Cartilage by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, Sun Yong (Dept. of Radiology, Ajou Univ. Medical Center, Suwon (Korea)); Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun (Cartilage Regeneration Center, Ajou Univ. Medical Center, Suwon (Korea))

    2009-11-15

    Background: The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) can be considered the fourth compartment of the knee joint. However, there have been no studies of the T2 values (T2 relaxation time) of PTFJ cartilage. Purpose: To assess the T2 values of PTFJ cartilage at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to show the clinical utility of T2 values of PTFJ cartilage for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Material and Methods: 118 patients who had knee MR imaging and knee radiography were enrolled. MRI was performed using a 3T MRI scanner, and T2 maps were calculated from a sagittal multi-echo acquisition. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were positioned within PTFJ cartilage and medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage. The average T2 value and standard deviation (SD) of each ROI were recorded. Using PTFJ cartilage as a standard reference, the T2 index ((MFC/PTFJ)x100) and T2SD index ((MFCSD/PTFJSD)x100) were calculated. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean and SD of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage. Correlation analyses were performed among the parameters age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, means and SDs of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage, T2 index, and T2SD index. Results: PTFJ cartilage had a significantly shorter T2 value than did MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). ROIs within PTFJ cartilage showed significantly smaller SDs than did those within MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). The average T2 value and SD of MFC and the T2SD index showed a positive correlation to the KL score (P<0.05). The correlation coefficients for the average T2 value, SD, and T2SD index of MFC were R=0.203, 0.254, and 0.268, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between T2 values of PTFJ cartilage and KL score (P=0.643). Conclusion: PTFJ cartilage showed shorter and more homogeneous T2 values with a small SD than did MFC cartilage, regardless of the degree of OA at femorotibial compartments. PTFJ cartilage may be a useful internal standard reference to diagnose OA and would be

  17. Maxwell fields and shear-free null geodesic congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Ezra T

    2004-01-01

    We study and report on the class of vacuum Maxwell fields in Minkowski space that possess a non-degenerate, diverging, principal null vector field (null eigenvector field of the Maxwell tensor) that is tangent to a shear-free null geodesics congruence. These congruences can be either surface forming (the tangent vectors being proportional to gradients) or not, i.e., the twisting congruences. In the non-twisting case, the associated Maxwell fields are precisely the Lienard-Wiechert fields, i.e., those Maxwell fields arising from an electric monopole moving on an arbitrary worldline. The null geodesic congruence is given by the generators of the light-cones with apex on the worldline. The twisting case is much richer, more interesting and far more complicated. In a twisting subcase, where our main interests lie, the following strange interpretation can be given. If we allow the real Minkowski space to be complexified so that the real Minkowski coordinates x a take complex values, i.e., x a → z a = x a + iy a with complex metric g η ab dz a dz b , the real vacuum Maxwell equations can be extended into the complex space and rewritten as curl W=i W radical, div W=0 with W=E+iB. This subcase of Maxwell fields can then be extended into the complex space so as to have as source, a complex analytic worldline, i.e., to now become complex Lienard-Wiechart fields. When viewed as real fields on the real Minkowski space (z a = x a ), they possess a real principal null vector that is shear-free but twisting and diverging. The twist is a measure of how far the complex worldline is from the real 'slice'. Most Maxwell fields in this subcase are asymptotically flat with a time-varying set of electric and magnetic moments, all depending on the complex displacements and the complex velocities

  18. SU-E-I-64: Transverse Relaxation Time in Methylene Protons of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K-H; Lee, D-W; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance compared to other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point — resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated considering repetition time (TR) as 6000 msec and echo time (TE) as 40 — 550 msec. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H — MRS), eight male Sprague — Dawley rats were given free access to a normal - chow (NC) and eight other male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a high — fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T{sub 2} measurements in the rats’ livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000 msec and TE of 40 – 220 msec. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: A chemical analysis of phantom and liver was not performed but a T{sub 2} decay curve was acquired. The T{sub 2} relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.07 ± 4.32 msec; HF rats, 31.43 ± 1.81 msec (p < 0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p < 0.005). Conclusion: This study of {sup 1}H-MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal — to — noise ratio differences to characterize all observable resonances for yielding T{sub 2} relaxation times of methylene resonance. {sup 1}H — MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease. This study was supported by grant (2012-007883 and 2014R1A2A1A10050270) from the Mid-career Researcher Program through the NRF funded by Ministry of Science. In addition, this study was supported by the Industrial R&D of MOTIE/KEIT (10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI-guided tumor tracking)

  19. The application of T1 and T2 relaxation time and magnetization transfer ratios to the early diagnosis of patellar cartilage osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Weiwu; Qu, Nan; Lu, Zhihua; Yang, Shixun [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    We compare the T1 and T2 relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) of normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) to evaluate the ability of these techniques to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of OA. The knee joints in 11 normal volunteers and 40 patients with OA were prospectively evaluated using T1 relaxation times as measured using delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T2 relaxation times (multiple spin-echo sequence, T2 mapping), and MTRs. The OA patients were further categorized into mild, moderate, and severe OA. The mean T1 relaxation times of the four groups (normal, mild OA, moderate OA, and severe OA) were: 487.3{+-}27.7, 458.0{+-}55.9, 405.9{+-}57.3, and 357.9{+-}36.7 respectively (p<0.001). The mean T2 relaxation times of the four groups were: 37.8{+-}3.3, 44.0{+-}8.5, 50.9{+-}9.5, and 57.4{+-}4.8 respectively (p<0.001). T1 relaxation time decreased and T2 relaxation time increased with worsening degeneration of patellar cartilage. The result of the covariance analysis showed that the covariate age had a significant influence on T2 relaxation time (p<0.001). No significant differences between the normal and OA groups using MTR were noted. T1 and T2 relaxation times are relatively sensitive to early degenerative changes in the patellar cartilage, whereas the MTR may have some limitations with regard to early detection of OA. In addition, The T1 and T2 relaxation times negatively correlate with each other, which is a novel finding. (orig.)

  20. James Clerk Maxwell perspectives on his life and work

    CERN Document Server

    McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) had a relatively brief, but remarkable life, lived in his beloved rural home of Glenlair, and variously in Edinburgh, Aberdeen, London and Cambridge. His scholarship also ranged wide - covering all the major aspects of Victorian natural philosophy. He was one of the most important mathematical physicists of all time, coming only after Newton and Einstein. In scientific terms his immortality is enshrined in electromagnetism and Maxwell's equations, but as this book shows, there was much more to Maxwell than electromagnetism, both in terms of his science and his wider life. Maxwell's life and contributions to science are so rich that they demand the expertise of a range of academics - physicists, mathematicians, and historians of science and literature - to do him justice. The various chapters will enable Maxwell to be seen from a range of perspectives. Chapters 1 to 4 deal with wider aspects of his life in time and place, at Aberdeen, King's College London and the Cavendish Labo...

  1. In vivo relaxation time measurements on a murine tumor model--prolongation of T1 after photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y H; Hawk, R M; Ramaprasad, S

    1995-01-01

    RIF tumors implanted on mice feet were investigated for changes in relaxation times (T1 and T2) after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photodynamic therapy was performed using Photofrin II as the photosensitizer and laser light at 630 nm. A home-built proton solenoid coil in the balanced configuration was used to accommodate the tumors, and the relaxation times were measured before, immediately after, and up to several hours after therapy. Several control experiments were performed untreated tumors, tumors treated with Photofrin II alone, or tumors treated with laser light alone. Significant increases in T1s of water protons were observed after PDT treatment. In all experiments, 31P spectra were recorded before and after the therapy to study the tumor status and to confirm the onset of PDT. These studies show significant prolongation of T1s after the PDT treatment. The spin-spin relaxation measurements, on the other hand, did not show such prolongation in T2 values after PDT treatment.

  2. Incompressible Navier-Stokes equation from Einstein-Maxwell and Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Chao; Tian Yu; Wu Xiaoning; Ling Yi

    2012-01-01

    The dual fluid description for a general cutoff surface at radius r=r c outside the horizon in the charged AdS black brane bulk space-time is investigated, first in the Einstein-Maxwell theory. Under the non-relativistic long-wavelength expansion with parameter ε, the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations are solved up to O(ε 2 ). The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with external force density is obtained as the constraint equation at the cutoff surface. For non-extremal black brane, the viscosity of the dual fluid is determined by the regularity of the metric fluctuation at the horizon, whose ratio to entropy density η/s is independent of both the cutoff r c and the black brane charge. Then, we extend our discussion to the Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell case, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with external force density is also obtained at a general cutoff surface. In this case, it turns out that the ratio η/s is independent of the cutoff r c but dependent on the charge density of the black brane.

  3. Associated relaxation time and the correlation function for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Wei Qun; Mei Dongcheng

    2008-01-01

    The associated relaxation time T c and the normalized correlation function C(s) for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises are investigated. Using the Novikov theorem and Fox approach, the steady probability distribution is obtained. Based on them, the expressions of T c and C(s) are derived by means of projection operator method, in which the effects of the memory kernels of the correlation function are taken into account. Performing the numerical computations, it is found: (1) With the cross-correlation intensity |λ|, the additive noise intensity α and the multiplicative noise self-correlation time τ 1 increasing, the tumor cell numbers can be restrained; And the cross-correlation time τ 3 , the multiplicative noise intensity D can induce the tumor cell numbers increasing; However, the additive noise self-correlation time τ 2 cannot affect the tumor cell numbers; The relaxation time T c is a stochastic resonant phenomenon, and the distribution curves exhibit a single-maximum structure with D increasing. (2) The cross-correlation strength λ weakens the related activity between two states of the tumor cell numbers at different time, and enhances the stability of the tumor cell growth system in the steady state; On the contrast, τ 1 and τ 3 enhance the related activity between two states at different time; However, τ 2 has no effect on the related activity between two states at different time

  4. Associated relaxation time and the correlation function for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can-Jun; Wei, Qun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2008-03-01

    The associated relaxation time T and the normalized correlation function C(s) for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises are investigated. Using the Novikov theorem and Fox approach, the steady probability distribution is obtained. Based on them, the expressions of T and C(s) are derived by means of projection operator method, in which the effects of the memory kernels of the correlation function are taken into account. Performing the numerical computations, it is found: (1) With the cross-correlation intensity |λ|, the additive noise intensity α and the multiplicative noise self-correlation time τ increasing, the tumor cell numbers can be restrained; And the cross-correlation time τ, the multiplicative noise intensity D can induce the tumor cell numbers increasing; However, the additive noise self-correlation time τ cannot affect the tumor cell numbers; The relaxation time T is a stochastic resonant phenomenon, and the distribution curves exhibit a single-maximum structure with D increasing. (2) The cross-correlation strength λ weakens the related activity between two states of the tumor cell numbers at different time, and enhances the stability of the tumor cell growth system in the steady state; On the contrast, τ and τ enhance the related activity between two states at different time; However, τ has no effect on the related activity between two states at different time.

  5. Predicting How Nanoconfinement Changes the Relaxation Time of a Supercooled Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Errington, Jeff; Truskett, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The properties of nanoconfined fluids can be strikingly different from those of bulk liquids. A basic unanswered question is whether the equilibrium and dynamic consequences of confinement are related to each other in a simple way. We study this question by simulation of a liquid comprising...... asymmetric dumbbell-shaped molecules, which can be deeply supercooled without crystallizing. We find that the dimensionless structural relaxation times—spanning six decades as a function of temperature, density, and degree of confinement—collapse when plotted versus excess entropy. The data also collapse...

  6. Surface-NMR measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in a homogeneous sandy aquifer in Skive, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbrecker, J.; Behroozmand, A.

    2011-12-01

    Efficient groundwater management requires reliable means of characterizing shallow groundwater aquifers. One key parameter in this respect is hydraulic conductivity. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical exploration technique that can potentially provide this type of information in a noninvasive, cost-effective way. The technique is based on measuring the precession of nuclear spins of protons in groundwater molecules. It involves large loop antennas deployed on Earth's surface to generate electromagnetic pulses tuned to specifically excite and detect groundwater proton spins. Naturally, the excited state of spins is transitory - once excited, spins relax back to their equilibrium state. This relaxation process is strongly influenced by the spin environment, which, in the case of groundwater, is defined by the aquifer. By employing empirical relations, changes in relaxation behavior can be used to identify changes in aquifer hydraulic conductivity, making the NMR relaxation signal a very important piece of information. Particularly, efforts are made to record the longitudinal relaxation parameter T1, because it is known from laboratory studies that it often reliably correlates with hydraulic conductivity, even in the presence of magnetic species. In surface NMR, T1 data are collected by recording the NMR signal amplitude following two sequential excitation pulses as a function of the delay time τ between the two pulses. In conventional acquisition, the two pulses have a mutual phase shift of π. Based on theoretical arguments it was recently shown that T1 times acquired according to this conventional surface-NMR scheme are systematically biased. It was proposed that the bias can be minimized by cycling the phase of the two pulses between π and zero in subsequent double-pulse experiments, and subtracting the resulting signal amplitudes (phase-cycled pseudosaturation recovery scheme, pcPSR). We present the first surface-NMR T1 data set recorded

  7. The effect of solvent relaxation time constants on free energy gap law for ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Valentina A; Malykhin, Roman E; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2018-05-16

    To elucidate the regularities inherent in the kinetics of ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation in donor-acceptor dyads in solutions, the simulations of the kinetics have been performed within the stochastic multichannel point-transition model. Increasing the solvent relaxation time scales has been shown to strongly vary the dependence of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap. In slow relaxing solvents the non-equilibrium charge recombination occurring in parallel with solvent relaxation is very effective so that the charge recombination terminates at the non-equilibrium stage. This results in a crucial difference between the free energy gap laws for the ultrafast charge recombination and the thermal charge transfer. For the thermal reactions the well-known Marcus bell-shaped dependence of the rate constant on the free energy gap is realized while for the ultrafast charge recombination only a descending branch is predicted in the whole area of the free energy gap exceeding 0.2 eV. From the available experimental data on the population kinetics of the second and first excited states for a series of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads in toluene and tetrahydrofuran solutions, an effective rate constant of the charge recombination into the first excited state has been calculated. The obtained rate constant being very high is nearly invariable in the area of the charge recombination free energy gap from 0.2 to 0.6 eV that supports the theoretical prediction.

  8. A model problem for estimation of moving-film time relaxation at sudden change of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnovsky, Alexander A.; Eliseeva, Viktoria O.

    2018-05-01

    The study of the film flow occurred under the influence of a gas slug flow is of definite interest in heat and mass transfer during the motion of a coolant in the second circuit of a nuclear water-water reactor. Thermohydraulic codes are usually used for analysis of the such problems in which the motion of the liquid film and the vapor is modeled on the basis of a one-dimensional balance equations. Due to a greater inertia of the liquid film motion, film flow parameters changes with a relaxation compared with gas flow. We consider a model problem of film flow under the influence of friction from gas slug flow neglecting such effects as wave formation, droplet breakage and deposition on the film surface, evaporation and condensation. Such a problem is analogous to the well-known problems of Couette and Stokes flows. An analytical solution has been obtained for laminar flow. Numerical RANS-based simulation of turbulent flow was performed using OpenFOAM. It is established that the relaxation process is almost self-similar. This fact opens a possibility of obtaining valuable correlations for the relaxation time.

  9. Time-domain simulation of constitutive relations for nonlinear acoustics including relaxation for frequency power law attenuation media modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.

  10. Quantifying protein dynamics in the ps–ns time regime by NMR relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Griselda; LeMaster, David M., E-mail: david.lemaster@health.ny.gov [University at Albany - SUNY, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Both {sup 15}N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) and sufficiently rapid exchange linebroadening transitions exhibit relaxation contributions that are proportional to the square of the magnetic field. Deconvoluting these contributions is further complicated by residue-dependent variations in protein amide {sup 15}N CSA values which have proven difficult to accurately measure. Exploiting recently reported improvements for the implementation of T{sub 1} and T{sub 1ρ} experiments, field strength-dependent studies have been carried out on the B3 domain of protein G (GB3) as well as on the immunophilin FKBP12 and a H87V variant of that protein in which the major conformational exchange linebroadening transition is suppressed. By applying a zero frequency spectral density rescaling analysis to the relaxation data collected at magnetic fields from 500 to 900 MHz {sup 1}H, differential residue-specific {sup 15}N CSA values have been obtained for GB3 which correlate with those derived from solid state and liquid crystalline NMR measurements to a level similar to the correlation among those previously reported studies. Application of this analysis protocol to FKBP12 demonstrated an efficient quantitation of both weak exchange linebroadening contributions and differential residue-specific {sup 15}N CSA values. Experimental access to such differential residue-specific {sup 15}N CSA values should significantly facilitate more accurate comparisons with molecular dynamics simulations of protein motion that occurs within the timeframe of global molecular tumbling.

  11. Energy and Momentum Relaxation Times of 2D Electrons Due to Near Surface Deformation Potential Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa, Viktor; Vasko, Fedor; Mitin, Vladimir

    1997-03-01

    The low temperature energy and momentum relaxation rates of 2D electron gas placed near the free or clamped surface of a semi-infinit sample are calculated. To describe the electron-acoustic phonon interaction with allowance of the surface effect the method of elasticity theory Green functions was used. This method allows to take into account the reflection of acoustic waves from the surface and related mutual conversion of LA and TA waves. It is shown that the strength of the deformation potential scattering at low temperatures substantially depends on the mechanical conditions at the surface: relaxation rates are suppressed for the free surface while for the rigid one the rates are enhanced. The dependence of the conductivity on the distance between the 2D layer and the surface is discussed. The effect is most pronounced in the range of temperatures 2 sl pF < T < (2 hbar s_l)/d, where pF is the Fermi momentum, sl is the velocity of LA waves, d is the width of the quantum well.

  12. Variational principle for nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2000-01-01

    A new variational principle for the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations is presented. This Eulerian variational principle uses constrained variations for the gyrocenter Vlasov distribution in eight-dimensional extended phase space and turns out to be simpler than the Lagrangian variational principle recently presented by H. Sugama [Phys. Plasmas 7, 466 (2000)]. A local energy conservation law is then derived explicitly by the Noether method. In future work, this new variational principle will be used to derive self-consistent, nonlinear, low-frequency Vlasov--Maxwell bounce-gyrokinetic equations, in which the fast gyromotion and bounce-motion time scales have been eliminated

  13. Reading Maxwell in Conceptual Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Scott W.

    2018-05-01

    An important aspect of science education involves helping students learn to read and communicate scientific information and arguments. In this note, I would like to share a resource that I have come across which I have found to be a useful tool for helping students improve those skills, learn content material, and acquaint them with a great scientist. Specifically, this is having non-science college students in my course Light, Color and Vision read and discuss a letter by James Clerk Maxwell entitled "On the Theory of Colours in Relation to Colour-Blindness" (see Fig. 1).

  14. Properties of the relaxation time distribution underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts photoionization of the DX centers in Cd1-xMnxTe mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzmiel, J; Weron, K; Placzek-Popko, E; Janczura, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we clarify the relationship between the relaxation rate and relaxation time distributions underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) photoconductivity build-ups in indium- and gallium-doped Cd 1-x Mn x Te mixed crystals. We discuss the role of asymptotic properties of the corresponding probability density functions. We show that the relaxation rate distribution, as a completely asymmetric α-stable distribution, leads to an infinite mean value of the effective relaxation rate. In contrast, the relaxation time distribution related to it leads to a finite mean value of the effective relaxation time. It follows from the experimental data analysis that for all the investigated samples the KWW exponent α decreases linearly with increasing photon flux in the range of (0.6-0.99) and its values are more spread in the case of gallium-doped material. We also observe a linear dependence of the mean relaxation time on the characteristic material time constant, which is consistent with the theoretical model.

  15. The effect of timing of intravenous muscle relaxant on the quality of double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, E.M.; Elson, E.M.; Campbell, D.M.; Halligan, S.; Shaikh, I.; Davitt, S.; Bartram, C.I.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the timing of buscopan administration during double-contrast barium enema examination (DCBE) affects diagnostic quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective setting, 100 consecutive adult out-patients referred for DCBE received 20 mg buscopan (hyoscine-N-butylbromide) intravenously, either before infusion of barium suspension (Group A) or after barium infusion and gas insufflation (Group B). A subjective assessment of ease of contrast medium infusion was made at the time of examination and the films subsequently analysed by two radiologists unaware of the mode of relaxant administration, who noted the quality of mucosal coating and made subjective and objective measurements of segmental distension. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in screening times, infusion difficulty or colonic contrast medium coating between the two groups. Subjective assessment of distension of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon and rectum were not significantly different. Patients receiving intravenous relaxant after barium and gas infusion had less subjective descending (P = 0.05) and sigmoid (P = 0.04) colon distension, but there was no significant difference with respect to maximal bowel diameter in any of the segments measured. CONCLUSION: The timing of intravenous administration during DCBE is likely to have no significant effect on the diagnostic quality of the study. Elson, E.M. (2000)

  16. In vivo estimation of transverse relaxation time constant (T2 ) of 17 human brain metabolites at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Patrik O; Bianchini, Claudio; Scheidegger, Milan; Giapitzakis, Ioannis A; Hock, Andreas; Fuchs, Alexander; Henning, Anke

    2018-08-01

    The transverse relaxation times T 2 of 17 metabolites in vivo at 3T is reported and region specific differences are addressed. An echo-time series protocol was applied to one, two, or three volumes of interest with different fraction of white and gray matter including a total number of 106 healthy volunteers and acquiring a total number of 128 spectra. The data were fitted with the 2D fitting tool ProFit2, which included individual line shape modeling for all metabolites and allowed the T 2 calculation of 28 moieties of 17 metabolites. The T 2 of 10 metabolites and their moieties have been reported for the first time. Region specific T 2 differences in white and gray matter enriched tissue occur in 16 of 17 metabolites examined including single resonance lines and coupled spin systems. The relaxation time T 2 is regions specific and has to be considered when applying tissue composition correction for internal water referencing. Magn Reson Med 80:452-461, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Ito terms and the Maxwell field on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Olivo, J.C.; Socolovsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    If lattice renormalization effects are ignored and the number of space-time dimensions is less than four, it is explicitly shown that the effective continuum action for the Maxwell field does not contain the so-called Ito terms. As is known, the qualitative reason for this result is the flat character of the integration measure

  18. Quantum process tomography with informational incomplete data of two J-coupled heterogeneous spins relaxation in a time window much greater than T1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Thiago O.; Vianna, Reinaldo O.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.

    2015-11-01

    We reconstruct the time dependent quantum map corresponding to the relaxation process of a two-spin system in liquid-state NMR at room temperature. By means of quantum tomography techniques that handle informational incomplete data, we show how to properly post-process and normalize the measurements data for the simulation of quantum information processing, overcoming the unknown number of molecules prepared in a non-equilibrium magnetization state (Nj) by an initial sequence of radiofrequency pulses. From the reconstructed quantum map, we infer both longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) relaxation times, and introduce the J-coupling relaxation times ({T}1J,{T}2J), which are relevant for quantum information processing simulations. We show that the map associated to the relaxation process cannot be assumed approximated unital and trace-preserving for times greater than {T}2J.

  19. Relationship between aging and T1 relaxation time in deep gray matter: A voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Gosuke; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tsutomu; Murata, Katsutoshi; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-09-01

    To investigate age-related changes in T 1 relaxation time in deep gray matter structures in healthy volunteers using magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE). In all, 70 healthy volunteers (aged 20-76, mean age 42.6 years) were scanned at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A MP2RAGE sequence was employed to quantify T 1 relaxation times. After the spatial normalization of T 1 maps with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm, voxel-based regression analysis was conducted. In addition, linear and quadratic regression analyses of regions of interest (ROIs) were also performed. With aging, voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant T 1 value decreases in the ventral-inferior putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala, whereas T 1 values significantly increased in the thalamus and white matter as well (P time vary by location in deep gray matter. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:724-731. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. An analysis of the NMR-CT image by the measurement of proton-relaxation times in tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Shoji; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Chuzo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi; Nishikawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Koji; Kiri, Motosada.

    1984-01-01

    NMR-CT images were analyzed by measuring the proton-relaxation times in tissues. The NMR-CT images were obtained in 10 normal volunteers and 16 patients with brain tumors with a prototype superconducting magnet (Shimadzu Corp., Japan) operating at 0.2 T and 0.375 T. A smooth T 1 relaxation curve was obtained in each part of the brain and the brain tumor by the use of the data of the NMR-CT image; consequently, the in vivo T 1 value was proved to be reliable. The in vivo T 1 value showed the specific value corresponding to each region of the normal brain in all cases. Cerebral gray matter normally had the longest T 1 value, followed by the medulla oblongata, the pons, and white matter. The T 1 value of each region of the brain varied to the same degree in proportion to the strength of the static magnetic field. The in vivo T 1 values of the brain tumor varied with the histological type. All were longer than any part of the brain parenchyma, being between 480 and 780 msec at 0.2 T. The prolongation of the T 1 value does not always correspond to the degree of the malignancy in a tumor. The in vitro T 1 and T 2 values were also prolonged in all tumors. Although the absolute value of T 1 did not coincide between the in vitro and in vivo data, the tendency of the prolongation was the same between them. This result indicated that the NMR-CT images could be analysed by the use of the data of the in vitro T 1 and T 2 values in the tumor tissues. It is important to analyse the NMR-CT image by both in vivo and in vitro examinations of the relaxation times. (J.P.N.)

  1. Contact problem for a solid indenter and a viscoelastic half-space described by the spectrum of relaxation and retardation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, F. I.

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties of a material which is modeled by an exponential creep kernel characterized by a spectrum of relaxation and retardation times are studied. The research is carried out considering a contact problem for a solid indenter sliding over a viscoelastic half-space. The contact pressure, indentation depth of the indenter, and the deformation component of the friction coefficient are analyzed with respect to the case of half-space material modeled by single relaxation and retardation times.

  2. Follow-up of regional myocardial T2 relaxation times in patients with myocardial infarction evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, X.H.; Wall, E. van der; Laarse, A. van der; Dijkman, P.R.M. van; Bruschke, A.V.G.; Doornbos, J.; Roos, A. de; Voorthuisen, A.E. van

    1990-01-01

    Multi-echo spin-echo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies (echo times 30, 60, 90 and 120 ms) were performed in 19 patients with a 7-14-day (mean 10) old myocardial infarction and were repeated in 13 patients 4-7 months (mean 6) later. Also, 10 normal subjects were studied with magnetic resonance imaging. T2 relaxation times of certain left ventricular segments were calculated from the signal intensities at echo times of 30 and 90 ms. Compared to normal individuals, the mean T2 values on the early magnetic resonance images of the patients with inferior infarction showed significantly prolonged T2 times in the inferiorly localized segments, while on the follow-up magnetic resonance images the T2 times had almost returned to the normal range. Also the patients with anterior infarction showed significantly prolonged T2 times in the anteriorly localized segments on the early nuclear magnetic resonance images, but the T2 times remained prolonged at the follow-up magnetic resonance images. For every patient a myocardial damage score was determined, which was defined as the sum of the segmental T2 values in the patients minus the upper limit of normal T2 values obtained from the normal volunteers (= mean normal+2SD). The damage score on both the early and late magnetic resonance imaging study correlated well with the infarction size determined by myocardial enzyme release. Only the patients with an inferior infarction showed a significant decrease in damage score at follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. It is concluded that the regional T2 relaxation times are increased in infarcted myocardial regions and may remain prolonged for at least up to 7 months after the acute event, particularly in patients with an anterior infarction. These findings demonstrate the clinical potential of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies for detecting myocardial infarction, and estimating infarct size for an extended period after acute myocardial infarction. (author). 29 refs

  3. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell''s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction

  4. New family of Maxwell like algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concha, P.K.; Durka, R.; Merino, N.; Rodríguez, E.K.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an alternative way of closing Maxwell like algebras. We show, through a suitable change of basis, that resulting algebras are given by the direct sums of the AdS and the Maxwell algebras already known in the literature. Casting the result into the S-expansion method framework ensures the straightaway construction of the gravity theories based on a found enlargement.

  5. New family of Maxwell like algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K., E-mail: patillusion@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Durka, R., E-mail: remigiuszdurka@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Merino, N., E-mail: nemerino@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Rodríguez, E.K., E-mail: everodriguezd@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-08-10

    We introduce an alternative way of closing Maxwell like algebras. We show, through a suitable change of basis, that resulting algebras are given by the direct sums of the AdS and the Maxwell algebras already known in the literature. Casting the result into the S-expansion method framework ensures the straightaway construction of the gravity theories based on a found enlargement.

  6. Relaxation dynamics of the conductive processes for PbNb2O6 ferroelectric ceramics in the frequency and time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R L; Leyet, Y; Guerrero, F; Guerra, J de Los S; Venet, M; Eiras, J A

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of the conductive process present in PbNb 2 O 6 piezoelectric ceramics was investigated. A relaxation function in the time domain, Φ(t), was found from the frequency dependence of the dielectric modulus (imaginary component, M'') by using a relaxation function in the frequency domain, F*(ω). The best relaxation function, F*(ω), was found to be a Cole-Cole distribution function, in which relaxation characteristic parameters, such as α and τ CC , are involved. On the other hand, the relaxation function, Φ(t), obtained by the time domain method, was found to be a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function type. The thermal evolution of the characteristics parameters of the KWW function (β and τ*) was analysed. The values of the activation energy (E a ), obtained in the whole investigated temperature interval, suggest the existence of a relaxation mechanism (a conductive process), which may be interpreted by an ion hopping between neighbouring sites within the crystalline lattice. The results are corroborated with the formalism of the AC conductivity

  7. Effects of Liver Fibrosis Progression on Tissue Relaxation Times in Different Mouse Models Assessed by Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, clinical studies demonstrated that magnetic resonance relaxometry with determination of relaxation times T1 and T2⁎ may aid in staging and management of liver fibrosis in patients suffering from viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis. In the present study we investigated T1 and T2⁎ in different models of liver fibrosis to compare alternate pathophysiologies in their effects on relaxation times and to further develop noninvasive quantification methods of liver fibrosis. MRI was performed with a fast spin echo sequence for measurement of T1 and a multigradient echo sequence for determination of T2⁎. Toxic liver fibrosis was induced by injections of carbon tetrachloride (1.4 mL CCl4 per kg bodyweight and week, for 3 or 6 weeks in BALB/cJ mice. Chronic sclerosing cholangitis was mimicked using the ATP-binding cassette transporter B4 knockout (Abcb4 -/- mouse model. Untreated BALB/cJ mice served as controls. To assess hepatic fibrosis, we ascertained collagen contents and fibrosis scores after Sirius red staining. T1 and T2⁎ correlate differently to disease severity and etiology of liver fibrosis. T2⁎ shows significant decrease correlating with fibrosis in CCl4 treated animals, while demonstrating significant increase with disease severity in Abcb4 -/- mice. Measurements of T1 and T2⁎ may therefore facilitate discrimination between different stages and causes of liver fibrosis.

  8. The Abridgment and Relaxation Time for a Linear Multi-Scale Model Based on Multiple Site Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    Full Text Available Random effect in cellular systems is an important topic in systems biology and often simulated with Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA. Abridgment refers to model reduction that approximates a group of reactions by a smaller group with fewer species and reactions. This paper presents a theoretical analysis, based on comparison of the first exit time, for the abridgment on a linear chain reaction model motivated by systems with multiple phosphorylation sites. The analysis shows that if the relaxation time of the fast subsystem is much smaller than the mean firing time of the slow reactions, the abridgment can be applied with little error. This analysis is further verified with numerical experiments for models of bistable switch and oscillations in which linear chain system plays a critical role.

  9. Incorporation of exact boundary conditions into a discontinuous galerkin finite element method for accurately solving 2d time-dependent maxwell equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Liu, Meilin; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    A scheme that discretizes exact absorbing boundary conditions (EACs) to incorporate them into a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (TD-DG-FEM) is described. The proposed TD-DG-FEM with EACs is used for accurately characterizing

  10. Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Concha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2 leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM(N recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N. Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sMm+2 and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.

  11. Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K.; Rodríguez, E.K. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2) leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM{sup (N)} recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N). Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sM{sub m+2} and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.

  12. Dielectric dispersion, relaxation dynamics and thermodynamic studies of Beta-Alanine in aqueous solutions using picoseconds time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, K.; Ganesh, T.; Senthilkumar, P.; Sylvester, M. Maria; Karunakaran, D. J. S. Anand; Hudge, Praveen; Kumbharkhane, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    The aqueous solution of beta-alanine characterised and studied by their dispersive dielectric properties and relaxation process in the frequency domain of 10×106 Hz to 30×109 Hz with varying concentration in mole fractions and temperatures. The molecular interaction and dielectric parameters are discussed in terms of counter-ion concentration theory. The static permittivity (ε0), high frequency dielectric permittivity (ε∞) and excess dielectric parameters are accomplished by frequency depended physical properties and relaxation time (τ). Molecular orientation, ordering and correlation factors are reported as confirmation of intermolecular interactions. Ionic conductivity and thermo dynamical properties are concluded with the behaviour of the mixture constituents. Solute-solvent, solute-solute interaction, structure making and breaking abilities of the solute in aqueous medium are interpreted. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of beta- alanine single crystal and liquid state have been studied. The 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral studies give the signature for resonating frequencies and chemical shifts of beta-alanine.

  13. Three-dimensional simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Gui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LBM for Bingham plastics which overcomes numerical instabilities in the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids for the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK model. The MRT-LBM and several related mathematical models are briefly described. Papanastasiou’s modified model is incorporated for better numerical stability. The impact of the relaxation parameters of the model is studied in detail. The MRT-LBM is then validated through a benchmark problem: a 3D steady Poiseuille flow. The results from the numerical simulations are consistent with those derived analytically which indicates that the MRT-LBM effectively simulates Bingham fluids but with better stability. A parallel MRT-LBM framework is introduced, and the parallel efficiency is tested through a simple case. The MRT-LBM is shown to be appropriate for parallel implementation and to have high efficiency. Finally, a Bingham fluid flowing past a square-based prism with a fixed sphere is simulated. It is found the drag coefficient is a function of both Reynolds number (Re and Bingham number (Bn. These results reveal the flow behavior of Bingham plastics.

  14. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  15. Real T1 relaxation time measurement and diurnal variation analysis of intervertebral discs in a healthy population of 50 volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galley, J.; Maestretti, G.; Koch, G.; Hoogewoud, H-M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the real T1 relaxation time of the lumbar intervertebral discs in a young and healthy population, using different inversion recovery times, and assess diurnal variation. Material and methods: Intervertebral discs from D12 to S1 of 50 healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old were evaluated twice the same day, in the morning and in the late afternoon. Dedicated MRI sequences with different inversion recovery times (from 100 to 2500 ms) were used to calculate the real T1 relaxation time. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in each disc, the middle representing the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the outer parts the annulus fibrosus (AF) anterior and posterior. Diurnal variation and differences between each disc level were analyzed. Results: T1 mean values in the NP were 1142 ± 12 ms in the morning and 1085 ± 13 ms in the afternoon, showing a highly significant decrease of 57 ms (p < 0.001). A highly significant difference between the levels of the spine was found. The mean T1 of the anterior part of the AF was 577 ± 9 ms in the morning and 554 ± 8 ms in the afternoon. For the posterior part, the mean values were 633 ± 8 ms in the morning and 581 ± 7 ms in the evening. It shows a highly significant decrease of 23 ms for the anterior part and 51 ms for the posterior part (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: T1 mapping is a promising method of intervertebral disc evaluation. Significant diurnal variation and difference between levels of the lumbar spine were demonstrated. A potential use for longitudinal study in post-operative follow up or sport medicine needs to be evaluated.

  16. Real T1 relaxation time measurement and diurnal variation analysis of intervertebral discs in a healthy population of 50 volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galley, J., E-mail: galleyjulien@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland); Maestretti, G. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland); Koch, G.; Hoogewoud, H-M. [Department of Radiology, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland)

    2017-02-15

    Purpose: To measure the real T1 relaxation time of the lumbar intervertebral discs in a young and healthy population, using different inversion recovery times, and assess diurnal variation. Material and methods: Intervertebral discs from D12 to S1 of 50 healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old were evaluated twice the same day, in the morning and in the late afternoon. Dedicated MRI sequences with different inversion recovery times (from 100 to 2500 ms) were used to calculate the real T1 relaxation time. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in each disc, the middle representing the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the outer parts the annulus fibrosus (AF) anterior and posterior. Diurnal variation and differences between each disc level were analyzed. Results: T1 mean values in the NP were 1142 ± 12 ms in the morning and 1085 ± 13 ms in the afternoon, showing a highly significant decrease of 57 ms (p < 0.001). A highly significant difference between the levels of the spine was found. The mean T1 of the anterior part of the AF was 577 ± 9 ms in the morning and 554 ± 8 ms in the afternoon. For the posterior part, the mean values were 633 ± 8 ms in the morning and 581 ± 7 ms in the evening. It shows a highly significant decrease of 23 ms for the anterior part and 51 ms for the posterior part (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: T1 mapping is a promising method of intervertebral disc evaluation. Significant diurnal variation and difference between levels of the lumbar spine were demonstrated. A potential use for longitudinal study in post-operative follow up or sport medicine needs to be evaluated.

  17. Characterization of dynamics in complex lyophilized formulations: I. Comparison of relaxation times measured by isothermal calorimetry with data estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Norman; Mizuno, Masayasu; Pikal, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The purposes of this study are to characterize the relaxation dynamics in complex freeze dried formulations and to investigate the quantitative relationship between the structural relaxation time as measured by thermal activity monitor (TAM) and that estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature (ΔT(g)). The latter method has advantages over TAM because it is simple and quick. As part of this objective, we evaluate the accuracy in estimating relaxation time data at higher temperatures (50 °C and 60 °C) from TAM data at lower temperature (40 °C) and glass transition region width (ΔT(g)) data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Formulations studied here were hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-disaccharide, HES-polyol, and HES-disaccharide-polyol at various ratios. We also re-examine, using TAM derived relaxation times, the correlation between protein stability (human growth hormone, hGH) and relaxation times explored in a previous report, which employed relaxation time data obtained from ΔT(g). Results show that most of the freeze dried formulations exist in single amorphous phase, and structural relaxation times were successfully measured for these systems. We find a reasonably good correlation between TAM measured relaxation times and corresponding data obtained from estimates based on ΔT(g), but the agreement is only qualitative. The comparison plot showed that TAM data are directly proportional to the 1/3 power of ΔT(g) data, after correcting for an offset. Nevertheless, the correlation between hGH stability and relaxation time remained qualitatively the same as found with using ΔT(g) derived relaxation data, and it was found that the modest extrapolation of TAM data to higher temperatures using ΔT(g) method and TAM data at 40 °C resulted in quantitative agreement with TAM measurements made at 50 °C and 60 °C, provided the TAM experiment temperature, is well below the Tg of the sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Simulation of Plasmonics Nanodevices with Coupled Maxwell and Schrödinger Equations using the FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell and Schrödinger equations are coupled to incorporate quantum effects for the simulation of plasmonics nanodevices. Maxwell equations with Lorentz-Drude (LD dispersive model are applied to large size plasmonics components, whereas coupled Maxwell and Schrödinger equations are applied to components where quantum effects are needed. The finite difference time domain method (FDTD is applied to simulate these coupled equations.

  19. Characterization of anomalous relaxation using the time-fractional Bloch equation and multiple echo T2 *-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shanlin; Liu, Fawang; Turner, Ian W; Yu, Qiang; Yang, Qianqian; Vegh, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    To study the utility of fractional calculus in modeling gradient-recalled echo MRI signal decay in the normal human brain. We solved analytically the extended time-fractional Bloch equations resulting in five model parameters, namely, the amplitude, relaxation rate, order of the time-fractional derivative, frequency shift, and constant offset. Voxel-level temporal fitting of the MRI signal was performed using the classical monoexponential model, a previously developed anomalous relaxation model, and using our extended time-fractional relaxation model. Nine brain regions segmented from multiple echo gradient-recalled echo 7 Tesla MRI data acquired from five participants were then used to investigate the characteristics of the extended time-fractional model parameters. We found that the extended time-fractional model is able to fit the experimental data with smaller mean squared error than the classical monoexponential relaxation model and the anomalous relaxation model, which do not account for frequency shift. We were able to fit multiple echo time MRI data with high accuracy using the developed model. Parameters of the model likely capture information on microstructural and susceptibility-induced changes in the human brain. Magn Reson Med 77:1485-1494, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. A weighted multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for multiphase flows and its application to partial coalescence cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Abbas; Bolster, Diogo; Luo, Li-Shi

    2017-07-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with a weighted multiple-relaxation-time (WMRT) collision model and an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm for direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows in three dimensions. The proposed WMRT model enhances the numerical stability of the LBM for immiscible fluids at high density ratios, particularly on the D3Q27 lattice. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed WMRT-LBM-AMR is validated through simulations of (a) buoyancy-driven motion and deformation of a gas bubble rising in a viscous liquid; (b) the bag-breakup mechanism of a falling drop; (c) crown splashing of a droplet on a wet surface; and (d) the partial coalescence mechanism of a liquid drop at a liquid-liquid interface. The numerical simulations agree well with available experimental data and theoretical approximations where applicable.

  1. Multi-relaxation-time Lattice Boltzman model for uniform-shear flow over a rotating circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemati Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer a rotating circular cylinder with uniform planar shear, where the free-stream velocity varies linearly across the cylinder using Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of Reynolds number, rotational speed ratio at shear rate 0.1, blockage ratio 0.1 and Prandtl number 0.71 are studied. The Reynolds number changing from 50 to 160 for three rotational speed ratios of 0, 0.5, 1 is investigated. Results show that flow and heat transfer depends significantly on the rotational speed ratio as well as the Reynolds number. The effect of Reynolds number on the vortex-shedding frequency and period-surface Nusselt numbers is overall very strong compared with rotational speed ratio. Flow and heat conditions characteristics such as lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and Nusselt numbers are studied.

  2. Three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann front-tracking method for two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hai-Qiong; Zeng Zhong; Zhang Liang-Qi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow by coupling with a front-tracking technique. The flow field was simulated by using an Eulerian grid, an adaptive unstructured triangular Lagrangian grid was applied to track explicitly the motion of the two-fluid interface, and an indicator function was introduced to update accurately the fluid properties. The surface tension was computed directly on a triangular Lagrangian grid, and then the surface tension was distributed to the background Eulerian grid. Three benchmarks of two-phase flow, including the Laplace law for a stationary drop, the oscillation of a three-dimensional ellipsoidal drop, and the drop deformation in a shear flow, were simulated to validate the present model. (paper)

  3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers. Proton spin-lattice relaxation times of skeletal muscles on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I. (Shimoshizu National Hospital, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Neurology); Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Tateno, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Clinical Research); Aoki, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.).

  4. Measurement of solute proton spin-lattice relaxation times in water using the 1,3,3,1 sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, S.S.; Mole, P.A.; Coulson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    1 H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the N-CH3 proton resonances of phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in water solutions were obtained using the 1,3,3,1 pulse sequence. These T1 values were equivalent to those obtained in D 2 O and water using either the conventional inversion-recovery experiment or the 1,3,3,1 pulse sequence. Thus, the 1,3,3,1 sequence of proton NMR can provide an independent means along with phosphorous NMR for assess PCr and for the study of the creatine kinase reaction (PCr + ADP in equilibrium ATP + Cr) in aqueous solutions and perhaps in biological preparations

  5. In vivo field dependence of proton relaxation times in human brain, liver and skeletal muscle: a multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; de Certaines, J D; Spisni, A

    1993-01-01

    and MRS, the in vivo field dispersion of T1 and T2 has been measured in order to evaluate whether ex vivo data are representative for the in vivo situation. Brain, skeletal muscle, and liver of healthy human volunteers were studied. Fifteen MR units with a field strength ranging from 0.08 T to 1.5 T took......T1 and T2 relaxation times are fundamental parameters for signal contrast behaviour in MRI. A number of ex vivo relaxometry studies have dealt with the magnetic field dispersion of T1. By means of multicenter study within the frame of the COMAC BME Concerted Action on Tissue Characterization by MRI......, whereas no significant variations were seen for T2. Our in vivo data were generally in reasonable agreement with proposed models based on ex vivo measurements....

  6. Truncation of the many body hierarchy and relaxation times in the McKean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the McKean model the BBGKY-hierarchy is equivalent to a simple hierarchy of coupled equations for the p-particle correlation functions. Truncation effects and the convergence of the one-particle distribution towards its exact shape have been studied. In the long time limit the equations can be solved in a closed form. It turns out that the p-particle correlation decays p-times faster than the non-equilibrium one-particle distribution

  7. TRUNCATION OF THE MANY BODY HIERARCHY AND RELAXATION TIMES IN THE McKEAN MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt , K.-J.

    1987-01-01

    In the McKean model the BBGKY-hierarchy is equivalent to a simple hierarchy of coupled equations for the p-particle correlation functions. Truncation effects and the convergence of the one-particle distribution towards its exact shape have been studied. In the long time limit the equations can be solved in a closed form. It turns out that the p-particle correlation decays p-times faster than the non-equilibrium one-particle distribution.

  8. Algorithm development for Maxwell's equations for computational electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.

    1990-01-01

    A new algorithm has been developed for solving Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field. It solves the equations in the time domain with central, finite differences. The time advancement is performed implicitly, using an alternating direction implicit procedure. The space discretization is performed with finite volumes, using curvilinear coordinates with electromagnetic components along those directions. Sample calculations are presented of scattering from a metal pin, a square and a circle to demonstrate the capabilities of the new algorithm.

  9. Patellofemoral instability in children: T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage in patients with and without patellofemoral instability and correlation with morphological grading of cartilage damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, Ppatellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage.

  10. Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Wong, Brenda; Horn, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable

  11. Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Wong, Brenda [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Horn, Paul S. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable.

  12. Green`s function of Maxwell`s equations and corresponding implications for iterative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, B.S. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney (Australia); Fainberg, E.B. [Inst. of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Energy conservation law imposes constraints on the norm and direction of the Hilbert space vector representing a solution of Maxwell`s equations. In this paper, we derive these constrains and discuss the corresponding implications for the Green`s function of Maxwell`s equations in a dissipative medium. It is shown that Maxwell`s equations can be reduced to an integral equation with a contracting kernel. The equation can be solved using simple iterations. Software based on this algorithm have successfully been applied to a wide range of problems dealing with high contrast models. The matrix corresponding to the integral equation has a well defined spectrum. The equation can be symmetrized and solved using different approaches, for instance one of the conjugate gradient methods.

  13. Heat transfer enhancement in free convection flow of CNTs Maxwell nanofluids with four different types of molecular liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Sidra; Khan, Ilyas; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Salleh, Mohd Zuki; Al-Mdallal, Qasem M

    2017-05-26

    This article investigates heat transfer enhancement in free convection flow of Maxwell nanofluids with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) over a vertically static plate with constant wall temperature. Two kinds of CNTs i.e. single walls carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiple walls carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are suspended in four different types of base liquids (Kerosene oil, Engine oil, water and ethylene glycol). Kerosene oil-based nanofluids are given a special consideration due to their higher thermal conductivities, unique properties and applications. The problem is modelled in terms of PDE's with initial and boundary conditions. Some relevant non-dimensional variables are inserted in order to transmute the governing problem into dimensionless form. The resulting problem is solved via Laplace transform technique and exact solutions for velocity, shear stress and temperature are acquired. These solutions are significantly controlled by the variations of parameters including the relaxation time, Prandtl number, Grashof number and nanoparticles volume fraction. Velocity and temperature increases with elevation in Grashof number while Shear stress minimizes with increasing Maxwell parameter. A comparison between SWCNTs and MWCNTs in each case is made. Moreover, a graph showing the comparison amongst four different types of nanofluids for both CNTs is also plotted.

  14. Process of advective diffusive enrichment using differential gradients and the effects of variations in relaxation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola R.; Bernasconi, G.; Bertolotti, Angel

    1995-01-01

    A multicomponent solution is considered in advective diffusion chambers between two half-permeable barriers. A mathematical model is developed to calculate the concentration fields in the chamber. A new enrichment process is proposed and assessed using a digital simulation of space-time dynamics, based on the analytical solution of the model

  15. J ames Clerk Maxwell and his Equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    standing importance in the development of physical ideas. Maxwell has been ... mathematics teacher was William Hopkins, the famous 'Wran- ... union (like Faraday's) was child- ... bility or to use any influence when he unsuccessfully tried for.

  16. Maxwell's Multipole Vectors and the CMB

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2004-01-01

    The recently re-discovered multipole vector approach to understanding the harmonic decomposition of the cosmic microwave background traces its roots to Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Taking Maxwell's directional derivative approach as a starting point, the present article develops a fast algorithm for computing multipole vectors, with an exposition that is both simpler and better motivated than in the author's previous work. Tests show the resulting algorithm, coded up as a ...

  17. The time-local view of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. I. Linear theory of transport and relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    der, R.

    1987-01-01

    The various approaches to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics may be subdivided into convolution and convolutionless (time-local) ones. While the former, put forward by Zwanzig, Mori, and others, are used most commonly, the latter are less well developed, but have proven very useful in recent applications. The aim of the present series of papers is to develop the time-local picture (TLP) of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics on a new footing and to consider its physical implications for topics such as the formulation of irreversible thermodynamics. The most natural approach to TLP is seen to derive from the Fourier-Laplace transformwidetilde{C}(z)) of pertinent time correlation functions, which on the physical sheet typically displays an essential singularity at z=∞ and a number of macroscopic and microscopic poles in the lower half-plane corresponding to long- and short-lived modes, respectively, the former giving rise to the autonomous macrodynamics, whereas the latter are interpreted as doorway modes mediating the transfer of information from relevant to irrelevant channels. Possible implications of this doorway mode concept for socalled extended irreversible thermodynamics are briefly discussed. The pole structure is used for deriving new kinds of generalized Green-Kubo relations expressing macroscopic quantities, transport coefficients, e.g., by contour integrals over current-current correlation functions obeying Hamiltonian dynamics, the contour integration replacing projection. The conventional Green-Kubo relations valid for conserved quantities only are rederived for illustration. Moreover,widetilde{C}(z) may be expressed by a Laurent series expansion in positive and negative powers of z, from which a rigorous, general, and straightforward method is developed for extracting all macroscopic quantities from so-called secularly divergent expansions ofwidetilde{C}(z) as obtained from the application of conventional many-body techniques to the calculation

  18. A Maxwell elasto-brittle rheology for sea ice modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Véronique; Weiss, Jérôme; Saramito, Pierre; Lattes, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    A new rheological model is developed that builds on an elasto-brittle (EB) framework used for sea ice and rock mechanics, with the intent of representing both the small elastic deformations associated with fracturing processes and the larger deformations occurring along the faults/leads once the material is highly damaged and fragmented. A viscous-like relaxation term is added to the linear-elastic constitutive law together with an effective viscosity that evolves according to the local level of damage of the material, like its elastic modulus. The coupling between the level of damage and both mechanical parameters is such that within an undamaged ice cover the viscosity is infinitely large and deformations are strictly elastic, while along highly damaged zones the elastic modulus vanishes and most of the stress is dissipated through permanent deformations. A healing mechanism is also introduced, counterbalancing the effects of damaging over large timescales. In this new model, named Maxwell-EB after the Maxwell rheology, the irreversible and reversible deformations are solved for simultaneously; hence drift velocities are defined naturally. First idealized simulations without advection show that the model reproduces the main characteristics of sea ice mechanics and deformation: strain localization, anisotropy, intermittency and associated scaling laws.

  19. Patellofemoral instability in children: T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage in patients with and without patellofemoral instability and correlation with morphological grading of cartilage damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, P<0.05) with the longest time at the central area. Positive correlation was seen between mean T2 relaxation time and morphological grading (Pearson correlation coefficiency, P<0.001). T2 increased with severity of morphological grading from 0 to 3 (mixed model, P<0.001), but no statistical difference was seen between grades 3 and 4. In patellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic monopoles, Galilean invariance, and Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    Maxwell's equations have space reserved for magnetic monopoles. Whether or not they exist in our part of the universe, monopoles provide a useful didactic tool to help us recognize relations among Maxwell's equations less easily apparent in the approach followed by many introductory textbooks, wherein Coulomb's law, Biot and Savart's law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Maxwell's displacement current, etc., are introduced independently, ''as demanded by experiment.'' Instead a conceptual path that deduces all of Maxwell's equations from the near-minimal set of assumptions: (a) Inertial frames exist, in which Newton's laws hold, to a first approximation; (b) the laws of electrodynamics are Galilean invariant---i.e., they have the same form in every inertial frame, to a first approximation; (c) magnetic poles (as well as the usual electric charges) exist; (d) the complete Lorentz force on an electric charge is known; (e) the force on a monopole at rest is known; (f) the Coulomb-like field produced by a resting electric charge and by a resting monopole are known. Everything else is deduced. History is followed in the assumption that Newtonian mechanics have been discovered, but not special relativity. (Only particle velocities v much-lt c are considered.) This ends up with Maxwell's equations (Maxwell did not need special relativity, so why should we,) but facing Einstein's paradox, the solution of which is encapsulated in the Einstein velocity-addition formula

  1. Time-dependent entropy evolution in microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Jarvis, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a study of entropy and its evolution in the time and frequency domains upon application of electromagnetic fields to materials. An understanding of entropy and its evolution in electromagnetic interactions bridges the boundaries between electromagnetism and thermodynamics. The approach used here is a Liouville-based statistical-mechanical theory. I show that the microscopic entropy is reversible and the macroscopic entropy satisfies an H theorem. The spectral entropy development can be very useful for studying the frequency response of materials. Using a projection-operator based nonequilibrium entropy, different equations are derived for the entropy and entropy production and are applied to the polarization, magnetization, and macroscopic fields. I begin by proving an exact H theorem for the entropy, progress to application of time-dependent entropy in electromagnetics, and then apply the theory to relevant applications in electromagnetics. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the frequency-domain form of the entropy to the permittivity, permeability, and impedance

  2. Hyaline articular cartilage: relaxation times, pulse-sequence parameters and MR appearance at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalkias, S.M. [Dept. of Radiology, A.H.E.P.A. General Hospital of the Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Pozzi-Mucelli, M. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Frezza, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    1994-08-01

    In order to optimize the parameters for the best visualization of the internal architecture of the hyaline articular cartilage a study both ex vivo and in vivo was performed. Accurate T1 and T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage were obtained with a particular mixed sequence and then used for the creation of isocontrast intensity graphs. These graphs subsequently allowed in all pulse sequences (spin echo, SE and gradient echo, GRE) the best combination of repetition time (TR), echo time (TE) and flip angle (FA) for optimization of signal differences between MR cartilage zones. For SE sequences maximum contrast between cartilage zones can be obtained by using a long TR (> 1,500 ms) with a short TE (< 30 ms), whereas for GRE sequences maximum contrast is obtained with the shortest TE (< 15 ms) combined with a relatively long TR (> 400 ms) and an FA greater than 40 . A trilaminar appearance was demonstrated with a superficial and deep hypointense zone in all sequences and an intermediate zone that was moderately hyperintense on SE T1-weighted images, slightly more hyperintense on proton density Rho and SE T2-weighted images and even more hyperintense on GRE images. (orig.)

  3. Simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, SongGui; Sun, QiCheng; Jin, Feng; Liu, JianGuo

    2014-03-01

    Fresh cement mortar is a type of workable paste, which can be well approximated as a Bingham plastic and whose flow behavior is of major concern in engineering. In this paper, Papanastasiou's model for Bingham fluids is solved by using the multiplerelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LB). Analysis of the stress growth exponent m in Bingham fluid flow simulations shows that Papanastasiou's model provides a good approximation of realistic Bingham plastics for values of m > 108. For lower values of m, Papanastasiou's model is valid for fluids between Bingham and Newtonian fluids. The MRT-LB model is validated by two benchmark problems: 2D steady Poiseuille flows and lid-driven cavity flows. Comparing the numerical results of the velocity distributions with corresponding analytical solutions shows that the MRT-LB model is appropriate for studying Bingham fluids while also providing better numerical stability. We further apply the MRT-LB model to simulate flow through a sudden expansion channel and the flow surrounding a round particle. Besides the rich flow structures obtained in this work, the dynamics fluid force on the round particle is calculated. Results show that both the Reynolds number Re and the Bingham number Bn affect the drag coefficients C D , and a drag coefficient with Re and Bn being taken into account is proposed. The relationship of Bn and the ratio of unyielded zone thickness to particle diameter is also analyzed. Finally, the Bingham fluid flowing around a set of randomly dispersed particles is simulated to obtain the apparent viscosity and velocity fields. These results help simulation of fresh concrete flowing in porous media.

  4. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting using echo-planar imaging: Joint quantification of T1 and T2∗ relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Benedikt; Zimmer, Fabian; Zapp, Jascha; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-11-01

    To develop an implementation of the magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) paradigm for quantitative imaging using echo-planar imaging (EPI) for simultaneous assessment of T 1 and T2∗. The proposed MRF method (MRF-EPI) is based on the acquisition of 160 gradient-spoiled EPI images with rapid, parallel-imaging accelerated, Cartesian readout and a measurement time of 10 s per slice. Contrast variation is induced using an initial inversion pulse, and varying the flip angles, echo times, and repetition times throughout the sequence. Joint quantification of T 1 and T2∗ is performed using dictionary matching with integrated B1+ correction. The quantification accuracy of the method was validated in phantom scans and in vivo in 6 healthy subjects. Joint T 1 and T2∗ parameter maps acquired with MRF-EPI in phantoms are in good agreement with reference measurements, showing deviations under 5% and 4% for T 1 and T2∗, respectively. In vivo baseline images were visually free of artifacts. In vivo relaxation times are in good agreement with gold-standard techniques (deviation T 1 : 4 ± 2%, T2∗: 4 ± 5%). The visual quality was comparable to the in vivo gold standard, despite substantially shortened scan times. The proposed MRF-EPI method provides fast and accurate T 1 and T2∗ quantification. This approach offers a rapid supplement to the non-Cartesian MRF portfolio, with potentially increased usability and robustness. Magn Reson Med 78:1724-1733, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Quantum vacuum energy near a black hole: the Maxwell field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elster, T.

    1984-01-01

    A quantised Maxwell field is considered propagating in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole. The vector Hartle-Hawking propagator is defined on the Riemannian section of the analytically continued space-time and expanded in terms of four-dimensional vector spherical harmonics. The equations for the radial functions appearing in the expansion are derived for both odd and even parity. Using the expansion of the vector Hartle-Hawking propagator, the point-separated expectation value of the Maxwellian energy-momentum tensor in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum is derived. The renormalised values of radial pressure, tangential pressure and energy density are obtained near the horizon of the black hole. In contrast to the scalar field, the Maxwell field exhibits a positive energy density near the horizon in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state. (author)

  6. Rapid simultaneous high-resolution mapping of myelin water fraction and relaxation times in human brain using BMC-mcDESPOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhrara, Mustapha; Spencer, Richard G

    2017-02-15

    A number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases exhibit changes in myelin content and magnetic resonance longitudinal, T 1 , and transverse, T 2 , relaxation times, which therefore represent important biomarkers of CNS pathology. Among the methods applied for measurement of myelin water fraction (MWF) and relaxation times, the multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T 1 and T 2 (mcDESPOT) approach is of particular interest. mcDESPOT permits whole brain mapping of multicomponent T 1 and T 2 , with data acquisition accomplished within a clinically realistic acquisition time. Unfortunately, previous studies have indicated the limited performance of mcDESPOT in the setting of the modest signal-to-noise range of high-resolution mapping, required for the depiction of small structures and to reduce partial volume effects. Recently, we showed that a new Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) analysis substantially improved determination of MWF from mcDESPOT imaging data. However, our previous study was limited in that it did not discuss determination of relaxation times. Here, we extend the BMC analysis to the simultaneous determination of whole-brain MWF and relaxation times using the two-component mcDESPOT signal model. Simulation analyses and in-vivo human brain studies indicate the overall greater performance of this approach compared to the stochastic region contraction (SRC) algorithm, conventionally used to derive parameter estimates from mcDESPOT data. SRC estimates of the transverse relaxation time of the long T 2 fraction, T 2,l , and the longitudinal relaxation time of the short T 1 fraction, T 1,s , clustered towards the lower and upper parameter search space limits, respectively, indicating failure of the fitting procedure. We demonstrate that this effect is absent in the BMC analysis. Our results also showed improved parameter estimation for BMC as compared to SRC for high-resolution mapping. Overall we find that the combination of BMC analysis

  7. Diastolic Function in Normal Sinus Rhythm vs. Chronic Atrial Fibrillation: Comparison by Fractionation of E-wave Deceleration Time into Stiffness and Relaxation Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossahebi, Sina; Kovács, Sándor J

    2014-01-01

    Although the electrophysiologic derangement responsible for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been elucidated, how AF remodels the ventricular chamber and affects diastolic function (DF) has not been fully characterized. The previously validated Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism models suction-initiated filling kinematically and generates error-minimized fits to E-wave contours using unique load (x o ), relaxation (c), and stiffness (k) parameters. It predicts that E-wave deceleration time (DT) is a function of both stiffness and relaxation. Ascribing DT s to stiffness and DTr to relaxation such that DT=DT s +DT r is legitimate because of causality and their predicted and observed high correlation (r=0.82 and r=0.94) with simultaneous (diastatic) chamber stiffness (dP/dV) and isovolumic relaxation (tau), respectively. We analyzed simultaneous echocardiography-cardiac catheterization data and compared 16 age matched, chronic AF subjects to 16, normal sinus rhythm (NSR) subjects (650 beats). All subjects had diastatic intervals. Conventional DF parameters (DT, AT, E peak , E dur , E-VTI, E/E') and E-wave derived PDF parameters (c, k, DT s , DT r ) were compared. Total DT and DT s , DT r in AF were shorter than in NSR (pwave DT in AF is due to stiffness compared to NSR. By trending individual subjects, this method can elucidate and characterize the beneficial or adverse long-term effects on chamber remodeling due to alternative therapies in terms of chamber stiffness and relaxation.

  8. Numerical simulation of convection and heat transfer in Czochralski crystal growth by multiple-relaxation-time LBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding; Huang, Weichao; Zhang, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric swirling model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in a pseudo Cartesian coordinate system is posited to simulate Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth in this paper. Specifically, the multiple-relaxation-time LBM (MRT-LBM) combined with the finite difference method (FDM) is used to analyze the melt convection and heat transfer in the process of Cz crystal growth. An incompressible axisymmetric swirling MRT-LB D2Q9 model is applied to solve for the axial and radial velocities by inserting thermal buoyancy and rotational inertial force into the two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann equation. In addition, the melt temperature and the azimuthal velocity are solved by MRT-LB D2Q5 models, and the crystal temperature is solved by FDM. The comparison results of stream functions values of different methods demonstrate that our hybrid model can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal coupling in the axisymmetric swirling model correctly and effectively. Furthermore, numerical simulations of melt convection and heat transfer are conducted under the conditions of high Grashof (Gr) numbers, within the range of 105 ˜ 107, and different high Reynolds (Re) numbers. The experimental results show our hybrid model can obtain the exact solution of complex crystal-growth models and analyze the fluid-thermal coupling effectively under the combined action of natural convection and forced convection.

  9. Supersymmetrization schemes of D=4 Maxwell algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Lukierski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The Maxwell algebra, an enlargement of Poincaré algebra by Abelian tensorial generators, can be obtained in arbitrary dimension D by the suitable contraction of O(D-1,1)⊕O(D-1,2) (Lorentz algebra ⊕ AdS algebra). We recall that in D=4 the Lorentz algebra O(3,1) is described by the realification Sp R (2|C) of complex algebra Sp(2|C)≃Sl(2|C) and O(3,2)≃Sp(4). We study various D=4N-extended Maxwell superalgebras obtained by the contractions of real superalgebras OSp R (2N-k;2|C)⊕OSp(k;4) (k=0,1,2,…,2N); (extended Lorentz superalgebra ⊕ extended AdS superalgebra). If N=1 (k=0,1,2) one arrives at three different versions of simple Maxwell superalgebra. For any fixed N we get 2N different superextensions of Maxwell algebra with n-extended Poincaré superalgebras (1⩽n⩽N) and the internal symmetry sectors obtained by suitable contractions of the real algebra O R (2N-k|C)⊕O(k). Finally the comments on possible applications of Maxwell superalgebras are presented.

  10. The free Maxwell field in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueskue, M.

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this thesis is to discuss quantizations of the free Maxwell field in flat and curved spacetimes. First we introduce briefly some notions from tensor analysis and the causal structure of spacetime. As an introduction to the main topic, we review some aspects of the two axiomatic quantum field theories, Wightman theory and algebraic quantum field theory. We also give an introduction into concepts of the quantization of fields on curved spacetime backgrounds. Then the wave equation and quantization of the Maxwell field in flat spacetimes is discussed. It follows a review of J. Dimock's quantization of the Maxwell field on curved spacetimes and then we come to our main result: We show explicitly that the Maxwell field, defined by dF=0 and δF=0, has a well posed initial value formulation on arbitrary globally hyperbolic spacetime manifolds. We prove the existence and uniqueness of fundamental solutions without employing a vector potential. Thus our solution is also applicable to spacetimes not satisfying the Poincare lemma and should lead to a quantization of the Maxwell field on non-trivial spacetime backgrounds. This in turn provides the opportunity to investigate physical states on non-trivial spacetime-topologies and could lead to the discovery of new quantum phenomena. (orig.)

  11. Energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates from a time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi; Zhong, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation

  12. Relationship between thermodynamic parameter and thermodynamic scaling parameter for orientational relaxation time for flip-flop motion of nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2013-03-07

    Thermodynamic parameter Γ and thermodynamic scaling parameter γ for low-frequency relaxation time, which characterize flip-flop motion in a nematic phase, were verified by molecular dynamics simulation with a simple potential based on the Maier-Saupe theory. The parameter Γ, which is the slope of the logarithm for temperature and volume, was evaluated under various conditions at a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and volumes. To simulate thermodynamic scaling so that experimental data at isobaric, isothermal, and isochoric conditions can be rescaled onto a master curve with the parameters for some liquid crystal (LC) compounds, the relaxation time was evaluated from the first-rank orientational correlation function in the simulations, and thermodynamic scaling was verified with the simple potential representing small clusters. A possibility of an equivalence relationship between Γ and γ determined from the relaxation time in the simulation was assessed with available data from the experiments and simulations. In addition, an argument was proposed for the discrepancy between Γ and γ for some LCs in experiments: the discrepancy arises from disagreement of the value of the order parameter P2 rather than the constancy of relaxation time τ1(*) on pressure.

  13. The age dependence of T2 relaxation times of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine and choline in the human brain at 3 and 4T

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirů, F.; Škoch, A.; Wágnerová, D.; Dezortová, M.; Visková, J.; Profant, Oliver; Syka, Josef; Hájek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2016), s. 284-292 ISSN 0952-3480 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : MRS * T2 relaxation times of metabolites * age dependence of T2 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2016

  14. Rotational and translational dynamics and their relation to hydrogen bond lifetimes in an ionic liquid by means of NMR relaxation time experiments and molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Anne; Neumann, Jan; Overbeck, Viviane; Bonsa, Anne-Marie; Michalik, Dirk; Paschek, Dietmar; Ludwig, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    We report a concerted theoretical and experimental effort to determine the reorientational dynamics as well as hydrogen bond lifetimes for the doubly ionic hydrogen bond +OH⋯O- in the ionic liquid (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Ch][NTf2] by using a combination of NMR relaxation time experiments, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Due to fast proton exchange, the determination of rotational correlation times is challenging. For molecular liquids, 17O-enhanced proton relaxation time experiments have been used to determine the rotational correlation times for the OH vectors in water or alcohols. As an alternative to those expensive isotopic substitution experiments, we employed a recently introduced approach which is providing access to the rotational dynamics from a single NMR deuteron quadrupolar relaxation time experiment. Here, the deuteron quadrupole coupling constants (DQCCs) are obtained from a relation between the DQCC and the δ1H proton chemical shifts determined from a set of DFT calculated clusters in combination with experimentally determined proton chemical shifts. The NMR-obtained rotational correlation times were compared to those obtained from MD simulations and then related to viscosities for testing the applicability of popular hydrodynamic models. In addition, hydrogen bond lifetimes were derived, using hydrogen bond population correlation functions computed from MD simulations. Here, two different time domains were observed: The short-time contributions to the hydrogen lifetimes and the reorientational correlation times have roughly the same size and are located in the picosecond range, whereas the long-time contributions decay with relaxation times in the nanosecond regime and are related to rather slow diffusion processes. The computed average hydrogen bond lifetime is dominated by the long-time process, highlighting the importance and longevity of

  15. Static Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.

    1979-01-01

    The static Einstein--Maxwell field equations are investigated in the presence of both electric and magnetic fields. The sources or bodies are assumed to be of finite size and to not affect the connectivity of the associated space. Furthermore, electromagnetic and metric fields are assumed to have reasonable differentiabilities. It is then proved that the electric and magnetic field vectors are constant multiples of one another. Moreover, the static Einstein--Maxwell equations reduce to the static magnetovac case. If, furthermore, the variational derivation of the Einstein--Maxwell equations is assumed, then both the total electric and magnetic charge of each body must vanish. As a physical consequence it is pointed out that if a suspended magnet be electrically charged then it must experience a purely general relativistic torque

  16. Whole brain MP2RAGE-based mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, G E; Bause, J; Ethofer, T; Ehses, P; Dresler, T; Herbert, C; Pohmann, R; Shajan, G; Fallgatter, A; Pavlova, M A; Scheffler, K

    2017-01-01

    Mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ) with high accuracy and precision is central for neuroscientific and clinical research, since it opens up the possibility to obtain accurate brain tissue segmentation and gain myelin-related information. An ideal, quantitative method should enable whole brain coverage within a limited scan time yet allow for detailed sampling with sub-millimeter voxel sizes. The use of ultra-high magnetic fields is well suited for this purpose, however the inhomogeneous transmit field potentially hampers its use. In the present work, we conducted whole brain T 1 mapping based on the MP2RAGE sequence at 9.4T and explored potential pitfalls for automated tissue classification compared with 3T. Data accuracy and T 2 -dependent variation of the adiabatic inversion efficiency were investigated by single slice T 1 mapping with inversion recovery EPI measurements, quantitative T 2 mapping using multi-echo techniques and simulations of the Bloch equations. We found that the prominent spatial variation of the transmit field at 9.4T (yielding flip angles between 20% and 180% of nominal values) profoundly affected the result of image segmentation and T 1 mapping. These effects could be mitigated by correcting for both flip angle and inversion efficiency deviations. Based on the corrected T 1 maps, new, 'flattened', MP2RAGE contrast images were generated, that were no longer affected by variations of the transmit field. Unlike the uncorrected MP2RAGE contrast images acquired at 9.4T, these flattened images yielded image segmentations comparable to 3T, making bias-field correction prior to image segmentation and tissue classification unnecessary. In terms of the T 1 estimates at high field, the proposed correction methods resulted in an improved precision, with test-retest variability below 1% and a coefficient-of-variation across 25 subjects below 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maxwell-Higgs vortices with internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2018-05-01

    Vortices are considered in relativistic Maxwell-Higgs systems in interaction with a neutral scalar field. The gauge field interacts with the neutral field via the presence of generalized permeability, and the charged and neutral scalar fields interact in a way dictated by the presence of first order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. The neutral field may be seen as the source field of the vortex, and we study some possibilities, which modify the standard Maxwell-Higgs solution and include internal structure to the vortex.

  18. Modified Maxwell equations in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Harmuth, Henning F; Meffert, Beate

    2001-01-01

    Divergencies in quantum field theory referred to as "infinite zero-point energy" have been a problem for 70 years. Renormalization has always been considered an unsatisfactory remedy. In 1985 it was found that Maxwell's equations generally do not have solutions that satisfy the causality law. An additional term for magnetic dipole currents corrected this shortcoming. Rotating magnetic dipoles produce magnetic dipole currents, just as rotating electric dipoles in a material like barium titanate produce electric dipole currents. Electric dipole currents were always part of Maxwell's equations. T

  19. On the propagation of linear transverse acoustic waves in isotropic media with mechanical relaxation phenomena due to viscosity and a tensorial internal variable. II. Some cases of special interest (Poynting-Thomson, Jeffreys, Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, Hooke and Newton media)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrisi, E.; Ciancio, V.; Kluitenberg, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The propagation of linear transverse acoustic waves in isotropic media in which mechanical relaxation phenomena occur was considered in a previous paper. In particular expressions for the velocity and attenuation of the waves were obtained and the limiting cases of waves with high and low

  20. Heteronuclear relaxation in time-dependent spin systems: 15N-T1ρ dispersion during adiabatic fast passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrat, Robert; Tollinger, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A novel NMR experiment comprising adiabatic fast passage techniques for the measurement of heteronuclear self-relaxation rates in fully 15N-enriched proteins is described. Heteronuclear self-relaxation is monitored by performing adiabatic fast passage (AFP) experiments at variable adiabaticity (e.g., variation of RF spin-lock field intensity). The experiment encompasses gradient- selection and sensitivity-enhancement. It is shown that transverse relaxation rates derived with this method are in good agreement with the ones measured by the classical Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. An application of this method to the study of the carboxyl-terminal LIM domain of quail cysteine and glycine-rich protein qCRP2(LIM2) is presented

  1. Nonlocal symmetries and nonlocal conservation laws of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anco, S.C.; Bluman, G.

    1997-01-01

    Nonlocal symmetries are obtained for Maxwell's equations in three space-time dimensions through the use of two potential systems involving scalar and vector potentials for the electromagnetic field. Corresponding nonlocal conservation laws are derived from these symmetries. The conservation laws yield nine functionally independent constants of motion which cannot be expressed in terms of the constants of motion arising from local conservation laws for space-time symmetries. These nine constants of motion represent additional conserved quantities for the electromagnetic field in three space endash time dimensions. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  3. Analytical representation of time correlation functions and application to relaxation problems; Representation analytique des fonctions de correlation temporelle et application a des problemes de relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de physico-chimie, services des isotopes stables

    1971-07-01

    Two analytical representations of the Laplace transform of the time autocorrelation of a dynamical variable, namely the moment expansion and Mori's continued fraction expansion, are investigated from the point of view of structure and convergence properties, and the relation between them is established. The general theory is applied first to a dynamical model exactly solvable, the isotopic impurity in a linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators, and then to two stochastic models recently introduced by Gordon for the rotational diffusion of molecules. In the latter case, the continued fraction expansion yields simple analytical expressions for the infrared absorption band shapes, showing that these models contain all the features of observed shapes in compressed gases, liquids and solutions. (author) [French] Deux representations analytiques de la transformee de Laplace de la fonction d'autocorrelation temporelle d'une variable dynamique, le developpement en moments et le developpement en fraction continue recemment introduit par Mori, sont etudiees du point de vue de leurs proprietes de structure et de convergence, en meme temps que la relation qui existe entre elles est etablie. La theorie generale est appliquee, d'une part, a un modele dynamique exactement soluble, celui d'une particule isotopique dans une chaine lineaire d'oscillateurs harmoniques couples, et, d'autre part, a deux modeles stochastiques recemment proposes par Gordon pour la diffusion rotationnelle des molecules. Dans ce dernier cas, la voie de la fraction continue fournit des expressions analytiques simples pour les formes de bande d'absorption infrarouge, montrant que ces modeles possedent les caracteristiques des formes observees dans les gaz comprimes, les liquides ou les solutions. (auteur)

  4. Contributions of Maxwell to Electromagnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the mid 17th century. Since then, for a long time, these phenom- ... formed by Musschenbroek (1745) and also around the same time by William ..... The time must probably be short as the time of light; but the greatness of the result, if affirmative ... long in realising my intentions, and a failing memory is against me. Ever yours ...

  5. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, J.G.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    Numerical integration of Maxwell's equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit finite difference

  6. The Arrow of Time in the Collapse of Collisionless Self-gravitating Systems: Non-validity of the Vlasov-Poisson Equation during Violent Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo e Silva, Leandro; de Siqueira Pedra, Walter; Sodré, Laerte; Perico, Eder L. D.; Lima, Marcos

    2017-09-01

    The collapse of a collisionless self-gravitating system, with the fast achievement of a quasi-stationary state, is driven by violent relaxation, with a typical particle interacting with the time-changing collective potential. It is traditionally assumed that this evolution is governed by the Vlasov-Poisson equation, in which case entropy must be conserved. We run N-body simulations of isolated self-gravitating systems, using three simulation codes, NBODY-6 (direct summation without softening), NBODY-2 (direct summation with softening), and GADGET-2 (tree code with softening), for different numbers of particles and initial conditions. At each snapshot, we estimate the Shannon entropy of the distribution function with three different techniques: Kernel, Nearest Neighbor, and EnBiD. For all simulation codes and estimators, the entropy evolution converges to the same limit as N increases. During violent relaxation, the entropy has a fast increase followed by damping oscillations, indicating that violent relaxation must be described by a kinetic equation other than the Vlasov-Poisson equation, even for N as large as that of astronomical structures. This indicates that violent relaxation cannot be described by a time-reversible equation, shedding some light on the so-called “fundamental paradox of stellar dynamics.” The long-term evolution is well-described by the orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck model, with Coulomb logarithm values in the expected range 10{--}12. By means of NBODY-2, we also study the dependence of the two-body relaxation timescale on the softening length. The approach presented in the current work can potentially provide a general method for testing any kinetic equation intended to describe the macroscopic evolution of N-body systems.

  7. The contrasting roles of creep and stress relaxation in the time-dependent deformation during in-situ cooling of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D'Souza, Neil; Collins, David M; Bhowmik, Ayan

    2017-09-11

    Time dependent plastic deformation in a single crystal nickel-base superalloy during cooling from casting relevant temperatures has been studied using a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and modelling. Visco-plastic deformation during cooling was found to be dependent on the stress and constraints imposed to component contraction during cooling, which mechanistically comprises creep and stress relaxation. Creep results in progressive work hardening with dislocations shearing the γ' precipitates, a high dislocation density in the γ channels and near the γ/γ' interface and precipitate shearing. When macroscopic contraction is restricted, relaxation dominates. This leads to work softening from a decreased dislocation density and the presence of long segment stacking faults in γ phase. Changes in lattice strains occur to a similar magnitude in both the γ and γ' phases during stress relaxation, while in creep there is no clear monotonic trend in lattice strain in the γ phase, but only a marginal increase in the γ' precipitates. Using a visco-plastic law derived from in-situ experiments, the experimentally measured and calculated stresses during cooling show a good agreement when creep predominates. However, when stress relaxation dominates accounting for the decrease in dislocation density during cooling is essential.

  8. High-field transport of electrons and radiative effects using coupled force-balance and Fokker-Planck equations beyond the relaxation-time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Danhong; Apostolova, T.; Alsing, P.M.; Cardimona, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of a many-electron system under both dc and infrared fields is separated into a center-of-mass and a relative motion. The first-order force-balance equation is employed for the slow center-of-mass motion of electrons, and the Fokker-Planck equation is used for the ultrafast relative scattering motion of degenerate electrons. This approach allows us to include the anisotropic energy-relaxation process which has been neglected in the energy-balance equation in the past. It also leads us to include the anisotropic coupling to the incident infrared field with different polarizations. Based on this model, the transport of electrons is explored under strong dc and infrared fields by going beyond the relaxation-time approximation. The anisotropic dependence of the electron distribution function on the parallel and perpendicular kinetic energies of electrons is displayed with respect to the dc field direction, and the effect of anisotropic coupling to an incident infrared field with polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the applied dc electric field is shown. The heating of electrons is more accurately described beyond the energy-balance equation with the inclusion of an anisotropic coupling to the infrared field. The drift velocity of electrons is found to increase with the amplitude of the infrared field due to a suppressed momentum-relaxation process (or frictional force) under parallel polarization but decreases with the amplitude due to an enhanced momentum-relaxation process under perpendicular polarization

  9. Null canonical formalism 1, Maxwell field. [Poisson brackets, boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodkiewicz, K [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Teoretycznej

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to formulate the canonical formalism on null hypersurfaces for the Maxwell electrodynamics. The set of the Poisson brackets relations for null variables of the Maxwell field is obtained. The asymptotic properties of the theory are investigated. The Poisson bracket relations for the news-functions of the Maxwell field are computed. The Hamiltonian form of the asymptotic Maxwell equations in terms of these news-functions is obtained.

  10. Complex and biofluids: From Maxwell to nowadays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2009-11-01

    Complex fluids are the rule in biology and in many industrial applications. Typical examples are blood, cartilage, and polymer solutions. Unlike water (as well as domestic oils, soft clear drinks, and so on), the law(s) describing the behavior of complex fluids are not yet fully established. The complexity arises from strong coupling between microscopic scales (like the motion of a red blood cell in the case of blood, or a polymer molecule for a polymer solution) and the global scale of the flow (say at the scale of a blood artery, or a channel in laboratory experiments). In this issue entitled Complex and Biofluids a large panel of experimental and theoretical problems of complex fluids is exposed. The topics range from dilute polymer solutions, food products, to biology (blood flow, cell and tissue mechanics). One of the earliest model put forward as an attempt to describe a complex fluid was suggested a long time ago by James Clerk Maxwell (in 1867). Other famous scientists, like Einstein (in 1906), and Taylor (in 1932) have made important contributions to the field, but the topic of complex fluids still continues to pose a formidable challenge to science. This field has known during the past decade an unbelievable upsurge of interest in many branches of science (physics, mechanics, chemistry, biology, medical science, mathematics, and so on). Understanding complex fluids is viewed as one of the biggest challenge of the present century. This synthesis will provide a simple introduction to the topic, summarize the main contribution of this issue, and list major open questions in this field. To cite this article: C. Misbah, C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  11. Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MR Imaging of the Liver: The Effect on T2 Relaxation Times and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Podgórska, Joanna; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Maj, Edyta; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Milczarek, Krzysztof; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on T2 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the liver and focal liver lesions on a 1.5-T system. Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 50 patients with 35 liver lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at 1.5T and included T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) images acquired before and after intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. To assess the effect of this hepatobiliary contrast agent on T2-weighted TSE images and DW images T2 relaxation times and ADC values of the liver and FLLs were calculated and compared pre- and post-injection. The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal hepatic lesions were lower on enhanced than on unenhanced T2-weighted TSE images (decrease of 2.7% and 3.6% respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. The mean ADC values of the liver showed statistically significant decrease (of 4.6%) on contrast-enhanced DW images, compared to unenhanced images (P>0.05). The mean ADC value of liver lesions was lower on enhanced than on unenhanced DW images, but this difference (of 2.9%) did not reach statistical significance. The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal liver lesions as well as the mean ADC values of liver lesions were not significantly different before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Therefore, acquisition of T2-weighted and DW images between the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination and hepatobiliary phase is feasible and time-saving

  12. Determination of intra-axial brain tumors cellularity through the analysis of T2 Relaxation time of brain tumors before surgery using MATLAB software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmohammadi, Jamil; Shafiee, Mohsen; Faeghi, Fariborz; Arefan, Douman; Zali, Alireza; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Farshidfar, Zahra; Nazarlou, Ali Kiani; Tavakkoli, Ali; Yarham, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Timely diagnosis of brain tumors could considerably affect the process of patient treatment. To do so, para-clinical methods, particularly MRI, cannot be ignored. MRI has so far answered significant questions regarding tumor characteristics, as well as helping neurosurgeons. In order to detect the tumor cellularity, neuro-surgeons currently have to sample specimens by biopsy and then send them to the pathology unit. The aim of this study is to determine the tumor cellularity in the brain. In this cross-sectional study, 32 patients (18 males and 14 females from 18-77 y/o) were admitted to the neurosurgery department of Shohada-E Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2014. In addition to routine pulse sequences, T2W Multi echo pulse sequences were taken and the images were analyzed using the MATLAB software to determine the brain tumor cellularity, compared with the biopsy. These findings illustrate the need for more T2 relaxation time decreases, the higher classes of tumors will stand out in the designed table. In this study, the results show T2 relaxation time with a 85% diagnostic weight, compared with the biopsy, to determine the brain tumor cellularity (p<0.05). Our results indicate that the T2 relaxation time feature is the best method to distinguish and present the degree of intra-axial brain tumors cellularity (85% accuracy compared to biopsy). The use of more data is recommended in order to increase the percent accuracy of this techniques.

  13. T2 relaxation time in patellar cartilage - global and regional reproducibility at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, C.; Horng, A.; Mendlik, T.; Weckbach, S.; Hoffmann, R.T.; Wagner, S.; Raya, J.G.; Reiser, M.; Horger, W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the global and regional reproducibility of T2 relaxation time in patellar cartilage at 1.5 T and 3 T. Materials and Methods: 6 left patellae of 6 healthy volunteers (aged 25-30, 3 female, 3 male) were examined using a fat-saturated multiecho sequence and a T1-w 3D-FLASH sequence with water excitation at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla. Three consecutive data sets were acquired within one MRI session with the examined knee being repositioned in the coil and scanner between each data set. The segmented cartilage (FLASH sequence) was overlaid on the multiecho data and T2 values were calculated for the total cartilage, 3 horizontal layers consisting of a superficial, intermedial and deep layer, 3 facets consisting of a medial, median (ridge) and lateral facet (global T2 values) and 27 ROIs/MRI slices (regional T2 value). The reproducibility (precision error) was calculated as the root mean square average of the individual standard deviations [ms] and coefficients of variation (COV) [%]. Results: The mean global reproducibility error for T2 was 3.53% (±0.38%) at 1.5 Tesla and 3.25% (±0.61%) at 3 Tesla. The mean regional reproducibility error for T2 was 8.62% (±2.61%) at 1.5 Tesla and 9.66% (±3.37%) at 3 Tesla. There was no significant difference with respect to absolute reproducibility errors between 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla at a constant spatial resolution. However, different reproducibility errors were found between the cartilage layers. One third of the data variability could be attributed to the influence of the different cartilage layers, and another 10% to the influence of the separate MRI slices. Conclusion: Our data provides an estimation of the global and regional reproducibility errors of T2 in healthy cartilage. In the analysis of small subregions, an increase in the regional reproducibility error must be accepted. The data may serve as a basis for sample size calculations of study populations and may contribute to the decision regarding the

  14. Slip-flow in complex porous media as determined by a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, C. J.; Prodanovic, M.; Eichhubl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The pores and throats of shales and mudrocks are predominantly found within a range of 1-100 nm, within this size range the flow of gas at reservoir conditions will fall within the slip-flow and low transition-flow regime (0.001 clays). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to predict slip-flow in complex geometries, but due to prohibitive computational demand are generally limited to small volumes (one to several pores). Here we present a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) parameterized for slip-flow (Guo et al. 2008) and adapted here to complex geometries. LBMs are inherently parallelizable, such that flow in complex geometries of significant (near REV-scale) volumes can be readily simulated at a fraction of the computational cost of MD simulations. At the macroscopic-scale the LBM is parameterized with local effective viscosities at each node to capture the variance of the mean-free-path of gas molecules in a bounded system. The corrected mean-free-path for each lattice node is determined using the mean distance of the node to the pore-wall and Stop's correction for mean-free-paths in an infinite parallel-plate geometry. At the microscopic-scale, a combined bounce-back specular-reflection boundary condition is applied to the pore-wall nodes to capture Maxwellian-slip. The LBM simulation results are first validated in simple tube and channel geometries, where good agreement is found for Knudsen numbers below 0.1, and fair agreement is found for Knudsen numbers between 0.1 and 0.5. More complex geometries are then examined including triangular-ducts and ellipsoid-ducts, both with constant and tapering/expanding cross-sections, as well as a clay pore-network imaged from a hydrocarbon producing shale by sequential focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy. These results are analyzed to determine grid-independent resolutions, and used to explore the relationship between effective permeability and Knudsen number in complex geometries.

  15. Relaxation time and impurity effects on linear and nonlinear refractive index changes in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE My Youssef, Rabat (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2014-10-01

    By means of a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method, the changes in linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index associated with intra-conduction band transition are investigated with and without shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot. For both cases with and without impurity, the calculation is performed within the framework of single band effective-mass and parabolic band approximations. Impurity's position and relaxation time effects are investigated. It is found that the modulation of the refractive index changes, suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infra-red optical device applications can be easily obtained by tailoring the relaxation time and the position of the impurity.

  16. In situ real-time x-ray reciprocal space mapping during InGaAs/GaAs growth for understanding strain relaxation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sai, Akihisa; Lee, Jong-Han; Kamiya, Itaru; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masamitsu; Fujikawa, Seiji; Arafune, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In situ real-time X-ray diffraction measurements during In 0.12 Ga 0.88 As/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth are performed for the first time to understand the strain relaxation mechanisms in a lattice-mismatched system. The high resolution reciprocal space maps of 004 diffraction obtained at interval of 6.2 nm thickness enable transient behavior of residual strain and crystal quality to be observed simultaneously as a function of InGaAs film thickness. From the evolution of these data, five thickness ranges with different relaxation processes and these transition points are determined quantitatively, and the dominant dislocation behavior in each phase is deduced. (author)

  17. Relaxation time and impurity effects on linear and nonlinear refractive index changes in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar

    2014-01-01

    By means of a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method, the changes in linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index associated with intra-conduction band transition are investigated with and without shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot. For both cases with and without impurity, the calculation is performed within the framework of single band effective-mass and parabolic band approximations. Impurity's position and relaxation time effects are investigated. It is found that the modulation of the refractive index changes, suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infra-red optical device applications can be easily obtained by tailoring the relaxation time and the position of the impurity

  18. Quantification of glutathione transverse relaxation time T2 using echo time extension with variable refocusing selectivity and symmetry in the human brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Kelley M.; Prinsen, Hetty; Coman, Daniel; de Graaf, Robin A.; Juchem, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    subjects. The T2 of glutathione was calculated to be 145.0 ± 20.1 ms (mean ± standard deviation); this result was robust within one standard deviation to changes in metabolite fitting baseline corrections and removal of individual data points on the signal decay curve. The measured T2 of NAA (222.1 ± 24.7 ms) and total creatine (153.0 ± 19.9 ms) were both higher than that calculated for GSH. Apparent glutathione concentration quantified relative to both reference metabolites increased by up to 32% and 6%, respectively, upon correction with calculated T2 values, emphasizing the importance of considering T2 relaxation differences in the spectroscopic measurement of these metabolites, especially at longer echo times.

  19. Comparative study of the sensitivity of ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time for early detection of Wallerian degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu Guangming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zee Chishing, E-mail: chishing@usc.edu [Department of Radiology, USC Keck School of Medicine (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background and purpose: Wallerian degeneration (WD), the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injuries, is associated with poor neurological outcome. There is some quantitative MR imaging techniques used to estimate the biologic changes secondary to delayed neuronal and axonal losses. Our purpose is to assess the sensitivity of ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time for early detection of WD. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish in vivo Wallerian degeneration model of CNS by ipsilateral motor-sensory cortex ablation. 5 days after cortex ablation, multiecho-T{sub 2} relaxometry and multi-b value DWI were acquired by using a 7 T MR imaging scanner. ADC-map and T{sub 2}-map were reconstructed by post-processing. ROIs are selected according to pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, medulla oblongata to upper cervical spinal cord to measure ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time of healthy side and affected side. The results were compared between the side with cortical ablation and the side without ablation. Results: Excluding ablated cortex, ADC values of the corticospinal tract were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in affected side compared to the unaffected, healthy side; no difference in T{sub 2} relaxation time was observed between the affected and healthy sides. Imaging findings were correlated with histological examinations. Conclusion: As shown in this animal experiment, ADC values could non-invasively demonstrate the secondary degeneration involving descending white matter tracts. ADC values are more sensitive indicators for detection of early WD than T{sub 2} relaxation time.

  20. Discrete unified gas kinetic scheme for all Knudsen number flows. III. Binary gas mixtures of Maxwell molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Lianhua; Wang, Ruijie; Guo, Zhaoli

    2018-05-01

    Recently a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) in a finite-volume formulation based on the Boltzmann model equation has been developed for gas flows in all flow regimes. The original DUGKS is designed for flows of single-species gases. In this work, we extend the DUGKS to flows of binary gas mixtures of Maxwell molecules based on the Andries-Aoki-Perthame kinetic model [P. Andries et al., J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002), 10.1023/A:1014033703134. A particular feature of the method is that the flux at each cell interface is evaluated based on the characteristic solution of the kinetic equation itself; thus the numerical dissipation is low in comparison with that using direct reconstruction. Furthermore, the implicit treatment of the collision term enables the time step to be free from the restriction of the relaxation time. Unlike the DUGKS for single-species flows, a nonlinear system must be solved to determine the interaction parameters appearing in the equilibrium distribution function, which can be obtained analytically for Maxwell molecules. Several tests are performed to validate the scheme, including the shock structure problem under different Mach numbers and molar concentrations, the channel flow driven by a small gradient of pressure, temperature, or concentration, the plane Couette flow, and the shear driven cavity flow under different mass ratios and molar concentrations. The results are compared with those from other reliable numerical methods. The results show that the proposed scheme is an effective and reliable method for binary gas mixtures in all flow regimes.

  1. Animal experimental studies on the influence of fatty infiltration of the liver on tissue relaxation times and signal changes in MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreft, B.; Stark, D.; Schild, H.

    1995-01-01

    Using a spectrometer (n=60) in vitro and MRT imaging (n=8) in vivo, we studied the influence of fatty changes of liver cells on the relaxation times of the liver (two animal models of fatty liver disease/orotic acid, L-ethionine). Induction of fatty degeneration of the liver by means of an orotic acid diet resulted in pure deposition of fat in the liver without any histological or serological proof of inflammatory changes. Although accumulation of triglyceride in the liver reduced the T 1 relaxation time only relatively slightly (-15%), there was good correlation (r=0.88) between fat content and T 1 . There was also good correlation (r=0.92) between T 2 and histological fat content. Inflammatory changes besides fatty deposition were seen both serologically and histologically in the L-ethionine model, so that the fatty content did not correlate with T 1 . In-vivo MRT imaging showed that spin-echo sequences are inappropriate for diagnosing fatty infiltration of the liver despite the relaxation time changes produced by the fatty deposition. On the other hand, chemical-shift imaging sequences are very sensitive to identify fatty deposits, and are also independent of any additionally existing inflammatory changes. (orig.) [de

  2. Comparison of T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in elite professional football players and age-and BMI-matched amateur athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, C., E-mail: c.behzadi@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Welsch, G.H. [Department of Sports Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Kaul, M.G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Schoen, G. [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Adam, G.; Regier, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Objective: Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. Materials and methods: 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6 ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. Results: In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (p < 0.001). Professional athletes had significantly higher relaxation times in eight superficial and three deep cartilage layers in the predefined cartilage segments (p < 0.05). Highly significant differences were found in the weight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers.

  3. Comparison of T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in elite professional football players and age-and BMI-matched amateur athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, C.; Welsch, G.H.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Kaul, M.G.; Schoen, G.; Adam, G.; Regier, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. Materials and methods: 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6 ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. Results: In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (p < 0.001). Professional athletes had significantly higher relaxation times in eight superficial and three deep cartilage layers in the predefined cartilage segments (p < 0.05). Highly significant differences were found in the weight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the T2 relaxation time of the gluteus muscles in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a comparative study before and after steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Horn, Paul S; Wong, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. ELEVEN BOYS WITH DMD (AGE RANGE: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable.

  5. Influence of aging time of oleate precursor on the magnetic relaxation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the thermal decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Adriana P.; Polo-Corrales, Liliana; Chavez, Ermides; Cabarcas-Bolivar, Jari; Uwakweh, Oswald N.C.; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are of interest because of their room temperature coercivity and high magnetic anisotropy constant, which make them attractive in applications such as sensors based on the Brownian relaxation mechanism and probes to determine the mechanical properties of complex fluids at the nanoscale. These nanoparticles can be synthesized with a narrow size distribution by the thermal decomposition of an iron–cobalt oleate precursor in a high boiling point solvent. We studied the influence of aging time of the iron–cobalt oleate precursor on the structure, chemical composition, size, and magnetic relaxation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. The structure and thermal behavior of the iron–cobalt oleate was studied during the aging process. Infrared spectra indicated a shift in the coordination state of the oleate and iron/cobalt ions from bidentate to bridging coordination. Aging seemed to influence the thermal decomposition of the iron–cobalt oleate as determined from thermogravimmetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, where shifts in the temperatures corresponding to decomposition events and a narrowing of the endotherms associated with these events were observed. Aging promoted formation of the spinel crystal structure, as determined from X-ray diffraction, and influenced the nanoparticle magnetic properties, resulting in an increase in blocking temperature and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Mossbauer spectra also indicated changes in the magnetic properties resulting from aging of the precursor oleate. Although all samples exhibited some degree of Brownian relaxation, as determined from complex susceptibility measurements in a liquid medium, aging of the iron–cobalt oleate precursor resulted in crossing of the in-phase χ′and out-of-phase χ″ components of the complex susceptibility at the frequency of the Brownian magnetic relaxation peak, as expected for nanoparticles

  6. Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.

  7. Effect of Au{sup 8+} irradiation on Ni/n-GaP Schottky diode: Its influence on interface state density and relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiwakoti, N.; Bobby, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India)

    2017-01-01

    The in-situ capacitance-frequency and conductance-frequency measurements of 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} swift heavy ion irradiated Ni/n-GaP Schottky structure at a constant bias voltage have been carried out in the frequency range 1 kHz–1 MHz at room temperature. The interface states density and the relaxation time of the charge carriers have been calculated from Nicollian and Brews method. Various dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, loss tangent, series resistance, ac conductivity, real and imaginary parts of electric modulus have been extracted and analyzed under complex permittivity and complex electric modulus formalisms. The capacitance and conductance characteristics are found to exhibit complex behaviors at lower frequency region (1–20 kHz) for all the samples. The observed peaks and dips at low frequency region are attributed to the relaxation mechanisms of charge carriers and the interface or dipolar polarization at the interface. The dielectric properties are found to be effectively changed by the ion fluence which is attributed to the variation in interface states density and their relaxation time.

  8. T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the normal adult knee meniscus at 3T: analysis of zonal differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Shoichiro; Nguyen, Tan B; Yu, Hon J; Hagiwara, Shigeo; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Nozaki, Taiki; Iwamoto, Seiji; Otomo, Maki; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2017-05-18

    Prior studies describe histological and immunohistochemical differences in collagen and proteoglycan content in different meniscal zones. The aim of this study is to evaluate horizontal and vertical zonal differentiation of T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the entire meniscus from volunteers without symptom and imaging abnormality. Twenty volunteers age between 19 and 38 who have no knee-related clinical symptoms, and no history of prior knee surgeries were enrolled in this study. Two T1rho mapping (b-FFE T1rho and SPGR T1rho) and T2 mapping images were acquired with a 3.0-T MR scanner. Each meniscus was divided manually into superficial and deep zones for horizontal zonal analysis. The anterior and posterior horns of each meniscus were divided manually into white, red-white and red zones for vertical zonal analysis. Zonal differences of average relaxation times among each zone, and both inter- and intra-observer reproducibility were statistically analyzed. In horizontal zonal analysis, T1rho relaxation times of the superficial zone tended to be higher than those of the deep zone, and this difference was statistically significant in the medial meniscal segments (84.3 ms vs 76.0 ms on b-FFE, p meniscus (88.4 ms vs 77.1 ms on b-FFE, p meniscus, p = 0.011). T2 relaxation times of the white zone were significantly higher than those of the red zone in the medial meniscus posterior horn (96.8 ms vs 84.3 ms, p meniscus anterior horn (104.6 ms vs 84.2 ms, p 0.74) or good (0.60-0.74) in all meniscal segments on both horizontal and vertical zonal analysis, except for inter-class correlation coefficients of the lateral meniscus on SPGR. Compared with SPGR T1rho images, b-FFE T1rho images demonstrated more significant zonal differentiation with higher inter- and intra-observer reproducibility. There are zonal differences in T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the normal meniscus.

  9. Maxwell-Chern-Simons Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.; Ng, Y.J.

    1990-01-01

    The topology of (2+1)-dimensional space permits the construction of quantum electrodynamics with the usual Maxwell action augmented by a gauge-invariant, but P- and T-violating, Chern-Simons mass term. We discuss the Casimir effect between parallel lines in such a theory. The effect of finite temperature is also considered. In principle, our results provide a way to measure the topological mass of the photon

  10. Stationary axisymmetric Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catenacci, R.; Diaz Alonso, J.

    1976-01-01

    We show the existence of a formal identity between Einstein's and Ernst's stationary axisymmetric gravitational field equations and the Einstein--Maxwell and the Ernst equations for the electrostatic and magnetostatic axisymmetric cases. Our equations are invariant under very simple internal symmetry groups, and one of them appears to be new. We also obtain a method for associating two stationary axisymmetric vacuum solutions with every electrostatic known

  11. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms

  12. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenitani, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.zenitani@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  13. Historic Landscape Survey, Maxwell AFB, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    signifies Maxwell AFB’s historic landscapes. 2.1 The pre-military landscape Prehistory in the southeastern United States is generally designated as...the period of Native American occupation before Spanish explorers made contact in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In Alabama, the prehistory ... prehistory or history is made clear.56 A historic property is determined to be either significant or not significant by applying standardized National

  14. Mathematics and Maxwell's equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H, E-mail: ahb17@columbia.ed [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The universality of mathematics and Maxwell's equations is not shared by specific plasma models. Computations become more reliable, efficient and transparent if specific plasma models are used to obtain only the information that would otherwise be missing. Constraints of high universality, such as those from mathematics and Maxwell's equations, can be obscured or lost by integrated computations. Recognition of subtle constraints of high universality is important for (1) focusing the design of control systems for magnetic field errors in tokamaks from perturbations that have little effect on the plasma to those that do, (2) clarifying the limits of applicability to astrophysics of computations of magnetic reconnection in fields that have a double periodicity or have B-vector =0 on a surface, as in a Harris sheet. Both require a degree of symmetry not expected in natural systems. Mathematics and Maxwell's equations imply that neighboring magnetic field lines characteristically separate exponentially with distance along a line. This remarkably universal phenomenon has been largely ignored, though it defines a trigger for reconnection through a critical magnitude of exponentiation. These and other examples of the importance of making distinctions and understanding constraints of high universality are explained.

  15. Maxwell: A new vision of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystre, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The paper outlines the crucial contributions of James Clerk Maxwell to Physics and more generally to our vision of the world. He achieved 150 years ago a synthesis of the pioneering works in magnetostatics, electrostatics, induction and, by introducing the notion of displacement current, gave birth to Electromagnetics. Then, he deduced the existence of electromagnetic waves and identified light as one of them. Maxwell equations deeply changed a Newtonian conception of the world based on particle interactions by pointing out the vital role of waves in physics. This new conception had a strong influence on the development of quantum physics. Finally, the invariance of light velocity in Galilean frames led to Lorentz transformations, a key step toward the theory of relativity. Par ailleurs, les équations de Maxwell ont profondément changé une conception du monde newtonienne basée sur l'interaction entre particules en révélant le rôle essentiel des ondes en physique, ce qui eut une influence déterminante sur le développement de la physique quantique. Enfin, l'invariance de la vitesse de la lumière dans les repères galiléens a entraîné la découverte des transformations de Lorentz, une étape capitale vers la théorie de la relativité.

  16. MAXWELL EQUATIONS FOR A GENERALISED LAGRANGIAN FUNCTIONAL ECUACIONES DE MAXWELL PARA UNA FUNCIONAL DE LAGRANGE GENERALIZADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of the construction of the Lagrange functional for an electromagnetic field. The generalised Maxwell equations for an electromagnetic field in free space are introduced. The main idea relies on the change of Lagrange function under the integral action. Usually, the Lagrange functional which describes the electromagnetic field is built with the quadrate of the electromagnetic field tensor . Such a quadrate term is the reason, from a mathematical point of view, for the linear form of the Maxwell equations in free space. The author does not make this assumption and nonlinear Maxwell equations are obtained. New material parameters of free space are established. The equations obtained are quite similar to the well-known Maxwell equations. The energy tensor of the electromagnetic field from a chiral approach to the Born Infeld Lagrangian is discussed in connection with the cosmological constant.Se aborda el problema de la construcción de la funcional de Lagrange de un campo electromagnético. Se introducen las ecuaciones generalizadas de Maxwell de un campo electromagnético en el espacio libre. La idea principal se basa en el cambio de función de Lagrange en virtud de la acción integral. Por lo general, la funcional de lagrange, que describe el campo electromagnético, se construye con el cuadrado del tensor de campo electromagnético. Ese término cuadrático es la razón, desde un punto de vista matemático, de la forma lineal de las ecuaciones de Maxwell en el espacio libre. Se obtienen las ecuaciones no lineales de Maxwell sin considerar esta suposición. Las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenidas son bastante similares a las conocidas ecuaciones de Maxwell. Se analiza el tensor de energía del campo electromagnético en un enfoque quiral de la Lagrangiana de Born Infeld en relación con la constante cosmológica.

  17. Comparison of different Maxwell solvers coupled to a PIC resolution method of Maxwell-Vlasov equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fochesato, Ch.; Bouche, D.

    2007-01-01

    The numerical solution of Maxwell equations is a challenging task. Moreover, the range of applications is very wide: microwave devices, diffraction, to cite a few. As a result, a number of methods have been proposed since the sixties. However, among all these methods, none has proved to be free of drawbacks. The finite difference scheme proposed by Yee in 1966, is well suited for Maxwell equations. However, it only works on cubical mesh. As a result, the boundaries of complex objects are not properly handled by the scheme. When classical nodal finite elements are used, spurious modes appear, which spoil the results of simulations. Edge elements overcome this problem, at the price of rather complex implementation, and computationally intensive simulations. Finite volume methods, either generalizing Yee scheme to a wider class of meshes, or applying to Maxwell equations methods initially used in the field of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, are also used. Lastly, 'Discontinuous Galerkin' methods, generalizing to arbitrary order of accuracy finite volume methods, have recently been applied to Maxwell equations. In this report, we more specifically focus on the coupling of a Maxwell solver to a PIC (Particle-in-cell) method. We analyze advantages and drawbacks of the most widely used methods: accuracy, robustness, sensitivity to numerical artefacts, efficiency, user judgment. (authors)

  18. Stationary solutions of the Maxwell-Dirac and the Klein-Gordon-Dirac equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, M.J.; Georgiev, V.; Sere, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Maxwell-Dirac system describes the interaction of an electron with its own electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of soliton-like solutions of Maxwell-Dirac in (3+1)-Minkowski space-time. The solutions obtained are regular, stationary in time, and localized in space. They are found by a variational method, as critical points of an energy functional. This functional is strongly indefinite and presents a lack of compactness. We also find soliton-like solutions for the Klein-Gordon-Dirac system, arising in the Yukawa model. (author). 32 refs

  19. The Maxwell-Einstein system, Ward identities and the Vilkovisky construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. K.

    2012-01-01

    The gauge fixing dependence of the one-loop effective action of quantum gravity in the proper-time representation is investigated for a space of arbitrary curvature, and the investigation is extended to Maxwell-Einstein theory. The construction of Vilkovisky and DeWitt for removal of this depende......The gauge fixing dependence of the one-loop effective action of quantum gravity in the proper-time representation is investigated for a space of arbitrary curvature, and the investigation is extended to Maxwell-Einstein theory. The construction of Vilkovisky and DeWitt for removal...

  20. Diagnostic value of T1 and T2 * relaxation times and off-resonance saturation effects in the evaluation of Achilles tendinopathy by MRI at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Ulrich; Syha, Roland; Hein, Tobias; Gatidis, Sergios; Grözinger, Gerd; Schabel, Christoph; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Springer, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of T1 , T2 * relaxation times and off-resonance saturation ratios (OSR) in healthy controls and patients with different clinical and morphological stages of Achilles tendinopathy. Forty-two healthy Achilles tendons and 34 tendons of 17 patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic tendinopathy were investigated clinically with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences on a 3T whole-body MR scanner and a dynamic ultrasound examination. In addition, T1 and T2 * relaxation times were assessed using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging sequence with flip angle and echo time variation. For the calculation of OSR values a Gaussian off-resonance saturation pulse (frequency offset: 750-5000 Hz) was used. The diagnostic value of the derived MR values was assessed and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves demonstrate the highest overall test performance for OSR values at 2000 Hz off-resonance in differentiating slightly (OSR-2000 [AUC: 0.930] > T2 * [AUC: 0.884] > T1 [AUC: 0.737]) and more severe pathologically altered tendon areas (OSR-2000 [AUC: 0.964] > T2 * [AUC: 0.917] > T1 [AUC: 0.819]) from healthy ones. OSR values at a frequency offset of 2000 Hz demonstrated a better sensitivity and specificity for detecting mild and severe stages of tendinopathy compared to T2 * and particularly when compared to T1 relaxation times. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Quantitative MRI T2 relaxation time evaluation of knee cartilage: comparison of meniscus-intact and -injured knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Shuang; Tao, Hongyue; Chen, Shiyi

    2015-04-01

    Associated meniscal injury is well recognized at anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and it is a known risk factor for osteoarthritis. To evaluate and characterize the postoperative appearance of articular cartilage after different meniscal treatment in ACL-reconstructed knees using T2 relaxation time evaluation on MRI. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 62 consecutive patients who under ACL reconstruction were recruited in this study, including 23 patients undergoing partial meniscectomy (MS group), 21 patients undergoing meniscal repair (MR group), and 18 patients with intact menisci (MI group) at time of surgery. Clinical evaluation, including subjective functional scores and physical examination, was performed on the same day as the MRI examination and at follow-up times ranging from 2 to 4.2 years. The MRI multiecho sagittal images were segmented to determine the T2 relaxation time value of each meniscus and articular cartilage plate. Differences in each measurement were compared among groups. No patient had joint-line tenderness or reported pain or clicking on McMurray test or instability. There were also no statistically significant differences in functional scores or medial or lateral meniscus T2 values among the 3 groups (P > .05 for both). There was a significantly higher articular cartilage T2 value in the medial femorotibial articular cartilage for the MS group (P T2 value between the MS and MR groups (P > .05) in each articular cartilage plate. The medial tibial articular cartilage T2 value had a significant positive correlation with medial meniscus T2 value (r = 0.287; P = .024) CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that knees with meniscectomy or meniscal repair had articular cartilage degeneration at 2 to 4 years postoperatively, with higher articular cartilage T2 relaxation time values compared with the knees with an intact meniscus. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. A 1D thermomechanical network transition constitutive model coupled with multiple structural relaxation for shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Xie, Zhimin; Gu, Jianping; Sun, Huiyu

    2018-03-01

    A new thermomechanical network transition constitutive model is proposed in the study to describe the viscoelastic behavior of shape memory polymers (SMPs). Based on the microstructure of semi-crystalline SMPs, a new simplified transformation equation is proposed to describe the transform of transient networks. And the generalized fractional Maxwell model is introduced in the paper to estimate the temperature-dependent storage modulus. In addition, a neo-KAHR theory with multiple discrete relaxation processes is put forward to study the structural relaxation of the nonlinear thermal strain in cooling/heating processes. The evolution equations of the time- and temperature-dependent stress and strain response are developed. In the model, the thermodynamical and mechanical characteristics of SMPs in the typical thermomechanical cycle are described clearly and the irreversible deformation is studied in detail. Finally, the typical thermomechanical cycles are simulated using the present constitutive model, and the simulation results agree well with the experimental results.

  3. Properties of the relaxation time distribution underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts photoionization of the DX centers in Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzmiel, J; Weron, K; Placzek-Popko, E [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Janczura, J [Hugo Steinhaus Center for Stochastic Methods and Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-08-26

    In this paper we clarify the relationship between the relaxation rate and relaxation time distributions underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) photoconductivity build-ups in indium- and gallium-doped Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te mixed crystals. We discuss the role of asymptotic properties of the corresponding probability density functions. We show that the relaxation rate distribution, as a completely asymmetric alpha-stable distribution, leads to an infinite mean value of the effective relaxation rate. In contrast, the relaxation time distribution related to it leads to a finite mean value of the effective relaxation time. It follows from the experimental data analysis that for all the investigated samples the KWW exponent alpha decreases linearly with increasing photon flux in the range of (0.6-0.99) and its values are more spread in the case of gallium-doped material. We also observe a linear dependence of the mean relaxation time on the characteristic material time constant, which is consistent with the theoretical model.

  4. The energy-momentum tensor for the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1990-02-01

    A modified Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is introduced as a tool to obtain the energy-momentum and angular-momentum tensors for any kind of nonlinear or linearized Maxwell-collisionless kinetic theories. The emphasis is on linearized theories, for which these tensors are derived for the first time. The kinetic theories treated - which need not be the same for all particle species in a plasma - are the Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories. The Hamiltonian for the guiding center motion is taken in the form resulting from Dirac's constraint theory for non-standard Lagrangian systems. As an example of the Maxwell-kinetic guiding center theory, the second-order energy for a perturbed homogeneous magnetized plasma is calculated with initially vanishing field perturbations. The expression obtained is compared with the corresponding one of Maxwell-Vlasov theory. (orig.)

  5. The energy-momentum tensor for the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1990-02-01

    A modified Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is introduced as a tool to obtain the energy-momentum and angular-momentum tensors for any king of nonlinear or linearized Maxwell-collisionless kinetic theories. The emphasis is on linearized theories, for which these tensors are derived for the first time. The kinetic theories treated --- which need not be the same for all particle species in a plasma --- are the Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories. The Hamiltonian for the guiding center motion is taken in the form resulting from Dirac's constraint theory for non-standard Lagrangian systems. As an example of the Maxwell-kinetic guiding center theory, the second-order energy for a perturbed homogeneous magnetized plasma is calculated with initially vanishing field perturbations. The expression obtained is compared with the corresponding one of Maxwell-Vlasov theory. 11 refs

  6. The signature of the magnetorotational instability in the Reynolds and Maxwell stress tensors in accretion discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    stresses during the late times of the exponential growth of the instability is determined only by the local shear and does not depend on the initial spectrum of perturbations or the strength of the seed magnetic. Even though we derived these properties of the stress tensors for the exponential growth...... of the instability, the mean (averaged over the disc scale-height) Reynolds stress is always positive, the mean Maxwell stress is always negative, and hence the mean total stress is positive and leads to a net outward flux of angular momentum. More importantly, we show that the ratio of the Maxwell to the Reynolds...

  7. Einstein-aether theory with a Maxwell field: General formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakin, Alexander B., E-mail: Alexander.Balakin@kpfu.ru [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya str. 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Lemos, José P.S., E-mail: joselemos@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica-CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico-IST, Universidade de Lisboa-UL, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-11-15

    We extend the Einstein-aether theory to include the Maxwell field in a nontrivial manner by taking into account its interaction with the time-like unit vector field characterizing the aether. We also include a generic matter term. We present a model with a Lagrangian that includes cross-terms linear and quadratic in the Maxwell tensor, linear and quadratic in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector, linear in its second covariant derivative and in the Riemann tensor. We decompose these terms with respect to the irreducible parts of the covariant derivative of the aether velocity, namely, the acceleration four-vector, the shear and vorticity tensors, and the expansion scalar. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of an aether non-uniform motion on the polarization and magnetization of the matter in such an aether environment, as well as on its dielectric and magnetic properties. The total self-consistent system of equations for the electromagnetic and the gravitational fields, and the dynamic equations for the unit vector aether field are obtained. Possible applications of this system are discussed. Based on the principles of effective field theories, we display in an appendix all the terms up to fourth order in derivative operators that can be considered in a Lagrangian that includes the metric, the electromagnetic and the aether fields.

  8. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible miscible flow with large viscosity ratio and high Péclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-10-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002), 10.1098/rsta.2001.0942]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number.

  9. Topographical Variation of Human Femoral Articular Cartilage Thickness, T1rho and T2 Relaxation Times Is Related to Local Loading during Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossom, Sam; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Assche, Dieter; Jonkers, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Objective Early detection of degenerative changes in the cartilage matrix composition is essential for evaluating early interventions that slow down osteoarthritis (OA) initiation. T1rho and T2 relaxation times were found to be effective for detecting early changes in proteoglycan and collagen content. To use these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, it is important to document the topographical variation in cartilage thickness, T1rho and T2 relaxation times in a healthy population. As OA is partially mechanically driven, the relation between these MRI-based parameters and localized mechanical loading during walking was investigated. Design MR images were acquired in 14 healthy adults and cartilage thickness and T1rho and T2 relaxation times were determined. Experimental gait data was collected and processed using musculoskeletal modeling to identify weight-bearing zones and estimate the contact force impulse during gait. Variation of the cartilage properties (i.e., thickness, T1rho, and T2) over the femoral cartilage was analyzed and compared between the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing zone of the medial and lateral condyle as well as the trochlea. Results Medial condyle cartilage thickness was correlated to the contact force impulse ( r = 0.78). Lower T1rho, indicating increased proteoglycan content, was found in the medial weight-bearing zone. T2 was higher in all weight-bearing zones compared with the non-weight-bearing zones, indicating lower relative collagen content. Conclusions The current results suggest that medial condyle cartilage is adapted as a long-term protective response to localized loading during a frequently performed task and that the weight-bearing zone of the medial condyle has superior weight bearing capacities compared with the non-weight-bearing zones.

  10. Real-time observation of formation and relaxation dynamics of NH4 in (CH3OH)m(NH3)n clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuji; Nishino, Yoko; Fujihara, Akimasa; Ishikawa, Haruki; Fuke, Kiyokazu

    2009-03-26

    The formation and relaxation dynamics of NH4(CH3OH)m(NH3)n clusters produced by photolysis of ammonia-methanol mixed clusters has been observed by a time-resolved pump-probe method with femtosecond pulse lasers. From the detailed analysis of the time evolutions of the protonated cluster ions, NH4(+)(CH3OH)m(NH3)n, the kinetic model has been constructed, which consists of sequential three-step reaction: ultrafast hydrogen-atom transfer producing the radical pair (NH4-NH2)*, the relaxation process of radical-pair clusters, and dissociation of the solvated NH4 clusters. The initial hydrogen transfer hardly occurs between ammonia and methanol, implying the unfavorable formation of radical pair, (CH3OH2-NH2)*. The remarkable dependence of the time constants in each step on the number and composition of solvents has been explained by the following factors: hydrogen delocalization within the clusters, the internal conversion of the excited-state radical pair, and the stabilization of NH4 by solvation. The dependence of the time profiles on the probe wavelength is attributed to the different ionization efficiency of the NH4(CH3OH)m(NH3)n clusters.

  11. James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier this year saw the centenary of the birth of Albert Einstein. It is highly apt that 1979, which has been marked by further consolidation of the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions and its recognition in the award of the Nobel Prize to Glashow, Salam and Weinberg, is also the centenary of the death of the great Scottish physicist who first formulated a unified theory of electric and magnetic fields. We are grateful to Abdus Salam for drawing our attention to the Maxwell anniversary

  12. Maxwell's demon, Szilard's engine and quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorek, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The author proposes and analyzes a quantum version of Szilard's one-molecule engine. In particular, the author recovers, in the quantum context, Szilard's conclusion concerning the free energy ''cost'' of measurements (delta /sub F/ is greater than or equal to k/sub b/T1n2) per bit of information. A cycle of Szilard's engine is illustrated for both the original and quantum versions. The measurement of the location of the molecule is essential in the process of extracting work in both classical and quantum design. Measurements are made by the classical Maxwell's demon

  13. James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-12-15

    Earlier this year saw the centenary of the birth of Albert Einstein. It is highly apt that 1979, which has been marked by further consolidation of the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions and its recognition in the award of the Nobel Prize to Glashow, Salam and Weinberg, is also the centenary of the death of the great Scottish physicist who first formulated a unified theory of electric and magnetic fields. We are grateful to Abdus Salam for drawing our attention to the Maxwell anniversary.

  14. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    We reexamine the foundations of Lynden-Bell's statistical mechanical discussion of violent relaxation in collisionless stellar systems. We argue that Lynden-Bell's formulation in terms of a continuum description introduces unnecessary complications, and we consider a more conventional formulation in terms of particles. We then find the exclusion principle discovered by Lynden-Bell to be quantitatively important only at phase densities where two-body encounters are no longer negligible. Since the edynamical basis for the exclusion principle vanishes in such cases anyway, Lynden-Bell statistics always reduces in practice to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics when applied to stellar systems. Lynden-Bell also found the equilibrium distribution function generally to be a sum of Maxwellians with velocity dispersions dependent on the phase density at star formation. We show that this difficulty vanishes in the particulate description for an encounterless stellar system as long as stars of different masses are initially well mixed in phase space. Our methods also demonstrate the equivalence between Gibbs's formalism which uses the microcanonical ensemble and Boltzmann's formalism which uses a coarse-grained continuum description. In addition, we clarify the concept of irreversible behavior on a macroscopic scale for an encounterless stellar system. Finally, we comment on the use of unusual macroscopic constraints to simulate the effects of incomplete relaxation

  15. The simulation of a two-dimensional (2D) transport problem in a rectangular region with Lattice Boltzmann method with two-relaxation-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto, S.; Hardyanto, W.; Marwoto, P.

    2018-03-01

    Transport phenomena are found in many problems in many engineering and industrial sectors. We analyzed a Lattice Boltzmann method with Two-Relaxation Time (LTRT) collision operators for simulation of pollutant moving through the medium as a two-dimensional (2D) transport problem in a rectangular region model. This model consists of a 2D rectangular region with 54 length (x), 27 width (y), and it has isotropic homogeneous medium. Initially, the concentration is zero and is distributed evenly throughout the region of interest. A concentration of 1 is maintained at 9 < y < 18, whereas the concentration of zero is maintained at 0 < y < 9 and 18 < y < 27. A specific discharge (Darcy velocity) of 1.006 is assumed. A diffusion coefficient of 0.8333 is distributed uniformly with a uniform porosity of 0.35. A computer program is written in MATLAB to compute the concentration of pollutant at any specified place and time. The program shows that LTRT solution with quadratic equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) and relaxation time τa=1.0 are in good agreement result with other numerical solutions methods such as 3DLEWASTE (Hybrid Three-dimensional Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite Element Model of Waste Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media) obtained by Yeh and 3DFEMWATER-LHS (Three-dimensional Finite Element Model of Water Flow Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media with Latin Hypercube Sampling) obtained by Hardyanto.

  16. Sandpile model for relaxation in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Brouers, F.

    1997-10-01

    The relaxation in complex systems is, in general, nonexponential. After an initial rapid decay the system relaxes slowly following a long time tail. In the present paper a sandpile moderation of the relaxation in complex systems is analysed. Complexity is introduced by a process of avalanches in the Bethe lattice and a feedback mechanism which leads to slower decay with increasing time. In this way, some features of relaxation in complex systems: long time tails relaxation, aging, and fractal distribution of characteristic times, are obtained by simple computer simulations. (author)

  17. Orbiting the moons of Pluto complex solutions to the Einstein, Maxwell, Schroedinger and Dirac equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    The Maxwell, Einstein, Schrödinger and Dirac equations are considered the most important equations in all of physics. This volume aims to provide new eight- and twelve-dimensional complex solutions to these equations for the first time in order to reveal

  18. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  19. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  20. The road to Maxwell's demon conceptual foundations of statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmo, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Time asymmetric phenomena are successfully predicted by statistical mechanics. Yet the foundations of this theory are surprisingly shaky. Its explanation for the ease of mixing milk with coffee is incomplete, and even implies that un-mixing them should be just as easy. In this book the authors develop a new conceptual foundation for statistical mechanics that addresses this difficulty. Explaining the notions of macrostates, probability, measurement, memory, and the arrow of time in statistical mechanics, they reach the startling conclusion that Maxwell's Demon, the famous perpetuum mobile, is consistent with the fundamental physical laws. Mathematical treatments are avoided where possible, and instead the authors use novel diagrams to illustrate the text. This is a fascinating book for graduate students and researchers interested in the foundations and philosophy of physics.

  1. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  2. Chaotic dynamics in the Maxwell-Bloch equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.; Kovacic, G.

    1992-01-01

    In the slowly varying envelope approximation and the rotating wave approximation for the Maxwell-Bloch equations, we describe how the presence of a small-amplitude probe laser in an excited, two-level, resonant medium leads to homoclinic chaos in the laser-matter dynamics. We also describe a derivation of the Maxwell-Bloch equations from an action principle

  3. Maxwell Equations and the Redundant Gauge Degree of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Wa

    2009-01-01

    On transformation to the Fourier space (k,[omega]), the partial differential Maxwell equations simplify to algebraic equations, and the Helmholtz theorem of vector calculus reduces to vector algebraic projections. Maxwell equations and their solutions can then be separated readily into longitudinal and transverse components relative to the…

  4. Linking the fractional derivative and the Lomnitz creep law to non-Newtonian time-varying viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Vikash; Holm, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Many of the most interesting complex media are non-Newtonian and exhibit time-dependent behavior of thixotropy and rheopecty. They may also have temporal responses described by power laws. The material behavior is represented by the relaxation modulus and the creep compliance. On the one hand, it is shown that in the special case of a Maxwell model characterized by a linearly time-varying viscosity, the medium's relaxation modulus is a power law which is similar to that of a fractional deriva...

  5. Influence of Non-linear Radiation Heat Flux on Rotating Maxwell Fluid over a Deformable Surface: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Mathematical model for Maxwell fluid flow in rotating frame induced by an isothermal stretching wall is explored numerically. Scale analysis based boundary layer approximations are applied to simplify the conservation relations which are later converted to similar forms via appropriate substitutions. A numerical approach is utilized to derive similarity solutions for broad range of Deborah number. The results predict that velocity distributions are inversely proportional to the stress relaxation time. This outcome is different from that observed for the elastic parameter of second grade fluid. Unlike non-rotating frame, the solution curves are oscillatory decaying functions of similarity variable. As angular velocity enlarges, temperature rises and significant drop in the heat transfer coefficient occurs. We note that the wall slope of temperature has an asymptotically decaying profile against the wall to ambient ratio parameter. From the qualitative view point, temperature ratio parameter and radiation parameter have similar effect on the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, radiation parameter has a definite role in improving the cooling process of the stretching boundary. A comparative study of current numerical computations and those from the existing studies is also presented in a limiting case. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of non-linear radiation in rotating viscoelastic flow due to linearly stretched plate is just modeled here.

  6. Geometric model of topological insulators from the Maxwell algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Giandomenico

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel geometric model of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators in three dimensions in presence of an external electromagnetic field. Their gapped boundary supports relativistic quantum Hall states and is described by a Chern-Simons theory, where the gauge connection takes values in the Maxwell algebra. This represents a non-central extension of the Poincaré algebra and takes into account both the Lorentz and magnetic-translation symmetries of the surface states. In this way, we derive a relativistic version of the Wen-Zee term and we show that the non-minimal coupling between the background geometry and the electromagnetic field in the model is in agreement with the main properties of the relativistic quantum Hall states in the flat space.

  7. Geometric Model of Topological Insulators from the Maxwell Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Giandomenico

    I propose a novel geometric model of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators in three dimensions in presence of an external electromagnetic field. Their gapped boundary supports relativistic quantum Hall states and is described by a Chern-Simons theory, where the gauge connection takes values in the Maxwell algebra. This represents a non-central extension of the Poincare' algebra and takes into account both the Lorentz and magnetic-translation symmetries of the surface states. In this way, I derive a relativistic version of the Wen-Zee term and I show that the non-minimal coupling between the background geometry and the electromagnetic field in the model is in agreement with the main properties of the relativistic quantum Hall states in the flat space. This work is part of the DITP consortium, a program of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) that is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW).

  8. Limited-diffraction solutions to Maxwell and Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jian-yu; Greenleaf, J.F.

    1996-10-01

    The authors have developed a new family of limited diffraction electromagnetic X-shaped waves based on the scalar X-shaped waves discovered previously. These waves are diffraction-free in theory and particle-like (wave packets), in that they maintain their shape as they propagate to an infinite distance. The 'X waves' possess (theoretically) infinitely extended 'arms' and - at least, the ones studied in this paper - have an infinite total energy: therefore, they are not physically realizable. However, they can be truncated in both space and time and 'approximated' by means of a finite aperture radiator so to get a large enough depth of interest (depth of field). In addition to the Maxwell equations, X wave solutions to the free Schroedinger equation are also obtained. Possible applications of these new waves are discussed. Finally, the authors discuss the appearance of the X-shaped solutions from the purely geometric point of view of the special relativity theory

  9. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered

  10. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenitani, S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 􏰅50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  11. Maxwell equations in conformal invariant electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Avtomatiki i Ehlektrometrii); Kozhevnikov, A.A.; Palchik, M.Ya.; Pomeransky, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    We consider a conformal invariant formulation of quantum electrodynamics. Conformal invariance is achieved with a specific mathematical construction based on the indecomposable representations of the conformal group associated with the electromagnetic potential and current. As a corolary of this construction modified expressions for the 3-point Green functions are obtained which both contain transverse parts. They make it possible to formulate a conformal invariant skeleton perturbation theory. It is also shown that the Euclidean Maxwell equations in conformal electrodynamics are manifestations of its kinematical structure: in the case of the 3-point Green functions these equations follow (up to constants) from the conformal invariance while in the case of higher Green functions they are equivalent to the equality of the kernels of the partial wave expansions. This is the manifestation of the mathematical fast of a (partial) equivalence of the representations associated with the potential, current and the field tensor. (orig.)

  12. The dependence of the ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the S2 and S1 states in β-carotene homologs and lycopene on conjugation length studied by femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Masazumi; Fujii, Ritsuko; Cogdell, Richard J.; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    The ultrafast relaxation kinetics of all-trans-β-carotene homologs with varying numbers of conjugated double bonds n(n =7-15) and lycopene (n =11) has been investigated using femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies, both carried out under identical excitation conditions. The nonradiative relaxation rates of the optically allowed S2(1Bu+1) state were precisely determined by the time-resolved fluorescence. The kinetics of the optically forbidden S1(2Ag-1) state were observed by the time-resolved absorption measurements. The dependence of the S1 relaxation rates upon the conjugation length is adequately described by application of the energy gap law. In contrast to this, the nonradiative relaxation rates of S2 have a minimum at n =9 and show a reverse energy gap law dependence for values of n above 11. This anomalous behavior of the S2 relaxation rates can be explained by the presence of an intermediate state (here called the Sx state) located between the S2 and S1 states at large values of n (such as n =11). The presence of such an intermediate state would then result in the following sequential relaxation pathway S2→Sx→S1→S0. A model based on conical intersections between the potential energy curves of these excited singlet states can readily explain the measured relationships between the decay rates and the energy gaps.

  13. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2 * relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2 * : 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2 * : 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2 * : 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2 * : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2 * values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  14. Preliminary study for differential diagnosis of intracranial tumors using in vivo quantitative proton MR spectroscopy with correction for T2 relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Shiigai, Masanari; Shibata, Yasushi; Takada, Kenta; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Anno, Izumi; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The intent of this study was to differentiate intracranial tumors using the metabolite concentrations obtained by quantification with correction for T2 relaxation time, and to analyze whether the spectrum peak was generated by the existence of metabolites in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: All proton MRS studies were performed on a clinical 1.5T MR system. 7 normal volunteers and 57 patients (gliomas, metastases, meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, and pituitary adenomas) underwent single voxel proton MRS with different echo times (TE: 68, 136, 272 ms) for T2 correction of signal derived from metabolites and tissue water. With tissue water employed as an internal reference, the concentrations of metabolite (i.e. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (t-Cr) and choline-containing compounds (Cho)) were calculated. Moreover, proton MRS data of previously published typical literatures were critically reviewed and compared with our data. Results: Extramedullary tumors were characterized by absence of NAA compared with intramedullary tumors. High-grade glioma differed from low-grade glioma by lower t-Cr concentrations. Metastasis differed from cystic glioblastoma by higher Cho concentrations, lower t-Cr concentrations, an absence of NAA, and a prominent Lipids peak. Based on these results and review of previous reports, we suggest a clinical pathway for the differentiation of intracranial tumors. Conclusion: The metabolite concentrations obtained by quantification with correction for T2 relaxation time, and to analyze whether the spectrum peak was generated by the existence of metabolites in proton MRS is useful for the diagnosis of the intracranial tumors

  15. Experiments in paramagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijphart, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis presents two attempts to improve the resolving power of the relaxation measurement technique. The first attempt reconsiders the old technique of steady state saturation. When used in conjunction with the pulse technique, it offers the possibility of obtaining additional information about the system in which all-time derivatives are zero; in addition, non-linear effects may be distinguished from each other. The second attempt involved a systematic study of only one system: Cu in the Tutton salts (K and Rb). The systematic approach, the high accuracy of the measurement and the sheer amount of experimental data for varying temperature, magnetic field and concentration made it possible in this case to separate the prevailing relaxation mechanisms reliably

  16. T1 relaxation time constants, influence of oxygen, and the oxygen transfer function of the human lung at 1.5 T—A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Olaf, E-mail: od@dtrx.net [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Gaass, Thomas [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Comprehensive Pneumology Center, German Center for Lung Research, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: To pool and summarize published data from magnetic resonance longitudinal relaxation measurements of the human lung at 1.5 T to provide a reliable basis of T{sub 1} relaxation time constants of healthy lung tissue both under respiration of room air and of pure oxygen. In particular, the oxygen-induced shortening of T{sub 1} was evaluated. Materials and methods: The PubMed database was comprehensively searched up to June 2016 for original publications in English containing quantitative T{sub 1} data (at least mean values and standard deviations) of the lung parenchyma of healthy subjects (minimum subject number: 3) at 1.5 T. From all included publications, T{sub 1} values of the lung of healthy subjects were extracted (inhaling room air and, if available, inhaling pure oxygen). Weighted mean values and standard deviations of all extracted data and the oxygen transfer function (OTF) were calculated. Results: 22 publications were included with a total number of 188 examined healthy subjects. 103 of these subjects (from 13 studies) were examined while breathing pure oxygen and room air; 85 subjects were examined only under room-air conditions. The weighted mean value (weighted sample standard deviation) of the room-air T{sub 1} values over all 22 studies was 1196 ms (152 ms). Based on studies with room-air and oxygen results, the mean T{sub 1} value at room-air conditions was 1172 ms (161 ms); breathing pure oxygen, the mean T{sub 1} value was reduced to 1054 ms (138 ms). This corresponds to a mean T{sub 1} reduction by 118 ms (35 ms) or 10.0 % (2.3 %) and to a mean OTF value of 1.22 (0.32) × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}/(%O{sub 2}). Conclusion: This meta-analysis with data from 188 subjects indicates that the average T{sub 1} relaxation time constant of healthy lung tissue at 1.5 T is distributed around 1200 ms with a standard deviation of about 150 ms; breathing pure oxygen reduces this value significantly by 10 % to about 1050 ms.

  17. Short-time relaxation of the critical current in oriented grained YBa2Cu3Ox and granular (Bi,Pb)2 Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepfer, H.; Keller, C.; Meier-Hirmer, R.; Wiech, U.; Salama, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Green, S.M.; Luo, H.L.; Politis, C.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the critical current density j c is investigated by ac inductive measurements. The variation of db/dt of the ac field between 0.1 and 3 T/s reveals a short-time relaxation in the millisecond regime before j c exhibits the familiar logarithmic decay. At fields above the irreversibility line only this short-time relaxation is observed. Our experimental time scale allows us to obtain the unrelaxed critical current density j c0 at certain fields and temperatures

  18. Minimization of spin-lattice relaxation time with highly viscous solvents for acquisition of natural abundance nitrogen-15 and silicon-29 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bammel, B.P.; Evilia, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of high viscosity solution conditions to decrease T 1 of 15 N and 29 Si nuclei so that natural abundance NMR spectra can be acquired in reasonable times is illustrated. Significant T 1 decreases with negligible increases in peak width are observed. No spectral shifts are observed in any of the cases studied. Highly viscous solutions are produced by using glycerol as a solvent for water-soluble molecules and a mixed solvent consisting of toluene saturated with polystyrene for organic-soluble molecules. The microviscosity in the latter solvent is found to be much less than the observed macroviscosity. Hydrogen bonding of glycerol to the NH 2 of 2-aminopyridine results in a greater than predicted decrease in T 1 for this nitrogen. The technique appears to be a useful alternative to paramagnetic relaxation reagents

  19. Effect of magnetic coupling on non-radiative relaxation time of Fe3+ sites on LaAl1-xFexO3 pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novatski, A.; Somer, A.; Maranha, F. G.; de Souza, E. C. F.; Andrade, A. V. C.; Antunes, S. R. M.; Borges, C. P. F.; Dias, D. T.; Medina, A. N.; Astrath, N. G. C.

    2018-02-01

    Inorganic pigments of the system LaAl1-xFexO3 were prepared by the Pechini and the Solid State Reaction (SSR) methods. Magnetic interactions and non-radiative relaxation time were analyzed by means of phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR results show a change in the magnetic behavior from paramagnetic (x = 0.2 and 0.4) to antiferromagnetic (x = 1.0), which is believed to be a result of the SSR preparation method. Trends in the optical absorption bands of the Fe3+ are attributed to their electronic transitions, and the increase in the band's intensity at 480 and 550 nm was assigned to the increase in the magnetic coupling between Fe-Fe. The phase-resolved method is capable of distinguishing between the two preparation methods, and it is possible to infer that SSR modifies the magnetic coupling of Fe-Fe with x.

  20. A general model to calculate the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time of blood, accounting for haematocrit, oxygen saturation and magnetic field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick W; Kirkham, Fenella J; Clark, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    Many MRI techniques require prior knowledge of the T1-relaxation time of blood (T1bl). An assumed/fixed value is often used; however, T1bl is sensitive to magnetic field (B0), haematocrit (Hct), and oxygen saturation (Y). We aimed to combine data from previous in vitro measurements into a mathematical model, to estimate T1bl as a function of B0, Hct, and Y. The model was shown to predict T1bl from in vivo studies with a good accuracy (± 87 ms). This model allows for improved estimation of T1bl between 1.5-7.0 T while accounting for variations in Hct and Y, leading to improved accuracy of MRI-derived perfusion measurements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. CSR Fields: Direct Numerical Solution of the Maxwell's Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the properties of the coherent electromagnetic fields of a very short, ultra-relativistic bunch in a rectangular vacuum chamber inside a bending magnet. The analysis is based on the results of a direct numerical solution of Maxwell's equations together with Newton's equations. We use a new dispersion-free time-domain algorithm which employs a more efficient use of finite element mesh techniques and hence produces self-consistent and stable solutions for very short bunches. We investigate the fine structure of the CSR fields including coherent edge radiation. This approach should be useful in the study of existing and future concepts of particle accelerators and ultrafast coherent light sources. The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) fields have a strong action on the beam dynamics of very short bunches, which are moving in the bends of all kinds of magnetic elements. They are responsible for additional energy loss and energy spread; micro bunching and beam emittance growth. These fields may bound the efficiency of damping rings, electron-positron colliders and ultrafast coherent light sources, where high peak currents and very short bunches are envisioned. This is relevant to most high-brightness beam applications. On the other hand these fields together with transition radiation fields can be used for beam diagnostics or even as a powerful resource of THz radiation. A history of the study of CSR and a good collection of references can be found in (1). Electromagnetic theory suggests several methods on how to calculate CSR fields. The most popular method is to use Lienard-Wiechert potentials. Other approach is to solve numerically the approximate equations, which are a Schrodinger type equation. These numerical methods are described in (2). We suggest that a direct solution of Maxwell's equations together with Newton's equations can describe the detailed structure of the CSR fields (3).

  2. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  3. Spatial characterization of T1 and T2 relaxation times and the water apparent diffusion coefficient in rabbit Achilles tendon subjected to tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, J; Helmer, K G; Grigg, P; Sotak, C H

    2005-03-01

    Tendons exhibit viscoelastic mechanical behavior under tensile loading. The elasticity arises from the collagen chains that form fibrils, while the viscous response arises from the interaction of the water with the solid matrix. Therefore, an understanding of the behavior of water in response to the application of a load is crucial to the understanding of the origin of the viscous response. Three-dimensional MRI mapping of rabbit Achilles tendons was performed at 2.0 T to characterize the response of T(1) and T(2) relaxation times and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water to tensile loading. The ADC was measured in directions both parallel (ADC( parallel)) and perpendicular (ADC( perpendicular)) to the long axis of the tendon. At a short diffusion time (5.8 ms) MR parameter maps showed the existence of two regions, here termed "core" and "rim", that exhibited statistically significant differences in T(1), T(2), and ADC( perpendicular) under the baseline loading condition. MR parameter maps were also generated at a second loading condition of approximately 1 MPa. At a diffusion time of 5.8 ms, there was a statistically significant increase in the rim region for both ADC( perpendicular) (57.5%) and ADC( parallel) (20.5%) upon tensile loading. The changes in core ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)), as well as the relaxation parameters in both core and rim regions, were not statistically significant. The effect of diffusion time on the ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)) values was investigated by creating maps at three additional diffusion times (50.0, 125.0, 250.0 ms) using a diffusion-weighted, stimulated-echo (DW-STE) pulse sequence. At longer diffusion times, ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)) values increased rather than approaching a constant value. This observation was attributed to T(1) spin-editing during the DW-STE pulse sequence, which resulted in the loss of short-T(1) components (with correspondingly lower ADCs) at longer diffusion times

  4. Selective modification of NMR relaxation time in human colorectal carcinoma by using gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated with monoclonal antibody 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtet, C; Tellier, C; Bohy, J; Conti, M L; Saccavini, J C; Thedrez, P; Douillard, J Y; Chatal, J F; Koprowski, H

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 19-9 (mAb 19-9) against human colon adenocarcinoma was conjugated with gadolinium X diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd X DTPA) and used as a contrast agent in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in an effort to improve tumor target selectivity in nude mice. The data indicate that Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 in solution decreased the T1 relaxation of water protons at 90 MHz in direct proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and this effect was greater than in Gd X DTPA solutions. T1 relaxation time at 90 MHz, measured in tumors removed from nude mice 24 hr after injection of Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 (Gd, 20 mumol/kg; 16 DTPA molecules per mAb molecule), was significantly decreased (by 15%) as compared with the control group. Similar results were obtained in tumors from mice injected with Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 solutions in which Gd was used at 2, 6, or 10 mumol/kg (16 DTPA molecules per mAb molecule). These doses are lower than those commonly used for Gd X DTPA (10-100 mumol/kg) as contrast agent. Tumor localization by the Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 complex containing radioactive Gd (0.3 microCi/microgram of 153Gd) to confirm scintigraphy revealed significant concentrations of the complex (5% of the injected dose per gram of tissue) in the tumor. Scan images recorded in planar scintigraphy at day 5 showed good visualization of tumors. Images PMID:3459174

  5. Dielectric Relaxation of Water: Theory and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Narayan Prasad; Paudyal, Harihar; Johri, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bond dynamics and methods for evaluation of probability and relaxation time for hydrogen bond network. Further, dielectric relaxation time has been calculated by using a diagonalization procedure by obtaining eigen values (inverse of relaxation time) of a master equation framed on the basis of Fokker-Planck equations. Microwave cavity spectrometer has been described to make measurements of relaxation time. Slater's perturbation equations are given for the analysis of the data. A comparison of theoretical and experimental data shows that there is a need for improvements in the theoretical model and experimental techniques to provide exact information about structural properties of water. (author)

  6. Application of the operator splitting to the Maxwell equations with the source term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.; Faragó, I.; Horváth, R.

    Motivated by numerical solution of the time-dependent Maxwell equations, we consider splitting methods for a linear system of differential equations $w'(t)=Aw(t)+f(t),$ $A\\in\\mathbb{R}^{n\\times n}$ split into two subproblems $w_1'(t)=A_1w_1(t)+f_1(t)$ and $w_2'(t)=A_2w_2(t)+f_2(t),$ $A=A_1+A_2,$

  7. Fast mapping of the T2 relaxation time of cerebral metabolites using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Posse, Stefan; Lin, Yi-Ru; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Otazo, Ricardo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2007-05-01

    Metabolite T2 is necessary for accurate quantification of the absolute concentration of metabolites using long-echo-time (TE) acquisition schemes. However, lengthy data acquisition times pose a major challenge to mapping metabolite T2. In this study we used proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3T to obtain fast T2 maps of three major cerebral metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho). We showed that PEPSI spectra matched T2 values obtained using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS). Data acquisition for 2D metabolite maps with a voxel volume of 0.95 ml (32 x 32 image matrix) can be completed in 25 min using five TEs and eight averages. A sufficient spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for T2 estimation was validated by high Pearson's correlation coefficients between logarithmic MR signals and TEs (R2 = 0.98, 0.97, and 0.95 for NAA, Cre, and Cho, respectively). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the T2 values of NAA, but not Cre and Cho, were significantly different between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM; P PEPSI and SVS scans was less than 9%. Consistent spatial distributions of T2 were found in six healthy subjects, and disagreement among subjects was less than 10%. In summary, the PEPSI technique is a robust method to obtain fast mapping of metabolite T2. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Analytical BPS Maxwell-Higgs Vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, E. da; Ferreira, M. M. Jr.; Santos, C. dos; Casana, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have established a prescription for the calculation of analytical vortex solutions in the context of generalized Maxwell-Higgs models whose overall dynamics is controlled by two positive functions of the scalar field, namely, f(|ϕ|) and w(|ϕ|). We have also determined a natural constraint between these functions and the Higgs potential U(|ϕ|), allowing the existence of axially symmetric Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) solutions possessing finite energy. Furthermore, when the generalizing functions are chosen suitably, the nonstandard BPS equations can be solved exactly. We have studied some examples, comparing them with the usual Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) solution. The overall conclusion is that the analytical self-dual vortices are well-behaved in all relevant sectors, strongly supporting the consistency of the respective generalized models. In particular, our results mimic well-known properties of the usual (numerical) configurations, as localized energy density, while contributing to the understanding of topological solitons and their description by means of analytical methods.

  9. The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauen, Kenneth M.

    2011-12-01

    Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.

  10. Combined Fat Imaging/Look Locker for mapping of lipid spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihyun Park, Annie; Yung, Andrew; Kozlowski, Piotr; Reinsberg, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a main problem arising in the treatment of cancer due to its resistance to cytotoxic therapy such as radiation and chemotherapy, and selection for more aggressive tumor phenotypes. Attempts to improve and quantify tumor oxygenation are in development and tools to assess the success of such schemes are required. Monitoring oxygen level with MRI using T1 based method (where oxygen acts as T1 shortening agent) is a dynamic and noninvasive way to study tumor characteristics. The method's sensitivity to oxygen is higher in lipids than in water due to higher oxygen solubility in lipid. Our study aims to develop a time-efficient method to spatially map T1 of fat inside the tumor. We are combining two techniques: Fat/Water imaging and Look Locker (a rapid T1 measurement technique). Fat/Water Imaging is done with either Dixon or Direct Phase Encoding (DPE) method. The combination of these techniques poses new challenges that are tackled using spin dynamics simulations as well as experiments in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Classes of general axisymmetric solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.; Choudhury, T.

    1981-01-01

    An exact solution of the Einstein equations for a stationary axially symmetric distribution of mass composed of all types of multipoles is obtained. Following Ernst (1968), from this vacuum solution the corresponding solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations is derived. A solution of Einstein-Maxwell fields for a static axially symmetric system composed of all types of multipoles is also obtained. (author)

  12. Ultrashort Echo Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lung Using a High-Relaxivity T1 Blood-Pool Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Tchouala Nofiele

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The lung remains one of the most challenging organs to image using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI due to intrinsic rapid signal decay. However, unlike conventional modalities such as computed tomography, MRI does not involve radiation and can provide functional and morphologic information on a regional basis. Here we demonstrate proof of concept for a new MRI approach to achieve substantial gains in a signal to noise ratio (SNR in the lung parenchyma: contrast-enhanced ultrashort echo time (UTE imaging following intravenous injection of a high-relaxivity blood-pool manganese porphyrin T1 contrast agent. The new contrast agent increased relative enhancement of the lung parenchyma by over 10-fold compared to gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA, and the use of UTE boosted the SNR by a factor of 4 over conventional T1-weighted gradient echo acquisitions. The new agent also maintains steady enhancement over at least 60 minutes, thus providing a long time window for obtaining high-resolution, high-quality images and the ability to measure a number of physiologic parameters.

  13. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  14. Maxwell's fish-eye lens and the mirage of perfect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, R

    2011-01-01

    Recent claims that Maxwell's fish-eye is a perfect lens, capable of providing images with deep subwavelength resolution, are examined. We show that the imaging properties of a dispersionless fish-eye are very similar to those of an ideal spherical cavity. Using this correspondence, we prove that the correct solution to Maxwell equations in the fish-eye gives image sizes that are consistent with the standard diffraction limit. Perfect focusing is an optical illusion that results from placing a time-reversed source at the position of the geometrical image which, when combined with the field due to the primary (object) source, mimics the behavior of a perfect drain. Issues of causality are briefly discussed. We also demonstrate that passive outlets are not a good alternative to time-reversed sources for broadband drain-like behavior and that, even if they were, they could not do a better job than conventional optical systems at providing high resolution

  15. Null strings and complex Einstein-Maxwell fields with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Plebanski, J.F.; Robinson, I.

    1977-01-01

    Previous results of Plebanski and Robinson (Phys. Rev. Lett.; 37:493 (1976)) concerning left-degenerate Einstein-flat complex space-times and preliminary results concerning the electromagnetic field, are here generalized and worked out in some detail for the system of Einstein-Maxwell equations with a cosmological constant. On the assumption that there exists a congruence of totally null surfaces, the system is reduced to a pair of equations for the two unknown functions. (author)

  16. Effective Hamiltonians, two level systems, and generalized Maxwell-Bloch equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sczaniecki, L.

    1981-02-01

    A new method is proposed involving a canonical transformation leading to the non-secular part of time-independent perturbation calculus. The method is used to derive expressions for effective Shen-Walls Hamiltonians which, taken in the two-level approximation and on the inclusion of non-Hamiltonian terms into the dynamics of the system, lead to generalized Maxwell-Bloch equations. The rotating wave approximation is written anew within the framework of our formalism. (author)

  17. A new perspective on relativistic transformation for Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-S.

    2009-01-01

    A new scheme for relativistic transformation of the electromagnetic fields is formulated through relativistic transformation in the wavevector space, instead of the space-time space. Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics are shown to be form-invariant among inertial frames in accordance with this new scheme of relativistic transformation. This new perspective on relativistic transformation not only fulfills the principle of relativity, but is also compatible with quantum theory.

  18. Modular hp-FEM system HERMES and its application to Maxwell´s equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejchodský, Tomáš; Šolín, P.; Zítka, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2007), s. 223-228 ISSN 0378-4754. [MODELLING 2005. Plzeň, 04.06.2005-08.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/04/P021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : hp-FEM * time-harmonic Maxwell´s equations * hierarchic higher-order edge elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2007

  19. Transition from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of structural relaxation time in glass-forming liquids: continuous versus discontinuous scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, V A; Surovtsev, N V

    2014-09-01

    The temperature dependences of α relaxation time τ(α)(T) of three glass-forming liquids (salol, o-terphenyl, and α-picoline) were investigated by a depolarized light scattering technique. A detailed description of τ(α)(T) near T(A), the temperature of the transition from the Arrhenius law at high temperatures to a non-Arrhenius behavior of τ(α)(T) at lower temperatures, was done. It was found that this transition is quite sharp. If the transition is described as switching from the Arrhenius law to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, it occurs within the temperature range of about 15 K or less. Most of the known expressions for τ(α)(T) cannot describe this sharp transition. Our analysis revealed that this transition can be described either as a discontinuous transition in the spirit of the frustration-limited domain theory [D. Kivelson, G. Tarjus, X. Zhao, and S. A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. E 53, 751 (1996)], implying a phase transition, or by a phenomenological expression recently suggested [B. Schmidtke, N. Petzold, R. Kahlau, M. Hofmann, and E. A. Rössler, Phys. Rev. E 86, 041507 (2012)], where the activation energy includes the term depending exponentially on temperature.

  20. Magneto-optical measurement of spin-lattice relaxation time in KBr and in the Na and Cs halogenetes and Co++ ion magnetic circular dichroism study in KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A magnetic circular dicroism spectrometer is described, which was used in the following experiments: 1) The spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) for F centers in NaCl, NaBr, CsBr and CsCl, at 1,8 0 K in magnetic fields up to 15000Gs is described. The suitability of the theory of ref. (08) to explain the differences observed for halides of differents alkali ions as well as for different structures is verified proves that the hyperfine interaction is the most important mechanism for this kind of centers. It is also verified that, for temperatures between 6 0 K and 15 0 K, T 1 experimental values fits the theory of ref. (21) reasonably well, for F centers in KBr. This theory us an extension of that of ref. (8). 2) The MCD spectra for KCl:Co ++ and Caf 2 :Co ++ in different magnetic fields up to 56KGs, and in temperature range between 1,8 0 K and 4,2 0 K is obtained. The results are consistent with the assumption that Co ++ centers are intersticial in KCl lattice [pt

  1. Anisotropy of the proton spin--lattice relaxation time in the superconducting intercalation complex TaS2(NH3): Structural and bonding implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, F.R.; Silbernagel, B.G.

    1975-01-01

    The nature of the interaction responsible for the formation of molecular intercalation complexes between Lewis bases and layered transition metal dichalcogenides is not well understood. To some extent this is due to a lack of structural information. A prototype of these complexes is TaS 2 (NH 3 ), in which monolayers of ammonia are inserted between the metallic, superconducting layers of TaS 2 . The compound is crystalline and stoichiometric. Measurement of the anisotropy of the proton spin--lattice relaxation time at 300 degreeK indicates that the molecular threefold symmetry axis is not perpendicular to the disulfide layers as suggested by other workers, but is parallel to the layers. This orientation precludes direct interaction between the molecular lone pair orbital and the transition metal atoms. The interactions governing the structure of this complex may be similar to those obtaining in the intercalation complexes between TaS 2 and a number of substituted pyridines, in which complexes the axis of the lone pair orbital is also parallel to the layers

  2. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  3. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1998-01-01

    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies...

  4. The Maxwell-Chern-Simons gravity, and its cosmological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghani, Zahra; Shahidi, Shahab [Damghan University, School of Physics, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    We consider the cosmological implications of a gravitational theory containing two vector fields coupled via a generalized Chern-Simons term. One of the vector fields is the usual Maxwell field, while the other is a constrained vector field with constant norm included in the action via a Lagrange multiplier. The theory admits a de Sitter type solution, with healthy cosmological perturbations. We also show that there are seven degrees of freedom that propagate on top of de Sitter space-time, consisting of two tensor polarizations, four degrees of freedom related to the two vector fields, and a scalar degree of freedom that makes one of the vector fields massive. We investigate the cosmological evolution of Bianchi type I space-time, by assuming that the matter content of the Universe can be described by the stiff and dust. The cosmological evolution of the Bianchi type I Universe strongly depends on the initial conditions of the physical quantities, as well as on the model parameters. The mean anisotropy parameter, and the deceleration parameter, are also studied, and we show that independently of the matter equation of state the cosmological evolution of the Bianchi type I Universe always ends in an isotropic de Sitter type phase. (orig.)

  5. Tuning of the hole spin relaxation time in single self-assembled In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dots by electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hai; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin, E-mail: helx@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-11-28

    We investigate the electric field tuning of the phonon-assisted hole spin relaxation in single self-assembled In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs), using an atomistic empirical pseudopotential method. We find that the electric field along the growth direction can tune the hole spin relaxation time for more than one order of magnitude. The electric field can prolong or shorten the hole spin lifetime and the tuning shows an asymmetry in terms of the field direction. The asymmetry is more pronounced for the taller dot. The results show that the electric field is an effective way to tune the hole spin-relaxation in self-assembled QDs.

  6. A family of solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations describing relativistic charged fluid spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Sharma, Ranjan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a formalism to generate a family of interior solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations for a spherically symmetric relativistic charged fluid sphere matched to the exterior Reissner-Nordström space-time. By reducing the Einstein-Maxwell system to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients, we show that it is possible to obtain closed-form solutions for a specific range of model parameters. A large class of solutions obtained previously are shown to be contained in our general class of solutions. We also analyse the physical viability of our new class of solutions.

  7. Maxwell: A semi-analytic 4D code for earthquake cycle modeling of transform fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, David; Smith-Konter, Bridget

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a semi-analytic approach (and computational code) for rapidly calculating 3D time-dependent deformation and stress caused by screw dislocations imbedded within an elastic layer overlying a Maxwell viscoelastic half-space. The maxwell model is developed in the Fourier domain to exploit the computational advantages of the convolution theorem, hence substantially reducing the computational burden associated with an arbitrarily complex distribution of force couples necessary for fault modeling. The new aspect of this development is the ability to model lateral variations in shear modulus. Ten benchmark examples are provided for testing and verification of the algorithms and code. One final example simulates interseismic deformation along the San Andreas Fault System where lateral variations in shear modulus are included to simulate lateral variations in lithospheric structure.

  8. Maxwell fields in the vicinity of an atom: are they essentially classical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, E.A.; Thirunamachandran, T.

    1984-01-01

    Multipolar formalism is commonly used as the starting point in quantum optics, and the coupling between the radiation field and atoms is taken to be in the lowest order, namely the electric dipole interaction. In the present work, the authors use the Heisenberg picture to describe the Maxwell fields and the charge fields evolving together as a coupled system. The basic electromagnetic fields are calculated as power series in the transition moments of the atom. At t = 0, the time when the different pictures are chosen to agree, the Maxwell operators act in the photon occupation space only and the electron field operators act solely in the fermion space. However, for t > O, the Heisenberg operators act in the composite space so that the electromagnetic fields are complicated functions of the annihilation and creation operators for both electrons and photons. The explicit forms of the first few terms of the series for the displacement vector and magnetic fields are presented

  9. Superconvergence of mixed finite element approximations to 3-D Maxwell's equations in metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunqing

    2011-09-01

    Numerical simulation of metamaterials has attracted more and more attention since 2000, after the first metamaterial with negative refraction index was successfully constructed. In this paper we construct a fully-discrete leap-frog type finite element scheme to solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Maxwell\\'s equations when metamaterials are involved. First, we obtain some superclose results between the interpolations of the analytical solutions and finite element solutions obtained using arbitrary orders of Raviart-Thomas-Nédélec mixed spaces on regular cubic meshes. Then we prove the superconvergence result in the discrete l2 norm achieved for the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas-Nédélec space. To our best knowledge, such superconvergence results have never been obtained elsewhere. Finally, we implement the leap-frog scheme and present numerical results justifying our theoretical analysis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  10. On solution of Maxwell's equations in axisymmetric domains with edges. Part I: Theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, Boniface

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we present the basic mathematical tools for treating boundary value problems for the Maxwell's equations in three-dimensional axisymmetric domains with reentrant edges by means of partial Fourier analysis. We consider the decomposition of the classical and regularized time-harmonic three-dimensional Maxwell's equations into variational equations in the plane meridian domain of the axisymmetric domain and define suitable weighted Sobolev spaces for their treatment. The trace properties of these spaces on the rotational axis and some properties of the solutions are proved, which are important for further numerical treatment, e.g. by the finite-element method. Particularly, a priori estimates of the solutions of the reduced system are given and the asymptotic behavior of these solutions near reentrant corners of the meridian domain is explicitly described by suitable singular functions. (author)

  11. Critical Combinations of Higher-Order Terms in Einstein-Maxwell Theory and Compactification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahomi Kan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the role of a particular combination of higher derivative terms in higher dimensional theories, particularly in the background of spontaneous compactification. Two classes of theories are proposed in this paper. The first model as a generalization of the critical gravity with the Maxwell field could have a de Sitter solution. We consider the Lanczos-Lovelock term and Horndeski term as well as the higher-order Maxwell term for the second model, which contains a possible longer expansion time for the inflationary phase. It is interesting that both models can be regarded as the generalization of the Randjbar-Daemi, Salam and Strathdee (RSS model and give the well behavior for inflation stage under the specific assumptions.

  12. Stochastic Levy Divergence and Maxwell's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for interest in the Levy Laplacian and its analogues such as Levy d'Alembertian is a connection of these operators with gauge fields. The theorem proved by Accardi, Gibillisco and Volovich stated that a connection in a bundle over a Euclidean space or over a Minkowski space is a solution of the Yang-Mills equations if and only if the corresponding parallel transport to the connection is a solution of the Laplace equation for the Levy Laplacian or of the d'Alembert equation for the Levy d'Alembertian respectively (see [5, 6]. There are two approaches to define Levy type operators, both of which date back to the original works of Levy [7]. The first is that the Levy Laplacian (or Levy d'Alembertian is defined as an integral functional generated by a special form of the second derivative. This approach is used in the works [5, 6], as well as in the paper [8] of Leandre and Volovich, where stochastic Levy-Laplacian is discussed. Another approach to the Levy Laplacian is defining it as the Cesaro mean of second order derivatives along the family of vectors, which is an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space. This definition of the Levy Laplacian is used for the description of solutions of the Yang-Mills equations in the paper [10].The present work shows that the definitions of the Levy Laplacian and the Levy d'Alembertian based on Cesaro averaging of the second order directional derivatives can be transferred to the stochastic case. In the article the values of these operators on a stochastic parallel transport associated with a connection (vector potential are found. In this case, unlike the deterministic case and the stochastic case of Levy Laplacian from [8], these values are not equal to zero if the vector potential corresponding to the stochastic parallel transport is a solution of the Maxwell's equations. As a result, two approaches to definition of the Levy Laplacian in the stochastic case give different operators. This

  13. Dynamic load mitigation using dissipative elastic metamaterials with multiple Maxwell-type oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Sagr; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.

    2018-03-01

    Dissipative elastic metamaterials have attracted increased attention in recent times. This paper presents the development of a dissipative elastic metamaterial with multiple Maxwell-type resonators for stress wave attenuation. The mechanism of the dissipation effect on the vibration characteristics is systematically investigated by mass-spring-damper models with single and dual resonators. Based on the parameter optimization, it is revealed that a broadband wave attenuation region (stopping band) can be obtained by properly utilizing interactions from resonant motions and viscoelastic effects of the Maxwell-type oscillators. The relevant numerical verifications are conducted for various cases, and excellent agreement between the numerical and theoretical frequency response functions is shown. The design of this dissipative metamaterial system is further applied for dynamic load mitigation and blast wave attenuation. Moreover, the transient response in the continuum model is designed and analyzed for more robust design. By virtue of the bandgap merging effect induced by the Maxwell-type damper, the transient blast wave can be almost completely suppressed in the low frequency range. A significantly improved performance of the proposed dissipative metamaterials for stress wave mitigation is verified in both time and frequency domains.

  14. Observation of distorted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of epithermal ions in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Akiyama, T.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Itoh, K.; LHD Experiment Group

    2017-12-01

    A distorted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of epithermal ions is observed associated with the collapse of energetic ions triggered by the tongue shaped deformation. The tongue shaped deformation is characterized by the plasma displacement localized in the toroidal, poloidal, and radial directions at the non-rational magnetic flux surface in toroidal plasma. Moment analysis of the ion velocity distribution measured with charge exchange spectroscopy is studied in order to investigate the impact of tongue event on ion distribution. A clear non-zero skewness (3rd moment) and kurtosis (4th moment -3) of ion velocity distribution in the epithermal region (within three times of thermal velocity) is observed after the tongue event. This observation indicates the clear evidence of the distortion of ion velocity distribution from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. This distortion from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is observed in one-third of plasma minor radius region near the plasma edge and disappears in the ion-ion collision time scale.

  15. Reformulation of Maxwell's equations to incorporate near-solute solvent structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Kun; Lim, Carmay

    2008-09-04

    Maxwell's equations, which treat electromagnetic interactions between macroscopic charged objects in materials, have explained many phenomena and contributed to many applications in our lives. Derived in 1861 when no methods were available to determine the atomic structure of macromolecules, Maxwell's equations assume the solvent to be a structureless continuum. However, near-solute solvent molecules are highly structured, unlike far-solute bulk solvent molecules. Current methods cannot treat both the near-solute solvent structure and time-dependent electromagnetic interactions in a macroscopic system. Here, we derive "microscopic" electrodynamics equations that can treat macroscopic time-dependent electromagnetic field problems like Maxwell's equations and reproduce the solvent molecular and dipole density distributions observed in molecular dynamics simulations. These equations greatly reduce computational expense by not having to include explicit solvent molecules, yet they treat the solvent electrostatic and van der Waals effects more accurately than continuum models. They provide a foundation to study electromagnetic interactions between molecules in a macroscopic system that are ubiquitous in biology, bioelectromagnetism, and nanotechnology. The general strategy presented herein to incorporate the near-solute solvent structure would enable studies on how complex cellular protein-ligand interactions are affected by electromagnetic radiation, which could help to prevent harmful electromagnetic spectra or find potential therapeutic applications.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Self-Focused Pulses Using the Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that are currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Kerr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations. Abstract of a proposed paper for presentation at the meeting NONLINEAR OPTICS: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Hyatt Regency Waikaloa, Waikaloa, Hawaii, July 24-29, 1994, Cosponsored by IEEE/Lasers and Electro-Optics Society and Optical Society of America

  17. Phenomenological description of depoling current in Pb0.99Nb0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05)0.98O3 ferroelectric ceramics under shock wave compression: Relaxation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongdong; Du, Jinmei; Gu, Yan; Feng, Yujun

    2012-05-01

    By assuming a relaxation process for depolarization associated with the ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transition in Pb0.99Nb0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05)0.98O3 ferroelectric ceramics under shock wave compression, we build a new model for the depoling current, which is different from both the traditional constant current source (CCS) model and the phase transition kinetics (PTK) model. The characteristic relaxation time and new-equilibrated polarization are dependent on both the shock pressure and electric field. After incorporating a Maxwell s equation, the relaxation model developed applies to all the depoling currents under short-circuit condition and high-impedance condition. Influences of shock pressure, load resistance, dielectric property, and electrical conductivity on the depoling current are also discussed. The relaxation model gives a good description about the suppressing effect of the self-generated electric field on the FE-to-AFE phase transition at low shock pressures, which cannot be described by the traditional models. After incorporating a time- and electric-field-dependent repolarization, this model predicts that the high-impedance current eventually becomes higher than the short-circuit current, which is consistent with the experimental results in the literature. Finally, we make the comparison between our relaxation model and the traditional CCS model and PTK model.

  18. Interaction study of polyisobutylene with paraffins by NMR using the evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times for hydrogen nuclei; Estudo da interacao do poliisobutileno com parafinas por RMN no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Rosana G.G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas - CENPES]. E-mail: garrido@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    The evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times of {sup 1}H for polyisobutylene/paraffin systems, were obtained using the classic inversion recovery technique, and also through Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) techniques varying the contact time and also by the delayed contact time pulse sequence. NMR results showed that the polyisobutylene/paraffin systems in which high molecular weight paraffins were used, is heterogeneous. However, for paraffins with low molecular weight, the system presents good homogeneity. (author)

  19. The immediate effect of long-distance running on T2 and T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in young healthy adults at 3.0 T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Welsch, Goetz H; Laqmani, Azien; Henes, Frank O; Kaul, Michael G; Schoen, Gerhard; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2016-08-01

    To quantitatively assess the immediate effect of long-distance running on T2 and T2* relaxation times of the articular cartilage of the knee at 3.0 T in young healthy adults. 30 healthy male adults (18-31 years) who perform sports at an amateur level underwent an initial MRI at 3.0 T with T2 weighted [16 echo times (TEs): 9.7-154.6 ms] and T2* weighted (24 TEs: 4.6-53.6 ms) relaxation measurements. Thereafter, all participants performed a 45-min run. After the run, all individuals were immediately re-examined. Data sets were post-processed using dedicated software (ImageJ; National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD). 22 regions of interest were manually drawn in segmented areas of the femoral, tibial and patellar cartilage. For statistical evaluation, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and confidence intervals were computed. Mean initial values were 35.7 ms for T2 and 25.1 ms for T2*. After the run, a significant decrease in the mean T2 and T2* relaxation times was observed for all segments in all participants. A mean decrease of relaxation time was observed for T2 with 4.6 ms (±3.6 ms) and for T2* with 3.6 ms (±5.1 ms) after running. A significant decrease could be observed in all cartilage segments for both biomarkers. Both quantitative techniques, T2 and T2*, seem to be valuable parameters in the evaluation of immediate changes in the cartilage ultrastructure after running. This is the first direct comparison of immediate changes in T2 and T2* relaxation times after running in healthy adults.

  20. What is the most suitable MR signal index for quantitative evaluation of placental function using Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo compared with T2-relaxation time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Kyoko Nakao; Kido, Aki; Himoto, Yuki; Moribata, Yusaku; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-06-01

    Background Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) imaging is now widely used for placental and fetal imaging because of its rapidity and low sensitivity to fetal movement. If placental dysfunction is also predicted by quantitative value obtained from HASTE image, then it might be beneficial for evaluating placental wellbeing. Purpose To ascertain the most suitable magnetic resonance (MR) signal indexes reflecting placental function using HASTE imaging. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 37 consequent patients who had given informed consent to MR imaging (MRI) examinations. All had undergone MRI examinations between February 2014 and June 2015. First, the correlation between T2-relaxation time of normal placenta and gestational age (GA) was examined. Second, correlation between signal intensity ratios (SIRs) using HASTE imaging and placental T2-relaxation time were assessed. The SIRs were calculated using placental signal intensity (SI) relative to the SI of the amniotic fluid, fetal ocular globes, gastric fluid, bladder, maternal psoas major muscles, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results Among the 37 patients, the correlation between T2-relaxation time of the 25 normal placentas and GA showed a moderately strong correlation (Spearman rho = -0.447, P = 0.0250). The most significant correlation with placental T2-relaxation time was observed with the placental SIR relative to the maternal psoas major muscles (SIR pl./psoas muscle ) (Spearman rho = -0.531, P = 0.0007). Conclusion This study revealed that SIR pl./psoas muscle showed the best correlation to placental T2-relaxation time. Results show that SIR pl./psoas muscle might be optimal as a clinically available quantitative index of placental function.

  1. Comparison of different Maxwell solvers coupled to a PIC resolution method of Maxwell-Vlasov equations; Evaluation de differents solveurs Maxwell pour la resolution de Maxwell-Vlasov par une methode PIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fochesato, Ch. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Conception et Simulation des Armes, Service Simulation des Amorces, Lab. Logiciels de Simulation, 91 (France); Bouche, D. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, Lab. de Recherche Conventionne, Centre de Mathematiques et Leurs Applications, 91 (France)

    2007-07-01

    The numerical solution of Maxwell equations is a challenging task. Moreover, the range of applications is very wide: microwave devices, diffraction, to cite a few. As a result, a number of methods have been proposed since the sixties. However, among all these methods, none has proved to be free of drawbacks. The finite difference scheme proposed by Yee in 1966, is well suited for Maxwell equations. However, it only works on cubical mesh. As a result, the boundaries of complex objects are not properly handled by the scheme. When classical nodal finite elements are used, spurious modes appear, which spoil the results of simulations. Edge elements overcome this problem, at the price of rather complex implementation, and computationally intensive simulations. Finite volume methods, either generalizing Yee scheme to a wider class of meshes, or applying to Maxwell equations methods initially used in the field of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, are also used. Lastly, 'Discontinuous Galerkin' methods, generalizing to arbitrary order of accuracy finite volume methods, have recently been applied to Maxwell equations. In this report, we more specifically focus on the coupling of a Maxwell solver to a PIC (Particle-in-cell) method. We analyze advantages and drawbacks of the most widely used methods: accuracy, robustness, sensitivity to numerical artefacts, efficiency, user judgment. (authors)

  2. L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua; Xiong, Linjie; Zhao, Huijiang

    2013-01-01

    We present a L 2 -stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L 2 -distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L 2 -stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L 2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L 2 -stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L 2 -stability estimate. This is the first result on the L 2 -stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions

  3. A new formulation of equations of compressible fluids by analogy with Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    A compressible ideal fluid is governed by Euler's equation of motion and equations of continuity, entropy and vorticity. This system can be reformulated in a form analogous to that of electromagnetism governed by Maxwell's equations with source terms. The vorticity plays the role of magnetic field, while the velocity field plays the part of a vector potential and the enthalpy (of isentropic flows) plays the part of a scalar potential in electromagnetism. The evolution of source terms of fluid Maxwell equations is determined by solving the equations of motion and continuity. The equation of sound waves can be derived from this formulation, where time evolution of the sound source is determined by the equation of motion. The theory of vortex sound of aeroacoustics is included in this formulation. It is remarkable that the forces acting on a point mass moving in a velocity field of an inviscid fluid are analogous in their form to the electric force and Lorentz force in electromagnetism. The significance of the reformulation is interpreted by examples taken from fluid mechanics. This formulation can be extended to viscous fluids without difficulty. The Maxwell-type equations are unchanged by the viscosity effect, although the source terms have additional terms due to viscosities.

  4. Anomalous carrier life-time relaxation mediated by head group interaction in surface anchored MnSe quantum dots conjugated with albumin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2017-02-01

    We report on the radiative emission decay dynamics of a less known, γ-phase manganese selenide quantum dot system (MnSe QDs) subjected to bio-functionalization. A short-ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA), and a long-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used as surface anchors prior bioconjugation with albumin proteins (BSA). Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra of the QDs have revealed bi-exponential decay trends with the fast (τ{sub 1}) and slow (τ{sub 2}) decay parameters assigned to the core state recombination and surface trapped excitons; respectively. The average lifetime (τ{sub avg}) was found to get shortened from a value of ∼0.87 ns–0.72 ns in unconjugated and BSA conjugated MnSe-TGA QDs; respectively. Conversely, MnSe-SDS QDs with BSA conjugation exhibited nearly four-fold enhancement of τ{sub avg} with respect to its unconjugated counterpart. Moreover, a considerable amount of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was found to occur from the TGA coated MnSe QDs to BSA and with an ensuing efficiency of ∼61%. The origin of anomalous carrier life-time relaxation features has also been encountered through a simplified model as regards head group interaction experienced by the MnSe QDs with different surfactant types. Exploiting luminescence decay characteristics of a magneto-fluorescent candidate could find immense scope in diverse biological applications including assays, labeling and imaging. - Highlights: • Surface anchored manganese selenide quantum dots (MnSe QDs) have been synthesized via a physico-chemical reduction route. • Time resolved luminescence spectra of the QDs have displayed bi-exponential decay trend. • Thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated QDs exhibited shorter lifetime as compared to sodium dodecyl sulfo-succinate (SDS) coated ones. • Upon BSA conjugation, the average life time is four-fold enhanced in MnSe-SDS QDs. • An efficient FRET process has been revealed in BSA conjugated TGA coated MnSe QDs.

  5. Investigation of the spectroscopy and relaxation dynamics of benzaldehyde using molecular orbital calculations and laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    1998-11-01

    Molecular orbital methods and laser ionization mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the spectroscopy and relaxation dynamics of benzaldehyde following excitation to its S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state. Energies, equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of ground and low-lying excited states of benzaldehyde neutral and cation determined by ab initio calculations provide a theoretical description of the electronic spectroscopy of benzaldehyde and of the changes occurring on excitation and ionization. The S2(/pi/pi/sp/*)[/gets]S0 excitation spectrum of jet-cooled benzaldehyde acquired using two-color laser ionization mass spectrometry techniques is interpreted with the aid of these calculations. The spectrum is dominated by the origin band and by transitions involving some of the ring modes consistent with the results of the molecular orbital calculations that indicate that the major geometric changes on excitation to S2 are located in the aromatic ring. Ten fundamental vibrations of the S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state are assigned. The dissociation dynamics of benzaldehyde into benzene and carbon monoxide following excitation to its S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state are investigated under jet- cooled conditions by two-color laser ionization mass spectrometry using a pump-probe technique. This experimental arrangement allows monitoring the benzaldehyde reactant and the benzene product ion signals as a function of the time delay between the excitation and ionization steps. A kinetic model is proposed to explain the observed biexponential decay of the benzaldehyde signal and the single exponential growth of the benzene product signal in terms of a sequential decay of two excited states of benzaldehyde, one of which leads to formation of benzene molecules in its lowest triplet state. Reactant disappearance and product appearance rates are determined for a number of vibronic transitions of the S2 state. They are found to increase with excitation energy without any indication

  6. Non-invasive evaluation of blood oxygen saturation and hematocrit from T1 and T2 relaxation times: In-vitro validation in fetal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sharon; Seed, Mike; Sled, John G; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2017-12-01

    We propose an analytical method for calculating blood hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen saturation (sO 2 ) from measurements of its T 1 and T 2 relaxation times. Through algebraic substitution, established two-compartment relationships describing R1=T1-1 and R2=T2-1 as a function of hematocrit and oxygen saturation were rearranged to solve for Hct and sO 2 in terms of R 1 and R 2 . Resulting solutions for Hct and sO 2 are the roots of cubic polynomials. Feasibility of the method was established by comparison of Hct and sO 2 estimates obtained from relaxometry measurements (at 1.5 Tesla) in cord blood specimens to ground-truth values obtained by blood gas analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were also conducted to assess the effect of T 1 , T 2 measurement uncertainty on precision of Hct and sO 2 estimates. Good agreement was observed between estimated and ground-truth blood properties (bias = 0.01; 95% limits of agreement = ±0.13 for Hct and sO 2 ). Considering the combined effects of biological variability and random measurement noise, we estimate a typical uncertainty of ±0.1 for Hct, sO 2 estimates. Results demonstrate accurate quantification of Hct and sO 2 from T 1 and T 2 . This method is applicable to noninvasive fetal vessel oximetry-an application where existing oximetry devices are unusable or require risky blood-sampling procedures. Magn Reson Med 78:2352-2359, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Objective measurement of minimal fat in normal skeletal muscles of healthy children using T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Merrow, Arnold C; Wang, Lily; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2014-02-01

    Various skeletal muscle diseases result in fatty infiltration, making it important to develop noninvasive biomarkers to objectively measure muscular fat. We compared T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with physical characteristics previously correlated with intramuscular fat to validate T2 maps and MRS as objective measures of skeletal muscle fat. We evaluated gluteus maximus muscles in 30 healthy boys (ages 5-19 years) at 3 T with T1-weighted images, T2-W images with fat saturation, T2 maps with and without fat saturation, and MR spectroscopy. We calculated body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile (BMI %). We performed fat and inflammation grading on T1-W imaging and fat-saturated T2-W imaging, respectively. Mean T2 values from T2 maps with fat saturation were subtracted from T2 maps without fat saturation to determine T2 fat values. We obtained lipid-to-water ratios by MR spectroscopy. Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships between BSA, BMI, BMI %, T2 fat values, and lipid-to-water ratios for each boy. Twenty-four boys completed all exams; 21 showed minimal and 3 showed no fatty infiltration. None showed muscle inflammation. There was correlation between BSA, BMI, and BMI %, and T2 fat values (P values and lipid-to-water ratios (P skeletal muscles, even in microscopic amounts, and validate each other. Both techniques might enable detection of minimal pathological fatty infiltration in children with skeletal muscle disorders.

  8. The scientific papers of James Clerk Maxwell, vol.I

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, James Clerk

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 19th century, James Clerk Maxwell is best known for his studies of the electromagnetic field. The 101 scientific papers of this two-volume set, arranged chronologically, testify to Maxwell's profound scientific legacy and include the preliminary explorations that culminated in his most famous work, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. One of the nineteenth century's most significant papers, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," appears here, along with similarly influential expositions of Maxwell's dynamical theory of gases. The author's extensive range of interests is well represented, from his discussions of color blindness and the composition of Saturn's rings to his essays on geometrical optics, ether, and protecting buildings from lightning. His less technical writings are featured as well, including items written for the Encyclopedia Britannica and Nature magazine, book reviews, and popular lectures. Striking in their originality, these ...

  9. The contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to electrical science

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, R A R

    1966-01-01

    The Contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to Electrical Science deals with the development of electromagnetic theory following the establishment of the basis for the first law of circulation relating to the magnetic fields generated by steady currents. This book is organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters that specifically treat the provision of the basis for the second law of circulation, the law that deals with the induction of currents, which was predominantly the work of British physicists, Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Part I highlights their life, career, and contri

  10. An efficient discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for highly accurate solution of maxwell equations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin

    2012-08-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly accurate time integration scheme for solving Maxwell equations is presented. The new time integration scheme is in the form of traditional predictor-corrector algorithms, PE CE m, but it uses coefficients that are obtained using a numerical scheme with fully controllable accuracy. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed DG-FEM uses larger time steps than DG-FEM with classical PE CE) m schemes when high accuracy, which could be obtained using high-order spatial discretization, is required. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  11. An efficient discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for highly accurate solution of maxwell equations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin; Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Bagci, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly accurate time integration scheme for solving Maxwell equations is presented. The new time integration scheme is in the form of traditional predictor-corrector algorithms, PE CE m, but it uses coefficients that are obtained using a numerical scheme with fully controllable accuracy. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed DG-FEM uses larger time steps than DG-FEM with classical PE CE) m schemes when high accuracy, which could be obtained using high-order spatial discretization, is required. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  12. Anomalous reduction in the long-time flux creep relaxation in superconducting Ca10(Pt4As8)((Fe1‑x Pt x )2As2)5 (x ≈ 0.05) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkorn, N.; Huang, Silu; Jin, R.

    2018-06-01

    We report the vortex dynamics of superconducting a Ca10(Pt4As8)((Fe1‑x Pt x )2As2)5 (x ≈ 0.05) single crystal with T c = 26 K investigated by performing magnetic measurements. The field dependence of the magnetization displays a second peak (SPM), typically related to a crossover between elastic and plastic vortex relaxation in a weak pinning scenario. Long-time flux creep relaxation measurements for fields smaller that of the SPM show that the vortex dynamics can be separated in two different regions. For magnetic fields smaller than the lower end of the SPM, glassy relaxation (with a characteristic glassy exponent μ) is observed. For magnetic fields between the lower end and the SPM, the flux creep rate decreases systematically to values below to the ones predicted by the collective theory. This effect can be understood by considering a stable vortex lattice configuration. As the field position of the SPM can be adjusted by modifying the quenched potential, our results suggest that extremely low flux creep relaxation rate may be tuned in many other superconducting materials.

  13. Relaxation characteristics of hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    1980-02-01

    Relaxation diagrams of Hastelloy X (relaxation curves, relaxation design diagrams, etc.) were generated from the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, using inelastic stress analysis code TEPICC-J. These data are in good agreement with experimental relaxation data of ORNL-5479. Three typical inelastic stress analyses were performed for various relaxation behaviors of the high-temperature structures. An attempt was also made to predict these relaxation behaviors by the relaxation curves. (author)

  14. Modeling back-relaxation in ionic polymer metal composites: The role of steric effects and composite layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiri, Maurizio; Sharghi, Hesam; Zhang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a new class of active materials that are gaining traction as soft actuators in medical and industrial applications. IPMCs can undergo large deformations under modest voltage inputs, in dry and wet environments. Past studies have demonstrated that physical and geometric properties of all the IPMC constituents (ionomer, electrodes, and counterions) may all influence the time scales of the transient response and severity of the back-relaxation. In this study, we present a detailed mathematical model to investigate how the finite size of the counterions and the presence of metal particles in the vicinity of the electrodes modulate IPMC actuation. We build on previous work by our group on thermodynamically consistent modeling of IPMC mechanics and electrochemistry, which attributes IPMC actuation to the interplay between Maxwell stress and osmotic forces. To gain insight into the role of physical and geometric parameters, the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved semianalytically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions, for the initial transient and the steady-state. A numerical solution in COMSOL Multiphysics® is developed to verify semianalytical findings and further explore IPMC actuation. Our model can successfully predict the entire response of IPMCs, from the initial bending toward the anode to the steady-state toward the cathode. We find that the steric effect can abolish the back-relaxation of IPMCs by restraining the counterions' concentration near the electrodes. We also find that increasing the thickness of the ionomer-metal composite layers may enhance IPMC actuation through increased osmotic forces and Maxwell stress.

  15. On the problem of time evolution of the particle distribution function in a high-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaronyan, F.A.; Atoyan, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Time evolution of a one-particle distribution function in nonrelativistic plasma is considered in the absence of an external field. A linear differential equation describing the high-energy part of the distribution function is derived. The approximated analytical solution to this equation yields thermalization time (maxwellization time) of particles in the energy range epsilon >> kT: tsub(epsilon) approximately 0.64 (epsilon/kT)sup(3/2)tsub(0), t 0 being relaxation time in the range of mean energies (epsilon approximately kT). The significance of the results is discussed on the example of γ-luminosity of accretion plasma around a black hole

  16. Relaxation dynamics following transition of solvated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.B.; Landman, U.; Nitzan, A.

    1989-01-01

    Relaxation dynamics following an electronic transition of an excess solvated electron in clusters and in bulk water is studied using an adiabatic simulation method. In this method the solvent evolves classically and the electron is constrained to a specified state. The coupling between the solvent and the excess electron is evaluated via the quantum expectation value of the electron--water molecule interaction potential. The relaxation following excitation (or deexcitation) is characterized by two time scales: (i) a very fast (/similar to/20--30 fs) one associated with molecular rotations in the first solvation shell about the electron, and (ii) a slower stage (/similar to/200 fs), which is of the order of the longitudinal dielectric relaxation time. The fast relaxation stage exhibits an isotope effect. The spectroscopical consequences of the relaxation dynamics are discussed

  17. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob

    Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  18. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  19. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  20. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  1. How to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations from the continuity equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, Jose A

    2009-01-01

    The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation is emphasized as the fundamental axiom underlying these equations

  2. How to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations from the continuity equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Mexico D. F. 01210 (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation is emphasized as the fundamental axiom underlying these equations.

  3. Self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory on a cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jongmin; Kim, Seongtag

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relativistic Maxwell-Chern-Simons vortices on an asymptotically flat cylinder. A topological multivortex solution is constructed by variational methods, and the Maxwell and the Chern-Simons limits are verified.

  4. A new visco-elasto-plastic model via time-space fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, X.; Chen, W.; Pang, G.; Xiao, R.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the visco-elasto-plastic behavior of metals and alloys we propose a new constitutive equation based on a time-space fractional derivative. The rheological representative of the model can be analogous to that of the Bingham-Maxwell model, while the dashpot element and sliding friction element are replaced by the corresponding fractional elements. The model is applied to describe the constant strain rate, stress relaxation and creep tests of different metals and alloys. The results suggest that the proposed simple model can describe the main characteristics of the experimental observations. More importantly, the model can also provide more accurate predictions than the classic Bingham-Maxwell model and the Bingham-Norton model.

  5. Incompressible Maxwell-Boussinesq approximation: Existence, uniqueness and shape sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Consiglieri, L.; Nečasová, Šárka; Sokolowski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2009), s. 1193-1215 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0005; GA ČR GA201/08/0012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Maxwell-Boussinesq approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.378, year: 2009

  6. Incompressible Einstein–Maxwell fluids with specified electric fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Einstein–Maxwell equations describing static charged spheres with uniform density and variable electric field intensity are studied. The special case of constant electric field is also studied. The evolution of the model is governed by a hypergeometric differential equation which has a general solution in terms of special ...

  7. Maxwell-Vlasov equations as a continuous Hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1980-09-01

    The well-known Maxwell-Vlasov equations that describe a collisionless plasma are cast into Hamiltonian form. The dynamical variables are the physical although noncanonical variables E, B and f. We present a Poisson bracket which acts on these variables and the energy functional to produce the equations of motion

  8. Second order guiding-center Vlasov–Maxwell equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Second order gyrogauge invariant guiding-center coordinates with strong E×B-flow are derived using the Lie transformation method. The corresponding Poisson bracket structure and equations of motion are obtained. From a variational principle the explicit Vlasov–Maxwell equations are derived...

  9. Corroborative evidences of TV γ -scaling of the α-relaxation originating from the primitive relaxation/JG β relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.

  10. Simultaneous MR quantification of hepatic fat content, fatty acid composition, transverse relaxation time and magnetic susceptibility for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporq, B; Lambert, S A; Ronot, M; Vilgrain, V; Van Beers, B E

    2017-10-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized at histology by steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and inflammatory infiltrates, with or without fibrosis. Although diamagnetic material in fibrosis and inflammation can be detected with quantitative susceptibility imaging, fatty acid composition changes in NASH relative to simple steatosis have also been reported. Therefore, our aim was to develop a single magnetic resonance (MR) acquisition and post-processing scheme for the diagnosis of steatohepatitis by the simultaneous quantification of hepatic fat content, fatty acid composition, T 2 * transverse relaxation time and magnetic susceptibility in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. MR acquisition was performed at 3.0 T using a three-dimensional, multi-echo, spoiled gradient echo sequence. Phase images were unwrapped to compute the B 0 field inhomogeneity (ΔB 0 ) map. The ΔB 0 -demodulated real part images were used for fat-water separation, T 2 * and fatty acid composition quantification. The external and internal fields were separated with the projection onto dipole field method. Susceptibility maps were obtained after dipole inversion from the internal field map with single-orientation Bayesian regularization including spatial priors. Method validation was performed in 32 patients with biopsy-proven, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease from which 12 had simple steatosis and 20 NASH. Liver fat fraction and T 2 * did not change significantly between patients with simple steatosis and NASH. In contrast, the saturated fatty acid fraction increased in patients with NASH relative to patients with simple steatosis (48 ± 2% versus 44 ± 4%; p magnetic susceptibility decreased (-0.30 ± 0.27 ppm versus 0.10 ± 0.14 ppm; p magnetic susceptibility as NASH marker was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.79-1.0). Simultaneous MR quantification of fat content, fatty acid composition, T 2 * and magnetic susceptibility is feasible in the liver. Our preliminary results

  11. Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles XV: Celebrating 150 Years of Maxwell's Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Andreas; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The 15th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference (ELS-XV) was held in Leipzig, Germany from 21 to 26 of June 2015. This conference built on the great success of the previous meetings held in Amsterdam (1995), Helsinki(1997) [2], New York City(1998) [3], Vigo (1999),Halifax (2000), Gainesville (2002), Bremen (2003), Salobreña (2005), St. Petersburg (2006), Bodrum (2007), Hatfield (2008), Helsinki (2010), Taormina (2011), and Lille as well as the workshops held in Bremen (1996,1998) and Moscow (1997). As usual, the main objective of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, and PhD students studying various aspects of electromagnetic scattering and to provide a relaxed atmosphere for in-depth discussion of theory, measurements, and applications. Furthermore, ELS-XV supported the United Nations "Year of Light" and celebrated the150th anniversary of Maxwell's electromagnetics. Maxwell's paper on "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" was published in1865 and has widely been acknowledged as one of the supreme achievements in the history of science. The conference was attended by136 scientists from 22 countries. The scientific program included two plenary lectures, 16 invited reviews, 88 contributed oral talks, and 70 poster presentations. The program and the abstracts of conference presentations are available at the conference website http://www.els-xv-2015.net/home.html. Following the well-established ELS practice and with Elsevier's encouragement, we solicited full-size papers for a topical issue of the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT). The result of this collective effort is now in the reader's hands. As always, every invited review and regular paper included in this topical issue has undergone the same rigorous peer review process as any other manuscript published in the JQSRT.

  12. Language Individuation and Marker Words: Shakespeare and His Maxwell's Demon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, John; Budden, David; Craig, Hugh; Moscato, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Within the structural and grammatical bounds of a common language, all authors develop their own distinctive writing styles. Whether the relative occurrence of common words can be measured to produce accurate models of authorship is of particular interest. This work introduces a new score that helps to highlight such variations in word occurrence, and is applied to produce models of authorship of a large group of plays from the Shakespearean era. A text corpus containing 55,055 unique words was generated from 168 plays from the Shakespearean era (16th and 17th centuries) of undisputed authorship. A new score, CM1, is introduced to measure variation patterns based on the frequency of occurrence of each word for the authors John Fletcher, Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton and William Shakespeare, compared to the rest of the authors in the study (which provides a reference of relative word usage at that time). A total of 50 WEKA methods were applied for Fletcher, Jonson and Middleton, to identify those which were able to produce models yielding over 90% classification accuracy. This ensemble of WEKA methods was then applied to model Shakespearean authorship across all 168 plays, yielding a Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC) performance of over 90%. Furthermore, the best model yielded an MCC of 99%. Our results suggest that different authors, while adhering to the structural and grammatical bounds of a common language, develop measurably distinct styles by the tendency to over-utilise or avoid particular common words and phrasings. Considering language and the potential of words as an abstract chaotic system with a high entropy, similarities can be drawn to the Maxwell's Demon thought experiment; authors subconsciously favour or filter certain words, modifying the probability profile in ways that could reflect their individuality and style.

  13. Language Individuation and Marker Words: Shakespeare and His Maxwell's Demon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Marsden

    Full Text Available Within the structural and grammatical bounds of a common language, all authors develop their own distinctive writing styles. Whether the relative occurrence of common words can be measured to produce accurate models of authorship is of particular interest. This work introduces a new score that helps to highlight such variations in word occurrence, and is applied to produce models of authorship of a large group of plays from the Shakespearean era.A text corpus containing 55,055 unique words was generated from 168 plays from the Shakespearean era (16th and 17th centuries of undisputed authorship. A new score, CM1, is introduced to measure variation patterns based on the frequency of occurrence of each word for the authors John Fletcher, Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton and William Shakespeare, compared to the rest of the authors in the study (which provides a reference of relative word usage at that time. A total of 50 WEKA methods were applied for Fletcher, Jonson and Middleton, to identify those which were able to produce models yielding over 90% classification accuracy. This ensemble of WEKA methods was then applied to model Shakespearean authorship across all 168 plays, yielding a Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC performance of over 90%. Furthermore, the best model yielded an MCC of 99%.Our results suggest that different authors, while adhering to the structural and grammatical bounds of a common language, develop measurably distinct styles by the tendency to over-utilise or avoid particular common words and phrasings. Considering language and the potential of words as an abstract chaotic system with a high entropy, similarities can be drawn to the Maxwell's Demon thought experiment; authors subconsciously favour or filter certain words, modifying the probability profile in ways that could reflect their individuality and style.

  14. Language Individuation and Marker Words: Shakespeare and His Maxwell's Demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, John; Budden, David; Craig, Hugh; Moscato, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Within the structural and grammatical bounds of a common language, all authors develop their own distinctive writing styles. Whether the relative occurrence of common words can be measured to produce accurate models of authorship is of particular interest. This work introduces a new score that helps to highlight such variations in word occurrence, and is applied to produce models of authorship of a large group of plays from the Shakespearean era. Methodology A text corpus containing 55,055 unique words was generated from 168 plays from the Shakespearean era (16th and 17th centuries) of undisputed authorship. A new score, CM1, is introduced to measure variation patterns based on the frequency of occurrence of each word for the authors John Fletcher, Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton and William Shakespeare, compared to the rest of the authors in the study (which provides a reference of relative word usage at that time). A total of 50 WEKA methods were applied for Fletcher, Jonson and Middleton, to identify those which were able to produce models yielding over 90% classification accuracy. This ensemble of WEKA methods was then applied to model Shakespearean authorship across all 168 plays, yielding a Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC) performance of over 90%. Furthermore, the best model yielded an MCC of 99%. Conclusions Our results suggest that different authors, while adhering to the structural and grammatical bounds of a common language, develop measurably distinct styles by the tendency to over-utilise or avoid particular common words and phrasings. Considering language and the potential of words as an abstract chaotic system with a high entropy, similarities can be drawn to the Maxwell's Demon thought experiment; authors subconsciously favour or filter certain words, modifying the probability profile in ways that could reflect their individuality and style. PMID:23826143

  15. Relationship between Structural and Stress Relaxation in a Block-Copolymer Melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Amish J.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Garetz, Bruce A.; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between structural relaxation on molecular length scales and macroscopic stress relaxation was explored in a disordered block-copolymer melt. Experiments show that the structural relaxation time, measured by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy is larger than the terminal stress relaxation time, measured by rheology, by factors as large as 100. We demonstrate that the structural relaxation data are dominated by the diffusion of intact micelles while the stress relaxation data are dominated by contributions due to disordered concentration fluctuations

  16. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  17. 77 FR 65403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM AGENCY... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human..., Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01 1050, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001...

  18. 76 FR 56468 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico has... contact the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico. Repatriation of the human remains to...

  19. 77 FR 46116 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Maxwell Museum of Anthropology has completed... has a cultural affiliation with the human remains should contact the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology at...

  20. 77 FR 65404 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Correction... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human..., Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01 1050, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001...

  1. Representing the Electromagnetic Field: How Maxwell's Mathematics Empowered Faraday's Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweney, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    James Clerk Maxwell "translated" Michael Faraday's experimentally-based field theory into the mathematical representation now known as "Maxwell's Equations." Working with a variety of mathematical representations and physical models Maxwell extended the reach of Faraday's theory and brought it into consistency with other…

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  3. Sci-Fri AM: MRI and Diagnostic Imaging - 01: Estimating the Transverse Relaxation Time of Taurine Protons in Rat Brain at 9.4 T with Optimized PRESS Sequence Timings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Marissa; Dobberthien, Brennen; Tessier, Anthony; Yahya, Atiyah [University of Alberta, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the response of taurine (Tau) protons as a function of PRESS echo times, TE{sub 1} and TE{sub 2}, to determine two TE combinations that can be employed to estimate the T{sub 2} (transverse relaxation) value of Tau at 9.4 T. The Tau protons are involved in J-coupling interactions; therefore, the two timing combinations should result in similar signal losses due to J-coupling. Methods: Experiments were performed with a 9.4 T animal MRI scanner. Numerical calculations of the response of Tau as a function of PRESS TE{sub 1} and TE{sub 2} were calculated and two TE combinations that yield a similar area for the 3.42 ppm Tau resonance were selected as optimal. The timings were verified on a 50 mM Tau/10 mM Cr (creatine) phantom. In-vivo experiments were performed on four rats. Spectra were acquired with the timings from a voxel placed in the rat brain and Tau peak areas were fit to monoexponentially decaying functions to obtain T{sub 2} values. Results: The PRESS TE combinations selected for Tau T{sub 2} determination are (TE{sub 1}, TE{sub 2}) = (17 ms, 10 ms) and (80 ms, 70 ms); the signal yield for the two timings differs by 5 % theoretically. The average Tau T{sub 2} for the four rats was found to be 106 ms with a standard deviation of 12 ms. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that acquiring PRESS spectra with (TE{sub 1}, TE{sub 2}) = (17 ms, 10 ms) and (TE{sub 1}, TE{sub 2}) = (80 ms, 70 ms) enables T{sub 2} corrected measures of Tau to be obtained at 9.4 T.

  4. Reanalyzing the Ampere-Maxwell Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S. Eric

    2011-01-01

    In a recent "TPT" article, I addressed a common miscommunication about Faraday's law, namely, that introductory texts often say the law expresses a causal relationship between the magnetic fields time variation and the electric fields circulation. In that article, I demonstrated that these field behaviors share a common cause in a time-varying…

  5. From pure spinors to quantum physics and to some classical field equations like Maxwell's and gravitational

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinich, Paolo

    2009-03-01

    In a previous paper we proposed a purely mathematical way to quantum mechanics based on Cartan's simple spinors in their most elementary form of 2 components spinors. Here we proceed along that path proposing, this time, a symmetric tensor, quadrilinear in simple spinors, as a candidate for the symmetric tensor of general relativity. The procedure resembles closely that in which one builds bilinearly from simple spinors an asymmetric electromagnetic tensor, from which easily descend Maxwell's equations and the photon can be seen as a bilinear combination of neutrinos. Here Lorentzian spaces result compact, building up spheres, where hopefully the problems of the Standard Model could be solved. (author)

  6. A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving transient Maxwell equations with nonlinear material properties

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Asirim, Ozum Emre; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method (DGTD) has been used extensively in computational electromagnetics for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on structures described with linear constitutive relations. DGTD expands unknown fields independently on disconnected mesh elements and uses numerical flux to realize information exchange between fields on different elements (J. S. Hesthaven and T. Warburton, Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method, 2008). The numerical flux of choice for 'linear' Maxwell equations is the upwind flux, which mimics accurately the physical behavior of electromagnetic waves on discontinuous boundaries. It is obtained from the analytical solution of the Riemann problem defined on the boundary of two neighboring mesh elements.

  7. A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving transient Maxwell equations with nonlinear material properties

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2014-07-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method (DGTD) has been used extensively in computational electromagnetics for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on structures described with linear constitutive relations. DGTD expands unknown fields independently on disconnected mesh elements and uses numerical flux to realize information exchange between fields on different elements (J. S. Hesthaven and T. Warburton, Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method, 2008). The numerical flux of choice for \\'linear\\' Maxwell equations is the upwind flux, which mimics accurately the physical behavior of electromagnetic waves on discontinuous boundaries. It is obtained from the analytical solution of the Riemann problem defined on the boundary of two neighboring mesh elements.

  8. Canonical symplectic structure and structure-preserving geometric algorithms for Schrödinger-Maxwell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Jianyuan; Zhang, Ruili; He, Yang; Wang, Yulei

    2017-11-01

    An infinite dimensional canonical symplectic structure and structure-preserving geometric algorithms are developed for the photon-matter interactions described by the Schrödinger-Maxwell equations. The algorithms preserve the symplectic structure of the system and the unitary nature of the wavefunctions, and bound the energy error of the simulation for all time-steps. This new numerical capability enables us to carry out first-principle based simulation study of important photon-matter interactions, such as the high harmonic generation and stabilization of ionization, with long-term accuracy and fidelity.

  9. Nonlinear Relaxation in Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirone, Markus A.; de Pasquale, Ferdinando; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    We analyze the nonlinear relaxation of a complex ecosystem composed of many interacting species. The ecological system is described by generalized Lotka-Volterra equations with a multiplicative noise. The transient dynamics is studied in the framework of the mean field theory and with random interaction between the species. We focus on the statistical properties of the asymptotic behaviour of the time integral of the ith population and on the distribution of the population and of the local field.

  10. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  11. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  12. Lower crustal relaxation beneath the Tibetan Plateau and Qaidam Basin following the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, I.; Burgmann, R.; Pollitz, F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 November a magnitude 7.8 earthquake ruptured a 400 km long portion of the Kunlun fault, northeastern Tibet. In this study, we analyse over five years of post-seismic geodetic data and interpret the observed surface deformation in terms of stress relaxation in the thick Tibetan lower crust. We model GPS time-series (first year) and InSAR line of sight measurements (years two to five) and infer that the most likely mechanism of post-seismic stress relaxation is time-dependent distributed creep of viscoelastic material in the lower crust. Since a single relaxation time is not sufficient to model the observed deformation, viscous flow is modelled by a lower crustal Burgers rheology, which has two material relaxation times. The optimum model has a transient viscosity 9 ?? 1017 Pa s, steady-state viscosity 1 ?? 1019 Pa s and a ratio of long term to Maxwell shear modulus of 2:3. This model gives a good fit to GPS stations south of the Kunlun Fault, while displacements at stations north of the fault are over-predicted. We attribute this asymmetry in the GPS residual to lateral heterogeneity in rheological structure across the southern margin of the Qaidam Basin, with thinner crust/higher viscosities beneath the basin than beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Deep afterslip localized in a shear zone beneath the fault rupture gives a reasonable match to the observed InSAR data, but the slip model does not fit the earlier GPS data well. We conclude that while some localized afterslip likely occurred during the early post-seismic phase, the bulk of the observed deformation signal is due to viscous flow in the lower crust. To investigate regional variability in rheological structure, we also analyse post-seismic displacements following the 1997 Manyi earthquake that occurred 250 km west of the Kokoxili rupture. We find that viscoelastic properties are the same as for the Kokoxili area except for the transient viscosity, which is 5 ?? 1017 Pa s. The viscosities estimated for the

  13. Black hole dynamics in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Eric W.; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Palenzuela, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    We consider the properties and dynamics of black holes within a family of alternative theories of gravity, namely Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. We analyze the dynamical evolution of individual black holes as well as the merger of binary black hole systems. We do this for a wide range of parameter values for the family of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, investigating, in the process, the stability of these black holes. We examine radiative degrees of freedom, explore the impact of the scalar field on the dynamics of merger, and compare with other scalar-tensor theories. We argue that the dilaton can largely be discounted in understanding merging binary systems and that the end states essentially interpolate between charged and uncharged, rotating black holes. For the relatively small charge values considered here, we conclude that these black hole systems will be difficult to distinguish from their analogs within General Relativity.

  14. Maxwell-Like Equations for Free Dirac Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we show that the wave equation for a free Dirac electron can be represented in a form that is analogous to Maxwell's electrodynamics. The electron bispinor wavefunction is explicitly expressed in terms of its real and imaginary components. This leads us to incorporate into it appropriate scalar and pseudo-scalar fields in advance, so that a full symmetry may be accomplished. The Dirac equation then takes on a form similar to that of a set of inhomogeneous Maxwell's equations involving a particular self-source. We relate plane wave solutions of these equations to waves corresponding to free Dirac electrons, identifying the longitudinal component of the electron motion, together with the corresponding Zitterbewegung ("trembling motion").

  15. Spontaneous compactification in six-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1982-10-01

    A discrete set of solutions to the classical Einstein-Maxwell equations in six-dimensional spacetime is considered. These solutions have the form of a product of four-dimensional constant curvature spacetime with a 2-sphere. The Maxwell field has support on the 2-sphere where it represents a monopole of magnetic charge, n = +-1, +-2,... The spectrum of massless and massive states is obtained for the special case of the flat 4-space, and the solution is shown to be classically stable. The limiting case where the radius of the 2-sphere becomes small is considered and a dimensionally reduced effective Lagrangian for the long range modes is derived. This turns out to be an SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with chiral couplings. (author)

  16. Nonlinear gyrokinetic Maxwell-Vlasov equations using magnetic coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A.

    1988-09-01

    A gyrokinetic formalism using magnetic coordinates is used to derive self-consistent, nonlinear Maxwell-Vlasov equations that are suitable for particle simulation studies of finite-β tokamak microturbulence and its associated anomalous transport. The use of magnetic coordinates is an important feature of this work as it introduces the toroidal geometry naturally into our gyrokinetic formalism. The gyrokinetic formalism itself is based on the use of the Action-variational Lie perturbation method of Cary and Littlejohn, and preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the original Maxwell-Vlasov system. Previous nonlinear gyrokinetic sets of equations suitable for particle simulation analysis have considered either electrostatic and shear-Alfven perturbations in slab geometry, or electrostatic perturbations in toroidal geometry. In this present work, fully electromagnetic perturbations in toroidal geometry are considered. 26 refs

  17. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-10-04

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  18. Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria-Arrondo, C.; Sherman, E.Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  20. Collisional relaxation of electron tail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Masao.

    1985-05-01

    Relaxation due to the Coulomb collisions of the electron velocity distribution function with a high energy tail is investigated in detail. In the course of the relaxation, a 'saddle' point can be created in velocity space owing to upsilon -3 dependence of the deflection rate and a positive slope or a 'dip' appears in the tail direction. The time evolution of the electron tail is studied analytically. A comparison is made with numerical results by using a Fokker-Planck code. Also discussed is the kinetic instability concerned with the positive slope during the relaxation. (author)