Weighted Maximum-Clique Transversal Sets of Graphs
Chuan-Min Lee
2011-01-01
A maximum-clique transversal set of a graph G is a subset of vertices intersecting all maximum cliques of G. The maximum-clique transversal set problem is to find a maximum-clique transversal set of G of minimum cardinality. Motivated by the placement of transmitters for cellular telephones, Chang, Kloks, and Lee introduced the concept of maximum-clique transversal sets on graphs in 2001. In this paper, we study the weighted version of the maximum-clique transversal set problem for split grap...
Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ures, S.
1984-01-01
The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.) [pt
Prognostic significance of maximum primary tumor diameter in nasopharyngeal carcinoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Shao-Bo; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Rui-Liang; Zhao, Hai; Chen, Hai-Yang; Li, Shao-En; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yong
2013-01-01
To evaluate the prognostic value of maximum primary tumor diameter (MPTD) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive, newly-diagnosed NPC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of MPTD. Median follow-up was 66 months (range, 2–82 months). Median MPTD in stage T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 27.9, 37.5, 45.0 and 61.3 mm, respectively. The proportion of T1 patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm was 62.3%; 72% and 62.9% of T2 and T3 patients had a MPTD > 30–50 mm, and 83.5% of T4 patients had a MPTD > 50 mm. For patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, > 30–50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS, DMFS and LRFS rates were 85.2%, 74.2% and 56.3% (P < 0.001); 87%, 80.7% and 62.8% (P < 0.001); 88.7%, 86.4% and 72.5% (P = 0.003); and 98.2%, 93.2% and 86.3% (P = 0.012), respectively. In multivariate analysis, MPTD was a prognostic factor for OS, FFS and DMFS, and the only independent prognostic factor for LRFS. For T3-T4 patients with a MPTD ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS and DMFS rates were 70.4% vs. 58.4% (P = 0.010), 77.5% vs. 65.2% (P = 0.013) and 83.6% vs. 73.6% (P = 0.047), respectively. In patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, 5-year LRFS in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 100%, 100%, 88.9% and 100% (P = 0.172). Our data suggest that MPTD is an independent prognostic factor in NPC, and incorporation of MPTD might lead to a further refinement of T staging
Dietz, Kelly R; Zhang, Lei; Seidel, Frank G
2015-08-01
Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)
2015-08-15
Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)
Transversals and independence in linear hypergraphs with maximum degree two
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders
2017-01-01
, k-uniform hypergraphs with maximum degree 2. It is known [European J. Combin. 36 (2014), 231–236] that if H ∈ Hk, then (k + 1)τ (H) 6 ≤ n + m, and there are only two hypergraphs that achieve equality in the bound. In this paper, we prove a much more powerful result, and establish tight upper bounds...
Oort, van I.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Kok, D.E.G.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.
2008-01-01
Previous studies suggest that maximum tumor diameter (MTD) is a predictor of recurrence in prostate cancer (PC). This study investigates the prognostic value of MTD for biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with PC, after radical prostatectomy (RP), with emphasis on high-risk localized prostate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cojocaru Vasile
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In the thread root area of the threaded bolts submitted to axial loading occur local stresses, higher that nominal stresses calculated for the bolts. These local stresses can generate failure and can reduce the fatigue life of the parts. The paper is focused on the study of the influence of the thread root radius on the maximum local stresses. A large diameter trapezoidal bolt was subjected to a static analysis (axial loading using finite element simulation.
Maximum Smoke Temperature in Non-Smoke Model Evacuation Region for Semi-Transverse Tunnel Fire
B. Lou; Y. Qiu; X. Long
2017-01-01
Smoke temperature distribution in non-smoke evacuation under different mechanical smoke exhaust rates of semi-transverse tunnel fire were studied by FDS numerical simulation in this paper. The effect of fire heat release rate (10MW 20MW and 30MW) and exhaust rate (from 0 to 160m3/s) on the maximum smoke temperature in non-smoke evacuation region was discussed. Results show that the maximum smoke temperature in non-smoke evacuation region decreased with smoke exhaust rate. Plug-holing was obse...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Gray
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Maximum diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is the main indication for surgery. This study compared colour duplex ultrasound (CDU and computed tomography (CT in assessing AAA diameter. Patients and Methods. Patients were included if they had both scans performed within 90 days. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, paired t-test, and limits of agreement (LOA were calculated for the whole group. Subgroup analysis of small (6.5 cm aneurysms was performed. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. 389 patients were included, giving 130 pairs of tests for comparison. Excellent correlation was in the whole group (r = 0.95 and in the subgroups (r = 0.94; 0.69; 0.96, resp.. Small LOA between the two imaging modalities was found in all subgroups. Conclusion. Small aneurysms can be accurately measured using CDU. CDU is preferable for small AAAs, but cannot supplant CT for planning aortic intervention.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumueller, Stephan; Nguyen, Thi Dan Linh; Goetti, Robert Paul; Lachat, Mario; Seifert, Burkhardt; Pfammatter, Thomas; Frauenfelder, Thomas
2011-01-01
Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum diameter measurements of aortic aneurysms after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) on axial computed tomographic (CT) images in comparison to maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the intravascular centerline for follow-up by using three-dimensional (3D) volume measurements as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine consecutive patients (73 ± 7.5 years, range 51–88 years), who underwent EVAR of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm were retrospectively included. Two blinded readers twice independently measured the maximum aneurysm diameter on axial CT images performed at discharge, and at 1 and 2 years after intervention. The maximum diameter perpendicular to the centerline was automatically measured. Volumes of the aortic aneurysms were calculated by dedicated semiautomated 3D segmentation software (3surgery, 3mensio, the Netherlands). Changes in diameter of 0.5 cm and in volume of 10% were considered clinically significant. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated by intraclass correlations (ICC) in a random effects analysis of variance. The two unidimensional measurement methods were correlated to the reference standard. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreements for maximum aneurysm diameter measurements were excellent (ICC = 0.98 and ICC = 0.96, respectively). There was an excellent correlation between maximum aneurysm diameters measured on axial CT images and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) as well as between maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the centerline and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurements of maximum aneurysm diameters on axial CT images are an accurate, reliable, and robust method for follow-up after EVAR and can be used in daily routine.
Maximum Diameter and Number of Tumors as a New Prognostic Indicator of Colorectal Liver Metastases.
Yoshimoto, Toshiaki; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Syuichi; Saito, Y U; Yamada, Sinichiro; Ishikawa, Daichi; Teraoku, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Masato; Higashijima, Jun; Takasu, Chie; Shimada, Mitsuo
2017-01-01
Surgical resection is currently considered the only potentially curative option as a treatment strategy of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). However, the criteria for selection of resectable CRLM are not clear. The aim of this study was to confirm a new prognostic indicator of CRLM after hepatic resection. One hundred thirty nine patients who underwent initial surgical resection from 1994 to 2015 were investigated retrospectively. Prognostic factors of overall survival including the product of maximum diameter and number of metastases (MDN) were analyzed. Primary tumor differentiation, vessel invasion, lymph node (LN) metastasis, non-optimally resectable metastases, H score, grade of liver metastases, resection with non-curative intent and MDN were found to be prognostic factors of overall survival (OS). In multivariate analyses of clinicopathological features associated with OS, MDN and non-curative intent were independent prognostic factors. Patients with MDN ≥30 had shown significantly poorer prognosis than patients with MDN <30 in OS and relapse-free survival (RFS). MDN ≥30 is an independent prognostic factor of survival in patients with CRLM and optimal surgical criterion of hepatectomy for CRLM. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, H.J.; Lee, S.Y.; Park, N.-H.; Chung, E.C.; Park, J.Y.; Kim, M.S.; Lee, E.J.
2014-01-01
Aim: To evaluate the clinical utility of the meniscal width to transverse diameter ratio (L/M ratio) of the lateral meniscus in the diagnosis of incomplete discoid lateral meniscus (IDLM) as compared with the arthroscopic diagnosis, meniscal width to tibial diameter ratio (L/T ratio) and conventional lateral meniscus width criteria. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 41 patients with IDLM who underwent knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy, as well as 50 controls with normal lateral menisci. MRI examinations were interpreted independently by two radiologists, both of whom were blinded to clinical information and radiological reports. Assessment of meniscal width (L), maximal transverse diameter of the lateral meniscus (M), and transverse diameter of the tibia (T) was carried out on central coronal sections that were observed to pass through the medial collateral ligament. L/M and L/T ratios were calculated. These results were correlated with arthroscopic findings and analysed statistically using categorical regression analysis and non-parametric correlation analysis. Using arthroscopic findings as the standard of reference, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for: (1) 12, 13, 14, and 15 mm meniscal width thresholds; (2) 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% L/M ratio thresholds; and (3) 15%, 18%, 20%, and 25% L/T ratio thresholds. Results: The mean L/M ratio of the IDLM was approximately 67% and was statistically significantly higher than the control (44%). The best diagnostic discrimination was achieved using a threshold of 50%. The mean L/T ratio of the IDLM was approximately 23% and was statistically significant. The best diagnostic discrimination was achieved using a threshold of 18%. The threshold of 13 mm of meniscal width also showed high sensitivity and high specificity. Conclusion: The use of the L/M ratio or L/T ratio in combination with meniscal width criteria may be a useful method for evaluating IDLM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Binit Sureka
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the location, origin, size and relationship of the vertebral artery and the transverse foramina in the lower cervical spine by computed tomographic angiography (CTA measurements in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of multi-detector CT (MDCT cerebral angiography scans was done between June 2011 and February 2014. A total of 120 patients were evaluated. The diameter of the vertebral artery (AL and the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and the medial (M, lateral (L, anterior (A, and posterior (P borders of transverse foramen were studied. In addition, the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and pedicle (h was also analyzed. Statistical Analysis: The means and their standard deviations (SD were calculated in both the sexes. The t-tests were performed to look for significant sexual difference. Results: The largest vertebral artery diameter (AL was at level C7 on the right side (3.5 ± 0.8 and at the level of C5 on the left side (3.7 ± 0.4. Statistically significant difference between males and females were seen at levels C4, C5, and C7. The diameter of the vertebral artery was smaller in females than males. The L value was greater than other parameters (M, A, P at the same level in all the measurements. The h value was greatest at C6 level and shortest at C5. Conclusion: CTA is necessary before pedicle screw fixation due to variation in measurements at all levels. The highest potential risk of vertebral artery injury during cervical pedicle screw implantation may be at C5, then at C4, and the safest is at C7.
Sureka, Binit; Mittal, Aliza; Mittal, Mahesh K; Agarwal, Kanhaiya; Sinha, Mukul; Thukral, Brij Bhushan
2018-01-01
Accurate and detailed measurements of spinal canal diameter (SCD) and transverse foraminal morphometry are essential for understanding spinal column-related diseases and for surgical planning, especially for transpedicular screw fixation. This is especially because lateral cervical radiographs do not provide accurate measurements. This study was conducted to measure the dimensions of the transverse foramen sagittal and transverse diameters (SFD, TFD), SCD, and the distance of spinal canal from the transverse foramina (dSC-TF) at C1-C7 level in the Indian population. The study population comprised 84 male and 42 female subjects. The mean age of the study group was 44.63 years (range, 19-81 years). A retrospective study was conducted, and data were collected and analyzed for patients who underwent cervical spine computed tomography (CT) imaging for various reasons. One hundred and twenty-six patients were included in the study. Detailed readings were taken at all levels from C1-C7 for SCD, SFD, TFD, and dSc-TF. Values for male and female subjects were separately calculated and compared. For both the groups, the widest SCD were measured at the C1 level and the narrowest SCD at the C4 level. The narrowest SFD was measured at C7 for both male and female subjects on the right and left sides. The widest SFD was measured at C1 both for male and female subjects on the right and left side. The narrowest TFD on the left side was measured at C7 for male and at C1 for female subjects. The narrowest mean distance of dSC-TF was found to be at C4 for both male and female subjects on both left and right side. The computed tomographic (CT) imaging is better than conventional radiographs for the preoperative evaluation of cervical spine and for better understanding cervical spine morphometry. Care must be taken during transpedicular screw fixation, especially in female subjects, more so at the C2, C4, and C6 levels due to a decrease in the distance of dSC-TF.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hayato Tomita
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in cardiac area and diameters between inspiratory and expiratory chest computed tomography (CT, and to assess their correlation with lung size change and influence on cardiothoracic ratio (CTR measurements.The institutional review board of our institution approved this study, and informed consent was waived. Forty-three subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest CT as part of routine clinical care. On both inspiratory and expiratory scans, lung volumes and maximum lung diameters (transverse and vertical directions were measured. The maximum cardiac cross-sectional area (CSA and the maximum transverse cardiac diameter were measured on both scans, and the CT-based CTR was calculated. Changes in the lung and cardiac measurements were expressed as the expiratory/inspiratory (E/I ratios. Comparisons between inspiratory and expiratory measurements were made by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Correlations between the E/I ratios of lung and heart measurements were evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation analysis.Cardiac CSA and transverse cardiac diameter was significantly larger on expiratory than on inspiratory CT (p < 0.0001. Significant negative correlations were found between the E/I ratios of these cardiac measurements and the E/I ratios of lung volume and vertical lung diameter (p < 0.01. CT-based CTR was significantly larger on expiration than on inspiration (p < 0.0001.Heart size on chest CT depends on the phase of ventilation, and is correlated with changes in lung volume and craniocaudal lung diameter. The CTR is also significantly influenced by ventilation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borgbjerg, Jens; Bøgsted, Martin; Lindholt, Jes S
2018-01-01
Objectives: Controversy exists regarding optimal caliper placement in ultrasound assessment of maximum abdominal aortic diameter. This study aimed primarily to determine reproducibility of caliper placement in relation to the aortic wall with the three principal methods: leading to leading edge...
Longitudinal and transverse space charge limitations on transport of maximum power beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoe, T.K.; Martin, R.L.
1977-01-01
The maximum transportable beam power is a critical issue in selecting the most favorable approach to generating ignition pulses for inertial fusion with high energy accelerators. Maschke and Courant have put forward expressions for the limits on transport power for quadrupole and solenoidal channels. Included in a more general way is the self consistent effect of space charge defocusing on the power limit. The results show that no limits on transmitted power exist in principal. In general, quadrupole transport magnets appear superior to solenoids except for transport of very low energy and highly charged particles. Longitudinal space charge effects are very significant for transport of intense beams
Carey, Lawrence D.; Petersen, Walter A.
2011-01-01
The estimation of rain drop size distribution (DSD) parameters from polarimetric radar observations is accomplished by first establishing a relationship between differential reflectivity (Z(sub dr)) and the central tendency of the rain DSD such as the median volume diameter (D0). Since Z(sub dr) does not provide a direct measurement of DSD central tendency, the relationship is typically derived empirically from rain drop and radar scattering models (e.g., D0 = F[Z (sub dr)] ). Past studies have explored the general sensitivity of these models to temperature, radar wavelength, the drop shape vs. size relation, and DSD variability. Much progress has been made in recent years in measuring the drop shape and DSD variability using surface-based disdrometers, such as the 2D Video disdrometer (2DVD), and documenting their impact on polarimetric radar techniques. In addition to measuring drop shape, another advantage of the 2DVD over earlier impact type disdrometers is its ability to resolve drop diameters in excess of 5 mm. Despite this improvement, the sampling limitations of a disdrometer, including the 2DVD, make it very difficult to adequately measure the maximum drop diameter (D(sub max)) present in a typical radar resolution volume. As a result, D(sub max) must still be assumed in the drop and radar models from which D0 = F[Z(sub dr)] is derived. Since scattering resonance at C-band wavelengths begins to occur in drop diameters larger than about 5 mm, modeled C-band radar parameters, particularly Z(sub dr), can be sensitive to D(sub max) assumptions. In past C-band radar studies, a variety of D(sub max) assumptions have been made, including the actual disdrometer estimate of D(sub max) during a typical sampling period (e.g., 1-3 minutes), D(sub max) = C (where C is constant at values from 5 to 8 mm), and D(sub max) = M*D0 (where the constant multiple, M, is fixed at values ranging from 2.5 to 3.5). The overall objective of this NASA Global Precipitation Measurement
Huguet, Audrey; Latournerie, Marianne; Debry, Pauline Houssel; Jezequel, Caroline; Legros, Ludivine; Rayar, Michel; Boudjema, Karim; Guyader, Dominique; Jacquet, Edouard Bardou; Thibault, Ronan
2018-02-09
Malnutrition impairs prognosis in liver cirrhosis. Our aims were to determine (1) if transversal (TPTI) and axial (APTI) psoas thickness indices predict mortality in cirrhotic patients and (2) the feasibility and reproducibility of transversal (TDPM) and axial (ADPM) diameters of the psoas muscle measurements. This was a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria included cirrhosis diagnosis, on liver transplantation waiting list, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan within the 3 mo preceding list inscription. TDPM and ADPM were measured on a single umbilicus-targeted CT image by non-expert and expert operators. TPTI or APTI (mm/m) were calculated as TDPM or ADPM/height (m). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and Cox proportional hazard models were assessed. TPTI and APTI interobserver agreement: κ correlation test. A total of 173 patients were included. Low TPTI was associated with increased mortality: AUC = 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.80). TPTI was the only factor associated with mortality (hazard ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.99, P = 0.034). There was an almost perfect interobserver agreement between the two operators: TDPM, κ = 0.97; ADPM, κ = 0.94; P <0.0001. TPTI measured on umbilicus-targeted CT scan before inscription on the waiting list for liver transplantation predicts mortality of cirrhotic patients. TPTI measurement is easy and reliable, even by a non-trained operator, and this is highly feasible in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borgbjerg, Jens; Bøgsted, Martin; Lindholt, Jes S; Behr-Rasmussen, Carsten; Hørlyck, Arne; Frøkjær, Jens B
2018-02-01
Controversy exists regarding optimal caliper placement in ultrasound assessment of maximum abdominal aortic diameter. This study aimed primarily to determine reproducibility of caliper placement in relation to the aortic wall with the three principal methods: leading to leading edge (LTL), inner to inner edge (ITI), and outer to outer edge (OTO). The secondary aim was to assess the mean difference between the OTO, ITI, and LTL diameters and estimate the impact of using either of these methods on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) prevalence in a screening program. Radiologists (n=18) assessed the maximum antero-posterior abdominal aortic diameter by completing repeated caliper placements with the OTO, LTL, and ITI methods on 50 still abdominal aortic images obtained from an AAA screening program. Inter-observer reproducibility was calculated as the limit of agreement with the mean (LoA), which represents expected deviation of a single observer from the mean of all observers. Intra-observer reproducibility was assessed averaging the LoA for each observer with their repeated measurements. Based on data from an AAA screening trial and the estimated mean differences between the three principal methods, AAA prevalence was estimated using each of the methods. The inter-observer LoA of the OTO, ITI, and LTL was 2.6, 1.9, and 1.9 mm, whereas the intra-observer LoA was 2.0, 1.6, and 1.5 mm, respectively. Mean differences of 5.0 mm were found between OTO and ITI measurements, 2.6 mm between OTO and LTL measurements, and 2.4 mm between LTL and ITI measurements. The prevalence of AAA almost doubled using OTO instead of ITI, while the difference between ITI and LTL was minor (3.3% vs. 4.0% AAA). The study shows superior reproducibility of LTL and ITI compared with the OTO method of caliper placement in ultrasound determination of maximum abdominal aortic diameter, and the choice of caliper placement method significantly affects the prevalence of AAAs in screening programs
Kodama, Hiroshi; Yamakado, Koichiro; Hasegawa, Takaaki; Fujimori, Masashi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Takaki, Haruyuki; Uraki, Junji; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Sakuma, Hajime
2015-12-01
To prospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) by using a multiple-electrode switching system to treat 2.0-5.0-cm lung tumors. The institutional review board approved this prospective phase II study. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Between September 2009 and July 2011, RFA using two or three radiofrequency (RF) electrodes and a multiple-electrode switching system was performed for malignant lung tumors with a maximum tumor diameter of 2.0-5.0 cm in nonsurgical candidates. The primary endpoint was safety, as evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Patients were observed for at least 1 year. Local tumor progression and overall survival were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Thirty-three patients (26 men, seven women; mean age, 70.5 years ± 10.0; age range, 46-87 years) with 35 lung tumors with a mean maximum diameter of 3.0 cm ± 0.7 (standard deviation; range, 2.0-4.4 cm) underwent treatment in 35 sessions. No procedure-related death or grade 4 adverse events (AEs) occurred. Grade 3 AEs occurred in four patients (12%), with pleural effusion requiring chest tube placement in two patients, pneumothorax requiring pleural adhesion in one patient, and pulmonary hemorrhage requiring pulmonary artery coil embolization in one patient. Grade 2 AEs were detected in 13 patients (39%). The 1-year local tumor progression and overall survival rates were 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 25.5) and 81.2% (95% CI: 67.6, 94.8). RFA with a multiple-electrode switching system may be a safe therapeutic option with which to treat 2.0-5.0-cm lung cancer tumors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Skyler B.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Jackson, William C.; Zhou, Jessica; Foster, Benjamin; Foster, Corey; Song, Yeohan; Li, Darren; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Kunju, Lakshmi; Mehra, Rohit; Sandler, Howard; Feng, Felix Y.
2013-01-01
Purpose: To investigate the maximum tumor diameter (MTD) of the dominant prostate cancer nodule in the radical prostatectomy specimen as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (SRT) for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From an institutional cohort of 575 patients treated with SRT, data on MTD were retrospectively collected. The impact of MTD on biochemical failure (BF), metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In the 173 patients with MTD data available, median follow-up was 77 months (interquartile range, 47-104 months) after SRT, and median MTD was 18 mm (interquartile range, 13-22 mm). Increasing MTD correlated with increasing pT stage, Gleason score, presence of seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node invasion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified MTD of >14 mm to be the optimal cut-point. On univariate analysis, MTD >14 mm was associated with an increased risk of BF (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.8), metastasis (P=.002, HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and PCSM (P=.02, HR 8.0, 95% CI 2.9-21.8). On multivariate analysis MTD >14 mm remained associated with increased BF (P=.02, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), metastasis (P=.02, HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.2), and PCSM (P=.05, HR 9.7, 95% CI 1.0-92.4), independent of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, pre-RT PSA value, Gleason score, and pre-RT PSA doubling time. Conclusions: For patients treated with SRT for a rising PSA value after prostatectomy, MTD at time of radical prostatectomy is independently associated with BF, metastasis, and PCSM. Maximum tumor diameter should be incorporated into clinical decision making and future clinical risk assessment tools for those patients
Shultz, Rebecca; Jenkyn, Thomas
2012-01-01
Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, M.J.; Motaghedi, B.; Robitaille, Y.
1980-01-01
Transverse myelitis is a known complication of radiation treatment for carcinoma of the heat and neck. In a five year period, 1970 to 1975, 120 patients with head and neck cancer received radiation as part of their treatment in this hospital. A review of the records of these patients showed only two cases of myelitis, an incidence of about 2%. This paper reviews the clinical syndrome; treatment and preventive measures are discussed and a survey of the literature is presented
Assessment of lymph node tumour from CT scans: how good is diameter and visual assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Pratik; Rehani, M.M.; Anand, Vikram; Raina, Vinod; Rao, Keshava
1995-01-01
The evaluation response of tumours requires quantification of tumour mass in terms of volume or maximum diameter. In normal practice changes in maximum diameter of tumour are assessed visually on follow-up CT films. This may lead to erroneous results. Twenty one patients of testicular cancer in stage II A to II D with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy were scanned by CT for 3 to 5 times during the course of treatment. Tumour size was assessed in terms of diameter as per practice followed routinely. A very important observation was that actual measurement of diameter instead of visual assessment resulted in change of stage of cancer in 42.8% (9 out of 21) cases. Moreover, in 6 out of these 21 cases (28%) there occurred a change in stage from II C to II D which assumes significance due to change in treatment protocol from BEP (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum) to BOP-VIP (Bleomycin, Vincristin, Cisplatinum , VP-16, Ifosfamide, Cisplatinum). Tumour volume estimated on the basis of visual method differed considerably from the calculated one. In 16 out of 21 scans, the difference was between 6.4% to 42.9%. The acceptable difference of 5% was seen only in 4 out of 21 cases indicating the importance of volume measurement. The method of volume estimation was validated and found to be within ± 5% of actual volume. The correlation between diameter and volume shows that tumours with similar range of diameter have 20% to 100% more volume. Many times increase in diameter was found associated with actually reduced tumour volume, difference being as much as 515%. This has not been documented earlier in clinical situations. Thus, the study underscores the role of measuring the diameter of tumour for staging and highlights the need for actual volume estimation rather than depending on maximum transverse diameter alone in follow-up studies. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs
Failure Diameter Resolution Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-12-19
Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).
Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser
Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.
Entropy and transverse section reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gullberg, G.T.
1976-01-01
A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections
Transversity: Theory and phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Alesio, Umberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C. P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)
2013-04-15
The distribution of transversely polarized quarks inside a transversely polarized nucleon, known as transversity, encodes a basic piece of information on the nucleon structure, sharing the same status with the more familiar unpolarized and helicity distributions. I will review its properties and discuss different ways to access it, with highlights and limitations. Recent phenomenological extractions and perspectives are also presented.
Transversity: Theory and phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Alesio, Umberto
2013-01-01
The distribution of transversely polarized quarks inside a transversely polarized nucleon, known as transversity, encodes a basic piece of information on the nucleon structure, sharing the same status with the more familiar unpolarized and helicity distributions. I will review its properties and discuss different ways to access it, with highlights and limitations. Recent phenomenological extractions and perspectives are also presented.
Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
2016-03-15
Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)
Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orscheln, Emily S.; Trout, Andrew T.
2016-01-01
Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)
Blood flow measurement of transverse sinuses by using MR: a phantom study of its influence factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Gejun; Feng Xiaoyuan; Li Yuan; Geng Daoying; Yao Zhengyu
2003-01-01
Objective: (1) To determine the relationship between the MR signal intensity and the actual flow velocity under steady flow condition. (2) to analyze the influence produced by the angle (θ) between the flow direction and the velocity-encoded gradient direction, and flip angle as well as section thickness on the velocity measurement under oblique flow condition. (3) to develop a suitable protocol for using this method to measure volumetric flow rate in the transverse sinus system. Methods: Flow phantom, which simulated blood-flow conditions in the transverse sinus system, consisted of a fluid-filled cylinder and a bent tube with a 3.4 mm internal diameter. A 1.5 T superconductive MR imager and VIGRE sequence were used for these studies. A suitable protocol was based on consideration of the effects of (1) the accuracy of velocity and transverse area measurement of flow, and (2) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Results: (1) Signal intensity (y) determined by MR and the actual flow velocity (x) showed straight-line correlation, y=68.914x + 357.206, R 2 =0.998. (2) As the angle (θ) increased, the transverse area of the signal determined by MR also increased, but the value of flow velocity decreased. (3) As the flip angle increased, the SNR varied from 5.7 to 11.2. The maximum SNR was obtained with 30 degree flip angle. (4) As the section thickness increased, the SNR and the transverse area of the signal determined by MR slightly increased. Conclusions: Phase-contrast MR imaging is a practical method for measuring volumetric flow rates. The angle (θ influenced the accuracy of flow velocity and the measurement of transverse area of flow whereas the flip angle and the section thickness substantially influenced the signal-to-noise ratio and the transverse area of flow
TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BORER, D.
2000-01-01
Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments
Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik
2012-01-01
The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...
Transverse Localization of Light
Raedt, Hans De; Lagendijk, Ad; Vries, Pedro de
1989-01-01
We study the propagation of light through a semi-infinite medium with transverse disorder (that is, disorder in two directions only). We show that such a system exhibits strong two-dimensional localization by demonstrating that on propagation a beam expands until the transverse localization length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balandin, V.; Decking, W.; Golubeva, N.
2014-09-01
We show that if in the particle beam there are linear correlations between energy of particles and their transverse positions and momenta (linear beam dispersions), then the transverse projected emittances always can be reduced by letting the beam to pass through magnetostatic system with specially chosen nonzero lattice dispersions. The maximum possible reduction of the transverse projected emittances occurs when all beam dispersions are zeroed, and the values of the lattice dispersions required for that are completely defined by the values of the beam dispersions and the beam rms energy spread and are independent from any other second-order central beam moments. Besides that, we prove that, alternatively, one can also use the lattice dispersions to remove linear correlations between longitudinal positions of particles and their transverse coordinates (linear beam tilts), but in this situation solution for the lattice dispersions is nonunique and the reduction of the transverse projected emittances is not guaranteed.
Variations in eyeball diameters of the healthy adults.
Bekerman, Inessa; Gottlieb, Paul; Vaiman, Michael
2014-01-01
The purpose of the current research was to reevaluate the normative data on the eyeball diameters. Methods. In a prospective cohort study, the CT data of consecutive 250 adults with healthy eyes were collected and analyzed, and sagittal, transverse, and axial diameters of both eyeballs were measured. The data obtained from the left eye and from the right eye were compared. The correlation analysis was performed with the following variables: orbit size, gender, age, and ethnic background. Results. We did not find statistically significant differences correlated with gender of the patients and their age. The right eyeball was slightly smaller than the left one but this difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.17). We did not find statistically significant differences of the eyeball sizes among the ethnicities we dealt with. Strong correlation was found between the transverse diameter and the width of the orbit (r = 0.88). Conclusion. The size of a human adult eye is approximately 24.2 mm (transverse) × 23.7 mm (sagittal) × 22.0-24.8 mm (axial) with no significant difference between sexes and age groups. In the transverse diameter, the eyeball size may vary from 21 mm to 27 mm. These data might be useful in ophthalmological, oculoplastic, and neurological practice.
Barone, Vicenzo
2001-01-01
This book is devoted to the theory and phenomenology of transverse-spin effects in high-energy hadronic physics. Contrary to common past belief, it is now rather clear that such effects are far from irrelevant. A decade or so of intense theoretical work has shed much light on the subject and brought to surface an entire class of new phenomena, which now await thorough experimental investigation. Over the next few years a number of experiments world-wide (at BNL, CERN, DESY and JLAB) will run with transversely polarised beams and targets, providing data that will enrich our knowledge of the tra
Transverse betatron tune measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serio, M.
1989-01-01
In this paper the concept of the betatron tune and the techniques to measure it are discussed. The smooth approximation is introduced along with the terminology of betatron oscillations, phase advance and tune. Single particle and beam spectra in the presence of synchro-betatron oscillations are treated with emphasis on the consequences of sampling the beam position. After a general presentation of various kinds of beam position monitors and transverse kickers, the time domain and frequency domain analysis of the beam response to a transverse excitation are discussed and several methods and applications of the tune measurements are listed
Effects of Transverse Power Distribution on Fuel Temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jo, Daeseong; Park, Jonghark; Seo, Chul Gyo; Chae, Heetaek
2014-01-01
In the present study, transverse power distributions with segments of 4 and 18 are evaluated. Based on the power distribution, the fuel temperatures are evaluated with a consideration of lateral heat conduction. In the present study, the effect of the transverse power distribution on the fuel temperature is investigated. The transverse power distributions with variation of fuel segment number are evaluated. The maximum power peaking with 12 segments is higher than that with 4 segments. Based on the calculation, 6-order polynomial is generated to express the transverse power distributions. The maximum power peaking factor increases with segments. The averaged power peaking is 2.10, and the maximum power peaking with 18 segments is 2.80. With the uniform power distribution, the maximum fuel temperature is found in the middle of the fuel. As the power near the side ends of the fuel increases, the maximum fuel temperature is found near the side ends. However, the maximum fuel temperature is not found where the maximum transverse power is. This is because the high power locally released from the edge of the fuel is laterally conducted to the cladding. As a result of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of the high power peaking at the edge of the fuel on the fuel outer wall temperature is not significant
Diameter of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in healthy Japanese
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsunaga, Wakako
1989-01-01
In 300 cases, diameter of thoracic and abdominal aorta in healthy Japanese is measured by computed tomography (CT) and the values are analyzed in relation to the age, sex and the level of the aorta on CT scan. Aorta becomes dilated with age. In female diameter of the aorta is correlated with age, on the other hand, diameter of those is not correlated with age in male. Diameter in male is larger than in female. Aorta tapers off and the ratio of tapering of the thoracic aorta is more prominent than that of the abdominal aorta. Therefore the calculations of the landmarks of tapering of the aorta and the ratio of diameter of the aorta to transverse diameter of the vertebral body at the levels of 10th thoracic and 3rd lumber vertebrae on CT scan are useful for judgement of normal range of diameter of the aorta. Calcifications of the wall of the aorta are seen initially at the age of 5th decade in the abdominal aorta and 6th decade in the thoracic aorta in healthy Japanese. They are noted in almost of the persons after the age of seventy years old. The presence of calcification is not correlated with diameter of the aorta at the same level on CT scan. (author)
Hypereosinophilic Atopic Transverse Myelitis
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2018-06-11
4 days ago ... Atopic transverse myelitis is a rare disorder that is defined as a ... was commenced on prednisolone and had good response to treatment. .... Atopic myelitis is more common in male sex such as .... their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed. ... useful diagnostic clue in surgical neuropathology.
Noninterceptive transverse beam diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Teel, L.E. Jr.; Gilpatrick, J.D.
1981-01-01
The transverse emittance properties of a high-current linear accelerator may be measured by using TV cameras sensitive to the visible radiation emitted following beam interactions with residual gas. This paper describes the TV system being used to measure emittances for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akama, Keiichi
1988-01-01
Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)
Kong, Ganggang; Ji, Wei; Huang, Zucheng; Liu, Junhao; Chen, Jianting; Zhu, Qingan
2017-04-21
Translaminar screw fixation (TSF) of the axis is considered as an efficient, safe and simple surgical procedure, however the study of the potential risk of TSF to the transverse foramen in lower cervical spine is lacked. Head-neck CT images of 60 patients were included in this study. Maximum screw length, laminar thickness, the screw angle and the laminar height were measured. The feasibility of 3.5-mm diameter screw fixation and the potential risk of transverse foramen injury was analyzed. The TSF was safe at C3 and C4, but risky to the transverse foraman at a rate of 8.7% at C5 (0% on the left side and 20% on the right side), 33.3% at C6 (24.4% on the left side and 42.9% on the right side). C7 had the highest 77.8% rate (65.5% on the left side and 89.8% on the right side). The safe screw length was 27.7 mm at C3, 27.4 mm at C4, 28.0 mm at C5, 25.6 mm at C6 and 25.5 mm at C7, respectively. The present study showed that translaminar screw could place the transverse foramen of C5-C7 at risk. Preoperative CT scanning was necessary for safe screw placement.
Westenberg, J.J.M.; Geest, van der R.J.; Wasser, M.N.J.M.; Linden, van der E.L.; Walsum, van T.; Assen, van H.C.; Roos, de A.; Vanderschoot, J.; Reiber, J.H.C.
2000-01-01
In this study, the possibilities for quantification of vessel diameters of peripheral arteries in gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd CE MRA) were evaluated. Absolute vessel diameter measurements were assessed objectively and semi-automatically in maximum intensity
DESIGN OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL COMPACTOR ROLLS DIAMETER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Peciar
2017-09-01
Full Text Available At present, in a period of an industrial expansion great emphasis is placed on the environment. That means aiming for a reduced energy consumption, and also lessening dustiness from very fine powder material. This category also includes particulate material agglomeration processes. Because this process is very energy-intensive, it is necessary to correctly design these devices. The aim of this paper is to focus on a theoretical design of a production compactor with the rolls diameter for an experimental particulate material, based on Johanson’s theory and experimentally measured material properties. The material used for experimental measurements was an NPK-based industrial fertilizer consisting of several components. The results of this paper is the dependence of the ratio of the maximum compression pressure to the initial compression pressure from the rolls diameter of the proposed compactor.
Fission tracks diameters in glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garzon Ruiperez, L.; Veiguela, J.
1974-01-01
Standard glass microscope slides have been irradiated with fission fragments from the uranium. The etching track conditions have been the same for the series, having changed the etching time only for each specimen. For each glass, a minimum of 250 measurements of the tracks diameters have been made, the distributions of which are the bimodal type. Diameters-etching dependence with time is roughly lineal. Energy determinations have been made with the help of the diameters-energy relations. The calculated values agree very well with the know ones. (author) [es
Transverse Spin Physics: Recent Developments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Feng
2008-01-01
Transverse-spin physics has been very active and rapidly developing in the last few years. In this talk, I will briefly summarize recent theoretical developments, focusing on the associated QCD dynamics in transverse spin physics
Large transverse momentum phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1977-09-01
It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references
Transverse tomography and radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leer, J.W.H.
1982-01-01
This study was intended to delineate the indications for radiotherapy treatment-planning with the help of computerized axial tomography (C.T.) and transverse analog tomography (T.A.T.). Radiotherapy localisation procedures with the conventional method (simulator), with the CT-scanner and with the transverse analog tomograph (T.A.T., Simtomix, Oldelft) were compared. As criterium for evaluation differences in reconstruction drawing based on these methods were used. A certain method was judged ''superior'' to another if the delineation of the target volume was more accurate, if a better impression was gained of the site of (for irradiation) organs at risk, or if the localisation could only be performed with that method. The selected group of patients consisted of 120 patients for whom a reconstruction drawing in the transverse plane was made according to the treatment philosophy. In this group CT-assisted localisation was judged on 68 occasions superior to the conventional method. In a number of cases it was found that a ''standard'' change in a standard target volume, on the base of augmented anatomical knowledge, made the conventional method sufficient. The use of CT-scanner for treatment planning was estimated. For ca. 270/1000 new patients a CT-scan is helpful (diagnostic scan), for 140 of them the scan is necessary (planning scan). The quality of the anatomical information obtained with the T.A.T. does not yet fall within acceptable limits, but progress has been made. (Auth.)
Diameter 2 properties and convexity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Abrahamsen, T. A.; Hájek, Petr Pavel; Nygaard, O.; Talponen, J.; Troyanski, S.
2016-01-01
Roč. 232, č. 3 (2016), s. 227-242 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : diameter 2 property * midpoint locally uniformly rotund * Daugavet property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.535, year: 2016 https://www.impan.pl/pl/wydawnictwa/czasopisma-i-serie-wydawnicze/studia- mathematica /all/232/3/91534/diameter-2-properties-and-convexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yusof MI
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The vertical diameter of the foramen is dependent upon the vertical diameter of the corresponding intervertebral disc. A decrease in disc vertical diameter has direct anatomic consequences to the foraminal diameter and area available for the nerve root passing through it. This study is to establish the relationship amongst the intervertebral disc vertical diameter, lateral foramen diameters and nerve root compression in the lumbar vertebra. Materials and Methods: Measurements of the study parameters were performed using sagittal MRI images. The parameters studied were: intervertebral disc vertical diameter (DVD, foraminal vertical diameter (FVD, foraminal transverse diameter (FTD and nerve root diameter (NRD of both sides. The relationship between the measured parameters were then analyzed. Results: A total of 62 MRI images were available for this study. Statistical analysis showed moderate to strong correlation between DVD and FVD at all the lumbar levels except at left L23 and L5S1 and right L3L4 and L4L5. Correlation between DVD and FTD were not significant at all lumbar levels. Regression analysis showed that a decrease of 1mm of DVD was associated with 1.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.3 and 1.3mm reduction of FVD at L1L2, L2L3, L3L4, L4L5 and L5S1 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of DVD was associated with reduction of FVD. However, FVD was relatively wide for the nerve root even with complete loss of DVD. FTD was much narrower than the FVD making it more likely to cause nerve root compression at the exit foramina. These anatomical details should be given consideration in treating patients with lateral canal stenosis.
Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.
Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat
2010-01-01
We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1979-01-01
This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed
Transverse spin and transverse momentum in scattering of plane waves
Saha, Sudipta; Singh, Ankit K.; Ray, Subir K.; Banerjee, Ayan; Gupta, Subhasish Dutta; Ghosh, Nirmalya
2016-01-01
We study the near field to the far field evolution of spin angular momentum (SAM) density and the Poynting vector of the scattered waves from spherical scatterers. The results show that at the near field, the SAM density and the Poynting vector are dominated by their transverse components. While the former (transverse SAM) is independent of the helicity of the incident circular polarization state, the latter (transverse Poynting vector) depends upon the polarization state. It is further demon...
Diameter dependent failure current density of gold nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karim, S; Maaz, K; Ali, G; Ensinger, W
2009-01-01
Failure current density of single gold nanowires is investigated in this paper. Single wires with diameters ranging from 80 to 720 nm and length 30 μm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density was investigated while keeping the wires embedded in the polymer matrix and ramping up the current until failure occurred. The current density is found to increase with diminishing diameter and the wires with a diameter of 80 nm withstand 1.2 x 10 12 A m -2 before undergoing failure. Possible reasons for these results are discussed in this paper.
Transverse section scanning mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doherty, E.J.
1978-01-01
Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratcliffe, P.G.
1993-01-01
A discussion is presented of the role that transverse spin physics can play in providing information on the bound state dynamics in hadronic physics. Care is taken to distinguish between single- and double-spin measurements, each being discussed separately. In the case of single-spin effects it is stressed that as yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided within the framework if perturbative QCD which in fact generally predicts negligible effects. In order to clarify the situation experimental data at yet higher p T are necessary and semi-leptonic data could shed some light on the underlying scattering mechanisms. As regards double-spin correlations, the theoretical picture (although clouded by some ill-informed, often erroneous statements and even recent papers) is rather well understood and what is dearly missing is the experimental study of, for example, g 2 in deep-inelastic scattering. (author). 31 refs
Zeng, Dao-Bing; Dai, Chuan-Zhou; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Ning; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun
2013-01-01
AIM: To determine an optimal cutoff value for abnormal splenic artery diameter/proper hepatic artery diameter (S/P) ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (n = 770) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) underwent volumetric computed tomography three-dimensional vascular reconstruction to measure the internal diameters of the splenic artery and proper hepatic artery to calculate the S/P ratio. The cutoff value for abnormal S/P ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the prevalence of abnormal S/P ratio and associations between abnormal S/P ratio and major complications of portal hypertension were studied using logistic regression. RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cutoff points for abnormal splenic artery internal diameter and S/P ratio were > 5.19 mm and > 1.40, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 74.2%, 45.2%, 97.1%, and 6.6%, respectively. The prevalence of an abnormal S/P ratio in the patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension was 83.4%. Patients with a higher S/P ratio had a lower risk of developing ascites [odds ratio (OR) = 0.708, 95%CI: 0.508-0.986, P = 0.041] and a higher risk of developing esophageal and gastric varices (OR = 1.483, 95%CI: 1.010-2.175, P = 0.044) and forming collateral circulation (OR = 1.518, 95%CI: 1.033-2.230, P = 0.034). After splenectomy, the portal venous pressure and maximum and mean portal venous flow velocities were reduced, while the flow rate and maximum and minimum flow velocities of the hepatic artery were increased (P portal hypertension, and it can be used as an important marker of splanchnic hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:23483462
2010-07-01
... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum engine power, displacement... Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. This section describes...
Transverse electron resonance accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osonka, P.L.
1985-01-01
Transverse (to the velocity, v-bar, of the particles to be accelerated) electron oscillations are generated in high (e.g. solid) density plasms by either an electromagnetic wave or by the field of charged particles traveling parallel to v-bar. The generating field oscillates with frequency ω = ω/sub p/, where ω/sub p/ is the plasma frequency. The plasma is confined to a sequence of microstructures with typical dimensions of d≅2πc/ω/sub p/, allowing the generating fields to penetrate. Since ω/sub p/ is now high, the time scales, T, are correspondingly reduced. The microstructures are allowed to explode after t = T, until then they are confined by ion inertia. As a result of resonance, the electric field, E, inside the microstructures can exceed the generating field E/sub L/. The generating force is proportional to E/sub L/ (as opposed to E 2 /sub L/). Phase matching of particles is possible by appropriate spacing of the microstructures or by a gas medium. The generating beam travels outside the plasma, filamentation is not a problem. The mechanism is relatively insensitive to the exact shape and position of the microstructures. This device contains features of various earlier proposed acceleration mechanisms and may be considered as the limiting case of several of those for small d, T and high E
Transverse electron resonance accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csonka, P.L.
1985-01-01
Transverse (to the velocity, v, of the particles to be accelerated) electron oscillations are generated in high (e.g. solid) density plasmas by either an electromagnetic wave or by the field of charged particles traveling parallel to v. The generating field oscillates with frequency ω = ω/sub p/, where ω/sub p/ is the plasma frequency. The plasma is confined to a sequence of microstructures with typical dimensions of d approx. = 2πc/ω/sub p/, allowing the generating fields to penetrate. Since ω/sub p/ is now high, the time scales, T, are correspondingly reduced. The microstructures are allowed to explode after t = T, until then they are confined by ion inertia. As a result of resonance, the electric field, E, inside the microstructures can exceed the generating field E/sub L/. The generating force is proportional to E/sub L/ (as opposed to E/sub L/ 2 ). Phase matching of particles is possible by appropriate spacing of the microstructures or by a gas medium. The generating beam travels outside the plasma, filamentation is not a problem. The mechanism is relatively insensitive to the exact shape and position of the microstructures. This device contains features of various earlier proposed acceleration mechanisms and may be considered as the limiting case of several of those for small d, T and high E
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Subramani Sockalingam
2017-02-01
Full Text Available High-velocity transverse impact of ballistic fabrics and yarns by projectiles subject individual fibers to multi-axial dynamic loading. Single-fiber transverse impact experiments with the current state-of-the-art experimental capabilities are challenging due to the associated micron length-scale. Kevlar® KM2 fibers exhibit a nonlinear inelastic behavior in transverse compression with an elastic limit less than 1.5% strain. The effect of this transverse behavior on a single KM2 fiber subjected to a cylindrical and a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP transverse impact is studied with a 3D finite element model. The inelastic behavior results in a significant reduction of fiber bounce velocity and projectile-fiber contact forces up to 38% compared to an elastic impact response. The multiaxial stress states during impact including transverse compression, axial tension, axial compression and interlaminar shear are presented at the location of failure. In addition, the models show a strain concentration over a small length in the fiber under the projectile-fiber contact. A failure criterion, based on maximum axial tensile strain accounting for the gage length, strain rate and multiaxial loading degradation effects are applied to predict the single-fiber breaking speed. Results are compared to the elastic response to assess the importance of inelastic material behavior on failure during a transverse impact.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Lunsford, L. Dade
1996-01-01
Purpose and objective: To define the relationships between dose and tumor diameter for the risks of developing trigeminal, facial, and acoustic neuropathies after acoustic neuroma radiosurgery, a large single-institution experience was analyzed. Materials and methods: Two hundred and thirty-eight patients with unilateral acoustic neuromas who underwent Gamma knife radiosurgery between 1987-1994 with 6-91 months of follow-up (median 30 months) were studied. Minimum tumor doses were 12-20 Gy (median 15 Gy). Transverse tumor diameter varied from 0.3-5.5 cm (median 2.1 cm). The relationships of dose and diameter to the development of cranial neuropathies were delineated by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The development of post-radiosurgery neuropathies affecting cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII were correlated with minimum tumor dose and transverse tumor diameter (P min for VIII where P=0.10). A comparison of the dose-diameter response curves showed the acoustic nerve to be the most sensitive to doses of 12-16 Gy and the facial nerve to be the least sensitive. Conclusion: The risks of developing trigeminal, facial, and acoustic neuropathies following acoustic neuroma radiosurgery can be predicted from the transverse tumor diameter and the minimum tumor dose using models constructed from data presently available
Buckling of thin-walled beams under concentrated transverse loading
Menken, C.M.; Erp, van G.M.; Krupta, V.; Drdacky, M.
1991-01-01
The transversely loaded thin-walled beam under a non-uniform bending moment forms an example of the detrimental influence that a local effect may have on the overall behaviour. The local effect is the plate buckling in the region of maximum bending moment. The overall behaviour is the
Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration
Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis
2005-09-01
This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.
Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1995-01-01
Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.
Maximum Quantum Entropy Method
Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon
2018-01-01
Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biondi, L.
1998-01-01
The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it
Transverse Field Effect in Fluxgate Sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V
1997-01-01
A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non-linearity......A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non......-linearity are made with a spectrum analyser, measuring the higher harmonics of an applied sinusoidal field. For a sensor with a permalloy ringcore of 1" in diameter the deviation from linearity is measured to about 15 nTp-p in the earth's field and the measurements are shown to fit well the calculations. Further......, the measurements and the calculations are also compared with a calibration model of the fluxgate sensor onboard the "MAGSAT" satellite. The later has a deviation from linearity of about 50 nTp-p but shows basically the same form of non-linearity as the measurements....
Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
I will review the recent progress in understanding Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution focusing on effects that go beyond the point-like approximation for the Higgs-glue interaction vertex.
Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua
2007-01-01
We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case
Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernwein, J.
1994-01-01
A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs
Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.
Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard
2014-06-03
Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nonlinear theory of transverse-multimode plasma accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Panin, V.A.; Plotnikov, A.P.
1991-01-01
The excitation of the higher transverse modes in a plasma-filled waveguide by a high-power electron beam is considered. General nonlinear equations are obtained which treat the excitation of the higher transverse plasma waves by a high-current relativistic beam. Results are presented of the numerical solutions of these equations. In the case of ultrarelativistic beams analytical expressions are found for the maximum amplitudes of the excited modes and the Q of the amplification. Numerical estimates are presented for realistic parameters
Design of the ALS transverse coupled-bunch feedback system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Corlett, J.N.; Hinkson, J.; Johnson, J.; Lambertson, G.R.; Fox, J.D.
1993-05-01
Calculations of transverse coupled bunch growth rates in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring for producing synchrotron radiation, indicate the need for damping via a transverse feedback (TFB) system. We present the design of such a system. The maximum bunch frequency is 500 MHz, requiring that the FB system have a broadband response of at least 250 MHz. We described, in detail, the choice of broadband components such as kickers, pickups, power amplifiers, and electronics
Giant transversal particle diffusion in a longitudinal magnetic ratchet.
Tierno, Pietro; Reimann, Peter; Johansen, Tom H; Sagués, Francesc
2010-12-03
We study the transversal motion of paramagnetic particles on a uniaxial garnet film, exhibiting a longitudinal ratchet effect in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. Without the field, the thermal diffusion coefficient obtained by video microscopy is D(0) ≈ 3 × 10(-4) μm2/s. With the field, the transversal diffusion exhibits a giant enhancement by almost four decades and a pronounced maximum as a function of the driving frequency. We explain the experimental findings with a theoretical interpretation in terms of random disorder effects within the magnetic film.
Maximum likely scale estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Robust Maximum Association Estimators
A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)
2017-01-01
textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation
Transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite sasakian manifolds
YILDIRIM, Cumali; Yıldırım, Cumali; Şahin, Bayram
2014-01-01
We study both radical transversal and transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Sasakian manifolds. We give examples, investigate the geometry of distributions and obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the induced connection on these submanifolds to be metric connection. We also study totally contact umbilical radical transversal and transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Sasakian manifolds and obtain a classification theorem for totally contact umbilical tr...
Transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite sasakian manifolds
YILDIRIM, Cumali
2010-01-01
We study both radical transversal and transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Sasakian manifolds. We give examples, investigate the geometry of distributions and obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the induced connection on these submanifolds to be metric connection. We also study totally contact umbilical radical transversal and transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Sasakian manifolds and obtain a classification theorem for totally contact umbilical tr...
Pseudoscalar Meson Electroproduction and Transversity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldstein, G.; Liuti, S.
2011-01-01
Exclusive meson leptoproduction from nucleons in the deeply virtual exchanged boson limit can be described by generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Including spin dependence in the description requires 8 independent quark-parton and gluon-parton functions. The chiral even subset of 4 quark-nucleon GPDs are related to nucleon form factors and to parton distribution functions. The chiral odd set of 4 quark-nucleon GPDs are related to transversity, the tensor charge, and other quantities related to transversity. Different meson or photon production processes access different combinations of GPDs. This is analyzed in terms of t-channel exchange quantum numbers, J PC and it is shown that pseudoscalar production can isolate chiral odd GPDs. There is a sensitive dependence in various cross sections and asymmetries on the tensor charge of the nucleon and other transversity parameters. In a second section, analyticity and completeness are shown to limit the partonic interpret ation of the GPDs in the ERBL region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enslin, J.H.R.
1990-01-01
A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control
Diameter Effect of Silver Nanorod Arrays to Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, Geun Hoi; Kim, Min Young; Yoon, Hyeok Jin; Suh, Jung Sang
2014-01-01
The effect the diameter of silver nanorod arrays whose distance between the nanorods was uniform at 65 nm have on Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been studied by varying the diameter from 28 to 51 nm. Nanorod length was fixed at approximately 62 nm, which is the optimum length for SERS by excitation with a 632.8 nm laser line. The transverse and longitudinal modes of the surface plasmon of these silver nanorods were near 400 and 630 nm, respectively. The extinction of the longitudinal mode increased with increasing nanorod diameter, while the transverse mode did not change significantly. High-quality SERS spectra of p-aminothiophenol and benzenethiol adsorbed on the tips of the silver nanorods were observed by excitation with a 632.8 nm laser line. The SERS enhancement increased with increasing nanorod diameter. We concluded that the SERS enhancement increases when the diameter of silver nanorods is increased mainly by increasing the excitation efficiency of the longitudinal mode. The enhancement factor for the silver nanorods with a 51 nm diameter was approximately 2 Χ 10 7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponman, T.J.
1984-01-01
For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)
Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...... direction. Also the choice of echo canceling filter affects the performance significantly....
Transverse stability of Kawahara solitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karpman, V.I.
1993-01-01
The transverse stability of the planar solitons described by the fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries equation (Kawahara solitons) is studied. It is shown that the planar solitons are unstable with respect to bending if the coefficient at the fifth-derivative term is positive and stable if it is negative...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Small, D.W.; Wong, R.K.; Colson, W.B.
1995-01-01
In an ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL), the electron beam size can be approximately the same as the optical mode size. The performance of a UV FEL is studied including the effect of emittance, betatron focusing, and external focusing of the electron beam on the transverse optical mode. The results are applied to the Industrial Laser Consortium's UV FEL
Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.
2009-01-01
We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.
Diameter-speed relation of sprite streamers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanmae, T; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H C; McHarg, M G; Haaland, R K
2012-01-01
Propagation and splitting of sprite streamers has been observed at high temporal and spatial resolution using two intensified high-speed CMOS cameras recording at 10 000 and 16 000 frames per second. Concurrent video recordings from a remote site provided data for triangulation allowing us to determine accurate altitude scales for the sprites. Diameters and speeds of the sprite streamers were measured from the high-speed images, and the diameters were scaled to the reduced diameters based on the triangulated locations. The sprite streamers with larger reduced diameter move faster than those with smaller diameter; the relation between the reduced diameter and speed is roughly linear. The reduced diameters at ≈65-70 km altitude are larger than streamer diameters measured at ground pressure in laboratory discharges indicating a deviation from the similarity law possibly due to the effects of the photoionization and an expansion of the streamer head along its propagation over a long distance. The reduced diameter and speed of the sprite streamers agree well with the diameter-velocity relation proposed by Naidis (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 057401), and the peak electric field of the sprite streamers is estimated to be approximately 3-5 times the breakdown threshold field. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Capture of charged particles by transverse electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davydovskii, V Ya; Sapogin, V G; Ukolov, A S
1975-01-01
An estimate is made of the maximum possible number of resonance particles interacting with a plane, transverse electromagnetic wave. The estimate is obtained by means of a distribution function, which is expressed in terms of the integrals of motion of the particles in the wave. Values of proton fluxes accelerated by an amplitude-modulated wave in the solar corona coincide with those observed during bursts of sporadic radioemission. (SJR)
Probable maximum flood control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.
1991-11-01
This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility
Introduction to maximum entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivia, D.S.
1988-01-01
The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rust, D.M.
1984-01-01
The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references
Introduction to maximum entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivia, D.S.
1989-01-01
The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2005-01-01
MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Numerical studies of transverse curvature effects on transonic flow stability
Macaraeg, M. G.; Daudpota, Q. I.
1992-01-01
A numerical study of transverse curvature effects on compressible flow temporal stability for transonic to low supersonic Mach numbers is presented for axisymmetric modes. The mean flows studied include a similar boundary-layer profile and a nonsimilar axisymmetric boundary-layer solution. The effect of neglecting curvature in the mean flow produces only small quantitative changes in the disturbance growth rate. For transonic Mach numbers (1-1.4) and aerodynamically relevant Reynolds numbers (5000-10,000 based on displacement thickness), the maximum growth rate is found to increase with curvature - the maximum occurring at a nondimensional radius (based on displacement thickness) between 30 and 100.
Introduction to Transverse Beam Dynamics
Holzer, B.J.
2014-01-01
In this chapter we give an introduction to the transverse dynamics of the particles in a synchrotron or storage ring. The emphasis is more on qualitative understanding rather than on mathematical correctness, and a number of simulations are used to demonstrate the physical behaviour of the particles. Starting from the basic principles of how to design the geometry of the ring, we review the transverse motion of the particles, motivate the equation of motion, and show the solutions for typical storage ring elements. Following the usual treatment in the literature, we present a second way to describe the particle beam, using the concept of the emittance of the particle ensemble and the beta function, which reflects the overall focusing properties of the ring. The adiabatic shrinking due to Liouville's theorem is discussed as well as dispersive effects in the most simple case.
Introduction to Transverse Beam Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holzer, B J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)
2014-07-01
In this chapter we give an introduction to the transverse dynamics of the particles in a synchrotron or storage ring. The emphasis is more on qualitative understanding rather than on mathematical correctness, and a number of simulations are used to demonstrate the physical behaviour of the particles. Starting from the basic principles of how to design the geometry of the ring, we review the transverse motion of the particles, motivate the equation of motion, and show the solutions for typical storage ring elements. Following the usual treatment in the literature, we present a second way to describe the particle beam, using the concept of the emittance of the particle ensemble and the beta function, which reflects the overall focusing properties of the ring. The adiabatic shrinking due to Liouville's theorem is discussed as well as dispersive effects in the most simple case.
Transversal Lines of the Debates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yolanda Onghena
1998-12-01
Full Text Available The Transversal Lines of the Debates gathers for publication the presentations of the scholars invited to the seminar. In the papers, Yolanda Onghena observes that the evolution from the cultural to the inter-cultural travels along four axes: the relations between cultureand society; the processes of change within identity-based dynamics; the representations of the Other; and, interculturality. Throughout the presentations and subsequent debates, whenever the different participants referred to aspects of the cultural identity problematic--”angst”, “obsession”, “deficit”, manipulation”, and others, these same participants in the Transversal Lines of the Debates also showed that, in certain areas, an optimistic viewpoint is not out of the question.
Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. E. Dreval'
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, J.
1981-01-01
By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments
Transverse jets and their control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karagozian, Ann R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, 48-121 Engineering IV, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2010-10-15
The jet in crossflow or transverse jet has been studied extensively because of its relevance to a wide variety of flows in technological systems, including fuel or dilution air injection in gas turbine engines, thrust vector control for high speed airbreathing and rocket vehicles, and exhaust plumes from power plants. These widespread applications have led over the past 50+ years to experimental, theoretical, and numerical examinations of this fundamental flowfield, with and without a combustion reaction, and with single or multi-phase flow. The complexities in this flowfield, whether the jet is introduced flush with respect to the injection wall or from an elevated pipe or nozzle, present challenges in accurately interrogating, analyzing, and simulating important jet features. This review article provides a background on these studies and applications as well as detailed features of the transverse jet, and mechanisms for its control via active means. Promising future directions for the understanding, interrogation, simulation, and control of transverse jet flows are also identified and discussed. (author)
Transverse dispersion in heterogeneous fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dershowitz, Bill; Shuttle, Dawn; Klise, Kate; Outters, Nils; Hermanson, Jan
2004-12-01
This report evaluates the significance of transverse dispersion processes for solute transport in a single fracture. Transverse dispersion is a potentially significant process because it increases the fracture surface area available for sorptive and diffusive properties, and has the potential to transport solute between what would otherwise be distinctive, streamline pathways. Transverse dispersion processes are generally ignored in one-dimensional repository performance assessment approaches. This report provides an initial assessment of the magnitude of transverse dispersion effect in a single heterogeneous fracture on repository safety assessment. This study builds on a previous report which considered the network effects on transport dispersion including streamline routing and mixing at fracture intersections. The project uses FracMan software. This platform has been extensively used by SKB in other projects. FracMan software is designed to generate and analyze DFN's as well as to compute fluid flow in DFN's with the MAFIC Finite element method (FEM) code. Solute transport was modeled using the particle tracking inside MAFIC, the 2-D Laplace Transform Galerkin inside PAWorks/LTG, and the 1-D Laplace Transform approach designed to replicate FARF31 inside GoldSim.The study reported here focuses on a single, 20-meter scale discrete fracture, with simplified boundary conditions intended to represent the position of this fracture within a fracture network. The range of assumptions made regarding fracture heterogeneity were as follows: Base case, Heterogeneous fracture, geostatistical field, correlation length 0.01 m. Case 1a, Homogeneous fracture, transmissivity = 10 -7 m 2 /s. Case 1b, Heterogeneous fracture, non-channeled geostatistical field correlation length 5 m. Case 1c, Heterogeneous fracture, channeled, anisotropic geostatistical field. Case 1d, Heterogeneous fracture, fracture intersection zone (FIZ) permeability enhanced. Case 5, Simple channelized
Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront
Boer, Daniel
2015-01-01
In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...
Transverse Momentum Distributions for Heavy Quark Pairs
Berger, Edmond L.; Meng, Ruibin
1993-01-01
We study the transverse momentum distribution for a $pair$ of heavy quarks produced in hadron-hadron interactions. Predictions for the large transverse momentum region are based on exact order $\\alpha_s^3$ QCD perturbation theory. For the small transverse momentum region, we use techniques for all orders resummation of leading logarithmic contributions associated with initial state soft gluon radiation. The combination provides the transverse momentum distribution of heavy quark pairs for all...
2010-01-01
... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter...
Large diameter interseam boreholes: their usage to improve underground environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pickering, A.J. (Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering)
1993-07-01
Development of drilling techniques for larger diameter holes over the last fifteen years has indicated their considerable potential to assist with quickly improving environmental facilities and services to high output coal faces. In Nottinghamshire, as well as in several other regions, mines have utilised interseam boreholes, fully lined, to improve inbye air flows with subsequent reduction of face temperatures, dust and firedamp levels. Some further holes have additionally been adapted quickly to increase firedamp drainage capacities and also to improve service facilities such as compressed air, electrical power and water, and access. A wide range of borehole sizes are employed, ranging from 0.35 m, with integral steel lining, up to a maximum of 2.5 m in diameter, fully concrete lined. The Nottinghamshire Group Sinking and Tunnelling Engineer provides a full range of drilling facilities. The most popular large diameter holes with a potential of 1.8 m in diameter, over 200 m in vertical depth, employs a Robins, type 23R, raise borer which has been in use up and down the country since 1977. A Fosroc CGR10 type, techgrout is applied after boring is completed to provide the essential smooth lining. The application of this lining utilises a special rubber former developed locally, essentially knitting strata cracks, beddings and any local overbreak of the holes. The former or 'sausage' is used in a similar manner to correct and repair boreholes which have been in use for some time. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: a study.
Sathyanarayana, Belagola D; Basavaraj, Halevoor B; Nischal, Kuchangi C; Swaroop, Mukunda R; Umashankar, Puttagangu N; Agrawal, Dhruv P; Swamy, Suchetha S; Okram, Sarda
2012-01-01
Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80%) predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%). Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39%) and others included transverse nasal line (28%), strip (28%), ridge (4%) and loop (1%). Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.
Diameter-dependent coloration of silver nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, Mindy S; Qiu Chao; Jiang Chaoyang; Kattumenu, Ramesh; Singamaneni, Srikanth
2011-01-01
Silver nanowires were synthesized with a green method and characterized with microscopic and diffractometric methods. The correlation between the colors of the nanowires deposited on a solid substrate and their diameters was explored. Silver nanowires that appear similar in color in the optical micrographs have very similar diameters as determined by atomic force microscopy. We have summarized the diameter-dependent coloration for these silver nanowires. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition, microreflectance spectra were obtained from individual nanowires and the observed spectra can be explained with the optical interference theory. This work provides a cheap, quick and simple screening method for studying the diameter distribution of silver nanowires, as well as the diameter variations of individual silver nanowires, without complicated sample preparation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, A.; Zhang, Q.S.; Zhang, W.; Yubuta, K.; Son, K.S.; Wang, X.M.
2009-01-01
Bulk glassy alloy rods with a diameter of 20 mm were produced for Zr 61 Ti 2 Nb 2 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 17.5 and Zr 60 Ti 2 Nb 2 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 18.5 by a tilt casting method. The replacement of Zr by a small amount of Ti and Nb caused a distinct increase in the maximum diameter from 16 mm for Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 17.5 to 20 mm, accompanying the decrease in liquidus temperature and the increase in reduced glass transition temperature. The primary precipitation phase from supercooled liquid also shows a distinct change, i.e., from coexistent Zr 2 Cu, Zr 2 Ni and Zr 6 NiAl 2 phases for the 65%Zr alloy to an icosahedral phase for the 61%Zr and 60%Zr alloys. These results allow us to presume that the enhancement of the glass-forming ability is due to an increase in the stability of supercooled liquid against crystallization caused by the development of icosahedral short-range ordered atomic configurations. The 60%Zr specimens taken from the central and near-surface regions in the transverse cross section at the site which is 15 mm away from the bottom surface of the cast glassy rod with a diameter of 20 mm exhibit good mechanical properties under a compressive deformation mode, i.e., Young's modulus of 81 GPa, large elastic strain of 0.02, high yield strength of 1610 MPa and distinct plastic strain of 0.012. Besides, a number of shear bands are observed along the maximum shear stress plane on the peripheral surface near the final fracture site. The finding of producing the large scale Zr-based bulk glassy alloys exhibiting reliable mechanical properties is encouraging for future advancement of bulk glassy alloys as a new type of functional material. (author)
Experimentally stabilized superconducting magnet with inner diameter of 700 mm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vetlitskii, I A; Belonogov, A V; Dobrov, V M; Krylov, V L; Lebedev, A V; Lomkatsi, G S; Nilov, A F; Smolyankin, V T
1974-05-01
An experimental magnet, SPM-70, with the following characteristics was constructed. The inner diameter of the winding was 730 mm; outer diameter of the winding 1000 mm; height of winding 310 mm; magnetic induction at the center of the magnet 1.45 T; maximum magnetic induction 2.4 T; operation current 820 A; ampere-turns 1.07 x 10/sup 6/; design current density 2560 A/cm/sup 2/; stored energy 500 kJ; superconducting alloy Nb+50% Zr; weight of superconductor 23 kg; weight of copper 210 kg; resistivity of the copper in the strips at T = 4.2 K, B = 2.5 T, 2.6 x 10/sup -8/ ..cap omega.. cm.
Effect of ocular transverse chromatic aberration on detection acuity for peripheral vision.
Cheney, Frank; Thibos, Larry; Bradley, Arthur
2015-01-01
We examined the effect of transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) on detection acuity for white-light interference fringes seen in Maxwellian view at various orientations and locations in the visual field. A circular patch (3.5° diameter, 3.2 log Trolands) of nominally high-contrast fringes was produced on the retina by a commercial instrument (the Lotmar Visometer, Haag Streit) mounted on a gimbal for controlled positioning of the stimulus in the visual field from 0° to 35° eccentricity. Detection acuity for white light fringes for all meridians and eccentricities ≥15° was maximum when fringes were oriented parallel to the visual meridian line. This meridional effect disappeared when a narrow-band filter was used to eliminate TCA. The meridional effect also disappeared when the interferometric stimulator was displaced laterally to align the instrument with the eye's local achromatic axis. Modelling confirmed that TCA is the major factor responsible for white-light meridional bias, with minor contribution arising from higher-order monochromatic aberrations and neural factors. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.
Piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor with 1.5 mm diameter.
Dong, Shuxiang; Lim, Siak P; Lee, Kwork H; Zhang, Jingdong; Lim, Leong C; Uchino, Kenji
2003-04-01
A piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor has been developed using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic/metal composite tube stator that was 1.5 mm in diameter and 7 mm in length. The micromotor was operated in its first bending vibration mode (approximately 70 kHz), producing speeds from hundreds to over 2000 rpm in both rotational directions. The maximum torque-output was 45 microN-m, which is far superior to previous PZT thin film-based micromotors. This micromotor showed good reliability and stability for more than 300 hours of continued operation.
Electron shower transverse profile measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lednev, A.A.
1993-01-01
A method to measure the shower transverse profile is described. Calibration data of the lead-glass spectrometer GAMS collected in a wide electron beam without any additional coordinate detector are used. The method may be used for the measurements in both cellular- and projective-type spectrometers. The results of measuring the 10 GeV electron shower profile in the GAMS spectrometer, without optical grease between the lead-glass radiators and photomultipliers, are approximated with an analytical function. The estimate of the coordinate accuracy is obtained. 5 refs., 8 figs
VALUE CHANGE DIAMETERRED BLOOD CELLS ATHLETES IN THE PHYSICAL LOAD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lidiya Yurevna Rubtsova
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Background: to study the nature of distribution of erythrocytes on diameter in the circulating blood of skiers-racers during achievement of a threshold of anaerobic threshold (AТ. Materials and methods: Professional Skiers racers (young men and men, girls and women at the age of 17–37 years (n = 33 are еxamined in the conditions of physical activity on the stationary bicycle. The research is conducted according to the protocol approved by local committee on bioethics in case of Institute of Physiology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Samples of blood were taken from an elbow vein on an empty stomach, then from finger capillaries to, - on a threshold of anaerobic exchange, after execution of loading “to the full” and in 5 min restoration. On the stained blood smears measured diameter of 50 erythrocytes. Results processed statistically with use of an application program package of Windows (Basic, 2011. Results: At stage AT at 36% of athletes defined increase in average diameter of erythrocytes from 7,46 ± 0,06 to 7,68 ± 0,08 µm (р<0,05, without changes at 12% (7,45 ± 0,04 – 7,43 ± 0,05 µm and reduction of the size of cells at 52% from 7,51± 0,04 to 7,35 ± 0,05 µm (р<0,05. In the conditions of a maximum load (men have 337,1 ± 12,4 W and women have 246,7 ± 10,8 W and during the 5-minute recovery diameter of erythrocytes returned to the original value. Conclusion: Thus, the individual nature of change of average diameter of erythrocytes at athletes is shown during achievement of ANSPs and probably corresponds to selective elimination preferentially macro- or microcytes.
Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ai-guo Duan
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.
Normal ureteral diameter in infancy and childhood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellstroem, M.; Hjaelmaas, K.; Jacobsson, B.; Jodal, U.; Oden, A.; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Goeteborg Univ.
1985-01-01
Ureteral diameters were estimated on films from intravenous urography in 194 children (100 boys and 94 girls) aged 0-16 years. Children with signs of urinary tract infection, calculi, obstruction, duplication or malformation were excluded. Films obtained without abdominal compression were used for measurements, including only ureters visualized over 50 per cent of their lengths. A good correlation was demonstrated between ureteral diameter and age and between ureteral diameter and the length of a segment of the lumbar spine. The widest part of the ureter was most often located just above the crossing of the iliac vessels. The right ureter was slightly wider than the left one. No difference between boys and girls was noted. The results are in good agreement with those of others obtained at autopsy. Bearing in mind the possible physiologic variations, it would seem that measuring the ureteral diameter can be of value for a more objective differentiation between dilated and non-dilated ureters. (orig.)
SEX DETERMINATION FROM FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETERS IN ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
hi-tech
2000-03-01
Mar 1, 2000 ... In medico-legal cases where sophisticated methods of sex determination is lacking, these ... scientific methods(3). Using the visual method ... between the sexes and the values of the right and left femoral head diameters.
Effective diameters and corresponding states of fluids
Del Río, Fernando
Effective hard-sphere diameters of fluids with purely repulsive interactions are derived from a generalized corresponding-states principle of Leland, Rowlinson and coworkers. Various alternative definitions are discussed and related. Virial expansions of the effective diameters and their corresponding volumes are obtained and compared with results of perturbation theory. Applications are made to inverse-power potentials, the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential and hard spherocylinders and dumbells.
Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)
2015-12-01
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy
Phasing of Debuncher Stochastic Cooling Transverse Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasquinelli, Ralph
2000-01-01
With the higher frequency of the cooling systems in the Debuncher, a modified method of making transfer functions has been developed for transverse systems. (Measuring of the momentum systems is unchanged.) Speed in making the measurements is critical, as the beam tends to decelerate due to vacuum lifetime. In the 4-8 GHz band, the harmonics in the Debuncher are 6,700 to 13,400 times the revolution frequency. Every Hertz change in revolution frequency is multiplied by this harmonic number and becomes a frequency measurement error, which is an appreciable percent of the momentum width of the beam. It was originally thought that a momentum cooling system would be phased first so that the beam could be kept from drifting in revolution frequency. As it turned out, the momentum cooling was so effective (even with the gain turned down) that the momentum width normalized to fo became less than one Hertz on the Schottky pickup. A beam this narrow requires very precise measurement of tune and revolution frequency. It was difficult to get repeatable results. For initial measuring of the transverse arrays, relative phase and delay is all that is required, so the measurement settings outlined below will suffice. Once all input and output arrays are phased, a more precise measurement of all pickups to all kickers can be done with more points and both upper and lower side bands, as in figure 1. Settings on the network analyzer were adjusted for maximum measurement speed. Data is not analyzed until a complete set of measurements is taken. Start and stop frequencies should be chosen to be just slightly wider than the band being measured. For transverse systems, select betatron USB for the measurement type. This will make the measurement two times faster. Select 101 for the number of points, sweep time of 5 seconds, IF bandwidth 30 Hz, averages = 1. It is important during the phasing to continually measure the revolution frequency and beam width of the beam for transverse systems
Large transverse momentum hadronic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darriulat, P.
1977-01-01
The possible relations between deep inelastic leptoproduction and large transverse momentum (psub(t)) processes in hadronic collisions are usually considered in the framework of the quark-parton picture. Experiments observing the structure of the final state in proton-proton collisions producing at least one large transverse momentum particle have led to the following conclusions: a large fraction of produced particles are uneffected by the large psub(t) process. The other products are correlated to the large psub(t) particle. Depending upon the sign of scalar product they can be separated into two groups of ''towards-movers'' and ''away-movers''. The experimental evidence are reviewed favouring such a picture and the properties are discussed of each of three groups (underlying normal event, towards-movers and away-movers). Some phenomenological interpretations are presented. The exact nature of away- and towards-movers must be further investigated. Their apparent jet structure has to be confirmed. Angular correlations between leading away and towards movers are very informative. Quantum number flow, both within the set of away and towards-movers, and between it and the underlying normal event, are predicted to behave very differently in different models
Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect
Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan
2018-04-01
With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.
Spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer: a case report.
Chida, Keigo; Nakanishi, Kazuaki; Shomura, Hiroki; Homma, Shigenori; Hattori, Atsuo; Kazui, Keizo; Taketomi, Akinobu
2017-12-01
Spontaneous regression (SR) of many malignant tumors has been well documented, with an approximate incidence of one per 60,000-100,000 cancer patients. However, SR of colorectal cancer (CRC) is very rare, accounting for less than 2% of such cases. We report a case of SR of transverse colon cancer in an 80-year-old man undergoing outpatient follow-up after surgical treatment of early gastric cancer. Colonoscopy (CS) revealed a Borrmann type II tumor in the transverse colon measuring 30 × 30 mm. Because the patient underwent anticoagulant therapy, we did not perform a biopsy at that time. A second CS was performed 1 week after the initial examination and revealed tumor shrinkage to a diameter of 20 mm and a shift to the Borrmann type III morphology. Biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. One week after the second CS, we performed a partial resection of the transverse colon and D2 lymph node dissection. Histopathology revealed inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis from the submucosal to muscularis propria layers in the absence of cancer cells, leading to pathological staging of pStage 0 (T0N0). The patient had an uneventful recovery, and CS performed at 5 months postoperatively revealed the absence of a tumor in the colon and rectum. The patient continues to be followed up as an outpatient at 12 months postoperatively, and no recurrence has been observed.
Operation of the transverse feedback system at the CERN SPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bossart, R.; Louwerse, R.; Mourier, J.; Vos, L.
1987-01-01
To prevent transverse instabilities at high beam intensity in the SPS, the transverse feedback system for damping the betatron oscillations has been upgraded for larger damping decrements and for increased system's bandwidth. The feedback loop now contains a digital delay line cancellor, so that the damper works with a velocity feedback Δx/Δt, unaffected by the closed orbit position x at the pick-up station. The digital processing of the feedback signal facilitates nonlinear feedback techniques such as antidamping and ''band-bang'' feedback. The ''bang-bang'' feedback provides the maximum possible damping rate of the injection oscillations in the SPS-collider, in order to minimize the emittance increase caused by filamentation. The antidamping nonlinearity provides small continuous beam oscillations of 50 μm amplitude for tracking the machine tune Q with a phase locked loop
Experimental investigation of transverse flow estimation using transverse oscillation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2003-01-01
Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the blood velocity component parallel to the ultrasound beam. Introducing a laterally oscillating field gives signals from which the transverse velocity component can be estimated using 2:1 parallel receive beamformers. To yield the performance...... perpendicular to the ultrasound beam. The velocity profile of the blood is parabolic, and the speed of the blood in the center of the vessel is 1.1 m/s. An extended autocorrelation algorithm is used for velocity estimation for 310 trials, each containing 32 beamformed signals. The velocity can be estimated.......0% and the relative mean standard deviation is found to be 9.8%. With the Compuflow 1000 programmable flow pump a color flow mode image is produced of the experimental setup for a parabolic flow. Also the flow of the human femoralis is reproduced and it is found that the characteristics of the flow can be estimated....
Interosseous Ligament and Transverse Forearm Stability: A Biomechanical Cadaver Study.
Gutowski, Christina J; Darvish, Kurosh; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M
2017-02-01
The interosseous ligament (IOL) is known to be an important longitudinal stabilizer of the forearm. We hypothesize that it may also contribute to transverse stability, with pronosupination tensioning of the radius relative to the ulna. Therefore, when injured, we predict the interosseous space should widen in the transverse plane, enough to be appreciable on plain radiographs. A measurable difference in interosseous space, comparing an injured with an uninjured forearm, can potentially be of diagnostic and clinical value. Ten fresh-frozen cadaver arms (from 5 individuals) were radiographed in 6 different positions of forearm supination, first in an uninjured state and then with the IOL sectioned, both partially (central band only) and completely. The transverse interosseous distance was measured on radiographs using edge detection software and compared using analysis of variance and contrast analysis. The maximum range of pronosupination was also compared before and after injury, using a paired t test. Average maximum supination increased from 84° to 106°, and pronation from 69° to 84°, after the IOL was sectioned completely. Sectioning of the IOL led to a statistically significant increase in the interosseous distance, a minimum of 2 mm, in all but one forearm position. The IOL of the forearm plays an important role in providing transverse stability to the radius and ulna. When the IOL is sectioned, the forearm exhibits increased pronosupination range of motion. Radiographs of bilateral forearms taken in identical rotational position can reliably differentiate between an intact and torn IOL in cadavers. The IOL's stabilizing role during forearm rotation suggests a novel strategy for diagnosing forearm IOL injury using comparative radiographic measurements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Transverse electric field–induced deformation of armchair single-walled carbon nanotube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Ningyi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The deformation of armchair single-walled carbon nanotube under transverse electric field has been investigated using density functional theory. The results show that the circular cross-sections of the nanotubes are deformed to elliptic ones, in which the tube diameter along the field direction is increased, whereas the diameter perpendicular to the field direction is reduced. The electronic structures of the deformed nanotubes were also studied. The ratio of the major diameter to the minor diameter of the elliptic cross-section was used to estimate the degree of the deformation. It is found that this ratio depends on the field strength and the tube diameter. However, the field direction has little role in the deformation. (See supplementary material 1 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9617-y contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Click here for file
A Review of the Segmental Diameter of the Healthy Human Spinal Cord.
Frostell, Arvid; Hakim, Ramil; Thelin, Eric Peter; Mattsson, Per; Svensson, Mikael
2016-01-01
Knowledge of the average size and variability of the human spinal cord can be of importance when treating pathological conditions in the spinal cord. Data on healthy human spinal cord morphometrics have been published for more than a century using different techniques of measurements, but unfortunately, comparison of results from different studies is difficult because of the different anatomical landmarks used as reference points along the craniocaudal axis for the measurements. The aim of this review was to compute population estimates of the transverse and anteroposterior diameter of the human spinal cord by comparing and combining previously published data on a normalized craniocaudal axis. We included 11 studies presenting measurements of spinal cord cross-sectional diameters, with a combined sample size ranging from 15 to 488 subjects, depending on spinal cord level. Based on five published studies presenting data on the lengths of the segments of the spinal cord and vertebral column, we calculated the relative positions of all spinal cord neuronal segments and vertebral bony segments and mapped measurements of spinal cord size to a normalized craniocaudal axis. This mapping resulted in better alignment between studies and allowed the calculation of weighted averages and standard deviations (SDs) along the spinal cord. These weighted averages were smoothed using a generalized additive model to yield continuous population estimates for transverse and anteroposterior diameter and associated SDs. The spinal cord had the largest transverse diameter at spinal cord neuronal segment C5 (13.3 ± 2.2), decreased to segment T8 (8.3 ± 2.1), and increased slightly again to 9.4 ± 1.5 at L3. The anteroposterior diameter showed less variation in size along the spinal cord at C5 (7.4 ± 1.6), T8 (6.3 ± 2.0), and L3 (7.5 ± 1.6). All estimates are presented in millimeters ± 2 SDs. We conclude that segmental transverse and anteroposterior
Enhanced spin transfer torque effect for transverse domain walls in cylindrical nanowires
Franchin, Matteo; Knittel, Andreas; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri S.; Fischbacher, Thomas; Prabhakar, Anil; Fangohr, Hans
2011-09-01
Recent studies have predicted extraordinary properties for transverse domain walls in cylindrical nanowires: zero depinning current, the absence of the Walker breakdown, and applications as domain wall oscillators. In order to reliably control the domain wall motion, it is important to understand how they interact with pinning centers, which may be engineered, for example, through modulations in the nanowire geometry (such as notches or extrusions) or in the magnetic properties of the material. In this paper we study the motion and depinning of transverse domain walls through pinning centers in ferromagnetic cylindrical nanowires. We use (i) magnetic fields and (ii) spin-polarized currents to drive the domain walls along the wire. The pinning centers are modelled as a section of the nanowire which exhibits a uniaxial crystal anisotropy where the anisotropy easy axis and the wire axis enclose a variable angle θP. Using (i) magnetic fields, we find that the minimum and the maximum fields required to push the domain wall through the pinning center differ by 30%. On the contrary, using (ii) spin-polarized currents, we find variations of a factor 130 between the minimum value of the depinning current density (observed for θP=0∘, i.e., anisotropy axis pointing parallel to the wire axis) and the maximum value (for θP=90∘, i.e., anisotropy axis perpendicular to the wire axis). We study the depinning current density as a function of the height of the energy barrier of the pinning center using numerical and analytical methods. We find that for an industry standard energy barrier of 40kBT, a depinning current of about 5μA (corresponding to a current density of 6×1010A/m2 in a nanowire of 10nm diameter) is sufficient to depin the domain wall. We reveal and explain the mechanism that leads to these unusually low depinning currents. One requirement for this depinning mechanism is for the domain wall to be able to rotate around its own axis. With the right barrier design
Resolution enhancement of slam using transverse wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Dae Sik; Moon, Gun; Kim, Young H.
1997-01-01
We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Since the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM Image In the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode.
Diameter effect on critical heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanase, A.; Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Shan, J.Q.
2009-01-01
The critical heat flux look-up table (CHF LUT) is widely used to predict CHF for various applications, including design and safety analysis of nuclear reactors. Using the CHF LUT for round tubes having inside diameters different from the reference 8 mm involves conversion of CHF to 8 mm. Different authors [Becker, K.M., 1965. An Analytical and Experimental Study of Burnout Conditions in Vertical Round Ducts, Aktiebolaget Atomenergie Report AE 177, Sweden; Boltenko, E.A., et al., 1989. Effect of tube diameter on CHF at various two phase flow regimes, Report IPE-1989; Biasi, L., Clerici, G.C., Garriba, S., Sala, R., Tozzi, A., 1967. Studies on Burnout, Part 3, Energia Nucleare, vol. 14, pp. 530-536; Groeneveld, D.C., Cheng, S.C., Doan, T., 1986. AECL-UO critical heat flux look-up table. Heat Transfer Eng., 7, 46-62; Groeneveld et al., 1996; Hall, D.D., Mudawar, I., 2000. Critical heat flux for water flow in tubes - II subcooled CHF correlations. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, 2605-2640; Wong, W.C., 1996. Effect of tube diameter on critical heat flux, MaSC dissertation, Ottawa Carleton Institute for Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Ottawa] have proposed several types of correlations or factors to describe the diameter effect on CHF. The present work describes the derivation of new diameter correction factor and compares it with several existing prediction methods
Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)
2017-05-15
We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)
Longitudinal and transverse wake potentials in SLAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.; Wilson, P.
1980-01-01
In a machine with short bunches of high peak currents, such as the SLAC collider, one needs to know the longitudinal wake potential, for the higher mode losses, and the transverse wake potential, since, for bunches passing slightly off axis, the induced transverse forces will tend to cause beam break up. The longitudinal and transverse wakes of the SLAC structure presented here, were calculated by computer using the modal method, and including an analytic extension for higher modes. (Auth.)
Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon carcinoma.
Zmora, O; Bar-Dayan, A; Khaikin, M; Lebeydev, A; Shabtai, M; Ayalon, A; Rosin, D
2010-03-01
Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma is technically demanding and was excluded from most of the large trials of laparoscopic colectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and outcome of laparoscopic resection of carcinoma of the transverse colon. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These patients were compared to patients who had laparoscopic resection for right and sigmoid colon carcinoma. In addition, they were compared to a historical series of patients who underwent open resection for transverse colon cancer. A total of 22 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for transverse colon carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients operated for right colon cancer and 64 operated for sigmoid colon cancer served as comparison groups. Twenty-four patients were identified for the historical open group. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4.5% of patients with transverse colon cancer compared to 5.9% (P = 1.0) and 7.8% (P = 1.0) of patients with right and sigmoid colon cancer, respectively. The early postoperative complication rate was 45, 50 (P = 1.0), and 37.5% (P = 0.22) in the three groups, respectively. Conversion was required in 1 (5%) patient in the laparoscopic transverse colon group. The conversion rate and late complications were not significantly different in the three groups. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic transverse colectomy group when compared to all other groups (P = 0.001, 0.008, and transverse colectomy, respectively). The results of laparoscopic colon resection for transverse colon carcinoma are comparable to the results of laparoscopic resection of right or sigmoid colon cancer and open resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These results suggest that laparoscopic resection of transverse
Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.
1977-05-01
The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given
Transversal light forces in semiconductors
Lindberg, M
2003-01-01
The transversal light force is a well established effect in atomic and molecular systems that are exposed to spatially inhomogeneous light fields. In this paper it is shown theoretically that in an excited semiconductor, containing an electron-hole plasma or excitons, a similar light force exists, if the semiconductor is exposed to an ultrashort spatially inhomogeneous light field. The analysis is based on the equations of motion for the Wigner distribution functions of charge carrier populations and interband polarizations. The results show that, while the light force on the electron-hole plasma or the excitons does exist, its effects on the kinetic behaviour of the electron-hole plasma or the excitons are different compared to the situation in an atomic or molecular system. A detailed analysis presented here traces this difference back to the principal differences between atoms and molecules on the one hand and electron-hole plasmas or excitons on the other hand.
Transverse section radionuclide scanning system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.
1976-01-01
This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures
Usefulness of left ventricular wall thickness-to-diameter ratio in thallium-201 scintigraphy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manno, B.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.
1983-01-01
The ratio of left ventricular wall thickness to the cavity dimension, as seen on thallium-201 images, was used in this study to predict left ventricular ejection fraction and volume. We obtained rest thallium-201 images in 50 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. The thickness of a normal-appearing segment of the left ventricular wall and the transverse diameter of the cavity were measured in the left anterior oblique projection. The left ventricular ejection fraction and volume in these patients were determined by radionuclide ventriculography. There was a good correlation between thickness-to-diameter ratio and ejection fraction and end-systolic volume. In 18 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70, the ejection fraction was lower than in the 16 patients with thickness-to-diameter ratio greater than or equal to 1.0. Similarly, in patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70, the end-diastolic and end-systolic volume were higher than in the remaining patients with higher thickness-to-diameter ratios. All 18 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70 had ejection fractions less than 40%; 14 of 15 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio greater than or equal to 1.0 had an ejection fraction greater than 40%. The remaining 16 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio of 0.7-0.99 had intermediate ejection fractions and volumes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Measuring Electrospun Nanofibre Diameter: a Novel Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziabari, M.; Mottaghitalab, V.; Haghi, A. K.; McGovern, S. T.
2008-01-01
A new method based on image analysis for electrospun nanofibre diameter measurement is presented. First, the SEM micrograph of the nanofibre web obtained by electrospinning process is converted to binary image using local thresholding method. In the next step, skeleton and distance transformed image are generated. Then, the intersection points which bring about untrue measurements are identified and removed from the skeleton. Finally, the resulting skeleton and distance transformed image are used to determine fibre diameter. The method is evaluated by a simulated image with known characteristics generated by ?-randomness procedure. The results indicate that this approach is successful in making fast, accurate automated measurements of electrospun fibre diameters. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Moisture monitoring in large diameter boreholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyler, S.
1985-01-01
The results of both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the neutron moisture gauge traditionally used in soil physics experiments can be extended for use in large diameter (up to 15 cm) steel-cased boreholes with excellent results. This application will permit existing saturated zone monitoring wells to be used for unsaturated zone monitoring of recharge, redistribution and leak detection from waste disposal facilities. Its applicability to large diameter cased wells also gives the soil physicist and ground-water hydrologist and new set of monitoring points in the unsaturated zone to study recharge and aquifer properties. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy
Lukasiewicz, Thomas
2013-01-01
We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...
Wiener Index, Diameter, and Stretch Factor of a Weighted Planar Graph in Subquadratic Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wulff-Nilsen, Christian
over all pairs of distinct vertices of the ratio between the graph distance and the Euclidean distance between the two vertices). More specifically, we show that the Wiener index and diameter can be found in O(n^2*(log log n)^4/log n) worst-case time and that the stretch factor can be found in O(n^2......We solve three open problems: the existence of subquadratic time algorithms for computing the Wiener index (sum of APSP distances) and the diameter (maximum distance between any vertex pair) of a planar graph with non-negative edge weights and the stretch factor of a plane geometric graph (maximum...
Hair root diameter measurement as an indicator of protein deficiency in nonhospitalized alcoholics.
Bregar, R R; Gordon, M; Whitney, E N
1978-02-01
Protein status of alcoholics admitted to a detoxification center was investigated with a view to adapting a hair root test for use in screening for protein deficiency. Hair root volume and hair root diameter had previously been shown to correlate well with hair root protein and to be sensitive indicators of protein deficiency. Hair root volumes in this study correlated well with mean maximum hair root diameters (n = 35, r = 0.9), which were simpler to measure, so diameter measurements were used. Mean maximum hair root diameters (range 0.02 to 0.19 mm) correlated with plasma RNase concentrations (range 6000 to 14,000 units/ml; n = 17, r = -0.7). Mean hair diameters of 84 alcoholics averaged 0.0864 +/- 0.0366 mm; those of 25 nonalcoholics were significantly greater: 0.100 +/- 0.0254 mm (P less than 0.05). Frequency of occurrence of hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less was significantly higher in 71 alcoholics (29.5%) than in 23 nonalcoholics (8.6%) matched by age. Mean hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less therefore can be used to signify protein deficiency where more expensive or technically demanding tests are not feasible. Protein deficiency occurs extensively in non hospitalized alcoholics. This method enables staff to single out those clients most likely to be in need of nutritional counseling and therapy.
Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups
Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.
1992-01-01
In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.
Changing the Diameter of a Viewing Tube
Obara, Samuel
2009-01-01
This article is about the students' investigation about the relationship between the diameter of the view tubes (x) of constant lengths and the viewable vertical distance (y) on the wall while keeping the perpendicular distance from the eyeball to the wall constant. The students collected data and used and represented it in tabular and graphical…
Height - Diameter predictive equations for Rubber (Hevea ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
BUKOLA
They proffer logistic data for modeling and futuristic prediction for sustainable forest management. Diameter is one of the most ... in various quantitative estimation following the intricacy of time, availability of modern equipments .... growth functions. This trend is shown in Figure 1 where the prediction equations are plotted.
CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in muon decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, A.
1981-01-01
A model of the weak interaction which contains intermediate vector bosons of the most general form and which admits CP violation in muon decay is used to calculate the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons with inclusion of radiative corrections. It is shown that these corrections are important only at the beginning of the spectrum, and their contribution reduces the observed effects of the transverse polarization. The transverse polarization grows appreciably at electron energies close to the maximum energy and at small emission angles. It is expedient to search for the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons at energies E/sub e/ = 0.975E/sup max//sub e/ and emission angles theta = 25--35 0
CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in the muon decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, A.V.
1981-01-01
In the most general weak interaction model with intermediate vector bosons, allowing CP breaking in the muon decay, CP- even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons is calculated taking into account the radiative corrections. It is shown that such corrections are essential only at the beginning of the spectrum reducing the observed transverse polarization effects. When the electron energy is close to its maximum and the emission angles are small, the transverse polarization considerably grows. Search for CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons should be carried out at energies Esub(e) approximately equal to O.975 Esub(e)sup(max) and emission angles THETA approximately equal to 25+35 deg [ru
Anaesthetic considerations in patients with transverse myelitis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Transverse myelitis is an acute or subacute inflammatory disorder involving the spinal cord. Clinical signs are due to the involvement of the ascending and descending tracts in the transverse plane of the spinal cord. The most common cause is autoimmune. These patients may present with various clinical findings with ...
Transversals in non-discrete groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Transversals in non-discrete groups. RAMJI LAL and R P SHUKLA. Department of Mathematics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, India. E-mail: ramjilal@mri.ernet.in; rps@mri.ernet.in. MS received 2 August 2004; revised 4 August 2005. Abstract. The concept of 'topological right transversal' is introduced to study ...
Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We assume that the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles measured in final state are contributed by a few energy sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an ...
Cladding For Transversely-Pumped Laser Rod
Byer, Robert L.; Fan, Tso Yee
1989-01-01
Combination of suitable dimensioning and cladding of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet of similar solid-state laser provides for more efficient utilization of transversely-incident pump light from diode lasers. New design overcomes some of limitations of longitudinal- and older transverse-pumping concepts and promotes operation at higher output powers in TEM00 mode.
Wilhelm, Konrad; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Hein, Simon; Schlager, Daniel; Adams, Fabian; Benndorf, Matthias; Fritz, Benjamin; Langer, Mathias; Hesse, Albrecht; Schoenthaler, Martin; Neubauer, Jakob
2018-06-02
To validate AutoMated UroLithiasis Evaluation Tool (AMULET) software for kidney stone volumetry and compare its performance to standard clinical practice. Maximum diameter and volume of 96 urinary stones were measured as reference standard by three independent urologists. The same stones were positioned in an anthropomorphic phantom and CT scans acquired in standard settings. Three independent radiologists blinded to the reference values took manual measurements of the maximum diameter and automatic measurements of maximum diameter and volume. An "expected volume" was calculated based on manual diameter measurements using the formula: V=4/3 πr³. 96 stones were analyzed in the study. We had initially aimed to assess 100. Nine were replaced during data acquisition due of crumbling and 4 had to be excluded because the automated measurement did not work. Mean reference maximum diameter was 13.3 mm (5.2-32.1 mm). Correlation coefficients among all measured outcomes were compared. The correlation between the manual and automatic diameter measurements to the reference was 0.98 and 0.91, respectively (pvolumetry is possible and significantly more accurate than diameter-based volumetric calculations. To avoid bias in clinical trials, size should be measured as volume. However, automated diameter measurements are not as accurate as manual measurements.
Single and multiple transverse fracture initiation from horizontal wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crosby, D.G.; Rahman, M.M.; Rahman, M.K.; Rahman, S.S. [School of Petroleum Engineering, The University of New South Wales, 2052 Sydney (Australia)
2002-08-01
The results of an analytical and experimental study of the initiation of transverse fractures from horizontal wells are presented. Analytical criteria for the initiation of single hydraulic fracture are reviewed, and criterion for initiation of multiple hydraulic fractures was developed by modification of the existing Drucker and Prager criterion for single hydraulic fracture initiation. The developed criterion for multiple fracture initiation was validated by comparisons with actual hydraulic fracture initiation pressures, which were obtained from scaled laboratory experiments and numerical results from boundary element analysis. Other criteria are assessed against the experimental results. Experimentally obtained transverse fracture initiation pressures were found close to longitudinal fracture initiation pressures estimated from maximum tensile stress criterion and Hoek and Brown criterion. One possible explanation of this finding is presented. Results from Drucker and Prager criteria for single and multiple fracture initiation were, however, found closer to experimental values. Therefore, these criteria could be useful to engineers involved with hydraulic fracturing for predicting transverse fracture initiation pressures from horizontal wells drilled parallel to the minimum horizontal in-situ stress.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Hwan; Lee, Whal; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Dae Jin; Park, Eun Ah; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung
2013-01-01
To determine normal reference values for aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults. Three hundred adults without signs or symptoms of cardiovascular diseases were enrolled in this study. Aortic diameters were measured at nine predetermined levels on CT images. Aortic diameter measurements were adjusted for body surface area. Analysis of data was performed with regard to age, sex, weight, height and hypertension. Aortic diameters were 2.99 ± 0.57 cm at the ascending aorta, 2.54 ± 0.35 cm at the transverse aortic arch, 2.36 ± 0.35 cm at the proximal descending thoracic aorta (DTA), 2.23 ± 0.37 cm at the mid DTA, 2.17 ± 0.38 cm at the distal DTA, 2.16 ± 0.37 cm at the thoracoabdominal junction, 2.10, 00B1, 0.35 cm at the level of the celiac axis, 1.94, 00B1, 0.36 cm at the suprarenal aorta, 1.58 ± 0.24 cm at the aortic bifurcation. Men had slightly larger diameters than women (p < 0.05). All diameters increased with age and hypertension, with statistical significance (p < 0.01). And all aortic diameters increased with height (p < 0.05) except at the level of the aortic arch (p = 0.056), and increased with weight (p < 0.05) except at the level of the suprarenal aorta (p = 0.067). Male sex, higher weight and height, age and hypertension are associated with larger aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults.
Tree diameter at breast height in relation to stump diameter by species group
Arthur G. Horn; Richard C. Keller
1957-01-01
A stump tally is one method of determining the volume of timber previously removed from an area in a logging operation. To estimate volume of standing timber from stumps, foresters must first know the relationship between stump diameters and tree diameters at breast height (d.b.h.).
Growth of transverse coherence in SASE FELs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Vinit; Krishnagopal, Srinivas
2000-01-01
We introduce the correlation function between the electric field at two different points in the transverse plane as a parameter to quantify the degree of transverse coherence. We also propose a more realistic model for the initialization of the radiation in computer codes used to study SASE FELs. We make these modifications in the code TDA and use it to study the growth of transverse coherence as a function of electron beam size, beam current and transverse emittance. Our results show explicitly that the onset of full transverse coherence in SASE takes place much before the power saturates. With the more realistic model the onset of the exponential growth regime is delayed, and to get a given power from the FEL one needs a longer undulator than would be predicted by the original TDA code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donne, A.J.H.
1985-01-01
In this thesis aspects of the structure of the nucleus 19 F are discussed as a result of transverse electron-scattering experiments, with emphasis on the ground state. The magnetization distribution of this state has been obtained from the measurement of electrons scattered from 19 F at backward angles. An introduction to the electron-scattering formalism is presented briefly together with the interpretation of electron-scattering results in terms of the nuclear shell model. The experimental apparatus for the measurement of electron scattering through an angle of 180 0 is described. This instrumentation has been installed in the low-energy facility (LEF) at NIKHEF-K. Simultaneously with the study of the magnetic ground state distribution of 19 F, also excited states of this nucleus up to an energy of 4.4 MeV have been investigated, mainly from data obtained in the EMIN station. Also for these states, the shell-model calculations have been the guide to determine their structure. (Auth.)
CFD analysis of transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Pinghui; Liu, Jiaming; Ge, Zhihao; Wang, Xi; Cheng, Xu
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle are simulated. • Four kinds of subchannels are taken as the object. • Effects of wire number and position on transverse velocities are studied. • Parameter studies reveal P/D and H/D have a great influence than Re. • Present transverse velocity correlations need to be modified. - Abstract: Transverse flow induced by helical spacer wires has important effects on the flow and heat transfer behavior of reactor core. In this paper, transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle was simulated by the open source code, OpenFOAM, based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. The Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω model and Spalding wall function were used to resolve the momentum field. Hexahedral dominated meshes were generated to achieve high grid quality. Periodic boundary condition and parallel processing were adopted to save the computational cost. Transverse velocity distributions in four different kinds of subchannel gaps were analyzed. The results show that the influence of wire number and position on the transverse velocity distribution is obvious. For an interior gap, transverse flow seems to be dominated by wires near the gap, and its direction changes periodically in one helical pitch. However, for a peripheral gap, transverse velocity is affected by more wires and its direction is decided by the direction of wire rotation. Parameter studies reveal that the Reynolds number (Re, at the range of 6000–100,000) has little effect on the normalized transverse flow, while the pitch to pin diameter ratio (P/D, at the range of 1.11–1.22) and the helical pitch to pin diameter ratio (H/D, at the range of 12–24) have a great influence on it, especially the P/D. Large discrepancies between our simulation results and some existing correlations were observed. This indicates that new correlations comprehensively considering both P/D and H/D effects need to be developed
CFD analysis of transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Jiaming; Ge, Zhihao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Xi; Cheng, Xu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technologies, Kaiserstrasse 12, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle are simulated. • Four kinds of subchannels are taken as the object. • Effects of wire number and position on transverse velocities are studied. • Parameter studies reveal P/D and H/D have a great influence than Re. • Present transverse velocity correlations need to be modified. - Abstract: Transverse flow induced by helical spacer wires has important effects on the flow and heat transfer behavior of reactor core. In this paper, transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle was simulated by the open source code, OpenFOAM, based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. The Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω model and Spalding wall function were used to resolve the momentum field. Hexahedral dominated meshes were generated to achieve high grid quality. Periodic boundary condition and parallel processing were adopted to save the computational cost. Transverse velocity distributions in four different kinds of subchannel gaps were analyzed. The results show that the influence of wire number and position on the transverse velocity distribution is obvious. For an interior gap, transverse flow seems to be dominated by wires near the gap, and its direction changes periodically in one helical pitch. However, for a peripheral gap, transverse velocity is affected by more wires and its direction is decided by the direction of wire rotation. Parameter studies reveal that the Reynolds number (Re, at the range of 6000–100,000) has little effect on the normalized transverse flow, while the pitch to pin diameter ratio (P/D, at the range of 1.11–1.22) and the helical pitch to pin diameter ratio (H/D, at the range of 12–24) have a great influence on it, especially the P/D. Large discrepancies between our simulation results and some existing correlations were observed. This indicates that new correlations comprehensively considering both P/D and H/D effects need to be developed
Transversals in 4-uniform hypergraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henning, Michael A; Yeo, Anders
2016-01-01
with maximum degree ∆(H) ≤ 3, then τ (H) ≤ n/4 + m/6, which proves a known conjecture. We show that an easy corollary of our main result is that if H is a 4-uniform hypergraph with n vertices and n edges, then τ (H) ≤3/7 n, which was the main result of the Thomassé-Yeo paper [Combinatorica 27 (2007), 473...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erick Miranda Souza
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the resistance to fracture of rotary Ni-Ti files of various diameters and tapers after torsional stress simulation. Methods: Profile (Dentsply Maillerfer, Ballaigues, Suíça instruments sizes 15 to 40, taper 0.04 and 0.06 were used. Ten instruments of each size and taper were tested, totaling 120 files. The maximum torque (Tmax until fracture was determined in accordance with the ANSI / ADA Protocol Nº 28 . The maximum force was converted into maximum torque using the formula: Tmax = Loadmax x RadiusResults: The diameter (p<0.001 and taper (p<0.001 influenced the maximum torque to fracture. With the increase in diameter and taperthere was a gradual increase in the maximum torque. Using the multiple regression method an equation relating the maximum torque to the diameter (D and the taper (T was found: Tmax = -1.4 + 0.08D + 10.5T. Conclusion: The increase in diameter and taper promoted an increase in resistance to torsion. The variation of the taper from 0.04 to 0.06 in instruments with the same diameter increased resistance to fracture by torsion by around 25%.
Probabilistic fatigue life of balsa cored sandwich composites subjected to transverse shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Berggreen, Christian
2015-01-01
A probabilistic fatigue life model for end-grain balsa cored sandwich composites subjectedto transverse shear is proposed. The model is calibrated to measured three-pointbending constant-amplitude fatigue test data using the maximum likelihood method. Some possible applications of the probabilistic...
Device for guiding various diameter size cable
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litvinov, I.M.; Klauzer, L.P.; Yeganov, L.I.; Zaripov, A.M.
1982-01-30
A design is submitted for a device to guide cable of various diameters. This device consists of a profiled multiple-pass roller, and clamps for uniting cut cable. This design is simplified by allowing both the rollers and their supports to rotate on the roller axis thus facilitating interaction with the clamps. The working surface of the supports is evolute while the outside surfaces have screw-channels for transfering the cable from one roller pass to the other.
Stocking and structure for maximum growth in sugar maple selection stands.
Thomas R. Crow; Carl H. Tubbs; Rodney D. Jacobs; Robert R. Oberg
1981-01-01
The impacts of stocking, structure, and cutting cycle on basal area, cubic foot volume, board foot volume, and diameter growth are considered. Recommendations are provided for maximum growth in uneven-aged sugar maple stands.
Ren, Shuai; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan; Xu, Weiqing; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas
2018-03-01
Bronchial diameter is a key parameter that affects the respiratory treatment of mechanically ventilated patients. In this paper, to reveal the influence of bronchial diameter on the airflow dynamics of pressure-controlled mechanically ventilated patients, a new respiratory system model is presented that combines multigeneration airways with lungs. Furthermore, experiments and simulation studies to verify the model are performed. Finally, through the simulation study, it can be determined that in airway generations 2 to 7, when the diameter is reduced to half of the original value, the maximum air pressure (maximum air pressure in lungs) decreases by nearly 16%, the maximum flow decreases by nearly 30%, and the total airway pressure loss (sum of each generation pressure drop) is more than 5 times the original value. Moreover, in airway generations 8 to 16, with increasing diameter, the maximum air pressure, maximum flow, and total airway pressure loss remain almost constant. When the diameter is reduced to half of the original value, the maximum air pressure decreases by 3%, the maximum flow decreases by nearly 5%, and the total airway pressure loss increases by 200%. The study creates a foundation for improvement in respiratory disease diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Transverse Feedback for Electron-Cooled DC-Beam at COSY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamerdzhiev, V.; Dietrich, J.
2004-01-01
At the cooler synchrotron COSY, high beam quality is achieved by means of beam cooling. In the case of intense electron-cooled beams, fast particle losses due to transverse coherent beam oscillations are regularly observed. To damp the instabilities a transverse feedback system was installed and successfully commissioned. Commissioning of the feedback system resulted in a significant increase of the e-cooled beam intensity by single injection and when cooling and stacking of repeated injections is applied. External experiments profit from the small diameter beams and the reduced halo. A transverse damping system utilizing a pick-up, signal processing electronics, power amplifiers, and a stripline deflector is introduced. Beam current and Schottky spectra measurements with the vertical feedback system turned on and off are presented
Maximum nondiffracting propagation distance of aperture-truncated Airy beams
Chu, Xingchun; Zhao, Shanghong; Fang, Yingwu
2018-05-01
Airy beams have called attention of many researchers due to their non-diffracting, self-healing and transverse accelerating properties. A key issue in research of Airy beams and its applications is how to evaluate their nondiffracting propagation distance. In this paper, the critical transverse extent of physically realizable Airy beams is analyzed under the local spatial frequency methodology. The maximum nondiffracting propagation distance of aperture-truncated Airy beams is formulated and analyzed based on their local spatial frequency. The validity of the formula is verified by comparing the maximum nondiffracting propagation distance of an aperture-truncated ideal Airy beam, aperture-truncated exponentially decaying Airy beam and exponentially decaying Airy beam. Results show that the formula can be used to evaluate accurately the maximum nondiffracting propagation distance of an aperture-truncated ideal Airy beam. Therefore, it can guide us to select appropriate parameters to generate Airy beams with long nondiffracting propagation distance that have potential application in the fields of laser weapons or optical communications.
Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch
2002-01-01
Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode
Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffner-Bielich, J.
2002-01-01
Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)
Algorithmic fundamentals of computerized tomography and of transverse analogue tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heckmann, K.
1981-01-01
Computerized tomography and transverse analogue tomography are two different approaches to the same goal, namely, transverse tomography. The algorithm is discussed and compared. Transverse tomography appears capable of further development, judging by this comparison. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan DOBROTĂ
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The role of processing by machining is to generate surfaces that have to meet the requirements imposed by the designer through the execution drawing of the piece. The study aims to analyze how the functional geometry of the tool evolves when lathing with a transverse advance. The technological process of lathing with transverse advance is realized with a variable machining speed, and this also causes a variation of the functional geomtry of the tool. Thus, in the paper was established the optimal construction geometry of a lathe knife that can be used for lathing a piece of a certain diameter. Under these conditions, a correlation was established between the values of the geometrical constructive parameters of the knife used for the transverse lathing and the diameter of the workpiece which can be processed in optimal conditions
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kyakuno, Haruka, E-mail: h-kyakuno@kanagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Nakai, Yusuke; Maniwa, Yutaka, E-mail: maniwa@phys.se.tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Matsuda, Kazuyuki [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Miyata, Yasumitsu [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)
2016-08-14
Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature T{sub wd} ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter D{sub c} ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > D{sub c}) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at T{sub wd} upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below T{sub wd} freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < D{sub c}) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.
A transverse lattice QCD model for mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patel, Apoorva D.; Ratabole, Raghunath
2004-03-01
QCD is analysed with two light-front continuum dimensions and two transverse lattice dimensions. In the limit of large number of colours and strong transverse gauge coupling, the contributions of light-front and transverse directions factorise in the dynamics, and the theory can be analytically solved in a closed form. An integral equation is obtained, describing the properties of mesons, which generalises the 't Hooft equation by including spin degrees of freedom. The meson spectrum, light-front wavefunctions and form factors can be obtained by solving this equation numerically. These results would be a good starting point to model QCD observables which only weakly depend on transverse directions, e.g. deep inelastic scattering structure functions.
Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1975-01-01
The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions
Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Saber, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Dujardin, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique des Milieux Complexes (LCPMC), Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070 Metz (France)
2013-06-15
In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J{sub cs} exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given.
Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Ahuja, R.; Dujardin, F.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J cs exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given
Retrobulbar diameter of optic nerve in glaucoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefanović Ivan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The ultrasound diagnostics of the optic nerve includes the analysis of the optic nerve disc (PNO and measuring of its retrobulbar diameter. With B-scan, by Schraeder's method, it is possible to measure very precisely the optic nerve, the pial diameter, the normal values for the pial diameter being 2.8-4.1 mm. In glaucoma, the disease that is most frequently associated with higher intraocular pressure, there comes the destruction of nerve fibres, which can be visualized as the excavation of the optic nerve disc. Objective. In this paper, we were interested in finding whether in glaucoma, and in what phase of the disease, the optic nerve starts growing thinner. Aware of many forms of this very complex disease, we were interested in knowing if the visualization of excavation on the optic nerve disc is related to diminishing of the pial diameter of the retrobulbar nerve part. Methods. There were treated the patients who had already had the diagnosis of glaucoma and the visualized excavation of the optic disc of various dimensions. Echographically, there was measured the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve and the finding compared in relation to the excavation of the optic disc. Results. In all eyes with glaucoma, a normal size of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve was measured, ranging from 3.01 to 3.91 mm with the median of 3.36 mm. Also, by testing the correlation between the thickness of the optic nerve and the excavation of the PNO, by Pearson test, we found that there was no correlation between these two parameters (r=0.109; p>0.05. Conclusion. In the patients with glaucoma, the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve is not thinner (it has normal values, even not in the cases with a totally excavated optic disc. There is no connection between the size of the PNO excavation and the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve.
29 mm Diameter Target Test Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2017-10-23
After numerous delays, the test of the 29 mm diameter target was conducted on 8/18/2017. The complete target design report, dated 8/15/2016, is reproduced below for completeness. This describes in detail the 10 disk target with varying thickness disks. The report presents and discusses the test results. In brief summary, there appears to have been multiple instrumentation errors. Measured temperatures, pressures and IR camera window temperature measurement are all suspect. All tests were done at 35 MeV, with 171 μA current, or 6 kW of beam power.
Composition and diameter modulation of magnetic nanowire arrays fabricated by a novel approach
Shaker Salem, Mohamed; Tejo, Felipe; Zierold, Robert; Sergelius, Philip; Montero Moreno, Josep M.; Goerlitz, Detlef; Nielsch, Kornelius; Escrig, Juan
2018-02-01
Straight magnetic nanowires composed of nickel and permalloy segments having different diameters are synthesized using a promising approach. This approach involves the controlled electrodeposition of each magnetic material into specially designed diameter-modulated porous alumina templates. Standard alumina templates are exposed to pore widening followed by a protective coating of the pore wall with ultrathin silica and further anodization. Micromagnetic simulations are employed to investigate the process of magnetization reversal in the fabricated nanowires when the magnetic materials exchange their places in the thick and thin segments. It is found that the magnetization reversal occurs by the propagation of transverse domain wall (DW) when the thick segment is composed of permalloy. However, the reversal process proceeds by the propagation of vortex DW when permalloy is located at the thin segment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolaeva, A.A.; Konopko, L.A.; Tsurkan, A.K.; Botnari, O.V.
2013-01-01
Full text: We report here anomalies observed at low temperatures in the transverse magnetoresistance of single Bi nanowires. Bi wires in glass capillary were prepared by liquid phase casting technique with diameters up to 45 nm. The Bi wire are single crystals, with their axis oriented in the bisectrix trigonal plane, about 19 degrees from bisectrix axis. For the first time it was found that the field dependence of transverse magnetoresistance (TMR), R(H) at I perpendicular H in Bi wires with d 0 at T<5K. Effect has been observed at low temperatures in Bi nanowires, with diameter around the critical diameter, at the semimetal-to-semiconductor transition (SMSCT) due to size quantization effect. To interpret these anomalous an accurate model of parabolic potentials taken into account the anisotropy of effective mass of current carriers have been used. The electrical conductivity of quantum Bi wires in the homogeneous magnetic field, directed perpendicular to axis of quantum wire is calculated using the Cubo formula taking into account the scattering process carrier on the interface roughest and phonons. The experimental results confirm the existence of the semimetal-semiconductor phase transition seen in the transverse magnetoresistance.
Transverse momentum signatures for heavy Higgs bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cahn, R.N.; Ellis, S.D.; Kleiss, R.; Stirling, W.J.
1986-01-01
Heavy Higgs bosons produced by WW fusion at the SSC will have transverse mementum of order M/sub w/. The background due to q anti q → ZZ will produce pairs with characteristically less transverse momentum. This provides a useful discriminator. It may be possible to tag the WW fusion events in a manner analogous to that used in two photon physics. 12 refs., 4 figs
Laparoscopic correction of right transverse colostomy prolapse.
Gundogdu, Gokhan; Topuz, Ufuk; Umutoglu, Tarik
2013-08-01
Colostomy prolapse is a frequently seen complication of transverse colostomy. In one child with recurrent stoma prolapse, we performed a loop-to-loop fixation and peritoneal tethering laparoscopically. No prolapse had recurred at follow-up. Laparoscopic repair of transverse colostomy prolapse seems to be a less invasive method than other techniques. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.
Results from the AGS Booster transverse damper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russo, D.; Brennan, M.; Meth, M.; Roser, T.
1993-01-01
To reach the design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 protons per pulse in the AGS Booster, transverse coupled bunch instabilities with an estimated growth rate of 1500s -1 have to be dampened. A prototype transverse damper has been tested successfully using a one turn digital delay and closed orbit suppression implemented in a programmable gate array. An updated damper, which includes an algorithm to optimize damping for a changing betatron rune, will also be presented
Control of Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets
2016-03-15
Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-13-1-0747 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ayers, Bradley...ANSI Std. Z39.18 CONTROL OF SUPERCAVITATING VEHICLES USING TRANSVERSE JETS Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract N00014-13-1...fully-submerged, supercavitating vehicle model using the thrust of the zero-net-mass-flux device. The experiments were conducted in NUWC Newport’ s
Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.
2009-06-01
The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rigit, A.R.H. [University of Sarawak, Faculty of Engineering, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Shrimpton, John S. [University of Southampton, Energy Technology Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton (United Kingdom)
2009-06-15
The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/d{proportional_to}200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested. (orig.)
Mechanical Properties and Acoustic Emission Properties of Rocks with Different Transverse Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Yan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Since the stability of engineering rock masses has important practical significance to projects like mining, tunneling, and petroleum engineering, it is necessary to study mechanical properties and stability prediction methods for rocks, cementing materials that are composed of minerals in all shapes and sizes. Rocks will generate acoustic emission during damage failure processes, which is deemed as an effective means of monitoring the stability of coal rocks. In the meantime, actual mining and roadway surrounding rocks tend to have transverse effects; namely, the transverse scale is larger than the length scale. Therefore, it is important to explore mechanical properties and acoustic emission properties of rocks under transverse size effects. Considering the transverse scale effects of rocks, this paper employs the microparticle flow software PFC2D to explore the influence of different aspect ratios on damage mechanics and acoustic emission properties of rocks. The results show that (1 the transverse scale affects uniaxial compression strength of rocks. As the aspect ratio increases, uniaxial compression strength of rocks decreases initially and later increases, showing a V-shape structure and (2 although it affects the maximum hit rate and the strain range of acoustic emission, it has little influence on the period of occurrence. As the transverse scale increases, both damage degree and damage rate of rocks decrease initially and later increase.
Transverse structure of the QCD string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, Harvey B.
2010-01-01
The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length β defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2πσ)log(β/4r 0 ) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2πσ)log(r/r 0 ). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.
A Study of Large Transverse Momentum Phenomena
2002-01-01
This experiment studies the structure of those p-p and @*-p collisions which are characterized by a very high transverse momentum flow in the central region. Some specific items studied are:\\\\ \\\\ \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is shared by charged and neutral hadron (``jets''). Transverse momentum distribution, correlations and momentum balance for such events. \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is mostly carried by one identified particle. Quantum number dependence and quantum number correlations of the high transverse momentum events. \\item -~~Structure of events containing large transverse momentum leptons or lepton pairs or direct photons. \\end{enumerate}.sk -~~Study of low momentum electrons and photons. -~~Search for gluonium states. -~~Search for new and rare particles. \\\\ \\\\ A conventional C-type magnet with a 0.5 T field in the direction of the beams together with a 42-layer cylindrical drift chamber detector is used for momentum analysi...
Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals
Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen
2018-01-01
Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.
Evaluation of the photocathode laser transverse distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saisa-ard, Chaipattana [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand); Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Vashchenko, Grygorii [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)
2016-07-01
Many years experience of electron source developments at the photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) show that the photocathode laser is the one of major tools to produce high brightness electron beams. The transverse distribution of the laser on the photocathode plays a significant role in the high brightness photo injector optimization. However, the imperfections in the laser beam profile according to the deviation from a radially homogeneous profile directly result in transversely distorted charged particle distributions. This includes inhomogeneous core as well as transverse halo which is due to not sharp edges around the core. The laser transverse distribution is measured at PITZ using a virtual cathode:this is a CCD camera located at the position which is optically equivalent to the photocathode position (so called virtual cathode). An algorithm is developed for the evaluation of the experimentally obtained transverse profiles. It fits a flat-top or an inhomogeneous rotational symmetric core with exponentially decaying tails to an experimental distribution. The MATLAB script with implemented algorithm is applied to a set of measured transverse laser distributions. Results of the analysis will be presented.
Corrosion and deposit evaluation in large diameter pipes using radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boateng, A.
2012-01-01
of misinterpreting the failure of such pipe component. On the whole the TRT method overestimated the degree of penetrated corrosion attack in the tangential position in the neighbourhood of 9% and the Double Wall Technique (DWT) had a maximum underestimation of 1.3% of the corroded surface area of the pipe. The TRT measurement of depth of local corrosion (pitting) was within an accuracy of ±0.37 mm and the measurement of corroded surface area (pit diameter) using DWT was within an accuracy of ± 0.29 mm. These tolerance limits are 5% less than the wall thickness of the pipe. The statistical interpretation of the obtained results from the study can reliably be used to develop a baseline data for the investigated pipe, through which effective monitoring of corrosion and deposit can be executed. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilir Sag, Nagihan; Ersoy, H. Kursad
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Effects of nozzle throat diameter and its location on performance were investigated. • The nozzle has an optimum throat diameter under the experiment condition. • The maximum performance has been achieved by using optimum nozzle throat diameter. • The variation of nozzle throat diameter with condenser water inlet temperature was examined. • Motive nozzle has no optimum position in the ejector refrigeration system. - Abstract: In this study, ejector was used to reduce throttling losses in a vapour compression refrigeration system. Effects on system performance of throat diameter and position of motive nozzle of ejector were investigated experimentally. An ejector was designed based on the established mathematical model and manufactured. The experiments were carried out by using different primary nozzle throat diameters. The experiments were further conducted by changing condenser water inlet temperature, which is one of the external parameters. The experimental results of the ejector system and those of the classic system were compared under same external operating conditions and for the same cooling capacity. In order to obtain same external operating conditions in both systems, the inlet conditions of the brine supplied to the evaporator and inlet water conditions (flow rate and temperature) to the condenser were kept constant. Maximum performance was obtained when the primary nozzle throat diameter was 2.3 mm within the areas considered in this study. When compared, it was experimentally determined that the ejector system that uses the optimum motive nozzle throat diameter exhibits higher COP than the classic system by 5–13%. Furthermore, it was found that the variation of coefficient of performance based on position of motive nozzle in two-phase ejector expander refrigeration cycle is lower than 1%.
Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.
Chang, Y.-H.
2018-02-26
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-porous membranes were prepared from PTFE fine powder through extruding, rolling, and uniaxial longitudinally stretching. In contrast to conventional planar transverse stretching, a novel 3D mold design of non-planar transverse stretching process was employed in this study to produce micro-porous structure. The morphology, membrane thickness, mean pore size, and porosity of the PTFE membrane were investigated. The results show that the non-planar transverse stretched membranes exhibit more uniform average pore diameter with thinner membrane thickness. Morphological changes induced by planar and non-planar transverse stretching for pore characteristics were investigated. The stretching conditions, stretching temperature and rate, affect the stretched membrane. Increasing temperature facilitated the uniformity of pore size and uniformity of membrane thickness. Moreover, increase in stretching rate resulted in finer pore size and thinner membrane.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.
Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottershead, C.T.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs
Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottershead, C.T.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore
A portable storage maximum thermometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayart, Gerard.
1976-01-01
A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr
Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu
1989-01-01
A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Connor, S.E.J.; Stewart, V.R.; O' Flynn, E.A.M. [King' s College Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, Ruskin Wing, London (United Kingdom); Siddiqui, M.A. [Southern General Hospital, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)
2008-12-15
Transverse sinus tapered narrowings are frequently identified in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH); however, it remains unclear whether they are primary stenoses or whether they occur secondary to raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Computed tomographic venography demonstrates both the morphology of the venous system and the adjacent bony grooves so it may provide an insight into the aetiology of these transverse sinus stenoses. Tapered transverse sinus narrowings (>50%) were studied in 19 patients without IIH and 14 patients with IIH. Computed tomography vascular studies were reviewed and the dimensions of the venous sinuses and bony grooves at the sites of maximum and minimum transverse sinus area dimensions were recorded. There was demonstrated to be a strong correlation of bony groove height with venous sinus height at the largest portions of the transverse sinus in both IIH patients and non-IIH subjects as well as at the transverse sinus narrowing in non-IIH subjects. There was a discordant relationship between bony groove height and venous sinus height at the site of transverse sinus stenoses in IIH patients. In 5/23 IIH transverse sinus stenoses, the bony groove height was proportionate to that seen in non-IIH subjects. There were a further 8/23 cases where the small or absent sinus was associated with an absent bony groove. Transverse sinus tapered narrowings in subjects without IIH and in the majority of patients with IIH were associated with proportionately small or absent grooves, and these are postulated to be primary or fixed. Some patients with IIH demonstrate tapered transverse sinus stenoses with disproportionately large bony grooves, suggesting a secondary or acquired narrowing. This implies a varied aetiology for the transverse sinus stenoses of IIH. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, S.E.J.; Stewart, V.R.; O'Flynn, E.A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.
2008-01-01
Transverse sinus tapered narrowings are frequently identified in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH); however, it remains unclear whether they are primary stenoses or whether they occur secondary to raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Computed tomographic venography demonstrates both the morphology of the venous system and the adjacent bony grooves so it may provide an insight into the aetiology of these transverse sinus stenoses. Tapered transverse sinus narrowings (>50%) were studied in 19 patients without IIH and 14 patients with IIH. Computed tomography vascular studies were reviewed and the dimensions of the venous sinuses and bony grooves at the sites of maximum and minimum transverse sinus area dimensions were recorded. There was demonstrated to be a strong correlation of bony groove height with venous sinus height at the largest portions of the transverse sinus in both IIH patients and non-IIH subjects as well as at the transverse sinus narrowing in non-IIH subjects. There was a discordant relationship between bony groove height and venous sinus height at the site of transverse sinus stenoses in IIH patients. In 5/23 IIH transverse sinus stenoses, the bony groove height was proportionate to that seen in non-IIH subjects. There were a further 8/23 cases where the small or absent sinus was associated with an absent bony groove. Transverse sinus tapered narrowings in subjects without IIH and in the majority of patients with IIH were associated with proportionately small or absent grooves, and these are postulated to be primary or fixed. Some patients with IIH demonstrate tapered transverse sinus stenoses with disproportionately large bony grooves, suggesting a secondary or acquired narrowing. This implies a varied aetiology for the transverse sinus stenoses of IIH. (orig.)
Polguj, Michał; Sibiński, Marcin; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Waszczykowski, Michał; Majos, Agata; Topol, Mirosław
2014-01-01
The suprascapular notch is covered superiorly by the superior transverse scapular ligament. This region is the most common place of suprascapular nerve entrapment formation. The study was performed on 812 specimens: 86 dry scapulae, 104 formalin-fixed cadaveric shoulders, and 622 computer topography scans of scapulae. In the cases with completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament, the following measurements were performed: proximal and distal width of the bony bridge, middle transverse and vertical diameter of the suprascapular foramen, and area of the suprascapular foramen. An ossified superior transverse scapular ligament was observed more often in men and in the right scapula. The mean age of the subjects with a completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament was found to be similar than in those without ossification. The ossified band-shaped type of superior transverse scapular ligament was more common than the fan-shaped type and reduced the space below the ligament to a significantly greater degree. The ossified band-shaped type should be taken into consideration as a potential risk factor in the formation of suprascapular nerve entrapment. It could explain the comparable frequency of neuropathy in various populations throughout the world despite the significant differences between them in occurrence of ossified superior transverse scapular ligament.
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2015-08-26
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.
Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, R.S.
1978-01-01
A 30 cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cm 2 at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of +- 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Osborne, C.A.; Tomlinson, M.J.
1984-01-01
Prostatic and membranous urethral diameter was measured in 24 normal mature male Beagle dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography. This technique involved retrograde urethral distension by infusion with contrast medium until the urinary bladder was distended and the vesicourethral junction remained opened as observed by fluoroscopy. Lateral and ventro-dorsal radiographs were made during subsequent injections of 5–10 ml of contrast medium. The prostatic urethra was consistently greater in diameter than the membranous urethra. However, the numerical ratio between the prostatic urethral diameter and the membranous urethral diameter varied among these dogs by a factor of 2 at the numerical extremes
Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); A. M. Prokhorov Institute of General Physics RAS, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2016-05-15
Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.
Sugar maple height-diameter and age-diameter relationships in an uneven-aged northern hardwood stand
Laura S. Kenefic; R.D. Nyland
1999-01-01
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) height-diameter and age-diameter relationships are explored in a balanced uneven-aged northern hardwood stand in central New York. Results show that although both height and age vary considerably with diameter, these relationships can be described by statistically valid equations. The age-diameter relationship...
On Maximum Entropy and Inference
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luigi Gresele
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.
Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis
Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani
2011-01-01
Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunfeng Shan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the ﬁnding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reﬂects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.
Nucleon Spin Structure: Longitudinal and Transverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Jian-Ping
2011-01-01
Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinal polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions in the nucleon. It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction. The transverse spin structure and the TMDs are the subject of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With a high luminosity electron beam facility, JLab has played a major role in the worldwide effort to study both the longitudinal and transverse spin structure. Highlights of recent results will be presented. With 12-GeV energy upgrade, JLab will provide the most precise measurements in the valence quark region to close a chapter in longitudinal spin study. JLab will also perform a multi-dimensional mapping of the transverse spin structure and TMDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum space and extracting the u and d quark tensor charges of the nucleon. The precision mapping of TMDs will also allow a detailed study of the quark orbital motion and its dynamics.
Strange hadron production at low transverse momenta
Veres, Gábor I.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Noell, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Teng, R.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.
2004-01-01
Some of the latest results of the PHOBOS experiment from the \\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 200\\ GeV Au+Au data are discussed. Those relevant to strangeness production are emphasized. These observations relate to the nature of the matter created when heavy ions collide at the highest achieved energy. The invariant yields of strange and non-strange charged hadrons at very low transverse momentum have been measured, and used to differentiate between different dynamical scenarios. In the intermediate transverse momentum range, the measured ratios of strange and anti-strange kaons approach one, while the antibaryon to baryon ratio is still significantly less, independent of collision centrality and transverse momentum. At high transverse momenta, we find that central and peripheral Au+Au collisions produce similar numbers of charged hadrons per participant nucleon pair, rather than per binary nucleon-nucleon collision. Finally, we describe the upgrades of PHOBOS completed for the 2003 d+Au and p+p run, which extend the transverse momentum range over which particle identification is possible and, at the same time, implement a trigger system selective for high-pT particles.
Design of the APS transverse and longitudinal damping system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sellyey, W.; Barr, D.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.
1994-01-01
The main sources of instabilities in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are expected to be higher-order modes (HOMs) of the accelerating cavities and the resistive wall impedance of the small insertion devices beam tubes. Extensive efforts are being made to reduce the Qs of HOMs. The maximum operating current of the ring will be 300 mA. At this current, analysis of measurements on cavity prototypes shows that the transverse growth rates will be less than 500/sec above radiation damping. The longitudinal growth rate due to HOMs is predicted to never exceed the radiation damping of 213/sec. The largest transverse resistive wall growth rate is calculated to be 2720/sec when 54 evenly spaced rigid bunches are used to produce 300 mA. There will be 26 additional unstable modes. The sum of these growth rates is 17,163/sec. Thus, it is clear that an effective transverse damping system will be needed and that the strength of this damper will be dominated by the resistive wall modes. A longitudinal damper system will also be built. This will provide damping about 2/3 times that due to synchrotron radiation. The most serious disturbances which can initiate instabilities will take place at injection. Typically, each bunch in the ring will be accumulated by injecting 115 of the final charge five times. A standard mode of operation is used in this paper in which there will be 54 evenly spaced bunches around the ring. During the ring filling process, the highest growth rates will occur when the last fifth of a bunch is injected into the last bunch. The largest expected vertical excursion of 1/5 of a bunch is about 5 mm. Anything larger will cause the bunch to scrape in the insertion device sections
LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clendenin, J.
2005-01-01
The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed
A note on fractional disjoint transversals in hypergraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders
2017-01-01
A transversal in a hypergraph H is a subset of vertices that has a nonempty intersection with every edge of H. A transversal family F of H is a family of (not necessarily distinct) transversals of H. The effective transversal-ratio of the family F is the ratio of the number of sets in F over the ...
46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with secondary...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armenise, N.; Fogli Muciaccia, M.T.; Nuzzo, S.
1977-01-01
The definition of a parameter usefull to measure the transversity is given. Some reactions at 9GeV/c are examined and the channels are selected looking at the behaviour of global transverse momenta of the event. A few comparisons with other variables, used to select the channels characterized by different production processes are reported
van Rongen, I; Damhuis, R A M; van der Hoeven, J A B; Plaisier, P W
2013-01-01
Cancer of the transverse colon is rare and postoperative mortality tends to be high. Standard surgical treatment involves either extended hemicolectomy or transverse colectomy, depending on the location of the tumour. The aim of the present study was to compare postoperative mortality and five-year survival between these types of surgery. For this observational study, data on patients with a tumour of the transverse colon, treated by open resection in the Dordrecht Hospital from 1989 through 2003, were derived from the database of the regional cancer registry. Information on type of resection, tumour stage, complications, postoperative mortality (30-day) and survival was abstracted from the medical files. Patients with multi-organ surgery, (sub)total colectomy or stage IV disease were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total series of 103 patients. Transverse colectomy comprised one third of operations, predominantly involving partial resections. Postoperative mortality was 6% (2/34) after transverse colectomy and 7% (5/69) after extended hemicolectomy. Five-year survival was slightly higher for the hemicolectomy group (61% versus 50%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.34). Our results confirm the high postoperative risk after surgery for cancer of the transverse colon and show that this risk does not depend on the type of surgery. Considering the satisfactory results after partial transverse colectomy, segmental resections may be considered as an option for the treatment of localised tumours of the transverse colon.
High-power, cladding-pumped all-fiber laser with selective transverse mode generation property.
Li, Lei; Wang, Meng; Liu, Tong; Leng, Jinyong; Zhou, Pu; Chen, Jinbao
2017-06-10
We demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first cladding-pumped all-fiber oscillator configuration with selective transverse mode generation based on a mode-selective fiber Bragg grating pair. Operating in the second-order (LP 11 ) mode, maximum output power of 4.2 W is obtained with slope efficiency of about 38%. This is the highest reported output power of single higher-order transverse mode generation in an all-fiber configuration. The intensity distribution profile and spectral evolution have also been investigated in this paper. Our work suggests the potential of realizing higher power with selective transverse mode operation based on a mode-selective fiber Bragg grating pair.
An oxide-based thermoelectric generator: Transversal thermoelectric strip-device
Teichert, S.; Bochmann, A.; Reimann, T.; Schulz, T.; Dreßler, C.; Töpfer, J.
2015-07-01
A special design of an oxide-based transversal thermoelectric device utilizing thermoelectric oxides in combination with a ceramic multilayer technology is proposed. Metal strips within the ceramic matrix replace the tilted stack of alternating layers used in artificial anisotropic transversal thermoelectric devices. Numerical three-dimensional simulations of both device types reveal better thermoelectric performance data for the device with metal stripes. A monolithic transversal strip-device based on the material combination La1.97Sr0.03CuO4/Ag6Pd1 was prepared and electrically characterized. A maximum power output of 4.0 mW was determined at ΔT = 225 K for the monolithic device. The observed results are in remarkable agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations utilizing the transport parameters of the two materials and the geometry data of the device.
Directional Transverse Oscillation Vector Flow Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2017-01-01
A method for estimating vector velocities using transverse oscillation (TO) combined with directional beamforming is presented. In Directional Transverse Oscillation (DTO) a normal focused field is emitted and the received signals are beamformed in the lateral direction transverse to the ultrasound...... beam to increase the amount of data for vector velocity estimation. The approach is self-calibrating as the lateral oscillation period is estimated from the directional signal through a Fourier transform to yield quantitative velocity results over a large range of depths. The approach was extensively...... simulated using Field IIpro and implemented on the experimental SARUS scanner in connection with a BK Medical 8820e convex array transducer. Velocity estimates for DTO are found for beam-to-flow angles of 60, 75, and 90, and vessel depths from 24 to 156 mm. Using 16 emissions the Standard Deviation (SD...
Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity
Mekhfi, Mustapha
2011-01-01
We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.
Operative Method for Transverse Colon Carcinoma: Transverse Colectomy Versus Extended Colectomy.
Chong, Choon Seng; Huh, Jung Wook; Oh, Bo Young; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong
2016-07-01
The type of surgery performed for primary transverse colon cancer varies based on tumor characteristics and surgeon perspective. The optimal oncological outcome following different surgical options has not been clearly established, and transverse colectomy has shown oncological equivalence only in small cohort studies. Our aim was to compare long-term oncological outcomes after transverse colectomy versus extended resection for transverse colon cancer. This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. All patients treated for transverse colon cancer at the Samsung Medical Center between 1995 and 2013 were included. Oncological outcomes were compared between 2 groups of patients: a transverse colectomy group and an extended colectomy group (which included extended right hemicolectomy and left hemicolectomy). A total of 1066 patients were included, of whom 750 (70.4%) underwent extended right hemicolectomy, 127 (11.9%) underwent transverse colectomy, and 189 (17.7%) underwent left hemicolectomy. According to univariate analysis, surgical approach, histological type, tumor morphology, cancer T and N stage, cancer size, and lymphovascular invasion were significant factors contributing to disease-free survival (DFS). However, as seen in multivariate analysis, only node-positive disease (HR = 2.035 (1.188-3.484)), tumors with ulcerative morphology (HR = 3.643 (1.132-11.725)), and the presence of vascular invasion (HR = 2.569 (1.455-4.538)) were significant factors for DFS. Further analysis with a propensity-matched cohort between the transverse and extended colectomy groups demonstrated no significant differences in DFS and overall survival. This study was limited because it was performed at a single institution and it was retrospective in nature. In terms of perioperative and oncological outcomes, transverse colectomy and extended colectomy did not differ despite a shorter specimen length and
Evolution of transverse modes in FELIX macropulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weits, H.H.; Lin, L.; Werkhoven, G.H.C. van
1995-01-01
We present ringdown measurements of both the intracavity beam, using a low reflection beamsplitter, as well as the hole-outcoupled beam of FELIX, the intracavity measurements being taken at various sets of transverse coordinates. Recent measurements show a significant difference in the decay of the signals at different radial positions, suggesting the presence of higher order transverse modes. The formation of transverse modes depends on the properties of the cold cavity and its losses (i.e. resonator parameters, diffraction and outcoupling at the hole, absorption and edge losses on the mirrors, waveguide clipping), as well as on the gain mechanism. Both simulations with the axisymmetric ELIXER code and previous hole-outcoupled measurements indicated a substantial energy content of the 2nd or 4th Gauss-Laguerre (GL) mode for the 20-30 μm regime of FELIX. Moreover, as FELIX has a phase degenerate cavity, the fundamental and higher order transverse modes can interplay to create a reduced outcoupling efficiency at the hole. For example, in contrast to the decay rate of 13% per roundtrip that we would expect for a pure gaussian beam when we include a loss of 6% for the reflection at the intracavity beamsplitter, recent simulations indicate a decay rate as high as 23% of the hole-outcoupled signal. In this case the 2nd order GL mode contains 30% of the total intracavity power. The effect of transverse modes on subpulses in the limit cycle regime is an interesting aspect. As soon as a subpulse is losing contact with the electrons, its transverse pattern will exhibit an on-axis hole after a few roundtrips, according to the simulations. This process could mean that the subpulses are less pronounced in the hole-outcoupled signal of FELIX 1
Waste system optimization - can diameter selection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashline, R.C.
1983-08-01
The purpose of the waste system optimization study is to define in terms of cost incentives the preferred waste package for HLW which has been converted to glass at a commercial reprocessing plant. The Waste Management Economic Model (WMEM) was employed to analyze the effect of varying important design parameters on the overall net present cost of waste handling. The parameters found to have the greatest effect on the calculated overall net present cost were can diameter, repository type (salt, basalt/bentonite, or welded tuff), allowable areal heat loading, and the repository availability date. The overall net present of a waste handling option is calculated over a 20-year operating period. It includes the total capital and operating costs associated with high-level and intermediate-level liquid waste storage, liquid waste solidification, hulls storage and compaction, and general process trash handling. It also includes the cask leasing and transportation costs associated with each waste type and the waste repository disposal costs. The waste repository disposal costs used in WMEM for this analysis were obtained from Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories and thir RECON model. 2 figures, 2 tables
Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.
1997-01-01
The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)
Transversely Excited Multipass Photoacoustic Cell Using Electromechanical Film as Microphone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaakko Saarela
2010-05-01
Full Text Available A novel multipass photoacoustic cell with five stacked electromechanical films as a microphone has been constructed, tested and characterized. The photoacoustic cell is an open rectangular structure with two steel plates facing each other. The longitudinal acoustic resonances are excited transversely in an optical multipass configuration. A detection limit of 22 ppb (10−9 was achieved for flowing NO2 in N2 at normal pressure by using the maximum of 70 laser beams between the resonator plates. The corresponding minimum detectable absorption and the normalized noise-equivalent absorption coefficients were 2:2 × 10−7 cm−1 and 3:2 × 10−9 cm−1WHz−1/2, respectively.
Inclusive eta production at large transverse momenta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donaldson, G.J.; Gordon, H.A.; Lai, K.; Stumer, I.; Barnes, A.V.; Mellema, D.J.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Walker, R.L.; Dahl, O.; Johnson, R.; Ogawa, A.; Pripstein, M.; Shannon, S.
1978-01-01
We have measured the ratio of inclusive production of eta to π 0 at transverse momenta above 1.5 GeV/c. Results are presented for various meson and proton beams with momenta of 100, 200, and 300 GeV/c incident upon a hydrogen target. The eta/π 0 production ratio is found to be independent of incident beam momentum and of the transverse and longitudinal momenta of production. The ratio for pion- and proton-induced reactions is 0.44 +- 0.05; for kaons, it is 0.74 +- 0.12
Isolated Transverse Sacrum Fracture: A Case Report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cemil Kavalci
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Sacral fracture commonly results from high-energy trauma. Most insufficiency fractures of the sacrum are seen in women after the age of 70. Fractures of the sacrum are rare and generally combined with a concomitant pelvic fracture. Transverse sacral fractures are even less frequent which constitute only 3–5% of all sacral fractures. This type of fractures provide a diagnostic challenge. We report a unique case of isolated transverse fracture of sacrum in a young man sustained low-energy trauma. The patient presented to our emergency department after several hours of injury, and diagnosed by clinical features and roentgenogram findings.
Transverse posterior element fractures associated with torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, M.S.
1989-01-01
Six examples of a previously undescribed class of transverse vertebral element fractures are presented. These fractures differ from Chance and Smith fractures and their variants in the following respects: (1) the etiology is torsion and not flexion; (2) there is neither distraction of posterior ring fragments nor posterior ligament tears; (3) in contrast to Chance and Smith fractures, extension of the fracture into the vertebral body is absent or minimal; (4) the transverse process of the lumbar vertebra is avulsed at its base with a vertical fracture, not split horizontally. These fractures occur in cervical, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae in normal or compromised areas of the spine. (orig.)
Generic maximum likely scale selection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azam Sadat Madani
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Angle and internal position of lateral pterygoid muscle leads to contraction over two half of the mandible in maximum opening and protrusion position so it can affects impression prosthetic procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular flexure in two transverse and antro-posterior dimensions. Methods: Seventy edentulous patients at Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry as the main group and 50 dentulous patients as the control group were selected. In these patients, transverse dimensions between second molar areas and also canine eminence from one side to another side, and longitudinal dimensions based on the distance between canine to second molar area at centric occlusion and maximum mouth opening were measured. Dimensional differences as the mandibular flexure were measured. Results: The mandibular dimensions in maximum opening and closed mouth were different. Average reduction in transverse dimension on second molar region at maximum mouth opening and closing position were almost equal to -0.0787 mm for target group and 0.7512 mm for control group. On anterior side, averages of these changes were equal to 0.3069 mm for target group and were 0.2254 mm for control group. Conclusion: Transverse dimensions in anterior region at maximum opening position are smaller than the same dimension at closed mouth in edentulous and dentulous patients.
Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.
Garratt, J. R.
1992-09-01
There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Nedelcu
2014-12-01
Full Text Available By molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the transport of charged polymers in confinement, under externally applied electric fields, in straight cylinders of uniform diameter and in the presence of monovalent or multivalent counterions. The applied electric field has two components; a longitudinal component along the axis of the cylinder and a transversal component perpendicular to the cylinder axis. The direction of electrophoretic velocity depends on the polyelectrolyte length, valency of the counterions present in solution and transversal electric field value. A statistical model is put forward in order to explain these observations.
Matsuda, Takeru; Sumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Kanaji, Shingo; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro
2018-04-02
Although the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer have been shown by the recent studies, the optimal laparoscopic approach for mid-transverse colon cancer is controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with the mid-transverse colon cancer at our institutions between January 2007 and April 2017. Thirty-eight and 34 patients who received extended right hemicolectomy and transverse colectomy, respectively, were enrolled. There were no significant differences in operating time, blood loss, and hospital stay between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 10 of 34 patients (29.4%; wound infection: 2 cases, anastomotic leakage: 2 cases, bowel obstruction: 1 case, incisional hernia: 2 cases, others: 3 cases) for the transverse colectomy group and in 4 of 38 patients (10.5%; wound infection: 1 case, anastomotic leakage: 0 case, bowel obstruction: 2 cases, incisional hernia: 0 case, others: 1 case) for the extended right hemicolectomy group (P = 0.014). Although the median number of harvested #221 and #222 LNs was similar between the two groups (6 vs. 8, P = 0.710, and 3 vs. 2, P = 0.256, respectively), that of #223 was significantly larger in extended right hemicolectomy than in transverse colectomy (3 vs. 1, P = 0.038). The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 92.4 and 90.3% for the extended right hemicolectomy group, and 95.7 and 79.6% for the transverse colectomy group (P = 0.593 and P = 0.638, respectively). Laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy and laparoscopic transverse colectomy offer similar oncological outcomes for mid-transverse colon cancer. Laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy might be associated with fewer postoperative complications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyongyosi, T.; Valeca, S.; Corbescu, B.; Puiu, D.; Panaitescu, V. N.
2015-01-01
The isolation with ice plug of a high diameter horizontal pipeline section is a specific technique for repairs activities/ replacements of components owning to thermo-hydraulic installations working with liquid agents. The application of such technique don.t assumes stopping of the entire system. The ice plugging inside of the pipeline assumes using of a special device and of an own specific technology for application. The paper contains a brief description of the experimental technological facilities used, followed by setting off the main moments in evolution of two experimental tests carried out on the test section with 300 mm nominal diameter for demineralized water and, finally, by a brief results analysis and some conclusions. The paper is dedicated to the specialists working in the research and technological engineering. (authors)
Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in miombo woodlands of Tanzania. ... Individual tree diameter growth and mortality models, and area-based recruitment models were developed. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
VIGIL, MANUEL G.
2001-01-01
This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels
Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio
S.M. Bratkovich
1991-01-01
Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and transverse sinus stenoses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skyrman, Simon; Fytagoridis, Anders; Andresen, Morten
2013-01-01
An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and bilateral transverse sinus stenoses (TSS), after presenting with papilledema and decreased visual acuity. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of >60 cm H2O. MRI showed bilateral TSS believed to be asso...
What is the transverse momentum of partons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.; Halzen, F.; Scott, D.M.
1977-01-01
Theoretical arguments for a picture where the average transverse momentum of partons inside hadrons increases when x increases towards x=0.4 approximately 0.5, peaks and subsequently decreases when x approaches 1. This result is contrary to that suggested by asymptotic freedom arguments. Phenomenological support for this is discussed. (Auth.)
Transverse tripolar stimulation for selective FNS
Deurloo, K.E.I.; Holsheimer, J.
1996-01-01
Various anode-cathode configurations in a nerve cuff were modeled in order to optimize its spatial selectivity characteristics for FNS. Apart from the usual configurations (monopole, bipole, longitudinal tripole, ¿steering¿ anode), a transverse tripolar configuration (central cathode) was examined.
TRANSVERSE COLON POUCH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective Urinary diversion after pelvic irradiation is challenging. The use of irradiated bowel is mostly complicated and unsuccessful. Therefore, the use of an exclusively non-irradiated bowel segment, such as the transverse colon, is a good alternative in such situation. Patients and Methods Twenty-nine female patients ...
Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Samyobrata Mukherjee
2017-07-25
Jul 25, 2017 ... spline interpolation from the data of Johnson and Christy. [31]. But first, we have to deal with normalization in order to make our comparisons of the transverse spin for different wavelengths and metal film thicknesses d meaningful. We normalize the power flow into the sys- tem at x = 0 to unity. ∫ ∞. −∞.
Sex Education as a Transversal Subject
Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.
2015-01-01
Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…
Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik
1998-01-01
Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....
Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoddart, H.F.
1978-01-01
A transverse radionuclide scanfield imaging apparatus is described comprising a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; and means for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each collimator uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirami, Ryouichi; Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Matano, Shigeru; Murakami, Masaaki; Kita, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Noburu; Tsuji, Takao
2000-01-01
Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty.Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis.Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%).Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis
First phase of small diameter heater experiments in tuff
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmerman, R.M.
1983-01-01
As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, we have undertaken small diameter heater experiments in the G-Tunnel Underground Facility on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These experiments are to evaluate the thermal and hydrothermal behavior which might be encountered if heat producing nuclear waste were disposed of in welded and nonwelded tuffs. The two Phase I experiments discussed have focused on vertical borehole emplacements. In each experiment, temperatures were measured along the surface of the 10.2-cm-dia heater and the 12.7-cm-dia boreholes. For each experiment, measurements were compared with computer model representations. Maximum temperatures reached were: 196 0 C for the welded tuff after 21 days of operations at 800W and 173 0 C for the nonwelded tuff after 35 days of operations at 500W. Computed results indicate that the same heat transfer model (includes conduction and radiation only) can describe the behavior of both tuffs using empirical techniques to describe pore water vaporization. Hydrothermal measurements revealed heat-indiced water migration. Results indicated that small amounts of liquid water migrated into the welded tuff borehole early in the heating period. Once the rock-wall temperatures exceeded 94 0 C, in both tuffs, there was mass transport of water vapor as evidence indicated condensation cooler regions. Borehole pressures remained essentially ambient during the thermal periods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parag Suresh Mahajan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To test if diameter of normal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL can be measured by ultrasound (US, to see if there is a relationship between smaller ACL diameter and ACL injury, and to assess agreement between radiologists in measuring ACL diameter in cases and matched controls. Materials and Methods. In this ethics committee-approved study, maximum diameter of ACL near tibial insertion site was measured by static and dynamic US study in 25 normal contralateral knees of subjects who suffered noncontact ACL injury and in 25 matched control subjects. Results. ACL was visualized as a thick linear hypoechoic band inserted approximately 11 mm caudal to the tibial plateau and the intercondylar eminence. Maximum diameter of contralateral ACL near tibial insertion site among injured subjects was significantly smaller than in noninjured subjects (0.62 ± 0.07 cm versus 0.81 ± 0.06 cm; P<0.0001. In the regression analysis, the diameter of ACL near tibial insertion site was found significantly proportional to body weight and not significantly associated to height, gender, and age. Conclusion. Diameter of normal ACL near tibial insertion site can be measured by US and the maximum diameter is significantly smaller among subjects with noncontact ACL injury. US is a promising modality that can be used as an excellent screening test to detect subjects especially aspiring athletes prone to ACL injury. Very strong agreement was observed between radiologists in measuring ACL diameter.
System for memorizing maximum values
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1992-08-01
The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.
Remarks on the maximum luminosity
Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon
2018-04-01
The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thumim, A.D.
1975-01-01
A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Modeling Caribbean tree stem diameters from tree height and crown width measurements
Thomas Brandeis; KaDonna Randolph; Mike Strub
2009-01-01
Regression models to predict diameter at breast height (DBH) as a function of tree height and maximum crown radius were developed for Caribbean forests based on data collected by the U.S. Forest Service in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands. The model predicting DBH from tree height fit reasonably well (R2 = 0.7110), with...
Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media
Stovas, A.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-01-01
The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media
Stovas, A.
2013-09-09
The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator
Zhu, Shaowei
2017-12-01
Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.
Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.
1992-01-01
Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come
Biofilm formation on a TiO2 nanotube with controlled pore diameter and surface wettability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anitha, V C; Narayan Banerjee, Arghya; Woo Joo, Sang; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae; Ki Min, Bong
2015-01-01
Titania (TiO 2 ) nanotube arrays (TNAs) with different pore diameters (140 − 20 nm) are fabricated via anodization using hydrofluoric acid (HF) containing ethylene glycol (EG) by changing the HF-to-EG volume ratio and the anodization voltage. To evaluate the effects of different pore diameters of TiO 2 nanotubes on bacterial biofilm formation, Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis) MR-1 cells and a crystal-violet biofilm assay are used. The surface roughness and wettability of the TNA surfaces as a function of pore diameter, measured via the contact angle and AFM techniques, are correlated with the controlled biofilm formation. Biofilm formation increases with the decreasing nanotube pore diameter, and a 20 nm TiO 2 nanotube shows the maximum biofilm formation. The measurements revealed that 20 nm surfaces have the least hydrophilicity with the highest surface roughness of ∼17 nm and that they show almost a 90% increase in the effective surface area relative to the 140 nm TNAs, which stimulate the cells more effectively to produce the pili to attach to the surface for more biofilm formation. The results demonstrate that bacterial cell adhesion (and hence, biofilm formation) can effectively be controlled by tuning the roughness and wettability of TNAs via controlling the pore diameters of TNA surfaces. This biofilm formation as a function of the surface properties of TNAs can be a potential candidate for both medical applications and as electrodes in microbial fuel cells. (paper)
An in-pipe mobile micromachine using fluid power. A mechanism adaptable to pipe diameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Shinichi; Takahashi, Ken
2000-01-01
To realize micro maintenance robots for small diameter pipes of nuclear reactors and so on, high power in-pipe mobile micromachines have been required. The authors have proposed the bellows microactuator using fluid power and have tried to apply the actuators to in-pipe mobile micromachines. In the previous papers, some inchworm mobile machine prototypes with 25 mm in diameter are fabricated and the traveling performances are experimentally investigated. In this paper, to miniaturize the in-pipe mobile machine and to make it adaptable to pipe diameters, firstly, a simple rubber-tube actuator constrained with a coil-spring is proposed and the static characteristics are investigated. Secondly, a supporting mechanism which utilizes a toggle mechanism and is adaptable to pipe diameters is proposed and the supporting forces are investigated. Finally, an in-pipe mobile micromachine for pipe with 4 - 5 mm in diameter is fabricated and the maximum traveling velocity of 7 mm/s in both ahead and astern movements is experimentally verified. (author)
Characterization and monitoring of transverse beam tails
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seeman, J.T.; Decker, F.J.; Hsu, I.; Young, C.
1991-05-01
Low emittance electron beams accelerated to high energy in a linac experience transverse effects (wakefield, filamentation, optics) which produce non-Gaussian projected transverse beam distributions. Characterizations of the beam shapes are difficult because the shapes are asymmetric and change with betatron phase. In this note several methods to describe beam distributions are discussed including an accelerator physics model of these tails. The uses of these characterizations in monitoring the beam emittances in the SLC are described in this paper. First, two dimensional distributions from profile monitor screens are reviewed showing correlated tails. Second, a fitting technique for non-Gaussian one dimensional distributions is used to extract the core from the tail areas. Finally, a model for tail propagation in the linac is given. 3 refs., 6 figs
Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2009-01-01
We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the transverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure
Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are generic...
MEASUREMENT OF TRANSVERSE ECHOES IN RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FISCHER, W.; SATOGATA, T.; TOMAS, R.
2005-01-01
Beam echoes are a very sensitive method to measure diffusion, and longitudinal echo measurements were performed in a number of machines. In RHIC, for the first time, a transverse beam echo was observed after applying a dipole kick followed by a quadrupole .kick. After application of the dipole kick, the dipole moment decohered completely due to lattice nonlinearities. When a quadrupole kick is applied at time τ after the dipole kick, the beam re-cohered at time 2τ thus showing an echo response. We describe the experimental setup and measurement results. In the measurements the dipole and quadrupole kick amplitudes, amplitude dependent tune shift, and the time between dipole and quadrupole kick were varied. In addition, measurements were taken with gold bunches of different intensities. These should exhibit different transverse diffusion rates due to intra-beam scattering
Microfluidic mixing through oscillatory transverse perturbations
Wu, J. W.; Xia, H. M.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhu, P.
2018-05-01
Fluid mixing in miniaturized fluidic devices is a challenging task. In this work, the mixing enhancement through oscillatory transverse perturbations coupling with divergent circular chambers is studied. To simplify the design, an autonomous microfluidic oscillator is used to produce the oscillatory flow. It is then applied to four side-channels that intersect with a central channel of constant flow. The mixing performance is tested at high fluid viscosities of up to 16 cP. Results show that the oscillatory flow can cause strong transverse perturbations which effectively enhance the mixing. The influence of a fluidic capacitor in the central channel is also examined, which at low viscosities can intensify the perturbations and further improve the mixing.
Generating transverse response explicitly from harmonic oscillators
Yao, Yuan; Tang, Ying; Ao, Ping
2017-10-01
We obtain stochastic dynamics from a system-plus-bath mechanism as an extension of the Caldeira-Leggett (CL) model in the classical regime. An effective magnetic field and response functions with both longitudinal and transverse parts are exactly generated from the bath of harmonic oscillators. The effective magnetic field and transverse response are antisymmetric matrices: the former is explicitly time-independent corresponding to the geometric magnetism, while the latter can have memory. The present model can be reduced to previous representative examples of stochastic dynamics describing nonequilibrium processes. Our results demonstrate that a system coupled with a bath of harmonic oscillators is a general approach to studying stochastic dynamics, and provides a method to experimentally implement an effective magnetic field from coupling to the environment.
Distribution of transverse distances in directed animals
Sumedha
2003-01-01
We relate phi(x, s), the average number of sites at a transverse distance x in the directed animals with s sites in d transverse dimensions, to the two-point correlation function of a lattice gas with nearest neighbour exclusion in d dimensions. For large s, phi(x, s) has the scaling form s/R sup d sub s f(|x|/R sub s), where R sub s is the root-mean square radius of gyration of animals of s sites. We determine the exact scaling function for d = 1 to be f(r) = sq root pi/2 sq root 3 erfc(r/sq root 3). We also show that phi(x = 0, s) can be determined in terms of the animal number generating function of the directed animals.
Spectral Velocity Estimation in the Transverse Direction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2013-01-01
A method for estimating the velocity spectrum for a fully transverse flow at a beam-to-flow angle of 90is described. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method, where an oscillation across the ultrasound beam is made during receive processing. A fourth-order estimator based...... on the correlation of the received signal is derived. A Fourier transform of the correlation signal yields the velocity spectrum. Performing the estimation for short data segments gives the velocity spectrum as a function of time as for ordinary spectrograms, and it also works for a beam-to-flow angle of 90...... estimation scheme can reliably find the spectrum at 90, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with the SARUS experimental scanner and a BK 8820e convex array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark). A CompuFlow 1000 (Shelley Automation, Inc, Toronto, Canada...
Transverse momentum distributions and nuclear effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pace Emanuele
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He is considered to take care of the final state interaction in the extraction of the quark transverse-momentum distributions in the neutron from semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He at finite momentum transfers. The generalization of the analysis in a Poincaré covariant framework within the light-front dynamics is outlined. The definition of the light-front spin-dependent spectral function for a J=1/2 system, as the nucleon, allows us to show that within the light-front dynamics and in the valence approximation only three of the six leading twist T-even transverse-momentum distributions are independent.
Average neutralization and transverse stability in ISABELLE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, J.; Zotter, B.
1978-01-01
Clearing of electrons in the vicinity of the axis of a proton beam in the dipoles of a separated function AG-focusing structure is accomplished by transverse crossed-field drift due to the magnetic dipole field and a weak longitudinal electric field. This electric field is generated by potential differences caused by cross section variations of the beam due to variations of the β-functions and dispersion. The resulting radial drift brings the electrons into the off-axis region where they are driven out of the magnets by the usual longitudinal cross-field drift caused by the radial space charge field. The neutralization in ISABELLE is then a factor 20 below former estimates, and transverse stability can be obtained by chromaticity adjustments well within the design strengths of the sextupole correction windings
Theoretical Overview on Recent Developments in Transverse Spin Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Feng
2009-01-01
Transverse-spin physics has been very active and rapidly developing in the last few years. In this talk, I will briefly summarize recent theoretical developments, focusing on the associated QCD dynamics in transverse spin physics
Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoddart, H.F.
1982-01-01
A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus comprises a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array that surrounds a scan field of interest. Each collimator is moveable relative to its adjacent collimator. Means are provided for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field
Longitudinal momentum distributions in transverse coordinate space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Narinder; Mondal, Chandan
2016-01-01
In the present work, we study the longitudinal momentum distributions in the transverse coordinate space in a light-front quark-diquark model inspired by soft-wall AdS/QCD. We take the phenomenological light-front quark-diquark model proposed by Gutsche et. al. In this model, the light-front wave functions (LFWFs) for the proton are constructed from the two particle wave functions obtained in soft-wall AdS/QCD
On transverse momentum dependence of average multiplicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slepchenko, L.A.; Matveev, V.A.; Sissakian, A.N.
1975-01-01
The behaviour of the mean associated multiplicity of the secondary particles as function of the transverse momentum is considered. New scaling regularities of the cross-sections of the semi-inclusive reactions are predicted and compared with the experimental data obtained in the two-meter propane chamber of JINR, irradiated by π - -mesons with p=40 GeV/c at the Serpukhov accelerator
Production of baryons with large transverse momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.; Scott, D.M.
1975-01-01
The multiple scattering of constituent quarks provides a natural mechanism for fairly copious production of large-transverse-momentum baryons in nucleon--nucleon collisions. The predicted scaling law agrees well with available data, and the mechanism provides a qualitative explanation of nuclear-target effects. In comparison with previous parton models, correlations are predicted to be qualitatively different, and large-p/sub T/ baryon production by meson beams is relatively suppressed
Is there elliptic flow without transverse flow?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huovinen, Pasi; Kolb, Peter F.; Heinz, Ulrich
2001-01-01
Azimuthal anisotropy of final particle distributions was originally introduced as a signature of transverse collective flow. We show that finite anisotropy in momentum space can result solely from the shape of the particle emitting source. However, by comparing the differential anisotropy to recent data from STAR collaboration we can exclude such a scenario, but instead show that the data favour strong flow as resulting from a hydrodynamical evolution
Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.
1984-01-01
The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage one have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. It is only concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be given in the next paper. (Author) [pt
Complementary methods of transverse emittance measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zagel, James; Hu, Martin; Jansson, Andreas; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yan, Ming-Jen; /Fermilab
2008-05-01
Several complementary transverse emittance monitors have been developed and used at the Fermilab accelerator complex. These include Ionization profile Monitors (IPM), Flying Wires, Schottky detectors and a Synchrotron Light Monitor (Synchlite). Mechanical scrapers have also been used for calibration purposes. This paper describes the various measurement devices by examining their basic features, calibration requirements, systematic uncertainties, and applications to collider operation. A comparison of results from different kinds of measurements is also presented.
Cylindrical dust acoustic waves with transverse perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue Jukui
2003-01-01
The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas with the combined effects of bounded cylindrical geometry and the transverse perturbation are studied. Using the perturbation method, a cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (CKP) equation that describes the dust acoustic waves is deduced for the first time. A particular solution of this CKP equation is also obtained. It is shown that the dust acoustic solitary waves can exist in the CKP equation
Sasakian manifolds with purely transversal Bach tensor
Ghosh, Amalendu; Sharma, Ramesh
2017-10-01
We show that a (2n + 1)-dimensional Sasakian manifold (M, g) with a purely transversal Bach tensor has constant scalar curvature ≥2 n (2 n +1 ) , equality holding if and only if (M, g) is Einstein. For dimension 3, M is locally isometric to the unit sphere S3. For dimension 5, if in addition (M, g) is complete, then it has positive Ricci curvature and is compact with finite fundamental group π1(M).
Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.
1985-01-01
The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage we have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. The present paper is concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be reported in another paper. (Author) [pt
The LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) Performance Specification
Boussard, Daniel; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division
1997-01-01
The appended document specifies the performance of the transverse damper (ADT) for the LHC. As Annex 1 of the Addendum No.1 to the Protocol of April 18, 1997; it forms part of the 1992 co-operation agreement between CERN and JINR (Dubna, Russia) concerning its participation in the LHC project. The current text is a reprint of the original version. Changes that have been agreed upon are inserted as footnotes.
Simulation study of transverse optical klystron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Hongliang; Diao Caozheng; Liu Jinying; He Duohui; Jia Qika; Wang Xiangqi
1997-01-01
The radiation from a transverse optical klystron (TOK) is calculated by far field approximation equation and numerical integration, in which the effects of electron-beam emittance and energy spread are considered. Accurate electron-beam profiles have been experimentally determined and modeled by the Monte Carlo method. The calculated spectra illustrate the emittance of Hefei storage ring imposes on the spontaneous radiation of TOK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dugas, Alexandre; Therasse, Éric; Kauffmann, Claude; Tang, An; Elkouri, Stephane; Nozza, Anna; Giroux, Marie-France; Oliva, Vincent L.; Soulez, Gilles
2012-01-01
Purpose: To compare different methods measuring abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximal diameter (Dmax) and its progression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan. Materials and Methods: Forty AAA patients with two MDCT scans acquired at different times (baseline and follow-up) were included. Three observers measured AAA diameters by seven different methods: on axial images (anteroposterior, transverse, maximal, and short-axis views) and on multiplanar reformation (MPR) images (coronal, sagittal, and orthogonal views). Diameter measurement and progression were compared over time for the seven methods. Reproducibility of measurement methods was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: Dmax, as measured on axial slices at baseline and follow-up (FU) MDCTs, was greater than that measured using the orthogonal method (p = 0.046 for baseline and 0.028 for FU), whereas Dmax measured with the orthogonal method was greater those using all other measurement methods (p-value range: <0.0001–0.03) but anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.18 baseline and 0.10 FU). The greatest interobserver ICCs were obtained for the orthogonal and transverse methods (0.972) at baseline and for the orthogonal and sagittal MPR images at FU (0.973 and 0.977). Interobserver ICC of the orthogonal method to document AAA progression was greater (ICC = 0.833) than measurements taken on axial images (ICC = 0.662–0.780) and single-plane MPR images (0.772–0.817). Conclusion: AAA Dmax measured on MDCT axial slices overestimates aneurysm size. Diameter as measured by the orthogonal method is more reproducible, especially to document AAA progression.
Maximum entropy principal for transportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.
2008-01-01
In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.
Transverse loop colostomy and colonic motility.
Pucciani, F; Ringressi, M N; Maltinti, G; Bechi, P
2014-11-01
The motility of the defunctionalized colon, distal to transverse loop colostomy, has never been studied "in vivo." The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of transverse loop colostomy on colonic motility. Thirteen patients were examined before stoma closure by means of clinical evaluation and colonic manometry; we studied both the right and distal colon in both fasting and fed patients in order to detect motor activity. Quantitative and qualitative manometric analyses showed that the diverted colon had motor activity even if no regular colonic motor pattern was observed. The spreading of aboral propagated contractions (PCs) was sometimes recorded from the right colon to the distal colon. The response of the proximal and distal colon to a standard meal, when compared to fasting values, increased more than 40 and 35 %, respectively. Stool and gas ejections from the colostomy were never related to a particular type of colonic motility: Motor quiescence such as PCs was chaotically related to stool escape. In conclusion, motility of the defunctionalized colon is preserved in patients with transverse loop colostomy.
Acute Transverse Myelitis in Children, Literature Review.
Tavasoli, Azita; Tabrizi, Aidin
2018-01-01
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder characterized by relatively acute onset of motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. Children comprise 20% of total cases of ATM. In this review, we described the current literature on childhood ATM, focusing on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, approach to diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and outcome in the pediatric population. We searched the related articles in electronic databases such as Scopus, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and PubMed. All study designs were included and the essential key words for searching were myelitis, acute transverse myelitis, childhood transverse myelitis, and acquired demyelinating syndromes. The related data focusing on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and differential diagnosis, treatment and outcome of pediatric ATM were gathered and described. ATM is a heterogeneous disorder in children with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, etiology, and outcome. It may be the first presentation of relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes and also must be distinguished from compressive and noninflamatory myelopathies. Correct diagnosis is crucial for treatment and prognosis.
Radical Transversal Lightlike Submanifolds of Indefinite Para-Sasakian Manifolds
Shukla S.S.; Yadav Akhilesh
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study radical transversal lightlike submanifolds and screen slant radical transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite para-Sasakian manifolds giving some non-trivial examples of these submanifolds. Integrability conditions of distributions D and RadTM on radical transversal lightlike submanifolds and screen slant radical transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite para-Sasakian manifolds, have been obtained. We also study totally contact umbilical radical transvers...
Kong, Liang; Gu, Zexu; Li, Tao; Wu, Junjie; Hu, Kaijin; Liu, Yanpu; Zhou, Hongzhi; Liu, Baolin
2009-01-01
A nonlinear finite element method was applied to examine the effects of implant diameter and length on the maximum von Mises stresses in the jaw, and to evaluate the maximum displacement of the implant-abutment complex in immediate-loading models. The implant diameter (D) ranged from 3.0 to 5.0 mm and implant length (L) ranged from 6.0 to 16.0 mm. The results showed that the maximum von Mises stress in cortical bone was decreased by 65.8% under a buccolingual load with an increase in D. In cancellous bone, it was decreased by 71.5% under an axial load with an increase in L. The maximum displacement in the implant-abutment complex decreased by 64.8% under a buccolingual load with an increase in D. The implant was found to be more sensitive to L than to D under axial loads, while D played a more important role in enhancing its stability under buccolingual loads. When D exceeded 4.0 mm and L exceeded 11.0 mm, both minimum stress and displacement were obtained. Therefore, these dimensions were the optimal biomechanical selections for immediate-loading implants in type B/2 bone.
Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bressan, A.
1996-07-01
This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the 'leading twist' are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.)
Generalized Transversal Lightlike Submanifolds of Indefinite Sasakian Manifolds
Yaning Wang; Ximin Liu
2012-01-01
We introduce and study generalized transversal lightlike submanifold of indefinite Sasakian manifolds which includes radical and transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Sasakian manifolds as its trivial subcases. A characteristic theorem and a classification theorem of generalized transversal lightlike submanifolds are obtained.
Transversal infinitesimal automorphisms on K\\"ahler foliations
Jung, Seoung Dal
2011-01-01
Let F be a K\\"ahler foliation on a compact Riemannian manifold M. we study the properties of infinitesimal automorphisms on (M,F), and in particular we concentrate on the transversal conformal field, transversal projective field and transversally holomorphic field
Slug Flow Analysis in Vertical Large Diameter Pipes
Roullier, David
The existence of slug flow in vertical co-current two-phase flow is studied experimentally and theoretically. The existence of slug flow in vertical direction implies the presence of Taylor bubbles separated by hydraulically sealed liquid slugs. Previous experimental studies such as Ombere-Ayari and Azzopardi (2007) showed the evidence of the non-existence of Taylor bubbles for extensive experimental conditions. Models developed to predict experimental behavior [Kocamustafaogullari et al. (1984), Jayanti and Hewitt. (1990) and Kjoolas et al. (2017)] suggest that Taylor bubbles may disappear at large diameters and high velocities. A 73-ft tall and 101.6-mm internal diameter test facility was used to conduct the experiments allowing holdup and pressure drop measurements at large L/D. Superficial liquid and gas velocities varied from 0.05-m/s to 0.2 m/s and 0.07 m/s to 7.5 m/s, respectively. Test section pressure varied from 38 psia to 84 psia. Gas compressibility effect was greatly reduced at 84 psia. The experimental program allowed to observe the flow patterns for flowing conditions near critical conditions predicted by previous models (air-water, 1016 mm ID, low mixture velocities). Flow patterns were observed in detail using wire-mesh sensor measurements. Slug-flow was observed for a narrow range of experimental conditions at low velocities. Churn-slug and churn-annular flows were observed for most of the experimental data-points. Cap-bubble flow was observed instead of bubbly flow at low vSg. Wire-mesh measurements showed that the liquid has a tendency to remain near to the walls. The standard deviation of radial holdup profile correlates to the flow pattern observed. For churn-slug flow, the profile is convex with a single maximum near the pipe center while it exhibits a concave shape with two symmetric maxima close to the wall for churn-annular flow. The translational velocity was measured by two consecutive wire-mesh sensor crosscorrelation. The results show
Transverse electron beam diagnostics at REGAE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bayesteh, Shima
2014-12-15
The use of high-intensity electron and X-ray pulsed sources allows for the direct observation of atomic motions as they occur. While the production of such high coherent, brilliant, short X-ray pulses requires large-scale and costly accelerator facilities, it is feasible to employ a high-intensity source of electrons by exploiting a more compact design. The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) facility is a small linear accelerator at DESY, Hamburg, equipped with a photocathode radio frequency (RF) gun that produces relativistic ultra-short (<100 fs), low charge (<1 pC) electron bunches of high coherence. By means of time-resolved diffraction experiments, such an electron source can probe ultrafast laser-induced atomic structural changes that occur with a temporal resolution of ∝100 fs. A comprehensive characterization of the electron beam, for every pulse, is of fundamental importance to study the atomic motions with the desired resolution and quality. This thesis reports on the transversal diagnostics of the electron beam with an emphasis on a scintillator-based beam profile monitor. The diagnostics is capable of evaluating the beam parameters such as charge, energy, energy spread and transverse profile, at very low charges and on a shot-to-shot basis. A full characterization of the scintillator's emission, the optical setup and the detector (camera) of the profile monitor is presented, from which an absolute charge calibration of the system is derived. The profile monitor is specially developed to accommodate more applications, such as dark current suppression, overlapping the electron probe and the laser pump within 1 ns accuracy, as well as charge and transverse emittance measurements. For the determination of the transverse emittance two techniques were applied. The first one introduces a new method that exploits a diffraction pattern to measure the emittance, while the second one is based on a version of the Pepper-pot technique. A
Transverse electron beam diagnostics at REGAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayesteh, Shima
2014-12-01
The use of high-intensity electron and X-ray pulsed sources allows for the direct observation of atomic motions as they occur. While the production of such high coherent, brilliant, short X-ray pulses requires large-scale and costly accelerator facilities, it is feasible to employ a high-intensity source of electrons by exploiting a more compact design. The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) facility is a small linear accelerator at DESY, Hamburg, equipped with a photocathode radio frequency (RF) gun that produces relativistic ultra-short (<100 fs), low charge (<1 pC) electron bunches of high coherence. By means of time-resolved diffraction experiments, such an electron source can probe ultrafast laser-induced atomic structural changes that occur with a temporal resolution of ∝100 fs. A comprehensive characterization of the electron beam, for every pulse, is of fundamental importance to study the atomic motions with the desired resolution and quality. This thesis reports on the transversal diagnostics of the electron beam with an emphasis on a scintillator-based beam profile monitor. The diagnostics is capable of evaluating the beam parameters such as charge, energy, energy spread and transverse profile, at very low charges and on a shot-to-shot basis. A full characterization of the scintillator's emission, the optical setup and the detector (camera) of the profile monitor is presented, from which an absolute charge calibration of the system is derived. The profile monitor is specially developed to accommodate more applications, such as dark current suppression, overlapping the electron probe and the laser pump within 1 ns accuracy, as well as charge and transverse emittance measurements. For the determination of the transverse emittance two techniques were applied. The first one introduces a new method that exploits a diffraction pattern to measure the emittance, while the second one is based on a version of the Pepper-pot technique. A
Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction
Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.
2016-12-01
It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were
Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks
2012-01-01
Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are
Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events
Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V
2015-01-01
Background Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Methods and Results Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, ca...
Database and prediction model for CANDU pressure tube diameter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, J.Y.; Park, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-07-01
The pressure tube (PT) diameter is basic data in evaluating the CCP (critical channel power) of a CANDU reactor. Since the CCP affects the operational margin directly, an accurate prediction of the PT diameter is important to assess the operational margin. However, the PT diameter increases by creep owing to the effects of irradiation by neutron flux, stress, and reactor operating temperatures during the plant service period. Thus, it has been necessary to collect the measured data of the PT diameter and establish a database (DB) and develop a prediction model of PT diameter. Accordingly, in this study, a DB for the measured PT diameter data was established and a neural network (NN) based diameter prediction model was developed. The established DB included not only the measured diameter data but also operating conditions such as the temperature, pressure, flux, and effective full power date. The currently developed NN based diameter prediction model considers only extrinsic variables such as the operating conditions, and will be enhanced to consider the effect of intrinsic variables such as the micro-structure of the PT material. (author)
Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xuewei; Yuan Zhihao
2010-01-01
Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.
Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires
Wang, Xue Wei; Yuan, Zhi Hao
2010-05-01
Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bressan, A.
1996-07-01
This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the `leading twist` are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.).
Okamura, Shu; Yanagisawa, Tetsu; Ohishi, Kazuhito; Murata, Kohei; Nushijima, Yoichiro; Hamano, Rie; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Ebisui, Chikara; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Kinuta, Masakatsu
2016-11-01
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old female patient who underwent 4 surgeries for bilateral breast cancer and its recurrence. When she presented at a clinic with an irritable colon, a fist-sized tumor was palpated in the right upper abdomen at her first medical examination. Abdominal CT scan at the clinic revealed a tumor with a maximum diameter of 10 cm on the right side of the transverse colon and multiple swollen mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the patient was referred to our hospital for surgery. Colonoscopy revealed stenosis of the same lesion with an edematous mucosa and sclerosis. Using immunohistochemistry, a biopsy specimen from the lesion tested positive for CK AE1+AE3, and negative for CD20(-)and CD3 (-). As a result, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. We performed right hemicolectomy to avoid her intestinal obstruction. Tumor cells were mainly present at the subserosa, according to HEstaining. Using immunostaining, the cells were tested for the following markers: CDX2(-), GCDFP15(weakly positive), CK7(strongly positive), CD20(partially positive), E R(+), PgR(-), and HER2(1+), characterizing the tumor as metastasis of breast cancer. Although gastro-intestinal metastasis from breast cancer is rare, and colon metastasis is even rarer, it might be necessary to rule out the possibility of a metastatic colon tumor from breast cancer when treating patients with a colon tumor who have undergone surgery for breast cancer.
A compact fiber optics-based heterodyne combined normal and transverse displacement interferometer.
Zuanetti, Bryan; Wang, Tianxue; Prakash, Vikas
2017-03-01
While Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) has become a common diagnostic tool for the measurement of normal component of particle motion in shock wave experiments, this technique has not yet been modified for the measurement of combined normal and transverse motion, as needed in oblique plate impact experiments. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a compact fiber-optics-based heterodyne combined normal and transverse displacement interferometer. Like the standard PDV, this diagnostic tool is assembled using commercially available telecommunications hardware and uses a 1550 nm wavelength 2 W fiber-coupled laser, an optical focuser, and single mode fibers to transport light to and from the target. Two additional optical probes capture first-order beams diffracted from a reflective grating at the target free-surface and deliver the beams past circulators and a coupler where the signal is combined to form a beat frequency. The combined signal is then digitized and analyzed to determine the transverse component of the particle motion. The maximum normal velocity that can be measured by this system is limited by the equivalent transmission bandwidth (3.795 GHz) of the combined detector, amplifier, and digitizer and is estimated to be ∼2.9 km/s. Sample symmetric oblique plate-impact experiments are performed to demonstrate the capability of this diagnostic tool in the measurement of the combined normal and transverse displacement particle motion.
Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.
1977-07-01
An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures
Transversity GPD in photo- and electroproduction of two vectormesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enberg, Rikard; Pire, Bernard; Szymanowski, Lech
2006-01-17
The chiral-odd generalized parton distribution (GPD), or transversity GPD, of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the photo- or electroproduction of two vector mesons on a polarized nucleon target, {gamma}{sup (*)}N {yields} {rho}{sub 1}{rho}{sub 2}N', where {rho}{sub 1} is produced at large transverse momentum, {rho}{sub 2} is transversely polarized, and the mesons are separated by a large rapidity gap. We predict the cross section for this process for both transverse and longitudinal {rho}{sub 2} production. To this end we propose a model for the transversity GPDH{sub T}(x,{zeta},t), and give an estimate of the relative sizes of the transverse and longitudinal {rho}{sub 2}cross sections. We show that a dedicated experiment at high energy should be able to measure the transversity content of the proton.
MR imaging of alar and transverse atlantal ligament injuries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Echigoya, Naoki; Harata, Seiko; Ueyama, Kazumasa (Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine); Nakano, Keisuke
1992-06-01
Autopsy findings of ligaments of the upper cervical spine were compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Ligaments were clearly shown as hypointensity on T1-weighted images and proton density images. Transverse images were useful in diagnosing alar and transverse atlantal ligament injuries. When there is a bilateral difference in the alar ligaments, ruptured ligament is suspected. Transverse ligament rupture was shown on interrupted hypointensity and as hyperintensity. MRI was capable of diagnosing alar ligament rupture in 8 of 11 patients, and transverse ligament rupture in all 3 patients. In 2 patients having Jefferson's fracture and injuried atlanoaxial subluxation encountered in the clinical practice, transverse ligament rupture was similarly observed as that in autopsy cases on MR images. Hyperintensity in the transverse ligament rupture area was seen even one year after injury. Injured transverse ligament was seen as swollen hyperintensity on sagittal images; and the hyperintensity was gradually decreased with the process of healing. (N.K.).
Latt, L Daniel; Glisson, Richard R; Adams, Samuel B; Schuh, Reinhard; Narron, John A; Easley, Mark E
2015-10-01
Transverse tarsal joint arthrodesis is commonly performed in the operative treatment of hindfoot arthritis and acquired flatfoot deformity. While fixation is typically achieved using screws, failure to obtain and maintain joint compression sometimes occurs, potentially leading to nonunion. External fixation is an alternate method of achieving arthrodesis site compression and has the advantage of allowing postoperative compression adjustment when necessary. However, its performance relative to standard screw fixation has not been quantified in this application. We hypothesized that external fixation could provide transverse tarsal joint compression exceeding that possible with screw fixation. Transverse tarsal joint fixation was performed sequentially, first with a circular external fixator and then with compression screws, on 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs. The external fixator was attached in abutting rings fixed to the tibia and the hindfoot and a third anterior ring parallel to the hindfoot ring using transverse wires and half-pins in the tibial diaphysis, calcaneus, and metatarsals. Screw fixation comprised two 4.3 mm headless compression screws traversing the talonavicular joint and 1 across the calcaneocuboid joint. Compressive forces generated during incremental fixator foot ring displacement to 20 mm and incremental screw tightening were measured using a custom-fabricated instrumented miniature external fixator spanning the transverse tarsal joint. The maximum compressive force generated by the external fixator averaged 186% of that produced by the screws (range, 104%-391%). Fixator compression surpassed that obtainable with screws at 12 mm of ring displacement and decreased when the tibial ring was detached. No correlation was found between bone density and the compressive force achievable by either fusion method. The compression across the transverse tarsal joint that can be obtained with a circular external fixator including a tibial ring exceeds that
Subacute transverse myelitis with Lyme profile dissociation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajjan, Mohammed
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse myelitis is a very rare neurologic syndrome with an incidence per year of 1-5 per million population. We are presenting an interesting case of subacute transverse myelitis with its MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid findings. Case: A 46-year-old African-American woman presented with decreased sensation in the lower extremities which started three weeks ago when she had a 36-hour episode of sore throat. She reported numbness up to the level just below the breasts. Lyme disease antibodies total IgG (immunoglobulin G and IgM (immunoglobulin M in the blood was positive. Antinuclear antibody profile was within normal limits. MRI of the cervical spine showed swelling in the lower cervical cord with contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear with negative Borrelia Burgdorferi IgG and IgM. Herpes simplex, mycoplasma, coxiella, anaplasma, cryptococcus and hepatitis B were all negative. No oligoclonal bands were detected. Quick improvement ensued after she was given IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days. The patient was discharged on the 8th day in stable condition. She continued on doxycycline for 21 days. Conclusions: Transverse myelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute or subacute myelopathy in association with localized contrast enhancement in the spinal cord especially if flu-like prodromal symptoms were reported. Lyme disease serology is indicated in patients with neurological symptoms keeping in mind that dissociation in Lyme antibody titers between the blood and the CSF is possible.
Transverse discrete breathers in unstrained graphene
Barani, Elham; Lobzenko, Ivan P.; Korznikova, Elena A.; Soboleva, Elvira G.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhou, Kun; Marjaneh, Aliakbar Moradi
2017-02-01
Discrete breathers (DB) are spatially localized vibrational modes of large amplitude in defect-free nonlinear lattices. The search for DBs in graphene is of high importance, taking into account that this one atom thick layer of carbon is promising for a number of applications. There exist several reports on successful excitation of DBs in graphene, based on molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations. In a recent work by Hizhnyakov with co-authors the possibility to excite a DB with atoms oscillating normal to the graphene sheet has been reported. In the present study we use a systematic approach for finding initial conditions to excite transverse DBs in graphene. The approach is based on the analysis of the frequency-amplitude dependence for a delocalized, short-wavelength vibrational mode. This mode is a symmetry-dictated exact solution to the dynamic equations of the atomic motion, regardless the mode amplitude and regardless the type of interatomic potentials used in the simulations. It is demonstrated that if the AIREBO potential is used, the mode frequency increases with the amplitude bifurcating from the upper edge of the phonon spectrum for out-of-plane phonons. Then a bell-shaped function is superimposed on this delocalized mode to obtain a spatially localized vibrational mode, i.e., a DB. Placing the center of the bell-shaped function at different positions with respect to the lattice sites, three different DBs are found. Typically, the degree of spatial localization of DBs increases with the DB amplitude, but the transverse DBs in graphene reported here demonstrate the opposite trend. The results are compared to those obtained with the use of the Savin interatomic potential and no transverse DBs are found in this case. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of graphene and they call for the ab initio simulations to verify which of the two potentials used in this study is more precise.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rieder, Hans; Dillhoefer, Alexander; Spies, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik ITWM, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Graff, Alfred; Orth, Thomas [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Kersting, Thomas [Europipe GmbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany). Werk Muelheim
2010-07-01
The authors present a mobile multichannel system for testing of longitudinal welds in large-diameter tubes. The prototype was designed for in situ inspection of longitudinal welds using transversal and longitudinal waves impacting at an angle from both sides in combined SE and IE operation. The reconstruction and imaging software enables SAFT calculations for all surface curves and superposition of the SAFT reconstructions from both sides into a general image of the weld. This includes superposition of the TOFD test data with a suitable evaluation and assessment concept. Details are presented, as are test results on test pieces for validation and on longitudinal welds in large-diameter tubes. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.
2018-03-06
An isotachophoresis system for separating a sample containing particles into discrete packets including a flow channel, the flow channel having a large diameter section and a small diameter section; a negative electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a positive electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a leading carrier fluid in the flow channel; a trailing carrier fluid in the flow channel; and a control for separating the particles in the sample into discrete packets using the leading carrier fluid, the trailing carrier fluid, the large diameter section, and the small diameter section.
Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)
2015-03-26
We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.
Transverse Ising spin-glass model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Santos, R.M.Z. dos.
1984-01-01
The zero temperature behavior of the Transverse Ising spin-glass (+-J 0 ) model is discussed. The d-dimensional quantum model is shown to be equivalent to a classical (d + 1)- dimensional Ising spin-glass with correlated disorder. An exact Renormalization Group treatment of the one-dimensional quantum model indicates the existence of a spin-glass phase. The Migdal-Kadanoff approximation is used to obtain the phase diagram of the quantum spin-glass in two-dimensions. (Author) [pt
TRANSVERSE OPTICS IMPROVEMENTS FOR RHIC RUN 4.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
VAN ZEIJTS,J.
2004-07-05
The magnetic settings in RHIC are driven by an on-line model, and the quality of the resulting lattice functions depend on the correctness of the settings, and knowledge of the magnet transfer-functions. Here we first present the different inputs into the model, including dipole sextupole components, used to set tunes and chromaticities along the ramp. Based on an analysis of measured tunes along the FY03 polarized proton ramp, we present predictions for quadrupole transfer-function changes which have been implemented for the FY04 Au ramp. We show the improved model agreement for tunes along the ramp, and measured transverse phase-advance at store.
Transverse entanglement migration in Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, K. W.; Torres, J. P.; Eberly, J. H.
2007-01-01
We show that, although the amount of mutual entanglement of photons propagating in free space is fixed, the type of correlations between the photons that determine the entanglement can dramatically change during propagation. We show that this amounts to a migration of entanglement in Hilbert space, rather than real space. For the case of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, the migration of entanglement in transverse coordinates takes place from modulus to phase of the biphoton state and back again. We propose an experiment to observe this migration in Hilbert space and to determine the full entanglement
Erosion waves: Transverse instabilities and fingering
Malloggi, F.; Lanuza, J.; Andreotti, B.; Clément, E.
2006-09-01
Two laboratory scale experiments of dry and underwater avalanches of non-cohesive granular materials are investigated. We trigger solitary waves and study the conditions under which the front is transversally stable. We show the existence of a linear instability followed by a coarsening dynamics and finally the onset of a fingering pattern. Due to the different operating conditions, both experiments strongly differ by the spatial and time scales involved. Nevertheless, the quantitative agreement between the stability diagram, the wavelengths selected and the avalanche morphology suggest a common scenario for an erosion/deposition process.
Transverse beam cavity interaction. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiland, T.
1982-03-01
The transverse interaction between a bunch of charged particles and cylindrically symmetric accelerating structures is studied in three steps. The particle motion is influenced by short range forces and long range forces. The short range forces are calculated by solving Maxwell's equations in the time domain including the presence of free moving charges passing an arbitrarily shaped structure off axis. The long range forces are dominated by resonant modes in cavities. These forces are computed in frequency domain by evaluating eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies. Since only high energy particles are considered, the particle motion, which is affected by both forces, can be studied seperately using simple models and computer simulations. (orig.)
Approach to transverse equilibrium in axial channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fearick, R.W.
2000-01-01
Analytical treatments of channeling rely on the assumption of equilibrium on the transverse energy shell. The approach to equilibrium, and the nature of the equilibrium achieved, is examined using solutions of the equations of motion in the continuum multi-string model. The results show that the motion is chaotic in the absence of dissipative processes, and a complicated structure develops in phase space which prevent the development of the simple equilibrium usually assumed. The role of multiple scattering in smoothing out the equilibrium distribution is investigated
Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum
Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department
2017-01-01
Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.
FEL in transverse optical klystron regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scarlat, F.; Baltateanu, N.
1994-01-01
Among all operational regimes of free electron laser (FEL), the transverse optical regime (TOK) requires the least stringent electron beam parameters. The device associated to this regime, also defined as FEL with two or more components, consists of two or more identical interaction sections separated by one or more drift distances among themselves. Starting from the motion equations which describe the interaction between an electron and the radiation inside the undulator, one can obtain some practical expressions for the calculation of the efficiency of the energy transfer from the electron to the radiation, and the gain of the external coherent radiation for a FEL in TOK with three cavities. (Author)
Diameter dependence of emission power in MgO-based nano-pillar spin-torque oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Bochong; Kubota, Hitoshi, E-mail: hit-kubota@aist.go.jp; Yakushiji, Kay; Tamaru, Shingo; Arai, Hiroko; Imamura, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [Spintronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)
2016-06-20
The dependence on diameter of the emission power in MgO-based nano-pillar spin torque oscillators (STOs) was systematically investigated. A maximum emission power of over 2.5 μW was obtained around 300 nm in diameter, which is the largest reported to date among the out-of-plane precession STOs. By analyzing physical quantities, precession cone angle of the free-layer magnetization was evaluated. In the diameter range below 300 nm, the increase in power was mainly due to the increase of the injected current. The power decrease above 300 nm is possibly attributed to the decrease in the averaged precession cone angle, suggesting spatial phase difference of magnetization precession. This study provides the method for estimating the optimum STO diameter, which is of great importance in practical use.
Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...
Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...
Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...
Heritability of optic disc diameters: a twin study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drobnjak, Dragana; Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Mitchell, Paul
2011-01-01
, additive genetic factors (i.e. heritability) explained 77% (95% CI: 65-85%) of variation of vertical disc diameters, whereas estimated unshared environmental effect was 23% (95% CI: 15-35%). For vertical cup diameters, heritability accounted for 70% (95% CI: 55-80%) and environmental factors 30% (95% CI...
Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
2010-07-12
Jul 12, 2010 ... and stand density) into the base height-diameter models increased the accuracy of prediction for P. tremula. .... parameter estimates compared with those obtained with ... using coefficient of determination for non-linear regression (. 2. R ), ..... stochastic height-diameter model for maritime pine ecoregions in.
Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...
Lysosome Transport as a Function of Lysosome Diameter
Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Cyphersmith, Austin; Zapata, Jairo A.; Kim, Y. Joseph; Payne, Christine K.
2014-01-01
Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles responsible for the transport and degradation of intracellular and extracellular cargo. The intracellular motion of lysosomes is both diffusive and active, mediated by motor proteins moving lysosomes along microtubules. We sought to determine how lysosome diameter influences lysosome transport. We used osmotic swelling to double the diameter of lysosomes, creating a population of enlarged lysosomes. This allowed us to directly examine the intracellular transport of the same organelle as a function of diameter. Lysosome transport was measured using live cell fluorescence microscopy and single particle tracking. We find, as expected, the diffusive component of intracellular transport is decreased proportional to the increased lysosome diameter. Active transport of the enlarged lysosomes is not affected by the increased lysosome diameter. PMID:24497985
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Leigh-Smith, Simon; Stevenson, Richard; Watt, Martin; Watt, Ian; McFadyen, Angus; Grant, Stan
2004-01-01
To determine whether pan diameter influences carbon monoxide (CO) concentration during heating of water to boiling point with a camping stove. The hypothesis was that increasing pan diameter increases CO concentration because of greater flame dispersal and a larger flame. This was a randomized, prospective study. A Coleman Dual Fuel 533 stove was used to heat pans of water to boiling point, with CO concentration monitored every 30 seconds for 5 minutes. The stove was inside a partially ventilated 200-L cardboard box model that was inside an environmental chamber at -6 degrees C. Water temperature, water volume, and flame characteristics were all standardized. Ten trials were performed for each of 2 pan diameters (base diameters of 165 mm [small] and 220 mm [large]). There was a significant difference (P = .002) between the pans for CO levels at each measurement interval from 60 seconds onward. These differences were markedly larger after 90 seconds, with a mean difference of 185 ppm (95% CI 115, 276 ppm) for all the results from 120 seconds onwards. This study has shown that there is significantly higher CO production with a large-diameter pan compared with a small-diameter pan. These findings were evident by using a camping stove to heat water to boiling point when a maximum blue flame was present throughout. Thus, in enclosed environments it is recommended that small-diameter pans be used in an attempt to prevent high CO levels.
Condensate bright solitons under transverse confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salasnich, L.; Reatto, L.; Parola, A.
2002-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensate bright solitons made of alkali-metal atoms with negative scattering length and under harmonic confinement in the transverse direction. Contrary to the one-dimensional (1D) case, the 3D bright soliton exists only below a critical attractive interaction that depends on the extent of confinement. Such a behavior is also found in multisoliton condensates with box boundary conditions. We obtain numerical and analytical estimates of the critical strength beyond which the solitons do not exist. By using an effective 1D nonpolynomial nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which accurately takes into account the transverse dynamics of cigarlike condensates, we numerically simulate the dynamics of the 'soliton train' reported in a recent experiment [Nature (London) 417, 150 (2002)]. Then, analyzing the macroscopic quantum tunneling of the bright soliton on a Gaussian barrier, we find that its interference in the tunneling region is strongly suppressed with respect to nonsolitonic case; moreover, the tunneling through a barrier breaks the shape invariance of the matter wave. Finally, we show that the collapse of the soliton is induced by the scattering on the barrier or by the collision with another matter wave when the density reaches a critical value, for which we derive an accurate analytical formula
Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations
Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.
2018-01-01
We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.
Transverse tails and higher order moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, W.L.; Decker, F.J.; Woodley, M.D.
1993-05-01
The tails that may be engendered in a beam's transverse phase space distribution by, e.g., intrabunch wakefields and nonlinear magnetic fields, are all important diagnostic and object of tuning in linear colliders. Wire scanners or phosphorescent screen monitors yield one dimensional projected spatial profiles of such beams that are generically asymmetric around their centroids, and therefore require characterization by the third moment left-angle x 3 right-angle in addition to the conventional mean-square or second moment. A set of measurements spread over sufficient phase advance then allows the complete set left-angle x 3 right-angle, left-angle xx' 2 right-angle, left-angle x' 3 right-angle, and left-angle x 2 x'right-angle to be deduced -- the natural extension of the well-known ''emittance measurement'' treatment of second moments. The four third moments may be usefully decomposed into parts rotating in phase space at the β-tron frequency and at its third harmonic, each specified by a phase-advance-invariant amplitude and a phase. They provide a framework for the analysis and tuning of transverse wakefield tails
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasuo, Nakamura; Toshizo, Ohya; Koji, Okimura
2001-01-01
As one of degradation conditions on components used in water, the overlapping effect of environment, material and stress might cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Especially, for the tensile residual stress produced by welding, it is particularly effective to reduce the tensile residual stress on the material surface to prevent SCC. In this paper, the residual stress improvement method using cavitation impact generated by a water jet, called Water Jet Peening (WJP), has been developed as the maintenance technology for the inner surfaces of small-diameter Ni-Cr-Fe alloy (Alloy 600) pipes. As the results, by WJP for the inner surface of Alloy 600 pipe (inner diameter; approximately 10-15 mm), we confirmed that the compressive stress generated within the range from the surface to the inner part about 0.5 mm deep and took a maximum value about 350 MPa on the surface. (author)
Design method of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing
Liu, Ming-wei; Fang, Fang; Liang, Yue
2018-02-01
There is a lack of the design and calculation method of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing. Combined with the “twelfth five-year plan” of the National Science & Technology Pillar Program of China about “Key technologies on the ports and wharfs constructions of the mountain canalization channels”, this paper put forward the structured design requirements of concrete, steel bar distribution and steel casing, and a checking calculation method of the bearing capacity of the normal section of the pile and the maximum crack width at the bottom of the steel casing. The design method will have some degree of guiding significance for the design of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diefenthaler, Markus
2010-08-15
Intention of the present thesis was the study of transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions. In the focus stood the Fourier analysis of azimutal single-spin asymmetries of pions and charged kaons performed within the HERMES experiment. These asymmetries were reconstructed from deep-inelastic scattering events on a transversely polarized proton target and decomposed in Fourier components. In the framework of quantum chromodynamics such components can be interpreted as folding of quark distribution and fragmentation functions. By the analysis of the transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions the study of spin-orbit correlations in the internal of the nucleon was made possible. By this conclusions on the orbital angular momentum of the quarks can be drawn. The extracted Fourier components extend the hitherto available informations on the transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions remarkably. The presented Fourier analysis made not only a detection of the Collins and Sivers effects possible, but beyond the extraction of the signals of the pretzelosity and worm-gear distributions. The so obtained results will conclusively contribute to the understanding of future measurements in this field and furthermore make possible a test of fundamental predictions of quantum chromodynamics.
Jung, Kyung Uk; Park, Yoonah; Lee, Kang Young; Sohn, Seung-Kook
2015-06-01
Robot-assisted surgery for colon cancer has been reported in many studies, most of which worked on right and/or sigmoid colectomy. The aim of this study was to report our experience of robotic transverse colectomy with an intracorporeal anastomosis, provide details of the surgical technique, and present the theoretical benefits of the procedure. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of robotic surgery for colorectal cancer performed by a single surgeon between May 2007 and February 2011. Out of 162 consecutive cases, we identified three robotic transverse colectomies, using a hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomosis. Two males and one female underwent transverse colectomies for malignant or premalignant disease. The mean docking time, time spent using the robot, and total operative time were 5, 268, and 307 min, respectively. There were no conversions to open or conventional laparoscopic technique. The mean length of specimen and number of lymph nodes retrieved were 14.1 cm and 6.7, respectively. One patient suffered from a wound seroma and recovered with conservative management. The mean hospital stay was 8.7 days. After a median follow-up of 72 months, there were no local or systemic recurrences. Robotic transverse colectomy seems to be a safe and feasible technique. It may minimize the necessity of mobilizing both colonic flexures, with facilitated intracorporeal hand-sewn anastomosis. However, further prospective studies with a larger number of patients are required to draw firm conclusions.
How does tissue preparation affect skeletal muscle transverse isotropy?
Wheatley, Benjamin B.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.
2016-01-01
The passive tensile properties of skeletal muscle play a key role in its physiological function. Previous research has identified conflicting reports of muscle transverse isotropy, with some data suggesting the longitudinal direction is stiffest, while others show the transverse direction is stiffest. Accurate constitutive models of skeletal muscle must be employed to provide correct recommendations for and observations of clinical methods. The goal of this work was to identify transversely isotropic tensile muscle properties as a function of post mortem handling. Six pairs of tibialis anterior muscles were harvested from Giant Flemish rabbits and split into two groups: fresh testing (within four hours post mortem), and non-fresh testing (subject to delayed testing and a freeze/thaw cycle). Longitudinal and transverse samples were removed from each muscle and tested to identify tensile modulus and relaxation behavior. Longitudinal non-fresh samples exhibited a higher initial modulus value and faster relaxation than longitudinal fresh, transverse fresh, and transverse rigor samples (p<0.05), while longitudinal fresh samples were less stiff at lower strain levels than longitudinal non-fresh, transverse fresh, and transverse non-fresh samples (p<0.05), but exhibited more nonlinear behavior. While fresh skeletal muscle exhibits a higher transverse modulus than longitudinal modulus, discrepancies in previously published data may be the result of a number of differences in experimental protocol. Constitutive modeling of fresh muscle should reflect these data by identifying the material as truly transversely isotropic and not as an isotropic matrix reinforced with fibers. PMID:27425557
First indirect x-ray imaging tests with an 88-mm diameter single crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Macrander, A. T. [Argonne
2017-02-01
Using the 1-BM-C beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have performed the initial indirect x - ray imaging point-spread-function (PSF) test of a unique 88-mm diameter YAG:Ce single crystal of only 100 - micron thickness. The crystal was bonded to a fiber optic plat e (FOP) for mechanical support and to allow the option for FO coupling to a large format camera. This configuration resolution was compared to that of self - supported 25-mm diameter crystals, with and without an Al reflective coating. An upstream monochromator was used to select 17-keV x-rays from the broadband APS bending magnet source of synchrotron radiation. The upstream , adjustable Mo collimators were then used to provide a series of x-ray source transverse sizes from 200 microns down to about 15-20 microns (FWHM) at the crystal surface. The emitted scintillator radiation was in this case lens coupled to the ANDOR Neo sCMOS camera, and the indirect x-ray images were processed offline by a MATLAB - based image processing program. Based on single Gaussian peak fits to the x-ray image projected profiles, we observed a 10.5 micron PSF. This sample thus exhibited superior spatial resolution to standard P43 polycrystalline phosphors of the same thickness which would have about a 100-micron PSF. Lastly, this single crystal resolution combined with the 88-mm diameter makes it a candidate to support future x-ray diffraction or wafer topography experiments.
40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement?
2010-07-01
... internal diameter of 6.00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1) × (6.00/2... power and displacement? 1054.140 Section 1054.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... engine power and displacement? This section describes how to quantify your engine's maximum engine power...
Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; R. Bryan Selbe
1989-01-01
PROFIT-PC is a menu driven, interactive PC (personal computer) program that estimates optimum product mix and maximum net harvesting revenue based on projected product yields and stump-to-mill timber harvesting costs. Required inputs include the number of trees/acre by species and 2 inches diameter at breast-height class, delivered product prices by species and product...
Indirect and direct methods for measuring a dynamic throat diameter in a solid rocket motor
Colbaugh, Lauren
In a solid rocket motor, nozzle throat erosion is dictated by propellant composition, throat material properties, and operating conditions. Throat erosion has a significant effect on motor performance, so it must be accurately characterized to produce a good motor design. In order to correlate throat erosion rate to other parameters, it is first necessary to know what the throat diameter is throughout a motor burn. Thus, an indirect method and a direct method for determining throat diameter in a solid rocket motor are investigated in this thesis. The indirect method looks at the use of pressure and thrust data to solve for throat diameter as a function of time. The indirect method's proof of concept was shown by the good agreement between the ballistics model and the test data from a static motor firing. The ballistics model was within 10% of all measured and calculated performance parameters (e.g. average pressure, specific impulse, maximum thrust, etc.) for tests with throat erosion and within 6% of all measured and calculated performance parameters for tests without throat erosion. The direct method involves the use of x-rays to directly observe a simulated nozzle throat erode in a dynamic environment; this is achieved with a dynamic calibration standard. An image processing algorithm is developed for extracting the diameter dimensions from the x-ray intensity digital images. Static and dynamic tests were conducted. The measured diameter was compared to the known diameter in the calibration standard. All dynamic test results were within +6% / -7% of the actual diameter. Part of the edge detection method consists of dividing the entire x-ray image by an average pixel value, calculated from a set of pixels in the x-ray image. It was found that the accuracy of the edge detection method depends upon the selection of the average pixel value area and subsequently the average pixel value. An average pixel value sensitivity analysis is presented. Both the indirect
Effects of Diameter on Initial Stiffness of P-Y Curves for Large-Diameter Piles in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Augustesen, Anders Hust
2010-01-01
is developed for slender piles with diameters up to approximately 2.0 m. Hence, the method is not validated for piles with diameters of 4–6 m. The aim of the paper is to extend the p-y curve method to large-diameter non-slender piles in sand by considering the effects of the pile diameter on the soil-pile...... interaction. Hence, a modified expression for the p-y curves for statically loaded piles in sand is proposed in which the initial slope of the p-y curves depends on the depth below the soil surface, the pile diameter and the internal angle of friction. The evaluation is based on three-dimensional numerical...... analyses by means of the commercial program FLAC3D incorporating a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The numerical model is validated with laboratory tests in a pressure tank at Aalborg University....
Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes.
Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W
2014-10-28
Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (ΔGET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ΔG(ET) and that other factors must be considered.
Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events.
Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V
2015-08-06
Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, called the brain arterial remodeling (BAR) score, was obtained by averaging the measured diameters within each individual. Individuals with a BAR score -2 and 2 SDs had the largest diameters. All vascular events were recorded prospectively after the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Spline curves and incidence rates were used to test our hypothesis. The association of the BAR score with death (P=0.001), vascular death (P=0.02), any vascular event (P=0.05), and myocardial infarction (P=0.10) was U-shaped except for ischemic stroke (P=0.74). Consequently, incidence rates for death, vascular death, myocardial infarction, and any vascular event were higher in individuals with the largest diameters, whereas individuals with the smallest diameters had a higher incidence of death, vascular death, any vascular event, and ischemic stroke compared with individuals with average diameters. The risk of death, vascular death, and any vascular event increased at both extremes of brain arterial diameters. The pathophysiology linking brain arterial remodeling to systemic vascular events needs further research. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Inferring diameters of spheres and cylinders using interstitial water.
Herrera, Sheryl L; Mercredi, Morgan E; Buist, Richard; Martin, Melanie
2018-06-04
Most early methods to infer axon diameter distributions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used single diffusion encoding sequences such as pulsed gradient spin echo (SE) and are thus sensitive to axons of diameters > 5 μm. We previously simulated oscillating gradient (OG) SE sequences for diffusion spectroscopy to study smaller axons including the majority constituting cortical connections. That study suggested the model of constant extra-axonal diffusion breaks down at OG accessible frequencies. In this study we present data from phantoms to test a time-varying interstitial apparent diffusion coefficient. Diffusion spectra were measured in four samples from water packed around beads of diameters 3, 6 and 10 μm; and 151 μm diameter tubes. Surface-to-volume ratios, and diameters were inferred. The bead pore radii estimates were 0.60±0.08 μm, 0.54±0.06 μm and 1.0±0.1 μm corresponding to bead diameters ranging from 2.9±0.4 μm to 5.3±0.7 μm, 2.6±0.3 μm to 4.8±0.6 μm, and 4.9±0.7 μm to 9±1 μm. The tube surface-to-volume ratio estimate was 0.06±0.02 μm -1 corresponding to a tube diameter of 180±70 μm. Interstitial models with OG inferred 3-10 μm bead diameters from 0.54±0.06 μm to 1.0±0.1 μm pore radii and 151 μm tube diameters from 0.06±0.02 μm -1 surface-to-volume ratios.
Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B
1995-01-01
In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... exertion was approximately 15 units after both types of exercise. The dorsalis pedis arterial diameter was 1.50 +/- 0.20 mm (mean and SE) and the radial AD 2.45 +/- 0.12 mm. During both types of contractions the luminal diameters decreased approximately 3.5% within the first 30 s (P
Laser direct writing using submicron-diameter fibers.
Tian, Feng; Yang, Guoguang; Bai, Jian; Xu, Jianfeng; Hou, Changlun; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei
2009-10-26
In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.
Transverse magnetization and giant magnetoimpedance in amorphous ribbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orue, I.; Garcia-Arribas, A.; Saad, A.; Cos, D. de; Barandiaran, J.M.
2005-01-01
In the classical approach giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) is driven by the transverse permeability of the sample, as excited by the current flowing through it. Transverse permeability is usually taken as a constant, while detailed magnetization processes are important for the interpretation of GMI data. In most cases the transverse permeability (or magnetization) is only guessed by looking at the longitudinal magnetization curve and direct determinations of such parameter are scarce in the literature. In this work we report on the operation of a simple setup which provides the transverse magnetization of amorphous ribbons as a function of the current intensity flowing through it, by means of the magnetooptical kerr effect (MOKE). The system has been tested on low magnetostriction amorphous ribbons of very soft character with both longitudinal and transverse anisotropy. The transverse magnetization as a function of both the current and a DC longitudinal field applied, was compared with magneto impedance measurements
Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.
2011-09-01
During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performances of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.
Resolution Enhancement of Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope Using Transverse Wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, D. S.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. H.
1997-01-01
We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Science the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM image in the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode
Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2011-01-01
During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performance of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.
Abdominal Aortic Diameter Is Increased in Males with a Family History of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Houlind, K; Green, A
2014-01-01
and a half times increased prevalence of AAA compared with +FH with male relatives with AAA with an OR of 2.65. CONCLUSIONS: First-degree male relatives of AAA patients have wider aortas and a twofold higher prevalence of AAA compared with the age adjusted background population. The prevalence of AAA...... measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication. RESULTS: From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative...
Stress state of main stop valve with 500 mm nominal diameter white thermomechanical loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koklyuev, G.A.; Plotnikov, V.P.
1987-01-01
The method of finite elements was applied to calculate the stress-strain state of the main isolation valve case with 500 mm nominal diameter while thermomechanical loading. Maximum stress takes place in the zone of joining nozzles with a spherical case and it attains the value of 138 MPa at working pressure of 12.5 MPa. The stress level in the point of nozzle-case welding is essentially lower than in zones of stres concentration and when excluding water hitting the slot of the lack of fusion in the route of the weld the weld service life is attained during the calculated service life
Heat transfer with water in forced convection without boiling in small diameter tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricque, Roger; Siboul, Roger
1969-01-01
This note presents the measurements performed for the establishment of an empirical heat transfer law for water in forced convection without boiling in small diameter tubes (2 and 4 mm), with high flow velocity and strong heat flux, and for relatively low fluid temperatures. A correlation of experimental points is obtained with a very small maximum dispersion: Nu fl = 0,0092 Re fl 0,88 Pr 0,5 (μ fl /μ p ) 0,14 . A correlation for the fiction coefficient is also presented [fr
Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators
Litvin, Igor A.; Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew
2007-05-01
A model to describe the transverse field distribution of the output beam from porro prism resonators is proposed. The model allows the prediction of the output transverse field distribution by assuming that the main areas of loss are located at the apexes of the porro prisms. Experimental work on a particular system showed some interested correlations between the time domain behavior of the resonator and the transverse field output. These findings are presented and discussed.
Transverse mode coupling instability for leptons in the CERN SPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linnecar, T; Shaposhnikova, E N [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)
1996-08-01
The intensity of leptons accelerated in the SPS machine is limited by a vertical transverse instability. The results of measurements of the thresholds for this transverse instability are compared with theoretical predictions for different broad band impedance models of the SPS. The threshold intensities found for the transverse instability and the position of the losses in the cycle enable the parameters of the broadband resonant impedance to be specified. (author)
Transverse colon cancer with Krukenberg tumor : A case report
東門, 敦子; 松原, 洋孝; 下地, 英明; 伊佐, 勉; 濱安, 俊吾; 仲地, 厚; 宮里, 浩; 白石, 祐之; 武藤, 良弘; Tomon, Atsuko; Matsubara, Hirotaka; Shimoji, Hideaki; Isa, Tsutomu; Nakachi, Atsushi; Miyazato, Hiroshi
1999-01-01
A case of Krukenberg tumor in a 30-year-old woman with transverse colon cancer is reported herein. The patient was found to have bilateral ovarian tumors and abnormal elevation of serum CEA at a community hospital. Subsequently, she was referred to the University Hospital for further work. Diagnostic examinations including US, CT and colonoscopy demonstrated transverse colon cancer and bilateral ovarian tumors. Exploratory laparotomy showed the growth of transverse colon cancer over the perit...
Curative resection of transverse colon cancer via minilaparotomy.
Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Tohru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Haga, Norihiro
2011-01-01
Minilaparotomy has been reported to be a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopically assisted surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of minilaparotomy for the resection of transverse colon cancer, which has generally been considered difficult to resect laparoscopically. Patients for whom curative resection was attempted for transverse colon cancer (n = 21) or sigmoid colon cancer (n = 81) via minilaparotomy (skin incision, transverse colon cancer as well as those with sigmoid colon cancer.
Limitations on Transversal Computation through Quantum Homomorphic Encryption
Newman, Michael; Shi, Yaoyun
2017-01-01
Transversality is a simple and effective method for implementing quantum computation fault-tolerantly. However, no quantum error-correcting code (QECC) can transversally implement a quantum universal gate set (Eastin and Knill, Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 110502). Since reversible classical computation is often a dominating part of useful quantum computation, whether or not it can be implemented transversally is an important open problem. We show that, other than a small set of non-additive codes ...
Leading Twist GPDs and Transverse Spin Densities in a Proton
Mondal, Chandan; Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar; Zhao, Xingbo
2018-05-01
We present a study of both chirally even and odd generalized parton distributions in the leading twist for the quarks in a proton using the light-front wavefunctions of a quark-diquark model predicted by the holographic QCD. For transversely polarized proton, both chiral even and chiral odd GPDs contribute to the spin densities which are related to the GPDs in transverse impact parameter space. Here, we also present a study of the spin densities for transversely polarized quark and proton.
Collins Fragmentation and the Single Transverse Spin Asymmetry
Yuan, Feng; Zhou, Jian
2009-01-01
We study the Collins mechanism for the single transverse spin asymmetry in the collinear factorization approach. The correspondent twist-three fragmentation function is identified. We show that the Collins function calculated in this approach is universal. We further examine its contribution to the single transverse spin asymmetry of semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering and demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and twist-three collinear approaches are con...
Transverse momentum correlations of quarks in recursive jet models
Artru, X.; Belghobsi, Z.; Redouane-Salah, E.
2016-08-01
In the symmetric string fragmentation recipe adopted by PYTHIA for jet simulations, the transverse momenta of successive quarks are uncorrelated. This is a simplification but has no theoretical basis. Transverse momentum correlations are naturally expected, for instance, in a covariant multiperipheral model of quark hadronization. We propose a simple recipe of string fragmentation which leads to such correlations. The definition of the jet axis and its relation with the primordial transverse momentum of the quark is also discussed.
MR imaging of acute transverse myelitis (myelopathy)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isoda, Haruo [Hamamatsu Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). School of Medicine; Ramsey, R.G.
1998-05-01
The purpose of our study was to review the MR characteristics of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) retrospectively and to review the literature. The subjects were 26 patients (two males, 24 females). MR examinations were carried out using a 1.5 Tesla scanner. MR imaging in eight of 16 lesions in nine subjects with preexisting MS showed multiple areas of increased signal intensity on T{sub 2}-weighted sagittal images, and 11 lesions had no cord swelling. Twelve of 16 lesions showed heterogeneous enhancement. MR imaging in 10 of 13 lesions in 12 subjects with preexisting HTLV-1 infection, mycoplasma pneumonia infection, hepatitis B vaccinations, and uncertain etiologies revealed fusiform increased signal intensity areas on T{sub 2}-weighted sagittal images and cord swelling. Seven of 11 lesions in the patients who underwent injection of contrast medium showed heterogeneous enhancement, whereas others showed no enhancement. MR examination is recommended for the evaluation of ATM. (author)
Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions
Bonvini, Marco; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2009-01-01
We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the trasverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure.
PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.
2005-01-01
The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design
The transverse damper system for RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, J.; Claus, J.; Raka, E.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Shea, T.J.
1991-01-01
If the beam is injected with errors x c , x' c (or y c , y' c ) with respect to the closed orbit or disturbed by transverse instabilities, it will execute coherent oscillations and will be diluted in betatron phase space within a time interval of about 1/Δν turns, even if it is properly matched to the focusing characteristics of the lattice, unless there is an effective damper system to prevent this. Here Δν is the tune spread in the beam. Such a damper will not prevent dilution due to mismatches. Without such a damper the emittance of the beam will ultimately develop to a properly centered matched ellipse with an area ε in phase space that is larger than that of the injected one ε 0 which is also matched but off-centered by x c and x' c
A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation
Stovas, A.
2012-05-09
The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, J.M.; Chin, M.J.; Doolittle, L.R.; Akre, R.
2006-01-01
The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(reg s ign) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design
PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade
Weber, Jonah; Chin, Michael; Doolittle, Lawrence
2005-01-01
The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx® ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.
Potentials for transverse trace-free tensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conboye, Rory; Murchadha, Niall Ó
2014-01-01
In constructing and understanding initial conditions in the 3 + 1 formalism for numerical relativity, the transverse and trace-free (TT) part of the extrinsic curvature plays a key role. We know that TT tensors possess two degrees of freedom per space point. However, finding an expression for a TT tensor depending on only two scalar functions is a non-trivial task. Assuming either axial or translational symmetry, expressions depending on two scalar potentials alone are derived here for all TT tensors in flat 3-space. In a more general spatial slice, only one of these potentials is found, the same potential given in (Baker and Puzio 1999 Phys. Rev. D 59 044030) and (Dain 2001 Phys. Rev. D 64 124002), with the remaining equations reduced to a partial differential equation, depending on boundary conditions for a solution. As an exercise, we also derive the potentials which give the Bowen-York curvature tensor in flat space. (paper)
Transverse Momentum Correlations in Hadronic Z decays
Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1997-01-01
Using data obtained with the ALEPH detector at the Z resonance, a measure based on transverse momentum is shown to exhibit a correlation between the two halves of a hadronic event which cannot be explained by energy-momentum conservation, flavour conservation, the imposition of an event axis or imperfect event reconstruction. Two possible explanations based on Monte Carlo models are examined: a) ARIADNE, with the correlation forming early in the parton shower and with the transition from partons to hadrons playing only a minor part; b) JETSET, with the correlation forming at the fragmentation stage. A correlation technique based on a jet cluster analysis is used to make a comparison of the models with the data. It is concluded that both non-perturbative and perturbative effects make important contributions to the observed correlation.
Image reconstruction. Application to transverse axial tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aubry, Florent.
1977-09-01
A method of computerized tridimensional image reconstruction from their projection, especially in the computerized transverse axial tomography is suggested. First, the different techniques actually developped and presented in the literature are analyzed. Then, the equipment used is briefly described. The reconstruction algorithm developped is presented. This algorithm is based on the convolution method, well adapted to the real conditions of exploitation. It is an extension of SHEPP and LOGAN's algorithm. A correction of the self absorption and of the detector's response is proposed. Finally, the first results obtained which are satisfactory are given. The simplicity of the method which does not need a too long computation time makes possible the implementation of the algorithm on a mini-computer [fr
Transversal expansion study in the Landau hydrodynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pottag, F.W.
1984-01-01
The system of equations in the frame of Landau's hydrodynamical model for multiparticle production at high energies is studied. Taking as a first approximation the one-dimensional exact due to Khalatnikov, and a special set of curvilinear coordinates, the radial part is separated from the longitudinal one in the equations of motion, and a system of partial differential equations (non-linear, hyperbolic) is obtained for the radial part. These equations are solved numerically by the method of caracteristics. The hydrodynamical variables are obtained over all the three-dimensional-flow region as well as its variation with the mass of the initially expanding system. Both, the transverse rapidity distribution of the fluid and the inclusive particle distribution at 90 0 in the center of mass system, are calculated. The last one is compared with recent experimental data. (author) [pt
A Hardware transverse beam frequency response simulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ning, J.; Tan, C.Y.
2005-01-01
We built an electronic instrument that can mimic the transverse beam frequency response. The instrument consists of (1) a time delay circuit with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) which contains a first-in-first-out random assess memory (FIFO RAM) and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC); (2) a variable phase shifter circuit which is based on an all pass filter with a bandwidth of 25kHz to 30kHz and (3) a commutating filter which is a nonlinear band pass filter. With this instrument, we can dynamically adjust the betatron tune, the synchrotron tune, and the chromaticity. Using this instrument, we are able to test other beam systems without using actual beam
Transversal Dirac families in Riemannian foliations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glazebrook, J.F.; Kamber, F.W.
1991-01-01
We describe a family of differential operators parametrized by the transversal vector potentials of a Riemannian foliation relative to the Clifford algebra of the foliation. This family is non-elliptic but in certain ways behaves like a standard Dirac family in the absolute case as a result of its elliptic-like regularity properties. The analytic and topological indices of this family are defined as elements of K-theory in the parameter space. We indicate how the cohomology of the parameter space is described via suitable maps to Fredholm operators. We outline the proof of a theorem of Vafa-Witten type on uniform bounds for the eigenvalues of this family using a spectral flow argument. A determinant operator is also defined with the appropriate zeta function regularization dependent on the codimension of the foliation. With respect to a generalized coupled Dirac-Yang-Mills system, we indicate how chiral anomalies are located relative to the foliation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Shurong; Wang Qiming; Huo Yongzhong
2010-01-01
In order to predict the irradiation mechanical behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the total burnup is divided into two stages: the initial stage and the increasing stage. At the initial stage, the thermal effects induced by the high temperature differences between the operation temperatures and the room temperature are mainly considered; and at the increasing stage, the intense mechanical interactions between the fuel particles and the matrix due to the irradiation swelling of fuel particles are focused on. The large-deformation thermo-elasto-plasticity finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the effects of particle diameters on the in-pile mechanical behaviors of fuel elements. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the fuel particle diameters; the effects of particle diameters on the maximum first principal stresses vary with burnup, and the considered case with the largest particle diameter holds the maximum values all along; (2) at the cladding near the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding, the Mises stresses and the first principal stresses undergo major changes with increasing burnup, and different variations exist for different particle diameter cases; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles rise with the particle diameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nabavi, Narjes; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Mohseni Bandpeid, Mohammad Ali
2014-01-01
Lumbar paraspinal muscles play an important role in providing both mobility and stability during dynamic tasks. Among paraspinal muscles, transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus have been of particular interest as active stabilizers of the lumbar spine. These muscles may become dysfunctional in chronic low back pain (CLBP). Low back injury can result in muscle inhibition and control loss that cannot recover spontaneously, and specific exercises are required to stimulate their recovery. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of ultrasonography to measure muscle dimensions and to present a reliable method for measuring transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus as stabilizing muscles of the lumbar spine. Fifteen healthy participants (18-55 year olds) were evaluated by a radiologist using ultrasonography (ES500) with two probes (50mm linear 7.5 MHZ and 70 mm curvilinear 3.5 MHz). The muscle thickness of transverse abdominis and the anterior-posterior diameter and cross sectional area of the LMF were measured. To determine within and between days reliabilities, second and third measurements were repeated with half an hour and one week intervals, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for left and right showed good to high reliability for the cross sectional area of lumbar multifidi (0.74 and 0.88, respectively) as well as the anterior-posterior dimensions of lumbar multifidi (0.89 and 0.91, respectively) and transverse abdomini thickness (0.73 and 0.85, respectively). Rehabilitative ultrasonography is a reliable and non-invasive instrument to measure muscle thickness. The method used in this study is a reliable way to measure lumbar stabilizing muscles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mandal, Aparajita [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kole, Arindam, E-mail: erak@iacs.res.in [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Microscopy and Thermophysical Property Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chaudhuri, Partha [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2016-11-30
Highlights: • Low temperature columnar growth of regular sized Si-quantum dots (Si-QDs) within a-SiC:H/μc-SiC:H multilayer structure by tuning the a-SiC:H layer thickness. • Thickness optimization of the a-SiC:H layers resulted in a sharp increase of the transverse current and a decrease of the trap concentrations. • The arrangements of the Si-QDs favor percolation paths for the transverse current. - Abstract: Electrical transport in the transverse direction has been studied through a series of hydrogenated silicon carbon alloy multilayers (SiC-MLs) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. Each SiC-ML consists of 30 cycles of the alternating layers of a nearly amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) and a microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) that contains high density of silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs). A detailed investigation by cross sectional TEM reveals preferential growth of densely packed Si-QDs of regular sizes ∼4.8 nm in diameter in a vertically aligned columnar structure within the SiC-ML. More than six orders of magnitude increase in transverse current through the SiC-ML structure were observed for decrease in the a-SiC:H layer thickness from 13 nm to 2 nm. The electrical transport mechanism was established to be a combination of grain boundary or band tail hopping and Frenkel–Poole (F-P) type conduction depending on the temperature and externally applied voltage ranges. Evaluation of trap concentration within the multilayer structures from the fitted room temperature current voltage characteristics by F-P function shows reduction up-to two orders of magnitude indicating an improvement in the short range order in the a-SiC:H matrix for decrease in the thickness of a-SiC:H layer.
PKU-RBRC Workshop on Transverse Spin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avakian,H.; Bunce, G.; Yuan, F.
2008-06-30
Understanding the structure of the nucleon is a fundamental question in subatomic physics, and it has been under intensive investigation for the last several years. Modern research focuses in particular on the spin structure of the nucleon. Experimental and theoretical investigations worldwide over the last few decades have established that, contrary to nave quark model expectations, quarks carry only about 30% of the totd spin of the proton. The origin of the remaining spin is the key question in current hadronic physics and also the major driving forces for the current and future experiments, such as RHIC and CEBAF in US, JPARC in Japan, COMPASS at CERN in Europe, FAIR at GSI in Germany. Among these studies, the transverse-spin physics develops actively and rapidly in the last few years. Recent studies reveal that transverse-spin physics is closely related to many fundamental properties of the QCD dynamics such as the factorization, the non-trivial universality of the parton distribution and fragmentation functions. It was very timely to bring together the theorists and experimentalists in this field at this workshop to review and discuss the latest developments and future perspective in hadronic spin physics. This workshop was very success iu many aspects. First of all, it attracted almost every expert working in this field. We had more than eighty participants in total, among them 27 came from the US institutes, 13 from Europe, 3 from Korea, and 2 from Japan. The rest participants came from local institutes in China. Second, we arranged plenty physics presentations, and the program covers all recent progresses made in the last few years. In total, we had 47 physics presentations, and two round table discussions. The discussion sessions were especially very useful and very much appreciated by all participants. In addition, we also scheduled plenty time for discussion in each presentation, and the living discussions impressed and benefited all participants.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West African ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADEYEYE
2015-09-09
/10.4314/sokjvs.v13i3.4. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West. African dwarf does experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. OO Leigh. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, ...
Porosity Assessment for Different Diameters of Coir Lignocellulosic Fibers
da Luz, Fernanda Santos; Paciornik, Sidnei; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; Tommasini, Flávio James; Candido, Verônica Scarpini
2017-10-01
The application of natural lignocellulosic fibers (LCFs) in engineering composites has increased interest in their properties and structural characteristics. In particular, the inherent porosity of an LCF markedly affects its density and the adhesion to polymer matrices. For the first time, both open and closed porosities of a natural LCF, for different diameter ranges, were assessed. Fibers extracted from the mesocarp of the coconut fruit were investigated by nondestructive methods of density measurements and x-ray microtomography (microCT). It was found that, for all diameter ranges, the closed porosity is significantly higher than the open porosity. The total porosity increases with diameter to around 60% for coir fibers with more than 503 μm in diameter. The amount and characteristics of these open and closed porosities were revealed by t test and Weibull statistics as well as by microCT.
Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit
2006-01-01
PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...
Diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes.
Xiang, Rong; Einarsson, Erik; Murakami, Yoichi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Chiashi, Shohei; Tang, Zikang; Maruyama, Shigeo
2012-08-28
We demonstrate wide-range diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using a wet chemistry prepared catalyst. In order to ensure compatibility to electronic applications, the current minimum mean diameter of 2 nm for vertically aligned SWNTs is challenged. The mean diameter is decreased to about 1.4 nm by reducing Co catalyst concentrations to 1/100 or by increasing Mo catalyst concentrations by five times. We also propose a novel spectral analysis method that allows one to distinguish absorbance contributions from the upper, middle, and lower parts of a nanotube array. We use this method to quantitatively characterize the slight diameter change observed along the array height. On the basis of further investigation of the array and catalyst particles, we conclude that catalyst aggregation-rather than Ostwald ripening-dominates the growth of metal particles.
Deriving muscle fiber diameter from recorded single fiber potential.
Zalewska, Ewa
2017-12-01
The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle. The results confirm the utility of proposed simulation method. Outlying data could be considered as the result of a contribution of other fibers to the potential recorded using an SFEMG electrode. Our graphic tool provides a rapid estimation of muscle fiber diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Axon diameter mapping in crossing fibers with diffusion MRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Hui; Dyrby, Tim B; Alexander, Daniel C
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a technique for a previously unaddressed problem, namely, mapping axon diameter in crossing fiber regions, using diffusion MRI. Direct measurement of tissue microstructure of this kind using diffusion MRI offers a new class of biomarkers that give more specific information about...... tissue than measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging. Most existing techniques for axon diameter mapping assume a single axon orientation in the tissue model, which limits their application to only the most coherently oriented brain white matter, such as the corpus callosum, where the single...... model to enable axon diameter mapping in voxels with crossing fibers. We show in simulation that the technique can provide robust axon diameter estimates in a two-fiber crossing with the crossing angle as small as 45 degrees. Using ex vivo imaging data, we further demonstrate the feasibility...
Observation of transverse patterns in an isotropic microchip laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.F.; Lan, Y.P.
2003-01-01
An isotropic microchip laser is used to study the characteristics of high-order wave functions in a two-dimensional (2D) quantum harmonic oscillator based on the identical functional forms. With a doughnut pump profile, the spontaneous transverse modes are found to, generally, be elliptic and hyperbolic transverse modes. Theoretical analyses reveal that the elliptic transverse modes are analogous to the coherent states of a 2D harmonic oscillator; the formation of hyperbolic transverse modes is a spontaneous mode locking between two identical Hermite-Gaussian modes
Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WEI REN ZHONG
2005-02-01
Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a NiCuAl catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 2060 nm, while their outer diameter is about 4080 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the NiCuAl catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.
Transverse spin correlations of the random transverse-field Ising model
Iglói, Ferenc; Kovács, István A.
2018-03-01
The critical behavior of the random transverse-field Ising model in finite-dimensional lattices is governed by infinite disorder fixed points, several properties of which have already been calculated by the use of the strong disorder renormalization-group (SDRG) method. Here we extend these studies and calculate the connected transverse-spin correlation function by a numerical implementation of the SDRG method in d =1 ,2 , and 3 dimensions. At the critical point an algebraic decay of the form ˜r-ηt is found, with a decay exponent being approximately ηt≈2 +2 d . In d =1 the results are related to dimer-dimer correlations in the random antiferromagnetic X X chain and have been tested by numerical calculations using free-fermionic techniques.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Yunxiu; Zhou Xin; Ji Gang; Su Shufang; Zhu Guohuai
1996-01-01
The transverse polarization of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is determined. The effect from the interaction between spin moment and magnetic field is corrected. The near zero transverse polarization and non-correlation between transverse polarization and transverse momentum are obtained and compared to ones obtained from the nucleus-nucleus interactions at lower energies. This comparison shows that the production mechanism of lambdas in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is different from one in the nucleus-nucleus reactions at lower energies
TWITCH PARAMETERS IN TRANSVERSAL AND LONGITUDINAL BICEPS BRACHII RESPONSE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boštjan Šimunič
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Assessment of the contractile properties of skeletal muscles is continuing to be an important issue and a difficult task methodologically. Longitudinal direction of skeletal muscle contraction blurs intrinsic muscle belly contractile properties with many factors. This study evaluates and explains contractile properties such as: delay time (Td, contraction time (Tc, half relaxation time (Tr and maximal amplitude (Dm extracted from twitch transversal response and compare them with torque response. In fifteen healthy males (age 23.7 ± 3.4 years isometric twitch transversal and torque responses were simultaneously recorded during graded electrically elicited contractions in the biceps brachii muscle. The amplitude of electrical stimulation was increased in 5 mA steps from a threshold up to a maximal response. The muscles’ belly transversal response was measured by a high precision mechanical displacement sensor while elbow joint torque was calculated from force readings. Results indicate a parabolic relation between the transversal displacement and the torque Dm. A significantly shorter Tc was found in transversal response without being correlated to torque Tc (r = -0.12; > 0.05. A significant correlation was found between torque Tc and the time occurrence of the second peak in the transversal response (r = 0.83; < 0.001. Electrical stimulation amplitude dependant variation of the Tc was notably different in transversal than in torque response. Td was similar at submaximal and maximal responses but larger in transversal at just above threshold contractions. Tr has a similar linear trend in both responses, however, the magnitude and the slope are much larger in the transversal response. We could conclude that different mechanisms affect longitudinal and transversal twitch skeletal muscle deformations. Contractile properties extracted from the transversal response enable alternative insights into skeletal muscle contraction mechanics.
Gamma ray detector for solar maximum mission (SMM) of NASA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, W.; Brichzin, K.; Sach, E.
1981-06-01
For NASA's Project Solar Maximum Mission-SMM (launch 14.2.80) a Gamma Ray Detector was developed, manufactured and tested to measure solar high energetic Gamma rays and Neutron fluxes within the energy range 10-160 MeV, 4,43 MeV amd 2,23 MeV. The main components of the sensor are 7 NaI crystals 3 x 3 and a CsI crystal 30 cm diameter x 7,5 cm. The rejection of charged particles is done by two plasitc scintillators and 4 CsI-shields. From the beginning of the mission the experiment is working fully successfull. (orig.) [de
A study on the various diameters of the heart and frontal cardiac area
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Byung Soo
1970-01-01
Cardiac measurement by radiographic method is the most accurate procedure by which physicians can obtain data regarding cardiac size in life. In order to determine the standard values among Koreans, cardiac mensuration by the radiographic frontal cardiac area method was carried out on 225 healthy Korean infants, 111 of whom were males and 114 were females. The results were as follows: 1. Transverse diameter at one month of age is 4.56 ± 0.12 cm in male and 5.00 ± 0.19 cm in female and at eleven months of age 7.35 ± 0.12 cm in male, 7.42 ± 0.09 cm in female. 2. Board diameter at one month of age is 3.94 ± 0.15 cm in male and 4.53 ± 0.19 cm in female and at eleven months of age 5.82 ± 0.14 cm in male, 5.94 ± 0.14 cm in female. 3. Long diameter at one month of age is 3.94 ± 0.15 cm in male and 5.30 ± 0.23 cm in female and at eleven months of age 7.67 ± 0.15 cm in male, 7.55 ± 0.11 cm in female. 4. The obliquity of the cardiac axis shows no significant difference in age and sex. The range of the measurements are between 31 .deg and 37 .deg. 5. Frontal cardiac area at one month of age is 14.36 ± 1.11 cm 2 in male and 18.97 ± 0.14 cm 2 in female and at eleven months of age 35.27 ± 1.21 cm 2 in male, 35.43 ± 0.45 cm 2 in female. 6. In every diameter and frontal cardiac area, except the obliquity of the cardiac axis, show greater value in female at the age of 1 month, but show almost same value in male as in female at the age of 11 months
A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frazier-Wood Alexis C
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS. In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL particle diameters with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, although this has been the focus of less research. We aimed to explore the relationship of VLDL, LDL and HDL diameters to MetS and its features, and by clustering individuals by their diameters of VLDL, LDL and HDL particles, to capture information across all three fractions of lipoprotein into a unified phenotype. Methods We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements on fasting plasma samples from a general population sample of 1,036 adults (mean ± SD, 48.8 ± 16.2 y of age. Using latent class analysis, the sample was grouped by the diameter of their fasting lipoproteins, and mixed effects models tested whether the distribution of MetS components varied across the groups. Results Eight discrete groups were identified. Two groups (N = 251 were enriched with individuals meeting criteria for the MetS, and were characterized by the smallest LDL/HDL diameters. One of those two groups, one was additionally distinguished by large VLDL, and had significantly higher blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and waist circumference (WC; P Conclusions While small LDL diameters remain associated with IR and the MetS, the occurrence of these in conjunction with a shift to overall larger VLDL diameter may identify those with the highest fasting glucose, TG and WC within the MetS. If replicated, the association of this phenotype with more severe IR-features indicated that it may contribute to identifying of those most at risk for incident type II diabetes and cardiometabolic disease.
Failure Diameter of PBX 9502: Simulations with the SURFplus model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-07-03
SURFplus is a reactive burn model for high explosives aimed at modelling shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. It utilizes the SURF model for the fast hot-spot reaction plus a slow reaction for the energy released by carbon clustering. A feature of the SURF model is that there is a partially decoupling between burn rate parameters and detonation wave properties. Previously, parameters for PBX 9502 that control shock ini- tiation had been calibrated to Pop plot data (distance-of-run to detonation as a function of shock pressure initiating the detonation). Here burn rate parameters for the high pres- sure regime are adjusted to t the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed just above the failure diameter. Simulated results are shown for an uncon ned rate stick when the 9502 diameter is slightly above and slightly below the failure diameter. Just above the failure diameter, in the rest frame of the detonation wave, the front is sonic at the PBX/air interface. As a consequence, the lead shock in the neighborhood of the interface is supported by the detonation pressure in the interior of the explosive rather than the reaction immediately behind the front. In the interior, the sonic point occurs near the end of the fast hot-spot reaction. Consequently, the slow carbon clustering reaction can not a ect the failure diameter. Below the failure diameter, the radial extent of the detonation front decreases starting from the PBX/air interface. That is, the failure starts at the PBX boundary and propagates inward to the axis of the rate stick.
Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garnaes, J
2011-01-01
The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA
A nuclear-medical method applied for determining the choledochus diameter after cholecystectomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, M.
1980-01-01
54 patients (46 of them females, 8 males) who underwent cholecystectomy at least 4 years ago, were followed up roentgenologically by infusion cholangiography and nuclear-medicinally by quantitative hepatobiliary functional scintiscanning (HBFS). The ROI method applied for HBFS permits to record time/activity curves above the liver parenchyma (A) and the porta of the liver (B). By substracting curve A of curve B with the scale in which A is incorporated in B, a curve B' results, indicating the flow volume through the porta of the liver. The quotient Q=maximum pulse A to B/maximum pulse B to B indicates the portion of the liver parenchyma in the porta curve. The quotient represents a measure for the total volume of the large bile ducts included in the region of the porta of the liver. The quantity 1-Q/Q was put in relation with the roentgenologically determined common bile duct diameters. It resulted that both quantities correlated well, with a correlation coefficient of r=-0.860. Thus, the choledochus diameter can be determined in a primarily functional examination with a precision of 2 mm, a degree which permits the detection of clinically relevant discharge malfunctions. It was not possible to detect peristalsis-dependent phenomena with a dosage of 4-5 mCi 99 mTc-diethyl-IDA, an irradiation dose which was sufficient for answering the clinical questions and could be justified for the patients. (orig.) [de
Transverse lie in labor: A study from Kaduna, Northern Nigeria ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Results: During the period there were 16633 deliveries and 30 women with transversely lying fetuses, giving an incidence of 1 in 554 deliveries. Forty percent of the cases were neglected transverse lies. The para 4 and above group had the highest incidence of 2.69/1000. Northern minorities ethnic group had the highest ...
Relating inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, D.M.
1975-01-01
Inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum are related by a local application of the correspondence principle of Bjorken and Kogut. The recent predictions for the inclusive process by Escobar are thus compared with wide angle exclusive data. The inclusive photoproduction of (rho 0 +ω) at large transverse momentum is discussed. (Auth.)
Fermions in light front transverse lattice quantum chromodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ur(x-aˆr)]}. (3). After eliminating the constraint fields we arrive at the transverse lattice Hamiltonian. P. =P. 1 +P. 2 ,. (4) where P. 1 arises from the elimination of ψ (hence sensitive to how fermions are put on the transverse lattice) and P. 2 contains Wilson plaquette term and the terms arising from the elimination of A . Explicitly.
Measurement of the transverse emittance for the NSC Pelletron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriques, G.; Mandal, A.; Chopra, S.; Joshi, R.; Datta, S.K.; Roy, A.
1998-01-01
The knowledge of the emittance (transverse and longitudinal) of the NSC pelletron is essential for matching the acceptance of the LINAC which is to be installed to augment the pelletron beam energies. The transverse emittance of NSC pelletron has been measured by employing a focussing element and a down-stream beam profile monitor
Transversal Surfaces of Timelike Ruled Surfaces in Minkowski 3-Space
Önder, Mehmet
2012-01-01
In this study we give definitions and characterizations of transversal surfaces of timelike ruled surfaces. We study some special cases such as the striction curve is a geodesic, an asymptotic line or a line of curvature. Moreover, we obtain developable conditions for transversal surfaces of a timelike ruled surface.
Entanglement of transverse modes in a pendular cavity
Mancini, Stefano; Gatti, Alessandra
2001-01-01
We study the phenomena that arise in the transverse structure of electromagnetic field impinging on a linear Fabry-Perot cavity with an oscillating end mirror. We find quantum correlations among transverse modes which can be considered as a signature of their entanglement.
Contact mechanics and friction for transversely isotropic viscoelastic materials
Mokhtari, Milad; Schipper, Dirk J.; Vleugels, N.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Yoshimoto, S.; Hashimoto, H.
2015-01-01
Transversely isotropic materials are an unique group of materials whose properties are the same along two of the principal axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. Various natural and artificial materials behave effectively as transversely isotropic elastic solids. Several materials can be classified
The resummed Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution at the LHC
Kulesza, A; Vogelsang, W
2003-01-01
We apply QCD resummation techniques to study the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced via gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC. In particular we focus on the joint resummation formalism which resums both threshold and transverse momentum corrections simultaneously. A comparison of results obtained in the joint and the standard recoil resummation frameworks is presented.
On the performance of small diameter gas cyclones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halasz, Marcos Roberto Teixeira
2002-02-01
Small diameter cyclones represent a potential alternative for the removal of small diameter particles from gaseous mixtures as well as the environmental control of their emission. In order to establish feasible configurations of a small diameter cyclone applied in the separation of solid particles dispersed in a gas and considering a large quantify of experimental data in literature, neural networks were used to estimate the equipment grade efficiency and pressure drop. In order to evaluate a performance of many small diameters configurations and analysis was carried of parametrical sensibility which determines the most important variables on separation efficiency determination. A set of experimental runs was carried out in a lab-scale mini-cyclone in order to obtain the separation efficiency and pressure drop for different configurations, and evaluate the feasibility of coupling a post-cyclone device to improve the equipment overall performance. The cyclones used presented diameters of 0.03 and 0.05 m and the remaining dimensions varied proportionally about those found in Stairmand high-efficiency cyclones. Experimental separation efficiencies up to 99% were obtained in this work. These results confirm the feasibility of the experimental set-up configuration proposed. (author)
Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshid eSepehrband
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy, or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI. The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.
Numerical models of delamination behavior in 2G HTS tapes under transverse tension and peel
Duan, Yujie; Ta, Wurui; Gao, Yuanwen
2018-02-01
In extreme operating environments, delamination in 2G HTS tapes occurs within and/or near the superconductor layer from high transverse tensile stresses caused by fabrication, Lorentz forces and thermal mismatch, etc. Generally, transverse opening and peeling off are the main delamination modes, and are always studied in anvil and peel tests, respectively. Numerical models of these modes for 2G HTS tape are presented wherein the mixed-mode traction-separation law at the interface of the silver and superconductor layers is considered. Plastic deformations of copper, silver, and Hastelloy® in the HTS tape are taken into account. The results obtained from the transverse opening model show that the maximum average tensile stress is smaller than the delamination tensile strength because delamination is asynchronous in the tape. When a crack appears in the tape, only a small stress ( ≤ 1 MPa) is required to expand the crack to other stress free areas through peeling. Using the peeling model, the dependency of the peel strength on peeling angle is investigated under constant fracture toughness. Peel strength decreases with the peeling angle until the minimum value is reached at 150°, and thereafter increases slightly. Other results indicate that peel strength depends strongly on delamination strength, fracture toughness, and thickness of copper layer. The fracture toughness of the delamination interface, which is difficult to obtain by experiment, can be extracted using the present model.
MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavel, D.T.
1980-07-01
MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables
Transverse stability in multibunch mode for CLIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guignard, G.
1993-01-01
In order to reach the desired luminosity with 250 GeV per beam, multibunch operation (limited to 4 bunches, say) might have to be considered in the CERN linear collider (CLIC). One limitation comes from the coupling of the bunch motion with the long-range transverse wake fields that may induce beam breakup. These wake fields have therefore to be controlled, and means of reducing their effects on the beam are discussed in a companion paper. One possibility consists in detuning the dipole modes in the cells to obtain decoherent contributions and hence reduce the field amplitude at the downstream bunch location. The important question is to know below which value this amplitude must be limited to prevent intolerable beam breakup. In a first attempt at estimating this threshold for CLIC two approaches are considered, i.e. the criterion developed at SLAC and based on the convergence of the multibunch-motion solution, and numerical simulations of two-bunch motion in a focusing lattice
The LHC Transverse Coupled-Bunch Instability
Mounet, Nicolas; Métral, Elias
In this thesis, the problem of the transverse coupled-bunch instabilities created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-coupling impedance, that can possibly limit the machine operation, is addressed thanks to several new theories and tools. A rather complete vision of the problem is proposed here, going from the calculation of the impedances and wake functions of individual machine elements, to the beam dynamics study. Firstly, new results are obtained in the theory of the beam-coupling impedance for an axisymmetric two-dimensional structure, generalizing Zotter's theories, and a new general theory is derived for the impedance of an infinite flat two-dimensional structure. Then, a new approach has been found to compute the wake functions from such analytically obtained beam-coupling impedances, over-coming limitations that could be met with standard discrete Fourier transform procedures. Those results are then used to obtain an impedance and wake function model of the LHC, based on the (resistive-) wall im...
Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.
1979-01-01
' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K p and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs
The effect of induction motor shaft diameter on motor performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asım Gökhan Yetgin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Induction motors are used in many areas from the past to the present and in different fields with the development of technology has continued to be used. It is obvious that induction motors as an improvement to the efficiency in terms of energy saving would cause great benefit. In that context, induction motor manufacturers and designers are constantly trying out new methods to improve motor performance and efficiency. In this study, what would be the optimum diameter of the shaft in order to increase the efficiency of the induction motor were investigated. In the study, 5.5 kW, 7.5 kW and 11 kW motors analyzes were also performed. Obtained shaft diameter values were compared with the manufacturer values. In addition, critical points such as the magnetic flux values, weight values and performances of the motors were examined and optimal shaft diameter values for each motor have been determined.
NEOWISE REACTIVATION MISSION YEAR TWO: ASTEROID DIAMETERS AND ALBEDOS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: cnugent@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2016-09-01
The Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission continues to detect, track, and characterize minor planets. We present diameters and albedos calculated from observations taken during the second year since the spacecraft was reactivated in late 2013. These include 207 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and 8885 other asteroids. Of the NEAs, 84% NEAs did not have previously measured diameters and albedos by the NEOWISE mission. Comparison of sizes and albedos calculated from NEOWISE measurements with those measured by occultations, spacecraft, and radar-derived shapes shows accuracy consistent with previous NEOWISE publications. Diameters and albedos fall within ±∼20% and ±∼40%, 1-sigma, respectively, of those measured by these alternate techniques. NEOWISE continues to preferentially discover near-Earth objects which are large (>100 m), and have low albedos.
Divergent biparietal diameter growth rates in twin pregnancies.
Houlton, M C
1977-05-01
Twenty-eight twin pregnancies were monitored by serial ultrasonic cephalometry from 30 or 31 weeks' gestation. The rates of growth of the individual twins as determined by biparietal diameters were similar in 11 cases (39%) and divergent in 17 (61%). When the rates of growth were divergent, the lesser rate was always below the mean for singleton pregnancies, and the incidence of small-for-gestational-age babies was 18 of 34 (53%). It was apparent that the greater the difference in biparietal diameters within the 2 weeks preceding delivery, the higher the risk of a small-for-gestation-age baby being delivered. No comment could be made on the growth rate prior to 28 weeks except that at diagnosis there was little or no difference in biparietal diameters.
Bubble behaviour and mean diameter in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeitoun, O.; Shoukri, M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)
1995-09-01
Bubble behaviour and mean bubble diameter in subcooled upward flow boiling in a vertical annular channel were investigated under low pressure and mass flux conditions. A high speed video system was used to visualize the subcooled flow boiling phenomenon. The high speed photographic results indicated that, contrary to the common understanding, bubbles tend to detach from the heating surface upstream of the net vapour generation point. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the mean bubble diameter along the subcooled flow boiling region. Data on the axial area-averaged void fraction distributions were also obtained using a single beam gamma densitometer. Effects of the liquid subcooling, applied heat flux and mass flux on the mean bubble size were investigated. A correlation for the mean bubble diameter as a function of the local subcooling, heat flux and mass flux was obtained.
On the diameter of dot-critical graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doost Ali Mojdeh
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A graph G is \\(k\\-dot-critical (totaly \\(k\\-dot-critical if \\(G\\ is dot-critical (totaly dot-critical and the domination number is \\(k\\. In the paper [T. Burtona, D. P. Sumner, Domination dot-critical graphs, Discrete Math, 306 (2006, 11-18] the following question is posed: What are the best bounds for the diameter of a \\(k\\-dot-critical graph and a totally \\(k\\-dot-critical graph \\(G\\ with no critical vertices for \\(k \\geq 4\\? We find the best bound for the diameter of a \\(k\\-dot-critical graph, where \\(k \\in\\{4,5,6\\}\\ and we give a family of \\(k\\-dot-critical graphs (with no critical vertices with sharp diameter \\(2k-3\\ for even \\(k \\geq 4\\.
Measurements of the diameter of the supernova SN 1987A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karovska, M.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.R.
1991-01-01
Speckle interferometric measurements of the angular diameter of SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud, obtained at 664 days after the outburst are presented. Diameters were estimated with milliarcsec precision at 657 nm and 550 nm by fitting model visibility functions to the data corresponding to different intensity distributions for the supernova disk. Measurements made assuming a uniform intensity distribution were compared to the uniform disk measurements obtained from 30 days after the explosion. Diameter measurements obtained near the center of the H-alpha line are consistent with homologous expansion of the supernova shell with a mean velocity of 2850 km/s. The linear least-squares fit to the measurements obtained at other wavelengths from 260 days after the explosion yielded a somewhat lower mean expansion velocity. 8 refs
Diameter sensitive effect in singlewalled carbon nanotubes upon acid treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.
2009-01-01
Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit very unique properties. As an electronic system they undergo amphoteric doping effects (n-type and p-type) which can be reversed. These processes affect the optical and vibronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The most common and widely used procedure which changes the properties of the SWCNT is acid treatment applied as a purification procedure. This effect has been widely studied but not fully understood so far. Here, we present a study, in which a diameter sensitive effect has been observed. Therefore, two kinds of SWCNT samples have been studied: (i) produced via chemical vapour deposition with a broad diameter distribution, and (ii) synthesised by the laser ablation technique which is commonly known to result in narrow diameter distribution bulk SWCNT samples. Resonance Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy have been applied for the characterisation of the samples.
Characteristics of two-phase flows in large diameter channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: schlegelj@mst.edu [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2016-12-15
Two-phase flows in large diameter channels have a great deal of importance in a wide variety of industrial applications. Nuclear systems, petroleum refineries, and chemical processes make extensive use of larger systems. Flows in such channels have very different properties from flows in smaller channels which are typically used in experimental research. In this paper, the various differences between flows in large and small channels are highlighted using the results of previous experimental and analytical research. This review is followed by a review of recent experiments in and model development for flows in large diameter channels performed by the authors. The topics of these research efforts range from void fraction and interfacial area concentration measurement to flow regime identification and modeling, drift-flux modeling for high void fraction conditions, and evaluation of interfacial area transport models for large diameter channels.
US Intergroup Anal Carcinoma Trial: Tumor Diameter Predicts for Colostomy
Ajani, Jaffer A.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Pedersen, John; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Mayer, Robert J.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.
2009-01-01
Purpose The US Gastrointestinal Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 anal carcinoma trial showed that cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of colostomy compared with mitomycin-based therapy. Established prognostic variables for patients with anal carcinoma include tumor diameter, clinical nodal status, and sex, but pretreatment variables that would predict the likelihood of colostomy are unknown. Methods A secondary analysis was performed by combining patients in the two treatment arms to evaluate whether new predictive and prognostic variables would emerge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and time to colostomy (TTC) with pretreatment and treatment variables. Results Of 682 patients enrolled, 644 patients were assessable and analyzed. In the multivariate analysis, tumor-related prognosticators for poorer OS included node-positive cancer (P ≤ .0001), large (> 5 cm) tumor diameter (P = .01), and male sex (P = .016). In the treatment-related categories, cisplatin-based therapy was statistically significantly associated with a higher rate of colostomy (P = .03) than was mitomycin-based therapy. In the pretreatment variables category, only large tumor diameter independently predicted for TTC (P = .008). Similarly, the cumulative 5-year colostomy rate was statistically significantly higher for large tumor diameter than for small tumor diameter (Gray's test; P = .0074). Clinical nodal status and sex were not predictive of TTC. Conclusion The combined analysis of the two arms of RTOG 98-11, representing the largest prospective database, reveals that tumor diameter (irrespective of the nodal status) is the only independent pretreatment variable that predicts TTC and 5-year colostomy rate in patients with anal carcinoma. PMID:19139424
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.
1983-01-01
We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-pT electron. Both the configuration of the events...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian F.; Nielsen, S.B.
2006-01-01
of the transverse deflection is modified by in-plane tectonic forces originating e.g. at plate boundaries. However, geoscience applications of the coupling between transverse deflections and boundary conditions have been restricted to the one-dimensional thin-plate model. In this paper we extend the model...
Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strugar, P.V.
1968-12-01
Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples
Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.
2003-01-01
This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...
Transverse micro-erosion meter measurements; determining minimum sample size
Trenhaile, Alan S.; Lakhan, V. Chris
2011-11-01
Two transverse micro-erosion meter (TMEM) stations were installed in each of four rock slabs, a slate/shale, basalt, phyllite/schist, and sandstone. One station was sprayed each day with fresh water and the other with a synthetic sea water solution (salt water). To record changes in surface elevation (usually downwearing but with some swelling), 100 measurements (the pilot survey), the maximum for the TMEM used in this study, were made at each station in February 2010, and then at two-monthly intervals until February 2011. The data were normalized using Box-Cox transformations and analyzed to determine the minimum number of measurements needed to obtain station means that fall within a range of confidence limits of the population means, and the means of the pilot survey. The effect on the confidence limits of reducing an already small number of measurements (say 15 or less) is much greater than that of reducing a much larger number of measurements (say more than 50) by the same amount. There was a tendency for the number of measurements, for the same confidence limits, to increase with the rate of downwearing, although it was also dependent on whether the surface was treated with fresh or salt water. About 10 measurements often provided fairly reasonable estimates of rates of surface change but with fairly high percentage confidence intervals in slowly eroding rocks; however, many more measurements were generally needed to derive means within 10% of the population means. The results were tabulated and graphed to provide an indication of the approximate number of measurements required for given confidence limits, and the confidence limits that might be attained for a given number of measurements.
Residual stresses and critical diameter in vitreous matrix materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mastelaro, Valmor R.; Zanotto, Edgar D.
1995-01-01
The present study was undertaken to test the validity of existing models for: i) the residual internal stresses which arise due to thermal and elastic mismatch in duplex systems, and ii) the critical particle diameter for spontaneous cracking. Partially crystallized 1,07 Na 2 O-2 Ca O-3 Si O 2 - 6% P 2 O 5 glasses were studied. The experimental residual stress was in excellent agreement with the calculated value, however, the critical particle diameter, estimated by an energy balance approach, was more than ten times smaller than the experimental value. This discrepancy indicates that the energy model is not applicable in this case. (author)
NEOWISE REACTIVATION MISSION YEAR ONE: PRELIMINARY ASTEROID DIAMETERS AND ALBEDOS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S.; Stevenson, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: cnugent@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2015-12-01
We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 7956 asteroids detected in the first year of the NEOWISE Reactivation mission. Of those, 201 are near-Earth asteroids and 7755 are Main Belt or Mars-crossing asteroids. 17% of these objects have not been previously characterized using the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or “NEOWISE” thermal measurements. Diameters are determined to an accuracy of ∼20% or better. If good-quality H magnitudes are available, albedos can be determined to within ∼40% or better.
Determination of Aerosol Particle Diameter Using Cascade Impactor Procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunawas; Ruslanto, P. O
1998-01-01
Determination of aerosol particle size distribution has been done using a low pressure Andersen's cascade impactor with 13 stages. The aerosol has been sampled with flow rate of aerosol sampling of 28.3 Ipm. Preliminary study result shows that aerosol in the simulation chamber was spread in monomodal distribution with Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of 4.9 μm. The aerosol measurement in Japan Power Demonstration Reactor has been spread in trimodal distribution with Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter equal to 13.3 μm. The use of mylar as impaction plate instead of aluminum foil gives good result
Fitting diameter distribution models to data from forest inventories with concentric plot design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nanos, N.; Sjöstedt de Luna, S.
2017-11-01
Aim: Several national forest inventories use a complex plot design based on multiple concentric subplots where smaller diameter trees are inventoried when lying in the smaller-radius subplots and ignored otherwise. Data from these plots are truncated with threshold (truncation) diameters varying according to the distance from the plot centre. In this paper we designed a maximum likelihood method to fit the Weibull diameter distribution to data from concentric plots. Material and methods: Our method (M1) was based on multiple truncated probability density functions to build the likelihood. In addition, we used an alternative method (M2) presented recently. We used methods M1 and M2 as well as two other reference methods to estimate the Weibull parameters in 40000 simulated plots. The spatial tree pattern of the simulated plots was generated using four models of spatial point patterns. Two error indices were used to assess the relative performance of M1 and M2 in estimating relevant stand-level variables. In addition, we estimated the Quadratic Mean plot Diameter (QMD) using Expansion Factors (EFs). Main results: Methods M1 and M2 produced comparable estimation errors in random and cluster tree spatial patterns. Method M2 produced biased parameter estimates in plots with inhomogeneous Poisson patterns. Estimation of QMD using EFs produced biased results in plots within inhomogeneous intensity Poisson patterns. Research highlights:We designed a new method to fit the Weibull distribution to forest inventory data from concentric plots that achieves high accuracy and precision in parameter estimates regardless of the within-plot spatial tree pattern.
Strain analysis of different diameter Morse taper implants under overloading compressive conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolina Guimarães CASTRO
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of deformation from compression caused by different diameters of Morse taper implants and the residual deformation after load removal. Thirty Morse taper implants lacking external threads were divided into 3 groups (n = 10 according to their diameter as follows: 3.5 mm, 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm. Two-piece abutments were fixed into the implants, and the samples were subjected to compressive axial loading up to 1500 N of force. During the test, one strain gauge remained fixed to the cervical portion of each implant to measure the strain variation. The strain values were recorded at two different time points: at the maximum load (1500 N and 60 seconds after load removal. To calculate the strain at the implant/abutment interface, a mathematical formula was applied. Data were analyzed using a one-way Anova and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. The 5.0 mm diameter implant showed a significantly lower strain (650.5 μS ± 170.0 than the 4.0 mm group (1170.2 μS ± 374.7 and the 3.5 mm group (1388.1 μS ± 326.6 (p < 0.001, regardless of the load presence. The strain values decreased by approximately 50% after removal of the load, regardless of the implant diameter. The 5.0 mm implant showed a significantly lower strain at the implant/abutment interface (943.4 μS ± 504.5 than the 4.0 mm group (1057.4 μS ± 681.3 and the 3.5 mm group (1159.6 μS ± 425.9 (p < 0.001. According to the results of this study, the diameter influenced the strain around the internal and external walls of the cervical region of Morse taper implants; all diameters demonstrated clinically acceptable values of strain.
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
Tube bundle vibrations in transversal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Sagner, M.
1978-01-01
This study gives important information concerning characteristic parameters about lock-in and whirling instability phenomena, in the case of tube arrays. The work is mainly an experimental one though models are also developed: 1) an equilateral pitch bundle (p=1,5 D with D=tube diameter) is tested. Tube damping (epsilon) and first eigenfrequency (f), flow velocity are explored in a large domain. Vibratory level of the tubes are measured and critical points are ploted on the fluidelastic parameters diagram. Several bundles with various usual pitches and arrangements (in line or staggered) are tested. Critical velocities are measured and the whirling instability characteristic coefficient is tabulated. A complementary experiment is made on tube rows with various pitches. This gives valuable informations concerning the look-in domain in VR and A'R diagram. Furthermore this puts in evidence the important effect of a frequency difference between two adjacent tubes on the whirling critical velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamatsashvili, George; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier; Khujadze, George; Chagelishvili, George; Foysi, Holger
2016-01-01
We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence to study the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows. For this purpose, we analyzed the turbulence dynamics in Fourier/wavenumber/spectral space based on the simulation data for the domain aspect ratio 1 : 1 : 1. Specifically, we examined the interplay of linear transient growth of Fourier harmonics and nonlinear processes. The transient growth of harmonics is strongly anisotropic in spectral space. This, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in spectral space and, as a result, the main nonlinear process appears to be not a direct/inverse, but rather a transverse/angular redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space referred to as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by the interplay of the linear transient, or nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies the wellknown bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the box size. Consequently, the central, small wavenumber area of Fourier space (the size of which is determined below) is crucial in the self-sustenance and is labeled the vital area. Outside the vital area, the transient growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance - Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. The number of harmonics actively participating in the self-sustaining process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) is quite large - it is equal to 36 for the considered box aspect ratio - and obviously cannot be described by low-order models. (paper)
Kishore Mugada, Krishna; Adepu, Kumar
2018-03-01
In this research article, the effect of increasing shoulder diameter on temperature and Zener Holloman (Z)-parameter for friction stir butt welded AA6082-T6 was studied. The temperature at the Advancing side (AS) of weld was measured using the K-Type thermocouple at four different equidistant locations. The developed analytical model is utilized to predict the maximum temperature (Tpeak) during the welding. The strain, strain rate, Z- Parameter for all the shoulders at four distinct locations were evaluated. The temperature increases with increase in shoulder diameter and the maximum temperature was recorded for 24mm shoulder diameter. The computed log Z values are compared with the available process map and results shows that the values are in stable flow region and near to stir zone the values are in Dynamic recrystallization region (DRX). The axial load (Fz) and total tool torque (N-m) are found to be higher for shoulder diameter of 21 mm i.e., 6.3 kN and 56.5 N-m respectively.
The morphology of transverse aeolian ridges on Mars
Geissler, Paul E.; Wilgus, Justin T.
2017-06-01
A preliminary survey of publicly released high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) produced by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter identified transverse aeolian ridges (TARs) in 154 DTMs in latitudes from 50°S to 40°N. Consistent with previous surveys, the TARs identified in HiRISE DTMs are found at all elevations, irrespective of the regional thermal inertia of the surface. Ten DTMs were selected for measuring the characteristics of the TARs, including maximum height, mean height, mean spacing (wavelength), and the slope of the surface where they are located. We confined our measurements to features that were taller than 1 m and spaced more than 10 m apart. We found a surprisingly wide variability of TAR sizes within each local region (typically 5 km by 25 km), with up to a factor of 7 difference in TAR wavelengths in a single DTM. The TAR wavelengths do not appear to be correlated to latitude or elevation, but the largest TARs in our small survey were found at lower elevations. The tallest TARs we measured were on the flat floor of Moni crater, within Kaiser crater in the southern highlands. These TARs are up to 14 m tall, with a typical wavelength of 120 m. TAR heights are weakly correlated with their wavelengths. The height-to-wavelength ratios for most TARs are far less than 1/2π (the maximum predicted for antidunes), however in two cases the ratio is close to 1/2π, and in one case (in the bend of a channel) the ratio exceeds 1/2π. TAR wavelengths are uncorrelated with surface slope, both on local and regional scales. TAR heights are weakly anti-correlated with local slope. These results help constrain models of TAR formation, particularly a new hypothesis (Geissler, 2014) that suggests that TARs were formed from micron-sized dust that was transported in suspension. The lack of correlation between TAR wavelength and surface slope seems to rule out formation by gravity-driven dust flows such as
Variations in Transverse Foramina of Cervical Vertebrae: Morphology & Clinical Importance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vaishakhi Gonsai
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate variations in transverse foramina in the cervical vertebrae and its morphological and clinical importance. Materials and Method : The variations in the number and size of transverse foramina was studied in total 200 human dried cervical vertebrae, which were taken from the Department of Anatomy, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad. All the vertebrae were observed for variation in number and size of transverse foramina. Results: Out of 200 cervical vertebrae, complete double transverse foramina were observed in 40 vertebrae (20%, among them unilateral double foramina were found in 31 vertebrae (15.5% and the bilateral double foramina were found in 9 vertebrae (4.5%. Incomplete double transverse foramina were observed in 22 vertebrae (11%, among them unilateral double foramina were found in 16 vertebrae (8% and bilateral double foramina were observed in 6 vertebrae (3%. Conclusion: Complete unilateral double transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae were more common than bilateral. Also unilateral small size transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae were also common. This variation is important for the neurosurgeon during cervical surgery. Under such condition the course of the vertebral artery may be distorted. It is also useful for Radiologist during CT and MRI scan.
Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan; Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan; Aslankurt, Murat; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan
2005-01-01
There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean±SD; 19.72±0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)
Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan [Atatuerk University, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Aslankurt, Murat [Atatuerk University, Department of Ophtalmatology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Yazici, Ahmet Taylan [Beyoglu Goez Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey)
2005-01-01
There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean{+-}SD; 19.72{+-}0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)
Prediction and error of baldcypress stem volume from stump diameter
Bernard R. Parresol
1998-01-01
The need to estimate the volume of removals occurs for many reasons, such as in trespass cases, severance tax reports, and post-harvest assessments. A logarithmic model is presented for prediction of baldcypress total stem cubic foot volume using stump diameter as the independent variable. Because the error of prediction is as important as the volume estimate, the...
Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically ...
Study of tube diameter effect on the burnout
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levitan, L.L.; Lantsman, F.P.; Dedneva, E.I.
1981-01-01
Effect of a tube diameter d on boundary steam content Xsub(b) is experimentally investigated during unwashed liquid wall film drying in the disperse-ring flow regime. For this purpose systematical experimental investigations of the burnout of the second kind in tubes with diameters of 4, 6 and 12 mm have been carried out as well as the other data relating to burnout in tubes with diameter from 4 to 40 mm are used. The investigations have been carried out at water and steam pressures of 4.9-13.7 MPa and mass velocities from 750 to 5000 kg/m 2 xs. It is elucidated that increase in the tube diameter results in reducing the ranges of pressures and mass velocities at which Xsub(b) is independent of heat flux. Quantity dependence Xsub(b)=f(d) has been obtained as well. The best agreement with data from different experiments is observed when taking into account the effect of d on Xsub(b) by means of the following relation: Xsub(b) is proportional to dsup(-0.25). In this case divergence, as a rule, does not exceed 10% [ru
Historical perspective on diameter-limit cutting in northeastern forests
Matthew J. Kelty; Anthony W. D' Amato; Anthony W. D' Amato
2006-01-01
The use of diameter-limit cutting and high-grading is currently a concern for long-term sustainability of forests in the Northeastern United States and surrounding areas. This paper reviews historical information about the kinds of harvesting used in this region from 1620 to 1950, to provide a context for current discussions. Throughout this period, most timber...
Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters
Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman
1969-01-01
Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...
Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine
Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc
2014-01-01
Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...
Sonographic assessment of the portal vein diameter in apparently ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
the head in Frankfurts' position and weight measured using a weighing scale. ... 1.41mm and that PV diameter positively correlates with anthropometric variables. ... time consuming and involve risk and discomfort to the .... tolic velocity which gives an accurate and a reliable meth- .... a tertiary care centre in North-East India.
Uncertainty budget for optical coordinate measurements of circle diameter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo
2004-01-01
An uncertainty analysis for circle diameter measurements using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) equipped with an optical probe is presented in this paper. A mathematical model for data evaluation and uncertainty assessment was formulated in accordance with Guide to the Expression of Uncertain...
Arterial diameter during central volume depletion in humans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Madsen, P; Matzen, S
1995-01-01
The luminal diameter of the radial artery was followed by high frequency ultrasound during 50 degrees head-up tilt-induced central volume depletion in ten healthy subjects of whom six were tilted twice and pretreated with the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide or placebo following a double...
Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth
Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan
2016-01-01
DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.
Bipartite Diametrical Graphs of Diameter 4 and Extreme Orders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Al-Addasi
2008-01-01
in which this upper bound is attained, this graph can be viewed as a generalization of the Rhombic Dodecahedron. Then we show that for any ≥2, the graph (2,2 is the unique (up to isomorphism bipartite diametrical graph of diameter 4 and partite sets of cardinalities 2 and 2, and hence in particular, for =3, the graph (6,8 which is just the Rhombic Dodecahedron is the unique (up to isomorphism bipartite diametrical graph of such a diameter and cardinalities of partite sets. Thus we complete a characterization of -graphs of diameter 4 and cardinality of the smaller partite set not exceeding 6. We prove that the neighborhoods of vertices of the larger partite set of (2,2 form a matroid whose basis graph is the hypercube . We prove that any -graph of diameter 4 is bipartite self complementary, thus in particular (2,2. Finally, we study some additional properties of (2,2 concerning the order of its automorphism group, girth, domination number, and when being Eulerian.
NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Kramer, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-301, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nugent, C.; Cutri, R. M. [California Institute of Technology, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E. L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bauer, J. M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Grav, T.; Sonnett, S., E-mail: Joseph.Masiero@jpl.nasa.gov [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E Fort Lowell Road #106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)
2017-10-01
The Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) reactivation mission has completed its third year of surveying the sky in the thermal infrared for near-Earth asteroids and comets. NEOWISE collects simultaneous observations at 3.4 and 4.6 μ m of solar system objects passing through its field of regard. These data allow for the determination of total thermal emission from bodies in the inner solar system, and thus the sizes of these objects. In this paper, we present thermal model fits of asteroid diameters for 170 NEOs and 6110 Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) detected during the third year of the survey, as well as the associated optical geometric albedos. We compare our results with previous thermal model results from NEOWISE for overlapping sample sets, as well as diameters determined through other independent methods, and find that our diameter measurements for NEOs agree to within 26% (1 σ ) of previously measured values. Diameters for the MBAs are within 17% (1 σ ). This brings the total number of unique near-Earth objects characterized by the NEOWISE survey to 541, surpassing the number observed during the fully cryogenic mission in 2010.
NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Kramer, E.; Nugent, C.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Sonnett, S.
2017-01-01
The Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) reactivation mission has completed its third year of surveying the sky in the thermal infrared for near-Earth asteroids and comets. NEOWISE collects simultaneous observations at 3.4 and 4.6 μ m of solar system objects passing through its field of regard. These data allow for the determination of total thermal emission from bodies in the inner solar system, and thus the sizes of these objects. In this paper, we present thermal model fits of asteroid diameters for 170 NEOs and 6110 Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) detected during the third year of the survey, as well as the associated optical geometric albedos. We compare our results with previous thermal model results from NEOWISE for overlapping sample sets, as well as diameters determined through other independent methods, and find that our diameter measurements for NEOs agree to within 26% (1 σ ) of previously measured values. Diameters for the MBAs are within 17% (1 σ ). This brings the total number of unique near-Earth objects characterized by the NEOWISE survey to 541, surpassing the number observed during the fully cryogenic mission in 2010.
Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment
Keijzer, M.; Pickering, J. W.; van Gemert, M. J.
1991-01-01
Optimal port wine stain treatment requires the selective absorption of light by the ectatic blood vessels. We investigated whether deeper blood vessels can be coagulated, without damaging other cutaneous structures, by varying the laser beam diameter. The penetration of the light was simulated with
Pupil Center as a Function of Pupil Diameter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbegi, Diako; Hansen, Dan Witzner
2016-01-01
We investigate the gaze estimation error induced by pupil size changes using simulated data. We investigate the influence of pupil diameter changes on estimated gaze point error obtained by two gaze estimation models. Simulation data show that at wider viewing angles and at small eye...
Stem diameter and height of chrysanthemum cv Yoko ono as ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Administrator
2011-09-26
Sep 26, 2011 ... Booij R (1989). Effect of growth regulators on curd diameter of cauliflower. Sci. Hortic. 38: 23-32. Castro PRC (1998). Use of plant growth regulators in fruit production of vegetable crops and ornamental plants. Série produtor Rural, Ed. especial, Piracicaba: ESALQ- Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação.
FACES WITH LARGE DIAMETER ON THE SYMMETRICAL TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE
SIERKSMA, G; TIJSSEN, GA
This paper deals with the symmetric traveling salesman polytope and contains three main theorems. The first one gives a new characterization of (non)adjacency. Based on this characterization a new upper bound for the diameter of the symmetric traveling salesman polytope (conjectured to be 2 by M.
Numerical analysis of the bubble detachment diameter in nucleate boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamas, M I; Sáiz Jabardo, J M; Arce, A; Fariñas, P
2012-01-01
The present paper presents a tri-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model to investigate the fluid flow around bubbles attached to heated walls. Transient solutions of the governing field equations in a domain containing the bubbles and the surrounding liquid have been obtained. The nucleation, growing and detachment processes have been analyzed. Concerning the software, the open source OpenFOAM has been used. Special attention has been given to the bubble detachment diameter. Two mechanisms have been considered as physically related to the detachment: surface tension and buoyancy. As expected, it has been verified that the bubble detachment diameter depends on the contact angle, operating pressure and properties of the fluid. Several fluids have been considered (water, R134a, ammonia and R123), as well as several operating pressures (between 0.1 and 10 bar) and contact angles (between 10 and 80°). It has been concluded that the detachment diameter depends strongly on the contact angle and fluid properties and slightly on the pressure. A correlation for the bubble detachment diameter has been developed based on the obtained numerical results. Data from this expression compare reasonably well with those from other correlations from the literature.
Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees
T.R. Feldpausch; L. Banin; O.L. Phillips; T.R. Baker; S.L. Lewis; C.A. Quesada; K. Affum-Baffoe; E.J.M.M. Arets; N.J. Berry; M. Bird; E.S. Brondizio; P de Camargo; J. Chave; G. Djagbletey; T.F. Domingues; M. Drescher; P.M. Fearnside; M.B. Franca; N.M. Fyllas; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; A. Hladik; N. Higuchi; M.O. Hunter; Y. Iida; K.A. Salim; A.R. Kassim; M. Keller; J. Kemp; D.A. King; J.C. Lovett; B.S. Marimon; B.H. Marimon-Junior; E. Lenza; A.R. Marshall; D.J. Metcalfe; E.T.A. Mitchard; E.F. Moran; B.W. Nelson; R. Nilus; E.M. Nogueira; M. Palace; S. Patiño; K.S.-H. Peh; M.T. Raventos; J.M. Reitsma; G. Saiz; F. Schrodt; B. Sonke; H.E. Taedoumg; S. Tan; L. White; H. Woll; J. Lloyd
2011-01-01
Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical...
Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-03-11
It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.
Diameter sensors for tree-length harvesting systems
T.P. McDonald; Robert B. Rummer; T.E. Grift
2003-01-01
Most cut-to-length (CTL) harvesters provide sensors for measuring diameter of trees as they are cut and processed. Among other uses, this capability provides a data collection tool for marketing of logs in real time. Logs can be sorted and stacked based on up-to-date market information, then transportation systems optimized to route wood to proper destinations at...
Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...
Wang, Tiening; Takayasu, Makoto; Bordini, Bernardo
2014-01-01
Superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strands could be used for the superconducting magnets of the next generation Large Hadron Collider. The strands are cabled into the typical flat Rutherford cable configuration. During the assembly of a magnet and its operation the strands experience not only longitudinal but also transverse load due to the pre-compression applied during the assembly and the Lorentz load felt when the magnets are energized. To properly design the magnets and guarantee their safe operation, mechanical load effects on the strand superconducting properties are studied extensively; particularly, many scaling laws based on tensile load experiments have been established to predict the critical current dependence on strain. However, the dependence of the superconducting properties on transverse load has not been extensively studied so far. One of the reasons is that transverse loading experiments are difficult to conduct due to the small diameter of the strand (about 1 mm) and the data ...
Maximum support resistance with steel arch backfilling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1983-01-01
A system of backfilling for roadway arch supports to replace timber and debris lagging is described. Produced in West Germany, it is known as the Bullflex system and consists of 23 cm diameter woven textile tubing which is inflated with a pumpable hydraulically-setting filler of the type normally used in mines. The tube is placed between the back of the support units and the rock face and creates an early-stage interlocking effect.
The AP diameter of the pelvis: a new criterion for continence in the exstrophy complex?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ait-Ameur, A.; Kalifa, G.; Adamsbaum, C.; Wakim, A.; Dubousset, J.
2001-01-01
Reconstructive surgery of bladder exstrophy remains a challenge. By using CT of the pelvis, we suggest a new pre- and post-operative investigative procedure to define the AP diameter (APD) as a predictive criterion for continence in this anomaly. Patients and methods: Three axial CT slices were selected in nine children with exstrophy who had undergone neonatal reconstructive surgery. The three levels selected were the first sacral plate, the mid acetabular plane and the superior pubic spine. We used combined slices to measure: circle APD = distance between the first sacral vertebra and the pubic symphysis. circle Pubic diastasis (PD) circle Three angles defined on the transverse plane of the first sacral vertebra - iliac wing angle, sacropubic angle and acetabular version. In exstrophy, the angles demonstrate opening of the iliac wings and the pubic ramus, and acetabular retroversion compared to controls. Comparisons between controls, continent and incontinent patients reveal that in continent patients, APD increases with growth and seems to be a predictive criterion for continence, independent of diastasis of the pubic symphysis. We believe that CT of the pelvis with measurements of the APD should be performed in all neonates with bladder exstrophy before reconstructive surgery and for better understanding of the malformation. The APD seems to be predictive and may be a major criterion for continence, independent of PD. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuba Cimilli Ozturk
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Diagnosis and measuring the level of increase in intracranial pressure (ICP is critical, especially for the management of trauma patients in the emergency department and intensive care unit. However, measurements are operator-dependent as in all of the sonographic diagnoses. The aim of this study is to assess the operator variations in the measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD. There were four emergency medicine specialists involved in the study. Each had at least 1 year of experience of ultrasound scans and performed at least 25 prior ocular scans examining the ONSD. Two measurements were made 1 week apart from both axial and longitudinal planes. Sixty healthy adults were involved in the study and every investigator obtained four measurements from each. Intra-interobserver reliabilities were tested. The investigators performed 60 ocular ultrasounds on individual healthy adults and obtained two measurements in axial and longitudinal planes 1 week apart. Therefore, 960 measurements were analyzed. The levels of compatibilities for most of the measurements were found at acceptable levels statistically. However, it is not possible to say that there was a perfect compatibility among the sonographers according to the previously conducted reliability studies of ultrasound measurements. According to our results, it is hard to say that sonographic measurement of the ONSD is a highly reliable method both in longitudinal and transverse planes.
Catastrophic Disruption Threshold and Maximum Deflection from Kinetic Impact
Cheng, A. F.
2017-12-01
The use of a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid on a collision course with Earth was described in the NASA Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives (2007) as the most mature approach for asteroid deflection and mitigation. The NASA DART mission will demonstrate asteroid deflection by kinetic impact at the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 65803 Didymos in October, 2022. The kinetic impactor approach is considered to be applicable with warning times of 10 years or more and with hazardous asteroid diameters of 400 m or less. In principle, a larger kinetic impactor bringing greater kinetic energy could cause a larger deflection, but input of excessive kinetic energy will cause catastrophic disruption of the target, leaving possibly large fragments still on collision course with Earth. Thus the catastrophic disruption threshold limits the maximum deflection from a kinetic impactor. An often-cited rule of thumb states that the maximum deflection is 0.1 times the escape velocity before the target will be disrupted. It turns out this rule of thumb does not work well. A comparison to numerical simulation results shows that a similar rule applies in the gravity limit, for large targets more than 300 m, where the maximum deflection is roughly the escape velocity at momentum enhancement factor β=2. In the gravity limit, the rule of thumb corresponds to pure momentum coupling (μ=1/3), but simulations find a slightly different scaling μ=0.43. In the smaller target size range that kinetic impactors would apply to, the catastrophic disruption limit is strength-controlled. A DART-like impactor won't disrupt any target asteroid down to significantly smaller size than the 50 m below which a hazardous object would not penetrate the atmosphere in any case unless it is unusually strong.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)
2009-07-01
This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)
Corrosion and deposit determination in large diameter pipes by radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harara, W.
2006-08-01
Two steel reference pipes with outer diameters of 8 and 12 inches were machined to make artificial defects on each of them, such as inside and outside steps of different wall thicknesses, inside and outside flat bottomed holes (FBH) of different diameters and depths on steps, flat area (FA), and ground patch (GP). The artificial defect were made to simulate natural corrosion attack as regular corrosion and pitting. The two reference pipes were tested according to tangential radiography technique and double wall single image technique. Tangential radiography technique had been applied using Co-60 radio-isotope to determine the steps thicknesses, the FBH, the remaining wall thickness under the FA, the remaining wall thickness above the GP, and the minimum detectable thickness of the artificial cement deposit on the two reference pipes, with and without insulation. Double wall single image technique had also been applied on the two reference pipes with and without insulation using Ir-192 radio-isotope to measure the flat bottomed holes depths, GP depth, and FA depth by density measurement. The measurement results obtained from the radiographs confirm that, tangential radiography technique can be applied to detect and evaluate the inside and outside regular corrosion attack in the large diameter pipes. It can also be applied to detect and evaluate the outside FBH with depth equal or greater than 10%. Inside 10% FBH and inside 20% FBH can not be detected if their diameters are not larger than certain value related to diameter and wall thickness of the pipe under test. Increasing the film density up to 5 outside the pipe did not provide any detection improvement of 10% and 20% inside FBH. Tangential radiography technique can also be applied to detect and measure the deposit inside the pipes. Double wall technique can be applied as an alternative method of the tangential radiography technique to detect and to evaluate the shallow and small diameter, 10% and 20% inside FBH
The AKARI IRC asteroid flux catalogue: updated diameters and albedos
Alí-Lagoa, V.; Müller, T. G.; Usui, F.; Hasegawa, S.
2018-05-01
The AKARI IRC all-sky survey provided more than twenty thousand thermal infrared observations of over five thousand asteroids. Diameters and albedos were obtained by fitting an empirically calibrated version of the standard thermal model to these data. After the publication of the flux catalogue in October 2016, our aim here is to present the AKARI IRC all-sky survey data and discuss valuable scientific applications in the field of small body physical properties studies. As an example, we update the catalogue of asteroid diameters and albedos based on AKARI using the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM). We fit the NEATM to derive asteroid diameters and, whenever possible, infrared beaming parameters. We fit groups of observations taken for the same object at different epochs of the survey separately, so we compute more than one diameter for approximately half of the catalogue. We obtained a total of 8097 diameters and albedos for 5170 asteroids, and we fitted the beaming parameter for almost two thousand of them. When it was not possible to fit the beaming parameter, we used a straight line fit to our sample's beaming parameter-versus-phase angle plot to set the default value for each fit individually instead of using a single average value. Our diameters agree with stellar-occultation-based diameters well within the accuracy expected for the model. They also match the previous AKARI-based catalogue at phase angles lower than 50°, but we find a systematic deviation at higher phase angles, at which near-Earth and Mars-crossing asteroids were observed. The AKARI IRC All-sky survey is an essential source of information about asteroids, especially the large ones, since, it provides observations at different observation geometries, rotational coverages and aspect angles. For example, by comparing in more detail a few asteroids for which dimensions were derived from occultations, we discuss how the multiple observations per object may already provide three
Measurement error in CT assessment of appendix diameter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trout, Andrew T.; Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
2016-12-15
Appendiceal diameter continues to be cited as an important criterion for diagnosis of appendicitis by computed tomography (CT). To assess sources of error and variability in appendiceal diameter measurements by CT. In this institutional review board-approved review of imaging and medical records, we reviewed CTs performed in children <18 years of age between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2010. Appendiceal diameter was measured in the axial and coronal planes by two reviewers (R1, R2). One year later, 10% of cases were remeasured. For patients who had multiple CTs, serial measurements were made to assess within patient variability. Measurement differences between planes, within and between reviewers, within patients and between CT and pathological measurements were assessed using correlation coefficients and paired t-tests. Six hundred thirty-one CTs performed in 519 patients (mean age: 10.9 ± 4.9 years, 50.8% female) were reviewed. Axial and coronal measurements were strongly correlated (r = 0.92-0.94, P < 0.0001) with coronal plane measurements significantly larger (P < 0.0001). Measurements were strongly correlated between reviewers (r = 0.89-0.9, P < 0.0001) but differed significantly in both planes (axial: +0.2 mm, P=0.003; coronal: +0.1 mm, P=0.007). Repeat measurements were significantly different for one reviewer only in the axial plane (0.3 mm difference, P<0.05). Within patients imaged multiple times, measured appendix diameters differed significantly in the axial plane for both reviewers (R1: 0.5 mm, P = 0.031; R2: 0.7 mm, P = 0.022). Multiple potential sources of measurement error raise concern about the use of rigid diameter cutoffs for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis by CT. (orig.)
Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.
1995-11-01
This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can (open-quotes F-canclose quotes); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can (open-quotes Z-canclose quotes); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle (open-quotes CO-4close quotes). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO 2 F 2 +H 2 O and UF 4 +oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U 3 O 8 , and H 2 O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k eff + 2σ < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant
Vertebral Artery Diameter and Flow: Nature or Nurture.
Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Fejer, Bence; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Cirelli, Carlo; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Sacconi, Beatrice; Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Farina, Filippo; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Horvath, Tamas; Pucci, Giacomo; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Baracchini, Claudio
2017-09-01
In contrast with the carotid arteries, the vertebral arteries (VAs) show considerable variation in length, caliber, and vessel course. This study investigated whether the variation in diameter and flow characteristics of the VAs might be inherited. A total of 172 Italian twins from Padua, Perugia, and Terni (54 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic) recruited from the Italian Twin Registry underwent B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound assessment of their VAs. VA diameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were assessed at the level of a horizontal V2 segment. Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed. Fourteen percent of the sample had VA hypoplasia. Within pair correlation in monozygotic twins was higher than in dizygotics (.552 vs. .229) for VA diameter. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic effect, under the most parsimonious model, accounted for 54.7% (95% CI: 42.2-69.1%) of the variance of VA diameter, and unshared environmental effect for 45.3% (95% CI: 30.9-57.8%). No heritability was found for the PSV of VA, but shared (34.1%; 95% CI: 16.7-53.7%) and unshared (65.9%; 95% CI: 45.9-83.1%) environmental factors determined the variance. EDV of VA is moderately genetically influenced (42.4%; 95% CI: 16.1-64.9%) and also determined by the unshared environment (57.6%; 95% CI: 34.7-83.7%). The diameter of the VAs is moderately genetically determined. Different factors influence the PSV and EDV of VAs, which may highlight the complex hemodynamic background of VA flow and help to understand the vertebral flow anomalies found by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
MEASURED TRANSVERSE COUPLING IMPEDANCE OF RHIC INJECTION AND ABORT KICKERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HAHN, H.; DAVINO, D.
2001-01-01
Concerns regarding possible transverse instabilities in RHIC and the SNS pointed to the need for measurements of the transverse coupling impedance of ring components. The impedance of the RHIC injection and abort kicker was measured using the conventional method based on the S 21 forward transmission coefficient. A commercial 450 Ω twin-wire Lecher line were used and the data was interpreted via the log-formula. All measurements, were performed in test stands fully representing operational conditions including pulsed power supplies and connecting cables. The measured values for the transverse coupling impedance in kick direction and perpendicular to it are comparable in magnitude, but differ from Handbook predictions
Transverse thermal expansion of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites
Helmer, J. F.; Diefendorf, R. J.
1983-01-01
Thermal expansion coefficients and moduli of elasticity have been determined experimentally for a series of epoxy-matrix composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibers. It is found that in the transverse direction the difference between the properties of the fiber and the matrix is not as pronounced as in the longitudinal direction, where the composite properties are fiber-dominated. Therefore, the pattern of fiber packing tends to affect transverse composite properties. The transverse properties of the composites tested are examined from the standpoint of the concept of homogeneity defined as the variation of packing (or lack thereof) throughout a sample.
Transversity quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cloet, I.C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4843 (United States)], E-mail: icloet@anl.gov; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)], E-mail: awthomas@jlab.org
2008-01-17
Transversity quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the relativistic Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquark channels are included. Particular attention is paid to comparing our results with the recent experimental extraction of the transversity distributions by Anselmino et al. We also compare our transversity results with earlier spin-independent and helicity quark distributions calculated in the same approach.
Transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto; Trentadue, Luca
2006-01-01
Within the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics we derive the evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent distributions and apply them to the case of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The evolution equations encode the perturbative component of transverse momentum generated by collinear parton branchings. The current fragmentation is described via transverse momentum dependent parton densities and fragmentation functions. Target fragmentation instead is described via fracture functions. We present, to leading logarithmic accuracy, the corresponding semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross-section, which applies to the entire phase space of the detected hadron. Some phenomenological implications and further developments are briefly outlined
Transverse Matching Progress Of The SNS Superconducting Linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yan; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Liu, Yun
2011-01-01
Experience using laser-wire beam profile measurement to perform transverse beam matching in the SNS superconducting linac is discussed. As the SNS beam power is ramped up to 1 MW, transverse beam matching becomes a concern to control beam loss and residual activation in the linac. In our experiments, however, beam loss is not very sensitive to the matching condition. In addition, we have encountered difficulties in performing a satisfactory transverse matching with the envelope model currently available in the XAL software framework. Offline data analysis from multi-particle tracking simulation shows that the accuracy of the current online model may not be sufficient for modeling the SC linac.
Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, S.S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: dr.mona.fathy@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.edu [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)
2012-10-15
The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.
Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, S.S.; Sharaby, Y.A.; Ali, M.F.M.; Joshi, A.
2012-01-01
The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.