WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximum survival rate

  1. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer Survival rates are often used by doctors ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  2. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  3. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  4. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  5. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  6. Maximum host survival at intermediate parasite infection intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stjernman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although parasitism has been acknowledged as an important selective force in the evolution of host life histories, studies of fitness effects of parasites in wild populations have yielded mixed results. One reason for this may be that most studies only test for a linear relationship between infection intensity and host fitness. If resistance to parasites is costly, however, fitness may be reduced both for hosts with low infection intensities (cost of resistance and high infection intensities (cost of parasitism, such that individuals with intermediate infection intensities have highest fitness. Under this scenario one would expect a non-linear relationship between infection intensity and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus in southern Sweden, we investigated the relationship between the intensity of infection of its blood parasite (Haemoproteus majoris and host survival to the following winter. Presence and intensity of parasite infections were determined by microscopy and confirmed using PCR of a 480 bp section of the cytochrome-b-gene. While a linear model suggested no relationship between parasite intensity and survival (F = 0.01, p = 0.94, a non-linear model showed a significant negative quadratic effect (quadratic parasite intensity: F = 4.65, p = 0.032; linear parasite intensity F = 4.47, p = 0.035. Visualization using the cubic spline technique showed maximum survival at intermediate parasite intensities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that failing to recognize the potential for a non-linear relationship between parasite infection intensity and host fitness may lead to the potentially erroneous conclusion that the parasite is harmless to its host. Here we show that high parasite intensities indeed reduced survival, but this effect was masked by reduced survival for birds heavily suppressing their parasite intensities. Reduced survival among hosts with low

  7. Maximum, minimum, and optimal mutation rates in dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the parallel mutation-selection quasispecies model with a changing environment. For an environment with the sharp-peak fitness function in which the most fit sequence changes by k spin flips every period T , we find analytical expressions for the minimum and maximum mutation rates for which a quasispecies can survive, valid in the limit of large sequence size. We find an asymptotic solution in which the quasispecies population changes periodically according to the periodic environmental change. In this state we compute the mutation rate that gives the optimal mean fitness over a period. We find that the optimal mutation rate per genome, k/T , is independent of genome size, a relationship which is observed across broad groups of real organisms.

  8. How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, K; Andersson, T; Vaupel, J; Rau, R; Ahlbom, A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size. The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality amongst centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age. Mortality amongst centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum lifespan and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. Survivable VON mapping with ambiguity similitude for differentiable maximum shared capacity in elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Bai, Wei; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhu; Zhou, Ziguan; Ou, Qinghai

    2016-09-01

    Virtualization is considered to be a promising solution to support various emerging applications. This paper illustrates the problem of virtual mapping from a new perspective, and mainly focuses on survivable mapping of virtual networks and the potential trade-off between spectral resource usage effectiveness and failure resilience level. We design an optimum shared protection mapping (OSPM) scheme in elastic optical networks. A differentiable maximum shared capacity of each frequency slot is defined to more efficiently shared protection resource. In order to satisfy various assessment standards, a metric called ambiguity similitude is defined for the first time to give insight on the optimizing difficulty. Simulation results are presented to compare the outcome of the novel OSPM algorithm with traditional dedicated link protection and maximum shared protection mapping. By synthetic analysis, OSPM outperforms the other two schemes in terms of striking a perfect balance among blocking probability, resources utilization, protective success rate, and spectrum redundancy.

  10. Inhibition of seedling survival under Rhodendron maximum (Ericaceae): could allelopathy be a cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik T. Nilsen; John F. Walker; Orson K. Miller; Shawn W. Semones; Thomas T. Lei; Barton D. Clinton

    1999-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachian Mountains a subcanopy species, Rhododendron maximum, inhibits the establishment and survival of canopy tree seedlings. One of the mechanisms by which seedlings could be inhibited is an allelopathic effect of decomposing litter or leachate from the canopy of R. maximum (R.m.) on seed germination, root...

  11. Mean square convergence rates for maximum quasi-likelihood estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoud V. den Boer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this note we study the behavior of maximum quasilikelihood estimators (MQLEs for a class of statistical models, in which only knowledge about the first two moments of the response variable is assumed. This class includes, but is not restricted to, generalized linear models with general link function. Our main results are related to guarantees on existence, strong consistency and mean square convergence rates of MQLEs. The rates are obtained from first principles and are stronger than known a.s. rates. Our results find important application in sequential decision problems with parametric uncertainty arising in dynamic pricing.

  12. [Diabetic patients survival rates in dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Noël

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the eighties, the prevalence and incidence of diabetes have been increasing in dialysis units. In France, type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of diabetic hemodialysis patients. Among the etiologies of renal failure, diabetes is characterized by increased hospitalization rates and reduced quality of life, transplantation rates and survival. In dialysis patients, diabetes mellitus enhances the main factors leading to an increase in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths: inflammation, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased energy expenditure, oxidative stress and plasma assymetrical dimethylarginine. The prevention of these complications includes the control of blood glucose, plasma lipids, hypertension, and anemia. The role of antioxidant therapies remains to be evaluated.

  13. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.

  14. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A.

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted. PMID:28138544

  15. Maximum orbit plane change with heat-transfer-rate considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Y.; Hull, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Two aerodynamic maneuvers are considered for maximizing the plane change of a circular orbit: gliding flight with a maximum thrust segment to regain lost energy (aeroglide) and constant altitude cruise with the thrust being used to cancel the drag and maintain a high energy level (aerocruise). In both cases, the stagnation heating rate is limited. For aeroglide, the controls are the angle of attack, the bank angle, the time at which the burn begins, and the length of the burn. For aerocruise, the maneuver is divided into three segments: descent, cruise, and ascent. During descent the thrust is zero, and the controls are the angle of attack and the bank angle. During cruise, the only control is the assumed-constant angle of attack. During ascent, a maximum thrust segment is used to restore lost energy, and the controls are the angle of attack and bank angle. The optimization problems are solved with a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. Numerical results for the Maneuverable Re-entry Research Vehicle with a heating-rate limit of 100 Btu/ft(2)-s show that aerocruise gives a maximum plane change of 2 deg, which is only 1 deg larger than that of aeroglide. On the other hand, even though aerocruise requires two thrust levels, the cruise characteristics of constant altitude, velocity, thrust, and angle of attack are easy to control.

  16. Predicting the solar maximum with the rising rate

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Z L

    2011-01-01

    The growth rate of solar activity in the early phase of a solar cycle has been known to be well correlated with the subsequent amplitude (solar maximum). It provides very useful information for a new solar cycle as its variation reflects the temporal evolution of the dynamic process of solar magnetic activities from the initial phase to the peak phase of the cycle. The correlation coefficient between the solar maximum (Rmax) and the rising rate ({\\beta}a) at {\\Delta}m months after the solar minimum (Rmin) is studied and shown to increase as the cycle progresses with an inflection point (r = 0.83) at about {\\Delta}m = 20 months. The prediction error of Rmax based on {\\beta}a is found within estimation at the 90% level of confidence and the relative prediction error will be less than 20% when {\\Delta}m \\geq 20. From the above relationship, the current cycle (24) is preliminarily predicted to peak around October 2013 with a size of Rmax =84 \\pm 33 at the 90% level of confidence.

  17. Measurement and relevance of maximum metabolic rate in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, T; Clark, T D

    2016-01-01

    Maximum (aerobic) metabolic rate (MMR) is defined here as the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2max ) that a fish can achieve at a given temperature under any ecologically relevant circumstance. Different techniques exist for eliciting MMR of fishes, of which swim-flume respirometry (critical swimming speed tests and burst-swimming protocols) and exhaustive chases are the most common. Available data suggest that the most suitable method for eliciting MMR varies with species and ecotype, and depends on the propensity of the fish to sustain swimming for extended durations as well as its capacity to simultaneously exercise and digest food. MMR varies substantially (>10 fold) between species with different lifestyles (i.e. interspecific variation), and to a lesser extent (aerobic scope, interest in measuring this trait has spread across disciplines in attempts to predict effects of climate change on fish populations. Here, various techniques used to elicit and measure MMR in different fish species with contrasting lifestyles are outlined and the relevance of MMR to the ecology, fitness and climate change resilience of fishes is discussed.

  18. The mechanics of granitoid systems and maximum entropy production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Bruce E; Ord, Alison

    2010-01-13

    A model for the formation of granitoid systems is developed involving melt production spatially below a rising isotherm that defines melt initiation. Production of the melt volumes necessary to form granitoid complexes within 10(4)-10(7) years demands control of the isotherm velocity by melt advection. This velocity is one control on the melt flux generated spatially just above the melt isotherm, which is the control valve for the behaviour of the complete granitoid system. Melt transport occurs in conduits initiated as sheets or tubes comprising melt inclusions arising from Gurson-Tvergaard constitutive behaviour. Such conduits appear as leucosomes parallel to lineations and foliations, and ductile and brittle dykes. The melt flux generated at the melt isotherm controls the position of the melt solidus isotherm and hence the physical height of the Transport/Emplacement Zone. A conduit width-selection process, driven by changes in melt viscosity and constitutive behaviour, operates within the Transport Zone to progressively increase the width of apertures upwards. Melt can also be driven horizontally by gradients in topography; these horizontal fluxes can be similar in magnitude to vertical fluxes. Fluxes induced by deformation can compete with both buoyancy and topographic-driven flow over all length scales and results locally in transient 'ponds' of melt. Pluton emplacement is controlled by the transition in constitutive behaviour of the melt/magma from elastic-viscous at high temperatures to elastic-plastic-viscous approaching the melt solidus enabling finite thickness plutons to develop. The system involves coupled feedback processes that grow at the expense of heat supplied to the system and compete with melt advection. The result is that limits are placed on the size and time scale of the system. Optimal characteristics of the system coincide with a state of maximum entropy production rate.

  19. 47 CFR 65.700 - Determining the maximum allowable rate of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Maximum Allowable Rates of Return § 65.700 Determining the maximum allowable rate of return. (a) The maximum allowable rate of return for any exchange carrier's earnings on any access service category shall...

  20. Determination Of The Maximum Explosion Pressure And The Maximum Rate Of Pressure Rise During Explosion Of Wood Dust Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuracina Richard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the measurement of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of exposure pressure rise of wood dust cloud. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dtmax of dust clouds. The wood dust cloud in the chamber is achieved mechanically. The testing of explosions of wood dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value is 7.95 bar. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value was 68 bar / s.

  1. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, S.E.; Russell, J.M.; Verschuren, D.; Morrill, C.; De Cort, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Olago, D.; Eggermont, H.; Street-Perrott, F.A.; Kelly, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become lesssteep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountainenvironments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate

  2. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07401370X; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate

  3. Allometries of Maximum Growth Rate versus Body Mass at Maximum Growth Indicate That Non-Avian Dinosaurs Had Growth Rates Typical of Fast Growing Ectothermic Sauropsids

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner; Eva Maria Griebeler

    2014-01-01

    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case's study (1978), which...

  4. A Maximum Information Rate Quaternion Filter for Spacecraft Attitude Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, J.; Maas, A.; Choukroun, D.; Kuiper, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous works, this paper introduces a novel continuous-time stochastic optimal linear quaternion estimator under the assumptions of rate gyro measurements and of vector observations of the attitude. A quaternion observation model, which observation matrix is rank degenerate, is reduced

  5. 78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... have removed the term. Comment: Don't remove the ``average agricultural loan customer'' definition. The... the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the.... Comment: FSA should let the market dictate what interest rate lenders charge guaranteed borrowers, rather...

  6. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See... income of the veteran or surviving spouse. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1521, 1541) (c) Mexican border period and World War I veterans. The applicable maximum annual rate payable to a Mexican border period...

  7. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  8. Nonsurgical factors of digital replantation and survival rate A metaanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this metaanalysis was to evaluate the association between nonsurgical factors and survival rate of digital replantation. A computer search of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE and CNKI databases was conducted to identify literatures for digital replantation, with the keywords of "digit," "finger" and "replantation" from their inception to June 10, 2014. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data were extracted independently by two authors using piloted forms. Review Manager 5.2 software was used for data analysis. The effect of some nonsurgical factors (gender, age, amputated finger, injury mechanisms, ischemia time and the way of preservation on the survival rate of digital replantation was assessed. The metaanalysis result suggested that gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation. However, the survival rate of digital replantation of adults was significantly higher than that of children. The guillotine injury of a finger was easier to replant successfully than the crush and avulsion. The little finger was more difficult for replantation than thumb. Survival rate of fingers stored in low temperature was higher than that in common temperature. The present metaanalysis suggested that age, injury mechanism, amputated finger and the way of preservation were significantly associated with the survival rate of digital replantation.

  9. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section 381.68 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection...

  10. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes strongly differed from Case's study (1978, which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles to 20 (fishes times (in comparison to mammals or even 45 (reptiles to 100 (fishes times (in comparison to birds lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule

  11. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case's study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either of

  12. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen;

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  13. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Management of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been hindered by access to reliable data on population trajectories and vital rates. We conducted a Bayesian analysis of historical (1951–2011) band-recovery data throughout North America to estimate annual survival and recovery rates for juvenile and adult male and female lesser scaup to determine if increasing harvest or declining survival rates have contributed to population changes and to determine if harvest has been primarily additive or compensatory. Annual recovery rates were low, ranging from 1% to 4% for adults and 2% to 10% for juveniles during most years, with trend models indicating that recovery rates have declined through time for all age–sex classes. Annual survival (mid-Aug to mid-Aug) averaged 0.402 (σ ̂ 0.043) for juvenile males, 0.416 (σ ̂ 0.067) for juvenile females, 0.689 (σ ̂ 0.109) for adult males, and 0.602 (σ ̂ 0.115) for adult females, where σ ̂ represents an estimate of annual process variation in each survival rate. Annual survival rates exhibited no evidence of long-term declines or negative correlations with annual recovery rates (i.e., an index of harvest intensity) for any age–sex class, suggesting that declining fecundity was the most likely explanation for population declines during 1975–2005. We conclude that hunting mortality played a minor role in affecting population dynamics of lesser scaup and waterfowl managers could take a less cautious approach in managing harvest, especially if recruiting or maintaining waterfowl hunters are viewed as important management objectives.

  15. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  16. Improving survival rates after civilian gunshot wounds to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Kulvatunyou, Narong; O'Keeffe, Terence; Wynne, Julie; Tang, Andrew; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gunshot wounds to the brain are the most lethal of all firearm injuries, with reported survival rates of 10% to 15%. The aim of this study was to determine outcomes in patients with gunshot wounds to the brain, presenting to our institution over time. We hypothesized that aggressive management can increase survival and the rate of organ donation in patients with gunshot wounds to the brain. We analyzed all patients with gunshot wounds to the brain presenting to our level 1 trauma center over a 5-year period. Aggressive management was defined as resuscitation with blood products, hyperosmolar therapy, and/or prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). The primary outcome was survival and the secondary outcome was organ donation. There were 132 patients with gunshot wounds to the brain, and the survival rates increased incrementally every year, from 10% in 2008 to 46% in 2011, with the adoption of aggressive management. Among survivors, 40% (16 of 40) of the patients had bi-hemispheric injuries. Aggressive management with blood products (p = 0.02) and hyperosmolar therapy (p = 0.01) was independently associated with survival. Of the survivors, 20% had a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥ 13 at hospital discharge. In patients who died (n = 92), 56% patients were eligible for organ donation, and they donated 60 organs. Aggressive management is associated with significant improvement in survival and organ procurement in patients with gunshot wounds to the brain. The bias of resource use can no longer be used to preclude trauma surgeons from abandoning aggressive attempts to save patients with gunshot wound to the brain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  18. LASER: A Maximum Likelihood Toolkit for Detecting Temporal Shifts in Diversification Rates From Molecular Phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Rabosky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of species origination and extinction can vary over time during evolutionary radiations, and it is possible to reconstruct the history of diversification using molecular phylogenies of extant taxa only. Maximum likelihood methods provide a useful framework for inferring temporal variation in diversification rates. LASER is a package for the R programming environment that implements maximum likelihood methods based on the birth-death process to test whether diversification rates have changed over time. LASER contrasts the likelihood of phylogenetic data under models where diversification rates have changed over time to alternative models where rates have remained constant over time. Major strengths of the package include the ability to detect temporal increases in diversification rates and the inference of diversification parameters under multiple rate-variable models of diversification. The program and associated documentation are freely available from the R package archive at http://cran.r-project.org.

  19. 13 CFR 107.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rate of amortization on... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring... rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities. The principal of any Loan (or the loan portion...

  20. The Scaling of Maximum and Basal Metabolic Rates of Mammals and Birds

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, L A; Silva, J K L; Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Silva, Jafferson K. L. da

    2004-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as $M^{6/7}$, maximum heart rate as $M^{-1/7}$, and muscular capillary density as $M^{-1/7}$, in agreement with data.

  1. Primo non nocere or maximum survival in grade 2 gliomas? A medical ethical question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brennum, Jannick; Maier, Carolina Magdalene; Almdal, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    that it is ethically acceptable to offer more extensive surgery than is possible within the concept of maximal safe surgery as a treatment option, when balancing the principles of beneficence, non-maleficience, autonomy and justice supports the decision. At the same time it must be remembered that even when......-off between neurological function and survival time. Methods Eight patients and seven experts participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Results Both patients and experts accepted the premise of balancing neurological function versus longevity. Some patients would accept an increased risk...

  2. Bayesian Analysis of the Survival Function and Failure Rate of Weibull Distribution with Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bambey Guure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival function of the Weibull distribution determines the probability that a unit or an individual will survive beyond a certain specified time while the failure rate is the rate at which a randomly selected individual known to be alive at time will die at time (. The classical approach for estimating the survival function and the failure rate is the maximum likelihood method. In this study, we strive to determine the best method, by comparing the classical maximum likelihood against the Bayesian estimators using an informative prior and a proposed data-dependent prior known as generalised noninformative prior. The Bayesian estimation is considered under three loss functions. Due to the complexity in dealing with the integrals using the Bayesian estimator, Lindley’s approximation procedure is employed to reduce the ratio of the integrals. For the purpose of comparison, the mean squared error (MSE and the absolute bias are obtained. This study is conducted via simulation by utilising different sample sizes. We observed from the study that the generalised prior we assumed performed better than the others under linear exponential loss function with respect to MSE and under general entropy loss function with respect to absolute bias.

  3. Setting maximum emission rates from ozone emitting consumer appliances in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn; Shaughnessy, Richard; Shu, Shi

    2011-02-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis of indoor ozone levels in four cities was applied to provide guidance to regulatory agencies on setting maximum ozone emission rates from consumer appliances. Measured distributions of air exchange rates, ozone decay rates and outdoor ozone levels at monitoring stations were combined with a steady-state indoor air quality model resulting in emission rate distributions (mg h -1) as a function of % of building hours protected from exceeding a target maximum indoor concentration of 20 ppb. Whole-year, summer and winter results for Elizabeth, NJ, Houston, TX, Windsor, ON, and Los Angeles, CA exhibited strong regional differences, primarily due to differences in air exchange rates. Infiltration of ambient ozone at higher average air exchange rates significantly reduces allowable emission rates, even though air exchange also dilutes emissions from appliances. For Houston, TX and Windsor, ON, which have lower average residential air exchange rates, emission rates ranged from -1.1 to 2.3 mg h -1 for scenarios that protect 80% or more of building hours from experiencing ozone concentrations greater than 20 ppb in summer. For Los Angeles, CA and Elizabeth, NJ, with higher air exchange rates, only negative emission rates were allowable to provide the same level of protection. For the 80th percentile residence, we estimate that an 8-h average limit concentration of 20 ppb would be exceeded, even in the absence of an indoor ozone source, 40 or more days per year in any of the cities analyzed. The negative emission rates emerging from the analysis suggest that only a zero-emission rate standard is prudent for Los Angeles, Elizabeth, NJ and other regions with higher summertime air exchange rates. For regions such as Houston with lower summertime air exchange rates, the higher emission rates would likely increase occupant exposure to the undesirable products of ozone reactions, thus reinforcing the need for zero-emission rate standard.

  4. 17 CFR 148.7 - Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees. 148.7 Section 148.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... increase in the cost of living or by special circumstances (such as limited availability of...

  5. The 220-age equation does not predict maximum heart rate in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim

    Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males

  6. The 220-age equation does not predict maximum heart rate in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males an

  7. Survival rate of colorectal cancer patients during 2005-2010 in Zhejiang province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗胜兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the survival rate of colorectal cancer,using data from the population-based cancer registry during 2005—2010 in Zhejiang.Methods The last follow-up activites on 17 235 cases regarding the survival status was December 31,2012.Both cumulative observed survival rate(OS)and relative survival rate(RS)were calculated with

  8. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  9. Relative survival rates after alternative therapies for uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Egan, K.M.; Glynn, R.J.; Howard, S.; Fante, R.G.; Albert, D.M. (Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Survival in a group of 556 patients with uveal melanoma treated by proton beam irradiation with a median follow-up of 5.3 years was compared with that of 238 patients enucleated during the same 10-year period as irradiated patients (July 1975 to December 1984) with a median follow-up of 8.8 years, and 257 patients enucleated during the preceding 10 years (January 1965 to June 1975) with a median follow-up of 17.0 years. Adjustments were made for known prognostic factors including age, tumor location, tumor height, and clinical estimate of tumor diameter (for enucleated patients this was estimated in a regression equation relating histologic to clinical measurement). The overall rate ratio for all cause mortality was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) for the concurrent enucleation series versus proton beam, and 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1) for the earlier enucleation series versus proton beam. Relative rates of metastatic death, cancer death, and all cause mortality comparing alternative treatments were found to vary with time after treatment. Interval-specific rate ratios were evaluated using proportional hazards models fitted to separate time intervals after treatment. For all three outcomes, rate ratios were over two and statistically significant for the first 2 years after treatment and closer to one and nonsignificant after year 6 comparing the two enucleation groups with proton beam. Results suggest that treatment choice has little overall influence on survival in patients with uveal melanoma.

  10. Maximum initial growth-rate of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Z. R.; Pandian, A.; Bhowmick, A. K.; Swisher, N. C.; Stanic, M.; Stellingwerf, R. F.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    We focus on the classical problem of the dependence on the initial conditions of the initial growth-rate of strong shock driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by developing a novel empirical model and by employing rigorous theories and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations to describe the simulation data with statistical confidence in a broad parameter regime. For the given values of the shock strength, fluid density ratio, and wavelength of the initial perturbation of the fluid interface, we find the maximum value of the RMI initial growth-rate, the corresponding amplitude scale of the initial perturbation, and the maximum fraction of interfacial energy. This amplitude scale is independent of the shock strength and density ratio and is characteristic quantity of RMI dynamics. We discover the exponential decay of the ratio of the initial and linear growth-rates of RMI with the initial perturbation amplitude that excellently agrees with available data.

  11. Effects of electric field on the maximum electro-spinning rate of silk fibroin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo Kyung; Um, In Chul

    2017-02-01

    Owing to the excellent cyto-compatibility of silk fibroin (SF) and the simple fabrication of nano-fibrous webs, electro-spun SF webs have attracted much research attention in numerous biomedical fields. Because the production rate of electro-spun webs is strongly dependent on the electro-spinning rate used, the electro-spinning rate becomes more important. In the present study, to improve the electro-spinning rate of SF solutions, various electric fields were applied during electro-spinning of SF, and its effects on the maximum electro-spinning rate of SF solution as well as diameters and molecular conformations of the electro-spun SF fibers were examined. As the electric field was increased, the maximum electro-spinning rate of the SF solution also increased. The maximum electro-spinning rate of a 13% SF solution could be increased 12×by increasing the electric field from 0.5kV/cm (0.25mL/h) to 2.5kV/cm (3.0mL/h). The dependence of the fiber diameter on the present electric field was not significant when using less-concentrated SF solutions (7-9% SF). On the other hand, at higher SF concentrations the electric field had a greater effect on the resulting fiber diameter. The electric field had a minimal effect of the molecular conformation and crystallinity index of the electro-spun SF webs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General determination of rate. When VA grants a surviving spouse entitlement to DIC, VA will determine the rate of...

  13. Maximum Data Collection Rate Routing Protocol Based on Topology Control for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haifeng; Bai, Di; Gao, Demin; Liu, Yunfei

    2016-07-30

    In Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks (R-WSNs), in order to achieve the maximum data collection rate it is critical that sensors operate in very low duty cycles because of the sporadic availability of energy. A sensor has to stay in a dormant state in most of the time in order to recharge the battery and use the energy prudently. In addition, a sensor cannot always conserve energy if a network is able to harvest excessive energy from the environment due to its limited storage capacity. Therefore, energy exploitation and energy saving have to be traded off depending on distinct application scenarios. Since higher data collection rate or maximum data collection rate is the ultimate objective for sensor deployment, surplus energy of a node can be utilized for strengthening packet delivery efficiency and improving the data generating rate in R-WSNs. In this work, we propose an algorithm based on data aggregation to compute an upper data generation rate by maximizing it as an optimization problem for a network, which is formulated as a linear programming problem. Subsequently, a dual problem by introducing Lagrange multipliers is constructed, and subgradient algorithms are used to solve it in a distributed manner. At the same time, a topology controlling scheme is adopted for improving the network's performance. Through extensive simulation and experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm is efficient at maximizing the data collection rate in rechargeable wireless sensor networks.

  14. On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WELLNER; Jon; A

    2009-01-01

    Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded k-monotone functions on [0,A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the Lp(Q) distance,where 1 p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0,A].The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density.

  15. On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuChang; WELLNER Jon A

    2009-01-01

    Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded K-monotone functions on [0, A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the LP(Q) distance, where 1 ≤ p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0, A]. The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density.

  16. A real-time maximum-likelihood heart-rate estimator for wearable textile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mu-Huo; Chen, Li-Chung; Hung, Ying-Che; Yang, Chang Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time maximum-likelihood heart-rate estimator for ECG data measured via wearable textile sensors. The ECG signals measured from wearable dry electrodes are notorious for its susceptibility to interference from the respiration or the motion of wearing person such that the signal quality may degrade dramatically. To overcome these obstacles, in the proposed heart-rate estimator we first employ the subspace approach to remove the wandering baseline, then use a simple nonlinear absolute operation to reduce the high-frequency noise contamination, and finally apply the maximum likelihood estimation technique for estimating the interval of R-R peaks. A parameter derived from the byproduct of maximum likelihood estimation is also proposed as an indicator for signal quality. To achieve the goal of real-time, we develop a simple adaptive algorithm from the numerical power method to realize the subspace filter and apply the fast-Fourier transform (FFT) technique for realization of the correlation technique such that the whole estimator can be implemented in an FPGA system. Experiments are performed to demonstrate the viability of the proposed system.

  17. Scaling of heat production by thermogenic flowers: limits to floral size and maximum rate of respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S

    2010-09-01

    Effect of size of inflorescences, flowers and cones on maximum rate of heat production is analysed allometrically in 23 species of thermogenic plants having diverse structures and ranging between 1.8 and 600 g. Total respiration rate (, micromol s(-1)) varies with spadix mass (M, g) according to in 15 species of Araceae. Thermal conductance (C, mW degrees C(-1)) for spadices scales according to C = 18.5M(0.73). Mass does not significantly affect the difference between floral and air temperature. Aroids with exposed appendices with high surface area have high thermal conductance, consistent with the need to vaporize attractive scents. True flowers have significantly lower heat production and thermal conductance, because closed petals retain heat that benefits resident insects. The florets on aroid spadices, either within a floral chamber or spathe, have intermediate thermal conductance, consistent with mixed roles. Mass-specific rates of respiration are variable between species, but reach 900 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in aroid male florets, exceeding rates of all other plants and even most animals. Maximum mass-specific respiration appears to be limited by oxygen delivery through individual cells. Reducing mass-specific respiration may be one selective influence on the evolution of large size of thermogenic flowers.

  18. Maximum Likelihood based comparison of the specific growth rates for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard

    2008-01-01

    that best describes data is a model taking into account the full covariance structure. An inference study is made in order to determine whether the growth rate of the five bacteria strains is the same. After applying a likelihood-ratio test to models with a full covariance structure, it is concluded...... that the specific growth rate is the same for all bacteria strains. This study highlights the importance of carrying out an explorative examination of residuals in order to make a correct parametrization of a model including the covariance structure. The ML method is shown to be a strong tool as it enables......The specific growth rate for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains mutT, mutY, mutM and mutY–mutM is estimated by a suggested Maximum Likelihood, ML, method which takes the autocorrelation of the observation into account. For each bacteria strain, six wells of optical density, OD, measurements...

  19. Determination of zero-coupon and spot rates from treasury data by maximum entropy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gzyl, Henryk; Mayoral, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    An interesting and important inverse problem in finance consists of the determination of spot rates or prices of the zero coupon bonds, when the only information available consists of the prices of a few coupon bonds. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Here we present variants of a non-parametric method to treat with such problems, which neither imposes an analytic form on the rates or bond prices, nor imposes a model for the (random) evolution of the yields. The procedure consists of transforming the problem of the determination of the prices of the zero coupon bonds into a linear inverse problem with convex constraints, and then applying the method of maximum entropy in the mean. This method is flexible enough to provide a possible solution to a mispricing problem.

  20. Group differences in measures of voice production and revised values of maximum airflow declination rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkell, J S; Hillman, R E; Holmberg, E B

    1994-08-01

    In previous reports, aerodynamic and acoustic measures of voice production were presented for groups of normal male and female speakers [Holmberg et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 511-529 (1988); J. Voice 3, 294-305 (1989)] that were used as norms in studies of voice disorders [Hillman et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 32, 373-392 (1989); J. Voice 4, 52-63 (1990)]. Several of the measures were extracted from glottal airflow waveforms that were derived by inverse filtering a high-time-resolution oral airflow signal. Recently, the methods have been updated and a new study of additional subjects has been conducted. This report presents previous (1988) and current (1993) group mean values of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, maximum airflow declination rate, ac flow, peak flow, minimum flow, ac-dc ratio, inferred subglottal air pressure, average flow, and glottal resistance. Statistical tests indicate overall group differences and differences for values of several individual parameters between the 1988 and 1993 studies. Some inter-study differences in parameter values may be due to sampling effects and minor methodological differences; however, a comparative test of 1988 and 1993 inverse filtering algorithms shows that some lower 1988 values of maximum flow declination rate were due at least in part to excessive low-pass filtering in the 1988 algorithm. The observed differences should have had a negligible influence on the conclusions of our studies of voice disorders.

  1. Botanical and agronomic growth of two Panicum maximum cultivars, Mombasa and Tanzania, at varying sowing rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A field trial in northeast Thailand during 2011–2013 compared the establishment and growth of 2 Panicum maximum cultivars, Mombasa and Tanzania, sown at seeding rates of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kg/ha. In the first 3 months of establishment, higher sowing rates produced significantly more DM than sowing at 2 kg/ha, but thereafter there were no significant differences in total DM production between sowing rates of 2–12 kg/ha. Lower sowing rates produced fewer tillers/m2 than higher sowing rates but these fewer tillers were significantly heavier than the more numerous smaller tillers produced by higher sowing rates. Mombasa produced 23% more DM than Tanzania in successive wet seasons (7,060 vs. 5,712 kg DM/ha from 16 June to 1 November 2011; and 16,433 vs. 13,350 kg DM/ha from 25 April to 24 October 2012. Both cultivars produced similar DM yields in the dry seasons (November–April, averaging 2,000 kg DM/ha in the first dry season and 1,750 kg DM/ha in the second dry season. Mombasa produced taller tillers (104 vs. 82 cm, longer leaves (60 vs. 47 cm, wider leaves (2 vs. 1.8 cm and heavier tillers (1 vs. 0.7 g than Tanzania but fewer tillers/m2 (260 vs. 304. If farmers improve soil preparation and place more emphasis on sowing techniques, there is potential to dramatically reduce seed costs.Keywords: Guinea grass, tillering, forage production, seeding rates, Thailand.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2246-253

  2. Maximum Rain-Rate Evaluations in Aegean Archipelagos Hellas for Rain Attenuation Modeling at Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Karagianni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By utilizing meteorological data such as relative humidity, temperature, pressure, rain rate and precipitation duration at eight (8 stations in Aegean Archipelagos from six recent years (2007 – 2012, the effect of the weather on Electromagnetic wave propagation is studied. The EM wave propagation characteristics depend on atmospheric refractivity and consequently on Rain-Rate which vary in time and space randomly. Therefore the statistics of radio refractivity, Rain-Rate and related propagation effects are of main interest. This work investigates the maximum value of rain rate in monthly rainfall records, for a 5 min interval comparing it with different values of integration time as well as different percentages of time. The main goal is to determine the attenuation level for microwave links based on local rainfall data for various sites in Greece (L-zone, namely Aegean Archipelagos, with a view on improved accuracy as compared with more generic zone data available. A measurement of rain attenuation for a link in the S-band has been carried out and the data compared with prediction based on the standard ITU-R method.

  3. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    of heat production (HE) by means of indirect calorimetry lasting 3 h were performed on neonatal kits and kits from 1 to 54 days of age. Both single kits and groups of 4-5 huddling kits were kept at 15 degrees C (L) or 30 degrees C (H) [from 35 days onwards at 25 degrees C (H)]. Animals were weighed before...

  4. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... strongly associated with anthropogenically modified landscapes, is declining fast and may soon face extinction. The population decline is ultimately associated with reduced survival of independent offspring, but reduced survival rates of adults may possibly contribute to the observed decline. To explore...... weeks post hatching (age of ringing) and 47 %of the nestlings from ringing to fledging. Fifty-five percentage of the radio-tracked fledged young survived to dispersal, i.e. a total survival rate from egg to dispersal of 8 %. Analyses of combined ringing and radio tracking data showed a lower survival...

  5. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four ... the digestive enzyme activity, survival and growth of ...... Wolf Medical Publication p.186. Lt., London.

  6. Estimating survival rates of uncatchable animals: the myth of high juvenile mortality in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A; Pizzatto, Lígia; Pike, Brian A; Shine, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Survival rates of juvenile reptiles are critical population parameters but are difficult to obtain through mark-recapture programs because these small, secretive animals are rarely caught. This scarcity has encouraged speculation that survival rates of juveniles are very low, and we test this prediction by estimating juvenile survival rates indirectly. A simple mathematical model calculates the annual juvenile survival rate needed to maintain a stable population size, using published data on adult survival rates, reproductive output, and ages at maturity in 109 reptile populations encompassing 57 species. Counter to prediction, estimated juvenile survival rates were relatively high (on average, only about 13% less than those of conspecific adults) and highly correlated with adult survival rates. Overall, survival rates during both juvenile and adult life were higher in turtles than in snakes, and higher in snakes than in lizards. As predicted from life history theory, rates of juvenile survival were higher in species that produce large offspring, and higher in viviparous squamates than in oviparous species. Our analyses challenge the widely held belief that juvenile reptiles have low rates of annual survival and suggest instead that sampling problems and the elusive biology of juvenile reptiles have misled researchers in this respect.

  7. Inferring kinetic pathways, rates, and force dependence from nonprocessive optical tweezers experiments: a maximum likelihood approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafut, Bennett; Visscher, Koen

    2008-10-01

    Optical tweezers experiments allow us to probe the role of force and mechanical work in a variety of biochemical processes. However, observable states do not usually correspond in a one-to-one fashion with the internal state of an enzyme or enzyme-substrate complex. Different kinetic pathways yield different distributions for the dwells in the observable states. Furthermore, the dwell-time distribution will be dependent upon force, and upon where in the biochemical pathway force acts. I will present a maximum-likelihood method for identifying rate constants and the locations of force-dependent transitions in transcription initiation by T7 RNA Polymerase. This method is generalizable to systems with more complicated kinetic pathways in which there are two observable states (e.g. bound and unbound) and an irreversible final transition.

  8. Asymptotic correctability of Bell-diagonal quantum states and maximum tolerable bit error rates

    CERN Document Server

    Ranade, K S; Ranade, Kedar S.; Alber, Gernot

    2005-01-01

    The general conditions are discussed which quantum state purification protocols have to fulfill in order to be capable of purifying Bell-diagonal qubit-pair states, provided they consist of steps that map Bell-diagonal states to Bell-diagonal states and they finally apply a suitably chosen Calderbank-Shor-Steane code to the outcome of such steps. As a main result a necessary and a sufficient condition on asymptotic correctability are presented, which relate this problem to the magnitude of a characteristic exponent governing the relation between bit and phase errors under the purification steps. These conditions allow a straightforward determination of maximum tolerable bit error rates of quantum key distribution protocols whose security analysis can be reduced to the purification of Bell-diagonal states.

  9. Phylogenetic prediction of the maximum per capita rate of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Pearson, Yanthe E; Larsen, Elise A; Lynch, Heather J; Turner, Jessica B; Staver, Hilary; Noble, Andrew E; Bewick, Sharon; Goldberg, Emma E

    2013-07-22

    The maximum per capita rate of population growth, r, is a central measure of population biology. However, researchers can only directly calculate r when adequate time series, life tables and similar datasets are available. We instead view r as an evolvable, synthetic life-history trait and use comparative phylogenetic approaches to predict r for poorly known species. Combining molecular phylogenies, life-history trait data and stochastic macroevolutionary models, we predicted r for mammals of the Caniformia and Cervidae. Cross-validation analyses demonstrated that, even with sparse life-history data, comparative methods estimated r well and outperformed models based on body mass. Values of r predicted via comparative methods were in strong rank agreement with observed values and reduced mean prediction errors by approximately 68 per cent compared with two null models. We demonstrate the utility of our method by estimating r for 102 extant species in these mammal groups with unknown life-history traits.

  10. Statistical properties of the maximum Lyapunov exponent calculated via the divergence rate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Matteo; Ricci, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The embedding of a time series provides a basic tool to analyze dynamical properties of the underlying chaotic system. To this purpose, the choice of the embedding dimension and lag is crucial. Although several methods have been devised to tackle the issue of the optimal setting of these parameters, a conclusive criterion to make the most appropriate choice is still lacking. An accepted procedure to rank different embedding methods relies on the evaluation of the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) out of embedded time series that are generated by chaotic systems with explicit analytic representation. The MLE is evaluated as the local divergence rate of nearby trajectories. Given a system, embedding methods are ranked according to how close such MLE values are to the true MLE. This is provided by the so-called standard method in a way that exploits the mathematical description of the system and does not require embedding. In this paper we study the dependence of the finite-time MLE evaluated via the divergence rate method on the embedding dimension and lag in the case of time series generated by four systems that are widely used as references in the scientific literature. We develop a completely automatic algorithm that provides the divergence rate and its statistical uncertainty. We show that the uncertainty can provide useful information about the optimal choice of the embedding parameters. In addition, our approach allows us to find which systems provide suitable benchmarks for the comparison and ranking of different embedding methods.

  11. Survival rate after emergency diagnosis of cancer is 'shocking'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ONE QUARTER of patients diagnosed with cancer after attending a London emergency department will die within two months, latest research suggests. Study author Kathy Pritchard-Jones, chief medical officer for London Cancer, said the 'shocking figures' confirm that early diagnosis makes a huge difference to the chances of surviving cancer.

  12. DISCREPANCY BETWEEN TRAINING, COMPETITION AND LABORATORY MEASURES OF MAXIMUM HEART RATE IN NCAA DIVISION 2 DISTANCE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvah C. Stahlnecker IV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A percentage of either measured or predicted maximum heart rate is commonly used to prescribe and measure exercise intensity. However, maximum heart rate in athletes may be greater during competition or training than during laboratory exercise testing. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine if endurance-trained runners train and compete at or above laboratory measures of 'maximum' heart rate. Maximum heart rates were measured utilising a treadmill graded exercise test (GXT in a laboratory setting using 10 female and 10 male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA division 2 cross-country and distance event track athletes. Maximum training and competition heart rates were measured during a high-intensity interval training day (TR HR and during competition (COMP HR at an NCAA meet. TR HR (207 ± 5.0 b·min-1; means ± SEM and COMP HR (206 ± 4 b·min-1 were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than maximum heart rates obtained during the GXT (194 ± 2 b·min-1. The heart rate at the ventilatory threshold measured in the laboratory occurred at 83.3 ± 2.5% of the heart rate at VO2 max with no differences between the men and women. However, the heart rate at the ventilatory threshold measured in the laboratory was only 77% of the maximal COMP HR or TR HR. In order to optimize training-induced adaptation, training intensity for NCAA division 2 distance event runners should not be based on laboratory assessment of maximum heart rate, but instead on maximum heart rate obtained either during training or during competition

  13. Survival rates of female greater sage-grouse in autumn and winter in Southeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Willis, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of 135 female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on 3 study areas in southeastern Oregon, USA during autumn and winter for 3 years. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to test for differences among study areas and years, investigate the potential influence of weather, and compute estimates of overwinter survival. We found no evidence for differences in survival rates among study areas, which was contrary to our original hypothesis. There also were no declines in survival rates during fallwinter, but survival rates varied among years and time within years. Average survival rate from October through February was 0.456 (SE 0.062). The coefficient of variation for this estimate was 13.6% indicating good precision in our estimates of survival. We found strong evidence for an effect of weather (i.e., mean daily min. temp, extreme min. temp, snow depth) on bi-weekly survival rates of sage-grouse for 2 of the study areas in one year. Extremely low (1,500 m) elevations. In contrast, we found no evidence for an influence of weather on the low-elevation study area or during the winters of 19891990 and 19911992. Extreme weather during winter can cause lower survival of adult female sage-grouse, so managers should be aware of these potential effects and reduce harvest rates accordingly.

  14. Survival and mortality rates among Danes with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Stenager, Egon; Hansen, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    people with MS, representing more than 200,000 person-years of observation, have been analysed. Overall, mortality was almost three times higher and life expectancy 10 years less among people with MS than for the general population. However, excess mortality has declined significantly since 1950.......Long-term survival and trends in overall and cause-specific excess mortality among people with MS have been studied using the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, which contains information about all Danish MS patients since the mid-20th Century. A total of 4254 deaths among approximately 10,000...

  15. Why does steady-state magnetic reconnection have a maximum local rate of order 0.1?

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Guo, F; Daughton, W; Li, H; Cassak, P A; Shay, M A

    2016-01-01

    Simulations suggest collisionless steady-state magnetic reconnection of Harris-type current sheets proceeds with a rate of order 0.1, independent of dissipation mechanism. We argue this long-standing puzzle is a result of constraints at the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scale. We perform a scaling analysis of the reconnection rate as a function of the opening angle made by the upstream magnetic fields, finding a maximum reconnection rate close to 0.2. The predictions compare favorably to particle-in-cell simulations of relativistic electron-positron and non-relativistic electron-proton reconnection. The fact that simulated reconnection rates are close to the predicted maximum suggests reconnection proceeds near the most efficient state allowed at the MHD-scale. The rate near the maximum is relatively insensitive to the opening angle, potentially explaining why reconnection has a similar fast rate in differing models.

  16. Improved survival rate in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Heaf, J;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the survival rate of Danish diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1990 and 2005 and evaluated possible predictors of survival rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish National Register on Dialysis and Transplantation...

  17. Maximum growth and survival of estrogen receptor-alpha positive breast cancer cells requires the Sin3A transcriptional repressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarid Elaine T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sin3A is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional repressor which regulates gene expression as part of the multi-protein Sin3 repressive complex. It functions as a scaffold upon which proteins with enzymatic activity dock, including chromatin modifying histone deacetylases. Although regulation of transcription by Sin3A has been studied in detail, little is understood about the function of Sin3A in cancer cells. We previously showed that Sin3A is expressed in breast cancer cells and is a repressor of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα, ESR1 gene expression. Here, we expand our previous studies to elucidate the function of Sin3A in the control of gene expression and growth of breast cancer cells. Results Analysis of gene expression following knockdown of Sin3A revealed changes in both basal and regulated gene transcription. Genes of known importance in breast cancer and estrogen signaling, including ERBB2, PGR, MYC, CLU, and NCOA2, were among those identified as Sin3A-responsive. The mechanism of Sin3A action varied among genes and was found to be mediated through both HDAC1/2 -dependent and -independent activities. Loss of Sin3A inhibited breast cancer cell growth by increasing apoptosis without affecting cell cycle progression. Analysis of both ERα-positive and ERα-negative cell lines revealed that the effects of Sin3A on growth were cell-type specific, as Sin3A expression promoted maximum growth of only the ERα-positive cells, and, notably, Sin3A protein itself was increased by estrogen. Further gene expression experiments revealed that Sin3A repressed expression of key apoptotic genes, including TRAIL, TRAILR1, CASP10, and APAF1, in ERα-positive, but not ERα-negative, cell lines, which could provide a mechanistic explanation for cell-type differences in growth. Conclusions This study identifies Sin3A as a regulator of gene expression, survival, and growth in ERα-positive breast cancer cells. Sin3A regulates the

  18. Survival rate of initial azimuthal anisotropy in a multi-phase transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the survival rate of an initial momentum anisotropy ($v_2^{ini}$) to the final state in a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV. It is found that both the final-state parton and charged hadron $v_2$ show a linear dependence versus $v_2^{ini}$. We use the slope of this linear dependence to quantify the survival rate. It is found that the survival rate increases with transverse momentum ($p_T$), approximately linearly, reaching ~100% at $p_T$$\\sim$2.5 GeV/c for both parton and charged hadron. The survival rate decreases with collision centrality and energy. The results indicate that the survival rate decreases with increasing magnitude of interaction.

  19. Effects of diaphragmatic control on the assessment of sniff nasal inspiratory pressure and maximum relaxation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benício, Kadja; Dias, Fernando A. L.; Gualdi, Lucien P.; Aliverti, Andrea; Resqueti, Vanessa R.; Fregonezi, Guilherme A. F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of diaphragmatic activation control (diaphC) on Sniff Nasal-Inspiratory Pressure (SNIP) and Maximum Relaxation Rate of inspiratory muscles (MRR) in healthy subjects. METHOD: Twenty subjects (9 male; age: 23 (SD=2.9) years; BMI: 23.8 (SD=3) kg/m2; FEV1/FVC: 0.9 (SD=0.1)] performed 5 sniff maneuvers in two different moments: with or without instruction on diaphC. Before the first maneuver, a brief explanation was given to the subjects on how to perform the sniff test. For sniff test with diaphC, subjects were instructed to perform intense diaphragm activation. The best SNIP and MRR values were used for analysis. MRR was calculated as the ratio of first derivative of pressure over time (dP/dtmax) and were normalized by dividing it by peak pressure (SNIP) from the same maneuver. RESULTS: SNIP values were significantly different in maneuvers with and without diaphC [without diaphC: -100 (SD=27.1) cmH2O/ with diaphC: -72.8 (SD=22.3) cmH2O; p<0.0001], normalized MRR values were not statistically different [without diaphC: -9.7 (SD=2.6); with diaphC: -8.9 (SD=1.5); p=0.19]. Without diaphC, 40% of the sample did not reach the appropriate sniff criteria found in the literature. CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic control performed during SNIP test influences obtained inspiratory pressure, being lower when diaphC is performed. However, there was no influence on normalized MRR. PMID:26578254

  20. A NONPARAMETRIC PROCEDURE OF THE SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION FOR SURVIVAL RATE TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective This paper proposes a nonparametric procedure of the sample size determination for survival rate test. Methods Using the classical asymptotic normal procedure yields the required homogenetic effective sample size and using the inverse operation with the prespecified value of the survival function of censoring times yields the required sample size. Results It is matched with the rate test for censored data, does not involve survival distributions, and reduces to its classical counterpart when there is no censoring. The observed power of the test coincides with the prescribed power under usual clinical conditions. Conclusion It can be used for planning survival studies of chronic diseases.

  1. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  2. Studying DDT Susceptibility at Discriminating Time Intervals Focusing on Maximum Limit of Exposure Time Survived by DDT Resistant Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae): an Investigative Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Aarti; Kesari, Shreekant; Das, Pradeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-24

    Extensive application of routine insecticide i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India, had evoked the problem of resistance/tolerance against DDT, eventually nullifying the DDT dependent strategies to control this vector. Because tolerating an hour-long exposure to DDT is not challenging enough for the resistant P. argentipes, estimating susceptibility by exposing sand flies to insecticide for just an hour becomes a trivial and futile task.Therefore, this bioassay study was carried out to investigate the maximum limit of exposure time to which DDT resistant P. argentipes can endure the effect of DDT for their survival. The mortality rate of laboratory-reared DDT resistant strain P. argentipes exposed to DDT was studied at discriminating time intervals of 60 min and it was concluded that highly resistant sand flies could withstand up to 420 min of exposure to this insecticide. Additionally, the lethal time for female P. argentipes was observed to be higher than for males suggesting that they are highly resistant to DDT's toxicity. Our results support the monitoring of tolerance limit with respect to time and hence points towards an urgent need to change the World Health Organization's protocol for susceptibility identification in resistant P. argentipes.

  3. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  4. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...... of technologies – poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed – disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests...

  5. Rate of strong consistency of the maximum quasi-likelihood estimator in quasi-likelihood nonlinear models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-likelihood nonlinear models (QLNM) include generalized linear models as a special case.Under some regularity conditions,the rate of the strong consistency of the maximum quasi-likelihood estimation (MQLE) is obtained in QLNM.In an important case,this rate is O(n-1/2(loglogn)1/2),which is just the rate of LIL of partial sums for I.I.d variables,and thus cannot be improved anymore.

  6. SURVIVAL RATES IN ORAL CANCER PATIENTS – A 10-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Tonchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and presents a serious health problem in countries with higher alcohol consumption and smoking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the survival rates of patients with oral cancer diagnosed at a single center in Bulgaria. The clinical records of patients with oral cancer admitted to the Clinic of Maxillofacial surgery, University Hospital “St. George”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, from 2004 till 2013 were reviewed. Additional information about follow-up was obtained from the Regional Complex Oncological Centre (RCOC. Data about patient and tumor characteristics – age, sex, site of cancer, stage, degree of differentiation and survival rates were analyzed. The overall 5-year survival rate was 36% while the disease-specific survival rate was 45%. The highest chance for survival was for upper lip (66% while the lowest was for retromolar trigone (0%. Overall survival rate depended also on the stage and grade of differentiation of the tumor. The study confirmed that oral cancer remains serious problem in terms of risk factors, delayed diagnosis, and overall survival rates.

  7. On the maximum rate of change in sunspot number growth and the size of the sunspot cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Statistically significant correlations exist between the size (maximum amplitude) of the sunspot cycle and, especially, the maximum value of the rate of rise during the ascending portion of the sunspot cycle, where the rate of rise is computed either as the difference in the month-to-month smoothed sunspot number values or as the 'average rate of growth' in smoothed sunspot number from sunspot minimum. Based on the observed values of these quantities (equal to 10.6 and 4.63, respectively) as of early 1989, it is inferred that cycle 22's maximum amplitude will be about 175 + or - 30 or 185 + or - 10, respectively, where the error bars represent approximately twice the average error found during cycles 10-21 from the two fits.

  8. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  9. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  10. Disparities in Obesity, Physical Activity Rates, and Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M E; Magwood, G; Brown, E T; Cannady, K; Gregoski, M; Knight, K D; Peterson, L L; Kramer, R; Evans-Knowell, A; Turner, D P

    2017-01-01

    The significantly higher breast cancer (BCa) mortality rates of African-American (AA) women compared to non-Hispanic (NHW) white women constitute a major US health disparity. Investigations have primarily focused on biological differences in tumors to explain more aggressive forms of BCa in AA women. The biology of tumors cannot be modified, yet lifestyle changes can mitigate their progression and recurrence. AA communities have higher percentages of obesity than NHWs and exhibit inefficient access to care, low socioeconomic status, and reduced education levels. Such factors are associated with limited healthy food options and sedentary activity. AA women have the highest prevalence of obesity than any other racial/ethnic/gender group in the United States. The social ecological model (SEM) is a conceptual framework on which interventions could be developed to reduce obesity. The SEM includes intrapersonal factors, interpersonal factors, organizational relationships, and community/institutional policies that are more effective in behavior modification than isolation from the participants' environmental context. Implementation of SEM-based interventions in AA communities could positively modify lifestyle behaviors, which could also serve as a powerful tool in reducing risk of BCa, BCa progression, and BCa recurrence in populations of AA women. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Survival and Recovery Rates of Mallards Banded Postseason in South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a published report on the survival and recovery rates of mallards after they have been banded in South Carolina. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) has...

  12. Surviving Rates of Graphs with Bounded Treewidth for the Firefighter Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Leizhen; Cheng, Yongxi; Verbin, Elad;

    2010-01-01

    of the firefighter is to save as many vertices as possible. The surviving rate of a graph is the average percentage of vertices that can be saved when a fire starts randomly at one vertex of the graph, which measures the defense ability of a graph as a whole. In this paper, we study the surviving rates of graphs...... with bounded treewidth. We prove that the surviving rate of every $n$-vertex outerplanar graph is at least $1-\\Theta(\\frac{\\log n}{n})$, which is asymptotically tight. We also prove that if $k$ firefighters are available in each round, then the surviving rate of an $n$-vertex graph with treewidth at most $k...

  13. Estimation of survival rates and abundance of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine abundance and survival rates of the east Pacific green turtles in the northern most foraging grounds, the turtle research groups at SWFSC have been...

  14. The Optimum Plate to Plate Spacing for Maximum Heat Transfer Rate from a Flat Plate Type Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar; Kishinami, Koki; Daimaruya, Mashashi; Tokura, Ikuo; Kawai, Hideki; Suzuki, Jun; Kobiyama, Mashayosi; Ginting, Armansyah

    The present paper is a study on the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate from a flat plate type heat exchanger. The heat exchanger consists of a number of parallel flat plates. The working fluids are flowed at the same operational conditions, either fixed pressure head or fixed fan power input. Parallel and counter flow directions of the working fluids were considered. While the volume of the heat exchanger is kept constant, plate number was varied. Hence, the spacing between plates as well as heat transfer rate will vary and there exists a maximum heat transfer rate. The objective of this paper is to seek the optimum plate to plate spacing for maximum heat transfer rate. In order to solve the problem, analytical and numerical solutions have been carried out. In the analytical solution, the correlations of the optimum plate to plate spacing as a function of the non-dimensional parameters were developed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the correlations. The results show that the optimum plate to plate spacing for a counter flow heat exchanger is smaller than parallel flow ones. On the other hand, the maximum heat transfer rate for a counter flow heat exchanger is bigger than parallel flow ones.

  15. Introduction of a prediction model to assigning periodontal prognosis based on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canut, Pedro; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alvarez-Novoa, Pablo; Alvarez-Novoa, Carmen; Marcos, Ana; Noguerol, Blas; Noguerol, Fernando; Zabalegui, Ion

    2017-09-04

    To develop a prediction model for tooth loss due to periodontal disease (TLPD) in patients following periodontal maintenance (PM), and assess its performance using a multicentre approach. A multilevel analysis of eleven predictors of TLPD in 500 patients following PM was carried out to calculate the probability of TLPD. This algorithm was applied to three different TLPD samples (369 teeth) gathered retrospectively by nine periodontist, associating several intervals of probability with the corresponding survival rates, based on significant differences in the mean survival rates. The reproducibility of these associations was assessed in each sample (One-way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison with Bonferroni corrections). The model presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity, with optimal calibration and discrimination measurements. Seven intervals of probability were associated with seven survival rates and these associations contained close to 80% of the cases: the probability predicted the survival rate at this percentage. The model performed well in the three samples, since the mean survival rates of each association were significantly different within each sample, while no significant differences between the samples were found in pair-wise comparisons of means. This model might be useful for predicting survival rates in different TLPD samples This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Özgür Demiralp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P<0.05. Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials.

  17. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...

  18. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...

  19. 7 CFR 1.187 - Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the types of proceedings in which the rate should be used. It also should explain fully the reasons... certain types of proceedings), the Department may adopt regulations providing that attorney fees may be awarded at a rate higher than $125 per hour in some or all of the types of proceedings covered by...

  20. Maximum likelihood methods for investigating reporting rates of rings on hunter-shot birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Morgan, B.J.T.; North, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that hunters do not report 100% of the rings that they find on shot birds. Reward studies can be used to estimate what this reporting rate is, by comparison of recoveries of rings offering a monetary reward, to ordinary rings. A reward study of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) is used to illustrate the design, and to motivate the development of statistical models for estimation and for testing hypotheses of temporal and geographic variation in reporting rates. The method involves indexing the data (recoveries) and parameters (reporting, harvest, and solicitation rates) by geographic and temporal strata. Estimates are obtained under unconstrained (e.g., allowing temporal variability in reporting rates) and constrained (e.g., constant reporting rates) models, and hypotheses are tested by likelihood ratio. A FORTRAN program, available from the author, is used to perform the computations.

  1. Rate of strong consistency of quasi maximum likelihood estimate in generalized linear models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    [1]McCullagh, P., Nelder, J. A., Generalized Linear Models, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1989.[2]Wedderbum, R. W. M., Quasi-likelihood functions, generalized linear models and Gauss-Newton method,Biometrika, 1974, 61:439-447.[3]Fahrmeir, L., Maximum likelihood estimation in misspecified generalized linear models, Statistics, 1990, 21:487-502.[4]Fahrmeir, L., Kaufmann, H., Consistency and asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator in generalized linear models, Ann. Statist., 1985, 13: 342-368.[5]Melder, J. A., Pregibon, D., An extended quasi-likelihood function, Biometrika, 1987, 74: 221-232.[6]Bennet, G., Probability inequalities for the sum of independent random variables, JASA, 1962, 57: 33-45.[7]Stout, W. F., Almost Sure Convergence, New York:Academic Press, 1974.[8]Petrov, V, V., Sums of Independent Random Variables, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.

  2. TFF3 and survivin expressions associate with a lower survival rate in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia-Rong; Tang, Hui-Zhong; Zhou, Kai-Zong; Shen, Wu-Hong; Guo, He-Yi

    2013-11-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and survivin with functions of inhibiting apoptosis are involved in the gastric cancer by overexpression. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of TFF3 and survivin in patients' tissue samples with gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between the protein expression and the different clinical records. By studying the expressions of TFF3 and survivin in gastric cancer through immunohistochemical staining and examining the survival rate via Kaplan-Meier analysis for gastric cancer patients, we found that the TFF3 and survivin positive expressions have a significant relationship with the lower survival rate comparing to that of negative expressions in the analyzed patients (P TFF3 and survivin expressions have the lowest survival rate. TFF3 or survivin positive expression correlates with the lymph node metastasis, metastasis, and TNM stages of gastric cancer. Survival analysis indicates that survival rate has a close relationship with the age, tumor histology, tumor differentiation, degree of infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages (P TFF3 and survivin expressions play a vital role in gastric cancer development, and these two proteins are important markers for prognosis in gastric cancer. Patients with gastric cancer can increase the survival rate through an earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  3. Effects of habitat disturbance on survival rates of softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in an urban stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, M.V.; Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.; Mills, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    We monitored Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) using mark-recapture during 1994-2005 in Gin Creek, Searcy, Arkansas. In 1997-2000 the creek bed and riparian zone were bulldozed in an effort to remove debris and improve water flow. This disturbance appeared to reduce the quantity and quality of turtle habitat. We tested for the potential effect of this habitat disturbance on the survival rates of marked turtles. We estimated annual survival rates for the population using models that allowed for variation in survival by state of maturation, year, and effects of the disturbance; we evaluated two different models of the disturbance impact. The first disturbance model incorporated a single change in survival rates, following the disturbance, whereas the second disturbance model incorporated three survival rates: pre- and postdisturbance, as well as a short-term decline during the disturbance. We used a state-transition model for our mark-recapture analysis, as softshells transition from juveniles to adults in a variable period of time. Our analysis indicated that survival varied by maturation state and was independent of a time trend or the disturbance. Annual survival rates were lower for juveniles (S?? = 0.717, SE = 0.039) than for adults (S?? = 0.836, SE = 0.025). Despite the dramatic habitat disturbance, we found no negative effects on survival rates. Our results demonstrate that, like a few other freshwater turtle species known to thrive in urban environments, populations of A. spinifera are resilient and can persist in urban environments despite periodic habitat disturbances. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  4. Maximum growth rate of Mycobacterium avium in continuous culture or chronically infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, C M; Taylor, M A; Dennis, M W

    1987-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a human pathogen which may cause either chronic or disseminated disease and the organism exhibits a slow rate of growth. This study provides information on the growth rate of the organism in chronically infected mice and its maximal growth rate in vitro. M. avium was grown in continuous culture, limited for nitrogen with 0.5 mM ammonium chloride and dilution rates that ranged from 0.054 to 0.153 h-1. The steady-state concentration of ammonia nitrogen and M. avium cells for each dilution rate were determined. The bacterial saturation constant for growth-limiting ammonia was 0.29 mM (4 micrograms nitrogen/ml) and, from this, the maximal growth rate for M. avium was estimated to be 0.206 h-1 or a doubling time of 3.4 h. BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with 3 x 10(6) colony-forming units and a chronic infection resulted, typical of virulent M. avium strains. During a period of 3 months, the number of mycobacteria remained constant in the lungs, but increased 30-fold and 8,900-fold, respectively, in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter increase appeared to be due to proliferation in situ. The generation time of M. avium in the mesenteric lymph nodes was estimated to be 7 days.

  5. Modeling the effect of toe clipping on treefrog survival: Beyond the return rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddle, J.H.; Rice, K.G.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Some studies have described a negative effect of toe clipping on return rates of marked anurans, but the return rate is limited in that it does not account for heterogeneity of capture probabilities. We used open population mark-recapture models to estimate both apparent survival (ϕ) and the recapture probability (p) of two treefrog species individually marked by clipping 2–4 toes. We used information-theoretic model selection to examine the effect of toe clipping on survival while accounting for variation in capture probability. The model selection results indicate strong support for an effect of toe clipping on survival of Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and only limited support for an effect of toe clipping on capture probability. We estimate there was a mean absolute decrease in survival of 5.02% and 11.16% for Green Treefrogs with three and four toes removed, respectively, compared to individuals with just two toes removed. Results for Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella) indicate little support for an effect of toe clipping on survival but may indicate some support for a negative effect on capture probability. We believe that the return rate alone should not be used to examine survival of marked animals because constant capture probability must be assumed, and our examples demonstrate how capture probability may vary over time and among groups. Mark-recapture models provide a method for estimating the effect of toe clipping on anuran survival in situations where unique marks are applied.

  6. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  7. Comparing maximum rate and sustainability of pacing by mechanical vs. electrical stimulation in the Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T Alexander; Kohl, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical stimulation (MS) represents a readily available, non-invasive means of pacing the asystolic or bradycardic heart in patients, but benefits of MS at higher heart rates are unclear. Our aim was to assess the maximum rate and sustainability of excitation by MS vs. electrical stimulation (ES) in the isolated heart under normal physiological conditions. Trains of local MS or ES at rates exceeding intrinsic sinus rhythm (overdrive pacing; lowest pacing rates 2.5±0.5 Hz) were applied to the same mid-left ventricular free-wall site on the epicardium of Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Stimulation rates were progressively increased, with a recovery period of normal sinus rhythm between each stimulation period. Trains of MS caused repeated focal ventricular excitation from the site of stimulation. The maximum rate at which MS achieved 1:1 capture was lower than during ES (4.2±0.2 vs. 5.9±0.2 Hz, respectively). At all overdrive pacing rates for which repetitive MS was possible, 1:1 capture was reversibly lost after a finite number of cycles, even though same-site capture by ES remained possible. The number of MS cycles until loss of capture decreased with rising stimulation rate. If interspersed with ES, the number of MS to failure of capture was lower than for MS only. In this study, we demonstrate that the maximum pacing rate at which MS can be sustained is lower than that for same-site ES in isolated heart, and that, in contrast to ES, the sustainability of successful 1:1 capture by MS is limited. The mechanism(s) of differences in MS vs. ES pacing ability, potentially important for emergency heart rhythm management, are currently unknown, thus warranting further investigation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Maximum Rate of Growth of Enstrophy in Solutions of the Fractional Burgers Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Dongfang

    2016-01-01

    This investigation is a part of a research program aiming to characterize the extreme behavior possible in hydrodynamic models by probing the sharpness of estimates on the growth of certain fundamental quantities. We consider here the rate of growth of the classical and fractional enstrophy in the fractional Burgers equation in the subcritical, critical and supercritical regime. First, we obtain estimates on these rates of growth and then show that these estimates are sharp up to numerical prefactors. In particular, we conclude that the power-law dependence of the enstrophy rate of growth on the fractional dissipation exponent has the same global form in the subcritical, critical and parts of the supercritical regime. This is done by numerically solving suitably defined constrained maximization problems and then demonstrating that for different values of the fractional dissipation exponent the obtained maximizers saturate the upper bounds in the estimates as the enstrophy increases. In addition, nontrivial be...

  9. Treatment-associated severe thrombocytopenia affects survival rate in esophageal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y M Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal cancer is commonly treated with surgery, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, or a combination of both. The correlation between the hematological parameters during CCRT and early survival of esophageal cancer has not been fully evaluated. Materials And Methods: We analyzed the records of 65 esophageal cancer patients treated by CCRT between 2007 and 2010 retrospectively. The association between CCRT-associated myelosuppression, demographic variables, and survival rates were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The univariate analysis showed that tumor extent of T3-4, a higher stage of tumor, a lower albumin level, grade 3 or higher anemia and thrombocytopenia, and interruptions in treatment affected survival rates. Further, the multivariate analysis revealed that stage IV (P = 0.030 is an independently negative prognostic factor for a one-year survival rate. Stage IV (P = 0.035, tumor extent of T3-4 (P = 0.002, and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.015 are independently negative prognostic factors for a two-year survival rate. Conclusions: Severe decrease in platelet count during CCRT independently affects survival of esophageal cancer patients in addition to stage of the tumor.

  10. Rate of strong consistency of quasi maximum likelihood estimate in generalized linear models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Li; CHEN Xiru

    2004-01-01

    Under the assumption that in the generalized linear model (GLM) the expectation of the response variable has a correct specification and some other smooth conditions,it is shown that with probability one the quasi-likelihood equation for the GLM has a solution when the sample size n is sufficiently large. The rate of this solution tending to the true value is determined. In an important special case, this rate is the same as specified in the LIL for iid partial sums and thus cannot be improved anymore.

  11. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Pleissner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    rate (F, l h-1), W (g), and L (mm) as described by the equations: FW = aWb and FL = cLd, respectively. This is done by using available and new experimental laboratory data on M. edulis obtained by members of the same research team using different methods and controlled diets of cultivated algal cells...

  12. Maximum organic loading rate for the single-stage wet anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Kurosawa, Norio; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted at high OLR from 3.7 to 12.9 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) for 225 days. Periods without organic loading were arranged between the each loading period. Stable operation at an OLR of 9.2 kg-VS (15.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was achieved with a high VS reduction (91.8%) and high methane yield (455 mL g-VS-1). The cell density increased in the periods without organic loading, and reached to 10.9×10(10) cells mL(-1) on day 187, which was around 15 times higher than that of the seed sludge. There was a significant correlation between OLR and saturated TSS in the sludge (y=17.3e(0.1679×), r(2)=0.996, P<0.05). A theoretical maximum OLR of 10.5 kg-VS (17.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was obtained for mesophilic single-stage wet anaerobic digestion that is able to maintain a stable operation with high methane yield and VS reduction.

  13. Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. McCall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are prominent components of most landscapes throughout the world, and their negative effects on the natural environment can extend for hundreds or thousands of meters beyond the road. These effects include mortality of wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, pollution of soil and air, modification of wildlife behavior in response to noise, creation of barriers to wildlife movement, and establishment of dispersal conduits for some plant and animal species. In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. We evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. We surveyed populations of squirrel gliders by trapping them over 2.5 years, and combined these data with prior information on apparent survival rates in populations located away from freeways to model the ratio of apparent annual survival rates in both site types. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60% lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads. The cause of the reduced apparent survival rate may be due to higher rates of mortality and/or higher emigration rates adjacent to the Hume Freeway compared with populations near smaller country roads. Management options for population persistence will be influenced by which of these factors is the primary cause of a reduced apparent survival rate.

  14. Application of Artificial Neural Network in Predicting the Survival Rate of Gastric Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Biglarian, A; E. Hajizadeh; Kazemnejad, A; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground: The aim of this study was to predict the survival rate of Iranian gastric cancer patients using the Cox proportional hazard and artificial neural network models as well as comparing the ability of these approaches in predicting the survival of these patients."nMethods: In this historical cohort study, the data gathered from 436 registered gastric cancer patients who have had surgery between 2002 and 2007 at the Taleghani Hospital (a referral center for gastrointestinal...

  15. Validity of heart rate based nomogram fors estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Krishna; Khare, P; Jaryal, A K; Talwar, A

    2012-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a graded maximal exercise test is the objective method to assess cardiorespiratory fitness. Maximal oxygen uptake testing is limited to only a few laboratories as it requires trained personnel and strenuous effort by the subject. At the population level, submaximal tests have been developed to derive VO2max indirectly based on heart rate based nomograms or it can be calculated using anthropometric measures. These heart rate based predicted standards have been developed for western population and are used routinely to predict VO2max in Indian population. In the present study VO2max was directly measured by maximal exercise test using a bicycle ergometer and was compared with VO2max derived by recovery heart rate in Queen's College step test (QCST) (PVO2max I) and with VO2max derived from Wasserman equation based on anthropometric parameters and age (PVO2max II) in a well defined age group of healthy male adults from New Delhi. The values of directly measured VO2max showed no significant correlation either with the estimated VO2max with QCST or with VO2max predicted by Wasserman equation. Bland and Altman method of approach for limit of agreement between VO2max and PVO2max I or PVO2max II revealed that the limits of agreement between directly measured VO2max and PVO2max I or PVO2max II was large indicating inapplicability of prediction equations of western population in the population under study. Thus it is evident that there is an urgent need to develop nomogram for Indian population, may be even for different ethnic sub-population in the country.

  16. Longitudinal Examination of Age-Predicted Symptom-Limited Exercise Maximum Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na; Suarez, Jose; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Crow, Richard S.; Bouchard, Claude; Haskell, William; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association of age with maximal heart rate (MHR). Methods Data were obtained in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants were black and white men and women aged 18-30 in 1985-86 (year 0). A symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test was completed at years 0, 7, and 20 by 4969, 2583, and 2870 participants, respectively. After exclusion 9622 eligible tests remained. Results In all 9622 tests, estimated MHR (eMHR, beats/minute) had a quadratic relation to age in the age range 18 to 50 years, eMHR=179+0.29*age-0.011*age2. The age-MHR association was approximately linear in the restricted age ranges of consecutive tests. In 2215 people who completed both year 0 and 7 tests (age range 18 to 37), eMHR=189–0.35*age; and in 1574 people who completed both year 7 and 20 tests (age range 25 to 50), eMHR=199–0.63*age. In the lowest baseline BMI quartile, the rate of decline was 0.20 beats/minute/year between years 0-7 and 0.51 beats/minute/year between years 7-20; while in the highest baseline BMI quartile there was a linear rate of decline of approximately 0.7 beats/minute/year over the full age of 18 to 50 years. Conclusion Clinicians making exercise prescriptions should be aware that the loss of symptom-limited MHR is much slower at young adulthood and more pronounced in later adulthood. In particular, MHR loss is very slow in those with lowest BMI below age 40. PMID:20639723

  17. Diverging trends in recent population-based survival rates in oesophageal and gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Lagergren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survival trends in oesophageal and gastric cancer need to be updated. A nationwide Swedish population-based study in 1961-2009 was based on registry data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative survival rate, i.e. the ratio of the observed to the expected survival, adjusted for age, sex, and calendar period, and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI, was the main outcome measure. The expected survival was calculated using the corresponding Swedish general population with no exclusions. The relative survival rates in oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma have improved since the 1990s (p for trend <0.001, but not in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma or gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. The relative 5-year survival rates during the two recent periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2008 were 12.5% (95%CI 10.1%-14.9% and 10.3% (95%CI 8.5-12.0% for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 12.5% (95%CI 10.1%-14.9% and 14.6% (95%CI 12.6-16.6% for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, 11.1% (95%CI 9.6%-12.6% and 14.3% (95%CI 12.3-16.3% for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 20.2% (95%CI 19.2%-21.1% and 19.0% (95%CI 17.7-20.2% for gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. The 3-year survival in tumour stage III in 2004-2008 was about 25% for all four tumour types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The survival in oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma is increasing, but the lack of such increase in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma is a concern.

  18. Maximum Likelihood based comparison of the specific growth rates for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard

    2008-01-01

    with an exponentially decaying function of the time between observations is suggested. A model with a full covariance structure containing OD-dependent variance and an autocorrelation structure is compared to a model with variance only and with no variance or correlation implemented. It is shown that the model...... are used for parameter estimation. The data is log-transformed such that a linear model can be applied. The transformation changes the variance structure, and hence an OD-dependent variance is implemented in the model. The autocorrelation in the data is demonstrated, and a correlation model...... that best describes data is a model taking into account the full covariance structure. An inference study is made in order to determine whether the growth rate of the five bacteria strains is the same. After applying a likelihood-ratio test to models with a full covariance structure, it is concluded...

  19. Relationship of Social Determinants of Health with the Three-year Survival Rate of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi Monfared, Esmat; Mohseny, Maryam; Amanpour, Farzaneh; Mosavi Jarrahi, Alireza; Moradi Joo, Mohammad; Heidarnia, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    Background: Social determinants of health are among the key factors affecting the pathogenesis of diseases. Considering the increasingly high prevalence of breast cancer and the association of social determinants of health with its occurrence, related morbidity and mortality and survival rate, this study sought to assess the relationship of three-year survival rate of breast cancer with social determinants of health. Materials and Methods: This cohort study was conducted on males and females presenting to the Cancer Research Center of Shohada-E-Tajrish Hospital from 2006 to 2010 with definite diagnosis of breast cancer. Data were collected via phone interviews. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression was fitted using SPSS (version 18) and PH assumption was tested by STATA (version 11) software. Results: The study was performed on 797 breast cancer patients, aged 25-93 years with mean age of 54.66 (SD=11.86) years. After 3 years from diagnosing cancer 700 (87.8%) patients were alive and 97 (12.2%) patients were dead. Using log rank test, there was relationship between 3-year survivals with age, education, childhood residence, sibling, treatment type, and district were significant (pSocial determinants of health such as childhood condition, city region residency, level of education and age affect the three-year survival rate of breast cancer. Future studies must focus on the effect of childhood social class on the survival rates of cancers, which have been paid less attention to. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Satsurblia: new insights of human response and survival across the Last Glacial Maximum in the southern Caucasus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Pinhasi

    Full Text Available The region of western Georgia (Imereti has been a major geographic corridor for human migrations during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic (MP/UP. Knowledge of the MP and UP in this region, however, stems mostly from a small number of recent excavations at the sites of Ortvale Klde, Dzudzuana, Bondi, and Kotias Klde. These provide an absolute chronology for the Late MP and MP-UP transition, but only a partial perspective on the nature and timing of UP occupations, and limited data on how human groups in this region responded to the harsh climatic oscillations between 37,000-11,500 years before present. Here we report new UP archaeological sequences from fieldwork in Satsurblia cavein the same region. A series of living surfaces with combustion features, faunal remains, stone and bone tools, and ornaments provide new information about human occupations in this region (a prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM at 25.5-24.4 ka cal. BP and (b after the LGM at 17.9-16.2 ka cal. BP. The latter provides new evidence in the southern Caucasus for human occupation immediately after the LGM. The results of the campaigns in Satsurblia and Dzudzuana suggest that at present the most plausible scenario is one of a hiatus in the occupation of this region during the LGM (between 24.4-17.9 ka cal. BP. Analysis of the living surfaces at Satsurblia offers information about human activities such as the production and utilisation of lithics and bone tools, butchering, cooking and consumption of meat and wild cereals, the utilisation of fibers, and the use of certain woods. Microfaunal and palynological analyses point to fluctuations in the climate with consequent shifts in vegetation and the faunal spectrum not only before and after the LGM, but also during the two millennia following the end of the LGM.

  1. Predicting the survival rate of mouse embryonic stem cells cryopreserved in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambu, S; Xu, X; Ye, H; Cui, Z F

    2011-11-01

    Stem cell cryopreservation in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds may offer better protection to cells leading to higher survival rates. However, it introduces heterogeneity in cryoprotective agent (CPA) concentrations, durations of exposure to CPA, and freezing and thawing rate within constructs. This paper applies a mathematical model which couples the mass transport of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in a cell-seeded spherical construct and cell membrane transport into mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to predict overall cell survival rate (CSR) based on CPA equilibrium exposure times (t(E)) and concentrations. The effect of freeze-concentration is also considered. To enable such a prediction, a contour plot was constructed using experimental data obtained in cryopreservation of cell suspensions with DMSO at a cooling rate of 1 degrees C/min. Thereafter, the diffusion in the alginate bead and the membrane transport of CPA was numerically simulated. Results were mapped onto the survival rate contours yielding 'predicted' CSR. The effects of loading time, hindrance, construct radius, and CPA concentration on predicted CSR were examined. From these results, an operation window with upper and lower t(E) of 12-19 min (for 0.6 mm radius beads and 1.4 M DMSO) yielded an overall viability of 60 per cent. The model predictions and the best experimental cryopreservation results with encapsulated mESCs were in agreement. Hence, optimization based on post-thaw CSR can accelerate the identification of cryopreservation protocols and parameters for maximizing cell survival.

  2. Maximum type I error rate inflation from sample size reassessment when investigators are blind to treatment labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żebrowska, Magdalena; Posch, Martin; Magirr, Dominic

    2016-05-30

    Consider a parallel group trial for the comparison of an experimental treatment to a control, where the second-stage sample size may depend on the blinded primary endpoint data as well as on additional blinded data from a secondary endpoint. For the setting of normally distributed endpoints, we demonstrate that this may lead to an inflation of the type I error rate if the null hypothesis holds for the primary but not the secondary endpoint. We derive upper bounds for the inflation of the type I error rate, both for trials that employ random allocation and for those that use block randomization. We illustrate the worst-case sample size reassessment rule in a case study. For both randomization strategies, the maximum type I error rate increases with the effect size in the secondary endpoint and the correlation between endpoints. The maximum inflation increases with smaller block sizes if information on the block size is used in the reassessment rule. Based on our findings, we do not question the well-established use of blinded sample size reassessment methods with nuisance parameter estimates computed from the blinded interim data of the primary endpoint. However, we demonstrate that the type I error rate control of these methods relies on the application of specific, binding, pre-planned and fully algorithmic sample size reassessment rules and does not extend to general or unplanned sample size adjustments based on blinded data. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Scaling of resting and maximum hopping metabolic rate throughout the life cycle of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Seymour, Roger S; Matthews, Philip G D; Runciman, Sue; White, Craig R

    2011-10-01

    The hemimetabolous migratory locust Locusta migratoria progresses through five instars to the adult, increasing in size from 0.02 to 0.95 g, a 45-fold change. Hopping locomotion occurs at all life stages and is supported by aerobic metabolism and provision of oxygen through the tracheal system. This allometric study investigates the effect of body mass (Mb) on oxygen consumption rate (MO2, μmol h(-1)) to establish resting metabolic rate (MRO2), maximum metabolic rate during hopping (MMO2) and maximum metabolic rate of the hopping muscles (MMO2,hop) in first instar, third instar, fifth instar and adult locusts. Oxygen consumption rates increased throughout development according to the allometric equations MRO2=30.1Mb(0.83±0.02), MMO2=155Mb(1.01±0.02), MMO2,hop=120Mb(1.07±0.02) and, if adults are excluded, MMO2,juv=136Mb(0.97±0.02) and MMO2,juv,hop=103Mb(1.02±0.02). Increasing body mass by 20-45% with attached weights did not increase mass-specific MMO2 significantly at any life stage, although mean mass-specific hopping MO2 was slightly higher (ca. 8%) when juvenile data were pooled. The allometric exponents for all measures of metabolic rate are much greater than 0.75, and therefore do not support West, Brown and Enquist’s optimised fractal network model, which predicts that metabolism scales with a 3⁄4-power exponent owing to limitations in the rate at which resources can be transported within the body.

  4. Estimating survival rates in ecological studies with small unbalanced sample sizes: an alternative Bayesian point estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Damgaard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the survival rates in experimental ecology are presented using odds ratios or log response ratios, but the use of ratio metrics has a problem when all the individuals have either died or survived in only one replicate. In the empirical ecological literature, the problem often has been ignored or circumvented by different, more or less ad hoc approaches. Here, it is argued that the best summary statistic for communicating ecological results of frequency data in studies with small unbalanced samples may be the mean of the posterior distribution of the survival rate. The developed approach may be particularly useful when effect size indexes, such as odds ratios, are needed to compare frequency data between treatments, sites or studies.

  5. Effects of copper on development and survival rate of Paphia malabarica Chemnitz larvae under low saline condition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gireesh, R.; Gopinathan, C.P.

    . The survival rates decreased considerably with low salinities although the combination of copper and low salinity gave synergistic effects. The reduced survival in low salinities would limit population growth of this species in estuarine areas experiencing low...

  6. Long-term survival rate of teeth receiving multidisciplinary endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, A S; Radafshar, G; Taramsari, M; Darabi, F

    2014-03-01

    Deciding whether to replace or preserve a compromised tooth, even with emerging trends in implant dentistry, is still a common dilemma for practitioners. This study sought to determine the 3- to more than 10-year survival rate of teeth that had undergone endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments. A total of 245 teeth in 87 patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated. All the teeth had received crown lengthening surgery by a single periodontist. Root canal therapy and prosthodontic procedures were rendered either by specialists or by experienced general dentists. Numbers of lost teeth were recorded and the criteria for hopeless teeth were defined. Survival rate was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Clinical indices including pocket depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), C/R ratio, position of the restoration margin relative to the gingival margin (RM-GM) and the presence of intra-canal post were compared between different survival groups (10 years) using one-way analysis of variance (anova). Potential predictors of failure were determined using the Cox regression model. The mean ± s.d. of 3-, 5-, 10- and 13-year survival rates was 98 ± 1%, 96 ± 1·6%, 83·1 ± 4·5% and 51·9 ± 14·5%, respectively. The mean PD (P 10-year-survived teeth. Bleeding index and RM-GM showed no significant differences between the groups. C/R ratio and RM-GM position appeared to be the major determinants of tooth loss. The long-term survival rate of multidisciplinary-treated teeth was 83-98% in this specific sample.

  7. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  8. THE RATE OF UNIFORM CONVERGENCE OF THE SURVIVAL FUNCTION ESTIMATOR FOR TRUNCATED AND CENSORED DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liuquan

    2001-01-01

    For left truncated and right censored data, based on a strongrepresentation of the product-limit estimator of the survival function, we derive the sufficient and necessary condition for the rate of strong uniform convergence of the product-limit estimator over the whole line.

  9. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the fi

  10. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved pension...

  11. Dental implant survival rate in well-controlled diabetic patients. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental implants have now become one of the most popular options for replacing a missing tooth. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease that affects a large part of the population and is generally considered an absolute or relative contraindication to implant therapy. Aim: To determine the survival rate of dental implants in controlled diabetic patients through a systematic review. Material and methods: A systematic search in Pubmed, SciELO and RedALyC databases was performed. The selection criteria were: studies published in the last 10 years, with at least 20 controlled diabetic patients, reporting survival rate and number of implants placed, with follow-up periods equal to or longer than 1 year, including a control group of healthy patients. Methodological quality was analyzed with the follwing scales: Jadad and Downs & Black’s CMQ. Results: Three articles with a follow-up period between 1 and 12 years were analyzed. The overall survival rate of dental implants in diabetic controlled patients was 97.43%. Conclusion: The reviewed literature suggests that survival rate of dental implants in well-controlled diabetic patients is similar to non-diabetic patients.

  12. Correlation between albuminemia, natremia and survival rates in patients with hepatorenal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, A; Jinga, Mariana; Ciocâlteu, A; Lascăr, I; Jinga, V; Checheriţă, I A

    2011-01-01

    A two years prospective study was developed, based on the monitoring of 84 patients with cirrhosis and elevated serum creatinine; 33 patients met the diagnostic criteria for the hepatorenal syndrome. In these 33 patients, survival rate has been studied in correlation with hepatorenal syndrome types, serum albumin and natremia.

  13. ReplacementMatrix: a web server for maximum-likelihood estimation of amino acid replacement rate matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cuong Cao; Lefort, Vincent; Le, Vinh Sy; Le, Quang Si; Gascuel, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Amino acid replacement rate matrices are an essential basis of protein studies (e.g. in phylogenetics and alignment). A number of general purpose matrices have been proposed (e.g. JTT, WAG, LG) since the seminal work of Margaret Dayhoff and co-workers. However, it has been shown that matrices specific to certain protein groups (e.g. mitochondrial) or life domains (e.g. viruses) differ significantly from general average matrices, and thus perform better when applied to the data to which they are dedicated. This Web server implements the maximum-likelihood estimation procedure that was used to estimate LG, and provides a number of tools and facilities. Users upload a set of multiple protein alignments from their domain of interest and receive the resulting matrix by email, along with statistics and comparisons with other matrices. A non-parametric bootstrap is performed optionally to assess the variability of replacement rate estimates. Maximum-likelihood trees, inferred using the estimated rate matrix, are also computed optionally for each input alignment. Finely tuned procedures and up-to-date ML software (PhyML 3.0, XRATE) are combined to perform all these heavy calculations on our clusters. http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/ReplacementMatrix/ olivier.gascuel@lirmm.fr Supplementary data are available at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/ReplacementMatrix/

  14. Survival Rate of Low and Very Low Birth Weight Neonates in an Iranian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Puyanfar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the incidence and survival rates of neonates weighing less than 2500g for duration of the first 28 days in an Iranian community.Methods: In this prospective longitudinal study, all neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were selected from the list of all neonates born in the only public-sector referral hospital, for a six months period. The weight of neonates at birth along with some demographic variables was recorded on a checklist. A cohort of neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were followed for 28 days. Mortality within 28 days of birth was used as end point. Continuous variables were summarized using mean and 95% confidence intervals, while categorical variables were presented as ratios and percentages.Results: About 1750 neonates were born of which 168 neonates with birth weights less than 2500g were recorded giving a proportion of 9.6%. Of 168 neonates, 21 (12.5% had very low birth weights (VLBW (birth weights<1500g. Survival rates for the groups of LBW (1500survival rate among variables studied in this research.Conclusion: The survival rate among VLBW births in our study is dramatically low (66.6%. Not only attempts must be made to reduce the incidence and prevalence of this problem but also we need to work on the related factors of neonates' survival rate in this community.

  15. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  16. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] inference from this model, study designs should seek a minimum of 25 animals of each marking type observed (marked or observed via telemetry) in each time period and geographic stratum.

  17. Relationship between silent atrial fibrillation and the maximum heart rate in the 24-hour Holter: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Kruse, José Cláudio Lupi; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Boris, Douglas; Mantovani, Augusto; Lima, Gustavo Glotz de

    2014-12-01

    Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence.

  18. Survival rates of breast cancer: a hospital-based study from northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poum, Amornsak; Kamsa-ard, Supot; Promthet, Supannee

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 340 female breast cancer at a teaching university in northeast of Thailand recruited and followed-up until the end of 2006. Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. 161 cases were alive after five years and 58 patients were lost to follow-up. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 83.3%, 59.9% and 42.9%, respectively. When analysis was conducted for stage combined into 2 groups, early (stage I, II and unknown) and late (stage III and IV), the 5-year survival rate for early stage (60%; 95%CI: 0.51-0.67), was higher than for late stage (27%; 95%CI: 0.19-0.34) with high statistical significance (p<0.001). The hazard ratio of patients with stage IV was 11.6 times greater than for stage I (p=0.03). The findings indicate that the different stages of breast cancer markedly effect the overall survival rate.

  19. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  20. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Troyer

    Full Text Available Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor, using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960 than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920, while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106 than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067. Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004, indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  1. Survival and recovery rates of mottled ducks banded in Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Western Gulf Coast population of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is dependent on the Gulf coastal marsh to complete its entire life cycle. Band recovery data can be used to monitor mottled duck populations by estimating annual survival, indexing harvest rate, and assessing movements. Band returns from hunting seasons 1997–2013 were used to evaluate factors influencing annual survival, recovery rates, and movements of mottled ducks in Texas and Louisiana. For banding years of 1997–2013, 58,349 normal, wild mottled ducks were banded and released in Texas and Louisiana. Since 2002, 86% of mottled duck bandings have occurred on the Chenier Plain of Texas and Louisiana. Hunters shot, recovered, and reported 7,061birds with bands during this period. Direct recovery rates were greater for juveniles than adults but changed little since the 1970s. Estimates of annual survival did not differ between Texas and Louisiana, but did among years and between sex and age classes. Adult male and juvenile female mottled ducks had the greatest and lowest annual survival rates, respectively. Recovery of birds banded on the Chenier Plain was four times greater for birds banded in Texas and harvested in Louisiana than banded in Louisiana and harvested in Texas. Much of the current inference of results from banding mottled ducks is limited to the Chenier Plain. To monitor the entire Western Gulf Coast population of mottled ducks, managers can consider expanding operational banding operations with annual quotas, which would improve survival and recovery estimates and allow for inference beyond the Chenier Plain region.

  2. Unfavorable survival rates in Iranian patients with gastric cancers: a single center experience from Tehran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khedmat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of potential interfering factors that play major roles in the outcome of our patients with stomach cancer. 100 consecutive patients diagnosed with gastric cancers were prospectively observed, treated and followed from November 2009 to January. Absence of Helicobacter pylori infection (P=0.027, absence of vascularisation (P<0.001, and undetermined histopathological type of adenocarcinoma (P=0.003 were factors significantly associated with higher grade of gastric lesions. Life tables were used to define survival of gastric cancers. Survival rates of these patients at 1st week, 1st month, 2nd month, 3rd month, and 6th month were 97%, 96%, 91%, 90%, and 82%, respectively. The only determinant of 6 months of survival was age over 68 (P=0.039. Our study confirms our previous knowledge that gastric cancers have unfavorable outcome in Iran.

  3. Comparative Study of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation Between Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karia Ritesh M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objectives of this study is to study effect of smoking on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation in apparently healthy tobacco smokers and non-smokers and to compare the result of both the studies to assess the effects of smoking Method: The present study was carried out by computerized software of Pulmonary Function Test named ‘Spiro Excel’ on 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers. Smokers are divided in three gropus. Full series of test take 4 to 5 minutes. Tests were compared in the both smokers and non-smokers group by the ‘unpaired t test’. Statistical significance was indicated by ‘p’ value < 0.05. Results: From the result it is found that actual value of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation are significantly lower in all smokers group than non-smokers. The difference of actual mean value is increases as the degree of smoking increases. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 191-193

  4. The differential effect of metabolic alkalosis on maximum force and rate of force development during repeated, high-intensity cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Raftry, Sean; Brooks, Cristy; Dowswell, Ben; Romero, Rick; Green, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on maximal force production, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle recruitment during repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling. Ten male and female (n = 10) subjects completed two fixed-cadence, high-intensity cycling trials. Each trial consisted of a series of 30-s efforts at 120% peak power output (maximum graded test) that were interspersed with 30-s recovery periods until task failure. Prior to each trial, subjects consumed 0.3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (ALK) or placebo (PLA). Maximal voluntary contractions were performed immediately after each 30-s effort. Maximal force (F max) was calculated as the greatest force recorded over a 25-ms period throughout the entire contraction duration while maximal RFD (RFD max) was calculated as the greatest 10-ms average slope throughout that same contraction. F max declined similarly in both the ALK and PLA conditions, with baseline values (ALK: 1,226 ± 393 N; PLA: 1,222 ± 369 N) declining nearly 295 ± 54 N [95% confidence interval (CI) = 84-508 N; P force vs. maximum rate of force development during a whole body fatiguing task.

  5. Depressed pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node myocytes contributes to the age-dependent decline in maximum heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric D.; St. Clair, Joshua R.; Sumner, Whitney A.; Bannister, Roger A.; Proenza, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    An inexorable decline in maximum heart rate (mHR) progressively limits human aerobic capacity with advancing age. This decrease in mHR results from an age-dependent reduction in “intrinsic heart rate” (iHR), which is measured during autonomic blockade. The reduced iHR indicates, by definition, that pacemaker function of the sinoatrial node is compromised during aging. However, little is known about the properties of pacemaker myocytes in the aged sinoatrial node. Here, we show that depressed excitability of individual sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs) contributes to reductions in heart rate with advancing age. We found that age-dependent declines in mHR and iHR in ECG recordings from mice were paralleled by declines in spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rates (FRs) in patch-clamp recordings from acutely isolated SAMs. The slower FR of aged SAMs resulted from changes in the AP waveform that were limited to hyperpolarization of the maximum diastolic potential and slowing of the early part of the diastolic depolarization. These AP waveform changes were associated with cellular hypertrophy, reduced current densities for L- and T-type Ca2+ currents and the “funny current” (If), and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of If. The age-dependent reduction in sinoatrial node function was not associated with changes in β-adrenergic responsiveness, which was preserved during aging for heart rate, SAM FR, L- and T-type Ca2+ currents, and If. Our results indicate that depressed excitability of individual SAMs due to altered ion channel activity contributes to the decline in mHR, and thus aerobic capacity, during normal aging. PMID:24128759

  6. Study of psychosocial parameters related to the survival rate of renal transplantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, J G; Clermont, M J; Robitaille, P; Plante, A; Jéquier, J C; Godbout, C; Guertin, M C; Beaulieu, M A; Sarrazin, F

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of intelligence, schooling, psychomotor, emotional, and social status on renal graft survival in children. Sixty-two cadaver renal transplant recipients were evaluated retrospectively and the influence of sex, age, weight, and the use of cyclosporin A (CyA) on the success rate of the graft from 1 to 5 years later was analyzed. Psychological and social scores were devised and included as factors predictive of survival of the graft. Univariate analysis showed that the following variables predicted renal graft survival: the use of CyA (P = 0.0002), pre-transplant dialysis (P = 0.04), weight at the time of transplantation (P = 0.072), and psychological scores (P = 0.064). Association analysis demonstrated that pre-transplantation dialysis was only a chance association and therefore the parameter was discarded. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive parameters were the use of CyA, sex, weight in kilograms, and the psychological score. An equation was then derived from variables that predict the probability that a specific patient's graft will survive more than t months. This equation is the estimated survival distribution function and is as follow: S (t) = Exp {-Exp[-(0.8882x1 - 1.827x2 + 0.037x3 - 0.1746x4) + ln t - 4.7862]} where S (t) = the survival at t months post transplantation, x1 = sex (male 1, female 2), x2 = CyA (yes 1, no 2), x3 = weight in kilograms, and x4 = psychological score. The major impact of psychological factors on renal graft survival was surprising.

  7. Environmental effects on survival rates: robust regression, recovery planning and endangered Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlby, Heather D; Gibson, A Jamie F

    2015-08-01

    Describing how population-level survival rates are influenced by environmental change becomes necessary during recovery planning to identify threats that should be the focus for future remediation efforts. However, the ways in which data are analyzed have the potential to change our ecological understanding and thus subsequent recommendations for remedial actions to address threats. In regression, distributional assumptions underlying short time series of survival estimates cannot be investigated a priori and data likely contain points that do not follow the general trend (outliers) as well as contain additional variation relative to an assumed distribution (overdispersion). Using juvenile survival data from three endangered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. populations in response to hydrological variation, four distributions for the response were compared using lognormal and generalized linear models (GLM). The influence of outliers as well as overdispersion was investigated by comparing conclusions from robust regressions with these lognormal models and GLMs. The analyses strongly supported the use of a lognormal distribution for survival estimates (i.e., modeling the instantaneous rate of mortality as the response) and would have led to ambiguity in the identification of significant hydrological predictors as well as low overall confidence in the predicted relationships if only GLMs had been considered. However, using robust regression to evaluate the effect of additional variation and outliers in the data relative to regression assumptions resulted in a better understanding of relationships between hydrological variables and survival that could be used for population-specific recovery planning. This manuscript highlights how a systematic analysis that explicitly considers what monitoring data represent and where variation is likely to come from is required in order to draw meaningful conclusions when analyzing changes in survival relative to environmental

  8. Survival and complication rates of implant-supported fixed partial dentures with cantilevers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo, José; Romão, Cristina; Wennström, Jan L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to analyze the potential effect of incorporation of cantilever extensions on the survival rate of implant-supported fixed partial dental prostheses (FPDPs) and the incidence of technical and biological complications, as reported in longitudinal studies with at least 5 years of follow-up. A MEDLINE search was conducted up to and including November 2008 for longitudinal studies with a mean follow-up period of at least 5 years. Two reviewers performed screening and data abstraction independently. Prosthesis-based data on survival/failure rate, technical complications (prosthesis-related problems, implant loss) and biological complications (marginal bone loss) were analyzed. The search provided 103 titles with abstract. Full-text analysis was performed of 12 articles, out of which three were finally included. Two of the studies had a prospective or retrospective case-control design, whereas the third was a prospective cohort study. The 5-year survival rate of cantilever FPDPs varied between 89.9% and 92.7% (weighted mean 91.9%), with implant fracture as the main cause for failures. The corresponding survival rate for FPDPs without cantilever extensions was 96.3-96.2% (weighted mean 95.8%). Technical complications related to the supra-constructions in the three included studies were reported to occur at a frequency of 13-26% (weighted mean 20.3%) for cantilever FPDPs compared with 0-12% (9.7%) for non-cantilever FPDPs. The most common complications were minor porcelain fractures and bridge-screw loosening. For cantilever FPDPs, the 5-year event-free survival rate varied between 66.7% and 79.2% (weighted mean 71.7%) and between 83.1% and 96.3% (weighted mean 85.9%) for non-cantilever FPDPs. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to peri-implant bone-level change between the two prosthetic groups, either at the prosthesis or at the implant level. Data on implant-supported FPDPs with cantilever

  9. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  10. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Error Rates of the Maximum-Likelihood Detector for Arbitrary Constellations: Convex/Concave Behavior and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loyka, Sergey; Gagnon, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by a recent surge of interest in convex optimization techniques, convexity/concavity properties of error rates of the maximum likelihood detector operating in the AWGN channel are studied and extended to frequency-flat slow-fading channels. Generic conditions are identified under which the symbol error rate (SER) is convex/concave for arbitrary multi-dimensional constellations. In particular, the SER is convex in SNR for any one- and two-dimensional constellation, and also in higher dimensions at high SNR. Pairwise error probability and bit error rate are shown to be convex at high SNR, for arbitrary constellations and bit mapping. Universal bounds for the SER 1st and 2nd derivatives are obtained, which hold for arbitrary constellations and are tight for some of them. Applications of the results are discussed, which include optimum power allocation in spatial multiplexing systems, optimum power/time sharing to decrease or increase (jamming problem) error rate, an implication for fading channels ("fa...

  12. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  13. Effects of different doses of dexamethasone plus flunixin meglumine on survival rate in lethal endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Er A.; Uney K.; Altan F.; Cetin G.; Yazar E.; Elmas M.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of different doses of dexamethasone plus flunixin meglumine on survival rate were investigated in lethal endotoxemia. A total of 60 Balb/C female mice were divided into 4 equal groups. Lethal endotoxemia (80-100%) was induced by lipopolysaccharide injection (Group 1, 1 mg, intraperinoneally). At 4 hours after the lipopolysaccharide injection; low-dose dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg, SID, 5 days, intramuscularly) + flunixin meglumine (2 mg/kg, SID, 5 days, subcutaneously), normal-dose dexame...

  14. Dental implant survival rate in well-controlled diabetic patients. A systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Heber Arbildo; César Lamas; Dora Camara; Hernán Vásquez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental implants have now become one of the most popular options for replacing a missing tooth. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease that affects a large part of the population and is generally considered an absolute or relative contraindication to implant therapy. Aim: To determine the survival rate of dental implants in controlled diabetic patients through a systematic review. Material and methods: A systematic search in Pubmed, SciELO and RedALyC databases...

  15. The Influence of Shock Treatment on Survival Rate of Intestinal Probiotics during Freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun; ZHANG Lanwei; LIU Libo; FENG Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Probiotics which can provide potential health benefits for consumers and prevent disease, is the most important research field for functional food in the future.It is the key point that how much the count of bacteria and how long it can preserve. Freeze-drying skill is one of the best preservation methods, but it's defect that damage to biological systems can be attributed to changes in the physical state of membrane lipids or/and changes in the structure of sensitive proteins and the decreased survival rate. This work used pretreatment methods-cold shock and hot shock to reduce the damage to bacteria during freeze-drying. Using unpretreated samples as control, aspects of cold shock or heat shock. The response of Enterococcous faecalis A31 was investigated during lag phase, the middle of exponential growth phase and the terminal of exponential growth phase. The results suggested that when cold shock,the shock protein concentration produced by treated sample within 2 h during the middle of exponential growth phase was higher than 4, 8, 24 h, The concentration of shock protein produced by treated sample at 10℃ was higher than 20℃,The concentration of sample protein at the middle of exponential growth phase was higher than that at the terminal of exponential growth phase. After one-month storage, the survival rate at 10℃ was better than 20 ℃ and 4 ℃comparatively. The survival rate at (6 h) 4 ℃/24 h (lag period) was higher than (10 h) 4 ℃/24 h (the middle of exponential growth phase), and the effect of 10 ℃/8 h shock treatments was best during the middle of exponential growth phase, when hot shock, The concentration of heat shock proteins produced was not obvious, and survival rate was higher at 45 ℃, 30 min than at 45 ℃, 60 min.

  16. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup: A response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently analyzed long-term (1951–2011) continental band-recovery data from lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and demonstrated that harvest rates declined through time, but annual survival rates exhibited no such trends; moreover, annual harvest and survival rates were uncorrelated for all age-sex classes. We therefore concluded that declining fecundity was most likely responsible for recent population declines, rather than changes in harvest or survival. Lindberg et al. (2017) critiqued our conclusions, arguing that we did little more than fail to reject a null hypothesis of compensatory mortality, postulated ecologically unrealistic changes in fecundity, and failed to give sufficient consideration to additive harvest mortality. Herein, we re-summarize our original evidence indicating that harvest has been compensatory, or at most weakly additive, and demonstrate that our analysis had sufficient power to detect strongly additive mortality if it occurred. We further demonstrate that our conclusions were not confounded by population size, band loss, or individual heterogeneity, as suggested by Lindberg et al. (2017), and we provide additional support for our conjecture that low fecundity played a major role in declining scaup populations during 1983–2006. We therefore reiterate our original management recommendations: given low harvest rates and lack of demonstrable effect on scaup survival, harvest regulations could return to more liberal frameworks, and waterfowl biologists should work together to continue banding lesser scaup and use these data to explore alternative hypotheses to identify the true ecological causes of population change, given that it is unlikely to be excessive harvest. 

  17. [Survival rate and complications of stemmed shoulder prostheses in primary osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlenbusch, U

    2013-07-01

    Survivorship and survival rate of shoulder prostheses can be affected by a large number of possible complications. An evaluation of the current literature and the prosthesis register, however, shows an overall low revision (1.39 revisions per 100 observation years) and loosening rates (implant-related 10-year survival rate up to 99%), comparable to that of hip and knee endoprostheses. It must be emphasized that cementless stems more often cause problems than cemented components (4.34 compared to 0.77 revisions per 100 observation years) and that secondary rotator cuff rupture (4.6%; functional deficit up to 30%) occurs more frequently than was generally assumed and is often not diagnosed or treated adequately. The infection rate amounts to approximately 1% and according to latest literature the dislocation rate is regressive and is estimated to be approximately 5%.The low complication and revision rates do not justify the replacement of stemmed prostheses by stemless implants and short stem prostheses and the preference given to the new implants is attributed more to the better revision possibilities and easier convertibility into inverse prostheses.

  18. Preoperative Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Independently Predicts Overall Survival in Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma following Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Cross

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the relationship between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and overall survival in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC following nephrectomy. Methods. 167 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized RCC had ESR levels measured preoperatively. Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were used to determine Area Under the Curve and relative sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ESR in predicting overall survival. Cut-offs for low (0.0–20.0 mm/hr, intermediate (20.1–50.0 mm/hr, and high risk (>50.0 mm/hr groups were created. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the univariate impact of these ESR-based groups on overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential of these groups to predict overall survival, adjusting for other patient and tumor characteristics. Results. Overall, 55.2% were low risk, while 27.0% and 17.8% were intermediate and high risk, respectively. Median (95% CI survival was 44.1 (42.6–45.5 months, 35.5 (32.3–38.8 months, and 32.1 (25.5–38.6 months, respectively. After controlling for other patient and tumor characteristics, intermediate and high risk groups experienced a 4.5-fold (HR: 4.509, 95% CI: 0.735–27.649 and 18.5-fold (HR: 18.531, 95% CI: 2.117–162.228 increased risk of overall mortality, respectively. Conclusion. Preoperative ESR values represent a robust predictor of overall survival following nephrectomy in localized RCC.

  19. Preconditioning crush increases the survival rate of motor neurons after spinal root avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Yizhi Zuo; Jianwen He

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, heat shock protein 27 was persistently upregulated in ventral motor neurons following nerve root avulsion or crush. Here, we examined whether the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 would increase the survival rate of motor neurons. Rats were divided into two groups:an avulsion-only group (avulsion of the L4 lumbar nerve root only) and a crush-avulsion group (the L4 lumbar nerve root was crushed 1 week prior to the avulsion). Immunofluores-cent staining revealed that the survival rate of motor neurons was significantly greater in the crush-avulsion group than in the avulsion-only group, and this difference remained for at least 5 weeks after avulsion. The higher neuronal survival rate may be explained by the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression in motor neurons in the crush-avulsion group. Further-more, preconditioning crush greatly attenuated the expression of nitric oxide synthase in the motor neurons. Our ifndings indicate that the neuroprotective action of preconditioning crush is mediated through the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression and the attenuation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase upregulation following avulsion.

  20. Effect of Different Diet Combinations on WSSV Load and Survival Rate of Fenneropenaeus chinensis Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Guangxia; Meng Xianhong; Kong Jie; Cao Baoxiang; Liu Ning; Zhang Qingwen; Luo Kun; Li Zhanjun

    2015-01-01

    Using microalgae( SA),artificial feed( AF),Brachionus plicatilis( BP) and brine shrimp larvae( BS),four diets including SA + AF,SA + AF + BP,SA + AF + BS and SA + AF + BP + BS were formulated and used to rear Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae. The fertilized eggs fed with SA + AF were divided into disinfection group with iodophor and untreated group,and the fertilized eggs fed with other diets were all disinfected with iodophor. The survival rates,body weight and WSSV load of post larvae at each stage were compared. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the survival rate of prawns at the N-Z stage by feeding with different diets( P > 0. 05),but the survival rate of prawns fed with BP was higher than others( P 0. 05); prawns fed with CF + AF and AF had significant difference with the other two groups( P 0. 05). WSSV artificial infection test showed that the accumulated mortality of prawns fed with four diets were higher than 90%,and the difference was not significant( P > 0. 05).

  1. Prevalence of sinus floor elevation procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Ozçakır Tomruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sinus-lifting procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla. This retrospective chart review examined consecutive patients with tooth/teeth loss in the posterior maxilla between 2008 and 2012 treated with sinus lift, when needed, and implant insertion. Demographic variables, health status, residual alveolar bone height, augmentation types, the implant position, diameter and height, and implant failure, prosthesis types, and the marginal bone loss were recorded. The study included 302 patients at a mean age of 5.2 years, who received a total of 609 dental implants. A total of 380 (62.3% implants were inserted in native areas, 203 (33.3% ones in external sinus-lifted areas and 26 (4.4% ones in internal lifted areas. The survival rate in native or internal lifted areas were 100% and 95.6% in external sinus lifted ones (10 implant failures/203 implants. Almost half of the implants were examined radiologically with a mean duration of 30 months and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.64 ± 1.2 mm. The results showed that the survival rates of native bone and the internal sinus lifting were slightly higher than that of external sinus lifting. Implants placed with sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants in native bone.

  2. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-03-30

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, microg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, microm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, micros(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of approximately 110 kJ and that scale as microg(T):microm(T):micros(T) approximately 10(6):10(3):1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40 degrees C in ice corresponds to approximately 10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate micros(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage.

  3. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  4. RGDS-fuctionalized alginates improve the survival rate of encapsulated embryonic stem cells during cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambu, S; Xu, X; Schiffer, H A; Cui, Z F; Ye, H

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation of stem cells, especially embryonic stem cells, is problematic because of low post-thaw cell survival rates and spontaneous differentiation following recovery. In this investigation, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were encapsulated in arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (RGDS)-coupled calcium alginates (1.2 percent, w/v), allowed to attach to the substratum and then cryopreserved in 10 percent (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution at a slow cooling rate of 1 C per min. RGDS coupling to alginate was confirmed by Transmission Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (T-FTIR) and quantified by using ninhydrin-Ultraviolet/Visible light (ninhydrin-UV/VIS) assay. Flow cytometry data showed that mESCs cryopreserved in RGDS-alginate beads had a higher expression of stem cell markers compared with cells cryopreserved in suspension or cells cryopreserved in unmodified alginates. Cell viability after thawing was assessed using trypan blue exclusion assay and monitored using Alamar blue assay for 6 hours. It was shown that post-thaw cell survival rate was significantly higher for cells encapsulated in RGDS-modified alginate (93 ± 2 percent, mean and standard error) than those in suspension (52 ± 2 percent) or in unmodified alginates (62 ± 3 percent). These results showed that cells encapsulated and attached to a substratum have better survival rate and stem cell marker expression 24 hours after cryopreservation than those in suspension. Encapsulation in RGDS-alginate was optimized for peptide concentration, cryoprotective agent loading time and cooling rate. The best result was obtained when using 12.5 mg peptide per g alginate, 30 minutes loading time and 1 C per min cooling rate.

  5. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N

    2014-06-01

    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of survival rate after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhorii, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2014-07-29

    After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P CPR procedure.

  7. Improved survival rate by temperature control at compression sites in rat model of crush syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takefumi; Fujita, Masanori; Ishihara, Masayuki; Ishihara, Miya; Ogata, Sho; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Shimizu, Masafumi; Maehara, Tadaaki; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Shoichi

    2014-05-01

    Crush syndrome (CS) has been reported in disasters, terrorist incidents, and accidents, and the clinical and pathologic picture has gradually been clarified. Few lethal and reproducible animal models of CS with use of a quantitative load are available. A new model is needed to investigate pathologic and therapeutic aspects of this injury. Using a device built from commercially available components, both hindlimbs of anesthetized rats were respectively compressed for 6 h using 3.6-kg blocks. The effects of trunk warming alone without compressed hindlimbs (Group A), non-warming at room temperature (Group B), whole-body warming including compressed hindlimbs (Group C), or warming of compressed hindlimbs alone (Group D) during compression were examined. Survival rates were compared and hematological and histologic analyses were performed at specific time points after compression release. Limb or whole-body warming significantly worsened the survival of rats. We found a much lower survival rate of 0%-10% in animals, in which the hindlimbs were warmed during compression (Groups C and D) at 12 h after compression release, compared with 90%-100% in animals without warming of the hindlimbs (Groups A and B). Groups C and D showed significantly enhanced hyperkalemia at ≥4 h after compression release and all blood samples from dead cases showed hyperkalemia (>10 mEq/L). We developed a new lethal and reproducible rat CS model with a quantitative load. This study found that warming of compressed limbs worsened the survival rate and significantly enhanced hyperkalemia, apparently leading to cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Liu, T [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yuh, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, R; Grecula, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lo, S [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  9. Survival, Recruitment, and Population Growth Rate of an Important Mesopredator: The Northern Raccoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Elizabeth M.; Cameron Devitt, Susan E.; Sunquist, Melvin E.; Goswami, Varun R.; Oli, Madan K.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel’s temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936–0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893–0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078–0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042–0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996–1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models. PMID:24901349

  10. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (pnutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John M.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Wright, Kara B.; Fang, Gang; Winer, Eric P.; Keating, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach. PMID:22928097

  12. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  13. Estimation of the players maximum heart rate in real game situations in team sports: a practical propose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cuadrado Reyes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   This  research developed a logarithms  for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR for players in team sports in  game situations. The sample was made of  thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3   to a  Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test.  Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted  in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE, were  continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done  to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from  this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing..   Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.

  14. A FAMILY OF SUMMARY CHI SQUARE TESTS FOR COMPARING SURVIVAL RATES RATHER THAN CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES DYING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective This paper propses a family of summary chi square tests for comparing survival rates at all points of time between two groups. Methods They are respectively derived from the Peto et al. expression for the log rank test, the Mantel-Haenszel expression for the log rank test, and the generalized Wilcoxon test by means of using the homogenetic effective sample size in place of the number at risk and using the corresponding numerator of the conditional probability surviving in place of the death number. Results After such derivations they become clearer in clinical significance, more powerful, and free from the assumption of proportional hazard. Conclusion These tests can be employed in analyzing the clinical data of cancer. A worked example illustrates the methodology.

  15. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  16. Analysis of the Survival Rate with Cervical Cancer Using 137Cs and 192Ir Aftedoading Brachytherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuixioZhou; GuoxiongChen; DemeiMa; JianpingSun; LinMa

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze and compare the survival rate for stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ cervical cancer treated by external irradiation plus 137Cs or 192Ir. METHODS The patients with cervical cancer were treated by external irradiation plus 137Cs (group A, 427 patients) or plus 192Ir (group B, 156 patients). There were 170 stage Ⅱ cases and 413 stage Ⅲ cases. The number of cancer types were as follows: squamous cell carcinoma, 524; adenocarcinoma, 34; and adenosquamous cell carcinoma, 25. The two groups received the same external irradiation using 8 or 10 MV of X-ray. After the whole pelvis received 25-35 Gy, the focus was given a total of 45-55 Gy by four divided fields. Intracavitary irradiation was performed with one fraction of 6-7 Gy in reference dose at A point every week and a total dose of 40-60 Gy with 6-8 fractions for group A; every fraction of 5-6 Gy in reference dose of A point and total dose of 30-42 Gy with 5-7 fractions for group B.RESULTS The 5-year survival rate of stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ, and total were 82.9%, 62.2%, and 67.2% for group A respectively and 85.1%, 61.5% and 69.2% for group B respectively. There were significant differences between stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ in each group (P 0.05). The late complications of the therapy were rectitis and urocystitis and with an incidence rate of 7.3% and 6.3% for group A and 9.6% and 9.0% for group B (P> 0.05). CONCLUSION The long-term survival rate and complications of stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ cervical cancer are similar when treated with external irradiation plus 137Cs or plus 192Ir.

  17. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING Lactobacillus ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL RATE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunak Nafiqoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two Lactobacillus bacteria on protease activity and growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei. An experiment was conducted to examine protease activity and growth rate. The experiment consisted of two treatment tanks, the first tank was provided with artemia immersed in 2.6 x 1016 cfu/mL of bacteria solution, the second tank served as the control tank. After 20 days, the L. vannamei in the tank that received Lactobacillus have significantly different in growth, survival rate and protease activity (P<0.05 compared to the control, but no significant difference between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum treatments. Within the digestive organ, protease activity of hepatopancreas and stomach demonstrated significant higher activity (P<0.05 compared to the intestine.

  18. Total Ankle Replacement Survival Rates Based on Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis of National Joint Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Annette F P; Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    National joint registry data provides unique information about primary total ankle replacement (TAR) survival. We sought to recreate survival curves among published national joint registry data sets using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Overall, 5152 primary and 591 TAR revisions were included over a 2- to 13-year period with prosthesis survival for all national joint registries of 0.94 at 2-years, 0.87 at 5-years and 0.81 at 10-years. National joint registry datasets should strive for completion of data presentation including revision definitions, modes and time of failure, and patients lost to follow-up or death for complete accuracy of the Kaplan-Meier estimator.

  19. Recurrence rates and survival in a Danish cohort with renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Tesfalem, Helen; Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with localised and locally advanced renal cancer experience about 20% recurrence during a five-year follow-up period. The aim of the present study was to report recurrence rates and survival in a Danish population with renal cancer. METHODS: Data on patients diagnosed...... with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at our institute from January 2005 to December 2013 were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: Overall, 367 patients were diagnosed with RCC during the period, and 78 patients (21%) presented with metastasis. The mean follow-up period for all patients was 41 months (standard...

  20. Survival Rate and its Related Factors in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghaffarian Shirazi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been noted that the myocardial infarction is an increasing episode in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help to reduce the number of death from this ongoing event. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and its association with different variables. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytic study evaluates 111 cases of acute myocardial infarction admitted in Yasuj Imam Sajjad hospital during the year 2004 and 2005. Data were collected using a questionnaire which was completed through direct interviewing by trained personnel. The data were analyzed by standard statistical tests using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of patients was 57± 12 years. The mean time of having access to physician after MI was 4 ± 2.2 hours. The mean time of reaching hospital after physician order was 5 ± 4.9 hours. The mean time of hospitalization was 4 ± 1.67 days. Considering the past history of these patients revealed that 31 percent were smokers, 16 percent had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 63 percent had hypertension, 8 percent had diabetes mellitus, 95 percent had clip I, 95 percent had no previous block, 82 percent had MI with Q wave. The survival rate in our study was found to be 0.91 in the first 10 hours, 0.847 in the first day, 0.829 in the first 28 days, 0.820 in the first third months, 0.792 in the first six months and 0.771 in the first 10 months of disease. Conclusion: The mortality rate during the first month among the patients with heart failure turned out to be higher than that of the other similar studies performed in other parts of the country however, the annual survival rate proved to be less. The most important causes of survival after the stroke are being single, smoking, fatness and angina pain

  1. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  2. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  3. 34 CFR 614.6 - What is the maximum indirect cost rate for all consortium members and any cost-type contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO USE TECHNOLOGY § 614.6 What is the maximum indirect cost rate for all... requirements; or (3) Charged by the grantee to another Federal award. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 6832)...

  4. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  5. A long-term retrospective analysis of survival rates of implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, Thomas J; Wolfinger, Glenn J; Stein, Brett E; Balshi, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the survival rate of endosseous dental implants placed in the edentulous or partially edentulous mandible over a long-term follow-up period of 10 years or more. The charts of patients who underwent mandibular implant placement at a private prosthodontics practice and received follow-up care for 10 years or more were included in this study. Implants were examined according to the following study variables: patient sex, patient age, degree of edentulism (fully vs partially edentulous), implant location, time of loading (delayed vs immediate), implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of other implants during placement. The study sample was composed of 2,394 implants placed in 470 patients with 10 to 27 years of follow-up. Of these 2,394 implants, 176 failed, resulting in an overall cumulative survival rate (CSR) of 92.6%. A total of 1,482 implants were placed in edentulous mandibles, and 912 implants were placed in partially edentulous mandibles, with CSRs of 92.6% and 92.7%, respectively. Comparisons of the study variables with respect to CSR were largely nonsignificant. However, there were significant differences in CSRs between anterior vs posterior locations and rough- vs smooth-surfaced implants in addition to some prosthesis types, ages, and bone qualities. The overall CSR of 92.6% in the present study is high and comparable to survival rates observed in previous long-term analyses of mandibular implants. The significant differences observed between implant locations, patient age groups, bone qualities, and prostheses were not suggestive of any remarkable trends. Patient sex, age, degree of edentulism, implant location, time of loading, implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of multiple implants did not result in any significant effect on long-term implant survival. The CSR observed after 10 to 27 years of follow-up in a single private prosthodontic center was high (92

  6. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.L. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue, J.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, J.N. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, W.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Miao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, S. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, W.J. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He, F. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, H.Y. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: ygwang@pku.edu.cn

    2006-04-15

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10{sup 9}-1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  7. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (ppH value of the samples (pyogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data.

  8. Cancer incidence and patient survival rates among the residents in the Pudong New Area of Shanghai between 2002 and 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Pan Li; Guang-Wen Cao; Qiao Sun; Chen Yang; Bei Yan; Mei-Yu Zhang; Yi-Fei Fu; Li-Ming Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the growing threat of malignancy to health, it is necessary to analyze cancer incidence and patient survival rates among the residents in Pudong New Area of Shanghai to formulate better cancer prevention strategies. A total of 43,613 cancer patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2006 were recruited from the Pudong New Area Cancer Registry. The incidence, observed survival rate, and relative survival rate of patients grouped by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier, life table, and Ederer II methods, respectively. Between 2002 and 2006, cancer incidence in Pudong New Area was 349.99 per 100,000 person-years, and the 10 most frequently diseased sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, and bladder. For patients with cancers of the colon and rectum, breast, thyroid, brain and central nervous system, and bladder, the 5-year relative survival rate was greater than 40%, whereas patients with cancers of the liver and pancreas had a 5-year relative survival rate of less than 10%. The 1-year to 5-year survival rates for patients grouped by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage differed significantly (al P<0.001). Our results indicate that cancer incidence and patient survival in Pudong New Area vary by tumor type, sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage.

  9. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  11. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p salmonellae decreased at the lowest rate, whereas at 25 degrees C the reduction in number of bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  12. Urothelial atypia and survival rate of 500 unselected patients with primary transitional-cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Olsen, P; Wolf, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    were taken at the initial cystoscopy in 391 patients (78%) to identify urothelial atypia. The over-all cumulative 5 years survival-rate was 48%. Submucosal and muscle invasion had major influence on survival, whereas tumour grade was less important. Patients with urothelial atypia fared significantly...

  13. Low Survival Rates of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides) Estimated from Neck-collar Resighting and Telemetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Lee, Ki-Sup; Poyarkov, Nikolay D.

    2016-01-01

    American goose species. Poor survival may be a key demographic parameter contributing to their declining trend. Quantitative threat assessments and associated conservation measures, such as restricting hunting, may be a key step to mitigate for their low survival rates and maintain or enhance...

  14. Breast cancer survival rate according to data of cancer registry and death registry systems in Bushehr province, 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rampisheh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Survival rate of breast cancer, especially as an indicator of the successful implementation of screening, diagnosis and treatment programs, has been at the center of attention of public health experts Material and Methods: In a survival study, the records of breast cancer cases in cancer registry system of Bushehr Province were extracted during 2001, March to 2013, September. These records were linked and matched with records of death registry system. After determining patients, status regarding being alive or dead, survival analysis was done. Life table, Kaplan-Mayer analysis, log rank and Breslow tests were used for computing and comparing survival rates. Results: In 300 recorded breast cancer cases, mean and standard deviation of age was 51.26±13.87. Survival rates were 95, 88, 78, 73 and 68 percent since the first year through the fifth year, respectively. Mean survival was 87.20 months (95% CI= 81.28- 93.12. There was no significant difference in mean survival regarding age and different geographical areas. Conclusion: Although survival rates of registered breast cancer patients in Bushehr Province are similar to other provinces, they are far from those of developed countries. This situation demands more extensive efforts regarding public education and improving the process of diagnosis, treatment and care of patients especially during first two years after diagnosis.

  15. Impact of initial time to prostate-specific antigen nadir on survival in prostate cancer with bone metastasis initially treated with maximum androgen blockade therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to provide certain data on clinical outcomes and their predictors of traditional maximum androgen blockade (MAB in prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Methods: Subjects were patients with prostate adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis initiated to treat with MAB as a primary treatment without any local therapy at our hospital between January 2003 and December 2010. Time to prostate specific antigen (PSA progression, overall survival (OS time, and association of clinical factors and outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: A total of 57 patients were evaluable. The median age was 70 years. The median primary PSA was 203 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists had been administered in 96.5% of the patients. Bicalutamide had been chosen in 89.4 % of the patients as the initial antiandrogen. The median time to PSA progression with MAB was 11.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.4 to 13.0. The median OS was 47.3 months (95% CI, 30.7 to 81.0. Gleason score 9 or greater, decline of PSA level equal to or higher than 1.0 ng/ml with MAB, and time to PSA nadir equal to or shorter than six months after initiation of MAB were independent risk factors for time to PSA progression (P=0.010, P=0.005, and P=0.001; respectively. Time to PSA nadir longer than six months was the only independent predictor for longer OS (HR, 0.255 [95% CI, 0.109 to 0.597]; P=0.002. Conclusions: Initial time to PSA nadir should be emphasized for clinical outcome analyses in future studies on prostate cancer with bone metastasis.

  16. Neonatal survival rate and its related causes in NICU of private and governmental hospitals in Sari by survival analysis technique during 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabaghi, Bs.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Many children younger than 1 year old (about 4/000/000 are dying annually around the world, that three quarters of this mortality is related to neonatal period (4 weeks after birth. Several factors such as environmental conditions, social and genetic factors are causes of decreasing neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the neonatal survival rate and its related causes in NICU of private and governmental hospitals in Sari.Materials and Methods: This survival analysis was a descriptive study of 500 neonates who were admitted into NICU of private and governmental hospitals (Booali Sina, Nimeyeh Shaban, Amir-Mazandarani, and Shafa Hospitals in Sari during 2005 to 2007. Data was gathered by using Self-making Informational Form (validity and availability was confirmed by content validity and α- kronbach. Information were obtained by interview with mothers, study of patient's chart, observation of the neonates, or phone interviews, after being discharged from the hospital. Statistical analysis of data was done by using Kaplan-Mayer survival analysis technique, and survival tables. Furthermore, risk factors were determined by logistic regression.Results: Three-hundred twenty six neonates (65.2% were the first rank of birth. Sixty-three mothers (12.6% experienced previous neonatal mortality. 217 of mothers (43.4% were illiterate and 85 (17% had diplomas or higher education. 119 neonates (23.85 died within 28 days of life. There was a relationship between higher education level of mothers, polyhydraminous (over production of amniotic fluid according to sonography report, and delivery method, neonatal weight at birth, congenital anomalies, and neonatal survival rate. Eighty-seven expired neonates (73.1% had birth weight lower than 2500gr, and 21 (16.8% had gestational age lower than 36 weeks. The survival rate was higher among neonates within 21 and 22 days of life. The mortality rate among neonates

  17. Effect of phentolamine, alprenolol and prenylamine on maximum rate of rise of action potential in guinea-pig papillary muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, H

    1978-10-01

    Effects of phentolamine (13.3, 26.5 and 53.0 micron), alprenolol (3.5, 7.0 and 17.5 micron) and prenylamine (2.4, 4.8 and 11.9 micron) on the transmembrane potential were studied in isolated guinea-pig papillary muscles, superfused with Tyrode's solution. 1. Phentolamine, alprenolol and prenylamine reduced the maximum rate of rise of action potential (.Vmax) dose-dependently. Higher concentrations of phentolamine and prenylamine caused a loss of plateau in a majority of the preparations. Resting potential was not altered by any of the drugs. Readmittance of drug-free Tyrode's solution reversed these changes induced by 13.3 micron of phentolamine and all conconcentrations of alprenolol almost completely but those induced by higher concentrations of phentolamine and all concentrations of prenylamine only slightly. 2. .Vmax at steady state was increased with decreasing driving frequencies (0.5 and 0.25 Hz) and was decreased with increasing ones (2--5 Hz) in comparison with that at 1 Hz. Such changes were all exaggerated by the above drugs, particularly by prenylamine. 3. Prenylamine and, to a lesser degree, phentolamine and alprenolol delayed dose-dependently the recovery process of .Vmax in premature responses. 4. .Vmax in the first response after interruption of stimulation recovered toward the predrug value in the presence of the above three drugs. The time constants of recovery process ranged between 10.5 and 15.0s for phentolamine, between 4.5 and 15.5s for alprenolol. The time constant of the main component was estimated to be approximately 2s for the recovery process with prenylamine. 5. On the basis of the model recently proposed by Hondeghem and Katzung (1977), it is suggested that the drug molecules associate with the open sodium channels and dissociated slowly from the closed channels and that the inactivation parameter in the drug-associated channels is shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction.

  18. Relationship between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Memon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68. The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208 and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0. The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0. In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001. In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β-http://www.blogapaixonadosporviagens.com.br/p/caribe.html after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27, LOE (p=0.941 and V.V (p=0.082. Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance.

  19. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Strong, Donald R.; Holyoak, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

  20. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  1. Observations on feeding behaviour and survival rates in the estuarine calanoid copepods Acartia spinicauda and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srivastava, Y.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Experiments were conducted on the calanoid copepods, Acartia spinicauda (Acartiidae) and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Diaptomidae) in order to determine food preference and survival rates respectively. Adults of A. spinicauda were fed monocultures...

  2. Immunotherapy improves immune homeostasis and increases survival rate of septic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shun-wei; CHEN Juan; OUYANG Bin; YANG Chun-hua; CHEN Min-ying; GUAN Xiang-dong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of immunotherapy on septic patients with Ulinastatin plus Thymosin-α1. Methods: Seventy postoperative septic patients were divided into two groups at random: the immunotherapy group (n=36) and the conventional therapy group (n=34). Patients in the immunotherapy group received intravenous Ulinastatin of 200 000 U, 3 times per day for 3 days, Ulinastatin of 100 000 U, 3 times per day for 4 days, and subcutaneous injection of Thymosin-α1 of 1.6 mg, twice per day for 3 days, then once per day for 4 days. While conventional therapies such as antibiotics and fluid resuscitation were undertaken in both groups. The expression levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- 10 (IL-10), IgG, C3, T lymphocyte subsets, CD14+ monocyte human leukocyte antigen (locus) DR (HLA-DR) and patients' 28-day survival rate of the two groups were observed and evaluated. Results: The survival rate was significantly higher in the immunotherapy group (63.9%; 23/36) compared with the conventional therapy group (41.2%; 14/34). The serum TNF-α levels [(1.38±0.50) ng/ml in the immunotherapy group vs (1.88±0.53) ng/ml in the conventional group, P<0.05] and the serum IL- 10 levels [(217.52±15.71) ng/ml vs (101.53±16.57) ng/ml, P<0.05] were significantly different between the two groups. The serum IgG levels in the immunotherapy group [(17.65±6.81) g/L] were significantly higher than in the conventional group [(11.94±5.32) g/L]. There were also significant differences in the expression levels of CD4+ T lymphocyte (35%±13% in the immunotherapy group vs 21%±7% in the conventional group, P<0.05) and CD14+ monocyte HLA-DR (50%±5% in the former vs 35%±4% in the latter, P<0.05). Conclusions: Immunotherapy with Ulinastatin plus Thymosin-α1 can enhance the inflammatory response, improve the immune homeostasis, and increase the survival rate of septic patients.

  3. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ascencio-Montiel, Iván de Jesús; Kumate-Rodríguez, Jesús; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Fernández-Garate, José Esteban; Konik-Comonfort, Selene; Macías-Pérez, Oliver; Campos-Hernández, Ángel; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Héctor; López-Roldán, Verónica Miriam; Zitle-García, Edgar Jesús; Solís-Cruz, María del Carmen; Velázquez-Ramírez, Ismael; Aguilar-Jiménez, Miriam; Villa-Caballero, Leonel; Cisneros-González, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,01...

  4. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V Altukhov

    Full Text Available After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery, Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries. Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island or not recovering (Kozlov Cape than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  5. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  6. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  7. Assessment of survival rates and reproductive success of captive bred milky stork released at Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, H.; Safie, M. Y.; Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    A release programme of captive bred Milky Storks was initiated to increase population size in the wild. Population size depends on the survival rate and breeding success of individuals in the population. Among factors that affect survival rate and breeding success are population age class and sex ratio. The main objective of this study was to estimate the survival rate of Mycteria cinerea that has been released in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary since 2007. The estimation of the survival rate was done across gender and age class. This study was conducted in 2012 at Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary. The presence of M. cinerea individuals were recorded at the sanctuary and identified to background information, such as date of birth, gender and date of release. Females of M. cinerea were estimated to have a higher survival rate (30.0%) than male (16.7%). Across gender, each individual was assigned into 4 different age classes, namely less than 1 year, between 1 and 2 years, between 2 and 3 years, and more than 3 years. The survival rate of individuals less than 1 year was about 50%, between 1 and 2 years was 25%, between 2 and 3 years was 9.1%, and more than 3 years was 0%. This study was intended to facilitate future release programmeme on which gender and age class to emphasize.

  8. Stadium IB - IIA cervical cancer patient’s survival rate after receiving definitive radiation and radical operation therapy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy along with analysis of factors affecting the patient’s survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslim, S. K.; Purwoto, G.; Widyahening, I. S.; Ramli, I.

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and overall survival rates of early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IB-IIA) patients who receive definitive radiation therapy and those who are prescribed adjuvant postoperative radiation and to conduct a factors analysis of the variables that affect the overall survival rates in both groups of therapy. The medical records of 85 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stages IB-IIA who were treated at the Department of Radiotherapy of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were reviewed and analyzed to determine their overall survival and the factors that affected it between a definitive radiation group and an adjuvant postoperative radiation group. There were 25 patients in the definitive radiation and 60 patients in the adjuvant radiation group. The overall survival rates in the adjuvant radiation group at years one, two, and three were 96.7%, 95%, and 93.3%, respectively. Negative lymph node metastasis had an average association with overall survival (p 12 g/dl was a factor with an average association with the overall survival (p 12 g/dl tended to affect the overall survival in the definitive radiation group patients.

  9. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Yiting [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kastan, Michael B. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Matsui, William, E-mail: matsuwi@jhmi.edu [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L., E-mail: deweete@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  10. Prognostic factors affecting disease-free survival rate following surgical resection of primary breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Horita

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the prognostic factors that significantly influence the disease-free survival rate after surgical resection of primary breast cancers, we determined tumour and lymph node grades, and immunohistochemical staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, c-erbB-2, p53, bcl-2, bax and PCNA in 76 patients. Univariate analysis showed that increased grade of tumour and lymph nodes, negative immunostaining for ER, positive immunostaining for c-erbB-2, and a high PCNA index (³30% negatively influenced the disease- free survival rate, but PR, p53, bcl-2 and bax had no predictive value. Although p53 was not an independent prognostic factor by itself, the combination of p53, bcl-2, and bax proved to correlate with the disease-free survival, with the best prognosis noted in tumours negative for p53 and positive for both bcl-2 and bax, intermediate prognosis in tumours negative for p53 and positive for either bcl- 2 or bax and worst prognosis in tumors negative for p53 as well as bcl-2 and bax. Tumour grade correlated positively with PCNA index, while positive staining for ER correlated negatively with tumour grade as well as with PCNA index, although this was statistically insignificant. Immunostaining of breast cancers for Bcl-2 correlated negatively with tumour grade and PCNA index. Immunostaining for c-erbB-2 correlated positively with PCNA but not with tumour grade. Immunostaining for p53 tended to correlate positively with PCNA, but not with tumour grade. Immunostaining for PR and bax did not correlate with tumour grade and PCNA index. These results suggest that in addition to tumour size and lymph node involvement, immunostaining for ER, c-erbB-2, and a high PCNA index are important prognostic factors in human breast cancer. Wild-type p53 with preserved bcl-2 and bax gene products is also a favorable prognostic factor indicating breast cancer at an early stage of cancer progression.

  11. Associations between over-winter survival and resting metabolic rate in juvenile North American red squirrels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meghan L. Larivée; Stan Boutin; John R. Speakman; Andrew G. McAdam; Murray M. Humphries

    2010-01-01

    ... (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben). Second, we explored links between RMR and survival. A low RMR may enhance survival if it reduces winter expenditure costs and/or allows more energy to be allocated towards autumn food hoarding...

  12. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  13. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  14. Effect of continuous hemofiltration on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming CHEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of continuous hemofiltration(CHF on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock.Methods Sixteen healthy male dogs were randomly divided into heatshock group(HS group,n=8 and continuous hemofiltration group(CHF group,n=8.Severe heatstroke model was established by applying high temperature to whole body,and then the animals were removed from the heating cabin as soon as they presented manifestations of shock.Dogs of HS group were put into an ordinary environment,while dogs of CHF group received CHF treatment.The core temperature(Tc,mean arterial pressure(MAP,blood gas analysis,serum electrolytes and survival rate of dogs in two groups were observed.Results The time from heat exposure to shock was 107.0±28.5min and 111.4±22.2min in HS group and CHF group respectively(t=-0.354,P=0.729.The Tc in CHF group declined to normal level 15 to 30 minitues after CHF treatment,while the Tc in HS group remained at a level higher than that before heat exposure at 90min after shock.The Tc of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.01.The MAP of both groups was obviously lowered than that before heatstroke.The MAP of CHF group raised gradually 30 min after treatment,while the MAP of HS group rose very slowly,and it was significantly lower than that of CHF group at each time point after 45min(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.All the dogs in both groups manifested hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis when shock appeared.After shock,respiratory alkalosis in HS group gradually became metabolic acidosis,with some animals manifested combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis because of respiratory decompensation,while the blood gas levels in CHF group recovered to normal gradually.The blood gas levels of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.Hypernatremia,hyperchloraemia and hyperpotassaemia were found in all animals of both

  15. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  16. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge,; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  17. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E.S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A.C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS:

  18. Evaluation of the Survival Rate and Bone Loss of Implants with Various Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Rokn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The replacement of missing teeth with implant-associated restorations has become a widely used treatment modality in recent years. The length of dental implants may be a critical factor in achieving and maintaining osseointegration.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and bone loss of dental implants with different lengthsMaterials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 60 ITI-system implants, evenly distributed into three groups including 8, 10 and 12 mm high implants in the posterior segments of both jaws. Demographic information, oral hygiene,cigarette smoking, implant length, duration of implant placement (at least 24 months,bleeding on probing index and pocket probing depth were recorded for all participants.Bone loss was calculated using pre- and post-operative panoramic radiographs.Results: The mean rate of bone loss was different among the three groups and were found to be 0.21 (0.45, 0.3 (0.41 and 0.43 (0.55 mm in the 8, 10, and 12 mm high implants, respectively. Neither mean bone loss nor bleeding on probing index showed significant differences with implant length. A significant correlation was found between implant length and pocket probing depth (P<0.0001.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both short (8 mm high and long (10 or 12 mm high implants may be used with nearly equal success rates in the posterior segments of the jaws.

  19. Effects of Heavy-ion Beams Irradiation on Survival Rate and Antioxidant Enzymes of Sweet Sorghum Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effects of heavy-ion beams irradiation on the seed germination potential, survival rate, antioxidant enzyme activi- ties and lipid peroxidation of sweet sorghum. [Method] The dry seeds were irradiated by '2(36. heavy ion beams with absorbed doses: 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 Gy, respectively. Then, the seed germination potential, survival rate, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of sweet sorghum were measured. [Result] Heavy-ion beams irradiation exhibited different influence on germination potential and survival rates. Germination rate showed a downward trend, but the corresponding survival curve of seedlings was saddle-shaped. The activities of SOD, POD, CAT and ASA- POD changed in different trends as well. The MDA content rose toward increasing irradiation dose, suggesting that high dose of heavy-ion beams irradiation enhanced the damage to membrane of sweet sorghum seedlings. [Conclusion] After being irra- diated, germination potential and survival rates of sweet sorghum were decreased, and antioxidant enzymes activity changed greatly. This study laid the basis for fur- ther work on breeding and improvement of sweet sorghum irradiated by ,^(12)C^(6+) heavy ion beams.

  20. Egg Hatch Rate and Nymphal Survival of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) After Exposure to Insecticide Sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, K R; Benson, E P; Zungoli, P A; Bridges, W C; Ellis, B R

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the efficacy of insecticides used against eggs and first-instar nymphs of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Insect eggs are often resistant to insecticides; therefore, information on which products are effective is important. We evaluated the efficacy of four commonly used insecticide sprays applied directly to bed bug eggs. We also evaluated the efficacy of these insecticides to first-instar nymphs exposed to residuals resulting from directly spraying eggs. Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin, imidacloprid) was the most effective insecticide at preventing egg hatch (13% hatch rate) for pyrethroid-resistant, field-strain (Jersey City) bed bugs compared with a control (water [99% hatch rate]), Bedlam (MGK-264, sumithrin [84% hatch rate]), Demand CS (lambda-cyhalothrin [91% hatch rate]), and Phantom SC (chlorfenapyr [95% hatch rate]). Demand CS and Temprid SC were most effective at preventing egg hatch (0%) for an insecticide-susceptible (Harold Harlan) strain, followed by Bedlam (28%). Phantom SC produced a hatch rate similar to the control (97% and 96%, respectively). Harold Harlan-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control but 0% survival for Bedlam and Phantom SC. Jersey City-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control, 99% survival for Bedlam, 0% survival for Demand CS, 4% survival for Phantom SC, and 38% survival for Temprid SC. Demand CS was less effective at preventing hatch (91% hatch rate) of Jersey City-strain nymphs but was the only product to kill all nymphs (0% survival). One of the least effective products for preventing Jersey City-strain egg hatch (Phantom SC, 95% hatch rate) was the second most effective at killing nymphs, leaving only six of 141 alive. These findings indicate that survival of directly sprayed eggs and residually exposed, first-instar nymphs varies by strain, life stage, and product used. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological

  1. Root canal therapy, fixed partial dentures and implant-supported crowns, have similar short term survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balevi, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Searches using the Medline, Cochrane and Embase databases and 'citation mining' (identifying references from included studies) were carried out. In addition, experts' recommendations for data sources were followed, and the table of contents of every issue of the most recent 2 years of a given list of dental journals were reviewed, the latter representing half of the total number of original research articles in English from the past 5 years on implant-supported crown (ISC), fixed partial dentures (FPD) and root canal (RC) therapy. Publication language was limited to English and grey literature was excluded, namely proceedings of conferences not listed in Medline, Cochrane or Embase databases, meetings and lectures. Comparative or noncomparative, prospective or retrospective longitudinal data were selected that related to clinical, biological, psychological and economic outcomes, as well as beneficial or harmful effects, of saving teeth by root canal treatment and/or alternative treatments, including: extracting the tooth and leaving an edentulous space or replacing the missing tooth with a fixed-partial-denture or implant-supported tooth. Three pairs of investigators (each team dealing with one of the three main treatment options) independently searched, selected and extracted data for analysis. Tables of evidence were created from articles that met the validity criteria. Each selected paper was given a quality score, where the maximum possible was 17. Discussion and consensus were used to resolve disagreement. Interpretation of the outcome data and classification of data according to success or survival and the type of study were verified by two statisticians. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to integrate the evidence. The data were analysed by deciding whether and what data to combine, and measuring the statistical heterogeneity of the data using Cochrane Q and I statistics. For the purpose of comparison, clinical outcomes were grouped into three

  2. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  3. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry.

  4. Effect of Different Stocking Densities on Survival Rates of Nile Tilapia Fingerlings Transported in Plastic Bags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ibrahim AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish farmers in Sudan obtain their seed stocks mainly not from their farms and as such rely heavily on good packing conditions covering sometimes 8–12 hours transportation time to maximize fish survival and quality the study here required main objective to identified the optimum loading for the success during transporting. closed oxygenated plastic bag which was carried three densities for each one with tow replicate for every treatment for the lower loading is 75 fingerlings /l the medium is, 100 fingerlings and last density is the larger one 140 fingerlings the duration factors was 10 hours, 11 hours and 18 hours. The fingerlings was sex reversed, their size is (5g ± 0.5. The collecting data analyze used SPSS computer software version- 16.0. Analysis result shown the factor of density in the tow treatments (75 fingerlings + 100 fingerlings was the best according to the survivor rate depending to type of the periods parameter. 10 hour=94% and 11 hours = 92% and here was N.S otherwise the comparative between those and the density 140 was high significant. Variation between loading and durations is NS at P<0.05, so the conclusions is found the optimum loading during transporting period was 100/l/18 (hundred fish per litter in 18 hours period according to analysis details.

  5. 34 CFR 694.9 - What is the maximum indirect cost rate for an agency of a State or local government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for an agency of a State or local government? Notwithstanding 34 CFR 75.560-75.562 and 34 CFR 80.22, the maximum indirect cost rate that an agency of a State or local government receiving funds under... a State or local government? 694.9 Section 694.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  6. Analysis of the Relationship between Genome Diversity and Adult Survive Rate of Botryllus Schlosseri by AFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiao-rong; ZHU Jian-zhong; DENG Feng-jiao; Jacob Douek; Baruch Rinkevich

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The self-cross colonial prochordate, Botryllus schlosseri ( B. schlosseri) occupy a key phylogenetic position in the evolution of vertebrates. To clarify the relationship of genome diversity and survive rate, five generations of B.schlosseri was investigated by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Methods:AFLP markersare extremely sensitive to even smell sequence variation, using PCR and high-resolution electrophoresis to examine restriction fragments. Results: AFLP polymorphism was high in the parent and lower in its F1, F2, F3 and F4. Each primer combination generated from 80 to more than 120 bands, of which average 25.85% poiymorphic loci in parent, 15.79% polymorphic among F1, 9.16% and 5.58% in F2,F3. The AFLP markers were transmitted from F1 to F2, F3 and F4 and inherited, segregated in expected Mendelian ratio. However, some of the markers were lost in F2, F3 and F4 while it disappeared in their mother. In addition, gene mutation-new loci and lost loci among F1, F2, F3 and F4 were observed. These special fragments were cloned and sequenced. Then, the genomic DNA was analyzed by Southem hybridization with the probes from these specific fragments and the mechanism of gene mutation was clarified. Conclusion:The se results suggest that there are high frequency of polymorphic loci and mutation in genome of B.schlosseri. Gene deletion or iow diversity may be the reason for high rate of death of the offspring of inbred laboratory-reared strains.

  7. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  8. Impact of Long-term Exposure to Air Particulate Matter on Life Expectancy and Survival Rate of Shanghai Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of long-term air particulate matter exposure on the life expectancy and survival rate of Shanghai residents. Methods Epidemiology - based exposureresponse function was used for the calculation of attributable deaths to air particulate matter in Shanghai, and the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter on life expectancy and survival rate was estimated using the life table of Shanghai residents in 1999. Results It was shown that in 1999, the long-term air particulate matter exposure caused 1.34-1.69 years reduction of life expectancy and a decrease of survival rate for each age group of Shanghai residents. Conclusion The effect of long-term exposure to air particulate matter on life expectancy is substantial in Shanghai.

  9. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  10. Estimating Survival Rates in Gastric Cancer Based on Pathologic and Demographic Factors in Fars Cancer Registry (2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaeifard Abdolreza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer remains as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In patients with gastric cancer, the survival rate after diagnosis is relatively low. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of demographic factors in estimation of survival rate in patients with gastric cancer in order to develop updated documents in these patients. Materials and Methods: All gastric cancer patients registered in Fars cancer registry from 2001-2006 were entered in the study. Vital status of the patients was asked by telephone contact. Survival rates were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared by Log-rank test. All calculations were performed using STATA (v.8 software. The p value0.05. Conclusion: Our results showed that the survival rates of gastric cancer patients in our study were relatively low. Late diagnosis and delayed therapy are important reasons for low survival in these patients. Therefore, improving public education about primary symptoms of gastric cancer by media is recommended

  11. Impact of National Health Insurance on the Survival Rate of Patients with Osteosarcoma In Taiwan: Review of 74 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kein-Boon Poon

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2-year survival rate for high-grade osteosarcoma was 46.9% before the introduction of National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan on March 1, 1995, but increased to 73.8% after the implementation of NHI. The 5-year survival rate also increased, from 37.5% to 63.6%. Between May 1990 and May 2001, 74 patients with high-grade osteosarcoma were treated at our hospital. Median age was 17 years (range, 7-63 years. Inadequate surgical margins, poor histologic response to chemotherapy, advanced stage of disease, and incomplete treatment were strongly associated with poor prognosis. Before NHI, 10 patients had incomplete treatment, mainly because of unaffordable medical fees. After NHI, only three patients had incomplete treatment, due to personal reasons. Patient survival improved dramatically with advances in multiagent chemotherapy, but it was the NHI that enabled patients to complete expensive treatment courses, including preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy, limb-salvage surgery, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The NHI also improved the accessibility of medical care, with more patients presenting in the early stages of disease and, as a result, it not only improved survival rate but also increased the number of patients undergoing limb-salvage surgery. We concluded that the NHI significantly improved the survival rate for patients with osteosarcoma in Taiwan.

  12. The small-molecule TNF-α inhibitor, UTL-5g, delays deaths and increases survival rates for mice treated with high doses of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jiajiu; Media, Joseph; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Fredrick

    2013-09-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5g can reduce the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increase cisplatin tolerability in mice. BDF1 female mice were treated individually with UTL-5g (suspended in Ora-Plus) by oral gavage at 60 mg/kg, 30 min before i.p. injection of cisplatin at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively, on Day 0. Starting from Day 1, individual mice were again treated daily by the same dose of UTL-5g for 4 consecutive days. Survivals and body weights were monitored. UTL-5g treatment increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death for mice treated with 150 % of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin (15 mg/kg). Likewise, at 200 % of the MTD of cisplatin (20 mg/kg), treatment of UTL-5g increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death. Treatment of UTL-5g did not have a significant effect on weight loss induced by cisplatin, indicating that body weight may not be a sensitive-enough measure for chemoprotection of UTL-5g against cisplatin. In summary, UTL-5g delayed deaths and increased survival rates of mice treated by high doses of cisplatin, indicating that UTL-5g is capable of reducing the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increased cisplatin tolerability in mice; this is in line with the specific chemoprotective effects of UTL-5g previously reported. Further investigation of UTL-5g in combination with cisplatin is warranted.

  13. Minilaparotomy to rectal cancer has higher overall survival rate and earlier short-term recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Ming-Jun; Yang, Chuan-Hua; Li, Ka; Li, Li

    2012-10-07

    To report our experience using mini-laparotomy for the resection of rectal cancer using the total mesorectal excision (TME) technique. Consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent anal-colorectal surgery at the authors' hospital between March 2001 and June 2009 were included. In total, 1415 patients were included in the study. The cases were divided into two surgical procedure groups (traditional open laparotomy or mini-laparotomy). The mini-laparotomy group was defined as having an incision length ≤ 12 cm. Every patient underwent the TME technique with a standard operation performed by the same clinical team. The multimodal preoperative evaluation system and postoperative fast track were used. To assess the short-term outcomes, data on the postoperative complications and recovery functions of these cases were collected and analysed. The study included a plan for patient follow-up, to obtain the long-term outcomes related to 5-year survival and local recurrence. The mini-laparotomy group had 410 patients, and 1015 cases underwent traditional laparotomy. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two surgical procedure groups. The overall 5-year survival rate was not different between the mini-laparotomy and traditional laparotomy groups (80.6% vs. 79.4%, P = 0.333), nor was the 5-year local recurrence (1.4% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.544). However, 1-year mortality was decreased in the mini-laparotomy group compared with the traditional laparotomy group (0% vs. 4.2%, P 8 d vs 3.9 ± 2.3 d, P = 0.000) and passing of gas (3.5 ± 1.1 d vs. 4.3 ± 1.8 d, P = 0.000), length of hospital stay (6.4 ± 1.5 d vs 9.7 ± 2.2 d, P = 0.000), anastomotic leakage (0.5% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.000), and intestinal obstruction (2.2% vs 7.3%, P = 0.000) were decreased in the mini-laparotomy group compared with the traditional laparotomy group. The results for other postoperative recovery function indicators, such as days to oral feeding and defecation, were similar, as

  14. Online rate control in digital cameras for near-constant distortion based on minimum/maximum criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Ortega, Antonio

    2000-04-01

    We address the problem of online rate control in digital cameras, where the goal is to achieve near-constant distortion for each image. Digital cameras usually have a pre-determined number of images that can be stored for the given memory size and require limited time delay and constant quality for each image. Due to time delay restrictions, each image should be stored before the next image is received. Therefore, we need to define an online rate control that is based on the amount of memory used by previously stored images, the current image, and the estimated rate of future images. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for online rate control, in which an adaptive reference, a 'buffer-like' constraint, and a minimax criterion (as a distortion metric to achieve near-constant quality) are used. The adaptive reference is used to estimate future images and the 'buffer-like' constraint is required to keep enough memory for future images. We show that using our algorithm to select online bit allocation for each image in a randomly given set of images provides near constant quality. Also, we show that our result is near optimal when a minimax criterion is used, i.e., it achieves a performance close to that obtained by applying an off-line rate control that assumes exact knowledge of the images. Suboptimal behavior is only observed in situations where the distribution of images is not truly random (e.g., if most of the 'complex' images are captured at the end of the sequence.) Finally, we propose a T- step delay rate control algorithm and using the result of 1- step delay rate control algorithm, we show that this algorithm removes the suboptimal behavior.

  15. The effects of antihypertensive agents on the survival rate of polycystic kidney disease in Han:SPRD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoshihiko; Okada, Hirokazu; Moriwaki, Kenshi; Nagao, Shizuko; Takahashi, Hisahide; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2002-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disorder in humans. Hypertension is one of the major complications, and its control might affect the renal survival and disease mortality. Suitable antihypertensive agents have been discussed based on clinical and animal studies, but no definitive conclusion has been reached. Generally, therefore, all antihypertensives are indiscriminately treated as if providing the same level of blood pressure control. In this study, the blood pressure control of two antihypertensives was investigated using a rat model of ADPKD in humans. Twenty-four male Hannover-Sprague Dawley (Han:SPRD) rats were divided into three groups: a group receiving amlodipine (6 mg/day), a group receiving benazepril (6 mg/day) and an untreated control group. Blood pressure, body weight, and urinary protein excretion were regularly measured up to week 52. Amlodipine and benazepril significantly decreased blood pressure and urinary protein excretion to the same degree. Moreover, a remarkably prolonged survival rate was observed in both groups (at week 52, the survival rate was 25% in controls, 50% in the amlodipine group, and 50% in the benazepril group). Examination at autopsy revealed that enlarged cysts were prevalent in the renal tissue of both experimental all three groups, suggesting that the cystic disease had reached the end-stage in all the animals. In conclusion, both amlodipine and benazepril significantly improved blood pressure control, urinary protein excretion, and survival rate, possibly due to their enhancement of renal survival.

  16. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Blake

    Full Text Available Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02 when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72 and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases. Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  17. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  18. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  19. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  20. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2...... or were euthanized (CI: 19 – 32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68 – 81%). Conclusions: The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  1. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... Subjects: Eighty three acute stroke patients had GFR calculated within 48 hours of admission after basic ... in terms of survival and functional disability (7,8). ... magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as either cerebral infarct or ...

  2. Short implants had lower survival rates in posterior jaws compared to standard implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L

    2016-12-01

    Data sourcesPubMed/Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases supplemented by searches of the journals; Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dentistry, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral Implantology, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Journal of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies with at least ten patients, published in the last ten years that compared short and standard implants and published in English were considered.Data extraction and synthesisA single author abstracted data with checking by a second reviewer. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad Scale and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for implant survival rates, complications and prostheses failures and marginal bone loss was evaluated using mean difference (MD).ResultsThirteen studies consisting of ten RCTs and three prospective studies were included. The ten RCTs were considered to be of high quality. Two thousand six hundred and thirty-one implants were placed in 1269 patients (981 short and 1650 standard implants). Thirty-eight short implants failed (3.87%) and 45 standard implants (2.72%). Random effects meta-analysis found no statistically significant difference between standard implants and short implants placed in the posterior regions; RR =1.35 (95% CI; 0.82-2.22: P=0.24). Marginal bone loss was evaluated in nine studies and no differences in marginal bone loss were observed. Complications were reported by seven studies and no significant difference was seen between standard and short implants; RR= 0.54 (95% CI; 0.27-1.09: P = 0.08). There was also no significant difference in prosthesis failures between standard and short implants; RR= 0.96 (95

  3. Cobalt plaque versus enucleation for uveal melanoma: comparison of survival rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, K S; Abramson, D. H.; Ellsworth, R M; Haik, B G; Bedford, M; Packer, S; Seddon, J; Albert, D.; Polivogianis, L

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-three patients treated by cobalt plaque for uveal melanoma were compared with 416 patients treated by enucleation for uveal melanoma in terms of patient survival. The median follow-up time for the patients treated by cobalt plaque was 4.3 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated up to five years following treatment based on time to tumour-related deaths. Cox's proportional hazards multivariate analysis was performed to determine which variables were related t...

  4. Perspective of Teachers about the Role of Family, Personal, School and Environmental Factors in the Academic Survival Rate of Students in Rural Areas of Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Toughi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptivestudyhas carried out to investigate some related factors on the academic survival rate of students in rural areas of Southeast of Iran. Using stratified random sampling method, 224 teachers were chosen as sample. The results showed that teachers believed that family, personal, school and environmental factors affect the academic survival rate of students in rural areas; thus, the identification of these factors increase the survival rate and decrease the dropout rate of students in rural areas.

  5. Prognostic value of continued smoking on survival and recurrence rates in patients with head and neck cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Lieke C R; Kranenburg, Gabriëlle G J; Macco, Sven; Nijman, Nicoline L; van Overbeeke, Elisabeth J; Wegner, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Pothen, Ajit J

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the prognostic value of continued smoking after diagnosis on survival and recurrence rates in head and neck cancer. METHODS: A systematic search was performed and predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to screen and

  6. Influence of the experience of operator and assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations: two-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Kemoli; W.E. van Amerongen; G. Opinya

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the experience of the operator and the assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART- restorations after 2 years when placed using two methods of tooth-isolation and three glass ionomer cement-brands. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical interve

  7. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Kemoli; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Aim.  To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Design.  A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary mol

  8. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne; Dornonville de la Cour, Kenn; Young, Alyssa; Brooks, Tim; Sesay, Tom; Salam, Alex P.; Mishra, Sharmistha; Storgaard, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis, suggesting a survival selection bias. Comparisons of case-fatality rates across ETCs and clinical management strategies should account for potential survival selection bias. PMID:28322693

  9. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-03-01

    European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. A total of 14 countries. Consensus groups of PCPs. Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = -0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = -0.57, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.12; ovary: r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.62). There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a "PCP-as-gatekeeper" system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. KEY POINTS European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European countries show a wide variation in the probability of initial presentation to a PCP. The degree to

  10. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Objective European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Design Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. Setting A total of 14 countries. Subjects Consensus groups of PCPs. Main outcome measures Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. Results There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = −0.16, 95% CI −0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = −0.57, 95% CI −0.83 to −0.12; ovary: r = −0.13, 95% CI −0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI −0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI −0.31 to 0.62). Conclusions There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a “PCP-as-gatekeeper” system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. Key points European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European

  11. Reduced in-hospital survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; Warnier, M J; Bardai, A;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to sustained ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) is common and often lethal. Patient's co-morbidities may determine survival after OHCA, and be instrumental in post-resuscitation care, but are poorly studied. We aimed to study whether patients......, to hospital discharge, and at 30 days after OHCA, of OPD-patients and non-OPD patients, using logistic regression analysis. We also compared 30-day survival of patients who were admitted to hospital, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: OPD patients (n=178) and non-OPD patients (n=994...... admitted to hospital (OPD: n=100, no OPD: n=561) revealed that OPD was an independent determinant of reduced 30-day survival rate (39% vs. 59%, adjusted OR 0.6 [0.4-1.0, p=0.035]). CONCLUSION: OPD-patients had lower survival rates after OHCA than non-OPD patients. Survival to ER and to hospital admission...

  12. Prognostic value of continued smoking on survival and recurrence rates in patients with head and neck cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Imhoff, Lieke C R; Kranenburg, Gabriëlle G J; Macco, Sven; Nijman, Nicoline L; van Overbeeke, Elisabeth J; Wegner, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Pothen, Ajit J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the prognostic value of continued smoking after diagnosis on survival and recurrence rates in head and neck cancer. A systematic search was performed and predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to screen and select the articles. The remaining articles were critically appraised. Six articles were used for data extraction. The survival rate of patients who continued to smoke was 21% to 35% lower compared with patients who quit smoking. The recurrence rate for continued smoking was 23% and 30% higher. In 1 study, there was no difference between continuation and cessation of smoking, and 1 study showed a higher recurrence rate for patients who continued to smoke, which was not statistically significant. There is consistent evidence that survival rates are lower and recurrence rates are higher for patients who continue to smoke after being diagnosed with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2214-E2220, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  14. Survival rates according to barcelona clinic liver cancersub-staging system after transarterial embolization forintermediate hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leandro Armani Scaffaro; Steffan Frosi Stella; Mario Reis Alvares-Da-Silva; Cleber Dario Pinto Kruel

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the survival rates after transarterialembolization (TAE).METHODS: One hundred third six hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) patients [90 barcelona clinic livercancer (BCLC) B] were submitted to TAE betweenAugust 2008 and December 2013 in a single centerwere retrospectively studied. TAE was performed viasuperselective catheterization followed by embolizationwith polyvinyl alcohol or microspheres. The date of thefirst embolization until death or the last follow-up datewas used for the assessment of survival. The survivalrates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method,and the groups were compared using the log-rank test.RESULTS: The overall mean survival was 35.8 mo(95%CI: 25.1-52.0). The survival rates of the BCLC Apatients (33.7%) were 98.9%, 79.0% and 58.0% at12, 24 and 36 mo, respectively, and the mean survivalwas 38.1 mo (95%CI: 27.5-52.0). The survival rates ofthe BCLC B patients (66.2%) were 89.0%, 69.0% and49.5% at 12, 24 and 36 mo, respectively, and the meansurvival was 29.0 mo (95%CI: 17.2-34). The survivalrates according to the BCLC B sub-staging showedsignificant differences between the groups, with meansurvival rates in the B1, B2, B3 and B4 groups of 33.5mo (95%CI: 32.8-34.3), 28.6 mo (95%CI: 27.5-29.8),19.0 mo (95%CI: 17.2-20.9) and 13 mo, respectively (P= 0.013).CONCLUSION: The BCLC sub-staging systemcould add additional prognosis information for postembolizationsurvival rates in HCC patients.

  15. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Mogens T; Dupont, Nana; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S; Konnerup, Christel; Pihl, Tina H; Andersen, Pia H

    2014-04-08

    Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66-71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85-89%). Thirty one % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29-33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28-36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died or were euthanized (CI: 19-32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68-81%). The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners' attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias. If the survival rates are to be compared between hospitals, techniques or surgeons, prospective studies including mutually agreed-on disease severity scores and a predefined set of reasons for euthanasia are needed.

  16. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  17. A Systemic Review of Autologous Fat Grafting Survival Rate and Related Severe Complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Ze Yu; Jiu-Zuo Huang; Hao Zhang; Yang Wang; Xiao-Jun Wang; Ru Zhao; Ming Bai

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Clinical application ofautologous fat grafting (AFG) is quickly expanding.Despite the widely acceptance,long-term survival rate (SR) of AFG remains a question not yet solved.Meanwhile,although rare,severe complications related to AFG including vision loss,stroke even death could be seen in the literature.Data Sources:A comprehensive research of PubMed database to June 2013 was performed according to guidelines of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force Assessment Methodology.Articles were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria.Study Selection:Data collected included patient characteristics,surgical technique,donor site,recipient site,graft amount,and quantified measurement methods.Patient cohorts were pooled,and SR was calculated.All the severe complications were also summarized according to the different clinical characteristics.Results:Of 550 articles,16 clinical articles and 10 animal studies met the inclusion criteria and provided quantified measurement methods.Totally,596 patients were included.SR varied from 34% to 82% in breast and 30-83% in the facial area.Nude mice were applied to investigate human fat grafting SR (38.3-52.5% after 15 weeks).Rabbits were commonly used to study animal AFG SR (14.00-14.56% after 1-year).Totally,21 severe complications were reported,including death (2),stroke (10),vision loss (11,8 of which accompanied with stroke),sepsis (3),multiple abscess (1) and giant fat necrotic cyst (2).Ten of these complications happened within 10 years.Conclusions:There is no unified measurement method to evaluate fat graft SR until now and no clinical evidence to show better SR according to different donor and recipient cite.Body mass index change between pre-and postoperation may be the bias factor in evaluating fat SR.Fat embolisms of the ophthalmic artery and the middle cerebral artery are the most severe complication of AFG and still lack of effective treatment.

  18. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    of the infants from 24 to 27 weeks gestation survived to discharge home from NIC. However large variations were seen in the timing of the deaths by region. Among all fetuses alive at onset of labour of 24-27 weeks gestation, between 84.0% and 98.9% were born alive and between 64.6% and 97.8% were admitted...... for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  19. High-efficiency transfection and survival rates of embryonic and adult mouse neural stem cells achieved by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Bettina; Wiese, Stefan; von Holst, Alexander

    2012-08-15

    Cells of the central nervous system are notoriously difficult to transfect. This is not only true for neurons and glial cells but also for dividing neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs). About ten years ago a major advance was provided by introduction of the nucleofection technology that allowed for transfection of approximately half of the exposed NSCs. However, limitations were encountered with the need for large numbers of NSCs for a single transfection and compromised survival rates with typically only one-third of the cells surviving the pulse conditions. Here, we report the establishment of a pulse protocol that targets NSCs with high efficiency and twofold higher NSC survival rates using the 4D Nucleofector device. We demonstrate that the established protocol not only provides a clear and significant improvement over existing protocols with transfection rates above 80% and two-thirds of the NSCs surviving for at least 48h, but also their unaltered differentiation along neuronal and glial lineages. This improved protocol for the transfection of sensitive mouse central nervous system derived cells will provide an important step forward for studies of gene function by overexpression or knock-down of genes in cultured NSCs.

  20. FastMG: a simple, fast, and accurate maximum likelihood procedure to estimate amino acid replacement rate matrices from large data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cuong Cao; Le, Vinh Sy; Gascuel, Olivier; Hazes, Bart; Le, Quang Si

    2014-10-24

    Amino acid replacement rate matrices are a crucial component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Ideally, the rate matrix reflects the mutational behavior of the actual data under study; however, estimating amino acid replacement rate matrices requires large protein alignments and is computationally expensive and complex. As a compromise, sub-optimal pre-calculated generic matrices are typically used for protein-based phylogeny. Sequence availability has now grown to a point where problem-specific rate matrices can often be calculated if the computational cost can be controlled. The most time consuming step in estimating rate matrices by maximum likelihood is building maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees from protein alignments. We propose a new procedure, called FastMG, to overcome this obstacle. The key innovation is the alignment-splitting algorithm that splits alignments with many sequences into non-overlapping sub-alignments prior to estimating amino acid replacement rates. Experiments with different large data sets showed that the FastMG procedure was an order of magnitude faster than without splitting. Importantly, there was no apparent loss in matrix quality if an appropriate splitting procedure is used. FastMG is a simple, fast and accurate procedure to estimate amino acid replacement rate matrices from large data sets. It enables researchers to study the evolutionary relationships for specific groups of proteins or taxa with optimized, data-specific amino acid replacement rate matrices. The programs, data sets, and the new mammalian mitochondrial protein rate matrix are available at http://fastmg.codeplex.com.

  1. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  2. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro survival and fecundity rates of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, S; George, D R; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-01

    To assist in the testing of possible antigens in developing a vaccine against the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer), a rapid and reliable in vitro screening method is critical. This short paper describes how D. gallinae survival and fecundity rates in an in vivo feeding device compared to that of mites fed using an in vitro method. Results showed that survival of fed D. gallinae females and mites overall was greater in vitro, although there was no difference between male survival and fecundity between in vivo and in vitro designs. The in vitro feeding device described therefore has the potential to provide reliable results, comparable to those obtained by in vivo testing, to allow for the rapid screening of D. gallinae antigens.

  3. Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alborán Sea, Western Mediterranean...changes in distribution, habitat use, abundance, survival and reproductive rates of three species of cetacean in the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean...Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in

  4. Neoadjuvant TACE before laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) in the treatment of non-colorectal non-breast cancer liver metastases: Feasibility and survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Kreutzträger, Martin; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate safety, feasibility and overall survival rates for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone or combined with MR-guided laser-induced-thermotherapy (LITT) in liver metastases of non-colorectal and non-breast cancer origin. Methods and materials: Included were patients with unresectable non-colorectal non-breast cancer liver metastases with progression under systemic chemotherapy. Excluded were patients with Karnofsky score ≤70, respiratory, renal and cardiovascular failure, and general TACE contraindications. TACE using Mitomycin alone, Mitomycin–Gemcitabine or Mitomycin–Gemcitabine–Cisplatin was performed to all patients. After TACE 146 metastases were ablated with MR-guided LITT. To be eligible for LITT metastases should be <5 cm in size and ≤5 in number. Tumor response was evaluated using MRI according to RECIST. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: A total of 110 patients (mean age 59.2 years) with 371 metastases received TACE (mean 5.4 sessions/patient, n = 110) with 76 (69%) receiving LITT (mean 1.6 session/patient) afterwards. TACE resulted in a mean decrease of mean maximum diameter of 52% ± 26.6 and volume change of −68.5% ± 22.9 in the 25 patients (23%) with partial response. Stable disease (n = 59, 54%). Progressive disease (n = 26, 23%). The RECIST outcome after LITT showed complete response (n = 13, 17%), partial response (n = 1, 1%), stable situation (n = 41, 54%) and progressive disease (n = 21, 28%). The mean time to progression (TTP) was 8.6 months. Median survival of all patients was 21.1 months. Conclusion: TACE with different protocols alone and in combination with LITT is a feasible palliative treatment option resulting in a median survival of 21.1 months for unresectable liver metastases of non-colorectal and non-breast cancer origin.

  5. Evaluation of Survival Rate and Effective Factors in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emam Hospital (Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maghsoodloo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the time being we have considered that the myocardial infarction is an increasing event in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help us to diminish the number of death from this ongoing event. The main aim of this research is to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and the association of it with different variables. Methods and Materials: The present research is a descriptive case-series study which evaluates the 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction who had been admitted in Tehran Emam Khomeini Hospital during the year 1999. Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The peak of attack rates was in spring and autumn. Investigating of the past history of these patients reviled that 41 percent had been smokers, 63.5 percent have had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 41 percent have had hyper cholestrolemia, 34 percent had hypertension, 18 percent had diabetes mellitus, 9 percent had mitral rigurgitation and 9 percent had heart block. The Survival rate in our study has been calculated 68 percent in first 28 days of disease. Conclusion: In our study we concluded that there is significant correlation between survival rate and past history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, tobacco smoking and clip classification.

  6. A clinical study on survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Sami; Güven, Orhan; Gllareva, Enis; Prekazi, Mergime; Salihu, Leminot

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo and to see the effect of stage of disease on the success of surgical treatment. 789 patients with SCCLL who were referred to the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, were examined during a period of 20 years (between 1993 and 2013). 614 (77.82%) of these patients received treatment and have regularly visited the department once every 3 months for post-operative controls. Data have been collected from these 614 patients for 10 years; thus the follow-up period lasts for 10 years for every patient under control. The collected data were analysed using Chi square test. Patients were classified by sex, aetiology, stage of the disease, location of the disease, the treatment patients received, metastasis rate and survival rate. The most susceptible patients were those at ages between 50 and 70. The youngest patient was 8 years old whereas the oldest was 92. The male-female ratio was 5:1. 57% of the patients had been working outdoors and had been exposed to sunlight. Ten years survival rate for the Stages I, II, III and IV was 91.7%, 83.7%, 28% and 11.4% respectively. It was found that the success of the surgery was closely related with the stage of disease and early diagnosis. Training the relevant parties (i.e., the people, family doctors etc.) on early diagnosis would improve the survival rate. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure.

  8. Gas surface density, star formation rate surface density, and the maximum mass of young star clusters in a disk galaxy. I. The flocculent galaxy M33

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Kroupa, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass, M_max, and surface densities of total gas (Sigma_gas), molecular gas (Sigma_H2) and star formation rate (Sigma_SFR) in the flocculent galaxy M33, using published gas data and a catalog of more than 600 young star clusters in its disk. By comparing the radial distributions of gas and most massive cluster masses, we find that M_max is proportional to Sigma_gas^4.7, M_max is proportional Sigma_H2^1.3, and M_max is proportional to Sigma_SFR^1.0. We rule out that these correlations result from the size of sample; hence, the change of the maximum cluster mass must be due to physical causes.

  9. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  10. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2......) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. Results: The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66 – 71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85 – 89%). Thirty one...... % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29 – 33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28 – 36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died...

  11. Modeling Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of a Discrete Probability Distribution: General Rate Equation for Maximal Entropy Generation in a Maximum-Entropy Landscape with Time-Dependent Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Paolo Beretta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A rate equation for a discrete probability distribution is discussed as a route to describe smooth relaxation towards the maximum entropy distribution compatible at all times with one or more linear constraints. The resulting dynamics follows the path of steepest entropy ascent compatible with the constraints. The rate equation is consistent with the Onsager theorem of reciprocity and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The mathematical formalism was originally developed to obtain a quantum theoretical unification of mechanics and thermodinamics. It is presented here in a general, non-quantal formulation as a part of an effort to develop tools for the phenomenological treatment of non-equilibrium problems with applications in engineering, biology, sociology, and economics. The rate equation is also extended to include the case of assigned time-dependences of the constraints and the entropy, such as for modeling non-equilibrium energy and entropy exchanges.

  12. Modeling Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of a Discrete Probability Distribution: General Rate Equation for Maximal Entropy Generation in a Maximum-Entropy Landscape with Time-Dependent Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Gian P.

    2008-09-01

    A rate equation for a discrete probability distribution is discussed as a route to describe smooth relaxation towards the maximum entropy distribution compatible at all times with one or more linear constraints. The resulting dynamics follows the path of steepest entropy ascent compatible with the constraints. The rate equation is consistent with the Onsager theorem of reciprocity and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The mathematical formalism was originally developed to obtain a quantum theoretical unification of mechanics and thermodinamics. It is presented here in a general, non-quantal formulation as a part of an effort to develop tools for the phenomenological treatment of non-equilibrium problems with applications in engineering, biology, sociology, and economics. The rate equation is also extended to include the case of assigned time-dependences of the constraints and the entropy, such as for modeling non-equilibrium energy and entropy exchanges.

  13. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-02-21

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.

  14. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Qing, Quan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong; Hu, Jin-Lian; Qin, Ting-Wu

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  15. The Effect of Vitamin E on the Survival Rate of unc-13 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants under Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Porcelan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans unc-13 mutants express decreased neuronal activity and thus are a good model strain for examining defective nervous systems. These unc-13 mutants as well as wild type N2 strains, show rapid mortality when under oxidative stress. However, the antioxidant vitamin E may prolong survival in unc-13 mutant and N2 strains under oxidative stress. The addition of vitamin E to organisms under oxidative stress has a protective effect in both N2 and unc-13 C. elegans strains. Interestingly, vitamin E resulted in a greater increase in survival rate in N2 worms than with unc-13 mutant worms. While both strains displayed lower mortality rates with the addition of vitamin E, this finding suggests that vitamin E more efficiently increases survival rates of C. elegans with typical nervous system function. The efficacy of vitamin E implies that use of antioxidants may lessen the damage caused by oxidative stress in both N2 and mutant worms.

  16. Survival rates of infants with birth weights between 501 and 1,000 g. Improvement by excluding certain categories of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, W H; Murton, L J

    1985-05-01

    Reported survival rates of infants with birth weights under 1,001 g vary greatly; by implication, high survival rates may be used as a measure of the standard of perinatal care. To illustrate the importance of precisely defining the population sample, we determined the survival rate to 2 years of 238 infants with birth weights of 501 to 1,000 g, born between 1977 and 1980. The rate was 33.6%; however, by excluding certain categories of patients, the survival rate was augmented to 46.9%. There were 36 infants who died in the delivery room and an additional 34 who died before the age of 3 hours in the intensive care unit; together they contributed 29.4% to the total mortality of 66.4%. This group is especially liable to influence reported survival rates. Although exclusion of patients is legitimate, the criteria need to be precisely defined if data between centers are to be compared.

  17. The effect of strength training and short-term detraining on maximum force and the rate of force development of older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Dale I; Cuneo, Ross; Gass, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of strength training (ST) and short-term detraining on maximum force and rate of force development (RFD) in previously sedentary, healthy older men. Twenty-four older men (70-80 years) were randomly assigned to a ST group (n = 12) and C group (control, n = 12). Training consisted of three sets of six to ten repetitions on an incline squat at 70-90% of one repetition maximum three times per week for 16 weeks followed by 4 weeks of detraining. Regional muscle mass was assessed before and after training by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Training increased RFD, maximum bilateral isometric force, and force in 500 ms, upper leg muscle mass and strength above pre-training values (14, 25, 22, 7, 90%, respectively; P force and RFD of older men. However, older individuals may lose some neuromuscular performance after a period of short-term detraining and that resistance exercise should be performed on a regular basis to maintain training adaptations.

  18. Effect of cooling rate and equilibration time on pre-freeze and post-thaw survival of buck sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Nasrullah, Rashad; Ahmad, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Survival of buck sperm is affected due to duration and temperature of stages of refrigerated or frozen storage. This study investigated interactive effect of cooling rates (moderate; MC and rapid cooling; RC); and equilibration times (0, 2, 4 and 8h) on survival before freezing at 4°C and post-thaw quality of buck sperm. Semen was collected (three Beetal bucks; replicates=6), pooled and diluted with Tris-citrate extender. Pooled semen samples were subjected to either RC (-2.2°C/min) or MC (-0.3°C/min) from 37°C to 4°C in separate aliquots and further equilibrated at 4°C for 8h. Semen was frozen using standard procedure after completion of each equilibration period i.e. 0, 2, 4 and 8h. Semen was evaluated for motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) before freezing and after thawing. The survival time (time for survival above threshold limit i.e. 60%) at 4°C, of motility and PMI was observed 5 and 6h respectively in RC group while >8h in MC group. Rate of decline (slope) in motility and viability was higher (Pbuck sperm is higher when cooled with moderate rate. However, RC can maintain post-thaw sperm viability and PMI equal to MC when equilibrated for 2-8h. The methods should be explored to maintain motility and NAR during rapid cooling of buck sperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranna Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS. DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w (DS-low or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w diet (DS-high during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w (DS-regular throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P<0.05. The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P<0.025. The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P<0.0001. Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers.

  20. Effect of precipitation, sorption and stable of isotope on maximum release rates of radionuclides from engineered barrier system (EBS) in deep repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekifarsani, A; Skachek, M A

    2009-10-01

    shown that the concentrations of the following radionuclides are limited by solubility and precipitate around the waste and buffer: U, Np, Ra, Sm, Zr, Se, Tc, and Pd. The Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case precipitation shows that some nuclides such as Cs-135, Nb-94, Nb-93 m, Zr-93, Sn-126, Th-230, Pu-240, Pu-242, Pu-239, Cm-245, Am-243, Cm-245, U-233, Ac-227, Pb-210, Pa-231 and Th-229 are very little changed in case the maximum release rate from EBS corresponding to eliminate precipitation in buffer material. Some nuclides such as Se-79, Tc-99, Pd-107, Th-232, U-236, U-233, Ra-226, Np-237 U-235, U-234, and U-238 are virtually changed in the maximum release rate compared to case that taking account precipitation. In Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case to taking account stable isotopes (according to the table of inventory) there are only some nuclides with their stable isotopes in the vitrified waste. And calculation shows that Pd-107 and Se-79 are very increase in case eliminate stable isotope. The Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case retardation with sorption shows that some nuclides such as Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-239, Cm-245, Am-241, Cm-246, and Am-243 are increased in some time in case maximum release rate from EBS corresponding to eliminate retardation in buffer material. Some nuclides such as U-235, U-233 and U-236 have a little decrease in case maximum release because their parents have short live and before decay to their daughter will released from the EBS. If the characteristic time taken for a nuclide to diffuse across the buffer exceeds its half-life, then the release rate of that nuclide from the EBS will be attenuated by radioactive decay. Thus, the retardation of the diffusion process due to sorption tends to reduce the release rates of short-lived nuclides more effectively than for the long-lived ones. For example, release rates of Pu-240, Cm-246 and Am-241, which are relatively short-lived and strongly sorbing, are very small

  1. Maximum Heart Rate during exercise: Reliability of the 220-age and Tanaka formulas in healthy young people at a moderate elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Cruz-Martínez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The formulas to predict maximum heart rate have been used for many years in different populations. Objective. To verify the significance and the association of formulas of Tanaka and 220-age when compared to real maximum heart rate. Materials and methods. 30 subjects -22 men, 8 women- between 18 and 30 years of age were evaluated on a cycle ergometer and their real MHR values were statistically compared with the values of formulas currently used to predict MHR. Results. The results demonstrate that both Tanaka p=0.0026 and 220-age p=0.000003 do not predict real MHR, nor does a linear association exist between them. Conclusions. Due to the overestimation with respect to real MHR value that these formulas make, we suggest a correction of 6 bpm to the final result. This value represents the median of the difference between the Tanaka value and the real MHR. Both Tanaka (r=0.272 and 220-age (r=0.276 are not adequate predictors of MHR during exercise at the elevation of Bogotá in subjects of 18 to 30 years of age, although more study with a larger sample size is suggested.

  2. State disparities in colorectal cancer rates: Contributions of risk factors, screening, and survival differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); S.L. Goede (S. Lucas); J. Ma (Jiemin); W. Xiau-Cheng (Wu); K. Pawlish (Karen); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND Northeastern states of the United States have shown more progress in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates than Southern states, and this has resulted in considerable disparities. This study quantified how the disparities in CRC rates between Louisiana

  3. A new approach to assess the dependency of extant half-saturation coefficients on maximum process rates and estimate intrinsic coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A; Takács, I; Pagilla, K R; Murthy, S

    2013-10-15

    The Monod equation is often used to describe biological treatment processes and is the foundation for many activated sludge models. The Monod equation includes a "half-saturation coefficient" to describe the effect of substrate limitations on the process rate and it is customary to consider this parameter to be a constant for a given system. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, and its use to show that the half-saturation coefficient for denitrification is not constant but is in fact a function of the maximum denitrification rate. A 4-step procedure is developed to investigate the dependency of half-saturation coefficients on the maximum rate and two different models are used to describe this dependency: (a) an empirical linear model and (b) a deterministic model based on Fick's law of diffusion. Both models are proved better for describing denitrification kinetics than assuming a fixed K(NO3) at low nitrate concentrations. The empirical model is more utilitarian whereas the model based on Fick's law has a fundamental basis that enables the intrinsic K(NO3) to be estimated. In this study data was analyzed from 56 denitrification rate tests and it was found that the extant K(NO3) varied between 0.07 mgN/L and 1.47 mgN/L (5th and 95th percentile respectively) with an average of 0.47 mgN/L. In contrast to this, the intrinsic K(NO3) estimated for the diffusion model was 0.01 mgN/L which indicates that the extant K(NO3) is greatly influenced by, and mostly describes, diffusion limitations.

  4. Comparison of drug survival rates for tumor necrosis factor antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Santana V

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Martínez-Santana,1 E González-Sarmiento,2 MA Calleja-Hernández,3 T Sánchez-Sánchez1 1Pharmacy Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 2Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 3Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves de Granada, Granada, Spain Background: Persistence of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an overall marker of treatment success. Objective: To assess the survival of anti-TNF treatment and to define the potential predictors of drug discontinuation in RA, in order to verify the adequacy of current practices. Design: An observational, descriptive, longitudinal, retrospective study. Setting: The Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. Patients: RA patients treated with anti-TNF therapy between January 2011 and January 2012. Measurements: Demographic information and therapy assessments were gathered from medical and pharmaceutical records. Data is expressed as means (standard deviations for quantitative variables and frequency distribution for qualitative variables. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to assess persistence, and Cox multivariate regression models were used to assess potential predictors of treatment discontinuation. Results: In total, 126 treatment series with infliximab (n = 53, etanercept (n = 51 or adalimumab (n = 22 were administered to 91 patients. Infliximab has mostly been used as a first-line treatment, but it was the drug with the shortest time until a change of treatment. Significant predictors of drug survival were: age; the anti-TNF agent; and the previous response to an anti-TNF drug. Limitation: The small sample size. Conclusion: The overall efficacy of anti-TNF drugs diminishes with time, with infliximab having the shortest time until a change of treatment. The management of biologic therapy in patients with

  5. Independent or synergistic relationship of proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate on patient and renal survival in patients with glomerulonephritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Dominik G; Masghati, Salome; Goliasch, Georg; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Soleiman, Afschin; Wolzt, Michael; Baierl, Andreas; Druml, Wilfred; Hörl, Walter H

    2014-12-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) identifies patients at risk for death or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CKD staging by GFR should incorporate proteinuria to augment risk stratification. We therefore tested the predictive power of the combination of GFR with proteinuria in patients with different histologically-diagnosed types of glomerulonephritis (GN). In a retrospective analysis, 2,687 patients with different forms of GN from 123 Austrian centres were investigated. Full data sets were available from 1,892 subjects. Classes of CKD on the basis of estimated GFR (eGFR) and of proteinuria grouped as 3.5 g/24 h were tested for their association with all-cause mortality and ESRD. During a median follow-up of 130 months [interquartile range (IQR) 90; 178] 478 patients (25.3 %) died. Median eGFR was 49 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (IQR 24; 81) and proteinuria 3.8 g/24 h (IQR 1.7; 8.0). Adjusted multivariate Cox regression indicated that renal survival but not overall survival is related to proteinuria >3.5 g/24 h [as opposed to proteinuria >3.5 g/24 h exists only in patients with immunoglobulin (Ig)A GN (HR 4.93), miscellaneous GN (HR 1.74), and CKD stage 5 (HR 2.50). Additionally, proteinuria is a risk factor for renal survival in males more than in females with GN and proteinuria >3.5 g/24 h (HR 1.91). Proteinuria is a strong risk factor for renal survival particularly in patients with proteinuria >3.5 g/24 but not for all types of GN, nor for all CKD stages. Proteinuria is not a risk factor for overall survival in patients with GN.

  6. Reconciliation vessel, a pathway to increase survival rates and its energetic integration with Shao yin level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrián ´Angel Inchauspe

    2016-01-01

    After almost thirty years of experience in saving patients at impending death situations and having made numerous contributions on the field, the author herein provides a reasoned survival bio-energetic circuit based on a detailed methodological and functional analysis of the Main Channels [1.4.2 meridian and collateral theory] [0.0.16 meridian and collateral (study)] and the Wondrous Vessels (Qi jing ba mai) [1.4.24 eight extra me-ridians] participating in it. The area researched as well as the results obtained underwent strict evaluations, both as regards statistics and risk management standards, besides having been carefully super-vised by the rules and parameters of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. Survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout kelts Salmo trutta during downstream migration in freshwater and at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Thorstad, EB;

    2015-01-01

    The marine migration of post-spawning anadromous fish remains poorly understood. The present study examined survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. after spawning (kelts) during downriver, fjord, and sea migration. Kelts (n = 49) were captured in the Danish River...... and returned to the fjord. The duration of the entire marine migration, from leaving to entering the river, was on average 163 d. The fish returned from the Kattegat Sea to the fjord between 22 July and 21 October. Upon return, the fish spent 1−90 d passing through Randers Fjord, with most individuals...... completing the reach within 4 d, suggesting that the kelts spent limited time foraging after returning to the fjord. The total survival during the entire marine migration, including the fjord, was a minimum of 29%. Our study provides data that are important for management of anadromous brown trout...

  8. Growth performance and survival rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1979) larvae using different doses of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahasan; Das, Nani Gopal; Hossain, M Belal

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency of probiotics (Ecomarine) in rearing of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae was evaluated in a commercial prawn hatchery for five weeks. Stage-1 (zero age) larvae (of length: 2 mm; weight: 0.12 mg) were stocked at the rate of 100 L(-1). The experiment determined the growth rate, survival rate of the larvae for the both treatment and control groups. Final average weight were found 8.39 ± 3.28E-04 and 8.18 ± 2.86E-04 mg and length were found 9.08 ± 0.649 and 9.02 ± 0.081 mm for treatment and control group respectively. Comparatively higher growth performance was observed in treatment than control. Post Larvae (PL) was first observed 20th days of culture in treatment tanks whereas PL in control tanks was found 24th days of culture. Survival rate was found 58 and 46% in treatment and control group respectively. There was significant (p rosenbergii while significant changes were not noticed in the physic-chemical parameters i.e., water temperature, salinity, DO, pH, nitrate-NO2, hardness and alkalinity observed in both the treatments.

  9. Nickel accumulation and its effects on the survival rate of Spodoptera litura Fabricius under continuous nickel stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN HongXia; SHU YingHua; TANG WenCheng; WANG Qi; ZHOU Qiang; ZHANG GuRen

    2007-01-01

    The artificial diets mixed with various concentrations of nickel were offered to the larvae of the phytophagous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius for 3 generations. Nickel accumulations in the 6th instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of the corresponding generations of S. litura were investigated by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), and the effects of nickel accumulations on the survival rate of S. litura were also evaluated by individual rearing. The results showed that nickel accumulated in the 6th instar larvae, pupae and adults of S. litura, and the accumulated nickel in all the tested developmental stages within a generation increased with the increase of the nickel doses in the treated diets and showed significant dose-dependent relationship with the nickel doses in the artificial diets. The results also indicated that the nickel accumulations in the 6th instar larvae, pupae, and newly emerged adults from the 3rd generation were higher than those from the 2nd generation, which were also higher than those from the 1st generation. Nickel concentrations in pupae and adults were significantly lower than those in larvae, which indicated that the excessive nickel might be excreted during metamorphosis. Furthermore, larval survival rate, pupation rate and eclosion rate of S. litura in the tested three generations all decreased with the increase of the nickel doses in the treated diets.

  10. Retrospective success and survival rates of dental implants placed with simultaneous bone augmentation in partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Nima; Darby, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the success and survival rate of dental implants placed with simultaneous hard tissue grafting. All patients treated in Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne who had implant placement with and without guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures were identified. Seventy-three attended a follow-up appointment. These patients were examined recording probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque accumulation and radiographic bone loss by one examiner. Clinical and radiographic findings were compared in grafted and non-grafted groups and also analysed for years in function. Approximately 50% of implants were placed simultaneous guided bone regeneration technique. In the majority of cases, defects were filled by deproteinized bovine bone mineral and covered with collagen membrane. The range of time in function was 20-88 months with a mean 34.8 (±1.7). Seventy-nine per cent of the implants placed in anterior maxilla were placed with GBR, while only 18% in posterior mandible needed grafting procedure. The cumulative implant survival rates at the time of examination was 97.95% for both GBR and non-GBR group. The mean PPD, BOP, and Plaque index were not statistically significantly different in GBR vs. non-GBR groups two to seven years in function. However, bone loss is significantly less in GBR group 2-7 years after function. The overall success rate was around 90% after 2-7 years in function with the GBR group slightly less than the non-GBR group, but not statistically significant. For the subjects included in this retrospective study, the data demonstrate that GBR is a predictable procedure. The survival and success rates of the implants inserted with simultaneous GBR were similar, if slightly lower, to the non-grafted implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  12. Maximum Fidelity

    CERN Document Server

    Kinkhabwala, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...

  13. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  14. Long-term survival of patients with critical limb ischemia treated with iloprost: response rate and predictive criteria. A retrospective analysis of 102 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, E; Lucaccini, E; Berchiolli, R; Adami, D; Nuti, M; Dell'Omo, G; Farina, A; Panigada, G; Roberts, A T; Meini, S

    2016-12-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients have poor long-term prognosis. We showed that iloprost improves outcomes (major amputation and survival) up a 5-year follow-up, but it is not known if in this length of time the survival curves, of clinical responders and non-responders, differ. A retrospective study enrolling 102 consecutive patients between 2004-2008, with clinical and instrumental (ultrasound, angiography, transcutaneous tensiometry of oxygen TcpO2 and carbon dioxide TcpCO2 in the affected and contralateral limbs) diagnosis of critical ischemia. All patients received the best medical therapy. Iloprost was administered (0.5-2 ng/kg/min 6 hours/day for 2-4 weeks) in all patients initially considered unsuitable for revascularization, repeating it regularly in time every six-twelve months in the case of positive response. The minimum expected follow-up was 4 years. 71.5% of patients were treated with iloprost and the responder rate was 71.2%. Most of the patients were regularly retreated with repeated cycles. Initial median supine TcpCO2 in symptomatic limb was higher in untreated patients than those treated (58 vs. 49 mmHg; p < 0.05) and in non-responders compared to responders (60 vs. 49 mmHg; p < 0.05). TcpCO2 directly and significantly correlated with the highest risk of mortality and seems to represent a new accurate prognostic criterion of unfavourable short and long-term response to prostanoid. In iloprost group, major amputations were significantly reduced. Revascularization was significantly higher in non-responders (57.1% vs. 11.5%; p < 0.05). There was a significantly higher prevalence of subsequent myocardial infarction in the non-iloprost group (27.6% vs. 9.6%; p < 0.05). The survival rate of non-responders was higher than untreated up until the second year (76.2% vs. 62%; p < 0.05). At 4 years we found higher survival in patients treated with iloprost (64.3% vs. 41% in untreated; p < 0.05) and in responders (75% vs. 38.1% in non-responders; p < 0

  15. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology.

  16. Comparison of survival rates for patients with uveal melanoma after treatment with proton beam irradiation or enucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Albert, D.M.; Hsieh, C.C.; Polivogianis, L.; Friedenberg, G.R.

    1985-03-15

    A comparison was made of survival experiences for three groups with uveal melanoma: (1) 120 patients treated by proton beam irradiation from 1975 to 1981; (2) 235 patients treated by enucleation from 1953 to 1973 (enucleation group 1); and (3) 161 patients treated by enucleation from 1975 to 1981 (enucleation group 2). The following variables were predictive of melanoma-related deaths. Treatment: rate ratio (ratio of the rate of death for one category of the variable relative to the rate of death for another category) of 6.32 (95% confidence interval 1.70 to 23.51) for enucleation group 1 vs proton beam, 3.06 (0.81 to 11.54) for enucleation group 2 vs proton beam, and 2.07 (1.05 to 4.07) for enucleation group 1 vs enucleation group 2. Size: rate ratio of 3.61 (1.51 to 8.64) for large (16+ mm) vs small (less than 11 mm) tumors. Location: rate ratio of 3.19 (1.56 to 6.53) for tumors anterior vs posterior to the equator. When death from all causes was evaluated as the outcome, the estimated rate ratios were similar. When melanoma metastasis was evaluated as the outcome, the estimated rate ratios were reduced in magnitude.

  17. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Isomura

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  18. Comparison of peritonitis rates and patient survival in automated and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a 10-year single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Reshaid, Wael; Al-Disawy, Hanan; Nassef, Hossameldeen; Alhelaly, Usama

    2016-09-01

    Peritonitis is a common complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). In this retrospective study, peritonitis rates and patient survival of 180 patients on CAPD and 128 patients on APD were compared in the period from January 2005 to December 2014 at Al-Nafisi Center in Kuwait. All patients had prophylactic topical mupirocin at catheter exit site. Patients on CAPD had twin bag system with Y transfer set. The peritonitis rates were 1 in 29 months in CAPD and 1 in 38 months in APD (p peritonitis free patients over 10-year period in CAPD and APD were 49 and 60%, respectively (p peritonitis was 10.25 ± 3.1 months in CAPD compared to 16.1 ± 4 months in APD (p peritonitis was 13.1 ± 1 and 14 ± 1.4 months respectively (p = 0.3) whereas in peritonitis free patients it was 15 ± 1.4 months in CAPD and 23 ± 3.1 months in APD (p = 0.025). APD had lower incidence rate of peritonitis than CAPD. Patient survival was better in APD than CAPD in peritonitis free patients but was similar in patients who had peritonitis.

  19. Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to appraise the effect of different stocking densities on three male morphotypes named blue claw (BC, orange claw (OC and small male (SM at harvest in all-male culture and assess the growth performance of BC, OC and SM in each isolated culture. Trials involving three stocking densities of all-male prawn viz., 20, 30 and 40 juvenile m−2 were carried out in replicates. After 4 months of culture, BC, OC and SM were sorted from all tanks and restocked at 5 m−2 in treatments BC, OC and SM respectively for 80 days. A difference in prawn density was significant (P < 0.05 affect adversely on morphotypes. The highest survival rate combined with good yields performance was from 20 juvenile m−2 stocking density with 21% BC, 62.5% OC and 16.5% SM respectively. In isolation culture, the average specific growth rate of the SM population (1.22 was significantly higher than that of the OC (1.01 and the BC (0.43 population. The survival rate of the SM population was 100% while others were 72%. Absolute weight of prawn was significantly greater in the OC male (23.87 g than the SM (19.57 g and the BC male (6.31 g. Impacts of isolated culture on population structure were much more pronounced in the SM population than others.

  20. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  1. Variation of growth rate and survival in embryos and larvae of Rana temporaria populations from the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Oromi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations on embryonic and larval life history traits of ectotherm organisms are strongly affected by temperature conditions. However, these effects can vary between species and populations depending on the mechanisms that act in a determinate local habitat. In the present study, we analysed the effects of temperature on several embryonic and larval traits (survival, development and growth rate until the metamorphosis of Rana temporaria in two populations living at different altitude (1540 and 2100 m in the Pyrenees. Five spawns from each population were distributed in a common garden experiment at different temperature treatments according to the normal temperature range that tadpoles might experience in the field and also considering a high treatment (24 °C to test a possible effect of global warming. Like in other studies of the same species in a latitudinal gradient, the temperature effects depended on the analysed trait. Our results support the general rule that the rate of development is faster at higher temperatures, although survival was significantly affected by the highest temperature in the highland population. Size varied at embryonic and larval stages and was largest at metamorphosis in the highland population. In concordance, the growth rate was higher in the highland population suggesting a countergradient variation in response to the short growing season. However, this possible adaptation can be altered in a global warming scenario with an increase of mortality and limited growth.

  2. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order......: All deliveries from 22+0 to 31+6 weeks gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All outcomes of pregnancy by gestational age group, including termination of pregnancy for congenital anomalies and other reasons, ante-partum stillbirth, intra-partum stillbirth, labour ward death, death after admission...

  3. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (<20 km) suggests factors at local scales such as disturbance, predation, and overwash events strongly influenced nest success of Black Skimmers during these 2 years as opposed to more region-wide stressors such as tropical storms or food availability. Although time-intensive techniques to control predators do exist, management options to limit flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  4. YODA: Software to facilitate high-throughput analysis of chronological life span, growth rate, and survival in budding yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Christopher J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely studied model organisms in aging-related science. Although several genetic modifiers of yeast longevity have been identified, the utility of this system for longevity studies has been limited by a lack of high-throughput assays for quantitatively measuring survival of individual yeast cells during aging. Results Here we describe the Yeast Outgrowth Data Analyzer (YODA, an automated system for analyzing population survival of yeast cells based on the kinetics of outgrowth measured by optical density over time. YODA has been designed specifically for quantification of yeast chronological life span, but can also be used to quantify growth rate and survival of yeast cells in response to a variety of different conditions, including temperature, nutritional composition of the growth media, and chemical treatments. YODA is optimized for use with a Bioscreen C MBR shaker/incubator/plate reader, but is also amenable to use with any standard plate reader or spectrophotometer. Conclusions We estimate that use of YODA as described here reduces the effort and resources required to measure chronological life span and analyze the resulting data by at least 15-fold.

  5. Maximum removal rate of propionic acid as a sole carbon source in UASB reactors and the importance of the macro- and micro-nutrients stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxing; Mungoni, Lucy Jubeki; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta

    2009-07-01

    The maximum propionic acid (HPr) removal rate (R(HPr)) was investigated in two lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactors. Two feeding strategies were applied by modifying the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the UASB(HRT) and the influent HPr concentration in the UASB(HPr), respectively. The experiment was divided into three main phases: phase 1, influent with only HPr; phase 2, HPr with macro-nutrients supplementation and phase 3, HPr with macro- and micro-nutrients supplementation. During phase 1, the maximum R(HPr) achieved was less than 3 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1) in both reactors. However, the subsequent supplementation of macro- and micro-nutrients during phases 2 and 3 allowed to increase the R(HPr) up to 18.1 and 32.8 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1), respectively, corresponding with an HRT of 0.5h in the UASB(HRT) and an influent HPr concentration of 10.5 g HPr-CODL(-1) in the UASB(HPr). Therefore, the high operational capacity of these reactor systems, specifically converting HPr with high throughput and high influent HPr level, was demonstrated. Moreover, the presence of macro- and micro-nutrients is clearly essential for stable and high HPr removal in anaerobic digestion.

  6. Gas surface density, star formation rate surface density, and the maximum mass of young star clusters in a disk galaxy. II. The grand-design galaxy M51

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass, and surface densities of total gas (Sigma_gas), molecular gas (Sigma_H_2), neutral gas (Sigma_HI) and star formation rate (Sigma_SFR) in the grand design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. We find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M_3rd, the median of the 5 most massive clusters, is proportional to Sigma_HI^0.4. There is no correlation with Sigma_gas, Sigma_H2, or Sigma_SFR. For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_HI^0.6, M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_gas^0.5; there is no correlation with either Sigma_H_2 or Sigma_SFR. The results could hardly be more different than those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but M_3rd is proportional to Sigma_g...

  7. Growth rates and post-release survival of captive neonate timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2003-01-01

    The need for conservation and management of rare species is becoming increasingly important as wildlife species and their habitat continue to decline. Translocation of wild captured adults to augment and reintroduce populations has been successfully used for some endangered avian species (see Carrie et al. 1999; Rudolph et al. 1992). In general, success rates for...

  8. Impacts of Rate of Hexazinone Application on Survival and Growth of the Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Hexazinone [3-cyc1ohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H, 3H)-dionel in 2-cc pellets (10% active ingredient) was applied at rates of 0,2,4, and 8 pounds of active ingredient per acre for site preparation on clay soil in a randomized experiment in May 1980. Loblolly pine seedlings planted to the site in January 1981 were measured for diameter 3 inches...

  9. Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serakides Rogéria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas. Methods Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8 were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry. Results Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense and the proportion of CD4+ (≥ 66.7% or CD8+ T-cells (P = 0.02 remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P + T-cells was significantly greater in metastasized tumors (both MC-BMT and MC, (P + T-cells was higher in MC-BMT without metastasis. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was significantly increased in both groups with metastasis. Regardless of the tumor type, the animals with high proportions of CD4

  10. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort. This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better in APD patients.

  11. Impact of maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax evaluated by 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this era of molecular targeting therapy when various systematic treatments can be selected, prognostic biomarkers are required for the purpose of risk-directed therapy selection. Numerous reports of various malignancies have revealed that 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG accumulation, as evaluated by positron emission tomography, can be used to predict the prognosis of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax from 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Methods A total of 26 patients with advanced or metastatic RCC were enrolled in this study. The FDG uptake of all RCC lesions diagnosed by conventional CT was evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The impact of SUVmax on patient survival was analyzed prospectively. Results FDG uptake was detected in 230 of 243 lesions (94.7% excluding lung or liver metastases with diameters of less than 1 cm. The SUVmax of 26 patients ranged between 1.4 and 16.6 (mean 8.8 ± 4.0. The patients with RCC tumors showing high SUVmax demonstrated poor prognosis (P = 0.005 hazard ratio 1.326, 95% CI 1.089-1.614. The survival between patients with SUVmax equal to the mean of SUVmax, 8.8 or more and patients with SUVmax less than 8.8 were statistically different (P = 0.0012. This is the first report to evaluate the impact of SUVmax on advanced RCC patient survival. However, the number of patients and the follow-up period were still not extensive enough to settle this important question conclusively. Conclusions The survival of patients with advanced RCC can be predicted by evaluating their SUVmax using 18F-FDG-PET/CT. 18F-FDG-PET/CT has potency as an "imaging biomarker" to provide helpful information for the clinical decision-making.

  12. Distal lower extremity sarcomas: frequency of occurrence and patient survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytoonjian, Trisha; Mankin, Henry J; Gebhardt, Mark C; Hornicek, Francis J

    2004-05-01

    Primary sarcomas in the distal leg, tibia, fibula, ankle, and foot are uncommon and are believed to be less malignant than those that arise in other sites, but only limited information is available to support this contention. Using a computerized system containing extensive information regarding over 14,000 patients, mostly with tumors treated by our center over a 25-year period, 175 sarcomatous lesions with MSTS stage I, II, and III were located in the distal lower extremity. These were compared with 2367 lesions of similar diagnoses in other body parts. The principal studies included diagnostic distribution and outcome (recorded as death as a result of disease). Data were compared for diagnosis, gender, age, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) stage, anatomic site, and treatment methods and evaluated statistically by chi-square methods. The most frequent distal lower limb tumors were synovial cell sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and Ewing's tumor and the percentage distribution of the various tumors for that site as compared with the rest of the body was quite different. Of even more importance was the remarkable difference in outcome with the death rate for the lower limb tumors set at 10%, while the same tumors at other sites had a death rate of 27% (p <.000002). Furthermore, gender, stage, age, and the type of operative procedure showed highly significant differences between the tumors of the lower leg and those of the remainder of the body. On the basis of these data, it is evident that far fewer sarcomas occur in the lower leg, tibia, fibula, ankle, and foot than in other body sites and that their diagnostic distribution is different. Of perhaps greater interest is the fact that the rate of metastasis and death is markedly reduced for this site as compared with others. The authors speculate on the causes of this remarkable alteration in numbers and outcome.

  13. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION OF WHITELEG SHRIMP IN TRADITIONAL-PLUS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharijadi Atmomarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of culturing tiger shrimp that is frequently burdened by mass mortality, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is then considered as an alternative commodity in Indonesian brackishwater ponds. To prevent the whiteleg shrimp from diseases, different probiotic bacteria were tested in completely randomized design experiment using nine 250 m2 experimental ponds stocked with 10 PLs of whiteleg shrimp fry/m2. Three treatments were applied, namely A alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-1, RICA-2, RICA-3; B alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-4, RICA-5, RICA-3, and C control (without probiotic bacteria; each with three replications. After 11-week application, the results showed that the best survival rate of whiteleg shrimp was achieved by treatment B 98.83% and the best production was achieved by treatment A (23.52 kg/250 m2. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the three treatments tested for the shrimp survival rate. The whiteleg shrimp production in treatment A and B were signicantly better (P<0.05 than that in treatment C (control. These high shrimp production in treatment A and B were mainly caused by the capability of the applied probiotics in controlling some water quality variables and Vibrio numbers.

  14. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Hakan; Oguz, Basak; Ocak Serin, Sibel; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Gunaldi, Meral; Erismis, Betul; Ozdemir, Bahar; Tural, Deniz; Hursitoglu, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI), survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients' hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p = 0.230). The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.). Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor. PMID:27418926

  15. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI, survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients’ hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p=0.230. The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.. Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor.

  16. Metabolic and protein interaction sub-networks controlling the proliferation rate of cancer cells and their impact on patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Amir; Bordel, Sergio

    2013-10-24

    Cancer cells can have a broad scope of proliferation rates. Here we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that allow some cancer cell lines to grow up to 4 times faster than other cell lines. The correlation of gene expression profiles with the growth rate in 60 different cell lines has been analyzed using several genome-scale biological networks and new algorithms. New possible regulatory feedback loops have been suggested and the known roles of several cell cycle related transcription factors have been confirmed. Over 100 growth-correlated metabolic sub-networks have been identified, suggesting a key role of simultaneous lipid synthesis and degradation in the energy supply of the cancer cells growth. Many metabolic sub-networks involved in cell line proliferation appeared also to correlate negatively with the survival expectancy of colon cancer patients.

  17. Survival and progression rates of large European silver eel Anguilla anguilla in late freshwater and early marine phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Thorstad, Eva B.; Koed, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    The population of European silver eel Anguilla anguilla has declined tremendously in the last decades. The cause of this decline is unknown, and it is necessary to investigate the migratory behaviour and survival rates of silver eels during the reproductive migration in order to understand...... was high in fresh water. However, 60% of eels were lost in the inner and outer fjord, supporting the hypothesis that mortality is large in the early phase of the marine migration and that fishing may be a major cause of mortality of silver eels. There was no indication that the slowest......-migrating individuals were more prone to fishing mortality than the faster-migrating individuals. Progression rate increased as the eels proceeded downriver and out of the fjord. The migration was predominantly nocturnal, both in the river and fjord. Based on the available evidence, a considerable increase in eel...

  18. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belka Claus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >109 Gy s-1may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. Methods The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within Results At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD, respectively. Conclusions At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly.

  19. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  20. n-Order and maximum fuzzy similarity entropy for discrimination of signals of different complexity: Application to fetal heart rate signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Oudjemia, Souad; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents two new concepts for discrimination of signals of different complexity. The first focused initially on solving the problem of setting entropy descriptors by varying the pattern size instead of the tolerance. This led to the search for the optimal pattern size that maximized the similarity entropy. The second paradigm was based on the n-order similarity entropy that encompasses the 1-order similarity entropy. To improve the statistical stability, n-order fuzzy similarity entropy was proposed. Fractional Brownian motion was simulated to validate the different methods proposed, and fetal heart rate signals were used to discriminate normal from abnormal fetuses. In all cases, it was found that it was possible to discriminate time series of different complexity such as fractional Brownian motion and fetal heart rate signals. The best levels of performance in terms of sensitivity (90%) and specificity (90%) were obtained with the n-order fuzzy similarity entropy. However, it was shown that the optimal pattern size and the maximum similarity measurement were related to intrinsic features of the time series.

  1. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  2. Effects of glutamate and nimodipine on survival rate of embryonic rat neuronal stem cells cultured in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Lü; Hailong Fu; Qiang Sun; Li Cui; Dihui Ma; Weihong Lin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At least three types of calcium ion channel (T, N, and L) have been recognized in nerve cells, but only the L type of channel is sensitive to drugs. Theoretically, nimodipine can lead to L-type channel inactivation and prevent calcium ion inflow, thereby exhibiting protective effects on nerve cells.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effects of nimodipine on glutamate-induced injury to embryonic rat neural stem cells, and to make a comparison with MK-801, a nonselective glutamate receptor antagonist.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present in vitro experiment pertaining to neural stem cells was performed at the Department of Neurology, First Hospital, Jilin University between January 2005 and December 2006.MATERIALS: Glutamate was sourced from the Shanghai Biological Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Nimodipine was provided by Bayer Company, Germany. Brain tissue was taken from Wistar rats on day 15 of gestation for isolation and culture of neural stem cells.METHODS: Passage 2 neural stem cell spheres were taken for preparation of single cell suspension. The prepared single cell suspension was divided into 4 groups: (1) Normal control, normally cultured. (2)Glutamate, cultured with 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 μ mol/L glutamate. (3) Nimodipine, received a 30-minute nimodipine [1 ×(10-8-10-2) g/L] culture followed by a glutamate (200 μ mol/L) treatment step. (4)MK-801, given as 30- minute MK-801 (100 μ mol/L) culture, followed by a glutamate (200 μ mol/L)treatment step.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of glutamate-induced cell death by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay; calculation of neural stem cell survival rate following addition of nimodipine.RESULTS: The survival rate of neural stem cells was approximately 25.26% following 24 hour 50 μ mol/L glutamate culture and gradually decreased as the glutamate dose increased (P < 0.05 0.01). Only 9.27% of neural stem cells survived when the glutamate dose was 1 000 μ mol

  3. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-10-01

    In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey's post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey's post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p = 0.000). Based on the results of

  4. Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ren-Wu; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Zong, Zi-Chao; Li, Jun-Xiong; Yang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Dong-Ping; Yang, Si-Ze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C-O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C-C or C-H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), and the Funds from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  5. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  6. Effects of time interval between primary melanoma excision and sentinel node biopsy on positivity rate and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Ophuis, Charlotte M C; van Akkooi, Alexander C J; Rutkowski, Piotr; Voit, Christiane A; Stepniak, Joanna; Erler, Nicole S; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Wouters, Michel W J M; Grünhagen, Dirk J; Verhoef, Cornelis Kees

    2016-11-01

    Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is essential for adequate melanoma staging. Most melanoma guidelines advocate to perform wide local excision and SNB as soon as possible, causing time pressure. To investigate the role of time interval between melanoma diagnosis and SNB on sentinel node (SN) positivity and survival. This is a retrospective observational study concerning a cohort of melanoma patients from four European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group tertiary referral centres from 1997 to 2013. A total of 4124 melanoma patients underwent SNB. Patients were selected if date of diagnosis and follow-up (FU) information were available, and SNB was performed in melanoma-specific survival (MSS). Median time interval was 43 d (interquartile range [IQR] 29-60 d), and 705 (19.9%) of 3546 patients had a positive SN. Sentinel node positivity was equal for early surgery (≤43 d) versus late surgery (>43 d): 19.7% versus 20.1% (p = 0.771). Median FU was 50 months (IQR 24-84 months). Sentinel node metastasis (hazard ratio [HR] 3.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.53-3.97), ulceration (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.58-2.51), Breslow thickness (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.08), and male gender (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.26-1.98) (all p melanoma diagnosis and SNB on 5-year survival or SN positivity rate was found for a time interval of up to 3 months. This information can be used to counsel patients and remove strict time limits from melanoma guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  8. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the piglets suckling normal teats, although the difference was not statistically significant. Piglets nursing small teats had lower weaning weight (4.8 kg) and the corresponding mammary tissue also had lower weight (335 g). This study

  9. Enhanced cardiac TBC1D10C expression lowers heart rate and enhances exercise capacity and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Cornelia; Bremer, Sebastian; Hellenkamp, Kristian; Hartmann, Nico; Dybkova, Nataliya; Khadjeh, Sara; Kutschenko, Anna; Liebetanz, David; Wagner, Stefan; Unsöld, Bernhard; Didié, Michael; Toischer, Karl; Sossalla, Samuel; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Seidler, Tim

    2016-01-01

    TBC1D10C is a protein previously demonstrated to bind and inhibit Ras and Calcineurin. In cardiomyocytes, also CaMKII is inhibited and all three targeted enzymes are known to promote maladaptive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here, in accordance with lack of Calcineurin inhibition in vivo, we did not observe a relevant anti-hypertrophic effect despite inhibition of Ras and CaMKII. However, cardiomyocyte-specific TBC1D10C overexpressing transgenic mice exhibited enhanced longevity. Ejection fraction and exercise capacity were enhanced in transgenic mice, but shortening of isolated cardiomyocytes was not increased. This suggests longevity resulted from enhanced cardiac performance but independent of cardiomyocyte contractile force. In further search for mechanisms, a transcriptome-wide analysis revealed expressional changes in several genes pertinent to control of heart rate (HR) including Hcn4, Scn10a, Sema3a and Cacna2d2. Indeed, telemetric holter recordings demonstrated slower atrial conduction and significantly lower HR. Pharmacological reduction of HR was previously demonstrated to enhance survival in mice. Thus, in addition to inhibition of stress signaling, TBC1D10C economizes generation of cardiac output via HR reduction, enhancing exercise capacity and survival. TBC1D10C may be a new target for HR reduction and longevity. PMID:27667030

  10. Functionalized Scaffold-mediated Interleukin 10 Gene Delivery Significantly Improves Survival Rates of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Carolyn; Power, Karen; Sefton, Michael; O'Brien, Timothy; Gallagher, William M.; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    While stem cell transplantation could potentially treat a variety of disorders, clinical studies have not yet demonstrated conclusive benefits. This may be partly because transplanted stem cells have low survival rates, potentially due to host inflammation. The system described herein used two different gene therapy techniques to improve retention of rat mesenchymal stem cells. In the first, stem cells were transfected with interleukin-10 (IL-10) before being loaded into a collagen scaffold. In the second, unmodified stem cells were loaded into a collagen scaffold along with polymer-complexed IL-10 plasmids. The scaffolds were surgically implanted into the dorsum of syngeneic rats. At each endpoint, the scaffolds were explanted and cell retention, IL-10 level and inflammatory response were quantified. All treatment groups had statistically significant increases in cell retention after 7 days, but the group treated with 2 µg of IL-10 polyplexes had a significant improvement even at 21 days. This cell retention was associated with increased IL-10 and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. The primary effect on the inflammatory response appeared to be on macrophage differentiation, encouraging the regulatory phenotype over the cytotoxic lineage. Improving cell survival may be an important step toward realization of the therapeutic potential of stem cells. PMID:21266957

  11. Increased Drying Rate Lowers the Critical Water Content for Survival in Embryonic Axes of English Oak (Quercus robur L.) Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tobias M. Ntuli; William E. Finch-Savage; Patricia Berjak; Norman W. Pammenter

    2011-01-01

    The potential to cryopreserve embryonic axes of desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds is limited by damage during the desiccation necessary for low temperature survival, but the basis of this injury and how to reduce it is not well understood. The effects of drying rate on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical-mediated processes were therefore investigated during dehydration of Quercus robur L. embryonic axes. Viability, assessed by evidence of germination and tetrazolium staining, showed a sharp decline at 0.27 and 0.8 g/g during rapid (<12 h) or slow (3 d) dehydration, respectively. Rapid dehydration therefore lowered the critical water content for survival. At any given water content rapid dehydration was associated with higher activities of the free radical processing enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and lower levels of hydroperoxide and membrane damage. Rapid dehydration was also associated with lower malate dehydrogenase activity, and a reduced decline in phosphofructokinase activity and in levels of the oxidized form of nicotinamide dinucleotide. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in hydrated storage after 3 d. The results presented are consistent with rapid dehydration reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions.

  12. The effect of retraining of nurses on cardiopulmonary resuscitationsuccess rate and short-term and long-term survival in patients revived

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    Dahi M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is performed in order to restore the functioning of two most important body organs the heart and brain. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of retraining of nurses on CPR success rate and short-term and long-term CPR survival. Materials and Method: The study population of the present quasi-experimental study consisted of all nurses of Taleghani Hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The study subjects (n = 400 were selected using convenience and purposive sampling method. The patient survival rate during the first 24 hours (short-term survival and discharge from the hospital (long-term survival after CPR were reported. Then, the study subjects, in groups of 20, participated in CPR training courses. Short-term (24 hours and long-term (discharge from hospital in good mental status survival subsequent to CPR were reevaluated and compared with pre-training results. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20, and t-test and chi-square test. Results: Retraining promoted CPR success rates. This increase in the short-term success rate was not significant, but the increase in long-term success rate was statistically significant (P = 0.007. Conclusion: Periodic retraining of nurses may improve CPR success rate particularly long-term survival or discharge from hospital. Therefore, further studies on long-term success of CPR considering confounding factors are recommended

  13. Increasing of survival rate to Acipenser persicus by added Clinoptilolite zeolite in acute toxicity test of ammonia

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    Mohammad Farhangi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were done to increase the survival rate to Acipenser persicus by added Clinoptilolite zeolite in lethal concentration of ammonia. Twelve fishes with average weight 26 ± 3 g were exposed to different concentrations (5, 15, 25, 35 mg L-1 of total ammonia salt. A group of fish was considered as control. Under stable condition, the lethal concentration of total ammonia was 35 mg L-1 during 96 hours. In the lethal concentration of total ammonia different amount of 4, 8, 12 g L-1 Clinoptilolite zeolite were used. Results indicate significant differences between treatments with each other and also control (p-1 concentration of powdered zeolite, the mortality of fish could be prevented after 96 hours. Histopathological findings showed that major lesion were hemorrhage, hyperemia, hyperplasia and epithelial cells necrosis. Also observed was degenerated tubules of kidney, expansion of Bowman’s capsule and hepatocytes necrosis by observations.

  14. The Impact of Alternative Trait-Scaling Hypotheses for the Maximum Photosynthetic Carboxylation Rate (V (sub cmax)) on Global Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Quaife, Tristan; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Joiner, Joanna; Lomas, Mark R.; MacBean, Natasha; Xu, Chongang; Yang, Xiaojuan; hide

    2017-01-01

    The maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (V (sub cmax)) is an influential plant trait that has multiple scaling hypotheses, which is a source of uncertainty in predictive understanding of global gross primary production (GPP). Four trait-scaling hypotheses (plant functional type, nutrient limitation, environmental filtering, and plant plasticity) with nine specific implementations were used to predict global V(sub cmax) distributions and their impact on global GPP in the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM). Global GPP varied from 108.1 to 128.2 petagrams of Carbon (PgC) per year, 65 percent of the range of a recent model intercomparison of global GPP. The variation in GPP propagated through to a 27percent coefficient of variation in net biome productivity (NBP). All hypotheses produced global GPP that was highly correlated (r equals 0.85-0.91) with three proxies of global GPP. Plant functional type-based nutrient limitation, underpinned by a core SDGVM hypothesis that plant nitrogen (N) status is inversely related to increasing costs of N acquisition with increasing soil carbon, adequately reproduced global GPP distributions. Further improvement could be achieved with accurate representation of water sensitivity and agriculture in SDGVM. Mismatch between environmental filtering (the most data-driven hypothesis) and GPP suggested that greater effort is needed understand V(sub cmax) variation in the field, particularly in northern latitudes.

  15. Modal dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fibers encompass a central dip in the core index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diasty, Fouad; El-Hennawi, H. A.; El-Ghandoor, H.; Soliman, Mona A.

    2013-12-01

    Intermodal and intramodal dispersions signify one of the problems in graded-index multi-mode optical fibers (GRIN) used for LAN communication systems and for sensing applications. A central index dip (depression) in the profile of core refractive-index may occur due to the CVD fabrication processes. The index dip may also be intentionally designed to broaden the fundamental mode field profile toward a plateau-like distribution, which have advantages for fiber-source connections, fiber amplifiers and self-imaging applications. Effect of core central index dip on the propagation parameters of GRIN fiber, such as intermodal dispersion, intramodal dispersion and root-mean-square broadening, is investigated. The conventional methods usually study optical signal propagation in optical fiber in terms of mode characteristics and the number of modes, but in this work multiple-beam Fizeau interferometry is proposed as an inductive but alternative methodology to afford a radial approach to determine dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fiber having a central index dip.

  16. Polymorphism at the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor locus: associations with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition and cold survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H; Hogan, A; Frampton, C

    2003-02-01

    The beta3-adrenergic receptors (ADRB3s) are predominantly found on the surface of adipocytes and are the major mediators of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of part of the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) intron was used to screen 12 large Merino half-sib families for sequence variation. Six different alleles that segregated in a Mendelian fashion were observed. The genetic basis for the allelic differences were identified by sequencing the ADRB3 (coding and non-coding regions) from animals that were homozygous for each of the alleles. Five sire lines (two Merino x Merino, two Merino x Coopworth, one Dorset Down x Coopworth) provided phenotypic and genotypic data used to ascertain the effects of allelic variation at the ADRB3 locus on birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate (up until weaning), carcass composition at 63 days post-weaning and cold survival. Statistical analyses within each half-sib family showed that in some sire lines (S13, S15, and S17) the inheritance of a particular allele was associated with increased birth weights and/or increased growth rates up until weaning. The inheritance of a particular sire allele was associated with fatter carcasses in sire line S16. Chi-squared analysis revealed the association of the E allele with cold survival and the D allele with cold-related mortality in sire line S14. Such associations support the hypothesis that ADRB3s are involved in energy homeostasis. With more research, the variation detected at the ADRB3 locus may assist in the genetic selection for desirable animal production traits.

  17. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2008-04-01

    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  18. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Carvalho Beduschi

    Full Text Available The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort.This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis.After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group. Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71 compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02 nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11.In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better in APD patients.

  19. Restored river corridors: first results on the effects of flow variability on vegetation cuttings survival rate and related root architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Jiang, Z.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding and predicting the evolution of river alluvial bed forms toward a vegetated or a non-vegetated morphology have important implications for restored river corridors and the related ecosystem functioning (see also Schäppi et al, this session). Vegetation recruitment and growth on non-cohesive material of river corridors, such as gravel bars and islands of braided river, depend on the ability of roots to develop and anchor efficiently such to resist against flow erosion. In this work, we study the interannual morphological evolution of a gravel bar island, the survival rate and the growth of a number of plots with different density and orientation of transplanted cuttings (Salix Alba), the space and time dynamics of which depend on erosion and deposition processes due to floods. Our purpose is to identify island locations where the hydrodynamic conditions are more suitable for plants germination, growth and survival in relation to the river hydrograph statistics. This information is a first step to build a stochastic model able to predict the future evolution and progress of the restoration action of the investigated river reach. We focus at the main island of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Canton Thurgau, Switzerland), the restoration success of which is investigated from a mechanistic viewpoint in the research project "REstored CORridor Dynamics" (www.record.ethz.ch). Accordingly, we analyze two recent Digital Elevation Models (1 year difference), which were first corrected to account for the river bathymetry, and then we compare them in order to extract relevant interannual morphological changes. Using a two dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model we simulate several flow conditions ranging from the minimum recorded flow up to the one that completely inundates the island. Hence, we build inundation maps of the island that we associate to the frequency and the submergence duration of every area. We then correlate such results to the observed survival

  20. Multivariate analyses to assess the effects of surgeon and hospital volume on cancer survival rates: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

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    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Positive results between caseloads and outcomes have been validated in several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is limited information available on the combined effects of surgeon and hospital caseloads. We used nationwide population-based data to explore the association between surgeon and hospital caseloads and survival rates for major cancers. METHODOLOGY: A total of 11,677 patients with incident cancer diagnosed in 2002 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity scores were used to assess the relationship between 5-year survival rates and different caseload combinations. RESULTS: Based on the Cox proportional hazard model, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer survival rates, and hazard ratios ranged from 1.3 in head and neck cancer to 1.8 in lung cancer after adjusting for patients' demographic variables, co-morbidities, and treatment modality. When analyzed using the propensity scores, the adjusted 5-year survival rates were poorer for patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals, compared to those treated by high-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals (P<0.005. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for differences in the case mix, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer 5-year survival rates. Payers may implement quality care improvement in low-volume surgeons.

  1. Implant and prosthodontic survival rates with implant fixed complete dental prostheses in the edentulous mandible after at least 5 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Mokti, Muizzaddin; Chen, Chun-Jung; Benic, Goran I; Gallucci, German O; Chronopoulos, Vasilios

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of mandibular edentulism with implant fixed complete dental prostheses (IFCDPs) is a routinely used treatment option. The study aims to report the implant and prosthodontic survival rates associated with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible after an observation period of a minimum 5 years. An electronic MEDLINE/PubMED search was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective studies with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible. Clinical studies with at least 5-year follow-up were selected. Pooled data were statistically analyzed and cumulative implant- and prosthesis survival rates were calculated by meta-analysis, regression, and chi-square statistics. Implant-related and prosthesis-related factors were identified and their impact on survival rates was assessed. Seventeen prospective studies, including 501 patients and 2,827 implants, were selected for meta-analysis. The majority of the implants (88.5% of all placed implants) had been placed in the interforaminal area. Cumulative implant survival rates for rough surface ranged from 98.42% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.98-98.86) (5 years) to 96.86% (95% CI: 96.00-97.73) (10 years); smooth surface implant survival rates ranged from 98.93% (95% CI: 98.38-99.49) (5 years) to 97.88% (95% CI: 96.78-98.98) (10 years). The prosthodontic survival rates for 1-piece IFCDPs ranged from 98.61% (95% CI: 97.80-99.43) (5 years) to 97.25% (95% CI: 95.66-98.86) (10 years). Treatment with mandibular IFCDPs yields high implant and prosthodontic survival rates (more than 96% after 10 years). Rough surface implants exhibited cumulative survival rates similar to the smooth surface ones (p > .05) in the edentulous mandible. The number of supporting implants and the antero-posterior implant distribution had no influence (p > .05) on the implant survival rate. The prosthetic design and veneering material, the retention type, and the loading protocol (delayed, early, and immediate) had no

  2. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

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    Altwegg Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers.

  3. Combined detection of the expression of Nm23-H1 and p53 is correlated with survival rates of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinying; Li, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoai; Dong, Danfeng; Tang, Chunhui; Li, Enxiao; Geng, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Molecular tumor markers hold considerable promise for accurately predicting the recurrence and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients. However, in the majority of cases, single marker analysis has been found to have low accuracy, and is of little practical use in clinical practice. The present study investigated the prognostic value of the combined detection of the protein expression of metastasis suppressor 23-H1 (Nm23-H1) and p53 using immunohistochemical analysis, and the mRNA expression levels were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 110 cases of stage II and III CRC. The results revealed that the expression levels of Nm23-H1 in CRC tissues were lower, compared with those in normal tissues (χ(2)=18.249; Pp53 were higher in the CRC tissues (χ(2)=23.940; Pp53 presented with the same trend. The protein expression of Nm23-H1 was correlated with lymph node metastases (χ(2)=11.847; P=0.001) and pathological patterns (χ(2)=6.911; P=0.032). However, it did not correlate with patient gender or age, or with tumor World Health Organization classification or invasive depth (P>0.05). No significant correlation was observed between the expression of p53 and clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Patients with CRC with Nm23-H1(+)/p53(-) tumors had increased survival rates, with a five-year overall survival rate of 83.8% and a five-year disease-free survival rate of 70.2%. The five-year overall survival rates in other study cohorts were lower, compared with the Nm23-H1(+)/p53(-) group (Pdisease-free survival rate (Pp53 was associated with the long term survival rates of patients with stage II and III CRC; and this may offer potential for use as a predictor of survival rates in patients with CRC.

  4. Combined detection of the expression of Nm23-H1 and p53 is correlated with survival rates of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinying; Li, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoai; Dong, Danfeng; Tang, Chunhui; Li, Enxiao; Geng, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Molecular tumor markers hold considerable promise for accurately predicting the recurrence and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients. However, in the majority of cases, single marker analysis has been found to have low accuracy, and is of little practical use in clinical practice. The present study investigated the prognostic value of the combined detection of the protein expression of metastasis suppressor 23-H1 (Nm23-H1) and p53 using immunohistochemical analysis, and the mRNA expression levels were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 110 cases of stage II and III CRC. The results revealed that the expression levels of Nm23-H1 in CRC tissues were lower, compared with those in normal tissues (χ2=18.249; PWorld Health Organization classification or invasive depth (P>0.05). No significant correlation was observed between the expression of p53 and clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Patients with CRC with Nm23-H1(+)/p53(−) tumors had increased survival rates, with a five-year overall survival rate of 83.8% and a five-year disease-free survival rate of 70.2%. The five-year overall survival rates in other study cohorts were lower, compared with the Nm23-H1(+)/p53(−) group (P<0.0125), and this was the same for the five-year disease-free survival rate (P<0.0125). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the combined detection of the protein expression of Nm23-H1 and p53 was associated with the long term survival rates of patients with stage II and III CRC; and this may offer potential for use as a predictor of survival rates in patients with CRC.

  5. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

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    Emanoela Nardes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  6. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces

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    Olivier Le Gac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1–5.4 years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3–5.9 years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland. In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5% and 23 TST implants (1.5% failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  7. GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. II. THE GRAND-DESIGN GALAXY M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. [On sabbatical leave from the Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089, Mexico. (Mexico); Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-06-20

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), neutral gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub I}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.4{+-}0.2}}, whereM{sub 3rd} is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation with{Sigma}{sub gas},{Sigma}{sub H2}, or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.6{+-}0.1}} and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 0.5{+-}0.2}; there is no correlation with either {Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}} or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 3.8{+-}0.3}, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}{sup 1.2{+-}0.1}}, and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub SFR}{sup 0.9{+-}0.1}. For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet

  8. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  9. Oral intake of Lactobacillus rhamnosus M21 enhances the survival rate of mice lethally infected with influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hee Joo; Hong, Seong Keun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Sang Won; Song, Chang Seon; Kim, Ki Taek; Choi, In Soo; Lee, Joong Bok; Park, Seung Yong

    2016-02-01

    Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory disease. Because of the high genetic variability of viruses, effective vaccines and antiviral agents are limited. Considering the fact that the site of influenza virus entry is the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, probiotics that can enhance mucosal immunity as well as systemic immunity could be an important source of treatment against influenza infection. Mice were fed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus M21 or skim milk and were challenged with influenza virus. The resulting survival rate, lung inflammation, and changes in the cytokine and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels were examined. Because of infection (influenza virus), all the mice in the control group and 60% of the mice in the L. rhamnosus M21 group died; however, the remaining 40% of the mice fed with L. rhamnosus M21 survived the infection. Pneumonia was severe in the control group but moderate in the group treated with L. rhamnosus M21. Although there were no significant changes in the proinflammatory cytokines in the lung lysates of mice collected from both groups, levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-2, which are representative cytokines of type I helper T cells, were significantly increased in the L. rhamnosus M21-treated group. An increase in sIgA as well as the diminution of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also observed in the L. rhamnosus M21-treated group. These results demonstrate that orally administered L. rhamnosus M21 activates humoral as well as cellular immune responses, conferring increased resistance to the host against influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND TYPES OF MEDIA ON THE SURVIVAL RATE OF S. agalactiae BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful effect of phages in phage therapy has been proven by an increase of the presence of phages in survivors. Seven previously isolated phages were used to examine the effects of storage temperature and types of media on their survival rate. Phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20 and PSaT-21 isolated from a Streptococcosis-infected Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were used in this study. Phages PSaG-1, PSaG-2 and PSaG-3 were isolated from a diseased Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy. All of the phages were stored in refrigerator at temperature of 8oC and kept in two types of media, Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB and BHIB enriched with glycerol. To determine the lytic activity of the phages, 20 μL of each phage suspension was poured onto BHIA plate and incubated at 25oC for 24 to 48 hours. The result showed that phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20 and PSaT-21 have lytic activity against S. agalactiae and S. iniae than phages PSaG-1, PSaG-2, and PSaG-3. Phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20, and PSaT-21 always survived up to three weeks and phage PSaT-18 in BHIB have the highest potential as a candidate of phage therapy for Streptococcosis.

  11. Evaluation of adaptation to visually induced motion sickness based on the maximum cross-correlation between pulse transmission time and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiba Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer graphics and virtual reality techniques are useful to develop automatic and effective rehabilitation systems. However, a kind of virtual environment including unstable visual images presented to wide field screen or a head mounted display tends to induce motion sickness. The motion sickness induced in using a rehabilitation system not only inhibits effective training but also may harm patients' health. There are few studies that have objectively evaluated the effects of the repetitive exposures to these stimuli on humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate the adaptation to visually induced motion sickness by physiological data. Methods An experiment was carried out in which the same video image was presented to human subjects three times. We evaluated changes of the intensity of motion sickness they suffered from by a subjective score and the physiological index ρmax, which is defined as the maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and pulse wave transmission time and is considered to reflect the autonomic nervous activity. Results The results showed adaptation to visually-induced motion sickness by the repetitive presentation of the same image both in the subjective and the objective indices. However, there were some subjects whose intensity of sickness increased. Thus, it was possible to know the part in the video image which related to motion sickness by analyzing changes in ρmax with time. Conclusion The physiological index, ρmax, will be a good index for assessing the adaptation process to visually induced motion sickness and may be useful in checking the safety of rehabilitation systems with new image technologies.

  12. High-Resolution Chronostratigraphic Correlation and Sedimentation Rate Calculations With Maximum Depositional Ages Derived From Large-n Detrital Zircon Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Coutts, D. S.; Matthews, W.; Guest, B.; Bain, H.

    2015-12-01

    In basins adjacent to continually active arcs, detrital zircon geochronology can be used to establish a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework for deep-time strata. Large-nU-Pb geochronological datasets can yield a statistically significant signature from the youngest sub-population of detrital zircons, which we deduce from maximum depositional age (MDA) calculations. MDA is determined through numerous methods such as the mean age of three or more overlapping grain ages at 2σ error, favored in this analysis. Positive identification of the youngest detrital zircon population in a rock is the limiting factor on precision and resolution. The Campanian-Paleogene Nanaimo Group of B.C., Canada, was deposited in a forearc basin, outboard of the Coast Mountain Batholith. The record of a deep-water sediment-routing system is exhumed at Denman and Hornby islands; sandstone- and conglomerate- dominated strata compose a composite sedimentary unit 20 km across and 1.5 km thick, in strike section. Volcanic ashes are absent from the succession, which has been constrained biostratigraphically. Eleven detrital zircon samples are analyzed to define stratigraphic architecture and provide insight into sedimentation rates. Our dataset (n=3081) constrains the overall duration of channelization to ~18 Ma. A series of at least five distinct composite channel fills 3-6 km wide and 400-600 m thick are identified. The MDA of these units are statistically distinct and constrained to better than 3% precision. Sedimentation rates amongst the channel fills increase upward, from 60-100 m/Ma to >500 m/Ma. This is likely linked to the tendency of a slope channel system to be dominated by sediment bypass early in its evolution, and later dominated by aggradation as large-scale levees develop. Channel processes were not continuous, with the longest hiatus ~6 Ma. The large-n detrital zircon dataset provides unprecedented insight into long-term sediment routing, evidence for which is

  13. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  14. The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: a geographic and multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Lian, Min; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined disparities in survival among women aged 66 years or older in association with census-tract-level poverty rate, racial distribution, and individual-level factors, including patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors, utilization of medical care, and mammography use. They used linked data from the 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs, 1991-1999 Medicare claims, and the 1990 US Census. A geographic information system and advanced statistics identified areas of increased or reduced breast cancer survival and possible reasons for geographic variation in survival in 2 of the 5 SEER areas studied. In the Detroit, Michigan, area, one geographic cluster of shorter-than-expected breast cancer survival was identified (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60). An additional area where survival was longer than expected approached statistical significance (HR = 0.4; P = 0.056). In the Atlanta, Georgia, area, one cluster of shorter- (HR = 1.81) and one cluster of longer-than-expected (HR = 0.72) breast cancer survival were identified. Stage at diagnosis and census-tract poverty (and patient's race in Atlanta) explained the geographic variation in breast cancer survival. No geographic clusters were identified in the 3 other SEER programs. Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer, focusing on areas of high poverty and targeting African Americans, may reduce disparities in breast cancer survival in the Detroit and Atlanta areas.

  15. Association between very low PTH levels and poor survival rates in haemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G; Lataillade, D; Genet, L; Legrand, E; Kuentz, F; Moreau-Gaudry, X; Fouque, D

    2011-01-01

    A very low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (VLPL) is associated with an increased risk of adynamic bone disease, vascular calcification, and mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency, the associated factors, and the prognosis of non-surgical VLPL in a cohort of prevalent HD patients. In July 2005, a cross-sectional study was performed on the French ARNOS cohort in 1,348 prevalent HD patients from 24 dialysis centres in the Rhône-Alpes area. Patients with a baseline intact PTH level <50 pg/ml (VLPL, Group 1) and ≥ 50 pg/ml (Group 2) were compared and a 42-month survival analysis was performed. Patients with prevalent or incident parathyroidectomy were excluded. We studied 1,138 prevalent HD patients. As compared to patients of Group 2 (n = 1,019), patients with VLPL (Group 1, n = 119) had lower serum albumin levels (34.5 ± 5 vs. 36.4 ± 5 g/l, p < 0.0001), less protein intake (nPCR 0.99 ± 0.28 vs. 1.1 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, p = 0.01), higher calcaemia (2.30 ± 0.2 vs. 2.26 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.01) and were more frequently treated with calcium carbonate (67 vs. 54%, p < 0.001). Patients with VLPL had a higher mortality rate (HR: 1.4 (1.07-1.8), p = 0.006) after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and dialysis vintage. The odds ratios of mortality for patients with VLPL remained higher in all calcaemia and serum albumin quartiles. Only 3/119 patients in Group 1 did not receive any PTH-lowering therapies (i.e. calcium carbonate (67%), alfacalcidol (38%), cinacalcet (10.1%), and dialysate calcium ≥ 1.5 mmol/l (94%)). In this observational French cohort, VLPL was observed in 10% of prevalent HD patients and was associated with poor survival rates. An inadequate therapeutic strategy could be responsible for this observation. The real consequences of this iatrogenic adynamic bone disease remain hypothetical, but it may be related to the risk of developing vascular calcification. It is hypothesized that a more adequate

  16. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hoon [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Sang Jun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  17. High survival frequencies at low herbicide use rates in populations of Lolium rigidum result in rapid evolution of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, P; Powles, S

    2005-12-01

    The frequency of phenotypic resistance to herbicides in previously untreated weed populations and the herbicide dose applied to these populations are key determinants of the dynamics of selection for resistance. In total, 31 Lolium rigidum populations were collected from sites with no previous history of exposure to herbicides and where there was little probability of gene flow from adjacent resistant populations. The mean survival frequency across all 31 populations following two applications of commercial rates (375 g ha(-1)) of the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicide, diclofop-methyl was 0.43%. Survivors from five of these populations were grown to maturity and seed was collected. Dose-response experiments compared population level resistance to diclofop-methyl in these selected lines with their original parent populations. A single cycle of herbicide selection significantly increased resistance in all populations (LD(50) R:S ratios ranged from 2.8 to 23.2), confirming the inheritance and genetic basis of phenotypic resistance. In vitro assays of ACCase inhibition by diclofop acid indicated that resistance was due to a non-target-site mechanism. Following selection with diclofop-methyl, the five L. rigidum populations exhibited diverse patterns of cross-resistance to ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides, suggesting that different genes or gene combinations were responsible for resistance. The relevance of these results to the management of herbicide resistance are discussed.

  18. Experimental infection of Fusarium proliferatum in Oryza sativa plants; fumonisin B1 production and survival rate in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushiro, Masayo; Saitoh, Hatsuo; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Aoki, Takayuki; Kawamoto, Shin-ichi; Sato, Toyozo

    2012-06-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is a plant pathogenic fungus associated with crops such as asparagus and corn, and it possesses the ability to produce a range of mycotoxins, including fumonisins. In Asia, rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple cereal and is occasionally colonized by this fungus without obvious physiological changes. F. proliferatum is closely related to Gibberella fujikuroi (anamorph F. fujikuroi) responsible for Bakanae disease in rice; however there are few reports of F. proliferatum as a rice pathogen. In this study, we examined the pathogenic potential of F. proliferatum in rice plants with respect to browning, fumonisin production, and survival rates in rice grains. Fungal inoculation was conducted by spraying a conidial suspension of F. proliferatum onto rice plants during the flowering period. Browning was found on the stalk, leaf, and ear of rice. Fumonisin B(1) was detected at levels from trace to 21 ng/g grains, using tandem mass spectrometry. Fungal recovery after 6 months indicated that F. proliferatum had high affinity to rice plants being still viable in grains. From this study, it can be concluded that F. proliferatum is a possible pathogen of rice and possesses a potential to produce fumonisin B(1) in rice grains in the field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  20. Computed tomography-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma: safety, efficacy, and effect on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnike, Konrad; Wieners, Gero; Schwartz, Franziska; Seidensticker, Max; Pech, Maciej; Ruehl, Ricarda; Wust, Peter; Lopez-Hänninen, Enrique; Gademann, Günther; Peters, Nils; Berg, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2010-09-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 83 patients were recruited, presenting with 140 HCC- lesions. Treatment was performed by CT-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints included local tumor control and overall survival (OS). A matched-pair analysis with patients not receiving brachytherapy was performed. Match criteria included the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, alpha-fetoprotein, presence, and extent of multifocal disease. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed. Mean and median cumulative TTP for all patients (n = 75) were 17.7 and 10.4 months. Five local recurrences were observed. The OS after inclusion reached median times of 19.4 months (all patients), 46.3 months (CLIP score, 0), 20.6 months (CLIP score, 1) 12.7 months, (CLIP score, 2), and 8.3 months (CLIP score, >or=3). The 1- and 3-year OS were 94% and 65% (CLIP score, 0), 69% and 12% (CLIP score, 1), and 48% and 19% (CLIP score, 2), respectively. Nine complications requiring intervention were encountered in 124 interventions. Matched-pair analysis revealed a significantly longer OS for patients undergoing CT-guided brachytherapy. Based on our results the study treatment could be safely performed. The study treatment had a beneficial effect on OS in patients with advanced HCC, with respect to (and depending on) the CLIP score and compared with OS in a historical control group. A high rate of local control was also observed, regardless of applied dose in a range of 15 to 25 Gy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  2. Evaluation of survival rate, bone loss and post operative complication in fixed retained prosthesis with All-on-4 technique: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Alikhasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival rate, mean bone loss and post operative complication of implants inserted in All-on-4 technique .   Materials and Methods: The literature was searched using keywords angled implant, All-on-4, tilted implant and graftless technique in the last 10 years (2001 to 2011 and clinical trial article that evaluated survival rate and mean bone loss around axial and tilted implants in All-on-4 technique was selected and evaluated.   A total of 73 articles were found by searching. After evaluation of titles and abstracts, finally 10 clinical trial, that were fully consistent with including criteria such as mean of bone loss and survival rate was selected and evaluated.   Conclusion: Results showed that the survival rate (96-100% and mean bone loss (0.34-1.9 mm with All-on-4 technique in immediate loading is comparable with other implant support treatment plan. Comparison of implant survival and bone loss in axial and tilted implant in All-on-4 system is shown this treatment plan has consistent result with other conventional implant support prosthesis. Also, postoperative complication including fractures of the acrylic temporary prosthesis, detachment of the teeth, abutment or prosthesis screw loosening have been reported with All-on-4 technique.

  3. Survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells following ultrahigh-dose-rate electron and bremsstrahlung radiation. Final report, September 1988-February 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, P.K.; Meltz, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this research was to measure cellular effects of ultrahigh dose rate X rays associated with high-power microwave devices. The intent was to detect differences in effect of ultrahigh dose-rate X rays compared to conventional dose-rate X rays at equivalent total doses. Cell survivability was used as the measure. No differences were noted until a dose of 4 Gray or greater was achieved.

  4. The Risk of Growing Fast: Does fast growth have a negative impact on the survival rates of firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; van der Zwan, Peter; de Kok, Jan; Hartog, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing firms are considered as the central drivers of job creation in the economy. There is an abundance of literature on the separate subjects of firm growth and firm survival. However, the relationship between survival and growth is neglected. Using the Dutch Longitudinal Enterprise Database

  5. EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE ON SURVIVAL RATE OF CANDIDA-ALBICANS AND ASPERGILLUS-NIGER IN TOPICAL PREPARATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H; DEVRINGER, T

    The survival of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in O/W creams with different types and concentrations of parabens was studied. The survival was not only dependent on the type and concentration of the preservative, but also on the size of the inoculum. The results are relevant for future

  6. The Risk of Growing Fast: Does fast growth have a negative impact on the survival rates of firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; van der Zwan, Peter; de Kok, Jan; Hartog, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing firms are considered as the central drivers of job creation in the economy. There is an abundance of literature on the separate subjects of firm growth and firm survival. However, the relationship between survival and growth is neglected. Using the Dutch Longitudinal Enterprise Database

  7. EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE ON SURVIVAL RATE OF CANDIDA-ALBICANS AND ASPERGILLUS-NIGER IN TOPICAL PREPARATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H; DEVRINGER, T

    1994-01-01

    The survival of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in O/W creams with different types and concentrations of parabens was studied. The survival was not only dependent on the type and concentration of the preservative, but also on the size of the inoculum. The results are relevant for future propo

  8. Factors influencing coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) seasonal survival rates: A spatially continuous approach within stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A.M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Mark-recapture methods were used to examine watershed-scale survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) from two headwater stream networks. A total of 1725 individuals (???100 mm, fork length) were individually marked and monitored seasonally over a 3-year period. Differences in survival were compared among spatial (stream segment, subwatershed, and watershed) and temporal (season and year) analytical scales, and the effects of abiotic (discharge, temperature, and cover) and biotic (length, growth, condition, density, movement, and relative fish abundance) factors were evaluated. Seasonal survival was consistently lowest and least variable (years combined) during autumn (16 September - 15 December), and evidence suggested that survival was negatively associated with periods of low stream discharge. In addition, relatively low (-) and high (+) water temperatures, fish length (-), and boulder cover (+) were weakly associated with survival. Seasonal abiotic conditions affected the adult cutthroat trout population in these watersheds, and low-discharge periods (e.g., autumn) were annual survival bottlenecks. Results emphasize the importance of watershed-scale processes to the understanding of population-level survival.

  9. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sund Björn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1 static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2 dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  10. Predictive value of assessing diastolic strain rate on survival in cardiac amyloidosis patients with preserved ejection fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    Full Text Available Since diastolic abnormalities are typical findings of cardiac amyloidosis (CA, we hypothesized that speckle-tracking-imaging (STI derived longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (LSRdias could predict outcome in CA patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF >50%.Diastolic abnormalities including altered early filling are typical findings and are related to outcome in CA patients. Reduced longitudinal systolic strain (LSsys assessed by STI predicts increased mortality in CA patients. It remains unknown if LSRdias also related to outcome in these patients.Conventional echocardiography and STI were performed in 41 CA patients with preserved LVEF (25 male; mean age 65±9 years. Global and segmental LSsys and LSRdias were obtained in six LV segments from apical 4-chamber views.Nineteen (46% out of 41 CA patients died during a median of 16 months (quartiles 5-35 months follow-up. Baseline mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE, 6 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 3 mm, global LSRdias and basal-septal LSRdias were significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05. NYHA class, number of non-cardiac organs involved, MAPSE, mid-septal LSsys, global LSRdias, basal-septal LSRdias and E/LSRdias were the univariable predictors of all-cause death. Multivariable analysis showed that number of non-cardiac organs involved (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-3.26, P = 0.010, global LSRdias (HR = 7.30, 95% CI 2.08-25.65, P = 0.002, and E/LSRdias (HR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.54-5.79, P = 0.001 remained independently predictive of increased mortality risk. The prognostic performance of global LSRdias was optimal at a cutoff value of 0.85 S-1 (sensitivity 68%, specificity 67%. Global LSRdias < 0.85 S-1 predicted a 4-fold increased mortality in CA patients with preserved LVEF.STI-derived early diastolic strain rate is a powerful independent predictor of survival in CA patients with preserved LVEF.

  11. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under clean-room conditions that often require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation on the surface of Mars. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  12. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Kemoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations.

  13. Effect of Aerobic Exercise with 75-85% of Maximum Heart Rate on Apelin and Insulin Resistance Index in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alavizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ims: Apelin is an adipokine, which secreted from adipose tissue and has positive effects against the insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8-week aerobic exercise on levels of apelin and insulin resistance index in sedentary men. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study with controlled group pre/post-test design in 2015, 27 healthy sedentary men living in Mashhad City, Iran, were selected by convenience sampling method. They were divided into two groups; experimental group (n=14 and control group (n=13. In the trained group, the volunteers participated in 8 weeks aerobic exercise, 3 days/week (equivalent to 75-85% of maximum oxygen consumption for 60 minutes per session. The research variables were assessed before and after the intervention in both groups. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software using paired and independent sample T tests. Findings: 8-week aerobic exercise significantly decreased the weight, BMI and apelin, insulin and insulin resistance index levels and increased the maximum oxygen consumption in experimental group sedentary men (p<0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in levels of FBS, insulin, apelin, insulin resistance index and maximum oxygen consumption between experimental and control groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: 8-week aerobic exercise reduces apelin levels and insulin resistance index in sedentary men.

  14. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  15. A meta-analysis of clinical studies to estimate the 4.5-year survival rate of implants placed with the osteotome technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalabi, M.M.; Manders, P.; Mulder, J.; Jansen, J.A.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To estimate the survival rate of implants placed with the osteotome technique by means of a systematic review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature was searched using Medline; the search was limited to the years 1953 to 2005. Inclusion criteria were: (1) clinical studies or clinical report

  16. Linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaile, Brian C; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL) method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864); northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758); and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776))--and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts.

  17. Linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Battaile

    Full Text Available We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864; northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758; and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776--and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts.

  18. A systematic review of the survival and complication rates of resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses after a mean observation period of at least 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Sailer, Irena; Ioannidis, Alexis; Zwahlen, Marcel; Makarov, Nikolay; Pjetursson, Bjarni E

    2017-02-13

    The objective of this systematic review was to assess the 5-year and 10-year survival of resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBBs) and to describe the incidence of technical and biological complications. An electronic MEDLINE search complemented by manual searching was conducted to identify prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case series on RBBs with a mean follow-up time of at least 5 years. Patients had to have been examined clinically at the follow-up visit. Assessment of the identified studies and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Failure and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5- and 10-year proportions. The search provided 367 titles and 87 abstracts. Full-text analysis was performed for 22 articles resulting in seven studies that met the inclusion criteria. Five articles were found through manual search, and 17 studies were provided from (Pjetursson et al. 2008, Clinical Oral Implants Research, 19, 131), resulting in an overall number of included studies of 29. Meta-analysis of these studies reporting on 2300 RBBs indicated an estimated survival of resin-bonded bridges of 91.4% (95 percent confidence interval [95% CI]: 86.7-94.4%) after 5 years and 82.9% (95% CI: 73.2-89.3%) after 10 years. A significantly higher survival rate was reported for RBBs with zirconia framework compared with RBBs from other materials. RBBs with one retainer had a significantly higher survival rate (P < 0.0001) and a lower de-bonding rate (P = 0.001) compared with RBBs retained by two or more retainers. Moreover, the survival rate was higher for RBBs inserted in the anterior area of the oral cavity compared with posterior RBBs. The most frequent complications were de-bonding (loss of retention), which occurred in 15% (95% CI: 10.9-20.6%) and chipping of the veneering material that was reported for 4.1% (95% CI: 1.8-9.5%) of the RBBs over an observation period of 5

  19. Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients. Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age (P<0.05 for all. With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (P=1.519. Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.

  20. Preimplantation biopsy predicts delayed graft function, glomerular filtration rate and long-term graft survival of transplanted kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The predictive value of preimplantation biopsies for long-term graft function is often limited by conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of time-zero graft biopsy histological scores on early and late graft function, graft survival and patient survival, at different time points. We retrospectively analyzed 284 preimplantation biopsies at a single center, in a cohort of recipients with grafts from live and deceased donors (standard and nonstandard, and their impact in posttransplant renal function after a mean follow-up of 7 years (range 1-16. Implantation biopsy score (IBS, a combination score derived from 4 histopathological aspects, was determined from each sample. The correlation with incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, creatinine clearance (1st, 3rd and 5th posttransplant year and graft and patient survival at 1 and 5 years were evaluated. Preimplantation biopsies provided somewhat of a prognostic index of early function and outcome of the transplanted kidney in the short and long term. In the immediate posttransplantation period, the degree of arteriolosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis correlated better with the presence of DGF. IBS values between 4 and 6 were predictive of worst renal function at 1st and 3rd years posttransplant and 5-year graft survival. The most important histological finding, in effectively transplanted grafts, was the grade of interstitial fibrosis. Patient survival was not influenced by IBS. Higher preimplantation biopsy scores predicted an increased risk of early graft losses, especially primary nonfunction. Graft survival (at 1st and 5th years after transplant but not patient survival was predicted by IBS.

  1. [Multi-disciplinary treatment increases the survival rate of late stage pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers treated by free jejunal flap reconstruction after cancer resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Zhang, H; Ni, S; Wang, J; Li, D Z; Liu, S Y

    2016-05-23

    To investigate the survival status of patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers, who received free jejunal flap (FJF) to repair the defects following tumor resection, and to analyze the effect of multi-disciplinary treatment on their survival. Fifty-eight patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancer underwent free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction after cancer resection between 2010 and 2013. All their clinical records were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of flap transplantation was 91.4% (53/58). The 2-year overall survival rates (OSR) of cervical esophageal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer patients were 67.5% and 49.3%, respectively, both were significantly better than that of laryngeal cancer. The main causes of death were local recurrence and distant metastases. The group with no short-term complications had a better two-year OSR (59.0%) than the group with short-term complications (46.6%), however, the difference between them was not significant (P=0.103). The 2-year survival rate of the initial treatment group was 65.0%, better than that of the salvage treatment group (49.4%), but the difference was not significant (P=0.051). For the stage III and IV patients, the multi-disciplinary treatment group had a significantly better 2-year OSR (64.7%) than the single or sequential treatment group (37.0%, P=0.016). Free jejunal flap reconstruction is an ideal option for repairing the cervical digestive tract circumferential defects caused by tumor resection with a high success rate and a low mortality. Compared with the single or sequential treatment, multi-disciplinary treatment can significantly improve the survival rate of late-stage hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer patients.

  2. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes. PMID:28220850

  3. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z D; Martinez, J J; Li, H; Harnish, R A; Woodley, C M; Hughes, J A; Li, X; Fu, T; Lu, J; McMichael, G A; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B; Skalski, J R; Townsend, R L

    2017-02-21

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes.

  4. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes.

  5. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part I: Single crowns (SCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar

    2015-06-01

    To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (pceramic and zirconia crowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (pceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (pceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival rates of most types of all-ceramic SCs were similar to those reported for metal-ceramic SCs, both in anterior and posterior regions. Weaker feldspathic/silica-based ceramics should be limited to applications in the anterior region. Zirconia-based SCs should not be considered as primary option due to their high incidence of technical problems. Copyright © 2015 Academy

  6. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  7. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  8. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rocha David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Different urban structures might affect the life history parameters of Aedes aegypti and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro. Results were contrasted with those previously found in a suburban district, as well as those recorded in a slum. After inspecting 1,041 premises, domestic drains and discarded plastic pots were identified as the most productive containers, collectively holding up to 80% of the total pupae. In addition, three cohorts of dust-marked Ae. aegypti females were released and recaptured daily using BGS-Traps, sticky ovitraps and backpack aspirators in 50 randomly selected houses; recapture rate ranged from 5-12.2% within cohorts. PDS was determined by two models and ranged from 0.607-0.704 (exponential model and 0.659-0.721 (non-linear model, respectively. Mean distance travelled varied from 57-122 m, with a maximum dispersal of 263 m. Overall, lower infestation indexes and adult female survival were observed in the high income neighbourhood, suggesting a lower dengue transmission risk in comparison to the suburban area and the slum. Since results show that urban structure can influence mosquito biology, specific control strategies might be used in order to achieve cost-effective Ae. aegypti control.

  9. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mariana Rocha; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Freitas, Rafael Maciel de

    2009-09-01

    Different urban structures might affect the life history parameters of Aedes aegypti and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS) and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro. Results were contrasted with those previously found in a suburban district, as well as those recorded in a slum. After inspecting 1,041 premises, domestic drains and discarded plastic pots were identified as the most productive containers, collectively holding up to 80% of the total pupae. In addition, three cohorts of dust-marked Ae. aegypti females were released and recaptured daily using BGS-Traps, sticky ovitraps and backpack aspirators in 50 randomly selected houses; recapture rate ranged from 5-12.2% within cohorts. PDS was determined by two models and ranged from 0.607-0.704 (exponential model) and 0.659-0.721 (non-linear model), respectively. Mean distance travelled varied from 57-122 m, with a maximum dispersal of 263 m. Overall, lower infestation indexes and adult female survival were observed in the high income neighbourhood, suggesting a lower dengue transmission risk in comparison to the suburban area and the slum. Since results show that urban structure can influence mosquito biology, specific control strategies might be used in order to achieve cost-effective Ae. aegypti control.

  10. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHOD...... female urinary incontinence. Thus, primary health care providers can assess women based on simple guidelines without expensive equipment for assessment of urine flow rate and residual urine....

  11. Oxygen supply in disposable shake-flasks: prediction of oxygen transfer rate, oxygen saturation and maximum cell concentration during aerobic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Sarah; Fröhlich, Alexander; John, Gernot T; Beutler, Falco; Wittmann, Christoph; Becker, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen plays an essential role in aerobic cultivation especially due to its low solubility. Under unfavorable conditions of mixing and vessel geometry it can become limiting. This, however, is difficult to predict and thus the right choice for an optimal experimental set-up is challenging. To overcome this, we developed a method which allows a robust prediction of the dissolved oxygen concentration during aerobic growth. This integrates newly established mathematical correlations for the determination of the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in disposable shake-flasks from the filling volume, the vessel size and the agitation speed. Tested for the industrial production organism Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enabled a reliable design of culture conditions and allowed to predict the maximum possible cell concentration without oxygen limitation.

  12. The effect of nest box temperature on kit growth rate and survival in the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2015-01-01

    growth. Instead parameters concerning litter composition did have significant effects on kit growth and survival. Litters with high number of Totborn and kit AliveD1 affected kit growth and kit viability negatively (increased number of live born kits dying), which indicates that factors acting...

  13. The effect of nest box temperature on kit growth rate and survival in the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2015-01-01

    dying and kits growth. Instead parameters concerning litter composition did have significant effects on kit growth and survival. Litters with high number of Totborn and kit AliveD1 affected kit growth and kit viability negatively (increased number of live born kits dying), which indicates that factors...

  14. Global incidences of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and survival rates: Systematic review of 67 prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Berdowski; R.A. Berg; J.G.P. Tijssen; R.W. Koster

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this investigation was to estimate and contrast the global incidence and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to provide a better understanding of the variability in risk and survival of OHCA. Methods: We conducted a review of published English-language articles about inc

  15. Correlation between the survival rate of the patients with synchronous hepatic metastases from gastric carcinoma after surgical resection and patient's index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-wei; LI Zhe; LIU Kai; FU Xiao-hui; YANG Jia-he; WU Meng-chao

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported the benefit of hepatic resection for solitary and metachronous metastases from gastric cancer.However,indications and surgical results for synchronous hepatic metastases from gastric carcinoma have not been clearly defined.This study was performed to assess the benefits and limits of simultaneous combined resection of both primary gastric cancer and synchronous hepatic metastases,as well as to identify prognostic factors affecting the survival.Methods Between January 2005 and June 2008,13 patients with synchronous hepatic metastases underwent simultaneous combined resection.The clinicopathologic features and the surgical results of the 13 patients were retrospectively analyzed.Patient,tumor (primary and metastatic carcinoma),and operative parameters were analyzed for their influence on survival.Results No patient died and two patients (15.4%) developed complications during peri-operative course.The actuarial 6-month,1-year,and 2-year survival rates after hepatic resection were 76.9%,38.5%,and 30.8%,respectively,and two patients survived for more than 2 years after surgery without any signs of recurrences until latest follow-up.In univariate analysis,hepatic tumor distribution (P=0.01) and number of hepatic metastases (P=0.003) were significant prognostic factors that influenced survival.Factors associated with the primary lesion were not significant prognostic factors.Conclusions Satisfactory survival may be achieved by simultaneous combined resection of both primary gastric cancer and synchronous hepatic metastases in strictly selected patients.The number of hepatic metastases and hepatic tumor distribution are significant prognostic determinants of survival.

  16. Secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is frequently associated with high response rate and superior survival in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dehui; An, Gang; Zhu, Guoqing; Wang, Jinhong; Shi, Lihui; Meng, Hengxing; Xu, Yan; Sui, Weiwei; Deng, Shuhui; Zhan, Fenghuang; Qiu, Lugui

    2014-03-01

    Secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a special phenomenon that occurs during the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The incidence, biological characteristics, and prognostic value of secondary MGUS in patients with MM remain undefined. We proceed with a retrospective systematic review of serum immunofixation electrophoresis studies performed in 438 cases of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, including 409 cases of newly diagnosed MM and 29 cases of primary plasma cell leukemia. Secondary MGUS was more common in patients with myeloma who had undergone stem cell transplantation than in those who had not (17 [29.8%] of 57 versus 5 [1.4%] of 352, P < .001). The clinical parameters and cytogenetic characteristics in patients with or without secondary MGUS were comparable. The complete response rates in patients with or without secondary MGUS were 81.8% and 21.8% respectively (P < .01). For the cohort as a whole, secondary MGUS was associated with significantly prolonged progression-free survival (median, 52.0 months versus 22.5 months; P = .002) and overall survival (median, not reached versus 35.0 months; P < .001). The presence of secondary MGUS retained independent prognostic value with a moderate impact on overall survival (hazard ratio .128 [95% confidence interval .018 to .922]; P = .041) in the multivariate Cox regression model. However, when analysis was restricted to patients undergoing stem cell transplantation, no statistical differences in progression-free survival and overall survival were found. In conclusion, we observe that secondary MGUS was frequently observed in MM patients after transplantation and conferred a survival prolongation. The favorable survival in patients with secondary MGUS may be explained by beneficial effect from myeloablative therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  17. [Guide values for heart rate and blood pressure with reference to 20, 40, 60 und 80% of maximum exertion considering age, sex and body mass in non-trained individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Barbara; Schwarz, Joachim; Haber, Paul; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate reliable guide values for heart rate (HF) and blood pressure (RR) with reference to defined sub maximum exertion considering age, gender and body mass. One hundred and eighteen healthy but non-trained subjects (38 women, 80 men) were included in the study. For interpretation, finally facts of 28 women and 59 men were used. We found gender differences for HF and RR. Further, we noted significant correlations between HF and age as well as between RR and body mass at all exercise levels. We established formulas for gender-specific calculation of reliable guide values for HF and RR on sub maximum exercise levels.

  18. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Eden, Ece; Frencken, Jo E; Oncag, Ozant

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to test the null hypotheses that there is no difference: (1) in carious lesion development at the restoration margin between class II composite resin restorations in primary molars produced through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel and (2) in the survival rate of class II composite resin restorations between two treatment groups after 2 years. Three hundred twenty-seven children with 568 class II cavitated lesions were included in a parallel mouth study design. Four operators placed resin composite (Filtek Z 250) restorations bonded with a self-etch adhesive (Adper prompt L pop). Two independent examiners evaluated the restorations after 0.5, 1, and 2 years using the modified Ryge criteria. The Kaplan-Meier survival method was applied to estimate survival percentages. A high proportion of restorations were lost during the study period. Therefore, the first hypothesis could not be tested. No statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival percentages of restorations produced by the two treatment approaches over the 2-year period (ART, 54.1 +/- 3.4%; ART with Carisolv, 46.0 +/- 3.4%). This hypothesis was accepted. ART with chemomechanical gel might not provide an added benefit increasing the survival percentages of ART class II composite resin restorations in primary teeth.

  19. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Mariana Rocha; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; de Freitas, Rafael Maciel

    2009-01-01

    ... and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS) and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro...

  20. Evaluation of survival and success rates of dental implants reported in longitudinal studies with a follow-up period of at least 10 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraschini, V; Poubel, L A da C; Ferreira, V F; Barboza, E dos S P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the survival and success rates of osseointegrated implants determined in longitudinal studies that conducted a follow-up of at least 10 years. A broad electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for relevant publications in indexed journals, evaluating the clinical performance of dental implants. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers analyzed titles, abstracts, and complete articles, prioritizing studies of the randomized clinical trial type. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. Ten prospective studies, nine retrospective studies, and four randomized clinical trials, which evaluated 7711 implants, were selected. The mean follow-up time of the studies included was 13.4 years. All of the studies reported survival rates and mean marginal bone resorption values, with cumulative mean values of 94.6% and 1.3mm, respectively. Fourteen studies related success rates. Taking into consideration the disparate outcome measures employed to assess dental implant performance and within the limitations of this systematic review, we may affirm that osseointegrated implants are safe and present high survival rates and minimal marginal bone resorption in the long term.

  1. Lowering GTP level increases survival of amino acid starvation but slows growth rate for Bacillus subtilis cells lacking (p)ppGpp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Alycia N; Kriel, Allison; Wang, Jue D

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial cells sense external nutrient availability to regulate macromolecular synthesis and consequently their growth. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the starvation-inducible nucleotide (p)ppGpp negatively regulates GTP levels, both to resist nutritional stress and to maintain GTP homeostasis during growth. Here, we quantitatively investigated the relationship between GTP level, survival of amino acid starvation, and growth rate when GTP synthesis is uncoupled from its major homeostatic regulator, (p)ppGpp. We analyzed growth and nucleotide levels in cells that lack (p)ppGpp and found that their survival of treatment with a nonfunctional amino acid analog negatively correlates with both growth rate and GTP level. Manipulation of GTP levels modulates the exponential growth rate of these cells in a positive dose-dependent manner, such that increasing the GTP level increases growth rate. However, accumulation of GTP levels above a threshold inhibits growth, suggesting a toxic effect. Strikingly, adenine counteracts GTP stress by preventing GTP accumulation in cells lacking (p)ppGpp. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining appropriate levels of GTP to maximize growth: cells can survive amino acid starvation by decreasing GTP level, which comes at a cost to growth, while (p)ppGpp enables rapid adjustment to nutritional stress by adjusting GTP level, thus maximizing fitness.

  2. Omitting adjuvant radiotherapy in endometrial cancer increases the rate of locoregional recurrences but has no effect on long-term survival: the Danish Endometrial Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørtoft, Gitte; Hansen, Estrid Stæhr; Bertelsen, Kamma

    2013-10-01

    In 2 prospective nationwide studies, the Danish Endometrial Cancer Study demonstrated that postoperative radiotherapy (RT) could be omitted in low- and intermediate-risk stage I patients without loss of survival when evaluated after 5 years. In the present study, we evaluated the consequence of this decision on the long-term risk of recurrence and death. From 1998 to 1999, 1166 patients newly diagnosed with uterine carcinoma were included. Of these, 586 were low-risk, 231 intermediate-risk, and 78 high-risk stage I. Low- and intermediate-risk patients received standard primary surgery (hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy), and no postoperative RT was given. Long-term recurrence and survival rates were estimated. After 14 years, 6.3% of low-risk and 22% of intermediate-risk patients had relapsed compared with 32% of high-risk patients. Recurrences were dominated by locoregional relapse in the low and intermediate risk, whereas non-locoregional relapses were prominent in high risk. After locoregional relapse, 1.5% of low and 4.3% of intermediate risk experienced a second relapse dominated by non-locoregional relapses. After curative-intended treatment of vaginal recurrence in the low- and intermediate-risk patients, 100% had complete remission after the first vaginal recurrence, whereas only 74% was cured after the first or the second recurrence. The increased recurrence rate, however, does not seem to affect survival because the survival rate did not change compared to earlier Danish population-based data. We conclude that omitting RT in early stage endometrial cancer increase local recurrences, but without affecting long-term survival.

  3. Embryo survival and birth rate after minimum volume vitrification or slow freezing of in vivo and in vitro produced ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Cuadro, F; Barrera, N; Crispo, M; Menchaca, A

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes and birth rate of in vivo derived vs. in vitro produced ovine embryos submitted to different cryopreservation methods. A total of 197 in vivo and 240 in vitro produced embryos were cryopreserved either by conventional freezing, or by vitrification with Cryotop or Spatula MVD methods on Day 6 after insemination/fertilization. After thawing/warming and transfer, embryo survival rate on Day 30 of gestation was affected by the source of the embryos (in vivo 53.3%, in vitro 20.8%; P vitro produced embryos, survival rate was 7.3% for conventional freezing, 38.7% for Cryotop, and 11.4% for Spatula MVD. Fetal loss from Day 30 to birth showed a tendency to be greater for in vitro (15.0%) rather than for in vivo produced embryos (5.7%), and was not affected by the cryopreservation method. Gestation length, weight at birth and lamb survival rate after birth were not affected by the source of the embryo, the cryopreservation method or stage of development (average: 150.5 ± 1.8 days; 4232.8 ± 102.8 g; 85.4%; respectively). This study demonstrates that embryo survival and birth rate of both in vivo and in vitro produced ovine embryos are improved by vitrification with the minimum volume Cryotop method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with survival rates of NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yujin; Wang, Liancong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Yuezhen; Lai, Xiaojing; Li, Jianqiang

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive importance of p53, c-erbB2 and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins in 152 tumor samples from resected primary NSCLCs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of proteins, survival and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated in 152 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. The positive rates of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression were 53.9 (82/152), 44.1 (67/152) and 43.4% (66/152), respectively. Overall survival rates of patients were markedly correlated with the overexpression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins. One, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients exhibiting a positive expression of these proteins were 72.6, 54.8 and 32.2%, respectively. These rates were lower compared with those of patients with a negative expression of these proteins (92.1, 78.5 and 63.4%) (P=0.02, 0.01 or 0.00, respectively). Results of Cox's regression analysis showed that c-erbB2 expression and cell differentiation were independent prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC. These findings suggest that the positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with the survival rates of NSCLC patients. Detection of positive p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression may be a useful predictive indicator of prognosis. Positive c-erbB2 expression is an independent prognostic factor, with a potential to be used as a predictive indicator of chemotherapy efficacy in NSCLC patients.

  5. Evaluation of the Correlation between CD44, Tumor Prognosis and the 5-Year Survival Rate in Patients with Oral Tongue SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboodkhani, Reza; Karimi, Ebrahim; Khorsandi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Kowkabi, Safoura; Firouzifar, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani, Farzad; Yazdani, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: 90% of the tumors in the head and neck are squamous-cell carcinomas (HNSCC), which have overall 5- year survival rate between 50% -60%. CD44 has been shown to be associated with the prognosis. Materials and Methods: Biopsy specimens of 51 patients with oral tongue SCC were evaluated by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the CD44 antibody. Results: There was no significant correlation between CD44 and survival (P=0.77), age (P=0.4), CD44 and lymph node metastasis (P=0.87), sex (P=0.947), smoking (P=0.287) and tumor size (P=0.813). However, there was significant correlation between smoking and survival. Conclusion: There are widespread discrepancies among the findings in the literature regarding the prognosis of CD44 expression in OCSCC. Our study shows that the expression of CD44 is not a marker of aggressive behavior in oral tongue SCC. Consequently, CD44 cannot be considered as handy tool to establish the tumor behavior, prognosis and 5- year survival rate of these tumors. PMID:28008391

  6. Treatment of Stages I and II cancer of the cervix: analysis of 5 year survival and recurrence rates. [Effects of surgery an incidence of complications following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, M.A.; da Conceicao Belo, M.; Santos, M.

    1979-03-01

    Eight hundred and thirty five patients with a diagnosis of Stages I or II carcinoma of the cervix were treated from 2 January 1965 to 30 June 1971. The purpose of this study was to calculate the 5 year survival rates and to analyze the treatment failures according to the modality of treatment applied. Two series of Stages Ib and IIa patients were available; one group was treated with radiotherapy, and the other with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy after previous intracavitary radiumtherapy. No statistically significant difference was found in the 5 year survival of both groups. Most Stage IIb patients were treated with radiotherapy. When residual tumor was found in the uterus of a patients who underwent radical surgery after intracavitary radiumtherapy it did not influence survival. On the other hand, the presence of metastatic pelvic lymph nodes after intracavitary radium treatment was related to a lowered survival rate. The number of severe injuries was higher in patients who were treated surgically. Recurrences developed within 5 years after completion of treatment in 10.8% of Stage Ib patients, 21.5% of Stage IIa patients, and 34.5% of Stage IIb patients. Ninety per cent of these recurrences appeared within 3 years after therapy.

  7. Survival rate in patients after sudden cardiac arrest at the university hospital of northern Norway treated with or without opioids: A retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuklin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experimental studies both in vivo and in vitro show significantly increased survival rate in animals and in cortical neurons respectively exposed to acute hypoxia and pre-treated with opioids compared to non-treated counterparts. Thus, the main aim of the study was to examine survival rates in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA in the hospital who were or were not treated with opioids before and/or during cardiac pulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Methods: The registry SCA database at the University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN for the period of January 2006-December 2009 was used to obtain data for the evaluation. Inclusion criteria were observed SCA at UNN for patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA 1-3. Exclusion criteria included ASA four to five patients and unobserved SCA. Study patients were divided into two groups: Those not treated with opioids and those treated with opioids not more then 3 h before and/or during CPR. Survival rate 1, 2, 3 and 28 days post CPR were compared for the two groups. Results: A total of 117 patients were registered in the SCA database at UNN for the period from January 2006 to December 2009. Sixty seven patients were excluded from the study: 17 patients had an unknown time of SCA dιbut, two patients had only syncope and 48 were ASA four to five patients. A total of 50 ASA one to three patients were included in the study, 33 and 17 patients respectively in the control and opioid-treated groups. The patients who were treated with opioids before or during CPR had a significantly higher 1, 2, 3 and 28 days survival rate as compared to those receiving only conventional CPR. The model was adjusted for duration of CPR (P=0.047 and treatment with adrenaline (P=0.779 in the groups. Adjusted Odds ratio was 0.075 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.015-0.387. Relative risk of fatal outcome in the opioids group was 0.2944 (95% CI: 0.1549-0.5594. Conclusion: Significantly higher 1, 2, 3 and

  8. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  9. Application of Smoothing Methods for Determining of the Effecting Factors on the Survival Rate of Gastric Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Noorkojuri, Hoda; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Baghestani, Ahmadreza; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamadamin

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoothing methods are widely used to analyze epidemiologic data, particularly in the area of environmental health where non-linear relationships are not uncommon. This study focused on three different smoothing methods in Cox models: penalized splines, restricted cubic splines and fractional polynomials. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prognostic factors on survival of patients with gastric cancer using the smoothing methods in Cox model and Cox propor...

  10. Comparison of recurrence and survival rates after breast-conserving therapy and mastectomy in young women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, J Q; Olson, R. A.; Tyldesley, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple randomized trials have demonstrated that breast-conserving therapy with partial mastectomy and radiotherapy provides survival equivalent to that seen with mastectomy for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Breast-conserving therapy has been associated with better quality of life relative to mastectomy and has become the standard of care for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Young age has been identified as a risk factor for recurrence and death from breast cancer. Some st...

  11. Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...

  12. Effect of contraction mode of slow-speed resistance training on the maximum rate of force development in the human quadriceps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Horne, Sara; Cannavan, Dale

    2008-01-01

    knee extension training was performed 3 x week(-1) for 10 weeks. Maximal isometric strength (+11.2%) and RFD (measured from 0-30/50/100/200 ms, respectively; +10.5%-20.5%) increased after 10 weeks (P training mode. Peak EMG amplitude and rate of EMG rise......This study examined the effects of slow-speed resistance training involving concentric (CON, n = 10) versus eccentric (ECC, n = 11) single-joint muscle contractions on contractile rate of force development (RFD) and neuromuscular activity (EMG), and its maintenance through detraining. Isokinetic...... were not significantly altered with training or detraining. Subjects with below-median normalized RFD (RFD/MVC) at 0 weeks significantly increased RFD after 5- and 10-weeks training, which was associated with increased neuromuscular activity. Subjects who maintained their higher RFD after detraining...

  13. Allocation of new growth between shoot, root and mycorrhiza in relation to carbon, nitrogen and phosphate supply: teleonomy with maximum growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, John H M; Parsons, Anthony J

    2014-02-07

    Treating resource allocation within plants, and between plants and associated organisms, is essential for plant, crop and ecosystem modelling. However, it is still an unresolved issue. It is also important to consider quantitatively when it is efficient and to what extent a plant can invest profitably in a mycorrhizal association. A teleonomic model is used to address these issues. A six state-variable model giving exponential growth is constructed. This represents carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) substrates with structure in shoot, root and mycorrhiza. The shoot is responsible for uptake of substrate C, the root for substrates N and P, and the mycorrhiza also for substrates N and P. A teleonomic goal, maximizing proportional growth rate, is solved analytically for the allocation fractions. Expressions allocating new dry matter to shoot, root and mycorrhiza are derived which maximize growth rate. These demonstrate several key intuitive phenomena concerning resource sharing between plant components and associated mycorrhizae. For instance, if root uptake rate for phosphorus is equal to that achievable by mycorrhiza and without detriment to root uptake rate for nitrogen, then this gives a faster growing mycorrhizal-free plant. However, if root phosphorus uptake is below that achievable by mycorrhiza, then a mycorrhizal association may be a preferred strategy. The approach offers a methodology for introducing resource sharing between species into ecosystem models. Applying teleonomy may provide a valuable short-term means of modelling allocation, avoiding the circularity of empirical models, and circumventing the complexities and uncertainties inherent in mechanistic approaches. However it is subjective and brings certain irreducible difficulties with it.

  14. FEEDING INCIDENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE IN THE EARLY STAGE OF THE RED-SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara, IN RELATION TO TANK COLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara, is one of marine fish species targeted for mariculture in Japan. The artificial mass seedling production of these species has been largely successful. However, the survival is still unstable. The effect of tank colors on the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth and survival rates in the early stage of the red-spotted grouper were examined. The results showed the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth, and survival rates at different tank colors were highly significantly different (P<0.001. Post hoc multiple comparisons based on Tukey’s test showed significant differences (P<0.05 regarding feeding incidence between yellow (70.45% compared to white (55.83%, black (48.42%, green (41.67%, blue (35.17%, and red (32.50%. The highest feeding proportion (number of rotifer in the stomach/larvae was found at yellow (5.62, followed by white (2.47, black (1.97, green (1.92, blue (1.71, and red (1.28. The specific growth rate showed significant differences (P<0.05 were found at yellow (2.14% and white (1.84% compared to black (1.46%, green (1.20%, blue (1.15%, and red (1.13%. The survival rate at yellow color (1.22% was the highest, followed by white (1.09%, black (0.79%, green (0.57%, blue (0.38%, and red (0.37%. Yellow was suitable as tank wall color for rearing of red-spotted grouper larvae.

  15. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research.

  16. Evaluation of growth and survival rate of Artemia parthenogenetica feed with micro algae (Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella vulgaris and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate growth and survival rate of Maharloo lake artemia (ArtemiaParthenogenetica (Bowen & Sterling, 1978 which feed with two species of microalgae (IsochrysisGalbana and Chlorella vulgaris and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different nutritiousingredients for 15 days. We evaluated them in 3rd, 7th, 11th and 15thdays of cultivation period for 4 times. This experiment was done in completely randomized design with 4 treatments (3 treatments and 1 control and each treatment has 3 replicates. Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii were feed with three different types of food that includes Isochrysis galbana microalgae (T1, Chlorella vulgaris (T2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (T4. Control had feed with blend of these three matters. After 15 days the highest survival rate was observed in control (84.00 and the lowest one was related to the T4 (59.58 which feed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (p<0.05. The highest growth rate was observed in T4, T3, followed by T1 and T2 respectively. Achievement results showed significantdifferences between control and other treatments (p<0.05. This study proved that treatments whichfeed with blend of two micro algae's species and bakery yeast have higher survival ability than theother treatments.

  17. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287.

  18. Does the Type of Surgical Approach and the Use of Uterine Manipulators Influence the Disease-Free Survival and Recurrence Rates in Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Sanmartín, Josefa; López Fernández, José Antonio; Sánchez-Payá, José; Piñero-Sánchez, Óscar Cruz; Román-Sánchez, María José; Quijada-Cazorla, María Asunción; Candela-Hidalgo, María Amparo; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term safety, disease-free survival, and recurrence rate of total laparoscopic hysterectomy using uterine manipulator and abdominal hysterectomy in the surgical treatment in early-stage endometrial cancer. Study Design This was a cohort study of 147 patients with clinical endometrial cancer (laparoscopic surgery group, 77 women; laparotomy group, 70 women). Data were evaluated and analyzed by intention-to-treat principle, and survival data of stage I endometrial cancer (129 patients; 66 from laparoscopic surgery group and 60 from laparotomy group) were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier curves. Results After a follow-up period of 60 months for both laparoscopic surgery and laparotomy groups, no significant difference in the cumulative recurrence rates (7.4% and 13.1%, P = 0.091) and overall survival (97.1% and 95.1%, P = 0.592) was detected between both groups of stage I endometrial cancer. Conversion to laparotomy occurred in 10.4% (8/77) of the laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was associated with less use of pain medication (P = 0.001) and a shorter hospital stay (P manipulators did not have increased recurrence rate in patients treated with laparoscopic approach. Conclusions The laparoscopic surgery approach to early-stage endometrial cancer using uterine manipulators is as safe and effective as the laparotomic approach. PMID:27518143

  19. Procedure to estimate maximum ground acceleration from macroseismic intensity rating: application to the Lima, Perú data from the October-3-1974-8.1-Mw earthquake

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    L. Ocola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-disaster reconstruction management of urban areas requires timely information on the ground response microzonation to strong levels of ground shaking to minimize the rebuilt-environment vulnerability to future earthquakes. In this paper, a procedure is proposed to quantitatively estimate the severity of ground response in terms of peak ground acceleration, that is computed from macroseismic rating data, soil properties (acoustic impedance and predominant frequency of shear waves at a site. The basic mathematical relationships are derived from properties of wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic media. We define a Macroseismic Intensity Scale IMS as the logarithm of the quantity of seismic energy that flows through a unit area normal to the direction of wave propagation in unit time. The derived constants that relate the IMS scale and peak acceleration agree well with coefficients derived from a linear regression between MSK macroseismic rating and peak ground acceleration for historical earthquakes recorded at a strong motion station, at IGP's former headquarters, since 1954. The procedure was applied to 3-October-1974 Lima macroseismic intensity data at places where there was geotechnical data and predominant ground frequency information. The observed and computed peak acceleration values, at nearby sites, agree well.

  20. OER by survival time for Cf-252, low dose rate Cs-137 and acute Co-60 for LSA lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Onomura, C.I.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    RBE and OER were determined for LSA tumor by survival time assay. The RBE/sub n/ of Cf vs. Cs-137 was 5.8 and the OER was --1.4 by experiments performed in vitro and assayed in vivo. When tumor was irradiated in an advanced state in the living mouse, the RBE/sub n/ was determined to be 5.2 vs. Cs-137. The RBE for hypoxic tumor is larger than for the oxic tumor for Cf-252 neutron irradiation.

  1. Prognostic heterogeneity of diastolic abnormalities along left ventricular remodeling continuum according to survival rates and laser polarimetry of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Kolomoiets, M. Y.; Mikhaliev, K. O.; Chursina, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The results of examination of 35 arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease patients are presented. The clinical, paraclinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed, and the parameters of prognosis (survival) according to Seattle Heart Failure Model, as well as the optical (polarimetric) properties of erythrocytic suspension were determined. The group of patients under examination was stratified by patterns of remodeling of left ventricle (LV). It was determined that increasing of anisotropy of erythrocytic suspension along LV remodeling patterns continuum correlates with aggravation of structural and functional state of LV and is associated with unfavorable prognosis.

  2. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

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    Christopher G Lis

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH, a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7 versus all others (1-6. Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates.74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1% patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7% patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001. On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04. Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001. On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007 while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32. Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each

  3. Estimating survival rates of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis veliger larvae under summer and autumn temperature regimes in residual water of trailered watercraft at Lake Mead, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On 6 January 2007, invasive quagga mussels [Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897] were discovered in the Boulder Basin ofLake Mead, Nevada, a popular site for recreational boating in the southwestern United States. Recreational watercraft are considered aprimary vector for overland dispersal of quagga mussel veliger larvae between water bodies. Thus, effective decontamination of veligers inresidual water carried by trailered recreation boats is critical to controlling this species’ spread. The survival rate of quagga mussel veligerswas measured during exposure to environmental temperature conditions mimicking those experienced in the residual water of traileredvessels during warm summer and cooler autumn months in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Under warm summer conditions,quagga mussel veligers survived approximately five days while under cooler autumn conditions they survived 27 days. When tested underautumn temperature conditions veliger survival times increased with increased level of larval development. The results suggested a greaterlikelihood of veliger transport in the residual water of trailered watercraft during autumn months. The results indicated that presentlyrecommended vessel quarantine times to kill all externally attached juvenile and adult dreissenid mussels prior to launching in an uninfested water body should be increased to generate 100% veliger mortality in residual water unable to be fully drained from the internal areas of watercraft.

  4. Self-rated health in the last 12 years of life compared to matched surviving controls: the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenholm, Sari; Pentti, Jaana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a valid measure of health status and associated with mortality. Based on individual-level biannual repeat data on SRH we sought to characterize the natural history of poor SRH during the 12 years prior to death in men and women in different age groups. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Health and Retirement Study participants who died between 1998 and 2010 and had at least two SRH measurements in the 12 years prior to death. We used a nested case-control design to compare SRH trajectories of deceased men and women aged 30-64, 65-79 and 80 years versus surviving participants. The cases comprised 3,350 deceased participants who were matched to surviving controls (n = 8,127). SRH was dichotomized into good vs. poor health. Men and women dying at age 65-79 and ≥ 80 years had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of poor SRH already 11-12 years prior to death compared to surviving controls. The risk estimates remained statistically significant even after adjusting for life-style related risk factors and diagnosed diseases. Prevalence of poor SRH before death was lowest among those aged ≥ 80 years and highest in 30-64 year-olds. In conclusion, men and women who subsequently die perceive their health worse already 11-12 years prior to death compared to their surviving controls.

  5. Do female cancer patients display better survival rates compared with males? Analysis of the Korean National Registry data, 2005-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Won Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex differences have been reported in the prognosis of certain cancers. In this study, we investigated whether Korean females display better survival rates compared with male patients for solid tumor sites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database from 599,288 adult patients diagnosed with solid cancers between 2005 and 2009. Patients were followed until December 2010. We applied a relative excess risk (RER model adjusting for year of follow-up, age at diagnosis, and stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: For all solid cancer sites combined, women displayed an 11% lower risk of death compared to men (RER 0.89; 95% CI 0.88-0.90 after adjusting for year of follow-up, age, stage, and case mix. Women showed significantly lower RERs for the following sites: head/neck, esophagus, small intestine, liver, nasal cavities, lung, bone/cartilages, melanoma of skin, soft tissue, brain and CNS, and thyroid. In contrast, women displayed a poorer prognosis than did men for colorectal, laryngeal, kidney and bladder cancer. However, the survival gaps between men and women narrowed by increase in age; female patients over 75 years of age displayed a 3% higher RER of death compared with males in this age group. CONCLUSIONS: Female cancer patients display an improved survival for the majority of solid tumor sites, even after adjustment for age and stage. Age at diagnosis was the major contributor to the women's survival advantage.

  6. Effects of whole-body electromyostimulation on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and maximum strength in postmenopausal women: the Training and ElectroStimulation Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Schliffka, Rebecca; Mayhew, Jerry L; von Stengel, Simon

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) during dynamic exercises over 14 weeks on anthropometric, physiological, and muscular parameters in postmenopausal women. Thirty women (64.5 +/- 5.5 years) with experience in physical training (>3 years) were randomly assigned either to a control group (CON, n = 15) that maintained their general training program (2 x 60 min.wk of endurance and dynamic strength exercise) or to an electromyostimulation group (WB-EMS, n = 15) that additionally performed a 20-minute WB-EMS training (2 x 20 min.10 d). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) determined from spirometry was selected to indicate muscle mass. In addition, body circumferences, subcutaneous skinfolds, strength, power, and dropout and adherence values. Resting metabolic rate was maintained in WB-EMS (-0.1 +/- 4.8 kcal.h) and decreased in CON (-3.2+/-5.2 kcal.h, p = 0.038); although group differences were not significant (p = 0.095), there was a moderately strong effect size (ES = 0.62). Sum of skinfolds (28.6%) and waist circumference (22.3%) significantly decreased in WB-EMS whereas both parameters (1.4 and 0.1%, respectively) increased in CON (p = 0.001, ES = 1.37 and 1.64, respectively), whereas both parameters increased in CON (1.4 and 0.1%, respectively). Isometric strength changes of the trunk extensors and leg extensors differed significantly (p < or = 0.006) between WB-EMS and CON (9.9% vs. -6.4%, ES = 1.53; 9.6% vs. -4.5%, ES = 1.43, respectively). In summary, adjunct WB-EMS training significantly exceeds the effect of isolated endurance and resistance type exercise on fitness and fatness parameters. Further, we conclude that for elderly subjects unable or unwilling to perform dynamic strength exercises, electromyostimulation may be a smooth alternative to maintain lean body mass, strength, and power.

  7. Characterization of the heart rate curve during a maximum incremental test on a treadmill. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p285

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marcel Fernandes Nascimento

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the heart rate (HR profile plotted against incremental workloads (IWL during a treadmill test using three mathematical models [linear, linear with 2 segments (Lin2, and sigmoidal], and to determine the best model for the identification of the HR threshold that could be used as a predictor of ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2. Twenty-two men underwent a treadmill incremental test (retest group: n=12 at an initial speed of 5.5 km.h-1, with increments of 0.5 km.h-1 at 1-min intervals until exhaustion. HR and gas exchange were continuously measured and subsequently converted to 5-s and 20-s averages, respectively. The best model was chosen based on residual sum of squares and mean square error. The HR/IWL ratio was better fitted with the Lin2 model in the test and retest groups (p0.05. During a treadmill incremental test, the HR/IWL ratio seems to be better fitted with a Lin2 model, which permits to determine the HR threshold that coincides with VT1.

  8. The use of citric acid as attractant in diet of grand sturgeon Huso huso fry and its effects on growing factors and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hosseini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In an 8-weeks feeding trial, attractant (citric acid was added to juvenile beluga (Huso husodiets at different levels in order to increase growth and survival. In this trial that was carried out inShahid Marjani complex of sturgeon propagation and cultivation, three different dietary of attractants(0.5%, 1% and 1.5% were taken into account. The trial was carried out in 500 liter PVC tanks whichwere filled with about 350 liter of water. 50 juvenile beluga (mean initial weight 26.04±0.43g werestocked in tanks and were fed up four meals a day. Growth and survival factors were analyzed at theend of trial period. After 54 days, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, Daily GrowthIndex (DGI, Daily Growth Rate (DGR, Specific Growth Rate (SGR, Condition Factor (CF, were higherin beluga fed the three citric acid–added diets compared with control feed. Among the citric acid–addeddiets, juvenile beluga fed citric acid of 5, 10, 15 g Kg-1 level showed highest weight gain (134 g byregistering 136.6 % increase in growth over control and higher feed intake (7.34 and good FCR (2.20.There was highly significant differences (P0.05 in survival among treatment.

  9. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Shen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS, and Compound 48/80(CP on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S, model group (group M, group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST, glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT, the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L, total protein(TP, albumin(ALB, globulin(GLB, the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G, phosphocreatine kinase(CK, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH, urea nitrogen(BUN and creatinine(CRE at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P P P rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P P > 0.05. Conclusion Mast cell inhibition after ischemia prior to reperfusion and following reperfusion may decrease the multi-organ injury induced by intestine ischemia reperfusion, and increase the survival rates.

  10. New constraints on the maximum rate of change of the geomagnetic field intensity in Western Europe during the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Paccard, Miriam; Osete, Maria Luisa; Chauvin, Annick; Pérez-Asensio, Manuel; Jimenez-Castillo, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes. Due to the difficulty to obtain precisely dated heated materials to obtain a high-resolution description of past geomagnetic field intensity changes, new high-quality archeomagnetic data from archeological heated materials founded in well-defined superposed stratigraphic units are particularly valuable. In this work we report the archeomagnetic study of several groups of ceramic fragments from southeastern Spain that belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. Between four and eight ceramic fragments were selected per stratigraphic unit. The age of the pottery fragments range from the second half of the 7th to the11th centuries. The dates were established by three radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains.Between two and four specimens per pottery fragment were studied. The classical Thellier and Thellier method including pTRM checks and TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections was used to estimate paleointensities at specimen level. All accepted results correspond to well-defined single components of magnetization going toward the origin and to high-quality paleointensity determinations. From these experiments nine new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. The new data provide an improved description of the sharp abrupt intensity changes that took place in this region between the 7th and the 11th centuries. The results confirm that several rapid intensity changes (of about ~15-20 µT/century) took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.

  11. Weight development and survival rate of reindeer calves treated against Oedemagena tarandi L and Cephenemyia trompe L

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    Endre Persen

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Three trials with treatment of reindeer warbles are carried out. All treated groups were injected intramuscularly with Warbex (35%, American Cyanamid, dosage 10 mg active ingredient/10 kg live weight. In total 911 calves and 403 adult females were included in the experiments. All animals were individually marked with plastic eartags. The trials tried to give answers as to the effect of treatment on: a weight development during winter, b weight development to the normal age of slaughter (18 months and c loss rate during winter. One trial deals with the effect of weight loss during winter by different date of treatment. All studies are undertaken within sex. Generelly the trials show that treated animals lost more weight during winter than untreated. There was found significant higher weight loss for treated female calves (0.7 kg, p=0.005 in the period January 13. — April 28. in trial I and for male calves (0.8 kg, p=0.01 in the period February 14. — April 4. in trial II. There is a trend that treatment increases the slaughter weight. A significant higher increase in the slaughter weight (0.8 kg, p=0.05 of treated male calves was found in trial III. No effect was found by treatment in the loss of animals in winter. The calves lossed during winter had a significant lower live weight at the start of the trial compared to those which survived. In the period February 14. — April 4. there was a higher weight loss in the male calves which were treated on February 14. compared to those treated on November 27. (0.5 kg, p=0.01. Forsøk med behandling av reinkalver mot reinbremslarver (Oedemagena tarandi L og Cephenemyia trompe L.Effekt på kalvens kondisjon målt ved levende vekt og overlevingsevne.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er utført tre forsøk med behandling av rein mot reinbremselarver (Oedemagena tarandi L. og Cephenemyia trompe L.. I alle forsøk er brukt intramuskulær injeksjon av Warbex (Am. Cyanamid 35% med dosering 30 mg

  12. Survival rate of Saccharomyces boulardii adapted to a functional freeze-dried yoghurt, related to processing, storage and digestion by experimental Wistar rats

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    Eunice Tranquilino-Rodriguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saccharomycesboulardiiis a probiotic clinically effective inthe prevention and treatment of antibiotic induced diarrheain both children and adults, Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the microorganisms need to survive the gastrointestinal transit and arrive to their action site alive in order to exert their beneficial effects. Microencapsulation is an alternative to improve the viability of probiotic in foods which can also survive in the gastrointestinal conditions. Freeze--drying is a method of dehydration that does not affect nutrients and bioactive compounds,such as probiotics contained in foods.All of them will increase the survival rate of S.boulardii.Purpose of this study:This study focused on formulae freeze-dried yogurt containing inulin, vegetable palm oil,and S.boulardii, both asfree cells and in microencapsulated form.Also,the effect of ampicillin associated S.boulardii. Methods. Yogurts were given to an “in vivo” digestion process, using male Wistar rats.The survival of S. boulardiiwas subsequently evaluated in colon and feces.For this study, six treatmentsof four of rats were used:i control rats ii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiias free cells, iii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiiinmicro-encapsulated form, iv control rats fed with penicillin,v rats fed with ampicillin plus yogurtcontaining S. boulardiias free cells, and vi rats fed with penicillin plus yogurt containing S. boulardiiin micro-encapsulated form. Results:The study demonstrated it was feasible to freeze-drythe S. boulardiiand incorporate it into a yogurtmade with skim milk,inulin, and unsaturated vegetable oil.The freeze-drying process not affected thesurvival of the S. boulardii(p<0.05. Microencapsulation increased the survival of S. boulardii on 1.77-Log CFU/g, and the presence of S. boulardii was only detected in colon and fecesof those rats which

  13. Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

  14. Influence of referral pathway on ebola virus disease case-fatality rate and effect of survival selection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra...... Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis...

  15. Irinotecan plus gemcitabine results in no survival advantage compared with gemcitabine monotherapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer despite increased tumor response rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Lima, Caio M; Green, Mark R; Rotche, Robert; Miller, Wilson H; Jeffrey, G Mark; Cisar, Laura A; Morganti, Adele; Orlando, Nicoletta; Gruia, Gabriela; Miller, Langdon L

    2004-09-15

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the overall survival associated with irinotecan plus gemcitabine (IRINOGEM) versus gemcitabine monotherapy (GEM) in patients with chemotherapy-naive, locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. IRINOGEM patients received starting doses of gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 and irinotecan 100 mg/m2 given weekly for 2 weeks every 3-week cycle. GEM patients received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 weekly for 7 of 8 weeks (induction) and then weekly for 3 of 4 weeks. The primary end point of the trial was survival. Secondary end points included tumor response, time to tumor progression (TTP), changes in CA 19-9, and safety. In each arm, 180 randomly assigned patients comprised the intent-to-treat population evaluated for efficacy; 173 IRINOGEM and 169 GEM patients were treated. Median survival times were 6.3 months for IRINOGEM (95% CI, 4.7 to 7.5 months) and 6.6 months for GEM (95% CI, 5.2 to 7.8 months; log-rank P =.789). Tumor response rates were 16.1% (95% CI, 11.1% to 22.3%) for IRINOGEM and 4.4% (95% CI, 1.9% to 8.6%) for GEM (chi2 P <.001). Median TTP was 3.5 months for IRINOGEM versus 3.0 months for GEM (log-rank P =.352). However, subset analyses in patients with locally advanced disease suggested a TTP advantage with IRINOGEM versus GEM (median, 7.7 v 3.9 months). CA 19-9 progression was positively correlated with tumor progression. The incidence of grade 3 diarrhea was higher in the IRINOGEM group but grade 3 to 4 hematologic toxicities and quality-of-life outcomes were similar. IRINOGEM safely improved the tumor response rate compared with GEM but did not alter overall survival.

  16. Factors affecting survival rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos after vitrification and direct in-straw rehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, Gábor; Holm, Peter; Greve, Torben

    1996-01-01

    and developmental stage (Day 5 compacted morulae, Day 6 early blastocysts, Days 6 and 7 blastocysts, Day 7 expanded blastocysts and Day 8 hatched blastocysts) as well as Days 7 and 5 blastocysts previously subjected to partial zona dissection were vitrified. After thawing, the re-expansion rates of blastocysts...... and zona-dissected embryos did not differ (67 and 87%, respectively), and hatching was more frequent for blastocysts frozen in advanced developmental stages (34, 47 and 63% for early blastocysts, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts, respectively). The re-expansion rate of morulae was lower (10......%) and no hatching of these embryos was observed. In the second experiment, Day 7 expanded blastocysts were vitrified using PBS, PBS + albumin, TCM199 and TCM 199 + calf serum as holding media. No differences in re-expansion and hatching rates were seen. However, when incubation with the concentrated cryoprotectant...

  17. Survival Rate of Northern Tea Seedling under Different Treatment%不同处理对北方茶树扦插成活率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诗贤; 刘腾飞

    2015-01-01

    通过对北方茶树扦插苗扦插时间、扦插基质、激素处理的研究发现,在北方早秋扦插成活率达80.78%,高于晚秋季6个百分点;心土扦插圃比沙质圃的成活率高20%,心土扦插处理的茶苗光合速率、细胞间隙CO2浓度高于沙质圃扦插处理,激素处理过的茶树扦插苗效果明显.%Through the study on cuttage time, cuttage base and hormone treatment on North China tea trees breeding, it is found that early Autumn cuttage achieved survival rate 80.78%, six percentage higher than late Autumn cuttage, core earth base cuttage has twenty percentage higher survival rate than sandy earth base. The photosynthetic rate and CO2 concentration in cells gap of core earth base is higher than sandy earth base. And hormone has signiifcant effect on tea cuttage.

  18. The association of pre-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with response rate, progression free survival and overall survival of patients treated with sunitinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizman, Daniel; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Huang, Peng; Eisenberger, Mario A; Pili, Roberto; Hammers, Hans; Carducci, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Sunitinib is a standard treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an index of systemic inflammation, is associated with outcome in several cancer types. To study the association of pre-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with response rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients treated with sunitinib for mRCC. We retrospectively studied an unselected cohort of patients with mRCC, who were treated with sunitinib. Logistic regression model was used to analyse response rate. Cox regression models were fitted to identify risk factors associated with PFS and OS. We investigated how pre-treatment NLR is associated with these clinical outcomes after adjusting for confounding covariates. Regression tree for censored data method was used to find the best NLR cut-off value. Between 2004 and 2011, 133 patients with mRCC were treated with sunitinib. One hundred and nine were included in the NLR analysis, from which were excluded patients without available data on pre-treatment NLR or with comorbidities/recent treatments known to be associated with a change of blood counts. Factors associated with PFS were low NLR ≤ 3 (HR = 0.285, p HR = 0.38, p = 0.035), sunitinib dose reduction/treatment interruption (HR = 0.6, p = 0.014) and the use of antiotensin system inhibitors (HR = 0.537, p = 0.008). Low NLR ≤ 3 was associated with OS (HR = 0.3, p = 0.043). In patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib, pre-treatment NLR may be associated with PFS and OS. This should be investigated prospectively, and if validated applied in clinical practice and clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...

  20. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  1. ENSO, nest predation risk, food abundance, and male status fail to explain annual variations in the apparent survival rate of a migratory songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizée Vernouillet

    Full Text Available Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removed during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1 higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR relative to controls; (2 lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3 fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO; and (4 higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σw(i = 0.99 was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years. An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade.

  2. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovački Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 μT, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 μT, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 μT-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  3. A High-Fat Diet Containing Lard Accelerates Prostate Cancer Progression and Reduces Survival Rate in Mice: Possible Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jin Cho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of high-fat diet (HFD containing lard on prostate cancer development and progression and its underlying mechanisms, transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP and TRAMP-C2 allograft models, as well as in vitro culture models, were employed. In TRAMP mice, HFD feeding increased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma and decreased that of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate, which was accompanied by increased expression of proteins associated with proliferation and angiogenesis. HFD feeding also led to increased metastasis and decreased survival rate in TRAMP mice. In the allograft model, HFD increased solid tumor growth, the expression of proteins related to proliferation/angiogenesis, the number of lipid vacuoles in tumor tissues, and levels of several cytokines in serum and adipose tissue. In vitro results revealed that adipose tissue-conditioned media from HFD-fed mice stimulated the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and angiogenesis compared to those from control-diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the increase of adipose tissue-derived soluble factors by HFD feeding plays a role in the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. These results provide evidence that a HFD containing lard increases prostate cancer development and progression, thereby reducing the survival rate.

  4. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)-MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN-MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN-MTX produced nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN-MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively.

  5. 提高桧柏成活率关键技术措施%Key Technology for Upgrading Survival Rate of Juniper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化荣; 顾跃龙; 张月钦

    2012-01-01

    宁夏气候条件恶劣,春季干旱少雨,风沙大,夏季高温干燥,年降水量少,土壤盐碱化程度高。桧柏苗木在移栽时,往往因移植方法不当导致成活率低,不能达到预期的生态景观效果。结合多年的实践经验及在宁夏发电集团新能源研究所绿化施工中的技术总结,摸索出了一些适合宁夏地区提高桧柏成活率的关键技术措施。%The climate conditions in Ningxia are very bad. It is droughty and sandy with little rain in Spring and dry with high temperature in Summer. The annual average precipitation is little and the soil salinization is severe. The survival rate transplantation methods of juniper seedlings was usually low which couldn't achieve expected ecological landscape effect. Based on years of practical experiences and the technological summarization of the greening works at Ningxia Power Generation Group New Energy Institute, some key technology suitable for upgrading the survival rate of juniper in Ningxia area were found out.

  6. 大叶芳樟不同季节大田扦插的成活率%Survival Rate of Cinnamomum porrectum with Field Cutting in Different Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭逸榴; 罗忠生; 蒋志茵

    2014-01-01

    Because of its own growth characteristics, only asexual reproduction of Cinnamomum porrectum can maintain the excellent characteristics of mother-trees. The four survival rate of C. porrectum with field cutting at spring, summer, autumn, winter was investigated, the most suitable cutting season was found out. The results showed that rooting time and the growth time of new shoots of C. porrectum in the summer was the shortest;the survival rate is the highest in autumn, up to 75%, and the worst in winter.%大叶芳樟由于自身发育特点,只有无性繁殖才能保持母树的优良特性。本文从春、夏、秋、冬四季对大叶芳樟大田扦插成活率作调查,找出其最适宜的扦插季节。结果表明大叶芳樟在夏季生根时间和新梢生长时间最短,秋季成活率最高,可达75%,冬季的成活率最差。

  7. In situ normoxia enhances survival and proliferation rate of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells without increasing the risk of tumourigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ru Choi

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs natively reside in a relatively low-oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxic microenvironment in human body. Low oxygen tension (i.e., in situ normoxia, has been known to enhance the growth and survival rate of ASCs, which, however, may lead to the risk of tumourigenesis. Here, we investigated the tumourigenic potential of ASCs under their physiological condition to ensure their safe use in regenerative therapy. Human ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were cultured in atmospheric O2 concentration (21% O2 or in situ normoxia (2% O2. We found that ASCs retained their surface markers, tri-lineage differentiation potential, and self-renewal properties under in situ normoxia without altering their morphology. In situ normoxia displayed a higher proliferation and viability of ASCs with less DNA damage as compared to atmospheric O2 concentration. Moreover, low oxygen tension significantly up-regulated VEGF and bFGF mRNA expression and protein secretion while reducing the expression level of tumour suppressor genes p16, p21, p53, and pRb. However, there were no significant differences in ASCs telomere length and their relative telomerase activity when cultured at different oxygen concentrations. Collectively, even with high proliferation and survival rate, ASCs have a low tendency of developing tumour under in situ normoxia. These results suggest 2% O2 as an ideal culture condition for expanding ASCs efficiently while maintaining their characteristics.

  8. Survival and local control rates of triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with boost-IOERT during breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastner, Gerd; Zehentmayr, Franz; Kopp, Peter; Fussl, Christoph; Sedlmayer, Felix [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Pathology, Salzburg (Austria); Moder, Angelika [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Institute of Inborn Errors in Metabolism, Salzburg (Austria); Reitsamer, Roland; Fischer, Thorsten [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Special Gynecology, Salzburg (Austria); Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Gynecology, Salzburg (Austria); Deutschmann, Heinrich [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to retrospectively evaluate survival and local control rates of triple-negative breast cancer subtypes classified as five marker negative (5NP) and core basal (CB), respectively, after breast-conserving surgery and intraoperative boost radiotherapy with electrons (IOERT) followed by whole breast irradiation. A total of 71 patients with triple-negative breast cancer were enrolled, who were treated with lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and IOERT with 9.6 Gy (median D{sub max}) followed by normofractionated whole breast irradiation to median total doses of 54 Gy. Chemotherapy was applied in a neoadjuvant (12 %), adjuvant (75 %), or combinational setting (7 %). After a median follow-up of 97 months (range 4-170 months), 5 in-breast recurrences were detected (7.0 %). For all patients, 8-year actuarial rates for local control, metastases-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival amounted to 89, 75, 80, and 69 %, respectively. All local recurrences occurred in grade 3 (G3) tumors irrespective of their specific immunohistochemical phenotype; thus, the local control rate for grades 1/2 (G1/2) was 100 % for both 5NP and CB, while for G3 it was 88 % for 5NP and 90 % for CB (p = 0.65 and 0.82, respectively, n.s.). For disease-specific survival, only the difference of the best-prognosis group 5-NP/G3 vs. the worst-prognosis cohort CB/G1/2 was statistically significant: 90 % vs. 54 % (p = 0.03). Boost-IOERT provides acceptable long-term in-breast control in triple negative breast cancer. The best subgroup in terms of disease-specific survival was represented by 5NP in combination with tumor grading G3. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, im Rahmen einer retrospektiven Analyse Ueberlebens- und Lokalkontrollraten bei triple-negativen Mammakarzinomen zu untersuchen. Die Tumoren waren in 5NP(5-Marker-negative)- und CB(core basal)-Subtypen klassifiziert und die Patientinnen hatten nach brusterhaltender Operation und

  9. Laboratory-derived temperature preference and effect on the feeding rate and survival of juvenile Hemimysis anomala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jennifer; Rudstam, Lars S.; Boscarino, Brent T.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala is a warm-water mysid that invaded the Great Lakes region in 2006 and has since rapidly spread throughout the basin. We conducted three laboratory experiments to better define the temperature preference, tolerance limits, and temperature effects on feeding rates of juvenile Hemimysis, using individuals acclimated to mid (16 °C) and upper (22 °C) preferred temperature values previously reported for the species. For temperature preference, we fit a two-parameter Gaussian (μ, σ) function to the experimental data, and found that the peak values (μ, interpreted as the preference temperature) were 22.0 °C (SE 0.25) when acclimated to 16 and 21.9 °C (SE 0.38) when acclimated to 22 °C, with the σ-values of the curves at 2.6 and 2.5 °C, respectively. No mysids were observed in temperatures below 10 or above 28 °C in these preference experiments. In short-term tolerance experiments for temperatures between 4 and 32 °C, all mysids died within 8 h at 30.2 °C for 16 °C acclimated mysids, and at 31.8 °C for 22 °C acclimated mysids. No lower lethal limit was found. Feeding rates increased with temperature from an average of 4 Bosmina eaten per hour at 5 °C to 19 Bosmina eaten per hour at 27 °C. The results of our experiments indicate an optimal temperature for Hemimysis between 21 and 27 °C, which corresponds with temperatures during periods of high population growth in the field. These results contribute a better understanding of this species' biological response to temperature that will help guide field studies and inform bioenergetics modeling.

  10. Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Roderick C

    2010-05-12

    Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.

  11. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  12. Icodextrin increases technique survival rate in peritoneal dialysis patients with diabetic nephropathy by improving body fluid management: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Yuji; Akagi, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Inoue, Junko; Kojo, Shoichiro; Morinaga, Hiroshi; Nakao, Kazushi; Wada, Jun; Makino, Hirofumi

    2011-06-01

    There are still controversies whether peritoneal dialysis (PD) with icodextrin preserves residual renal and peritoneal membrane functions in patients with diabetes. However, there are no randomized controlled and long-term clinical trials in newly started PD patients with diabetic nephropathy. Forty-one patients with diabetic nephropathy with ESRD were enrolled and randomly assigned to the glucose group (GLU) treated with 8 L of 1.5% or 2.5% glucose or an icodextrin group (ICO) treated with 1.5 or 2.0 L of 7.5% icodextrin-containing solutions. Technique failure, body fluid management, glucose and lipid metabolism, and residual renal and peritoneal functions and were evaluated over 2 years. The technique survival rate was 71.4% in ICO and 45.0% in GLU, with most of the technique failure due to volume overload. ICO showed significantly better cumulative technique survival. Net ultrafiltration volume was significantly higher in ICO throughout the study period. There were no beneficial effects of icodextrin on hemoglobin A1c, glycoalbumin, and lipid profile at 24 months. Urine volume and residual renal function declined faster in ICO, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. For peritoneal function, no differences were observed in dialysis-to-plasma creatinine ratios during the observation. In PD therapy for diabetic nephropathy, the use of icodextrin-containing solutions has a beneficial effect on technique survival, but there are no apparent benefits or disadvantages in residual renal and peritoneal functions compared with conventional PD with glucose solution.

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ju; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients.

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ju Lin

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients.

  15. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhao

    Full Text Available Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444 was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT. This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival.

  16. Abordagem Fuzzy na Taxa de Sobrevivência de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum lactitarse (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae / Fuzzy Approach in the Survival Rate of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum lactitarse (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste trabalho apresenta um sistema baseado em regras fuzzy (SBRF abordando a interação entre fertilidade, tamanho do ninho e sobrevivência de machos e fêmeas de Trypoxylon lactitarse Saussure. A partir de informações sobre fertilidade e tamanho do ninho, o sistema retorna a taxa de sobrevivência de machos e fêmeas permitindo abordar as implicações de uma razão sexual enviesada a favor de machos, uma razão sexual enviesada a favor de fêmeas, ou uma razão sexual de 1:1.AbstractThis paper presents a fuzzy rule-based system (FRBS addressing the interaction among fertility, size of the nest and survival of Trypoxylon lactitarse Saussure males and females. From information on fertility and nest size, the system returns the survival rate of male and female allowing us to address the implications of a skewed sex ratio in favor of males, a skewed sex ratio in favor of females, or a sex ratio of 1:1.

  17. Rate of primary refractory disease in B and T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: correlation with long-term survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Tarella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary refractory disease is a main challenge in the management of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL. This survey was performed to define the rate of refractory disease to first-line therapy in B and T-cell NHL subtypes and the long-term survival of primary refractory compared to primary responsive patients. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed of 3,106 patients who had undergone primary treatment for NHL between 1982 and 2012, at the Hematology Centers of Torino and Bergamo, Italy. Primary treatment included CHOP or CHOP-like regimens (63.2%, intensive therapy with autograft (16.9%, or other therapies (19.9%. Among B-cell NHL, 1,356 (47.8% received first-line chemotherapy with rituximab. Refractory disease was defined as stable/progressive disease, or transient response with disease progression within six months. RESULTS: Overall, 690 (22.2% patients showed primary refractory disease, with a higher incidence amongst T-cell compared to B-cell NHL (41.9% vs. 20.5%, respectively, p<0.001. Several other clinico-pathological factors at presentation were variably associated with refractory disease, including histological aggressive disease, unfavorable clinical presentation, Bone Marrow involvement, low lymphocyte/monocyte ration and male gender. Amongst B-cell NHL, the addition of rituximab was associated with a marked reduction of refractory disease (13.6% vs. 26.7% for non-supplemented chemotherapy, p<0.001. Overall, primary responsive patients had a median survival of 19.8 years, compared to 1.3 yr. for refractory patients. A prolonged survival was consistently observed in all primary responsive patients regardless of the histology. The long life expectancy of primary responsive patients was documented in both series managed before and after 2.000. Response to first line therapy resulted by far the most predictive factor for long-term outcome (HR for primary refractory disease: 16.52, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Chemosensitivity to primary

  18. Survival rate of campylobacter coli strains in sterile buffalo and bovine milk Tasas de sobrevida de Campylobacter coli en leche de búfalo y de bovino

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    A. TRESIERRA-AYALA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of five Campylobacter coli strains, isolated from bovine faeces (3 and from buffalo faeces (2, was studied in sterile buffalo and bovine milk kept at 4°C under aerobic conditions. All strains lost their viability substantially more rapidly in buffalo milk than in bovine milkSe determinó, en leche de bovino y de búfalo autoclavadas y mantenidas a 4ºC bajo condiciones de aerobiosis, la sobrevida de cinco cepas de Campylobacter coli aisladas de fecas de bovino (3 y de búfalo (2. Todas las cepas perdieron su viabilidad más rápidamente en leche de búfalo que en leche bovina

  19. Weak Consistency and Convergence Rate of Quasi -Maximum Likelihood Estimated in Generalized Linear Models%广义线性模型中拟似然估计的弱相合性及收敛速度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓春亮; 胡南辉

    2012-01-01

    在非自然联系情形下讨论了广义线性模型拟似然方程的解βn在λn→∞和其他一些正则性条件下证明了解的弱相合性,并得到其收敛于真值βo的速度为Op(λn^-1/2),其中λn(λ^-n)为方阵Sn=n∑i=1XiX^11的最小(最大)特征值.%In this paper,we study the solution βn of quasi - maximum likelihood equation for generalized linear mod- els (GLMs). Under the assumption of an unnatural link function and other some mild conditions , we prove the weak consistency of the solution to βnquasi - - maximum likelihood equation and present its convergence rate isOp(λn^-1/2),λn(^λn) which denotes the smallest (Maximum)eigervalue of the matrixSn =n∑i=1XiX^11,

  20. Effect of psyllium and gum Arabic biopolymers on the survival rate and storage stability in yogurt of Enterococcus duransIW3 encapsulated in alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Different herbal biopolymers were used to encapsulate Enterococcus durans IW3 to enhance its storage stability in yogurt and subsequently its endurance in gastrointestinal condition. Nine formulations of encapsulation were performed using alginate (ALG), ALG-psyllium (PSY), and ALG-gum Arabic (GA) blends. The encapsulation efficiency of all formulations, tolerance of encapsulated E. durans IW3 against low pH/high bile salt concentration, storage lifetime, and release profile of cells in natural condition of yogurt were evaluated. Result revealed 98.6% encapsulation efficiency and 76% survival rate for all formulation compared with the unencapsulated formulation cells (43%). The ALG-PSY and ALG-GA formulations have slightly higher survival rates at low pH and bile salt condition (i.e., 76-93% and 81-95%, respectively) compared with the ALG formulation. All encapsulated E. durans IW3 was released from the prepared beads of ALG after 90 min, whereas both probiotics encapsulated in ALG-GA and ALG-PSY were released after 60 min. Enterococcus durans IW3 was successfully encapsulated in ALG, ALG-GA, and ALG-PSY beads prepared by extrusion method. ALG-GA and ALG-PSY beads are suitable delivery carriers for the oral administration of bioactive compounds like probiotics. The GA and PSY gels exhibited better potential for encapsulation of probiotic bacteria cells because of the amendment of ALG difficulties and utilization of therapeutic and prebiotic potentials of these herbal biopolymers.

  1. Density and survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus at Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2008-03-01

    Parity rate, gonotrophic cycle length, and density of a Culex quinquefasciatus female population was estimated at the Parque Ecológico do Tietê (PET), São Paulo, Brazil. Adult Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected from vegetation along the edges of a polluted drainage canal with the use of a battery-powered backpack aspirator from September to November 2005 and from February to April 2006. We examined 255 Cx. quinquefasciatus ovaries to establish the parity rate of 0.22 and determined the gonotrophic cycle length under laboratory conditions to be 3 and 4 days. From these data, we calculated the Cx. quinquefasciatus survival rate to be 0.60 and 0.68 per day. Density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female (5.71 females per m2) was estimated based on a population size of 28,810 individuals divided by the sampled area of 5,040 m2. Results of all experiments indicate medium survivorship and high density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female population. This species is epidemiologically relevant in the PET area and should be a target of the vector control program of São Paulo municipality.

  2. 指数多项式模型中参数最大似然估计的收敛速度%Convergence rate for maximum likelihood estimation of parameters in exponential polynomial model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房祥忠; 陈家鼎

    2011-01-01

    强度随时间变化的非齐次Possion过程在很多领域应用广泛.对一类非常广泛的非齐次Poisson过程—指数多项式模型,得到了当观测时间趋于无穷大时,参数的最大似然估计的“最优”收敛速度.%The model of nonhomogeneous Poisson processes with varying intensity function is applied in many fields. The best convergence rate for the maximum likelihood estimate ( MLE ) of exponential polynomial model, which is a kind of wide used nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, is given when time going to infinity.

  3. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de guaranazeiro em diferentes substratos Survival rate of guarana herbaceous cuttings in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rodrigues de Arruda

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de sementes na propagação do guaranazeiro propicia alta variabilidade na produtividade e suscetibilidade a doenças, por isto, no Amazonas, recomenda-se a propagação do guaranazeiro por meio do enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de materiais selecionados. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar o enraizamento, em tubetes, de estacas herbáceas de doze clones de guaranazeiro submetidas a três diferentes substratos. Os clones avaliados foram o BRS 300, BRS 871, BRS 372, BRS 648, BRS 189, BRS 505, BRS 610, BRS 612, BRS 850, BRS 882, BRS 608, BRS 611. Os substratos testados foram uma mistura com base em volume de 50 % de solo + 50 % de esterco de galinha (v/v; 50 % de esterco de galinha + 50 % de carvão moído passado em peneira de 10 mm (v/v e substrato comercial para hortaliças (Plantmax®. O substrato comercial e o esterco de galinha + carvão proporcionaram a maior porcentagem de enraizamento das estacas. O clone BRS Amazonas obteve o maior percentual de enraizamento (88,2 %, enquanto o clone BRS 372, o menor (15 %.The propagation of the guarana plants using seeds is nowadays not recommended because the high variability in the productivity and susceptibility to diseases. The cuttings propagation of a select guarana plant clones is recommended for Amazonas State. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of cuttings of twelve clones of guaraná in three substrates with three replicates. The evaluated clones were: BRS 300, BRS 871, BRS 372, BRS 648, BRS 189, BRS 505, BRS 610, BRS 612, BRS 850, BRS 882, BRS 608, BRS 611. The growing media tested were 50% of soil + 50% of chicken manure (v/v; 50% chicken manure + 50% sieved powdered charcoal (v/v and a comercial growing media for vegetables (Plantmax®. The comercial growing media and the misture of chicken manure + sieved powdered charcoal substrate produced the higher cuttings survival rate. The clone BRS Amazonas showed the highest percentage of survival

  4. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-off between Survival and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Nickzad

    2016-08-01

    swarming motility, thus promoting the chances of survival, even if the cell density might not be high enough for an otherwise efficient production of rhamnolipids. In conclusion, we propose that the adaptive significance of growth rate-dependent functionality of QS in biosynthesis of costly public goods lies within providing a regulatory mechanism for selecting the optimal trade-off between survival and efficiency.

  5. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  6. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  7. No effects of GSM-modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic fields on survival rate and spontaneous development of lymphoma in female AKR/J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Volkert W

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several reports indicated that non-thermal electromagnetic radiation such as from mobile phones and base stations may promote cancer. Therefore, it was investigated experimentally, whether 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure influences lymphoma development in a mouse strain that is genetically predisposed to this disease. The AKR/J mice genome carries the AK-virus, which leads within one year to spontaneous development of thymic lymphoblastic lymphoma. Methods 320 unrestrained female mice were sham-exposed or exposed (each n = 160 animals to GSM like 900 MHz electromagnetic fields for 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, at an average whole body specific absorption rate (SAR value of 0.4 W/kg. Animals were visually checked daily and were weighed and palpated weekly. Starting with an age of 6 months, blood samples were taken monthly from the tail. Animals with signs of disease or with an age of about 46 weeks were sacrificed and a gross necropsy was performed. Results Electromagnetic field exposure had a significant effect on body weight gain, with higher values in exposed than in sham-exposed animals. However, survival rate and lymphoma incidence did not differ between exposed and sham-exposed mice. Conclusion These data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields is a significant risk factor for developing lymphoma in a genetically predisposed species, even at a relatively high exposure level.

  8. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  9. Influence of preoperative serum N-terminal pro-brain type natriuretic peptide on the postoperative outcome and survival rates of coronary artery bypass patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schachner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The N-terminal fragment of pro-brain type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP is an established biomarker for cardiac failure. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of preoperative serum NT-proBNP on postoperative outcome and mid-term survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. METHODS: In 819 patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery preoperative serum NT-proBNP levels were measured. NT-proBNP was correlated with various postoperative outcome parameters and survival rate after a median follow-up time of 18 (0.5-44 months. Risk factors of mortality were identified using χ2, Mann-Whitney test, and Cox regression. RESULTS: NT-proBNP levels >430 ng/ml and >502 ng/ml predicted hospital and overall mortality (p502 ng/ml (p=0.001. Age, preoperative serum creatinine, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, low left ventricular ejection fraction and BNP levels >502 ng/ml were isolated as risk factors for overall mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis, including the known factors influencing NT-proBNP levels, identified NT-proBNP as an independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 3.079 (CI = 1.149-8.247, p = 0.025. Preoperative NT-proBNP levels >502 ng/ml were associated with increased ventilation time (p=0.005, longer intensive care unit stay (p=0.001, higher incidence of postoperative hemofiltration (p=0.001, use of intra-aortic balloon pump (p502 ng/ml predict mid-term mortality after isolated CABG and are associated with significantly higher hospital mortality and perioperative complications.

  10. Survival rates and causes of revision in cemented primary total knee replacement: a report from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøthesen, O; Espehaug, B; Havelin, L; Petursson, G; Lygre, S; Ellison, P; Hallan, G; Furnes, O

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the rates of survival and cause of revision of seven different brands of cemented primary total knee replacement (TKR) in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register during the years 1994 to 2009. Revision for any cause, including resurfacing of the patella, was the primary endpoint. Specific causes of revision were secondary outcomes. Three posterior cruciate-retaining (PCR) fixed modular-bearing TKRs, two fixed non-modular bearing PCR TKRs and two mobile-bearing posterior cruciate-sacrificing TKRs were investigated in a total of 17 782 primary TKRs. The median follow-up for the implants ranged from 1.8 to 6.9 years. Kaplan-Meier 10-year survival ranged from 89.5% to 95.3%. Cox's relative risk (RR) was calculated relative to the fixed modular-bearing Profix knee (the most frequently used TKR in Norway), and ranged from 1.1 to 2.6. The risk of revision for aseptic tibial loosening was higher in the mobile-bearing LCS Classic (RR 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8 to 12.1)), the LCS Complete (RR 7.7 (95% CI 4.1 to 14.4)), the fixed modular-bearing Duracon (RR 4.5 (95% CI 1.8 to 11.1)) and the fixed non-modular bearing AGC Universal TKR (RR 2.5 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.1)), compared with the Profix. These implants (except AGC Universal) also had an increased risk of revision for femoral loosening (RR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.8), RR 3.7 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.9), and RR 3.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 11.0), respectively). These results suggest that aseptic loosening is related to design in TKR.

  11. Taxa de sobrevivência e desempenho agronômico de melancia sob enxertia Grafted watermelon survival rate and agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Natália C de S Gama

    2013-03-01

    those obtained with conventional farming. This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate and the agronomic and quality performance of BRS Opara grafted by approach in four genotypes of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata: BGC 186, BGC 217, BGC 830 and BGC 830.1; and in two genotypes of forage watermelon (Citrullus lanatus variety citroides: BGCIA 223 and BGCIA 857. We quantified the survival rate, in a greenhouse, under a completely randomized design; the grafted and non-grafted productivity and the fruits were characterized by the following parameters: fruit shape, internal and external color, fresh weight, pulp firmness, center pulp soluble solids and pulp homogenized, titratable acidity, ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity and pH. To evaluate agronomic and qualitative fruit parameters we adopted the randomized block design with four replicates of five plants. The survival rate of grafted seedlings, after weaning, varied depending on the rootstock. Compared to the performance of the control (23.5 t ha-1, there was an average increase of 66.5% in the productivity of plants grafted on BGCIA 223, BGC 830, BGC 217 and BGCIA 857. For the 'BRS Opara', initially these rootstocks may be recommended, for they have determined increased productivity without affecting fruit quality.

  12. Survival rate of wine-related yeasts during alcoholic fermentation assessed by direct live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Patrícia; Monteiro, Margarida; Moura, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Real-time detection of microorganisms involved in complex microbial process, such as wine fermentations, and evaluation of their physiological state is crucial to predict whether or not those microbial species will be able to impact the final product. In the present work we used a direct live/dead staining (LDS) procedure combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously assess the identity and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (Hg) during fermentations performed with single and mixed cultures. The population evolution of both yeasts was determined by plating and by LDS combined with species-specific FISH-probes labeled with Fluorescein. Since the FISH method involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane prior to hybridization and that it may influence the free diffusion of PI in and out of the cells, we optimized the concentration of this dye (0.5 μg of PI per 10(6) cells) for minimal diffusion (less than 2%). Fluorescent cells were enumerated by hemocytometry and flow cytometry. Results showed that the survival rate of Sc during mixed cultures was high throughout the entire process (60% of viable cells at the 9th day), while Hg began to die off at the 2nd day, exhibited 98% of dead cells at the 3rd day (45 g/l of ethanol) and became completely unculturable at the 4th day. However, under single culture fermentation the survival rate and culturability of Hg decreased at a much slower pace, exhibiting at the 7th day (67 g/l of ethanol) 8.7×10(4) CFU/ml and 85% of dead cells. Thus, our work demonstrated that the LDS-FISH method is able to simultaneously assess the viability and identity of these wine-related yeast species during alcoholic fermentation in a fast and reliable way. In order to validate PI-staining as a viability marker during alcoholic fermentation, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the membrane permeability of Sc and Hg cells, as well as their capacity to recover membrane

  13. Annual recapture and survival rates of two non-breeding adult populations of Roseate Terns Stema dougallii captured on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and estimates of their population sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Minton, C.D.T.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hines, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Capture-recapture data from two disparate breeding populations of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) captured together as non-breeding individuals from 2002 to 2007 in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Australia were analyzed for both survival rate and recapture rate. The average annual survival rate for the birds from the Asian population (S. d. bangsi) (0.901) is higher than that of the other population of unknown breeding origin (0.819). There was large variability in survival in both populations among years, but the average survival rate of 0.85 is similar to estimates for the same species in North America. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber models used in program MARK to estimate survival rates also produced estimated of recapture probabilities and population sizes. These estimates of population size were 29,000 for S. D. bangsi and 8,300 for the study area and much larger than the documented numbers in the likely breeding areas, suggesting that many breeding sites are currently unknown.

  14. China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Bennett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forests Program (CCFP is the world’s largest afforestation-based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES program, having retired and afforested over 24 million ha involving 32 million rural households. Prior research has primarily focused on the CCFP’s rural welfare impacts, with few studies on program-induced environmental improvements, particularly at the household level. In this study, data from a 2010 survey covering 2808 rural households from across China was analyzed using an interval regression model to explain household-reported survival rates of trees planted on program-enrolled cropland. In addition to household-level factors, we explore the influence of local conditions and institutional configurations by exploiting the wide diversity of contexts covered by the data set. We find that households with more available labor and more forestry experience manage trees better, but that higher opportunity costs for both land and labor have the opposite effect. We also find that the local implementation regime- e.g., the degree of prior consultation with participants and regular monitoring - has a strong positive effect on reported survivorship. We suggest that the level of subsidy support to participating households will be key to survivorship of trees in planted CCFP forests for some time to come.

  15. The effects of green tea extract additive feeds on the growth performance and survival rate of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Pimpimol, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE additive feeds on the growth performance in the giant freshwater prawn. Two separate trials were determined by using two different stages of prawn for initial stocking, one was the small post larva (PL10, the other was 5.6 g prawn. A Completely Randomized Design was applied in this study. The small post larva (PL10 were raised in cement tanks(1x1.5 m2. Three treatments with three replications each were performed applied as following: treatment 1 (control was the commercial pellet feed; treatment 2 and 3 were feeds with 1% and 2% green tea extract, respectively. This assay was run for 8 weeks. The prawns were randomly selected for weight determination every week. The result showed there was no significant difference in the specific growth rate and survival (P > 0.05 but the feed conversion ratio was reduced in prawn fed with green tea extracts (P 0.05. Therefore, green tea extract has potential as growth enhancer in giant freshwater prawn culture.

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF VITAMIN C ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF THE FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of vitamin C on growth and survival rate of freshwater prawn larvae. The treatment dosages of vitamin C were 0.0, and 0.75 mg/L. Each treatment was in triplicates and arranged in a complete randomized design. Vitamin C was given to the larval rearing media every three days. Larvae were cultured in six conical fibreglass tanks of 50 L volume installed in a fibreglass tank (2 m x 0.8 m x 0.8