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Sample records for maximum strain level

  1. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a representative...

  2. Three-dimensional maximum principal strain using cardiac computed tomography for identification of myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Yuki; Kido, Teruhito; Kurata, Akira; Sawada, Shun; Suekuni, Hiroshi; Kido, Tomoyuki; Yokoi, Takahiro; Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Toon City, Ehime (Japan); Uetani, Teruyoshi; Inoue, Katsuji [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, Hypertension and Nephrology, Toon City, Ehime (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) maximum principal strain (MP-strain) derived from cardiac computed tomography (CT) for detecting myocardial infarction (MI). Forty-three patients who underwent cardiac CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were retrospectively selected. Using the voxel tracking of motion coherence algorithm, the peak CT MP-strain was measured using the 16-segment model. With the trans-mural extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and the distance from MI, all segments were classified into four groups (infarcted, border, adjacent, and remote segments); infarcted and border segments were defined as MI with LGE positive. Diagnostic performance of MP-strain for detecting MI was compared with per cent systolic wall thickening (%SWT) assessed by MRI using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis at a segment level. Of 672 segments excluding16 segments influenced by artefacts, 193 were diagnosed as MI. Sensitivity and specificity of peak MP-strain to identify MI were 81 % [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI): 74-88 %] and 86 % (81-92 %) compared with %SWT: 76 % (60-95 %) and 68 % (48-84 %), respectively. The area under the curve of peak MP-strain was superior to %SWT [0.90 (0.87-0.93) vs. 0.80 (0.76-0.83), p < 0.05]. CT MP-strain has a potential to provide incremental value to coronary CT angiography for detecting MI. (orig.)

  3. Maximum penetration level of distributed generation without violating voltage limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, J.; Haan, de S.W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Connection of Distributed Generation (DG) units to a distribution network will result in a local voltage increase. As there will be a maximum on the allowable voltage increase, this will limit the maximum allowable penetration level of DG. By reactive power compensation (by the DG unit itself) a

  4. Improving Phylogeny Reconstruction at the Strain Level Using Peptidome Datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Blanco-Míguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical bacterial strain differentiation methods are often challenged by high genetic similarity between strains. To address this problem, we introduce a novel in silico peptide fingerprinting method based on conventional wet-lab protocols that enables the identification of potential strain-specific peptides. These can be further investigated using in vitro approaches, laying a foundation for the development of biomarker detection and application-specific methods. This novel method aims at reducing large amounts of comparative peptide data to binary matrices while maintaining a high phylogenetic resolution. The underlying case study concerns the Bacillus cereus group, namely the differentiation of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus strains. Results show that trees based on cytoplasmic and extracellular peptidomes are only marginally in conflict with those based on whole proteomes, as inferred by the established Genome-BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP method. Hence, these results indicate that the two approaches can most likely be used complementarily even in other organismal groups. The obtained results confirm previous reports about the misclassification of many strains within the B. cereus group. Moreover, our method was able to separate the B. anthracis strains with high resolution, similarly to the GBDP results as benchmarked via Bayesian inference and both Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony. In addition to the presented phylogenomic applications, whole-peptide fingerprinting might also become a valuable complementary technique to digital DNA-DNA hybridization, notably for bacterial classification at the species and subspecies level in the future.

  5. Improving Phylogeny Reconstruction at the Strain Level Using Peptidome Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Gutiérrez-Jácome, Alberto; Göker, Markus; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Sánchez, Borja; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-12-01

    Typical bacterial strain differentiation methods are often challenged by high genetic similarity between strains. To address this problem, we introduce a novel in silico peptide fingerprinting method based on conventional wet-lab protocols that enables the identification of potential strain-specific peptides. These can be further investigated using in vitro approaches, laying a foundation for the development of biomarker detection and application-specific methods. This novel method aims at reducing large amounts of comparative peptide data to binary matrices while maintaining a high phylogenetic resolution. The underlying case study concerns the Bacillus cereus group, namely the differentiation of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus strains. Results show that trees based on cytoplasmic and extracellular peptidomes are only marginally in conflict with those based on whole proteomes, as inferred by the established Genome-BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) method. Hence, these results indicate that the two approaches can most likely be used complementarily even in other organismal groups. The obtained results confirm previous reports about the misclassification of many strains within the B. cereus group. Moreover, our method was able to separate the B. anthracis strains with high resolution, similarly to the GBDP results as benchmarked via Bayesian inference and both Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony. In addition to the presented phylogenomic applications, whole-peptide fingerprinting might also become a valuable complementary technique to digital DNA-DNA hybridization, notably for bacterial classification at the species and subspecies level in the future.

  6. Maximum surface level and temperature histories for Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.; Ha, N.D.; Huisingh, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive defense waste resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste-storage tanks. The Hanford Site Tank Farm Facilities Interim Safety Basis (ISB) provides a ready reference to the safety envelope for applicable tank farm facilities and installations. During preparation of the ISB, tank structural integrity concerns were identified as a key element in defining the safety envelope. These concerns, along with several deficiencies in the technical bases associated with the structural integrity issues and the corresponding operational limits/controls specified for conduct of normal tank farm operations are documented in the ISB. Consequently, a plan was initiated to upgrade the safety envelope technical bases by conducting Accelerated Safety Analyses-Phase 1 (ASA-Phase 1) sensitivity studies and additional structural evaluations. The purpose of this report is to facilitate the ASA-Phase 1 studies and future analyses of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs) by compiling a quantitative summary of some of the past operating conditions the tanks have experienced during their existence. This report documents the available summaries of recorded maximum surface levels and maximum waste temperatures and references other sources for more specific data

  7. 40 CFR 141.62 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants. 141.62 Section 141.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.62 Maximum...

  8. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants. 141.63 Section 141.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.63 Maximum...

  9. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants. 141.61 Section 141.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.61 Maximum contaminant...

  10. The calculation of maximum permissible exposure levels for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum permissible exposure data of the revised standard BS 4803 are presented as a set of decision charts which ensure that the user automatically takes into account such details as pulse length and pulse pattern, limiting angular subtense, combinations of multiple wavelength and/or multiple pulse lengths, etc. The two decision charts given are for the calculation of radiation hazards to skin and eye respectively. (author)

  11. Aluminum-thin-film packaged fiber Bragg grating probes for monitoring the maximum tensile strain of composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jooeun; Kim, Mihyun; Choi, Ki-Sun; Hwang, Tae-Kyung; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2014-06-10

    In this paper, new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor probes are designed to intermittently detect the maximum tensile strain of composite materials, so as to evaluate the structural health status. This probe is fabricated by two thin Al films bonded to an FBG optical fiber and two supporting brackets, which are fixed on the surface of composite materials. The residual strain of the Al packaged FBG sensor probe is induced by the strain of composite materials. This residual strain can indicate the maximum strain of composite materials. Two types of sensor probes are prepared-one is an FBG with 18 μm thick Al films, and the other is an FBG with 36 μm thick Al films-to compare the thickness effect on the detection sensitivity. These sensor probes are bonded on the surfaces of carbon fiber reinforced plastics composite specimens. In order to determine the strain sensitivity between the residual strain of the FBG sensor probe and the maximum strain of the composite specimen, tensile tests are performed by universal testing machine, under the loading-unloading test condition. The strain sensitivities of the probes, which have the Al thicknesses of 18 and 36 μm, are determined as 0.13 and 0.23, respectively.

  12. Maximum stress estimation model for multi-span waler beams with deflections at the supports using average strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Byung Kwan; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-03-30

    The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads.

  13. Maximum Stress Estimation Model for Multi-Span Waler Beams with Deflections at the Supports Using Average Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads.

  14. 40 CFR 141.51 - Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants. 141.51 Section 141.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  15. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  16. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  17. An Iterative Maximum a Posteriori Estimation of Proficiency Level to Detect Multiple Local Likelihood Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors focus on the issue of the nonuniqueness of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator of proficiency level in item response theory (with special attention to logistic models). The usual maximum a posteriori (MAP) method offers a good alternative within that framework; however, this article highlights some drawbacks of its…

  18. Maximum Likelihood based comparison of the specific growth rates for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard

    2008-01-01

    with an exponentially decaying function of the time between observations is suggested. A model with a full covariance structure containing OD-dependent variance and an autocorrelation structure is compared to a model with variance only and with no variance or correlation implemented. It is shown that the model...... are used for parameter estimation. The data is log-transformed such that a linear model can be applied. The transformation changes the variance structure, and hence an OD-dependent variance is implemented in the model. The autocorrelation in the data is demonstrated, and a correlation model...... that best describes data is a model taking into account the full covariance structure. An inference study is made in order to determine whether the growth rate of the five bacteria strains is the same. After applying a likelihood-ratio test to models with a full covariance structure, it is concluded...

  19. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  20. PREDICTION OF MAXIMUM CREEP STRAIN OF HIGH PERFORMANCE STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishina Alexandra Vasil'evna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strongest research potential is demonstrated by the areas of application of high performance steel fiber reinforced concrete (HPSFRC. The research of its rheological characteristics is very important for the purposes of understanding its behaviour. This article is an overview of an experimental study of UHSSFRC. The study was carried out in the form of lasting creep tests of HPSFRC prism specimen, loaded by stresses of varied intensity. The loading was performed at different ages: 7, 14, 28 and 90 days after concreting. The stress intensity was 0.3 and 0.6 Rb; it was identified on the basis of short-term crush tests of similar prism-shaped specimen, performed on the same day. As a result, values of ultimate creep strains and ultimate specific creep of HPSFRC were identified. The data was used to construct an experimental diagramme of the ultimate specific creep on the basis of the HPSFRC loading age if exposed to various stresses. The research has resulted in the identification of a theoretical relationship that may serve as the basis for the high-precision projection of the pattern of changes in the ultimate specific creep of HPSFRC, depending on the age of loading and the stress intensity.

  1. Optimization of Culture Parameters for Maximum Polyhydroxybutyrate Production by Selected Bacterial Strains Isolated from Rhizospheric Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathwal, Priyanka; Nehra, Kiran; Singh, Manpreet; Jamdagni, Pragati; Rana, Jogender S

    2015-01-01

    The enormous applications of conventional non-biodegradable plastics have led towards their increased usage and accumulation in the environment. This has become one of the major causes of global environmental concern in the present century. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable plastic is known to have properties similar to conventional plastics, thus exhibiting a potential for replacing conventional non-degradable plastics. In the present study, a total of 303 different bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from the rhizospheric area of three crops, viz., wheat, mustard and sugarcane. All the isolates were screened for PHB (Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid) production using Sudan Black staining method, and 194 isolates were found to be PHB positive. Based upon the amount of PHB produced, the isolates were divided into three categories: high, medium and low producers. Representative isolates from each category were selected for biochemical characterization; and for optimization of various culture parameters (carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, different pH, temperature and incubation time periods) for maximizing PHB accumulation. The highest PHB yield was obtained when the culture medium was supplemented with glucose as the carbon source, ammonium sulphate at a concentration of 1.0 g/l as the nitrogen source, and by maintaining the C/N ratio of the medium as 20:1. The physical growth parameters which supported maximum PHB accumulation included a pH of 7.0, and an incubation temperature of 30 degrees C for a period of 48 h. A few isolates exhibited high PHB accumulation under optimized conditions, thus showing a potential for their industrial exploitation.

  2. The Influence of Red Fruit Oil on Creatin Kinase Level at Maximum Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollo Sinaga, Fajar; Hotliber Purba, Pangondian

    2018-03-01

    Heavy physical activities can cause the oxidative stress which resulting in muscle damage with an indicator of elevated levels of Creatin Kinase (CK) enzyme. The oxidative stress can be prevented or reduced by antioxidant supplementation. One of natural resources which contain antioxidant is Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus) Oil (RFO). This study aims to see the effect of Red Fruit Oil on Creatin Kinase (CK) level at maximum physical activity. This study is an experimental research by using the design of randomized control group pretest-posttest. This study was using 24 male mice divided into four groups, the control group was given aquadest, the treatment groups P1, P2, and P3 were given the RFO orally of 0.15 ml/kgBW, 0.3 ml/kgBW, and 0.6 ml/kgBW, respectively, for a month. The level of CK was checked for all groups at the beginning of study and after the maximum physical activity. The obtained data were then tested statistically by using t-test and ANOVA. The result shows the RFO supplementation during exercise decreased the CK level in P1, P2, and P3 groups with p<0.05, and the higher RFO dosage resulted in decreased CK level at p<0.05. The conclusion of this study is the Red Fruit Oil could decrease the level of CK at maximum physical activity.

  3. Ethanol production and maximum cell growth are highly correlated with membrane lipid composition during fermentation as determined by lipidomic analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Clark M; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L; Block, David E

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R(2) = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems.

  4. Three-level grid-connected photovoltaic inverter with maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlight: ► This paper reports a novel 3-level grid connected photovoltaic inverter. ► The inverter features maximum power point tracking and grid current shaping. ► The inverter can be acted as an active filter and a renewable power source. - Abstract: This paper presents a systematic way of designing control scheme for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter featuring maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and grid current shaping. Unlike conventional design, only four power switches are required to achieve three output levels and it is not necessary to use any phase-locked-loop circuitry. For the proposed scheme, a simple integral controller has been designed for the tracking of the maximum power point of a PV array based on an improved extremum seeking control method. For the grid-connected inverter, a current loop controller and a voltage loop controller have been designed. The current loop controller is designed to shape the inverter output current while the voltage loop controller can maintain the capacitor voltage at a certain level and provide a reference inverter output current for the PV inverter without affecting the maximum power point of the PV array. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the tracking and control scheme.

  5. Maximum power point tracking techniques for wind energy systems using three levels boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong Hung; Nollet, Frédéric; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents modeling and simulation of three level Boost DC-DC converter in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). Three-level Boost converter has significant advantage compared to conventional Boost. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for a variable speed wind turbine using permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is also presented. Simulation of three-level Boost converter topology with Perturb and Observe algorithm and Fuzzy Logic Control is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results of this simulation show that the system with MPPT using fuzzy logic controller has better performance to the Perturb and Observe algorithm: fast response under changing conditions and small oscillation.

  6. 25(OHD3 Levels Relative to Muscle Strength and Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Książek Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is mainly known for its effects on the bone and calcium metabolism. The discovery of Vitamin D receptors in many extraskeletal cells suggests that it may also play a significant role in other organs and systems. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between 25(OHD3 levels, lower limb isokinetic strength and maximum oxygen uptake in well-trained professional football players. We enrolled 43 Polish premier league soccer players. The mean age was 22.7±5.3 years. Our study showed decreased serum 25(OHD3 levels in 74.4% of the professional players. The results also demonstrated a lack of statistically significant correlation between 25(OHD3 levels and lower limb muscle strength with the exception of peak torque of the left knee extensors at an angular velocity of 150°/s (r=0.41. No significant correlations were found between hand grip strength and maximum oxygen uptake. Based on our study we concluded that in well-trained professional soccer players, there was no correlation between serum levels of 25(OHD3 and muscle strength or maximum oxygen uptake.

  7. Level set segmentation of medical images based on local region statistics and maximum a posteriori probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenchao; Wang, Yi; Lei, Tao; Fan, Yangyu; Feng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a variational level set method for simultaneous segmentation and bias field estimation of medical images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the statistics of image intensities belonging to each different tissue in local regions are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. According to maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) and Bayes' rule, we first derive a local objective function for image intensities in a neighborhood around each pixel. Then this local objective function is integrated with respect to the neighborhood center over the entire image domain to give a global criterion. In level set framework, this global criterion defines an energy in terms of the level set functions that represent a partition of the image domain and a bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity of the image. Therefore, image segmentation and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved via a level set evolution process. Experimental results for synthetic and real images show desirable performances of our method.

  8. Pseudo Landau levels and quantum oscillations in strained Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal lattice deformation in Weyl materials where the two chiralities are separated in momentum space leads to the appearance of gauge pseudo-fields. We investigated the pseudo-magnetic field induced quantum oscillations in strained Weyl semimetal (WSM). In contrast to all previous works on this problem, we use here a more general tilted Hamiltonian. Such Hamiltonian, seems to be is more suitable for a strained WSMs. We have shown that a pseudo-magnetic field induced magnetization of strained WSM is nonzero due to the fact that electric field (gradient of the deformation potential) is induced simultaneously with the pseudo-magnetic field. This related with fact that the pseudo Landau levels (LLs) in strained WSM are differ in vicinities of different WPs due to the presence of tilt in spectrum. Such violation of the equivalence between Weyl points (WPs) leads to modulation of quantum oscillations. We also showed that magnetization magnitude can be changed by application of an external electric field. In particular, it can be reduced to zero. The possibility of controlling of the magnetization by an electric field is interesting both from a fundamental point of view (a new type of magneto-electric effect) and application point of view (additional possibility to control diamagnetism of deformed WSMs). Finally, a coexistence of type-I and type-II Weyl fermions is possible in the system under investigation. Such phase is absolutely new for physics of topological systems.

  9. The application of a Grey Markov Model to forecasting annual maximum water levels at hydrological stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheng; Chi, Kun; Zhang, Qiyi; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2012-03-01

    Compared with traditional real-time forecasting, this paper proposes a Grey Markov Model (GMM) to forecast the maximum water levels at hydrological stations in the estuary area. The GMM combines the Grey System and Markov theory into a higher precision model. The GMM takes advantage of the Grey System to predict the trend values and uses the Markov theory to forecast fluctuation values, and thus gives forecast results involving two aspects of information. The procedure for forecasting annul maximum water levels with the GMM contains five main steps: 1) establish the GM (1, 1) model based on the data series; 2) estimate the trend values; 3) establish a Markov Model based on relative error series; 4) modify the relative errors caused in step 2, and then obtain the relative errors of the second order estimation; 5) compare the results with measured data and estimate the accuracy. The historical water level records (from 1960 to 1992) at Yuqiao Hydrological Station in the estuary area of the Haihe River near Tianjin, China are utilized to calibrate and verify the proposed model according to the above steps. Every 25 years' data are regarded as a hydro-sequence. Eight groups of simulated results show reasonable agreement between the predicted values and the measured data. The GMM is also applied to the 10 other hydrological stations in the same estuary. The forecast results for all of the hydrological stations are good or acceptable. The feasibility and effectiveness of this new forecasting model have been proved in this paper.

  10. The Red Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum: implications for sea level reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, H.; Biton, E.; Peltier, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Red Sea (RS) is a semi-enclosed basin connected to the Indian Ocean via a narrow and shallow strait, and surrounded by arid areas which exhibits high sensitivity to atmospheric changes and sea level reduction. We have used the MIT GCM to investigate the changes in the hydrography and circulation in the RS in response to reduced sea level, variability in the Indian monsoons, and changes in atmospheric temperature and humidity that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The model results show high sensitivity to sea level reduction especially in the salinity field (increasing with the reduction in sea level) together with a mild atmospheric impact. Sea level reduction decreases the stratification, increases subsurface temperatures, and alters the circulation pattern at the Strait of Bab el Mandab, which experiences a transition from submaximal flow to maximal flow. The reduction in sea level at LGM alters the location of deep water formation which shifts to an open sea convective site in the northern part of the RS compared to present day situation in which deep water is formed from the Gulf of Suez outflow. Our main result based on both the GCM and on a simple hydraulic control model which takes into account mixing process at the Strait of Bab El Mandeb, is that sea level was reduced by only ~100 m in the Bab El Mandeb region during the LGM, i.e. the water depth at the Hanish sill (the shallowest part in the Strait Bab el Mandab) was around 34 m. This result agrees with the recent reconstruction of the LGM low stand of the sea in this region based upon the ICE-5G (VM2) model of Peltier (2004).

  11. Multi-level restricted maximum likelihood covariance estimation and kriging for large non-gridded spatial datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Castrillon, Julio; Genton, Marc G.; Yokota, Rio

    2015-01-01

    We develop a multi-level restricted Gaussian maximum likelihood method for estimating the covariance function parameters and computing the best unbiased predictor. Our approach produces a new set of multi-level contrasts where the deterministic

  12. An event- and network-level analysis of college students' maximum drinking day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; DiBello, Angelo M; Balestrieri, Sara G; Ott, Miles Q; DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Clark, Melissa A; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-04-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is common among college students and remains a serious public health issue. Previous event-level research among college students has examined behaviors and individual-level characteristics that drive consumption and related consequences but often ignores the social network of people with whom these heavy drinking episodes occur. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the network of social connections between drinkers on their heaviest drinking occasions. Sociocentric network methods were used to collect information from individuals in the first-year class (N=1342) at one university. Past-month drinkers (N=972) reported on the characteristics of their heaviest drinking occasion in the past month and indicated who else among their network connections was present during this occasion. Average max drinking day indegree, or the total number of times a participant was nominated as being present on another students' heaviest drinking occasion, was 2.50 (SD=2.05). Network autocorrelation models indicated that max drinking day indegree (e.g., popularity on heaviest drinking occassions) and peers' number of drinks on their own maximum drinking occasions were significantly associated with participant maximum number of drinks, after controlling for demographic variables, pregaming, and global network indegree (e.g., popularity in the entire first-year class). Being present at other peers' heaviest drinking occasions is associated with greater drinking quantities on one's own heaviest drinking occasion. These findings suggest the potential for interventions that target peer influences within close social networks of drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lake-level increasing under the climate cryoaridization conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosov, Mikhail; Strelkov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    A lake genesis and lake-level increasing during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are the paramount issues in paleoclimatology. Investigating these problems reveals the regularities of lake development and figures out an arid territory conditions at the LGM stage. Pluvial theory is the most prevalent conception of lake formation during the LGM. This theory is based on a fact that the water bodies emerged and their level increased due to torrential rainfalls. In this study, it is paid attention to an alternative assumption of lake genesis at the LGM stage, which is called climate cryoaridization. In accordance with this hypothesis, the endorheic water basins had their level enlarged because of a simultaneous climate aridity and temperature decrease. In this research, a lake-level increasing in endorheic regions of Central Asia and South American Altiplano of the Andes is described. The lake investigation is related to its conditions during the LGM. The study also includes a lake catalogue clearly presenting the basin conditions at the LGM stage and nowadays. The data compilation partly consists of information from an earlier work of Mikhail Amosov, Lake-levels, Vegetation And Climate In Central Asia During The Last Glacial Maximum (EGU2014-3015). According to the investigation, a lake catalogue on 27 lakes showed that most of the water bodies had higher level. This feature could be mentioned for the biggest lakes of the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash, Issyk-Kul etc. and for the small ones located in the mountains, such as Pamir, Tian-Shan and Tibet. Yet some lakes that are situated in Central Asian periphery (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) used to be lower than nowadays. Also, the lake-level increasing of Altiplano turned to be a significant feature during the LGM in accordance with the data of 5 lakes, such as Titicaca, Coipasa-Uyuni, Lejia, Miscanti and Santa-Maria. Most of the current endorheic basins at the LGM stage were filled with water due to abundant

  14. Sea-Level Change in the Russian Arctic Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.; Baranskaya, A.; Khan, N.; Romanenko, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    Relative sea-level (RSL) databases that span the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present have been used to infer changes in climate, regional ice sheet variations, the rate and geographic source of meltwater influx, and the rheological structure of the solid Earth. Here, we have produced a quality-controlled RSL database for the Russian Arctic since the LGM. The database contains 394 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space, and 244 limiting points, which constrain the minimum or maximum limit of former sea level. In the western part of the Russian Arctic (Barents and White seas,) RSL was driven by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) due to deglaciation of the Scandinavian ice sheet, which covered the Baltic crystalline shield at the LGM. RSL data from isolation basins show rapid RSL from 80-100 m at 11-12 ka BP to 15-25 m at 4-5 ka BP. In the Arctic Islands of Franz-Joseph Land and Novaya Zemlya, RSL data from dated driftwood in raised beaches show a gradual fall from 25-35 m at 9-10 ka BP to 5-10 m at 3 ka BP. In the Russian plain, situated at the margins of the formerly glaciated Baltic crystalline shield, RSL data from raised beaches and isolation basins show an early Holocene rise from less than -20 m at 9-11 ka BP before falling in the late Holocene, illustrating the complex interplay between ice-equivalent meltwater input and GIA. The Western Siberian Arctic (Yamal and Gydan Peninsulas, Beliy Island and islands of the Kara Sea) was not glaciated at the LGM. Sea-level data from marine and salt-marsh deposits show RSL rise at the beginning of the Holocene to a mid-Holocene highstand of 1-5 m at 5-1 ka BP. A similar, but more complex RSL pattern is shown for Eastern Siberia. RSL data from the Laptev Sea shelf show RSL at -40- -45 m and 11-14 ka BP. RSL data from the Lena Delta and Tiksi region have a highstand from 5 to 1 ka BP. The research is supported by RSF project 17-77-10130

  15. Experimental verification of the imposing principle for maximum permissible levels of multicolor laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashin V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study presents the results of experimental research to verify the principle overlay for maximum permissible levels (MPL of multicolor laser radiation single exposure on eyes. This principle of the independence of the effects of radiation with each wavelength (the imposing principle, was founded and generalized to a wide range of exposure conditions. Experimental verification of this approach in relation to the impact of laser radiation on tissue fundus of an eye, as shows the analysis of the literature was not carried out. Material and methods. Was used in the experimental laser generating radiation with wavelengths: Л1 =0,532 microns, A2=0,556to 0,562 microns and A3=0,619to 0,621 urn. Experiments were carried out on eyes of rabbits with evenly pigmented eye bottom. Results. At comparison of results of processing of the experimental data with the calculated data it is shown that these levels are close by their parameters. Conclusions. For the first time in the Russian Federation had been performed experimental studies on the validity of multi-colored laser radiation on the organ of vision. In view of the objective coincidence of the experimental data with the calculated data, we can conclude that the mathematical formulas work.

  16. Minimum and Maximum Potential Contributions to Future Sea Level Rise from Polar Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconto, R. M.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    New climate and ice-sheet modeling, calibrated to past changes in sea-level, is painting a stark picture of the future fate of the great polar ice sheets if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. This is especially true for Antarctica, where a substantial fraction of the ice sheet rests on bedrock more than 500-meters below sea level. Here, we explore the sensitivity of the polar ice sheets to a warming atmosphere and ocean under a range of future greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The ice sheet-climate-ocean model used here considers time-evolving changes in surface mass balance and sub-ice oceanic melting, ice deformation, grounding line retreat on reverse-sloped bedrock (Marine Ice Sheet Instability), and newly added processes including hydrofracturing of ice shelves in response to surface meltwater and rain, and structural collapse of thick, marine-terminating ice margins with tall ice-cliff faces (Marine Ice Cliff Instability). The simulations improve on previous work by using 1) improved atmospheric forcing from a Regional Climate Model and 2) a much wider range of model physical parameters within the bounds of modern observations of ice dynamical processes (particularly calving rates) and paleo constraints on past ice-sheet response to warming. Approaches to more precisely define the climatic thresholds capable of triggering rapid and potentially irreversible ice-sheet retreat are also discussed, as is the potential for aggressive mitigation strategies like those discussed at the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) to substantially reduce the risk of extreme sea-level rise. These results, including physics that consider both ice deformation (creep) and calving (mechanical failure of marine terminating ice) expand on previously estimated limits of maximum rates of future sea level rise based solely on kinematic constraints of glacier flow. At the high end, the new results show the potential for more than 2m of global mean sea level rise by 2100

  17. Quantile-based Bayesian maximum entropy approach for spatiotemporal modeling of ambient air quality levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-02-05

    Understanding the daily changes in ambient air quality concentrations is important to the assessing human exposure and environmental health. However, the fine temporal scales (e.g., hourly) involved in this assessment often lead to high variability in air quality concentrations. This is because of the complex short-term physical and chemical mechanisms among the pollutants. Consequently, high heterogeneity is usually present in not only the averaged pollution levels, but also the intraday variance levels of the daily observations of ambient concentration across space and time. This characteristic decreases the estimation performance of common techniques. This study proposes a novel quantile-based Bayesian maximum entropy (QBME) method to account for the nonstationary and nonhomogeneous characteristics of ambient air pollution dynamics. The QBME method characterizes the spatiotemporal dependence among the ambient air quality levels based on their location-specific quantiles and accounts for spatiotemporal variations using a local weighted smoothing technique. The epistemic framework of the QBME method can allow researchers to further consider the uncertainty of space-time observations. This study presents the spatiotemporal modeling of daily CO and PM10 concentrations across Taiwan from 1998 to 2009 using the QBME method. Results show that the QBME method can effectively improve estimation accuracy in terms of lower mean absolute errors and standard deviations over space and time, especially for pollutants with strong nonhomogeneous variances across space. In addition, the epistemic framework can allow researchers to assimilate the site-specific secondary information where the observations are absent because of the common preferential sampling issues of environmental data. The proposed QBME method provides a practical and powerful framework for the spatiotemporal modeling of ambient pollutants.

  18. Guidance document on the derivation of maximum permissible risk levels for human intake of soil contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a basic step-to-step description of the procedure followed in the derivation of the human-toxicological Maximum Permissible Risk (MPR ; in Dutch: Maximum Toelaatbaar Risico, MTR) for soil contaminants. In recent years this method has been applied for a large number of compounds

  19. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2017-12-01

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  20. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Hilde; Rymen, Bart; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Demuynck, Kirin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Kamiya, Yuji; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2012-07-10

    Plant growth rate is largely determined by the transition between the successive phases of cell division and expansion. A key role for hormone signaling in determining this transition was inferred from genetic approaches and transcriptome analysis in the Arabidopsis root tip. We used the developmental gradient at the maize leaf base as a model to study this transition, because it allows a direct comparison between endogenous hormone concentrations and the transitions between dividing, expanding, and mature tissue. Concentrations of auxin and cytokinins are highest in dividing tissues, whereas bioactive gibberellins (GAs) show a peak at the transition zone between the division and expansion zone. Combined metabolic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that this GA maximum is established by GA biosynthesis in the division zone (DZ) and active GA catabolism at the onset of the expansion zone. Mutants defective in GA synthesis and signaling, and transgenic plants overproducing GAs, demonstrate that altering GA levels specifically affects the size of the DZ, resulting in proportional changes in organ growth rates. This work thereby provides a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of the transition from cell division to expansion that controls organ growth and size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological bases of the maximum permissible exposure levels of the UK laser standard BS 4803: 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinlay, A.F.; Harlen, F.

    1983-10-01

    The use of lasers has increased greatly over the past 15 years or so, to the extent that they are now used routinely in many occupational and public situations. There has been an increasing awareness of the potential hazards presented by lasers and substantial efforts have been made to formulate safety standards. In the UK the relevant Safety Standard is the British Standards Institution Standard BS 4803. This Standard was originally published in 1972 and a revision has recently been published (BS 4803: 1983). The revised standard has been developed using the American National Standards Institute Standard, ANSI Z136.1 (1973 onwards), as a model. In other countries, national standards have been similarly formulated, resulting in a large measure of international agreement through participation in the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The bases of laser safety standards are biophysical data on threshold injury effects, particularly on the retina, and the development of theoretical models of damage mechanisms. This report deals in some detail with the mechanisms of injury from over exposure to optical radiations, in particular with the dependency of the type and degree of damage on wavelength, image size and pulse duration. The maximum permissible exposure levels recommended in BS 4803: 1983 are compared with published data for damage thresholds and the adequacy of the standard is discussed. (author)

  2. Should legislation regarding maximum Pb and Cd levels in human food also cover large game meat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Mark A; Reglero, Manuel M; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Game meat may be contaminated with metals and metalloids if animals reside in anthropogenically polluted areas, or if ammunition used to kill the game contaminates the meat. Muscle tissue from red deer and wild boar shot in Ciudad Real province (Spain) in 2005-06 was analysed for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd. Samples were collected from hunting estates within and outside an area that has been historically used for mining, smelting and refining various metals and metalloids. Meat destined for human consumption, contained more Pb, As and Se (red deer) and Pb (boar) when harvested from animals that had resided in mined areas. Age related accumulation of Cd, Zn and As (in deer) and Cd, Cu and Se (in boar) was also observed. Two boar meat samples contained high Pb, at 352 and 2408 μg/g d.w., and these were likely to have been contaminated by Pb ammunition. Likewise, 19-84% of all samples (depending on species and sampling area) had Pb levels > 0.1 μg/g w.w., the EU maximum residue level (MRL) for farm reared meat. Between 9 and 43% of samples exceeded comparable Cd limits. Such data highlight a discrepancy between what is considered safe for human consumption in popular farmed meat (chicken, beef, lamb), and what in game may often exist. A risk assessment is presented which describes the number of meals required to exceed current tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Cd, and the potential contribution of large game consumption to such intake limit criteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in the Global Hydrological Cycle: Lessons from Modeling Lake Levels at the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D. P.; Morrill, C.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic evidence shows that lake levels in currently arid regions were higher and lakes in currently wet regions were lower during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Current hypotheses used to explain these lake level changes include the thermodynamic hypothesis, in which decreased tropospheric water vapor coupled with patterns of convergence and divergence caused dry areas to become more wet and vice versa, the dynamic hypothesis, in which shifts in the jet stream and Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) altered precipitation patterns, and the evaporation hypothesis, in which lake expansions are attributed to reduced evaporation in a colder climate. This modeling study uses the output of four climate models participating in phase 2 of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP2) as input into a lake energy-balance model, in order to test the accuracy of the models and understand the causes of lake level changes. We model five lakes which include the Great Basin lakes, USA; Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala; Lake Caçó, northern Brazil; Lake Tauca (Titicaca), Bolivia and Peru; and Lake Cari-Laufquen, Argentina. These lakes create a transect through the drylands of North America through the tropics and to the drylands of South America. The models accurately recreate LGM conditions in 14 out of 20 simulations, with the Great Basin lakes being the most robust and Lake Caçó being the least robust, due to model biases in portraying the ITCZ over South America. An analysis of the atmospheric moisture budget from one of the climate models shows that thermodynamic processes contribute most significantly to precipitation changes over the Great Basin, while dynamic processes are most significant for the other lakes. Lake Cari-Laufquen shows a lake expansion that is most likely attributed to reduced evaporation rather than changes in regional precipitation, suggesting that lake levels alone may not be the best indicator of how much precipitation this region

  4. Maximum Permissible Risk Levels for Human Intake of Soil Contaminants: Fourth Series of Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Apeldoorn ME van; Engelen JGM van; Schielen PCJI; Wouters MFA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the human-toxicological risk assessment work done in 1996 and 1997 at RIVM's Centre for Substances and Risk Assessment within the scope of the RIVM project on soil intervention values for soil clean-up. The method used for derivation of the Maximum Permissible Risk, as

  5. Modeling two strains of disease via aggregate-level infectivity curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanescu, Razvan; Deardon, Rob

    2016-04-01

    Well formulated models of disease spread, and efficient methods to fit them to observed data, are powerful tools for aiding the surveillance and control of infectious diseases. Our project considers the problem of the simultaneous spread of two related strains of disease in a context where spatial location is the key driver of disease spread. We start our modeling work with the individual level models (ILMs) of disease transmission, and extend these models to accommodate the competing spread of the pathogens in a two-tier hierarchical population (whose levels we refer to as 'farm' and 'animal'). The postulated interference mechanism between the two strains is a period of cross-immunity following infection. We also present a framework for speeding up the computationally intensive process of fitting the ILM to data, typically done using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) in a Bayesian framework, by turning the inference into a two-stage process. First, we approximate the number of animals infected on a farm over time by infectivity curves. These curves are fit to data sampled from farms, using maximum likelihood estimation, then, conditional on the fitted curves, Bayesian MCMC inference proceeds for the remaining parameters. Finally, we use posterior predictive distributions of salient epidemic summary statistics, in order to assess the model fitted.

  6. Dependency of maximum goitrogenic response on some minimal level of thyroid hormone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, B.E.; Poon, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thyroidal activity was studied in chicks given dietary thiouracil in conjunction with daily doses of thyroxine and with diets adequate and deficient in iodine. DL-thyroxine administered at doses up to 1.0 microgram per day for 10 to 12 days had no effect or slightly increased thyroid weight. Both the epithelial and colloid components of the thyroid gland were increased in response to thiouracil and to thiouracil in combination with low dosages of exogenous thyroxine. Radioiodine uptake was increased above the control with thiouracil and with thiouracil in conjunction with .5 and 1.0 microgram DL-thyroxine given daily. Birds receiving thiouracil, with and without exogenous thyroxine, showed a different pattern of radioiodine uptake and release than the control birds. Thiouracil-treated birds showed a rapid uptake of iodine following its administration, which was followed by a rapid decline immediately after peak accumulation, whereas in control birds thyroidal radioiodine concentration reached a plateau at the maximum concentration attained. The goitrogenic response to thiouracil was much greater when the diet was supplemented with iodine than when the diet was iodine-deficient. Thyroids under iodine deficiency contained greater percentages of epithelial tissue than with iodine-supplemented diets. Thyroid glands of chicks given thiouracil in an iodine-supplemented diet contained much more colloid than glands from iodine-deficient chicks with or without thiouracil. DL-thyroxine at a dosage of .5 microgram per day to chicks given thiouracil in an iodine-adequate diet increased, whereas higher dosages decreased thyroidal colloid. It is concluded that some minimal concentration of thyroid hormone is required for maximum goitrogenic response. It is not clear whether the response is entirely due to an effect on thyrotropin production or whether there is an effect of thyroid hormone on the thyroid gland itself

  7. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief (~150 kyr period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE. Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 – 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

  8. Sea level and global ice volumes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeck, Kurt; Rouby, Hélène; Purcell, Anthony; Sun, Yiying; Sambridge, Malcolm

    2014-10-28

    The major cause of sea-level change during ice ages is the exchange of water between ice and ocean and the planet's dynamic response to the changing surface load. Inversion of ∼1,000 observations for the past 35,000 y from localities far from former ice margins has provided new constraints on the fluctuation of ice volume in this interval. Key results are: (i) a rapid final fall in global sea level of ∼40 m in sea level, the main phase of deglaciation occurred from ∼16.5 ka BP to ∼8.2 ka BP at an average rate of rise of 12 m⋅ka(-1) punctuated by periods of greater, particularly at 14.5-14.0 ka BP at ≥40 mm⋅y(-1) (MWP-1A), and lesser, from 12.5 to 11.5 ka BP (Younger Dryas), rates; (iv) no evidence for a global MWP-1B event at ∼11.3 ka BP; and (v) a progressive decrease in the rate of rise from 8.2 ka to ∼2.5 ka BP, after which ocean volumes remained nearly constant until the renewed sea-level rise at 100-150 y ago, with no evidence of oscillations exceeding ∼15-20 cm in time intervals ≥200 y from 6 to 0.15 ka BP.

  9. 77 FR 20059 - License Amendment To Increase the Maximum Reactor Power Level, Florida Power & Light Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... reduce and mitigate salinity levels in groundwater; operational changes to the PTN cooling canal system... approving the proposed expansion of PTN Units 3 and 4 based on compliance with conditions required by the... restrooms would be used during plant modifications. Therefore, land use conditions would not change at the...

  10. Local, atomic-level elastic strain measurements of metallic glass thin films by electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebner, C. [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sarkar, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Rajagopalan, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States); Rentenberger, C., E-mail: christian.rentenberger@univie.ac.at [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    A novel technique is used to measure the atomic-level elastic strain tensor of amorphous materials by tracking geometric changes of the first diffuse ring of selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAD). An automatic procedure, which includes locating the centre and fitting an ellipse to the diffuse ring with sub-pixel precision is developed for extracting the 2-dimensional strain tensor from the SAD patterns. Using this technique, atomic-level principal strains from micrometre-sized regions of freestanding amorphous Ti{sub 0.45}Al{sub 0.55} thin films were measured during in-situ TEM tensile deformation. The thin films were deformed using MEMS based testing stages that allow simultaneous measurement of the macroscopic stress and strain. The calculated atomic-level principal strains show a linear dependence on the applied stress, and good correspondence with the measured macroscopic strains. The calculated Poisson’s ratio of 0.23 is reasonable for brittle metallic glasses. The technique yields a strain accuracy of about 1×10{sup −4} and shows the potential to obtain localized strain profiles/maps of amorphous thin film samples. - Highlights: • A TEM method to measure elastic strain in metallic glass films is proposed. • Method is based on tracking geometric changes in TEM diffraction patterns. • An automatic procedure is developed for extracting the local strain tensor. • Atomic-level strain in amorphous TiAl film was analysed during in-situ deformation. • Capability of the method to obtain micrometer scale strain profiles/maps is shown.

  11. Multi-level restricted maximum likelihood covariance estimation and kriging for large non-gridded spatial datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Castrillon, Julio

    2015-11-10

    We develop a multi-level restricted Gaussian maximum likelihood method for estimating the covariance function parameters and computing the best unbiased predictor. Our approach produces a new set of multi-level contrasts where the deterministic parameters of the model are filtered out thus enabling the estimation of the covariance parameters to be decoupled from the deterministic component. Moreover, the multi-level covariance matrix of the contrasts exhibit fast decay that is dependent on the smoothness of the covariance function. Due to the fast decay of the multi-level covariance matrix coefficients only a small set is computed with a level dependent criterion. We demonstrate our approach on problems of up to 512,000 observations with a Matérn covariance function and highly irregular placements of the observations. In addition, these problems are numerically unstable and hard to solve with traditional methods.

  12. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 4 Appendix C - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  13. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 18 Appendix Q - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Wind Speed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconom ic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  14. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  15. Growth rates of three geographically separated strains of the ichthyotoxic Prymnesium parvum (Prymnesiophyceae) in response to six different pH levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysgaard, Maria L.; Eckford-Soper, Lisa; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2018-05-01

    Continued anthropogenic carbon emissions are expected to cause a decline in global average pH of the oceans to a projected value of 7.8 by the end of the century. Understanding how harmful algal bloom (HAB) species will respond to lowered pH levels will be important when predicting future HAB events and their ecological consequences. In this study, we examined how manipulated pH levels affected the growth rate of three strains of Prymnesium parvum from North America, Denmark and Japan. Triplicate strains were grown under pH conditions ranging from 6.6 to 9.1 to simulate plausible future levels. Different tolerances were evident for all strains. Significantly higher growth rates were observed at pH 6.6-8.1 compared to growth rates at pH 8.6-9.1 and a lower pH limit was not observed. The Japanese strain (NIES-1017) had the highest maximum growth rate of 0.39 divisions day-1 at pH 6.6 but a low tolerance (0.22 divisions day-1) to high levels (pH 9.1) with growth declining markedly after pH 7.6. The Danish (SCCAP K-0081) and North American (UTEX LB 2797) strains had maximum growth rates of 0.26 and 0.35 divisions day-1, respectively between pH 6.6-8.1. Compared to the other two strains the Danish strain had a statistically lower growth rate across all pH treatments. Strain differences were either attributed to their provenance or the length of time the strain had been in culture.

  16. Title: High-level cefotaxime-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oaca

    High-level cefotaxime-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from a Tunisian .... UV- visible) at 37°C. Specific activity is calculated on depending of. Ross and ..... Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing;. Seventeenth ...

  17. The maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant and the effect of plume rise on concentration estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Azzam, A.

    1991-01-01

    The emission of an air pollutant from an elevated point source according to Gaussian plume model has been presented. An elementary theoretical treatment for both the highest possible ground-level concentration and the downwind distance at which this maximum occurs for different stability classes has been constructed. The effective height release modification was taken into consideration. An illustrative case study, namely, the emission from the research reactor in Inchas, has been studied. The results of these analytical treatments and of the derived semi-empirical formulae are discussed and presented in few illustrative diagrams

  18. Maximum coherent superposition state achievement using a non-resonant pulse train in non-degenerate three-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Li; Niu, Yueping; Jin, Luling; Gong, Shangqing

    2010-01-01

    The coherent superposition state of the lower two levels in non-degenerate three-level Λ atoms is investigated using the accumulative effects of non-resonant pulse trains when the repetition period is smaller than the decay time of the upper level. First, using a rectangular pulse train, the accumulative effects are re-examined in the non-resonant two-level atoms and the modified constructive accumulation equation is analytically given. The equation shows that the relative phase and the repetition period are important in the accumulative effect. Next, under the modified equation in the non-degenerate three-level Λ atoms, we show that besides the constructive accumulation effect, the use of the partial constructive accumulation effect can also achieve the steady state of the maximum coherent superposition state of the lower two levels and the latter condition is relatively easier to manipulate. The analysis is verified by numerical calculations. The influence of the external levels in such a case is also considered and we find that it can be avoided effectively. The above analysis is also applicable to pulse trains with arbitrary envelopes.

  19. Maximum flood hazard assessment for OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmrichter, P.; McClintock, J.; Peng, J.; Leung, H.

    2011-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has entered a process to seek Environmental Assessment and licensing approvals to construct a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) near the existing Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) at the Bruce nuclear site in the Municipality of Kincardine, Ontario. In support of the design of the proposed DGR project, maximum flood stages were estimated for potential flood hazard risks associated with coastal, riverine and direct precipitation flooding. The estimation of lake/coastal flooding for the Bruce nuclear site considered potential extreme water levels in Lake Huron, storm surge and seiche, wind waves, and tsunamis. The riverine flood hazard assessment considered the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) within the local watersheds, and within local drainage areas that will be directly impacted by the site development. A series of hydraulic models were developed, based on DGR project site grading and ditching, to assess the impact of a Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) occurring directly at the DGR site. Overall, this flood assessment concluded there is no potential for lake or riverine based flooding and the DGR area is not affected by tsunamis. However, it was also concluded from the results of this analysis that the PMF in proximity to the critical DGR operational areas and infrastructure would be higher than the proposed elevation of the entrance to the underground works. This paper provides an overview of the assessment of potential flood hazard risks associated with coastal, riverine and direct precipitation flooding that was completed for the DGR development. (author)

  20. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  1. Strain-based plastic instability acceptance criteria for ferritic steel safety class 1 nuclear components under level D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Su; Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Won [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    This paper proposes strain-based acceptance criteria for assessing plastic instability of the safety class 1 nuclear components made of ferritic steel during level D service loads. The strain-based criteria were proposed with two approaches: (1) a section average approach and (2) a critical location approach. Both approaches were based on the damage initiation point corresponding to the maximum load-carrying capability point instead of the fracture point via tensile tests and finite element analysis (FEA) for the notched specimen under uni-axial tensile loading. The two proposed criteria were reviewed from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy to select a more appropriate criterion. As a result of the review, it was found that the section average approach is more appropriate than the critical location approach from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy. Finally, the criterion based on the section average approach was applied to a simplified reactor pressure vessel (RPV) outlet nozzle subject to SSE loads. The application shows that the strain-based acceptance criteria can consider cumulative damages caused by the sequential loads unlike the stress-based acceptance criteria and can reduce the over conservatism of the stress-based acceptance criteria, which often occurs for level D service loads.

  2. Strain-based plastic instability acceptance criteria for ferritic steel safety class 1 nuclear components under level D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Su; Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jin Won

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes strain-based acceptance criteria for assessing plastic instability of the safety class 1 nuclear components made of ferritic steel during level D service loads. The strain-based criteria were proposed with two approaches: (1) a section average approach and (2) a critical location approach. Both approaches were based on the damage initiation point corresponding to the maximum load-carrying capability point instead of the fracture point via tensile tests and finite element analysis (FEA) for the notched specimen under uni-axial tensile loading. The two proposed criteria were reviewed from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy to select a more appropriate criterion. As a result of the review, it was found that the section average approach is more appropriate than the critical location approach from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy. Finally, the criterion based on the section average approach was applied to a simplified reactor pressure vessel (RPV) outlet nozzle subject to SSE loads. The application shows that the strain-based acceptance criteria can consider cumulative damages caused by the sequential loads unlike the stress-based acceptance criteria and can reduce the over conservatism of the stress-based acceptance criteria, which often occurs for level D service loads.

  3. Relative sea-level changes and crustal movements in Britain and Ireland since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shennan, Ian; Bradley, Sarah L.; Edwards, Robin

    2018-05-01

    The new sea-level database for Britain and Ireland contains >2100 data points from 86 regions and records relative sea-level (RSL) changes over the last 20 ka and across elevations ranging from ∼+40 to -55 m. It reveals radically different patterns of RSL as we move from regions near the centre of the Celtic ice sheet at the last glacial maximum to regions near and beyond the ice limits. Validated sea-level index points and limiting data show good agreement with the broad patterns of RSL change predicted by current glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. The index points show no consistent pattern of synchronous coastal advance and retreat across different regions, ∼100-500 km scale, indicating that within-estuary processes, rather than decimetre- and centennial-scale oscillations in sea level, produce major controls on the temporal pattern of horizontal shifts in coastal sedimentary environments. Comparisons between the database and GIA model predictions for multiple regions provide potentially powerful constraints on various characteristics of global GIA models, including the magnitude of MWP1A, the final deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet and the continued melting of Antarctica after 7 ka BP.

  4. Strain, Negative Emotions, and Level of Criminality Among Chinese Incarcerated Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y; Luo, Haishan; Wu, Yuning; Lin, Wen-Hsu

    2016-05-01

    General strain theory (GST) has been one of the most frequently tested criminological theories. According to GST, strain tends to generate negative emotions, which create pressures for corrective action, such as crime and delinquency. Although GST has received strong empirical support, one under-addressed issue is the lack of diversity in sampling population in assessing the generalizability of the theory. Using survey data collected from 335 incarcerated women in four Chinese prisons, this study examined the impact of strain and negative emotions on the level of female criminality. The strain variable, physical abuse, and discrimination, exerted a positive effect on female inmates' levels of criminality, whereas negative emotions were not significantly related to female criminality. Two control variables, age of current offense and educational attainment, were predictive of female criminality, with younger and less-educated women having more serious criminality. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Raman measurements of Kevlar-29 fiber pull-out test at different strain levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Lei, Zhenkun; Kang, Yilan; Qiu, Wei

    2008-11-01

    This paper adopted Kevlar-29 fiber monofilament embedding technology to prepare fiber/ epoxy resin tensile specimen. The specimen was pulled on a homemade and portable mini-loading device. At the same time micro-Raman spectroscopy is introduced to detect the distributions of stress on the embedded fiber at different strain levels. The characteristic peak shift of the 1610 cm-1 in Raman band has a linear relationship with the strain or stress. The experimental results show that the fiber axial stress decreases gradually from the embedded fiber-start to the embedded fiber-end at the same strain level. At different strain levels, the fiber axial stress increases along with the applied load. It reveals that there is a larger fiber axial stress distribution under a larger strain level. And the stress transfer is realized gradually from the embedded fiber-start to the fiber-end. Stress concentration exists in the embedded fiber-end, which is a dangerous region for interfacial debonding easily.

  7. Erythrocyte phosphofructokinase in rat strains with genetically determined differences in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N A; Tanaka, K R

    1981-02-01

    We have studied the erythrocyte enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK) from two strains of Long-Evans rats with genetically determined differences in erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels. The DPG difference is due to two alleles at one locus. With one probable exception, the genotype at this locus is always associated with the hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoretic phenotype, due to a polymorphism at the III beta-globin locus. The enzyme PFK has been implicated in the DPG difference because glycolytic intermediate levels suggest that this enzyme has a higher in vivo activity in High-DPG strain rats, although the total PFK activity does not differ. We report here that partially purified erythrocyte PFK from Low-DPG strain cells is inhibited significantly more at physiological levels of DPG (P less than 0.01) than PFK from High-DPG strain erythrocytes. Citrate and adenosine triphosphate also inhibit the Low-DPG enzyme more than the High-DPG enzyme. Therefore, a structurally different PFK, with a greater sensitivity to inhibitors, may explain the lower DPG and ATP levels observed in Low-DPG strain animals. These data support a two-locus (Hb and PFK) hypothesis and provide a gene marker to study the underlying genetic and physiologic relationships of these loci.

  8. Strain-Level Discrimination of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Spinach Using Metagenomic Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R Leonard

    Full Text Available Consumption of fresh bagged spinach contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC has led to severe illness and death; however current culture-based methods to detect foodborne STEC are time consuming. Since not all STEC strains are considered pathogenic to humans, it is crucial to incorporate virulence characterization of STEC in the detection method. In this study, we assess the comprehensiveness of utilizing a shotgun metagenomics approach for detection and strain-level identification by spiking spinach with a variety of genomically disparate STEC strains at a low contamination level of 0.1 CFU/g. Molecular serotyping, virulence gene characterization, microbial community analysis, and E. coli core gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis were performed on metagenomic sequence data from enriched samples. It was determined from bacterial community analysis that E. coli, which was classified at the phylogroup level, was a major component of the population in most samples. However, in over half the samples, molecular serotyping revealed the presence of indigenous E. coli which also contributed to the percent abundance of E. coli. Despite the presence of additional E. coli strains, the serotype and virulence genes of the spiked STEC, including correct Shiga toxin subtype, were detected in 94% of the samples with a total number of reads per sample averaging 2.4 million. Variation in STEC abundance and/or detection was observed in replicate spiked samples, indicating an effect from the indigenous microbiota during enrichment. SNP analysis of the metagenomic data correctly placed the spiked STEC in a phylogeny of related strains in cases where the indigenous E. coli did not predominate in the enriched sample. Also, for these samples, our analysis demonstrates that strain-level phylogenetic resolution is possible using shotgun metagenomic data for determining the genomic relatedness of a contaminating STEC strain to other

  9. Microstructure, Properties and Atomic Level Strain in Severely Deformed Rare Metal Niobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lembit KOMMEL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and physical properties relationship from atomic level strain/stress causes dislocation density and electrical conductivity relationship, as well as crystallites deformation and hkl-parameter change in the severely deformed pure refractory rare metal Nb at ambient temperature and during short processing times. The above mentioned issues are discussed in this study. For ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline microstructure forming in metal the equal-channel angular pressing and hard cyclic viscoplastic deformation were used. The flat deformation and heat treatment at different parameters were conducted as follows. The focused ion beam method was used for micrometric measures samples manufacturied under nanocrystalline microstructure study by transmission electron microscope. The microstructure features of metal were studied under different orientations by X-ray diffraction scattering method, and according to the atomic level strains, dislocation density, hkl-parameters and crystallite sizes were calculated by different computation methods. According to results the evolutions of atomic level strains/stresses, induced by processing features have great influence on the microstructure and advanced properties forming in pure Nb. Due to cumulative strain increase the tensile stress and hardness were increased significantly. In this case the dislocation density of Nb varies from 5.0E+10 cm–2 to 2.0E+11 cm–2. The samples from Nb at maximal atomic level strain in the (110 and (211 directions have the maximal values of hkl-parameters, highest tensile strength and hardness but minimal electrical conductivity. The crystallite size was minimal and relative atomic level strain maximal in (211 orientation of crystal. Next, flat deformation and heat treatment increase the atomic level parameters of severely deformed metal.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3091

  10. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Rock mechanical investigations measurement of the rock strain and displacement during shaft excavation at GL.-200m level of research galley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Seno, Yasuhiro; Hikima, Ryoichi; Matsui, Hiroya

    2011-09-01

    In order to establish the scientific and technical basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is proceeding with the geoscientific research in the research galleries excavated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). One of the scientific and technical objectives of this project is to understand the change of geological environment due to excavation of research galleries. The investigation described herein is the measurement of the rock strain / displacement while pre-excavation grouting or excavating of the shaft around the GL.-200m level of research gallery. A brief summary is presented as follows. 1) Apparent strain with pre-excavation grouting: Injection pressure during pre-excavation grouting could explain the observed strain. Maximum principal strain 'E1' (extension) was oriented to NS direction. The measured fracture system at the site includes a fracture set perpendicular to E1. We infer that these fracture expanded due to grout injection pressure. 2) Apparent strain during excavation of the shaft: Rock behavior of stress release was observed when the bottom of shaft passed by and lining of shaft was constructed. The observed strain was very small and almost same scale as the expected strain for elastic material. But the observed strain of radial direction was compression whereas the expected strain was extension. Therefore it was estimated that rock behavior was affected by cracks. 3) Applicability of the FBG sensors for in situ displacement measurement near the shaft: FBG sensors were stable and reliable in comparison to strain meters or inclinometers. There was no electrical equipment trouble nor large drift in measurements. FBG results can lead to understand bending mode of borehole. But we cannot specify the displacement direction from these data in some cases. (author)

  11. Selection of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains for reducing alcohol levels in wine by sugar respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Manuel; Rojas, Virginia; Gonzalez, Ramon; Morales, Pilar

    2014-07-02

    Respiration of sugars by non-Saccharomyces yeasts has been recently proposed for lowering alcohol levels in wine. Development of industrial fermentation processes based on such an approach requires, amongst other steps, the identification of yeast strains which are able to grow and respire under the relatively harsh conditions found in grape must. This work describes the characterization of a collection of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains in order to identify candidate yeast strains for this specific application. It involved the estimation of respiratory quotient (RQ) values under aerated conditions, at low pH and high sugar concentrations, calculation of yields of ethanol and other relevant metabolites, and characterization of growth responses to the main stress factors found during the first stages of alcoholic fermentation. Physiological features of some strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima or two species of Kluyveromyces, suggest they are suitable for lowering ethanol yields by respiration. The unsuitability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for this purpose was not due to ethanol yields (under aerated conditions they are low enough for a significant reduction in final ethanol content), but to the high acetic acid yields under these growth conditions. According to results from controlled aeration fermentations with one strain of M. pulcherrima, design of an aeration regime allowing for lowering ethanol yields though preserving grape must components from excessive oxidation, would be conceivable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Quantum transport in graphene in presence of strain-induced pseudo-Landau levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Leconte, Nicolas; Barrios-Vargas, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    We report on mesoscopic transport fingerprints in disordered graphene caused by strain-field induced pseudomagnetic Landau levels (pLLs). Efficient numerical real space calculations of the Kubo formula are performed for an ordered network of nanobubbles in graphene, creating pseudomagnetic fields...

  13. EBSD ANALYSIS OF PHASE COMPOSITIONS OF TRIP STEEL ON VARIOUS STRAIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Man

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Flat test bar made of TRIP steel was sequentially strained in tension. Eeach deformation step was made on a predefined strain level in which the phase composition was measured using EBSD; the analyses were made ex-situ exactly in the same area of 30x30µm. Retained austenite (RA was present in the form of elongated grains (plates and roughly equiaxial ones. The RA content was initially 14.5% and decreased with imposed strain down to approximately 5% in selected strain range from 0% to 10%. This is in agreement to some extent with outcomes of both in-situ and ex-situ experiments presented by other authors, the difference beeing supposed either in data clean up or in variation in micriostruct ure of particular steel. Kernel average misorientation method was confirmed as useful tool to discern bainite and grainy ferrite in lightly deformed specimen. Problem arose in distinguishing between martensite and deformed ferrite at higher deformation levels because of high dislocation density and/or lattice distortion in both components. The ferrite and retained austenite fraction were analysed with sufficient accuracy; martensite fraction was established with high degree of uncertainty.

  14. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefang; Xu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yi; Qian, Lei; Lin, Bin

    To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Guan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. Methods The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. Results The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940 and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 for 2 h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0 for 3 h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24 h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. Conclusion These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health.

  16. Strain-Level Metagenomic Analysis of the Fermented Dairy Beverage Nunu Highlights Potential Food Safety Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Daari, Kareem; O'Sullivan, Orla; Martin, Jennifer C; Arthur, Cornelius T; Claesson, Marcus J; Scott, Karen P; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-08-15

    The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole-metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here we demonstrated that three short-read-alignment-based methods, i.e., MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, could accurately and rapidly identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes that had been intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study. Subsequently, we employed the methods, in combination with other metagenomics approaches, to assess the safety of nunu, a traditional Ghanaian fermented milk product that is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of raw cow milk. We showed that nunu samples were frequently contaminated with bacteria associated with the bovine gut and, worryingly, we detected putatively pathogenic E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in a subset of nunu samples. Ultimately, our work establishes that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics approaches are suitable food safety tools, and we describe a real-life example of their utilization. IMPORTANCE Foodborne pathogens are responsible for millions of illnesses each year. Here we demonstrate that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics tools can accurately and rapidly detect pathogenic strains in food products by using shotgun metagenomics data. The methods used here are considerably faster than both traditional culturing methods and alternative bioinformatics approaches that rely on metagenome assembly; therefore, they can potentially be used for more high-throughput food safety testing. Overall, our results suggest that whole-metagenome sequencing can be used as a practical food safety tool to prevent diseases or to link outbreaks to specific food products. Copyright

  17. Dielectrophoresis-based discrimination of bacteria at the strain level based on their surface properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Braff

    Full Text Available Insulator-based dielectrophoresis can be used to manipulate biological particles, but has thus far found limited practical applications due to low sensitivity. We present linear sweep three-dimensional insulator-based dielectrophoresis as a considerably more sensitive approach for strain-level discrimination bacteria. In this work, linear sweep three-dimensional insulator-based dielectrophoresis was performed on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 along with six isogenic mutants as well as Streptococcus mitis SF100 and PS344. Strain-level discrimination was achieved between these clinically important pathogens with applied electric fields below 10 V/mm. This low voltage, high sensitivity technique has potential applications in clinical diagnostics as well as microbial physiology research.

  18. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications by using two-level DC/DC boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moamaei, Parvin

    Recently, photovoltaic (PV) generation is becoming increasingly popular in industrial applications. As a renewable and alternative source of energy they feature superior characteristics such as being clean and silent along with less maintenance problems compared to other sources of the energy. In PV generation, employing a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is essential to obtain the maximum available solar energy. Among several proposed MPPT techniques, the Perturbation and Observation (P&O;) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods are adopted in this work. The components of the MPPT control system which are P&O; and MPC algorithms, PV module and high gain DC-DC boost converter are simulated in MATLAB Simulink. They are evaluated theoretically under rapidly and slowly changing of solar irradiation and temperature and their performance is shown by the simulation results, finally a comprehensive comparison is presented.

  19. Contribution to the study of maximum levels for liquid radioactive waste disposal into continental and sea water. Treatment of some typical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.; Mancel, J.

    1968-10-01

    The most important carriers of radioactive contamination of man are the whole of foodstuffs and not only ingested water or inhaled air. That is the reason why, in accordance with the spirit of the recent recommendations of the ICRP, it is proposed to substitute the idea of maximum levels of contamination of water to the MPC. In the case of aquatic food chains (aquatic organisms and irrigated foodstuffs), the knowledge of the ingested quantities and of the concentration factors food/water permit to determinate these maximum levels, or to find out a linear relation between the maximum levels in the case of two primary carriers of contamination (continental and sea waters). The notion of critical food-consumption, critical radioelements and formula of waste disposal are considered in the same way, taking care to attach the greatest possible importance to local situations. (authors) [fr

  20. 36 CFR 3.15 - What is the maximum noise level for the operation of a vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... level for the operation of a vessel? 3.15 Section 3.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... level for the operation of a vessel? (a) A person may not operate a vessel at a noise level exceeding... vessel is being operated in excess of the noise levels established in paragraph (a) of this section may...

  1. Differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima strains exhibiting different levels of pathogenicity in its avian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Dubey, J P; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2017-03-15

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most pathogenic species of avian coccidia, yet it is unknown why different E. maxima strains differ in the pathogenic effects they cause in chickens. The purpose of this study was to determine if a more pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU1) was also more fecund than a less pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU2). At identical doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared to E. maxima APU2. Using a dose response study, median and mean intestinal lesion scores in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens were greater by a score of 1-1.5 compared to chickens infected with E. maxima APU2. Likewise, weight gain depression in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens was 20-25% greater (equivalent to 110-130g body weight) than in E. maxima APU2-infected chickens. In order to understand the underlying cause of these observed clinical effects, 120 broiler chicks (5 oocyst levels, 6 replicates/level) were inoculated with various doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts. The dynamics of oocyst shedding was investigated by collecting fecal material every 12h from 114 to 210h post-inoculation (p.i.) and every 24h thereafter from 210 to 306h, and then processed for measuring E. maxima oocyst output. Oocysts were first observed at 138h p.i., and time of peak oocyst production was nearly identical for both E. maxima APU1 and APU2 around 150-162h. Total oocyst production was 1.1-2.6 fold higher at all dose levels for E. maxima APU1 compared to E. maxima APU2, being significantly higher (P<0.05) at the log 1.5 dose level. Other groups of chickens were infected with higher doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts, and intestinal lesions were assessed by histology at 72, 96, 120, and 144h p.i. Although schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts were observed at expected time-points, no obvious differences were noted in lesions induced by the two E. maxima strains. This study showed that the greater fecundity of E. maxima APU1 compared to E

  2. Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels are influenced by sex and strain but do not predict tissue iron levels in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Stela; Page, Kathryn E; Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alex; Valore, Erika; Hui, Simon T; Jung, Grace; Zhou, Jie; Lusis, Aldons J; Fuqua, Brie; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Vulpe, Chris D

    2017-11-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and the peptide hormone hepcidin is considered to be a principal regulator of iron metabolism. Previous studies in a limited number of mouse strains found equivocal sex- and strain-dependent differences in mRNA and serum levels of hepcidin and reported conflicting data on the relationship between hepcidin ( Hamp1 ) mRNA levels and iron status. Our aim was to clarify the relationships between strain, sex, and hepcidin expression by examining multiple tissues and the effects of different dietary conditions in multiple inbred strains. Two studies were done: first, Hamp1 mRNA, liver iron, and plasma diferric transferrin levels were measured in 14 inbred strains on a control diet; and second, Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels in both sexes and iron levels in the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen in males were measured in nine inbred/recombinant inbred strains raised on an iron-sufficient or high-iron diet. Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). However, liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice fed iron-sufficient or high-iron diets, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least in males. We also measured plasma erythroferrone, performed RNA-sequencing analysis of liver samples from six inbred strains fed the iron-sufficient, low-iron, or high-iron diets, and explored differences in gene expression between the strains with the highest and lowest hepcidin levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). Liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least

  3. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation mediated by Mn-oxides: from sediment to strain level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanaud, Cedric; Michotey, Valerie; Guasco, Sophie; Garcia, Nicole; Anschutz, Pierre; Canton, Mathieu; Bonin, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Nitrite and (29)N(2) productions in slurry incubations of anaerobically sediment after (15)NO(3) or (15)NH(4) labelling in the presence of Mn-oxides suggested that anaerobic Mn-oxides mediated nitrification coupled with denitrification in muddy intertidal sediments of Arcachon Bay (SW Atlantic French coast). From this sediment, bacterial strains were isolated and physiologically characterized in terms of Mn-oxides and nitrate reduction as well as potential anaerobic nitrification. One of the isolated strain, identified as Marinobacter daepoensis strain M4AY14, was a denitrifier. Nitrous oxide production by this strain was demonstrated in the absence of nitrate and with Mn-oxides and NH(4) amendment, giving indirect proof of anaerobic nitrate or nitrite production. Anaerobic Mn-oxide-mediated nitrification was confirmed by (29)N(2) production in the presence of (15)NO(3) and (14)NH(4) under denitrifying conditions. Anaerobic nitrification by M4AY14 seemed to occur only in the absence of nitrate, or at nitrate levels lower than that of Mn-oxides. Most of the other isolates were affiliated with the Shewanella genus and were able to use both nitrate and Mn-oxides as electron acceptors. When both electron acceptors were present, whatever their concentrations, nitrate and Mn-oxide reduction co-occurred. These data indicate that bacterial Mn-oxide reduction could be an important process in marine sediments with low oxygen concentrations, and demonstrate for the first time the role of bacteria in anaerobic Mn-mediated nitrification. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Suitability of the charm HVS and a microbiological multiplate system for detection of residues in raw milk at EU maximum residue levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouws, J.F.M.; Egmond, van H.; Loeffen, G.; Schouten, J.; Keukens, H.; Smulders, I.; Stegeman, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we assessed the suitability of the Charm HVS and a newly developed microbiological multiplate system as post-screening tests to confirm the presence of residues in raw milk at or near the maximum permissible residue level (MRL). The multiplate system is composed of Bacillus

  5. The Effects of a Maximal Power Training Cycle on the Strength, Maximum Power, Vertical Jump Height and Acceleration of High-Level 400-Meter Hurdlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=−2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=−1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=−1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=−1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers. PMID:23717361

  6. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanita; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-01-01

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 μM). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one

  7. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanita; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-07-14

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 {mu}M). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one.

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ggggg of... - Control Levels as Required by § 63.7895(a) for Tanks Managing Remediation Material With a Maximum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Levels as Required by § 63.7895(a) for Tanks Managing Remediation Material With a Maximum HAP Vapor Pressure Less Than 76.6 kPa 2..., Subpt. GGGGG, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart GGGGG of Part 63—Control Levels as Required by § 63.7895(a) for...

  9. Recommendation of maximum allowable noise levels for offshore wind power systems; Empfehlung von Laermschutzwerten bei der Errichtung von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen (OWEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Stefanie [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany). Fachgebiet II 2.3

    2011-05-15

    When offshore wind farms are constructed, every single pile is hammered into the sediment by a hydraulic hammer. Noise levels at Horns Reef wind farm were in the range of 235 dB. The noise may cause damage to the auditory system of marine mammals. The Federal Environmental Office therefore recommends the definition of maximum permissible noise levels. Further, care should be taken that no marine mammals are found in the immediate vicinity of the construction site. (AKB)

  10. Comparative Genomics Revealed Genetic Diversity and Species/Strain-Level Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Three Probiotic Bifidobacterial Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Odamaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium animalis are widely used as probiotics in the food industry. Although numerous studies have revealed the properties and functionality of these strains, it is uncertain whether these characteristics are species common or strain specific. To address this issue, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 49 strains belonging to these three bifidobacterial species to describe their genetic diversity and to evaluate species-level differences. There were 166 common clusters between strains of B. breve and B. longum, whereas there were nine common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. longum and four common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. breve. Further analysis focused on carbohydrate metabolism revealed the existence of certain strain-dependent genes, such as those encoding enzymes for host glycan utilisation or certain membrane transporters, and many genes commonly distributed at the species level, as was previously reported in studies with limited strains. As B. longum and B. breve are human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB, whereas B. animalis is a non-HRB species, several of the differences in these species’ gene distributions might be the result of their adaptations to the nutrient environment. This information may aid both in selecting probiotic candidates and in understanding their potential function as probiotics.

  11. The consequences of a reduction in the administratively applied maximum annual dose equivalent level for an individual in a group of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.

    1980-02-01

    An analysis is described for predicting the consequences of a reduction in the administratively applied maximum dose equivalent level to individuals in a group of workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiations, for the situation in which no changes are made to the working environment. This limitation of the maximum individual dose equivalent is accommodated by allowing the number of individuals in the working group to increase. The derivation of the analysis is given, together with worked examples, which highlight the important assumptions that have been made and the conclusions that can be drawn. The results are obtained in the form of the capacity of the particular working environment to accommodate the limitation of the maximum individual dose equivalent, the increase in the number of workers required to carry out the productive work and any consequent increase in the occupational collective dose equivalent. (author)

  12. Research on network maximum flows algorithm of cascade level graph%级连层次图的网络最大流算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘荷新; 伊崇信; 李满

    2011-01-01

    给出一种通过构造网络级连层次图的方法,来间接求出最大网络流的算法.对于给定的有n个顶点,P条边的网络N=(G,s,t,C),该算法可在O(n2)时间内快速求出流经网络N的最大网络流及达最大流时的网络流.%This paper gives an algoritm that structures a network cascade level graph to find out maximum flow of the network indirectly.For the given network N=(G,s,t,C) that has n vetexes and e arcs,this algorithm finds out the maximum value of the network flow fast in O(n2) time that flows from the network N and the network flows when the value of the one reach maximum.

  13. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  14. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  15. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  17. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il

    2003-01-01

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with 99m TcO 4 point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm ∼ 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency

  18. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Repository Horizon Elevation - 2-Level AML 50% and Near Maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the WAPDEG version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b). Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09) simulations used to analyze waste package degradation and failure under the repository exposure conditions characterized by a two-tier thermal loading repository design. Also documented is the post-processing of these results into tables of waste-package-degradation-time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer program. Specifically, the WAPDEG simulations discussed in this calculation correspond to waste package emplacement conditions (repository environment and design) as defined in the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (CRWMS M and O 1998a). Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) Analyses Technical Basis Document--Chapter 5, Waste Package Degradation Modeling And Abstraction, pp. 5-27 to 5-29, with the exception that a two-tier thermal loading design feature as specified in the License Application Design Selection (LADS) study was analyzed. The particular design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the repository horizon elevation and layout within the Topopah Springs Member of Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the modification consists of adding a second level, 50-m above the base case repository layout. Two options were considered, representing two variations in thermal loading. In Design Feature 25e (designated DF25e), each level has an Areal Mass Loading (AML) of 42.5 MTU/acre (i.e., half the VA base case). In Design Feature 25f (designated DF25), each level has an AML of 64MTU/acre. As a result of the change in waste package placement relative to the TSPA-VA base-case design, different temperature and relative humidity time histories at the waste package surface are calculated (input to the WAPDEG simulations), and consequently

  19. Influence of Poly-(L-Lactic Acid Nanofiber Functionalization on Maximum Load, Young's Modulus, and Strain of Nanofiber Scaffolds Before and After Cultivation of Osteoblasts: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Paletta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of functionalization of synthetic poly-(L-lactic acid (PLLA nanofibers on mechanical properties such as maximum load, elongation, and Young's modulus. Furthermore, the impact of osteoblast growth on the various nanofiber scaffolds stability was determined. Nanofiber matrices composed of PLLA, PLLA-collagen, or BMP-2–incorporated PLLA were produced from different solvents by electrospinning. Standardized test samples of each nanofiber scaffold were subjected to failure protocol before or after incubation in the presence of osteoblasts over a period of 22 days under osteoinductive conditions. PLLA nanofibers electrospun from hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP showed a higher strain and tended to have increased maximum loads and Young's modulus compared to PLLA fibers spun from dichloromethane. In addition, they had a higher resistance during incubation in the presence of cells. Functionalization by incorporation of growth factors increased Young's modulus, independent of the solvent used. However, the incorporation of growth factors using the HFIP system resulted in a loss of strain. Similar results were observed when PLLA was blended with different ratios of collagen. Summarizing the results, this study indicates that different functionalization strategies influence the mechanical stability of PLLA nanofibers. Therefore, an optimization of nanofibers should not only account for the optimization of biological effects on cells, but also has to consider the stability of the scaffold.

  20. The hot oyster: levels of virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in individual oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Savannah L; Lovell, Charles R

    2017-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis and is most commonly transmitted by raw oysters. Consequently, detection of virulent strains of this organism in oysters is a primary concern for seafood safety. Vibrio parahaemolyticus levels were determined in 110 individual oysters harvested from two sampling sites in SC, USA. The majority of oysters (98%) contained low levels of presumptive V. parahaemolyticus However, two healthy oysters contained presumptive V. parahaemolyticus numbers that were unusually high. These two 'hot' oysters contained levels of presumptive V. parahaemolyticus within the gills that were ∼100-fold higher than the average for other oysters collected at the same date and location. Current V. parahaemolyticus detection practices require homogenizing a dozen oysters pooled together to determine V. parahaemolyticus numbers, a procedure that would dilute out V. parahaemolyticus in these 'hot' oysters. This study demonstrates the variability of V. parahaemolyticus densities taken from healthy, neighboring individual oysters in the environment. Additionally, environmental V parahaemolyticus isolates were screened for the virulence-related genes, tdh and trh, using improved polymerase chain reaction primers and protocols. We detected these genes, previously thought to be rare in environmental isolates, in approximately half of the oyster isolates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  2. Comparison of two extreme halophilic Halobacterium noricense strains on DNA and protein level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Miriam; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). HZDR Young Investigator Group; Flemming, Katrin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Swanson, J.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Two strains of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense isolated from rock salt of different locations were used for interaction studies with uranium. It was found that both strains showed similar, atypical bioassociation kinetics accompanied by cell agglomeration as a stress response. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of both strains had a high similarity (> 99 %). However, differences in the whole protein pattern were apparent.

  3. Comparison of two extreme halophilic Halobacterium noricense strains on DNA and protein level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, Miriam; Cherkouk, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Two strains of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense isolated from rock salt of different locations were used for interaction studies with uranium. It was found that both strains showed similar, atypical bioassociation kinetics accompanied by cell agglomeration as a stress response. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of both strains had a high similarity (> 99 %). However, differences in the whole protein pattern were apparent.

  4. A new approach to hierarchical data analysis: Targeted maximum likelihood estimation for the causal effect of a cluster-level exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Laura B; Zheng, Wenjing; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya L

    2018-01-01

    We often seek to estimate the impact of an exposure naturally occurring or randomly assigned at the cluster-level. For example, the literature on neighborhood determinants of health continues to grow. Likewise, community randomized trials are applied to learn about real-world implementation, sustainability, and population effects of interventions with proven individual-level efficacy. In these settings, individual-level outcomes are correlated due to shared cluster-level factors, including the exposure, as well as social or biological interactions between individuals. To flexibly and efficiently estimate the effect of a cluster-level exposure, we present two targeted maximum likelihood estimators (TMLEs). The first TMLE is developed under a non-parametric causal model, which allows for arbitrary interactions between individuals within a cluster. These interactions include direct transmission of the outcome (i.e. contagion) and influence of one individual's covariates on another's outcome (i.e. covariate interference). The second TMLE is developed under a causal sub-model assuming the cluster-level and individual-specific covariates are sufficient to control for confounding. Simulations compare the alternative estimators and illustrate the potential gains from pairing individual-level risk factors and outcomes during estimation, while avoiding unwarranted assumptions. Our results suggest that estimation under the sub-model can result in bias and misleading inference in an observational setting. Incorporating working assumptions during estimation is more robust than assuming they hold in the underlying causal model. We illustrate our approach with an application to HIV prevention and treatment.

  5. Models to understand the population-level impact of mixed strain M. tuberculosis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Rinat; Colijn, Caroline; Cohen, Ted

    2011-07-07

    Over the past decade, numerous studies have identified tuberculosis patients in whom more than one distinct strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is present. While it has been shown that these mixed strain infections can reduce the probability of treatment success for individuals simultaneously harboring both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains, it is not yet known if and how this phenomenon impacts the long-term dynamics for tuberculosis within communities. Strain-specific differences in immunogenicity and associations with drug resistance suggest that a better understanding of how strains compete within hosts will be necessary to project the effects of mixed strain infections on the future burden of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis. In this paper, we develop a modeling framework that allows us to investigate mechanisms of strain competition within hosts and to assess the long-term effects of such competition on the ecology of strains in a population. These models permit us to systematically evaluate the importance of unknown parameters and to suggest priority areas for future experimental research. Despite the current scarcity of data to inform the values of several model parameters, we are able to draw important qualitative conclusions from this work. We find that mixed strain infections may promote the coexistence of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains in two ways. First, mixed strain infections allow a strain with a lower basic reproductive number to persist in a population where it would otherwise be outcompeted if has competitive advantages within a co-infected host. Second, some individuals progressing to phenotypically drug-sensitive tuberculosis from a state of mixed drug-sensitive and drug-resistant infection may retain small subpopulations of drug-resistant bacteria that can flourish once the host is treated with antibiotics. We propose that these types of mixed infections, by increasing the ability of low fitness drug

  6. p53 levels, cell cycle kinetics and radiosensitivity in two SV40 transformed Wi38VA13 fibroblast strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, F.; Zoelzer, F.; Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The tumor suppressor protein p53 which can mediate an ionizing radiation-induced G 1 arrest in mammalian cells, forms complexes with SV40 large T antigen (l-T-Ag). We have analyzed the p53 levels, the capability to undergo a G 1 arrest and the radiosensitivity of two SV40 transformed fibroblast strains differing in their large T antigen expression. Material and Methods: One of the two strains (VA13F) is the commercially available form of Wi38VA13, the other (VA13E) arose spontaneously from the original one in our laboratory. Their p53 levels were measured by means of flow cytometry (FCM) and Western blot (WB) with two p53 antibodies (Ab-3, clone PAb240; Ab-6, clone DO-1; both Oncogene Science). Cell cycle distributions were determined flow cytometrically after BrdU labeling at regular time intervals after exposure to 250 kV X-rays. Radiosensitivity was assessed in a clonogenicity assay. Results: The p53 levels of the two strains corresponded to their large T antigen expression, presumably due to complex formation between the two proteins. The strain with a high p53 level did not show a G 1 arrest and had a relatively high radiosensitivity, whereas the strain with a low p53 level showed a significant G 1 arrest and a lower radiosensitivity. Conclusion: These results suggest that 1. complex formation between the large T antigen and p53 reduces the latter's functionality; 2. in these two strains the G 1 arrest is one of the factors determining radiosensitivity. (orig.) [de

  7. Stroke survivors’ levels of community reintegration, quality of life, satisfaction with the physiotherapy services and the level of caregiver strain at community health centres within the Johannesburg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kusambiza-Kiingi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke survivors are discharged home before they are functionally independent and return home with activity limitations that would not be manageable without a caregiver. Aim: To determine stroke survivors’ levels of community reintegration, quality of life (QOL, satisfaction with the physiotherapy services and the level of caregiver strain at community health centres within the Johannesburg area. Method: This was a cross-sectional study using the following outcome measures: Maleka Stroke Community Reintegration Measure, Stroke-specific quality of life scale, Caregiver strain index and Physical therapy patient satisfaction questionnaire. Results: A total of 108 stroke survivors and 45 caregivers participated in this study. The average age of the stroke survivors was 54 years (standard deviation = 12.73 and 58% (n = 62 had moderate to full community reintegration. They were happy with physiotherapy services but not with parking availability and cost of services. The QOL was poor with the lowest scores for energy and highest scores for vision and language domains. Twenty five (55% caregivers were strained. A positive correlation was found between community reintegration and satisfaction with services (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001 and QOL (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001. A negative correlation was found between community reintegration and caregiver strain (r = -0.37, p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Most stroke survivors are reintegrated into their communities except in the areas of work and education and have poor QOL and most of their caregivers are strained; however, they are satisfied with physiotherapy services.

  8. Reduced levels of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase are common to lepidopteran strains resistant to Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Development of insect resistance is one of the main concerns with the use of transgenic crops expressing Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Identification of biomarkers would assist in the development of sensitive DNA-based methods to monitor evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in natural populations. We report on the proteomic and genomic detection of reduced levels of midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (mALP as a common feature in strains of Cry-resistant Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera frugiperda when compared to susceptible larvae. Reduced levels of H. virescens mALP protein (HvmALP were detected by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis in Cry-resistant compared to susceptible larvae, further supported by alkaline phosphatase activity assays and Western blotting. Through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR we demonstrate that the reduction in HvmALP protein levels in resistant larvae are the result of reduced transcript amounts. Similar reductions in ALP activity and mALP transcript levels were also detected for a Cry1Ac-resistant strain of H. armigera and field-derived strains of S. frugiperda resistant to Cry1Fa. Considering the unique resistance and cross-resistance phenotypes of the insect strains used in this work, our data suggest that reduced mALP expression should be targeted for development of effective biomarkers for resistance to Cry toxins in lepidopteran pests.

  9. Data from: Rapid multiple-level coevolution in experimental populations of yeast killer and non-killer strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieczynska, M.D.; Wloch-Salamon, D.; Korona, R.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution between different biological entities is considered an important evolutionary mechanism at all levels of biological organization. Here we provide evidence for coevolution of a yeast killer strain (K) carrying cytoplasmic dsRNA viruses coding for anti-competitor toxins and an isogenic

  10. Agro-Economic Optimization of Fertilizer Level and Rhizobium Strains for Enhanced Grain Yield in Mungbean (Vigna Radiata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.; Elahi, M. E.; Islam, Z.; Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of PGPR for improvement in grain yield of mungbean, different levels of fertilizer (00:00, 20:50 and 20:70 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ kg ha/sup -1/) were tested on four strains (CB 1015 Australia, Vm-L1, Vm-M1 and Vm-M2) at Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan. A Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot arrangement was used to conduct the experiment by keeping three fertilizer levels in the main plot and Rhizobium strains in sub-plot. The data were recorded for different parameters like number of branches plant/sup -1/, number of clusters plant/sup -1/, number of pods plant/sup -1/., number of grain pod/sup -1/, pod length (cm) and grain yield kg ha/sup -1/. The response of fertilizer levels and inoculation with Rhizobium strains were found significant in most of the parameters under study. The strain Vm-M1 produced the highest number of branches plant/sup -1/(5.42), number of clusters plant/sup -1/(22.92), number of pods plant/sup -1/(77.64), pod length (8.37 cm) when applied in combination of N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ at the rate of 20:70 and 20:50 kg ha/sup -1/. Although the grain yield (1421 kg ha/sup -1/) recorded in treatment (20:70 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ + Inoculation with strain Vm M1) was highest but economically the treatment (20:50 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ + inoculation with strain Vm M1) with net return of Rs. 13618 ha/sup -1/ and BCR of 2.52 was on top. (author)

  11. Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene climate evolution controlled by sea-level change, Leeuwin Current, and Australian Monsoon in the Northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwa, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; McHugh, C.; Reuning, L.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The transition from cold to warm conditions during the last deglaciation influenced climate variability in the Indian Ocean and Pacific as a result of submerge of continental shelf and variations in the Indonesian Throughflow and Australian Monsoon. The shallow continental shelf (Program Expedition 356 Indonesian Throughflow drilled in the northwestern Australian shallow continental shelf and recovered an interval from the Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene in Site U1461. Radiocarbon dating on macrofossils, foraminifera, and bulk organic matter provided a precise age-depth model, leading to high-resolved paleoclimate reconstruction. X-ray elemental analysis results are interpreted as an indicator of sedimentary environmental changes. The upper 20-m part of Site U1461 apparently records the climate transition from the LGM to Holocene in the northwestern Australia, which could be associated with sea-level change, Leeuwin Current activity, and the Australian Monsoon.

  12. Landau levels from neutral Bogoliubov particles in two-dimensional nodal superconductors under strain and doping gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Emilian M.; Franz, Marcel

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by recent work on strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields in Dirac and Weyl semimetals, we analyze the possibility of analogous fields in two-dimensional nodal superconductors. We consider the prototypical case of a d -wave superconductor, a representative of the cuprate family, and find that the presence of weak, spatially varying strain leads to pseudomagnetic fields and Landau quantization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in the low-energy sector. A similar effect is induced by the presence of generic, weak doping gradients. In contrast to genuine magnetic fields in superconductors, the strain- and doping-gradient-induced pseudomagnetic fields couple in a way that preserves time-reversal symmetry and is not subject to the screening associated with the Meissner effect. These effects can be probed by tuning weak applied supercurrents which lead to shifts in the energies of the Landau levels and hence to quantum oscillations in thermodynamic and transport quantities.

  13. Social Learning, Social Control, and Strain Theories: A Formalization of Micro-level Criminological Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Kristopher Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are formalized in order to identify assumptions of human nature, key theoretical concepts, theoretical knowledge claims, and scope conditions. The resulting formalization allows greater comparability between theories in terms of explanatory power, and additionally provides insights into integrat...

  14. Genomic Microdiversity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Underlying Differential Strain-Level Responses to Dietary Carbohydrate Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95 of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample. Intriguingly, these five B. pseudocatenulatum strains showed differential responses during the dietary intervention. Two strains were largely unaffected, while the other three were promoted to different extents by the changes in dietary carbohydrate resources. The differential responses of these strains were consistent with their functional clustering based on the COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, including those involved with the ABC-type sugar transport systems, suggesting that the strain-specific genomic variations may have contributed to the niche adaption. Particularly, B. pseudocatenulatum C15, which had the most diverse types and highest gene copy numbers of carbohydrate-active enzymes targeting plant polysaccharides, had the highest abundance after the dietary intervention. These studies show the importance of understanding genomic diversity of specific members of the gut microbiota if precise nutrition approaches are to be realized.

  15. Tuning Fermi level of Cr{sub 2}CoZ (Z=Al and Si) inverse Heusler alloys via Fe-doping for maximum spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mukhtiyar [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India); Saini, Hardev S. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Thakur, Jyoti [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India); Reshak, Ali H. [New Technologies—Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kashyap, Manish K., E-mail: manishdft@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

    2014-12-15

    We report full potential treatment of electronic and magnetic properties of Cr{sub 2−x}Fe{sub x}CoZ (Z=Al, Si) Heusler alloys where x=0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0, based on density functional theory (DFT). Both parent alloys (Cr{sub 2}CoAl and Cr{sub 2}CoSi) are not half-metallic frromagnets. The gradual replacement of one Cr sublattice with Fe induces the half-metallicity in these systems, resulting maximum spin polarization. The half-metallicity starts to appear in Cr{sub 2−x}Fe{sub x}CoAl and Cr{sub 2−x}Fe{sub x}CoSi with x=0.50 and x=0.25, respectively, and the values of minority-spin gap and half-metallic gap or spin-flip gap increase with further increase of x. These gaps are found to be maximum for x=1.0 for both cases. An excellent agreement between the structural properties of CoFeCrAl with available experimental study is obtained. The Fermi level tuning by Fe-doping makes these alloys highly spin polarized and thus these can be used as promising candidates for spin valves and magnetic tunnelling junction applications. - Highlights: • Tuning of E{sub F} in Cr{sub 2}CoZ (Z=Al, Si) has been demonstrated via Fe doping. • Effect of Fe doping on half-metallicity and magnetism have been discussed. • The new alloys have a potential of being used as spin polarized electrodes.

  16. Residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour at the 240-m level of the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two subhorizontal, orthogonal boreholes were monitored continuously during concentric overcoring at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The magnitude and orientation of principal residual strain components in the near-field stress regime were determined assuming linear elastic behaviour of the rock mass and isotropic conditions. In terms of magnitude, results compared favourably with those from previous tests at the 240-m level. However, orientation results were inconclusive. The effects of scale and borehole orientation relative to the principal stress direction on the results from a modified CSIR triaxial cell overcore test were also investigated; no scale effects were apparent in the experiment, but borehole orientation did affect results. Finally, time-dependent behaviour was detected in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and was monitored between successive overcore tests in one of the boreholes. Results on residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour are presented, along with limitations and possible modifications to the testing procedure

  17. A multi-level capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on a nano-scale strained silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jea-Gun; Kim, Seong-Je; Shin, Mi-Hee; Song, Seung-Hyun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Chung, Sung-Woong; Enomoto, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    A multi-level capacitor-less memory cell was fabricated with a fully depleted n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor on a nano-scale strained silicon channel on insulator (FD sSOI n-MOSFET). The 0.73% biaxial tensile strain in the silicon channel of the FD sSOI n-MOSFET enhanced the effective electron mobility to ∼ 1.7 times that with an unstrained silicon channel. This thereby enables both front- and back-gate cell operations, demonstrating eight-level volatile memory-cell operation with a 1 ms retention time and 12 μA memory margin. This is a step toward achieving a terabit volatile memory cell.

  18. Increased ethanol accumulation from glucose via reduction of ATP level in a recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2014-05-15

    The production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation represents the largest scale application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial biotechnology. Increased worldwide demand for fuel bioethanol is anticipated over the next decade and will exceed 200 billion liters from further expansions. Our working hypothesis was that the drop in ATP level in S. cerevisiae cells during alcoholic fermentation should lead to an increase in ethanol production (yield and productivity) with a greater amount of the utilized glucose converted to ethanol. Our approach to achieve this goal is to decrease the intracellular ATP level via increasing the unspecific alkaline phosphatase activity. Intact and truncated versions of the S. cerevisiae PHO8 gene coding for vacuolar or cytosolic forms of alkaline phosphatase were fused with the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) promoter. The constructed expression cassettes used for transformation vectors also contained the dominant selective marker kanMX4 and S. cerevisiae δ-sequence to facilitate multicopy integration to the genome. Laboratory and industrial ethanol producing strains BY4742 and AS400 overexpressing vacuolar form of alkaline phosphatase were characterized by a slightly lowered intracellular ATP level and biomass accumulation and by an increase in ethanol productivity (13% and 7%) when compared to the parental strains. The strains expressing truncated cytosolic form of alkaline phosphatase showed a prolonged lag-phase, reduced biomass accumulation and a strong defect in ethanol production. Overexpression of vacuolar alkaline phosphatase leads to an increased ethanol yield in S. cerevisiae.

  19. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided.

  20. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided

  1. FLO11 gene length and transcriptional level affect biofilm-forming ability of wild flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Giacomo; Zara, Severino; Pinna, Claudia; Marceddu, Salvatore; Budroni, Marilena

    2009-12-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FLO11 encodes an adhesin that is associated with different phenotypes, such as adherence to solid surfaces, hydrophobicity, mat and air-liquid biofilm formation. In the present study, we analysed FLO11 allelic polymorphisms and FLO11-associated phenotypes of 20 flor strains. We identified 13 alleles of different lengths, varying from 3.0 to 6.1 kb, thus demonstrating that FLO11 is highly polymorphic. Two alleles of 3.1 and 5.0 kb were cloned into strain BY4742 to compare the FLO11-associated phenotypes in the same genetic background. We show that there is a significant correlation between biofilm-forming ability and FLO11 length both in different and in the same genetic backgrounds. Moreover, we propose a multiple regression model that allows prediction of air-liquid biofilm-forming ability on the basis of transcription levels and lengths of FLO11 alleles in a population of S. cerevisiae flor strains. Considering that transcriptional differences are only partially explained by the differences in the promoter sequences, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that FLO11 transcription levels are strongly influenced by genetic background and affect biofilm-forming ability.

  2. The radiation resistance and cobalt biosorption activity of yeast strains isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chin; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Ching-Tu; Wang, Ya-Ting; Chou, Fong-In

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbes has made them the pioneers in radionuclides adsorption and transport. In this study, the radiation resistance and nuclide biosorption capacity of microbes isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) repository in Taiwan was assessed, the evaluation of the possibility of using the isolated strain as biosorbents for (60)Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution and the potential impact on radionuclides release. The microbial content of solidified waste and broken fragments of containers at the Lanyu LLRW repository reached 10(5) CFU/g. Two yeast strains, Candida guilliermondii (CT1) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae (RT1) were isolated. The radiation dose necessary to reduce the microbial count by one log cycle of CT1 and RT1 was 2.1 and 0.8 kGy, respectively. Both CT1 and RT1 can grow under a radiation field with dose rate of 6.8 Gy/h, about 100 times higher than that on the surface of the LLRW container in Lanyu repository. CT1 and RT1 had the maximum (60)Co biosorption efficiency of 99.7 ± 0.1% and 98.3 ± 0.2%, respectively in (60)Co aqueous solution (700 Bq/mL), and the (60)Co could stably retained for more than 30 days in CT 1. Nearly all of the Co was absorbed and reached equilibrium within 1 h by CT1 and RT1 in the 10 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Biosorption efficiency test showed almost all of the Co (II) was adsorbed by CT1 in 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution, the efficiency of biosorption by RT1 in 10 μg/g of Co (II) was lower. The maximum Co (II) sorption capacity of CT1 and RT1 was 5324.0 ± 349.0 μg/g (dry wt) and 3737.6 ± 86.5 μg/g (dry wt), respectively, in the 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Experimental results show that microbial activity was high in the Lanyu LLRW repository in Taiwan. Two isolated yeast strains, CT1 and RT1 have high potential for use as biosorbents for (60)Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution, on the other hand, but may have the

  3. Lifespan studies on different strains of mice exposed chronically to low levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, L.A.; Klein, A.K.; Cain, G.R.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Several strains of mice, chosen for their predisposition to immunohematological disorders, were exposed to low levels of 60 irradiation continuously for four weeks. All individuals were subsequently followed throughout their lifetimes. W/W/sup v/ mice, which are tyically subject to a stem cell deficiency, had a lower cumulative survival rate for the irradiated group than for the unirradiated controls. Irradiated RF/sub j/ mice had a dramatically lower cumulative survival rate than their unirradiated controls. Conversely, BXSB mice, which have a lumphoproliferative autoimmune disorder, had a higher cumulative survival rate after chronic irradiation than did unirradiated BXSBs. Irradiation had no effect upon the survival rate curves of the NZB strain, the murine model for Lupus Erythematosus

  4. Cryogenic Liquid Level-Sensing using Fiber-Optic Strain Sensor (FOSS) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong innovators have developed a highly accurate method for measuring liquid levels using optical fibers. Unlike liquid level gauges that rely on discrete...

  5. Gaharu Leaf Extract Water Reduce MDA and 8-OHdG Levels and Increase Activities SOD and Catalase in Wistar Rats Provided Maximum Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Adi Parwata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress occurs due to an imbalance of the number of free radicals by the number of endogenous antioxidant produced by the body i.e. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Gluthathione Peroxidase (GPx, and Catalase. The imbalance between the number of free radicals and antioxidants can be overcome with the endogenous antioxidant intake that exogenous oxidative stress can be reduced. One of exogenous antioxidants is natural Gaharu leaf water extract. Objective: This research focus on the effect of Gaharu leaf water extract in reducing MDA and 8-OHdG and increase the activity of SOD and Catalase. Methods: This study was an experimental with post only controls group design. Experiment was divided  into 5 groups of wistar rats, each consisting of 5 animals, i.e. negative control group without extract [K (-], treatment 1 treated 50 mg/kg BW/day of the extract (T1, treatment 2 treated 100 mg/kg BW/day of the extract (T2, treatment 3 treated 200 mg/ kg BW/day of the extract (T3, and positive control group [K (+] treated with vitamin Cat a dose 50 mg/kg BW/day. All groups treated for 10 weeks. Every day, before treatment, each group was given a maximum swimming activity for 1.5 hours for 10 weeks. ELISA was used to measure MDA, 8-OHdG, SOD, and Catalase activities. Result: The research results showed that treatment of extract of  leaves of Gaharu with an higher dose from 50 mg/kg BW up to 200 mg/ kg BW significantly decline (p <0.05 levels of MDA with the average ranging from 6.37±0.23, 5,56±0.27 and 4.32±0.27, 8-OHdG with a mean of 1.64±0.11, 1.26±0.46, and 1.09±0.17. On the other hand the treatment also increase SOD activity with less ranging from 12.15±1.04, 15.70±2.02, and 18.84±1.51, and Catalase ranging from 6,68±0.63, 8.20±1.14 and 9.29±0,79 in the blood of Wistar rats were given a maximum activity compared to the negative control group. This is probably higher phenol compounds (bioflavonoids quantity content of the extract

  6. Spatiotemporal modeling of ozone levels in Quebec (Canada): a comparison of kriging, land-use regression (LUR), and combined Bayesian maximum entropy-LUR approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Brand, Allan; Fournier, Michel; Jerrett, Michael; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2014-09-01

    Ambient air ozone (O3) is a pulmonary irritant that has been associated with respiratory health effects including increased lung inflammation and permeability, airway hyperreactivity, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function. Estimation of O3 exposure is a complex task because the pollutant exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns. To refine the quality of exposure estimation, various spatiotemporal methods have been developed worldwide. We sought to compare the accuracy of three spatiotemporal models to predict summer ground-level O3 in Quebec, Canada. We developed a land-use mixed-effects regression (LUR) model based on readily available data (air quality and meteorological monitoring data, road networks information, latitude), a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) model incorporating both O3 monitoring station data and the land-use mixed model outputs (BME-LUR), and a kriging method model based only on available O3 monitoring station data (BME kriging). We performed leave-one-station-out cross-validation and visually assessed the predictive capability of each model by examining the mean temporal and spatial distributions of the average estimated errors. The BME-LUR was the best predictive model (R2 = 0.653) with the lowest root mean-square error (RMSE ;7.06 ppb), followed by the LUR model (R2 = 0.466, RMSE = 8.747) and the BME kriging model (R2 = 0.414, RMSE = 9.164). Our findings suggest that errors of estimation in the interpolation of O3 concentrations with BME can be greatly reduced by incorporating outputs from a LUR model developed with readily available data.

  7. Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI

  8. Modeling the evolution of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from MIS 3 to the Last Glacial Maximum: an approach using sea level modeling and ice flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, J.; Pico, T.; Birch, L.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2017-12-01

    The history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum ( 26 ka; LGM) is constrained by geological evidence of ice margin retreat in addition to relative sea-level (RSL) records in both the near and far field. Nonetheless, few observations exist constraining the ice sheet's extent across the glacial build-up phase preceding the LGM. Recent work correcting RSL records along the U.S. mid-Atlantic dated to mid-MIS 3 (50-35 ka) for glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) infer that the Laurentide Ice Sheet grew by more than three-fold in the 15 ky leading into the LGM. Here we test the plausibility of a late and extremely rapid glaciation by driving a high-resolution ice sheet model, based on a nonlinear diffusion equation for the ice thickness. We initialize this model at 44 ka with the mid-MIS 3 ice sheet configuration proposed by Pico et al. (2017), GIA-corrected basal topography, and mass balance representative of mid-MIS 3 conditions. These simulations predict rapid growth of the eastern Laurentide Ice Sheet, with rates consistent with achieving LGM ice volumes within 15 ky. We use these simulations to refine the initial ice configuration and present an improved and higher resolution model for North American ice cover during mid-MIS 3. In addition we show that assumptions of ice loads during the glacial phase, and the associated reconstructions of GIA-corrected basal topography, produce a bias that can underpredict ice growth rates in the late stages of the glaciation, which has important consequences for our understanding of the speed limit for ice growth on glacial timescales.

  9. Application of a naturalistic psychogenic stressor in periadolescent mice: effect on serum corticosterone levels differs by strain but not sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Laura C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step in determining whether psychogenic stressors might be incorporated into periadolescent mouse models of stress, we evaluated whether a commonly used psychogenic stressor, exposure to red fox urine, alters serum corticosterone levels in periadolescent C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Findings In a 1-day experiment, forty-eight 38-day-old C57BL/6J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females and DBA/2J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females mice were exposed to 10-min of red fox urine via cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice or to a non-saturated cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice. All mice were sacrificed 15-min after cotton ball exposure and serum was collected for corticosterone assessment. Overall, there was a main effect for strain such that C57BL/6J male and female mice displayed higher corticosterone levels than did male and female DBA/2J mice. There were no main effects for sex or odor exposure. However, there was a significant strain by odor exposure interaction, whereby, within odor-exposed mice, DBA/2J mice displayed lower corticosterone levels (ng/mL compared to C57BL/6J mice, regardless of sex. Further, among DBA/2J mice, predator odor exposure reduced corticosterone levels compared to no odor exposure. Conclusions Findings indicate that mouse strain, but not sex, may play an important role in the efficacy of a predator odor among periadolescent mice.

  10. High level active n+ doping of strained germanium through co-implantation and nanosecond pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, David; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Monmeyran, Corentin P.; Akey, Austin J.; Milazzo, Ruggero; Cai, Yan; Napolitani, Enrico; Gwilliam, Russell M.; Crowe, Iain F.; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, L. C.; Agarwal, Anuradha; Mazur, Eric; Aziz, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining high level active n+ carrier concentrations in germanium (Ge) has been a significant challenge for further development of Ge devices. By ion implanting phosphorus (P) and fluorine (F) into Ge and restoring crystallinity using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM), we demonstrate 1020 cm-3 n+ carrier concentration in tensile-strained epitaxial germanium-on-silicon. Scanning electron microscopy shows that after laser treatment, samples implanted with P have an ablated surface, whereas P + F co-implanted samples have good crystallinity and a smooth surface topography. We characterize P and F concentration depth profiles using secondary ion mass spectrometry and spreading resistance profiling. The peak carrier concentration, 1020 cm-3 at 80 nm below the surface, coincides with the peak F concentration, illustrating the key role of F in increasing donor activation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of the co-implanted sample shows that the Ge epilayer region damaged during implantation is a single crystal after PLM. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements both indicate that the as-grown epitaxial layer strain is preserved after PLM. These results demonstrate that co-implantation and PLM can achieve the combination of n+ carrier concentration and strain in Ge epilayers necessary for next-generation, high-performance Ge-on-Si devices.

  11. Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Huisman, E.A.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid increase in common carp Cyprinus carpio plasma cortisol levels was noted, in two experiments, after 30 mins of a 3 h net confinement, which was sustained while the fish were held in the nets. After release from the nets, cortisol levels returned to control values in 1 h. Plasma glucose and

  12. Lower galactosylation levels of the Lipophosphoglycan from Leishmania (Leishmania major-like strains affect interaction with Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agna Cristina Guimarães

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Leishmania major is an Old World species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis and is transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi. In Brazil, two isolates from patients who never left the country were characterised as L. major-like (BH49 and BH121. Using molecular techniques, these isolates were indistinguishable from the L. major reference strain (FV1. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the lipophosphoglycans (LPGs of the strains and their behaviour in Old and New World sand fly vectors. METHODS LPGs were purified, and repeat units were qualitatively evaluated by immunoblotting. Experimental in vivo infection with L. major-like strains was performed in Lutzomyia longipalpis (New World, permissive vector and Ph. papatasi (Old World, restrictive or specific vector. FINDINGS The LPGs of both strains were devoid of arabinosylated side chains, whereas the LPG of strain BH49 was more galactosylated than that of strain BH121. All strains with different levels of galactosylation in their LPGs were able to infect both vectors, exhibiting colonisation of the stomodeal valve and metacyclogenesis. The BH121 strain (less galactosylated exhibited lower infection intensity compared to BH49 and FV1 in both vectors. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Intraspecific variation in the LPG of L. major-like strains occur, and the different galactosylation levels affected interactions with the invertebrate host.

  13. Lower galactosylation levels of the Lipophosphoglycan from Leishmania (Leishmania) major-like strains affect interaction with Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Agna Cristina; Nogueira, Paula Monalisa; Silva, Soraia de Oliveira; Sadlova, Jovana; Pruzinova, Katerina; Hlavacova, Jana; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmania major is an Old World species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis and is transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi. In Brazil, two isolates from patients who never left the country were characterised as L. major-like (BH49 and BH121). Using molecular techniques, these isolates were indistinguishable from the L. major reference strain (FV1). OBJECTIVES We evaluated the lipophosphoglycans (LPGs) of the strains and their behaviour in Old and New World sand fly vectors. METHODS LPGs were purified, and repeat units were qualitatively evaluated by immunoblotting. Experimental in vivo infection with L. major-like strains was performed in Lutzomyia longipalpis (New World, permissive vector) and Ph. papatasi (Old World, restrictive or specific vector). FINDINGS The LPGs of both strains were devoid of arabinosylated side chains, whereas the LPG of strain BH49 was more galactosylated than that of strain BH121. All strains with different levels of galactosylation in their LPGs were able to infect both vectors, exhibiting colonisation of the stomodeal valve and metacyclogenesis. The BH121 strain (less galactosylated) exhibited lower infection intensity compared to BH49 and FV1 in both vectors. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Intraspecific variation in the LPG of L. major-like strains occur, and the different galactosylation levels affected interactions with the invertebrate host.

  14. Engineering of a Bacillus subtilis strain with adjustable levels of intracellular biotin for secretory production of functional streptavidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sau-Ching; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2002-03-01

    Streptavidin is a biotin-binding protein which has been widely used in many in vitro and in vivo applications. Because of the ease of protein recovery and availability of protease-deficient strains, the Bacillus subtilis expression-secretion system is an attractive system for streptavidin production. However, attempts to produce streptavidin using B. subtilis face the problem that cells overproducing large amounts of streptavidin suffer poor growth, presumably because of biotin deficiency. This problem cannot be solved by supplementing biotin to the culture medium, as this will saturate the biotin binding sites in streptavidin. We addressed this dilemma by engineering a B. subtilis strain (WB800BIO) which overproduces intracellular biotin. The strategy involves replacing the natural regulatory region of the B. subtilis chromosomal biotin biosynthetic operon (bioWAFDBIorf2) with an engineered one consisting of the B. subtilis groE promoter and gluconate operator. Biotin production in WB800BIO is induced by gluconate, and the level of biotin produced can be adjusted by varying the gluconate dosage. A level of gluconate was selected to allow enhanced intracellular production of biotin without getting it released into the culture medium. WB800BIO, when used as a host for streptavidin production, grows healthily in a biotin-limited medium and produces large amounts (35 to 50 mg/liter) of streptavidin, with over 80% of its biotin binding sites available for future applications.

  15. Effects of Organic Solvents on Indigo Formation by Pseudomonas sp. strain ST-200 Grown with High Levels of Indole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukyu, N; Arai, T; Aono, R

    1998-01-01

    The indole tolerance level of Pseudomonas sp. strain ST-200 was 0.25 mg/ml. The level was raised to 4 mg/ml when diphenylmethane was added to the medium to 20% by volume. ST-200 grown in this two-phase culture system containing indole (1 mg/ml) and diphenylmethane (0.2 ml/ml) produced a water-soluble yellow pigment, isatic acid, and two water-insoluble and diphenylmethane-soluble pigments, blue indigo and purple indirubin. The amounts of the water-insoluble pigments corresponded to 0.5% (indigo) and 0.2% (indirubin) of the indole added to the medium. Of the conditions tried, indigo and indirubin were formed only when ST-200 was grown in the two-phase system overlaid with organic solvents with appropriate polarity.

  16. The radiation resistance and cobalt biosorption activity of yeast strains isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chia-Chin; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Ching-Tu; Wang, Ya-Ting; Chou, Fong-In

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbes has made them the pioneers in radionuclides adsorption and transport. In this study, the radiation resistance and nuclide biosorption capacity of microbes isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) repository in Taiwan was assessed, the evaluation of the possibility of using the isolated strain as biosorbents for 60 Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution and the potential impact on radionuclides release. The microbial content of solidified waste and broken fragments of containers at the Lanyu LLRW repository reached 10 5  CFU/g. Two yeast strains, Candida guilliermondii (CT1) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae (RT1) were isolated. The radiation dose necessary to reduce the microbial count by one log cycle of CT1 and RT1 was 2.1 and 0.8 kGy, respectively. Both CT1 and RT1 can grow under a radiation field with dose rate of 6.8 Gy/h, about 100 times higher than that on the surface of the LLRW container in Lanyu repository. CT1 and RT1 had the maximum 60 Co biosorption efficiency of 99.7 ± 0.1% and 98.3 ± 0.2%, respectively in 60 Co aqueous solution (700 Bq/mL), and the 60 Co could stably retained for more than 30 days in CT 1. Nearly all of the Co was absorbed and reached equilibrium within 1 h by CT1 and RT1 in the 10 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Biosorption efficiency test showed almost all of the Co (II) was adsorbed by CT1 in 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution, the efficiency of biosorption by RT1 in 10 μg/g of Co (II) was lower. The maximum Co (II) sorption capacity of CT1 and RT1 was 5324.0 ± 349.0 μg/g (dry wt) and 3737.6 ± 86.5 μg/g (dry wt), respectively, in the 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Experimental results show that microbial activity was high in the Lanyu LLRW repository in Taiwan. Two isolated yeast strains, CT1 and RT1 have high potential for use as biosorbents for 60 Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution, on the other hand, but may have the impact on

  17. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  18. The Strain Index (SI) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL): risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Kapellusch, J; Hegmann, K; Wertsch, J; Merryweather, A; Deckow-Schaefer, G; Malloy, E J

    2012-01-01

    A cohort of 536 workers was enrolled from 10 diverse manufacturing facilities and was followed monthly for six years. Job physical exposures were individually measured. Worker demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, current musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were obtained. Point and lifetime prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) at baseline (symptoms + abnormal NCS) were 10.3% and 19.8%. During follow-up, there were 35 new CTS cases (left, right or both hands). Factors predicting development of CTS included: job physical exposure (American conference of governmental industrial hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL) and the Strain Index (SI)), age, BMI, other MSDs, inflammatory arthritis, gardening outside of work and feelings of depression. In the adjusted models, the TLV for HAL and the SI were both significant per unit increase in exposure with hazard ratios (HR) increasing up to a maximum of 5.4 (p = 0.05) and 5.3 (p = 0.03), respectively; however, similar to other reports, both suggested lower risk at higher exposures. Data suggest that the TLV for HAL and the SI are useful metrics for estimating exposure to biomechanical stressors. This study was conducted to determine how well the TLV for HAL and the SI predict risk of CTS using a prospective cohort design with survival analysis. Both the TLV for HAL and the SI were found to predict risk of CTS when adjusted for relevant covariates.

  19. Induction of ploidy level increments in an asporogenous industrial strain of the yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae by UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Cells of an asporogenous industrial strain of the yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae were irradiated with UV light by using a method that was developed previously. This treatment gave rise to large-cell clones among the surviving cells, from which colonies consisting of cells with a normal morphology and a prototropic property were obtained. The large-cell trait of these was stably inheritable, with the cell volumes being about twice that of the parent for 7 years on a slant agar medium at 4C with repeated transfers. The cellular DNA content of these clones, in comparison to those of two authentic haploid strains, was determined by chemical analysis. The ratio of the DNA contents showed that the parent and its large-cell derivatives were a diploid and tetraploids, respectively. No abnormality was found in the chromosomal DNA patterns of the large-cell clones, at least as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis with a CHEF-DR II pulsed-field electrophoresis system. These findings led to the conclusion that the UV light method is applicable for inducing ploidy level increments in the widely used yeast species S. cerevisiae

  20. Marginal level dystrophin expression improves clinical outcome in a strain of dystrophin/utrophin double knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejia Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of all utrophin isoforms in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice results in a strain of utrophin knockout mdx (uko/mdx mice. Uko/mdx mice display severe clinical symptoms and die prematurely as in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients. Here we tested the hypothesis that marginal level dystrophin expression may improve the clinical outcome of uko/mdx mice. It is well established that mdx3cv (3cv mice express a near-full length dystrophin protein at ∼5% of the normal level. We crossed utrophin-null mutation to the 3cv background. The resulting uko/3cv mice expressed the same level of dystrophin as 3cv mice but utrophin expression was completely eliminated. Surprisingly, uko/3cv mice showed a much milder phenotype. Compared to uko/mdx mice, uko/3cv mice had significantly higher body weight and stronger specific muscle force. Most importantly, uko/3cv outlived uko/mdx mice by several folds. Our results suggest that a threshold level dystrophin expression may provide vital clinical support in a severely affected DMD mouse model. This finding may hold clinical implications in developing novel DMD therapies.

  1. Oxidative costs of reproduction in mouse strains selected for different levels of food intake and which differ in reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jothery, Aqeel H. Al; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Mody, Nimesh

    2016-01-01

    bred for high (H) or low (L) food intake, which differ in their reproductive performance, i.e., H mice have increased milk energy output (MEO) and wean larger pups. Levels of oxidative damage were unchanged (liver) or reduced (brain and serum) in R versus N mice, and no differences in multiple measures......Oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been hypothesised to underpin the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance, i.e., the life-history-oxidative stress theory. Previous tests of this hypothesis have proved equivocal, and it has been suggested that the variation...... in responses may be related to the tissues measured. Here, we measured oxidative damage (protein carbonyls, 8-OHdG) and antioxidant protection (enzymatic antioxidant activity and serum antioxidant capacity) in multiple tissues of reproductive (R) and non-reproductive (N) mice from two mouse strains selectively...

  2. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  3. Correlation between fecal calprotectin levels, disease severity and the hypervirulent ribotype 027 strain in patients with Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Tkhawkho, Linda; Pastukh, Nina; Brodsky, Diana; Halevi, Chen Namimi; Nitzan, Orna

    2016-06-22

    Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious etiology of nosocomial diarrhea. Fecal calprotectin (fc) is a sensitive marker of intestinal inflammation, found to be associated with enteric bacterial infections and inflammatory bowel disease. We evaluated fc levels using a Chemiluminescent immunoassay method, in hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) diagnosed by molecular stool examination and assessed correlation with virulent ribotype 027 strain infection, antibiotic susceptibility by gradient Etest strip performed on C. difficile colonies and clinical and laboratory measures of disease severity. Statistical analysis was performed for correlation of fc levels with clinical and laboratory parameters, disease severity and patient outcomes. Overall 29 patients with CDI were admitted at the Poria medical center in northern Israel, during June 2014-May 2015. Resistance to metronidazole was found in 3 (10.3 %) isolates and to vancomycin in 5 (17.2 %) isolates. Regarding patient outcomes, within 30 days of CDI diagnosis, recurrence of disease occurred in 10 (34.5 %) patients and 2 patients (6.9 %) died. Seven (24.1 %) isolates were C. difficile ribotype 027. Mean fc level was 331.4 μg/g (21-932). Higher fc levels were found in patients with C. difficile ribotype 027 (p clostridium severity score index (p = 0.0633). No correlation was found between fecal calprotectin levels and age, sex, functional status, community versus hospital acquired CDI, antibiotic susceptibility, fever, and creatinine levels. Our study highlights the fact that fc has a potential role as a biomarker of disease severity and binary toxin producing ribotype associated disease.

  4. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  5. Evaluation of starter dietary digestible lysine level on broilers raised under a sex-separated or straight-run housing regime, part 2: Economics of sex separation and digestible lysine level for maximum returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, M J; Colson, G; Frost, T J; Halley, J; Pesti, G M

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the maximum net returns digestible lysine (dLys) levels (MNRL) when maintaining the ideal amino acid ratio for starter diets of broilers raised sex separate or comingled (straight-run). A total of 3,240 Ross 708 chicks was separated by sex and placed in 90 pens by 2 rearing types: sex separate (36 males or 36 females) or straight-run (18 males + 18 females). Each rearing type was fed 6 starter diets (25 d) formulated to have dLys levels between 1.05 and 1.80%. A common grower diet with 1.02% of dLys was fed from 25 to 32 days. Body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake were assessed at 25 and 32 d for performance evaluation. Additionally, at 26 and 33 d, 4 birds per pen were sampled for carcass yield evaluation. Data were modeled using response surface methodology in order to estimate feed intake and whole carcass weight at 1,600 g live BW. Returns over feed cost were estimated for a 1.8-million-broiler complex of each rearing system under 9 feed/meat price scenarios. Results indicated that females needed more feed to reach market weight, followed by straight-run birds, and then males. At medium meat and feed prices, female birds had MNRL at 1.07% dLys, whereas straight-run and males had MNRL at 1.05%. As feed and meat prices increased, females had MNRL increased up to 1.15% dLys. Sex separation resulted in increased revenue under certain feed and meat prices, and before sex separation cost was deducted. When the sexing cost was subtracted from the returns, sex separation was not shown to be economically viable when targeting birds for light market BW. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. A model study of the effect of climate and sea-level change on the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from the Last Glacial Maximum to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, M. N. A.; Van Wessem, J. M.; Van De Berg, W. J.; De Boer, B.; Oerlemans, J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a scarcity of observations and its long memory of uncertain past climate, the Antarctic Ice Sheet remains a largely unknown factor in the prediction of global sea level change. As the history of the ice sheet plays a key role in its future evolution, in this study we model the Antarctic Ice

  7. Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV. While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector.

  8. Strain-induced collagen organization at the micro-level in fibrin-based engineered tissue constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de N.; Kanters, F.M.W.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    Full understanding of strain-induced collagen organization in complex tissue geometries to create tissues with predefined collagen architecture has not been achieved. This is mainly due to our limited knowledge of collagen remodeling in developing tissues. Here we investigate strain-induced collagen

  9. Stretchable Complementary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR-Based Radio Frequency (RF Sensor for Strain Direction and Level Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Eom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a stretchable radio frequency (RF sensor to detect strain direction and level. The stretchable sensor is composed of two complementary split ring resonators (CSRR with microfluidic channels. In order to achieve stretchability, liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium, EGaIn and Ecoflex substrate are used. Microfluidic channels are built by Ecoflex elastomer and microfluidic channel frames. A three-dimensional (3D printer is used for fabrication of microfluidic channel frames. Two CSRR resonators are designed to resonate 2.03 GHz and 3.68 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the +x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 3.68 GHz to 3.13 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the −x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 2.03 GHz to 1.78 GHz. Therefore, we can detect stretched length and direction from independent variation of two resonant frequencies.

  10. Brief communication: Structural monitoring for lifetime extension of offshore wind monopiles: can strain measurements at one level tell us everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ziegler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Operators need accurate knowledge on structural reserves to decide about lifetime extension of offshore wind turbines. Load monitoring enables us to directly compare design loads with real loading histories of the support structure in order to calculate its remaining useful lifetime. Monitoring of every hot spot is technically and financially not feasible. This paper presents a novel idea for load monitoring of monopiles. It requires strain measurements at only one level convenient for sensor installation, such as tower bottom. Measurements are converted into damage equivalent loads for 10 min time intervals. Damage equivalent loads are extrapolated to other locations of the structure with a simulation model and statistical algorithm. For this, structural loads at all locations of the monopile are calculated with aero-hydro-elastic software and updated finite element models. Damage equivalent loads at unmeasured locations are predicted from the simulation results with a k-nearest neighbor regression algorithm. The extrapolation was tested with numerical simulations of an 8 MW offshore wind turbine. Results show that damage can be predicted with an error of 1–3 % if this is done conditional on mean wind speed, which is very promising. The load monitoring concept is simple, cheap and easy to implement. This makes it ideal for making decisions on lifetime extension of monopiles.

  11. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Il [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm {approx} 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency.

  12. Do intracellular thiol or peroxidase levels block radiation sensitization by nitrous oxide in some E. coli strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, D.; Guilfoil, D.S.; Ohm, M.B. (Hahnemann Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Although nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is often a radiation sensitizer in procaryotic cells, it fails to sensitize some strains of bacteria, some yeast strains, and most eucaryotic cell lines. At present this inconsistency cannot be satisfactorily explained. The experiments here use eight strains of E. coli, some of which are not sensitized by N{sub 2}O, to test the hypotheses that N{sub 2}O's failure to sensitize might be based on high thiol content or on low peroxidase activity. Our data contradict those hypotheses. In addition, further data show that the strains not sensitized by N{sub 2}O contain no unique cellular component or compound which blocks damage from N{sub 2}O. (author).

  13. Do intracellular thiol or peroxidase levels block radiation sensitization by nitrous oxide in some E. coli strains?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.; Guilfoil, D.S.; Ohm, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Although nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is often a radiation sensitizer in procaryotic cells, it fails to sensitize some strains of bacteria, some yeast strains, and most eucaryotic cell lines. At present this inconsistency cannot be satisfactorily explained. The experiments here use eight strains of E. coli, some of which are not sensitized by N 2 O, to test the hypotheses that N 2 O's failure to sensitize might be based on high thiol content or on low peroxidase activity. Our data contradict those hypotheses. In addition, further data show that the strains not sensitized by N 2 O contain no unique cellular component or compound which blocks damage from N 2 O. (author)

  14. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  15. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  16. Prediction of intragranular strains in metallic polycrystals with a two-level homogenisation approach: Influence of dislocation microstructure on the mechanical behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloaguen, D. [GeM, Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique, Universite de Nantes, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, CNRS UMR 6183, 37 Boulevard de l' Universite, BP 406, 44 602 Saint-Nazaire (France); Francois, M. [Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' Ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS FRE CNRS 2719), Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2006-06-15

    A two-level homogenisation approach is applied to the micro-mechanical modelling of the elasto-plasticity of polycrystalline materials during various strain-path changes. The model is tested by simulating the development of intragranular strains during different complex loads. Mechanical tests measurements are used as a reference in order to validate the model. The anisotropy of plastic deformation in relation to the evolution of the dislocation structure is analysed. The results demonstrate the relevance of this approach for FCC polycrystals. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Higher Levels of Caregiver Strain Perceived by Indian Mothers of Children and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy Who have Limited Self-Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, V; Patel, Anjali M; Hariohm, K; Palisano, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    Describe and compare the caregiver strain experienced among Indian mothers of children and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) living in low resource settings. 62 consecutive children and young adults with spastic CP (mean age 6.0 ± 4.5, range 2-21) and their parents were recruited from an outpatient physiotherapy department for this cross-sectional study. Ability to walk was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System and mother's caregiver strain was measured using caregiver strain index (CSI). Mothers of children and young adults who have limited self-mobility perceived higher caregiver strain (mean CSI score 12.0 ± 1.3, p < 0.05) than mothers of children who can walk (mean CSI score 4.5 ± 3.0, p < 0.05). All 46 mothers of children and youth in GMFCS levels IV and V reported high levels of caregiver stress compared with only three of 16 mothers of children and youth who walk (levels I and II). Physiotherapists and occupational therapists serving children and youth with CP are encouraged to partner with families to identify goals for ease of caregiving, activity, and participation at home and in the community.

  18. Effects of Wheat Flour Dough’s Viscoelastic Level by Adding Glucose Oxidase on its Dynamic Shear Properties whatever the Strain Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Didier Koffi Kouassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of wheat flour dough’s viscoelastic level by adding glucose oxidase (Gox on its rheological properties at dynamic shear strain mode to predict the final product quality. Dough does display a linear viscoelastic domain. Glucose oxidase (Gox was added to dough in order to enhance its viscoelasticity and to take into account the possible effects of this viscoelasticity on the results. Whatever the types of dough strain used G’ increased, tan δ decreased and led to less sticky dough. Wheat flour dough, an increase in G’ with extension may be associated to a strain-hardening phenomenon but the role of dough viscoelasticity is discussed.

  19. Can an Internal Locus of Control and Social Support Reduce Work-Related Levels of Stress and Strain?: A Comparative Study Between Spanish Owners and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L; Rodríguez-Félix, Lucía; Albort-Morant, Gema

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the role played by both individual and contextual factors in reducing the manager's levels of stress and strain within the workplace setting. This article also highlights the manager's locus of control (LOC) as an internal factor and emphasizes the social support variable as a contextual factor. We use a sample of 332 respondents belonging to Spanish manufacturing and services firms and a structural equation modeling technique (partial least squares path modeling). The results reveal that there are significant differences between managers and owners about stress-strain relationship. The study provides support for the literature on stress management, which emphasizes the importance of a LOC and social support in influencing stress and strain between managers and owners.

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus spp. strains in milk from buffaloes with mastitis in Brazil: the need to identify to species level to avoid misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coimbra-e-Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that affects dairy cattle worldwide causing economic losses. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are the predominant cause of this type of infection. We have recently showed that coagulase-positive staphylococci could be misidentified. So, the aim of this study was to characterize the Staphylococcus spp. strains initially classified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci, isolated from buffalo with subclinical mastitis. Milk of buffaloes with mastitis in herds was collected and 9 strains were identified as CNS by phenotypic tests. Molecular methodologies latter identified the strains as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus chromogenes (5, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus (2 and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus (2. Our results strongly support the need to identify the isolates to a species level in order to avoid misidentification and to be aware of the classification using the coagulase test alone.

  1. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  2. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  3. Comparisons of maximum deformation and failure forces at the implant–abutment interface of titanium implants between titanium-alloy and zirconia abutments with two levels of marginal bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Zirconia materials are known for their optimal aesthetics, but they are brittle, and concerns remain about whether their mechanical properties are sufficient for withstanding the forces exerted in the oral cavity. Therefore, this study compared the maximum deformation and failure forces of titanium implants between titanium-alloy and zirconia abutments under oblique compressive forces in the presence of two levels of marginal bone loss. Methods Twenty implants were divided into Groups A and B, with simulated bone losses of 3.0 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Groups A and B were also each divided into two subgroups with five implants each: (1) titanium implants connected to titanium-alloy abutments and (2) titanium implants connected to zirconia abutments. The maximum deformation and failure forces of each sample was determined using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann–Whitney test. Results The mean maximum deformation and failure forces obtained the subgroups were as follows: A1 (simulated bone loss of 3.0 mm, titanium-alloy abutment) = 540.6 N and 656.9 N, respectively; A2 (simulated bone loss of 3.0 mm, zirconia abutment) = 531.8 N and 852.7 N; B1 (simulated bone loss of 1.5 mm, titanium-alloy abutment) = 1070.9 N and 1260.2 N; and B2 (simulated bone loss of 1.5 mm, zirconia abutment) = 907.3 N and 1182.8 N. The maximum deformation force differed significantly between Groups B1 and B2 but not between Groups A1 and A2. The failure force did not differ between Groups A1 and A2 or between Groups B1 and B2. The maximum deformation and failure forces differed significantly between Groups A1 and B1 and between Groups A2 and B2. Conclusions Based on this experimental study, the maximum deformation and failure forces are lower for implants with a marginal bone loss of 3.0 mm than of 1.5 mm. Zirconia abutments can withstand physiological occlusal forces applied in the anterior region. PMID

  4. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  5. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  6. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  7. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and diclofenac (topical and intramuscular) as single and combined therapy in experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Petrellis, Maria Carla; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; De Nucci, Gilberto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P levels and walking track analysis (P topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Precision of DVC approaches for strain analysis in bone imaged with μCT at different dimensional levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Ara, Enrico; Peña-Fernández, Marta; Palanca, Marco; Giorgi, Mario; Cristofolini, Luca; Tozzi, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of local strain in heterogeneous and anisotropic bone tissue is fundamental to understand the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal diseases, to evaluate the effect of interventions from preclinical studies, and to optimize the design and delivery of biomaterials. Digital volume correlation (DVC) can be used to measure the three-dimensional displacement and strain fields from micro-Computed Tomography (µCT) images of loaded specimens. However, this approach is affected by the quality of the input images, by the morphology and density of the tissue under investigation, by the correlation scheme, and by the operational parameters used in the computation. Therefore, for each application the precision of the method should be evaluated. In this paper we present the results collected from datasets analyzed in previous studies as well as new data from a recent experimental campaign for characterizing the relationship between the precision of two different DVC approaches and the spatial resolution of the outputs. Different bone structures scanned with laboratory source µCT or Synchrotron light µCT (SRµCT) were processed in zero-strain tests to evaluate the precision of the DVC methods as a function of the subvolume size that ranged from 8 to 2500 micrometers. The results confirmed that for every microstructure the precision of DVC improves for larger subvolume size, following power laws. However, for the first time large differences in the precision of both local and global DVC approaches have been highlighted when SRµCT or in vivo µCT images were used instead of conventional ex vivo µCT. These findings suggest that in situ mechanical testing protocols applied in SRµCT facilities should be optimized in order to allow DVC analyses of localized strain measurements. Moreover, for in vivo µCT applications DVC analyses should be performed only with relatively course spatial resolution for achieving a reasonable precision of the method. In conclusion

  9. Induction of Aspergillus oryzae mutant strains producing increased levels of α-amylase by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Nessa, Azizun

    1996-01-01

    Spores of Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2630 were suspended in 0.067 m phosphate buffer and irradiated with gamma rays. Spores were incubated for 7 days and colony mutants counted by observing colour change compared to normal colours. α-amylase activities of the normal and mutant colonies were assayed. DNA assay of the spores was also carried out, after culture on different plating media. Enzyme production increased 2-5 times with increasing radiation dose. Increased spore size and DNA content was also observed in mutant strains with higher enzyme production suggesting that enzyme production is genetically controlled. Ultraviolet radiation did not appear to induce higher frequency of mutation. (UK)

  10. Induction of Aspergillus oryzae mutant strains producing increased levels of {alpha}-amylase by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Nessa, Azizun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    Spores of Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2630 were suspended in 0.067 m phosphate buffer and irradiated with gamma rays. Spores were incubated for 7 days and colony mutants counted by observing colour change compared to normal colours. {alpha}-amylase activities of the normal and mutant colonies were assayed. DNA assay of the spores was also carried out, after culture on different plating media. Enzyme production increased 2-5 times with increasing radiation dose. Increased spore size and DNA content was also observed in mutant strains with higher enzyme production suggesting that enzyme production is genetically controlled. Ultraviolet radiation did not appear to induce higher frequency of mutation. (UK).

  11. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  12. High-level ethanol production from starch by a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain displaying cell-surface glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, A.; Shigechi, H.; Abe, M.; Uyama, K. [Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, T.; Fukuda, H. [Div. of Molecular Science, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Ueda, M.; Tanaka, A. [Dept. of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto Univ., Sakyoku, Kyoto (Japan); Kishimoto, M. [Dept. of Biotechnology, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    A Strain of host yeast YF207, which is a tryptophan auxotroph and shows strong flocculation ability, was obtained from Saccharomyces diastaticus ATCC60712 and S. cerevisiae W303-1B by tetrad analysis. The plasmid pGA11, which is a multicopy plasmid for cell-surface expression of the Rhyzopus oryzae glucoamylase/{alpha}-agglutinin fusion protein, was then introduced into this flocculent yeast strain (YF207/pGA11). Yeast YF207/pGA11 grew rapidly under aerobic condition (dissolved oxygen 2.0 ppm), using soluble starch. The harvested cells were used for batch fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol under anaerobic condition and showed high ethanol production rates (0.71 g h{sup -1} I{sup -1}) without a time lag, because glucoamylase was immobilized on the yeast cell surface. During repeated utilization of cells for fermentation, YF207/pGA11 maintained high ethanol production rates over 300 h. Moreover, in fed-batch fermentation with YF207/pGA11 for approximately 120 h, the ethanol concentration reached up to 50 g I{sup -1}. In conclusion, flocculent yeast cells displaying cell-surface glucoamylase are considered to be very effective for the direct fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol. (orig.)

  13. Predicting creep rupture from early strain data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Stefan; Auerkari, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    To extend creep life modelling from classical rupture modelling, a robust and effective parametric strain model has been developed. The model can reproduce with good accuracy all parts of the creep curve, economically utilising the available rupture models. The resulting combined model can also be used to predict rupture from the available strain data, and to further improve the rupture models. The methodology can utilise unfailed specimen data for life assessment at lower stress levels than what is possible from rupture data alone. Master curves for creep strain and rupture have been produced for oxygen-free phosphorus-doped (OFP) copper with a maximum testing time of 51,000 h. Values of time to specific strain at given stress (40-165 MPa) and temperature (125-350 deg. C) were fitted to the models in the strain range of 0.1-38%. With typical inhomogeneous multi-batch creep data, the combined strain and rupture modelling involves the steps of investigation of the data quality, extraction of elastic and creep strain response, rupture modelling, data set balancing and creep strain modelling. Finally, the master curves for strain and rupture are tested and validated for overall fitting efficiency. With the Wilshire equation as the basis for the rupture model, the strain model applies classical parametric principles with an Arrhenius type of thermal activation and a power law type of stress dependence for the strain rate. The strain model also assumes that the processes of primary and secondary creep can be reasonably correlated. The rupture model represents a clear improvement over previous models in the range of the test data. The creep strain information from interrupted and running tests were assessed together with the rupture data investigating the possibility of rupture model improvement towards lower stress levels by inverse utilisation of the combined rupture based strain model. The developed creep strain model together with the improved rupture model is

  14. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  15. Predicting location-specific extreme coastal floods in the future climate by introducing a probabilistic method to calculate maximum elevation of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of water level variations and wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijala, Ulpu; Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Johansson, Milla M.; Pellikka, Havu

    2017-04-01

    Future coastal management continuously strives for more location-exact and precise methods to investigate possible extreme sea level events and to face flooding hazards in the most appropriate way. Evaluating future flooding risks by understanding the behaviour of the joint effect of sea level variations and wind waves is one of the means to make more comprehensive flooding hazard analysis, and may at first seem like a straightforward task to solve. Nevertheless, challenges and limitations such as availability of time series of the sea level and wave height components, the quality of data, significant locational variability of coastal wave height, as well as assumptions to be made depending on the study location, make the task more complicated. In this study, we present a statistical method for combining location-specific probability distributions of water level variations (including local sea level observations and global mean sea level rise) and wave run-up (based on wave buoy measurements). The goal of our method is to obtain a more accurate way to account for the waves when making flooding hazard analysis on the coast compared to the approach of adding a separate fixed wave action height on top of sea level -based flood risk estimates. As a result of our new method, we gain maximum elevation heights with different return periods of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of both phenomena, "the green water". We also introduce a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the properties and functioning of our method. The sensitivity test is based on using theoretical wave distributions representing different alternatives of wave behaviour in relation to sea level variations. As these wave distributions are merged with the sea level distribution, we get information on how the different wave height conditions and shape of the wave height distribution influence the joint results. Our method presented here can be used as an advanced tool to minimize over- and

  16. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  17. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  19. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  1. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  2. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  3. Structural integrity of whipping pipes following a postulated circumferential break - a contribution to determining strain levels acceptable under faulted conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charalambus, B.; Labes, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is postulated that a break of a thin-walled pipe does not cause a subsequent break in the pipe in the vicinity of a plastic hinge even when the wall is weakened by a 60 circumferential crack of a depth of 30% of the wall thickness on the tension side. This pipe behavior is the result of plastic buckling in the compression side and applies to pipes of diameter-to-thickness ratio larger than 20. For this type of pipe, the axial strains decrease with increasing diameter-to-thickness ratio in the tension side. As the pipe is only loaded in one direction, there is no cyclic behavior that can trigger a subsequent break. (orig.)

  4. Co-infection of Sweet Orange with Severe and Mild Strains of Citrus tristeza virus Is Overwhelmingly Dominated by the Severe Strain on Both the Transcriptional and Biological Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Fu

    2017-08-01

    and the development of symptoms. The mild strain CTV-B2 did not provide a useful level of cross-protection to citrus against the severe strain CTV-B6.

  5. The level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity strongly influences xylose fermentation and inhibitor sensitivity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, M.; Johansson, B.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2003-01-01

    production levels of G6PDH on xylose fermentation. We used a synthetic promoter library and the copper-regulated CUP1 promoter to generate G6PDH-activities between 0% and 179% of the wildtype level. G6PDH-activities of 1% and 6% of the wild-type level resulted in 2.8- and 5.1-fold increase in specific xylose...

  6. The relation of maternal job strain and cortisol levels during early pregnancy with body composition later in the 5-year-old child: the ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Aimée E; Van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress may program the fetal HPA axis, potentially leading to altered metabolism in later life, associated with adiposity and diabetes. This association is little studied in humans, and thus we explore whether high maternal job strain during early pregnancy, as well as maternal cortisol levels are associated with increased body mass index (BMI), central adiposity or body fat mass in the offspring at age five. Additionally, we explore whether these associations are modified by gender or mediated by gestational age and fetal growth restriction. 2939 pregnant women (ABCD cohort study) completed a questionnaire around gestational week 16 including the Job Content Questionnaire, assessing job strain. Serum total cortisol was assessed in a subsample (n=1320). Gestational age (≥37 weeks), standardized birth weight and information on many covariates were available. At the age five health check, height, weight (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) and Fat Mass Index (FMI, kg/m(2)) were assessed. Job strain was not associated with higher BMI, WHtR or FMI. Higher maternal cortisol was independently associated with marginally higher FMI in girls, but marginally lower FMI in boys (β 0.09 and β -0.10 per 100 unit increase in serum cortisol, respectively. pcortisol may not program obesity and adiposity in the next generation in humans, but gender differences should always be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrimination of Aspergillus isolates at the species and strain level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Justin M; Green, Brett J; Buskirk, Amanda D; Kashon, Michael L; Slaven, James E; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2008-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to generate highly reproducible mass spectral fingerprints for 12 species of fungi of the genus Aspergillus and 5 different strains of Aspergillus flavus. Prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, the fungi were subjected to three 1-min bead beating cycles in an acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid solvent. The mass spectra contain abundant peaks in the range of 5 to 20kDa and may be used to discriminate between species unambiguously. A discriminant analysis using all peaks from the MALDI-TOF MS data yielded error rates for classification of 0 and 18.75% for resubstitution and cross-validation methods, respectively. If a subset of 28 significant peaks is chosen, resubstitution and cross-validation error rates are 0%. Discriminant analysis of the MALDI-TOF MS data for 5 strains of A. flavus using all peaks yielded error rates for classification of 0 and 5% for resubstitution and cross-validation methods, respectively. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF MS data may be used for unambiguous identification of members of the genus Aspergillus at both the species and strain levels.

  8. High level of Bcl-2 counteracts apoptosis mediated by a live rabies virus vaccine strain and induces long-term infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoulouze, Maria-Isabel; Lafage, Mireille; Yuste, Victor J.; Baloul, Leiela; Edelman, Lena; Kroemer, Guido; Israel, Nicole; Susin, Santos A.; Lafon, Monique

    2003-01-01

    We report here that rabies virus strains, currently used to immunize wildlife against rabies, induce not only caspase-dependent apoptosis in the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cell line (Jurkat-vect), but also a caspase-independent pathway involving the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In contrast, a strain of neurotropic RV that does not induce apoptosis did not activate caspases or induce AIF translocation. Bcl-2 overproduction in Jurkat T cells (Jurkat-Bcl-2) abolished both pathways. ERA infection and production were similar in Jurkat-vect and Jurkat-Bcl-2 cells, indicating Bcl-2 has no direct antiviral effects. Bcl-2 production is naturally upregulated by day 3 in ERA-infected Jurkat-vect cultures. The increase in Bcl-2 levels seems to be controlled by the virus infection itself and results in the establishment of long-term, persistently infected cultures that continue to produce virus. Thus, in infections with live RV vaccine strains, infected cells may be productive reservoirs of virus in the long term. This may account for the high efficacy of live rabies vaccines

  9. Novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain Java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Mark; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary; Vietri, Nicholas; Severson, Grant; Mou, Sherry; Ravel, Jacques; Worsham, Patricia L

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium.

  10. Novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain Java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Eppinger

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium.

  11. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  12. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M.; Renker, Matthias; Ackermann, Hanns; Schoepf, U.J.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p 5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  13. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M. [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Renker, Matthias [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States); Ackermann, Hanns [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics and Mathematical Modelling, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p < 0.003). There were 2 deaths and 1 readmission due of PE in 18 patients with >5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  14. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  15. High level expression and characterization of the cyclophilin B gene from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huizhong; Li, Xin-Liang; Xu, Haiyan; Ljungdahl, Lars G; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2006-01-01

    Cyclophilins are an evolutionarily conserved family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). A cyclophilin B (cypB) gene from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. It was expressed as an amino-terminal 6 x His-tagged recombinant protein to facilitate purification. Highly purified protein (26.5 kDa) was isolated by two chromatographic steps involving affinity and gel filtration for biochemical studies of the enzyme. The recombinant CypB displayed PPIase activity with a k(cat)/K(m) of 8.9 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 10 degrees C and pH 7.8. It was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA) with an IC(50) of 23.5 nM, similar to those of the native protein and other cyclophilin B enzymes from animals. Genomic DNA analysis of cypB revealed that it was present as a single copy in Orpinomyces PC-2 and contained two introns, indicating it has a eukaryotic origin. It is one of the most heavily interrupted genes with intron sequences found in anaerobic fungi. The three-dimensional model of Orpinomyces PC-2 CypB was predicted with a homology modeling approach using the Swiss-Model Protein Modeling Server and three dimensional structure of human CypB as a template. The overall architecture of the CypB molecule is very similar to that of human CypB.

  16. Reconhecimento de fala no nível de máximo conforto em pacientes adultos com perda auditiva neurossensorial Speech recognition in the maximum comfort level in adults with sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleica Costa Zaboni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar o Índice Percentual de Reconhecimento de Fala (IPRF no nível de máximo de conforto em adultos com perda auditiva neurossensorial de grau leve a moderadamente severo até 60 dB NA. MÉTODOS: Os indivíduos avaliados foram agrupados de acordo com o grau de perda auditiva (Grupos I, II e III. Feito isso, os grupos foram subdivididos (IA, IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB conforme explicado a seguir. No subgrupo A de cada um dos grupos, foi determinado o IPRF a 40 dB NS, obtendo-se as respostas iniciando-se pela orelha direita. O paciente foi solicitado a informar quão confortável estava o som neste nível de apresentação dos estímulos, utilizando-se para obter a informação, uma escala com quatro descritores: baixo, confortável, alto e alto demais. Depois disso, foi pesquisado o nível de máximo conforto (NMC e nessa intensidade foi obtido o IPRF. No subgrupo B de cada um dos grupos, foi realizado o mesmo procedimento, porém obtendo-se primeiramente o IPRF no NMC, e a seguir a 40 dB NS. Nesse subgrupo, o teste foi iniciado na orelha esquerda. RESULTADOS: Após a avaliação dos indivíduos dos três grupos foi calculado o nível de audição médio em que os indivíduos referiram maior conforto que variou de 25 a 32,95 dB NS. No NMC de apresentação dos estímulos, houve maior percentagem de acertos de palavras. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação do IPRF no nível de máximo conforto para indivíduos com perda auditiva neurossensorial de grau leve a moderadamente severo, proporciona melhores resultados de Reconhecimento de Fala.PURPOSE: To obtain the Percentage Index of Speech Recognition (PISR at maximum comfortable level (MCL in adults with mild to moderately severe (up to 60 dB sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: The subjects evaluated were grouped according to the degree of hearing loss (Groups I, II and III. The groups were further divided into subgroups (IA,IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB as it follows. In the subgroup A of each

  17. Perception of the health risks resulting from health, lifestyle and professional strain of teachers of various school levels

    OpenAIRE

    Papršteinová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Perception of health risks from lifestyle and work psychic load of teachers from different school levels Introduction: It is well known that the teaching profession is associated with numerous health risks. Teachers are exposed to excessive mental work and sensory stress, long working in a forced position at increased risk of noise, infections and voice disorders. Compared with the general population, there are more frequently found diseases related to occupational stress. Aim: To determine t...

  18. Total meltwater volume since the Last Glacial Maximum and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle inferred from relative sea level changes at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf and GIA-induced J˙2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-02-01

    Inference of globally averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) highly depends on the interpretation of relative sea level (RSL) observations at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf, Australia, which are sensitive to the viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Here we examine the RSL changes at the LGM for Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}), differential RSL for both sites (Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}}) and rate of change of degree-two harmonics of Earth's geopotential due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process (GIA-induced J˙2) to infer the ESL component and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Differential RSL, Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} and GIA-induced J˙2 are dominantly sensitive to the lower-mantle viscosity, and nearly insensitive to the upper-mantle rheological structure and GIA ice models with an ESL component of about (120-130) m. The comparison between the predicted and observationally derived Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} indicates the lower-mantle viscosity higher than ˜2 × 1022 Pa s, and the observationally derived GIA-induced J˙2 of -(6.0-6.5) × 10-11 yr-1 indicates two permissible solutions for the lower mantle, ˜1022 and (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. That is, the effective lower-mantle viscosity inferred from these two observational constraints is (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. The LGM RSL changes at both sites, {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}, are also sensitive to the ESL component and upper-mantle viscosity as well as the lower-mantle viscosity. The permissible upper-mantle viscosity increases with decreasing ESL component due to the sensitivity of the LGM sea level at Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}) to the upper-mantle viscosity, and inferred upper-mantle viscosity for adopted lithospheric thicknesses of 65 and 100 km is (1-3) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜130 m and (4-10) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜125 m. The former solution of (1-3) × 1020

  19. Multistage magma emplacement and progressive strain accumulation in the shallow-level Krkonoše-Jizera plutonic complex, Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žák, Jiří; Verner, Kryštof; Sláma, Jiří; Kachlík, Václav; Chlupáčová, Marta

    2013-09-01

    relationships combined with new U-Pb zircon geochronology suggest that the shallow-level Krkonoše-Jizera plutonic complex, northern Bohemian Massif, was assembled successively from bottom to top, starting with emplacement of the separately evolved S-type Tanvald granite (317.3 ± 2.1 Ma), followed by at least two voluminous batches of the I-type porphyritic Liberec (319.5 ± 2.3 Ma) and Jizera (320.1 ± 3.0 Ma and 319.3 ± 3.7 Ma) granites. The intrusive sequence was completed by uppermost, minor intrusions of the equigranular Harrachov (315.0 ± 2.7 Ma) and Krkonoše granites. The I-type granites exhibit an unusually complex pattern of superposed feldspar phenocryst and magnetic fabrics as revealed from the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). The outer Liberec granite preserves margin-parallel foliations and lineations, interpreted to record emplacement-related strain captured by cooling from the pluton floor and walls. In contrast, the inner Jizera, Harrachov, and Krkonoše granites were overprinted by synmagmatic strain resulting from dextral movements along regional strike-slip faults cutting the opposite ends of the plutonic complex. Late-stage felsic dikes in the Liberec and Jizera granites reorient from horizontal to vertical (lineation-perpendicular) attitude in response to changing the least principal stress direction, whereas mafic schlieren do not do so, representing only randomly oriented small-scale thermal-mechanical instabilities in the phenocryst framework. In general, this case example challenges the common approach of inferring pluton-wide magma flow from interpolated foliation, lineation, and schlieren patterns. More likely, magmatic fabrics in large plutons record complex temporal succession of superposed strains resulting from diverse processes at multiple scales.

  20. Predicted strains in austenitic stainless steels at stresses above yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.P.; Sikka, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Tensile results on austenitic stainless steels were analyzed to develop means for predicting strains at stresses above yield for reactor regulatory applications. Eight heats each of types 316 and 304 were tested at 24, 93, 204, and 316 0 C as mill-annealed and at 24 0 C after reannealing. The effects of heat-to-heat variations on total strain (to 5%) at discrete stress levels were portrayed by a rational polynomial incorporating three constants that relate to the basic features of the true-stress-true-strain diagram. Because these constants usually are interrelated, a single parameter, yield strength (YS), proved adequate to predict results. For predictions analytical expressions of yield strength, an average value (YSa), and a lower bound value [YSa - 1.65SEE (standard error of estimate)] were used. Using the rational polynomial with these parameters we determined (1) limits of total maximum strain and (2) ratios of strain of material of lower bound YS to that of average YS. These are recorded at regular increments of stress [34 MPa (5 ksi)] and at ASME Code-related stresses (S/sub y), S/sub m/, 1.2S/sub m/ and 1.5S/sub m/). At intermediate stresses, strain penalties for using material of lower bound strength were large, generally larger for type 316 than type 304. For mill-annealed type 316 at 24, 93, 204, and 316 0 C, the maximum ratios of strain were 8.8, 13.0, 14.1, and 14.9, respectively, whereas for type 304 they were 3.5, 3.4, 5.6, and 4.6. At 1.5S/sub m/ and 316 0 C, a maximum strain of 2.08% was predicted for type 316 and 1.66% for type 304, as contrasted to values of 0.14 and 0.39% for average strain

  1. Co-infection of sweet orange with severe and mild strains of citrus tristeza virus is overwhelmingly dominated by the severe strain on both the transcriptional and biological levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing and s...

  2. Metallic nanoparticle-based strain sensors elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.; Thomas, D.; Rafaël, R.; R'Mili, M.; Malchère, A.; Roiban, L.; Koneti, S.; Bugnet, M.; Sabac, A.; Le Berre, M.

    2017-03-01

    Platinum nanoparticle-based strain gauges are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition on flexible polyimide substrates. Their electro-mechanical response is tested under mechanical bending in both buckling and conformational contact configurations. A maximum gauge factor of 70 is reached at a strain level of 0.5%. Although the exponential dependence of the gauge resistance on strain is attributed to the tunneling effect, it is shown that the majority of the junctions between adjacent Pt nanoparticles are in a short circuit state. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of an all-plastic pressure sensor integrating Pt nanoparticle-based strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration.

  3. Impact of a proposed revision of the IESTI equation on the acute risk assessment conducted when setting maximum residue levels (MRLs) in the European Union (EU): A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Nicolas; Vial, Gaelle; Pattingre, Lauriane; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Mahieu, Karin; Reich, Hermine; Rietveld, Anton; Sieke, Christian; van der Velde-Koerts, Trijntje; Sarda, Xavier

    2018-06-03

    Proposals to update the methodology for the international estimated short-term intake (IESTI) equations were made during an international workshop held in Geneva in 2015. Changes to several parameters of the current four IESTI equations (cases 1, 2a, 2b, and 3) were proposed. In this study, the overall impact of these proposed changes on estimates of short-term exposure was studied using the large portion data available in the European Food Safety Authority PRIMo model and the residue data submitted in the framework of the European Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) review under Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. Evaluation of consumer exposure using the current and proposed equations resulted in substantial differences in the exposure estimates; however, there were no significant changes regarding the number of accepted MRLs. For the different IESTI cases, the median ratio of the new versus the current equation is 1.1 for case 1, 1.4 for case 2a, 0.75 for case 2b, and 1 for case 3. The impact, expressed as a shift in the IESTI distribution profile, indicated that the 95th percentile IESTI shifted from 50% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) with the current equations to 65% of the ARfD with the proposed equations. This IESTI increase resulted in the loss of 1.2% of the MRLs (37 out of 3110) tested within this study. At the same time, the proposed equations would have allowed 0.4% of the MRLs (14 out of 3110) that were rejected with the current equations to be accepted. The commodity groups that were most impacted by these modifications are solanacea (e.g., potato, eggplant), lettuces, pulses (dry), leafy brassica (e.g., kale, Chinese cabbage), and pome fruits. The active substances that were most affected were fluazifop-p-butyl, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin.

  4. INVESTIGATING THE LEVELS OF STRAIN, FROM THE POINT OF VARIOUS VARIABLES, AT THEIR EFFORTS OF OBTAIN INFORMATİON OF PRESERVICE TEACHERS’ OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Adıgüzel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigating the Levels of Strain, From the Point of Various Variables (according to gender, branch, working at a job which provides financial gain, the reason to prefer the teaching profession, the number of digests of related field which have been followed, the frequency of weekly using internet, the aim of using internet, the frequency of weekly utilization from a library at studies related with branch, and the number of read books monthly , at Their Efforts of Obtain Information of Preservice Teachers’ of Secondary Education. Study carried out by general screening model and data has been collected by content validity and reliability has been through a survey. The opinions of 115 teachers were included in the study. The scale developed by the researcher used in the research. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale has been determined as .968. The value of the normal distribution of the data set as 6.57. Preservice teachers’ in their efforts to obtain information, the information needed to identify, access to information, assessment, use and in this process to consider the ethical and legal values of stages have been forced from time to time. Preservice teachers’ views on the strain level did not vary according to personal characteristics. Preservice teachers in the social field to learn to work less hard than Preservice teachers in the fields of science and mathematics. Study skills and habits of the prospective teachers to learn to be scraped in pre-service education and in-service training of vocational qualifications to support this have been proposed.

  5. Characterization, genetic diversity, and evolutionary link of Cucumber mosaic virus strain New Delhi from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundal, Vikas; Haq, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul; Praveen, Shelly

    2011-02-01

    The genome of Cucumber mosaic virus New Delhi strain (CMV-ND) from India, obtained from tomato, was completely sequenced and compared with full genome sequences of 14 known CMV strains from subgroups I and II, for their genetic diversity. Sequence analysis suggests CMV-ND shares maximum sequence identity at the nucleotide level with a CMV strain from Taiwan. Among all 15 strains of CMV, the encoded protein 2b is least conserved, whereas the coat protein (CP) is most conserved. Sequence identity values and phylogram results indicate that CMV-ND belongs to subgroup I. Based on the recombination detection program result, it appears that CMV is prone to recombination, and different RNA components of CMV-ND have evolved differently. Recombinational analysis of all 15 CMV strains detected maximum recombination breakpoints in RNA2; CP showed the least recombination sites.

  6. Repeated Administration of D-Amphetamine Induces Distinct Alterations in Behavior and Metabolite Levels in 129Sv and Bl6 Mouse Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taavi Vanaveski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to characterize the behavioral and metabolomic profiles of repeated administration (for 11 days of d-amphetamine (AMPH, 3 mg/kg i. p., indirect agonist of dopamine (DA, in widely used 129S6/SvEvTac (129Sv and C57BL/6NTac (Bl6 mouse strains. Acute administration of AMPH (acute AMPH induced significantly stronger motor stimulation in Bl6. However, repeated administration of AMPH (repeated AMPH caused stronger motor sensitization in 129Sv compared acute AMPH. Body weight of 129Sv was reduced after repeated saline and AMPH, whereas no change occurred in Bl6. In the metabolomic study, acute AMPH induced an elevation of isoleucine and leucine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA, whereas the level of hexoses was reduced in Bl6. Both BCAAs and hexoses remained on level of acute AMPH after repeated AMPH in Bl6. Three biogenic amines [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alpha-AAA, kynurenine] were significantly reduced after repeated AMPH. Acute AMPH caused in 129Sv a significant reduction of valine, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C16:0, lysoPC a C18:2, lysoPC a C20:4, phosphatidylcholine (PC diacyls (PC aa C34:2, PC aa C36:2, PC aa C36:3, PC aa C36:4 and alkyl-acyls (PC ae C38:4, PC ae C40:4. However, repeated AMPH increased the levels of valine and isoleucine, long-chain acylcarnitines (C14, C14:1-OH, C16, C18:1, PC diacyls (PC aa C38:4, PC aa C38:6, PC aa C42:6, PC acyl-alkyls (PC ae C38:4, PC ae C40:4, PC ae C40:5, PC ae C40:6, PC ae C42:1, PC ae C42:3 and sphingolipids [SM(OHC22:1, SM C24:0] compared to acute AMPH in 129Sv. Hexoses and kynurenine were reduced after repeated AMPH compared to saline in 129Sv. The established changes probably reflect a shift in energy metabolism toward lipid molecules in 129Sv because of reduced level of hexoses. Pooled data from both strains showed that the elevation of isoleucine and leucine was a prominent biomarker of AMPH-induced behavioral sensitization

  7. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  8. Measurement of Strain and Strain Rate during the Impact of Tennis Ball Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to establish the strains and strain rates experienced by tennis ball cores during impact to inform material characterisation testing and finite element modelling. Three-dimensional surface strains and strain rates were measured using two high-speed video cameras and corresponding digital image correlation software (GOM Correlate Professional. The results suggest that material characterisation testing to a maximum strain of 0.4 and a maximum rate of 500 s−1 in tension and to a maximum strain of −0.4 and a maximum rate of −800 s−1 in compression would encapsulate the demands placed on the material during impact and, in turn, define the range of properties required to encapsulate the behavior of the material during impact, enabling testing to be application-specific and strain-rate-dependent properties to be established and incorporated in finite element models.

  9. [Antimicrobial activity of Laetiporus sulphureus strains grown in submerged culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, E Iu; Tikhonova, O V; Lur'e, L M; Efremenkova, O V; Kamzolkina, O V; Dudnik, Iu V

    2003-01-01

    Cultural conditions for growth and fruit body formation were elaborated to four strains of Laetiporus sulphureus isolated from nature. All strains demonstrated antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria during agar and submerged cultivation including methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and glycopeptide-resistant strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Antifungal activity was not found. The level of antimicrobial activity during submerged cultivation reached maximum after seven days of growth on specific medium with soybean meal and corn liquid; the next four weeks its increasing was not so manifested. Antimicrobial activity correlated with orange pigment secretion and cultural liquid acidification to pH 2.0-2.8 that indicates on acid nature of synthesized products.

  10. Generation of a novel live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety by introducing attenuating mutations in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Kento; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Mitake, Hiromichi; Okada, Kazuma; Yamaoka, Satoko; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Masatani, Tatsunori; Okadera, Kota; Ito, Naoto; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2017-10-09

    The current live rabies vaccine SAG2 is attenuated by only one mutation (Arg-to-Glu) at position 333 in the glycoprotein (G333). This fact generates a potential risk of the emergence of a pathogenic revertant by a back mutation at this position during viral propagation in the body. To circumvent this risk, it is desirable to generate a live vaccine strain highly and stably attenuated by multiple mutations. However, the information on attenuating mutations other than that at G333 is very limited. We previously reported that amino acids at positions 273 and 394 in the nucleoprotein (N273/394) (Leu and His, respectively) of fixed rabies virus Ni-CE are responsible for the attenuated phenotype by enhancing interferon (IFN)/chemokine gene expressions in infected neural cells. In this study, we found that amino acid substitutions at N273/394 (Phe-to-Leu and Tyr-to-His, respectively) attenuated the pathogenicity of the oral live vaccine ERA, which has a virulent-type Arg at G333. Then we generated ERA-N273/394-G333 attenuated by the combination of the above attenuating mutations at G333 and N273/394, and checked its safety. Similar to the ERA-G333, which is attenuated by only the mutation at G333, ERA-N273/394-G333 did not cause any symptoms in adult mice after intracerebral inoculation, indicating a low level of residual pathogenicity of ERA-N273/394-G333. Further examination revealed that infection with ERA-N273/394-G333 induces IFN-β and CXCL10 mRNA expressions more strongly than ERA-G333 infection in a neuroblastoma cell line. Importantly, we found that the ERA-N273/394-G333 stain has a lower risk for emergence of a pathogenic revertant than does the ERA-G333. These results indicate that ERA-N273/394-G333 has a potential to be a promising candidate for a live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resolving the velocity and strain fields in the Upper Rhine Graben Area from a Combination of Levelling, GNSS and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhaus, Malte; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Mayer, Michael; Zippelt, Karl; Heck, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG), located in the tri-national region between Germany, France and Switzerland is the most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system. In recent times, the URG area is characterised by small tectonic movements (less than 1 mm/a) and moderate seismicity up to M=5. Historically, earthquake magnitudes exceeding M=6 have been reported showing that the seismic hazard is quite high. The contemporary tectonic surface deformations are superimposed by displacements caused by anthropogenic activities in various locations in the area, such as coal and potash mining, groundwater usage, oil extraction, geothermal energy and CO2 storage. We use data sets from levelling campaigns, InSAR and permanent GNSS sites to raise an inventory of the current 3D surface displacements and strain rates in the URG with high precision and high spatial resolution. Precise levellings carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland since the end of the 19th century have been combined to form a network of levelling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the levelling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates at the levelling benchmarks. InSAR is used to fill gaps in the interior of the levelling loops and to significantly increase the number of points. All the available ERS-1/2 and Envisat scenes from two acquisition geometries covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed according to the Persistent-Scatterer approach. In addition, coordinate time series of 76 permanent sites of the GNSS URG Network are used to support the derivation of the horizontal velocity field of the region. Daily GPS-solutions obtained in differential mode are available since 2004. In a first step, estimates of the surface displacement rates are derived from each technique starting from the raw data. Subsequently, the single-technique deformation estimates are mathematically combined to a 3D

  12. Phytohormone Involvement in the Ustilago maydis- Zea mays Pathosystem: Relationships between Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin Levels and Strain Virulence in Infected Cob Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin N Morrison

    Full Text Available Ustilago maydis is the causative agent of common smut of corn. Early studies noted its ability to synthesize phytohormones and, more recently these growth promoting substances were confirmed as cytokinins (CKs. Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones commonly associated with actively dividing tissues. Lab analyses identified variation in virulence between U. maydis dikaryon and solopathogen infections of corn cob tissue. Samples from infected cob tissue were taken at sequential time points post infection and biochemical profiling was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS. This hormone profiling revealed that there were altered levels of ABA and major CKs, with a marked reduction in CK glucosides, increases in methylthiol CKs and a particularly dramatic increase in cisZ CK forms, in U. maydis infected tissue. These changes were more pronounced in the more virulent dikaryon relative to the solopathogenic strain suggesting a role for cytokinins in moderating virulence during biotrophic infection. These findings highlight the fact that U. maydis does not simply mimic a fertilized seed but instead reprograms the host tissue. Results underscore the suitability of the Ustilago maydis- Zea mays model as a basis for investigating the control of phytohormone dynamics during biotrophic infection of plants.

  13. Study of aac(6'Ie-aph(2″Ia Gene in Clinical Strain of Enterococci and Identification of High-Level Gentamicin Resistante Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dadfarma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Enterococci have emerged as the leading nosocomial pathogens. In addition to natural resistance to many agents, enterococci have also developed plasmid- and transposon-mediated resistance to high concentrations of aminoglycosides. High-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR of enterococci results in the failure of drug synergism with an aminoglycoside plus cell-wall-active agents. HLGR (MIC=500μg/ml strains is usually due to the presence of the aac(6'Ie-aph(2″Ia gene . Materials & Methods: In the present experimental study 142 enterococci were isolated from the patients’ species. Identification was done by using standard methods and antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion technique. MIC of Gentamicin was determined by a broth micro dilution method (NCCLS. PCR was performed to detect the aac(6'Ie-aph(2″Ia gene .Presence of the gene aac(6'-Ie-aph(2″-Ia was confirmed by digest with Sca1 enzyme. A PCR product was sequenced and BLAST analyzed at the NCBI database to be confirmed. Results: 62(43.7% out of the 142 isolates, were found to exhibit HLGR phenotype. MIC ranging from 512 to >1024 μg/ml in 55 HLGR isolates. All resistant isolates except one, were found to harbor the aac(6'Ie-aph(2″Ia gene. In our strain collection, 42% of E. faecalis and 44% of E. faecium were HLGR. In the HLGR isolates the prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics and Multi Drug Resistance (MDR was higher than non–HLGR.This prevalence in E.faecium was higher than E.faecalis. The sequence was compared with a published sequence and confirmed. Conclusion: Our results indicate that high prevalence of MDR and HLGR enterococcal colonization is an important problem in our medical centers.Spread of the aac(6'-Ie-aph(2″-Ia gene was responsible for HLGR among enterococci isolated from the patients in Tehran. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:25-32

  14. MRP-1 expression levels determine strain-specific susceptibility to sodium arsenic-induced renal injury between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiko; Ishida, Yuko; Wada, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Mukaida, Naofumi; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    To clarify the pathophysiological mechanism underlying acute renal injury caused by acute exposure to arsenic, we subcutaneously injected both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with sodium arsenite (NaAs; 13.5 mg/kg). BALB/c mice exhibited exaggerated elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels, compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, half of BALB/c mice died by 24 h, whereas all C57BL/6 mice survived. Histopathological examination on kidney revealed severe hemorrhages, acute tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, cast formation, and disappearance of PAS-positive brush borders in BALB/c mice, later than 10 h. These pathological changes were remarkably attenuated in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied with lower intrarenal arsenic concentrations, compared with BALB/c mice. Among heavy metal inducible proteins including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR)-1, metallothionein (MT)-1, and arsenite inducible, cysteine- and histidine-rich RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), intrarenal MDR-1, MT-1, and AIRAP gene expression was enhanced to a similar extent in both strains, whereas NaAs challenge augmented intrarenal MRP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. Moreover, the administration of a specific inhibitor of MRP-1, MK-571, significantly exaggerated acute renal injury in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, MRP-1 is crucially involved in arsenic efflux and eventually prevention of acute renal injury upon acute exposure to NaAs

  15. Dynamics of plc gene transcription and α-toxin production during growth of Clostridium perfringens strains with contrasting α-toxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Schramm, Andreas; Rudi, Knut

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate transcription dynamics of the α-toxin-encoding plc gene relative to two housekeeping genes (gyrA and rplL) in batch cultures of three Clostridium perfringens strains with low, intermediate, and high levels of α-toxin production, respectively. The plc...... transcript level was always low in the low α-toxin producing strain. For the two other strains, plc transcription showed an inducible pattern and reached a maximum level in the late exponential growth phase. The transcription levels were however inversely correlated to α-toxin production for the two strains....... We propose that this discrepancy is due to differences in plc translation rates between the strains and that strain-specific translational rates therefore must be determined before α-toxin production can be extrapolated from transcript levels in C. perfringens....

  16. Transfer induced compressive strain in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget; Mackenzie, David; Caridad, Jose

    2014-01-01

    We have used spatially resolved micro Raman spectroscopy to map the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the graphene G-band and the 2D and G peak positions, for as-grown graphene on copper catalyst layers, for transferred CVD graphene and for micromechanically exfoliated graphene, in order...... to characterize the effects of a transfer process on graphene properties. Here we use the FWHM(G) as an indicator of the doping level of graphene, and the ratio of the shifts in the 2D and G bands as an indicator of strain. We find that the transfer process introduces an isotropic, spatially uniform, compressive...... strain in graphene, and increases the carrier concentration....

  17. Charging Levels of Four tRNA Species in Escherichia coli Rel+ and REL- Strains during Amino Acid Starvation: A Simple Model for the Effect of ppGpp on Translational Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains mutated in the relA gene lack the ability to produce ppGpp during amino acid starvation. One consequence of this deficiency is a tenfold increase in misincorporation at starved codons compared to the wild-type. Previous work had shown that the charging levels of tRNAs were...... the same in Rel+ and Rel- strains and reduced, at most, two- to fivefold in both strains during starvation. The present reinvestigation of the charging levels of tRNA2Arg, tRNA1Thr, tRNA1Leu and tRNAHis during starvation of isogenic Rel+ and Rel- strains showed that starvation reduced charging levels...... tenfold to 40-fold. This reduction corresponds much better with the decreased rate of protein synthesis during starvation than that reported earlier. The determination of the charging levels of tRNA2Arg and tRNA1Thr during starvation were accurate enough to demonstrate that charging levels were at least...

  18. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  19. Proteomics analysis of high lipid-producing strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11: an explanation for the mechanism of lipid accumulation at the proteomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zan, Xinyi; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-11

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is attracting considerable interest as it produces oil rich in γ-linolenic acid. Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a common strategy to trigger the lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Although a simple pathway from N depletion in the medium to lipid accumulation has been elucidated at the enzymatic level, global changes at protein levels upon N depletion have not been investigated. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the changes at the levels of protein expression in M. circinelloides WJ11, a high lipid-producing strain (36 %, lipid/cell dry weight), during lipid accumulation. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that N depletion increased the expression of glutamine synthetase, involved in ammonia assimilation, for the supply of cellular nitrogen but decreased the metabolism of amino acids. Upon N deficiency, many proteins (e.g., fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, pyruvate kinase) involved in glycolytic pathway were up-regulated while proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA ligase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase) were down-regulated, indicating this activity was retarded thereby leading to a greater flux of carbon into fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and transketolase, which participate in the pentose phosphate pathway, were up-regulated, leading to the increased production of NADPH, the reducing power for fatty acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, protein and nucleic acid metabolism were down-regulated and some proteins involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, molecular chaperone and redox homeostasis were up-regulated upon N depletion, which may be the cellular response to the stress produced by the onset of N deficiency. N limitation increased those expressions of the proteins involved in ammonia assimilation but decreased that

  20. An experimental study on the stress-strain relationship of concrete -about steel fiber concrete-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wha Jung; Kwon, Young Hwan; Lee, Sang Jae; Jun, Myoung Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The factors adopted in this experiment are volume fraction and the diameter and aspect ratio of fiber. The levels of factors are determined by existing studies. The effects of the diameter and mixing volume fraction and the aspect ratio for maximum strength, strain and tangent modulus are analysed based on the linear multiple regression and we obtained regression equations.(Author)

  1. Necking of anisotropic micro-films with strain-gradient effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2008-01-01

    Necking of stubby micro-films of aluminum is investigated numerically by considering tension of a specimen with an initial imperfection used to onset localisation. Plastic anisotropy is represented by two different yield criteria and strain-gradient effects are accounted for using the visco......-plastic finite strain model. Furthermore, the model is extended to isotropic anisotropic hardening (evolving anisotropy). For isotropic hardening plastic anisotropy affects the predicted overall nominal stress level, while the peak stress remains at an overall logarithmic strain corresponding to the hardening...... exponent. This holds true for both local and nonlocal materials. Anisotropic hardening delays the point of maximum overall nominal stress....

  2. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  3. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  4. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  5. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  6. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  7. 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptor binding levels are related to differences in impulsive behavior in the Roman Low- (RLA) and High- (RHA) avoidance rat strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Ultved, L; Adamsen, D

    2014-01-01

    The Roman Low- and High-Avoidance rat strains (RLA-I vs RHA-I) have been bidirectionally selected and bred according to their performance in the two-way active avoidance response in the shuttle-box test. Numerous studies have reported a pronounced divergence in emotionality between the two rat st...... difference in mGlu2 receptor protein levels. We suggest that the differences in the serotonergic system may mediate some of the phenotypic characteristics in this strain such as hyper-impulsivity and susceptibility to drug addiction....

  8. Different levels of immunogenicity of two strains of Fowlpox virus as recombinant vaccine vectors eliciting T-cell responses in heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; van Maurik, Andre; Zago, Manola; Newton, Angela T; Anderson, Richard J; Howard, M Keith; Schneider, Jörg; Skinner, Michael A

    2006-07-01

    The FP9 strain of F has been described as a more immunogenic recombinant vaccine vector than the Webster FPV-M (FPW) strain (R. J. Anderson et al., J. Immunol. 172:3094-3100, 2004). This study expands the comparison to include two separate recombinant antigens and multiple, rather than single, independent viral clones derived from the two strains. Dual-poxvirus heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens using individual clones of recombinant FP9 or FPW in combination with recombinant modified V Ankara expressing the same antigen were evaluated for their ability to elicit T-cell responses against recombinant antigens from Plasmodium berghei (circumsporozoite protein) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein). Gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays of the responses to specific epitopes confirmed the approximately twofold-greater cellular immunogenicity of FP9 compared to FPW, when given as the priming or boosting immunization. Equality of transgene expression in mouse cells infected with the two strains in vitro was verified by Western blotting. Directed partial sequence analysis and PCR analysis of FPW and comparison to available whole-genome sequences revealed that many loci that are mutated in the highly attenuated and culture-adapted FP9 strain are wild type in FPW, including the seven multikilobase deletions. These "passage-specific" alterations are hypothesized to be involved in determining the immunogenicity of fowlpox virus as a recombinant vaccine vector.

  9. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...

  10. Novel Accurate Bacterial Discrimination by MALDI-Time-of-Flight MS Based on Ribosomal Proteins Coding in S10-spc-alpha Operon at Strain Level S10-GERMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroto; Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Hiroaki

    2013-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is one of the most widely used mass-based approaches for bacterial identification and classification because of the simple sample preparation and extremely rapid analysis within a few minutes. To establish the accurate MALDI-TOF MS bacterial discrimination method at strain level, the ribosomal subunit proteins coded in the S 10-spc-alpha operon, which encodes half of the ribosomal subunit protein and is highly conserved in eubacterial genomes, were selected as reliable biomarkers. This method, named the S10-GERMS method, revealed that the strains of genus Pseudomonas were successfully identified and discriminated at species and strain levels, respectively; therefore, the S10-GERMS method was further applied to discriminate the pathovar of P. syringae. The eight selected biomarkers (L24, L30, S10, S12, S14, S16, S17, and S19) suggested the rapid discrimination of P. syringae at the strain (pathovar) level. The S10-GERMS method appears to be a powerful tool for rapid and reliable bacterial discrimination and successful phylogenetic characterization. In this article, an overview of the utilization of results from the S10-GERMS method is presented, highlighting the characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group and discrimination of the bacteria of genera Bacillus and Sphingopyxis despite only two and one base difference in the 16S rRNA gene sequence, respectively.

  11. Morphological characterization and molecular fingerprinting of Nostoc strains by multiplex RAPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillol, Chakdar; Pabbi, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Morphological parameters studied for the twenty selected Nostoc strains were mostly found to be consistent with the earlier reports. But the shape of akinetes observed in this study was a little deviation from the existing descriptions and heterocyst frequency was also found to be different in different strains in spite of growing in the same nitrogen free media. Multiplex RAPD produced reproducible and completely polymorphic amplification profiles for all the strains including some strain specific unique bands which are intended to be useful for identification of those strains. At least one to a maximum of two unique bands was produced by different dual primer combinations. For ten strains out of twenty, strain specific bands were found to be generated. Cluster analysis revealed a vast heterogeneity among these Nostoc strains and no specific clustering based on geographical origin was found except a few strains. It was also observed that morphological data may not necessarily correspond to the genetic data in most of the cases. CCC92 (Nostoc muscorum) and CCC48 (Nostoc punctiforme) showed a high degree of similarity which was well supported by high bootstrap value. The level of similarity of the strains ranged from 0.15 to 0.94. Cluster analysis based on multiplex RAPD showed a good fit revealing the discriminatory power of this technique.

  12. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  13. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  14. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  15. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  16. The relation of maternal job strain and cortisol levels during early pregnancy with body composition later in the 5-year-old child: The ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal stress may program the fetal HPA axis, potentially leading to altered metabolism in later life, associated with adiposity and diabetes. Aims: This association is little studied in humans, and thus we explore whether high maternal job strain during early

  17. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanada S. Khanolkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM. Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2 through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites.

  18. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  19. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  20. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  1. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  2. Enhanced degradation of γ-irradiated forest biomass by a strain of Trichoderma viride isolated from forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nivedita; Bhalla, T.C.; Bhatt, A.K.; Agrawal, H.O.

    1993-01-01

    Biodegradation of irradiated forest biomass materials by a cellulase producing strain of Trichoderma viride showed an increase in the level of sugars released and proteins formed. Although the maximum sugars and maximum proteins were released from the saw dust and bark of C. deodara respectively this treatment increases the susceptibility of all the lignocelluloses and resulted in increased levels of sugars and maximum protein in comparison to the untreated ones. The saw dusts of Cedrus and Pinus and needles of P. roxburghii emerged quite promising from biotechnology point of view. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  3. The gene expression profile of resistant and susceptible Bombyx mori strains reveals cypovirus-associated variations in host gene transcript levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Simei; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Hu, Xiaolong; Huang, Moli; Zhang, Yangqi; Lu, Yahong; Zhu, Liyuan; Chen, Fei; Liang, Zi; Kuang, Sulan; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-06-01

    High-throughput paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to investigate the gene expression profile of a susceptible Bombyx mori strain, Lan5, and a resistant B. mori strain, Ou17, which were both orally infected with B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV) in the midgut. There were 330 and 218 up-regulated genes, while there were 147 and 260 down-regulated genes in the Lan5 and Ou17 strains, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were carried out. Moreover, gene interaction network (STRING) analyses were performed to analyze the relationships among the shared DEGs. Some of these genes were related and formed a large network, in which the genes for B. mori cuticular protein RR-2 motif 123 (BmCPR123) and the gene for B. mori DNA replication licensing factor Mcm2-like (BmMCM2) were key genes among the common up-regulated DEGs, whereas the gene for B. mori heat shock protein 20.1 (Bmhsp20.1) was the central gene among the shared down-regulated DEGs between Lan5 vs Lan5-CPV and Ou17 vs Ou17-CPV. These findings established a comprehensive database of genes that are differentially expressed in response to BmCPV infection between silkworm strains that differed in resistance to BmCPV and implied that these DEGs might be involved in B. mori immune responses against BmCPV infection.

  4. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  5. Whole Genome Sequencing Investigation of a Tuberculosis Outbreak in Port-au-Prince, Haiti Caused by a Strain with a "Low-Level" rpoB Mutation L511P - Insights into a Mechanism of Resistance Escalation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ocheretina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends diagnosing Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB in high burden countries by detection of mutations in Rifampin (RIF Resistance Determining Region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rpoB gene with rapid molecular tests GeneXpert MTB/RIF and Hain MTBDRplus. Such mutations are found in >95% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to RIF by conventional culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST. However routine diagnostic screening with molecular tests uncovered specific "low level" rpoB mutations conferring resistance to RIF below the critical concentration of 1 μg/ml in some phenotypically susceptible strains. Cases with discrepant phenotypic (susceptible and genotypic (resistant results for resistance to RIF account for at least 10% of resistant diagnoses by molecular tests and urgently require new guidelines to inform therapeutic decision making. Eight strains with a "low level" rpoB mutation L511P were isolated by GHESKIO laboratory between 2008 and 2012 from 6 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive patients during routine molecular testing. Five isolates with a single L511P mutation and two isolates with double mutation L511P&M515T had MICs for RIF between 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml and tested susceptible in culture-based DST. The eighth isolate carried a double mutation L511P&D516C and was phenotypically resistant to RIF. All eight strains shared the same spoligotype SIT 53 commonly found in Haiti but classic epidemiological investigation failed to uncover direct contacts between the patients. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS revealed that L511P cluster isolates resulted from a clonal expansion of an ancestral strain resistant to Isoniazid and to a very low level of RIF. Under the selective pressure of RIF-based therapy the strain acquired mutation in the M306 codon of embB followed by secondary mutations in rpoB and escalation of resistance level. This scenario highlights the importance of subcritical

  6. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  7. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  8. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  9. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  10. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  11. A new constitutive equation for strain hardening and softening of fcc metals during severe plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, W.; Wei, K.X.; Fan, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The stress-strain relationship for strain hardening and softening of high-purity aluminum and copper, which were deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at ambient temperature, was analyzed by combining the Estrin and Mecking (EM) model and an Avrami-type equation with experimental data during severe plastic deformation. The initial strain hardening can be described by the EM model, while the flow stress arrives at the peak stress after it was saturated. However, strain softening similar to plastic deformation at high temperatures is observed after the peak stress. Moreover, the peak strain at the maximum flow stress is ∼4 for copper and ∼2 for aluminum. A new constitutive equation was developed to describe strain softening at high strain levels, which was supported well by tensile, compression and microhardness tests at room temperature and low strain rate. It was observed that dynamic recovery and recrystallization occurs in copper, and recrystallized grains and their growth in aluminum. The results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization was the dominant softening mechanism, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy-electron channeling contrast observations and the abnormal relationship between the imposed strain during ECAP and subsequent recrystallization temperature after ECAP

  12. Particle Swarm Optimization Based of the Maximum Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photovoltaic electricity is seen as an important source of renewable energy. The photovoltaic array is an unstable source of power since the peak power point depends on the temperature and the irradiation level. A maximum peak power point tracking is then necessary for maximum efficiency. In this work, a Particle Swarm ...

  13. Effects of mtDNA in SHR-mtF344 versus SHR conplastic strains on reduced OXPHOS enzyme levels, insulin resistance, cardiac hypertrophy, and systolic dysfunction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houštěk, Josef; Vrbacký, Marek; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Kazdová, L.; Mikšík, Ivan; Neckář, Jan; Papoušek, František; Kolář, František; Kurtz, T. W.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 18 (2014), s. 671-678 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : SHR conplastic strain with F344 mtDNA * impaired glucose tolerance * systolic dysfunction Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.374, year: 2014

  14. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  15. Multilocus sequence analysis of Treponema denticola strains of diverse origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Sisu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral spirochete bacterium Treponema denticola is associated with both the incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Although the biological or phenotypic properties of a significant number of T. denticola isolates have been reported in the literature, their genetic diversity or phylogeny has never been systematically investigated. Here, we describe a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA of 20 of the most highly studied reference strains and clinical isolates of T. denticola; which were originally isolated from subgingival plaque samples taken from subjects from China, Japan, the Netherlands, Canada and the USA. Results The sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and 7 conserved protein-encoding genes (flaA, recA, pyrH, ppnK, dnaN, era and radC were successfully determined for each strain. Sequence data was analyzed using a variety of bioinformatic and phylogenetic software tools. We found no evidence of positive selection or DNA recombination within the protein-encoding genes, where levels of intraspecific sequence polymorphism varied from 18.8% (flaA to 8.9% (dnaN. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated protein-encoding gene sequence data (ca. 6,513 nucleotides for each strain using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches indicated that the T. denticola strains were monophyletic, and formed 6 well-defined clades. All analyzed T. denticola strains appeared to have a genetic origin distinct from that of ‘Treponema vincentii’ or Treponema pallidum. No specific geographical relationships could be established; but several strains isolated from different continents appear to be closely related at the genetic level. Conclusions Our analyses indicate that previous biological and biophysical investigations have predominantly focused on a subset of T. denticola strains with a relatively narrow range of genetic diversity. Our methodology and results establish a genetic framework for the discrimination and phylogenetic

  16. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  17. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beta particle and photon radioactivity from man-made radionuclides in drinking water must not produce.../year). (2) Except for the radionuclides listed in table A, the concentration of man-made radionuclides... may make this technology too complex for small surface water systems. e Removal efficiencies can vary...

  18. Can a cognitive-behavioral group-therapy training program for the treatment of child sexual abuse reduce levels of burnout and job-strain in trainees? initial evidence of a brazilian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1 and 11 the comparison group (G2. Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.

  19. Mechanisms of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice vaccinated with irradiated cercaria- I. analysis of antibody and T-lymphocyte responses in mouse strains developing differing levels of immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.L.; Labine, M.; Sher, A.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of cellular and humoral responses directed against schistosomula were examined in mice of three inbred strains which demonstrate differences in the degree of resistance induced by immunization with irradiated cercariae. T-Cell reactivity was observed during the first 4 weeks after vaccination but declined to control levels thereafter. Anti-schistosomulum antibody was first detected 2 weeks after vaccination, peaked by 6 weeks, and persisted as late as 15 weeks. In sera obtained at 6 weeks, antibody activity was detected in affinity chromatography-purified fractions containing IgM, IgA, IgG 1 , IgG 2 /sub a/, and IgG 3 immunoglobulins. In general, the cellular and humoral responses observed in C57Bl/6J mice, which consistently developed a high level of immunity after vaccination, were not significantly different from those observed in C3H/HeJ or CBA/J mice, which achieved only low to moderate levels of immunity. Thus, although antibody production appears to correlate more closely than T lymphocyte responsiveness with the typical long-term resistance pattern observed in this model, the absence of striking differences in parasite-specific antibody levels between mice of these different strains suggests that additional mechanisms may be involved in the development of immunity after vaccination

  20. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  1. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  2. Contribution to the study of maximum levels for liquid radioactive waste disposal into continental and sea water. Treatment of some typical samples; Contribution a l'etude des niveaux limites relatifs a des rejets d'effluents radioactifs liquides dans les eaux continentales et oceaniques. Traitement de quelques exemples types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittel, R; Mancel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de la protection sanitaire

    1968-10-01

    The most important carriers of radioactive contamination of man are the whole of foodstuffs and not only ingested water or inhaled air. That is the reason why, in accordance with the spirit of the recent recommendations of the ICRP, it is proposed to substitute the idea of maximum levels of contamination of water to the MPC. In the case of aquatic food chains (aquatic organisms and irrigated foodstuffs), the knowledge of the ingested quantities and of the concentration factors food/water permit to determinate these maximum levels, or to find out a linear relation between the maximum levels in the case of two primary carriers of contamination (continental and sea waters). The notion of critical food-consumption, critical radioelements and formula of waste disposal are considered in the same way, taking care to attach the greatest possible importance to local situations. (authors) [French] Les vecteurs essentiels de la contamination radioactive de l'homme sont les aliments dans leur ensemble, et non seulement l'eau ingeree ou l'air inhale. C'est pourquoi, en accord avec l'esprit des recentes recommandations de la C.I.P.R., il est propose de substituer aux CMA la notion de niveaux limites de contamination des eaux. Dans le cas des chaines alimentaires aquatiques (organismes aquatiques et aliments irrigues), la connaissance des quantites ingerees et celle des facteurs de concentration aliments/eau permettent de determiner ces niveaux limites dans le cas de deux vecteurs primaires de contamination (eaux continentales et eaux oceaniques). Les notions de regime alimentaire critique, de radioelement critique et de formule de rejets sont envisagees, dans le meme esprit, avec le souci de tenir compte le plus possible des situations locales. (auteurs)

  3. 基于5A景区最大承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型研究%Study of Mathematical Model Between Tourism Supply and Demand Based on Relationship of the 5A Level Scenic Spots' Maximum Carrying Capacity and the Amount of the Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 刘耀龙; 段锦

    2017-01-01

    旅游承载量是反映旅游供给能力的重要指标,游客接待量是衡量旅游需求状况的常用指标.在分析我国5A级景区最大承载量空间分异特征的基础上,对2014年各省市5A级景区日最大承载量和年游客接待量进行相关性和回归分析,构建基于景区承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型.结果表明:(1)5A级景区最大承载量和游客接待量之间存在显著的正相关关系;(2)旅游供需关系模型可由复合函数定量表征;(3)模型能够预测旅游供需变化,对旅游业发展具有一定的指示意义.%Tourism carrying capacity is an important index to reflect the tourism supply capacity, and the amount of the tourists is a common index to measure tourism demand. On the basis of the analysis of the spatial distribution characteristics of 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity, the paper carries out correlation and regression analysis about the 5A level scenic' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Sample data is calculated or statistical results of 31 provinces in 2014. Tourism supply and demand model is constructed based on the relationship between the 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Results indicate: (1)There is a significant positive correlation between the 5A level scenic spot'maximum carrying capacity and the amount of tourists; (2)The model of tourism supply and demand relations can be quantitatively characterized by complex functions;(3)The model can predict the change of tourism supply and demand, which have referential meaning to the development of tourism.

  4. Direct restoration modalities of fractured central maxillary incisors: A multi-levels validated finite elements analysis with in vivo strain measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide, Apicella; Raffaella, Aversa; Marco, Tatullo; Michele, Simeone; Syed, Jamaluddin; Massimo, Marrelli; Marco, Ferrari; Antonio, Apicella

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the influence of fracture geometry and restorative materials rigidity on the stress intensity and distribution of restored fractured central maxillary incisors (CMI) with particular investigation of the adhesive interfaces. Ancillary objectives are to present an innovative technology to measure the in vivo strain state of sound maxillary incisors and to present the collected data. A validation experimental biomechanics approach has been associated to finite element analysis. FEA models consisted of CMI, periodontal ligament and the corresponding alveolar bone process. Three models were created representing different orientation of the fracture planes. Three different angulations of the fracture plane in buccal-palatal direction were modeled: the fracture plane perpendicular to the long axis in the buccal-palatal direction (0°); the fracture plane inclined bucco-palatally in apical-coronal direction (-30°); the fracture plane inclined palatal-buccally in apical-coronal direction (+30°). First set of computing runs was performed for in vivo FE-model validation purposes. In the second part, a 50N force was applied on the buccal aspect of the CMI models. Ten patients were selected and subjected to the strain measurement of CMI under controlled loading conditions. The main differences were noticed in the middle and incisal thirds of incisors crowns, due to the presence of the incisal portion restoration. The stress intensity in -30° models is increased in the enamel structure close to the restoration, due to a thinning of the remaining natural tissues. The rigidity of the restoring material slightly reduces such phenomenon. -30° model exhibits the higher interfacial stress in the adhesive layer with respect to +30° and 0° models. The lower stress intensity was noticed in the 0° models, restoration material rigidity did not influenced the interfacial stress state in 0° models. On the contrary, material rigidity influenced the interfacial stress state

  5. Race and General Strain Theory: Examining the Impact of Racial Discrimination and Fear on Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jennifer L

    2016-10-14

    To extend our knowledge of general strain theory by exploring how under-researched strains such as racial discrimination, witnessing violence, physical victimization and verbal bullying affect adolescent substance use while considering differences according to racial identification. This research utilized data from wave three of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Statistical analysis was primarily composed of path analysis using full information maximum likelihood parameter estimates. The findings reveal that reporting fear decreased alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and that racial discrimination, witnessing violence, and being the victim of verbal bullying indirectly affected marijuana and alcohol use through fear. No support was found for depression as a mediating variable. Physical victimization was the only social strain that had a direct positive effect on marijuana and alcohol use but only for Hispanics and African Americans. The results suggest that strains may be operating differently and there may be differential levels of exposure to certain strains according to one's race.

  6. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  7. PWR clad ballooning: The effect of circumferential clad temperature variations on the burst strain/burst temperature relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.

    1983-01-01

    By experiment, it has been shown by other workers that there is a reduction in the creep ductility of Zircaloy 4 in the α+β phase transition region. Results from single rod burst tests also show a reduction in burst strain in the α+β phase region. In this report it is shown theoretically that for single rod burst tests in the presence of circumferential temperature gradients, the temperature dependence of the mean burst strain is not determined by temperature variations in creep ductility, but is governed by the temperature sensitivity of the creep strain rate, which is shown to be a maximum in the α+β phase transition region. To demonstrate this effect, the mean clad strain at burst was calculated for creep straining at different temperature levels in the α, α+β and β phase regions. Cross-pin temperature gradients were applied which produced strain variations around the clad which were greatest in the α+β phase region. The mean strain at burst was determined using a maximum local burst strain (i.e. a creep ductility) which is independent of temperature. By assuming cross-pin temperature gradients which are typical of those observed during burst tests, then the calculated mean burst strain/burst temperature relationship gave good agreement with experiment. The calculations also show that when circumferential temperature differences are present, the calculated mean strain at burst is not sensitive to variations in the magnitude of the assumed creep ductility. This reduces the importance of the assumed burst criterion in the calculations. Hence a temperature independent creep ductility (e.g. 100% local strain) is adequate as a burst criterion for calculations under PWR LOCA conditions. (author)

  8. Obtaining mutants of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339, producers of glucose isomerase, following gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhedzheva, G.; Stoeva, N.; Stojchev, M.

    1990-01-01

    A water suspension of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores of a density of 8.7.10 6 spores/cm 3 is gamma irradiated ( 60 Co, RHM-γ-20, 30.3 Gy/min). The survival of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores was determined depending on radiation doses, exposure times and incubation temperature. Five major morphological types of colonies were isolated, characterized by different levels of glucose isomerase activity. Maximum specific glucose isomerase activity (GIU/g) was attained after the third gamma irradiation step using a dose of 3000 Gy. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 7 refs

  9. Bio sorption of strontium from aqueous solution by the new strain of bacillus sp. strain GT-83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajer Mohammad Ghazvini, P.; Ghorbanzadeh Mashkani, S.; Mazaheri, M.

    2009-01-01

    An attempt was made to isolate bacterial strains capable of removing strontium biologically. In this study ten different water samples collected from Neydasht spring in the north of Iran and then the bacterial species were isolated from the water samples. The initial screening of a total of 50 bacterial isolates resulted in selection of one strain.The isolated strain showed a maximum adsorption capacity with 55 milligrams strontium/g dry wt. It was tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. According to the morphological and biochemical properties, and called strain GT-83. Our studies indicated that Bacillus sp. GT-83 is able to grow aerobically in the presence of 50 mM SrCl 2 , but its growth was inhibited at high levels of strontium concentrations. The bio sorption capacity of Bacillus sp. GT-83 depends strongly on the p H solution. Hence the maximum strontium sorption capacity of Bacillus sp. GT-83 was obtained at pah 10, independent of absence or presence of MgCl 2 of different concentrations. Strontium-salt bio sorption studies were also performed at this p H values. The equilibrium bio sorption of strontium was elevated by increasing the strontium concentration, up to 250 milligrams/l for Bacillus sp. GT-83. The maximum bio sorption of strontium was obtained at temperatures in the range of 30-35 d eg C . The Bacillus sp. GT-83 bio sorbed 97 milligrams strontium/g dry wt at 100 milligrams/l initial strontium concentration without MgCl 2 . When MgCl 2 concentration increased to 15%(w/v), these values dropped to 23.6 milligrams strontium/g dry wt at the same conditions. Uptake of strontium within 5 min of incubation was relatively rapid and the absorption continued slowly thereafter

  10. Application of the maximum entropy method to profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, N.; Kalceff, W.; Cline, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A maximum entropy (MaxEnt) method for analysing crystallite size- and strain-induced x-ray profile broadening is presented. This method treats the problems of determining the specimen profile, crystallite size distribution, and strain distribution in a general way by considering them as inverse problems. A common difficulty faced by many experimenters is their inability to determine a well-conditioned solution of the integral equation, which preserves the positivity of the profile or distribution. We show that the MaxEnt method overcomes this problem, while also enabling a priori information, in the form of a model, to be introduced into it. Additionally, we demonstrate that the method is fully quantitative, in that uncertainties in the solution profile or solution distribution can be determined and used in subsequent calculations, including mean particle sizes and rms strain. An outline of the MaxEnt method is presented for the specific problems of determining the specimen profile and crystallite or strain distributions for the correspondingly broadened profiles. This approach offers an alternative to standard methods such as those of Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach. An application of the MaxEnt method is demonstrated in the analysis of alumina size-broadened diffraction data (from NIST, Gaithersburg). It is used to determine the specimen profile and column-length distribution of the scattering domains. Finally, these results are compared with the corresponding Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach analyses. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  11. Wireless implantable passive strain sensor: design, fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbrecht, F; Wägli, P; Dechand, S; Hierold, Ch; Gattiker, F; Neuenschwander, J; Sennhauser, U

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new passive sensor concept for monitoring the deformation of orthopedic implants. The novel sensing principle of the WIPSS (wireless implantable passive strain sensor) is based on a hydro-mechanical amplification effect. The WIPSS is entirely made from biocompatible PMMA and consists of a microchannel attached to a reservoir, which is filled with an incompressible fluid. As the reservoir is exposed to strain, its volume changes and consequently the fill level inside the microchannel varies. The wireless detection of the microchannel's strain-dependent fill level is based on ultrasound. The WIPSS' sensing principle is proved by finite-element simulations and the reservoir's design is optimized toward maximum volume change, in order to achieve high sensitivity. A fabrication process for WIPSS sensor devices entirely made from PMMA is presented. The obtained measurement results confirmed the sensor's functionality and showed very good agreement with the obtained results of the conducted FE simulations regarding the sensor's sensitivity. A strain resolution of 1.7 ± 0.2 × 10 −5 was achieved. Further, the determination of the cross-sensitivity to temperature and strains applied out of the sensing direction is presented. The response to dynamic inputs (0.1–5 Hz) has been measured and showed decreasing sensor output with increasing frequency. Test structures of the sensor device allow the application of a signal bandwidth up to 1 Hz. Therefore, the proposed sensor concept of the WIPSS presents a promising new sensor system for static in vivo strain monitoring of orthopedic implants. In combination with the developed ultrasound-based read-out method, this new sensor system offers the potential of wireless sensor read-out with medical ultrasound scanners, which are commercially available.

  12. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  13. Supplementation with two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, reduces fasting triglycerides and enhances apolipoprotein A-V levels in non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Kim, Minjoo; Chae, Jey Sook; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Il-Dong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that supplementation with probiotics might improve lipid metabolism. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with probiotic strains Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032 on triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein A-V (apo A-V) levels. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 128 non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Over a 12-week test period, the probiotic group consumed 2 g/day of a powdered supplement containing L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032, whereas the placebo group consumed a powder lacking probiotics. After the treatment, the probiotic group showed an 18.3% (P  C genotype. The consumption of two probiotic strains for 12 weeks reduced TGs and increased the apo A-V and LDL particle size in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. This effect was more pronounced in subjects with higher levels of fasting TGs regardless of their APOA5 -1131T > C genotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  15. Reported Levels of Time-Based and Strain-Based Conflict between Work and Family Roles in Europe: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    What are the determinants of the "subjective experience" of conflict between work and family roles among dual-earner couples in Europe? Taking a demands-and-resources approach, this study investigates the individual and macro-level factors that generate perceptions of negative spill-over from work to family. Comparative survey data for…

  16. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupational heat strain in a hot underground metal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Turner, Dylan; Littau, Sally R

    2014-04-01

    In a hot underground metal mine, this study evaluated the relationship between job task, physical body type, work shift, and heat strain. Thirty-one miners were evaluated during 98 shifts while performing deep shaft-sinking tasks. Continuous core body temperature, heart rate, pre- and postshift urine specific gravity (USG), and body mass index were measured. Cutting and welding tasks were associated with significantly (P < 0.05) increased core body temperature, maximum heart rate, and increased postshift urine specific gravity. Miners in the obese level II and III body mass index categories, as well as those working night shift, had lower core body temperatures (P < 0.05). This study confirms that job task, body type, and shift are risk factors for heat strain.

  18. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  19. Strain mapping near a triple junction in strained Ni-based alloy using EBSD and biaxial nanogauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Lacroute, Y.; Markey, L.; Salazar, M.; Vignal, V. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Finot, E., E-mail: Eric.Finot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Surface strains measured using nanogauge were compared to the texture obtained by EBSD. > Statistics of the principal strain discern the grains according to the Schmid factor. > Strain hotspots were localized near a triple junction of alloy 600 under tensile loading. > Asymetrical profile of the GB strains is a criterion for surface cracking initiation. - Abstract: A key element for analyzing the crack initiation in strained polycrystalline alloys is the local quantification of the surface strain distribution according to the grain texture. Using electron backscattered diffraction, the local microstructure was determined to both localize a triple junction and deduce the local Schmid factors. Kernel average misorientation (KAM) was also used to map the areas of defect concentration. The maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain were quantified using the biaxial nanogauge. Distortions of the array of nanodots used as spot markers were analyzed near the triple junction. The crystallographic orientation and the surface strain were then investigated both statistically for each grain and locally at the grain boundaries. The superimposition of microstructure and strain maps allows the high strain gradient (reaching 3-fold the applied strain) to be localized at preferential grain boundaries near the triple junction. The Schmid factors and the KAM were compared to the maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain respectively. The polycrystalline deformation was attributable first to the rotation of some grains, followed by the elongation of all grains along their preferential activated slip systems.

  20. Plane strain fracture toughness tests on 2.4 and 3.9-inch-thick maraging steel specimens at various yield strength levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. M.; Repko, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of bend and compact specimens were conducted according to ASTM Tentative Method E 399-70T on a 200 grade maraging steel over a range of yield strengths from 123 to 234 ksi. The toughness of any given yield strength level was greater for the overaged condition than for the underaged. Some results which met the specimen size requirements of the method were distinctly lower than corresponding results from larger specimens. Inconsistencies in both validation and invalidation of results by the requirement for linearity of the test record were also noted.

  1. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, S.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: simon.barnes-2@manchester.ac.uk; Steuwer, A. [FaME38, ILL ESRF, 6 rue J.Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex (France); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Mahawish, S. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Johnson, R. [TWI Yorkshire, Wallis Way, Catcliffe, Rotherham S60 5TZ (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-25

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ.

  2. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.J.; Steuwer, A.; Mahawish, S.; Johnson, R.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ

  3. Response to gaseous NO2 air pollutant of P. fluorescens airborne strain MFAF76a and clinical strain MFN1032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana eKondakova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, an air pollutant of increasing interest in biology, results in several toxic effects to human health and also to the air microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial response to gaseous NO2. Two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, namely the airborne strain MFAF76a and the clinical strain MFN1032 were exposed to 0.1, 5 or 45 ppm concentrations of NO2, and their effects on bacteria were evaluated in terms of motility, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, as well as expression of several chosen target genes. While 0.1 and 5 ppm of NO2 did not lead to any detectable modification in the studied phenotypes of the two bacteria, several alterations were observed when the bacteria were exposed to 45 ppm of gaseous NO2. We thus chose to focus on this high concentration. NO2-exposed P. fluorescens strains showed reduced swimming motility, and decreased swarming in case of the strain MFN1032. Biofilm formed by NO2-treated airborne strain MFAF76a showed increased maximum thickness compared to non-treated cells, while NO2 had no apparent effect on the clinical MFN1032 biofilm structure. It is well known that biofilm and motility are inversely regulated by intracellular c-di-GMP level. The c-di-GMP level was however not affected in response to NO2 treatment. Finally, NO2-exposed P. fluorescens strains were found to be more resistant to ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Accordingly, the resistance nodulation cell division (RND MexEF-OprN efflux pump encoding genes were highly upregulated in the two P. fluorescens strains. Noticeably, similar phenotypes had been previously observed following a NO treatment. Interestingly, an hmp-homologue gene in P. fluorescens strains MFAF76a and MFN1032 encodes a NO dioxygenase that is involved in NO detoxification into nitrites. Its expression was upregulated in response to NO2, suggesting a possible common pathway between NO and NO2 detoxification. Taken

  4. Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Sakuragui Matuo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selection and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de produção de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v. A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na s

  5. Stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases transcriptional levels in presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate resulting to enhanced lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhvi, Mamata; Zendo, Takeshi; Iida, Hiroshi; Gokhale, Digambar; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The present study revealed the effect of nitrogen sources on lactic acid production and stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) of parent Lactobacillus lactis NCIM 2368 and its mutant RM2-24 generated after UV mutagenesis. Both the parent and mutant strains were evaluated for d-lactic acid production in control and modified media. The modified media did not show remarkable effect on lactic acid production in case of parent whereas mutant exhibited significant enhancement in d-lactic acid production along with the appearance of l-lactic acid in the broth. Both LDH activities and specific activities were found to be higher in mutant than the parent strain. These results suggested that the diammonium hydrogen phosphate in modified media triggered the expression of LDH genes leading to enhanced lactic acid production. This observation has been proved by studying the expression levels of d- and l-LDH genes of parent and mutant in control and modified media using quantitative RT-PCR technique. In case of mutant, the transcriptional levels of d-LDH and l-LDH increased ∼17 fold and ∼1.38 fold respectively in modified medium compared to the values obtained with control medium. In case of parent, no significant change in transcriptional levels of d- and l-LDH was found when the cells were grown in either control medium or modified medium. This study suggested that the mutant, RM2-24 has l-LDH gene which is expressed in presence of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 resulting in l-lactic acid production. Co-production of l-lactic acid in d-lactic acid fermentation may be detrimental in the PLA production. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  7. Probabilistic maximum-value wind prediction for offshore environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staid, Andrea; Pinson, Pierre; Guikema, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    statistical models to predict the full distribution of the maximum-value wind speeds in a 3 h interval. We take a detailed look at the performance of linear models, generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines models using meteorological covariates such as gust speed, wind speed......, convective available potential energy, Charnock, mean sea-level pressure and temperature, as given by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecasts. The models are trained to predict the mean value of maximum wind speed, and the residuals from training the models are used to develop...... the full probabilistic distribution of maximum wind speed. Knowledge of the maximum wind speed for an offshore location within a given period can inform decision-making regarding turbine operations, planned maintenance operations and power grid scheduling in order to improve safety and reliability...

  8. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals similarities and dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains response to nitrogen availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Barbosa

    Full Text Available Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23, under low (67 mg/L and high nitrogen (670 mg/L regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12 h, 24 h and 96 h. Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12 h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this

  9. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Similarities and Dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strains Response to Nitrogen Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Catarina; García-Martínez, José; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12h, 24h and 96h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the grape

  10. An Exploratory Investigation of Endotoxin Levels in Novice Long Distance Triathletes, and the Effects of a Multi-Strain Probiotic/Prebiotic, Antioxidant Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Roberts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS. This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB4ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day−1 containing 10 billion CFU·day−1 Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157, 10 billion CFU·day−1 Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156, 9.5 billion CFU·day−1 Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL-20 (NCIMB 30172 and 0.5 billion CFU·day−1 Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL-34 (NCIMB 30153/55.8 mg·day−1 fructooligosaccharides/ 400 mg·day−1 α-lipoic acid, 600 mg·day−1 N-acetyl-carnitine; matched pro/prebiotic (LAB4 or placebo (PL for 12 weeks preceding a long-distance triathlon. Plasma endotoxin units (via Limulus amebocyte lysate chromogenic quantification and GI permeability (via 5 h urinary lactulose (L: mannitol (M recovery were assessed at baseline, pre-race and six days post-race. Endotoxin unit levels were not significantly different between groups at baseline (LAB4ANTI: 8.20 ± 1.60 pg·mL−1; LAB4: 8.92 ± 1.20 pg·mL−1; PL: 9.72 ± 2.42 pg·mL−1. The use of a 12-week LAB4ANTI intervention significantly reduced endotoxin units both pre-race (4.37 ± 0.51 pg·mL−1 and six days post-race (5.18 ± 0.57 pg·mL−1; p = 0.03, ηp2 = 0.35, but only six days post-race with LAB4 (5.01 ± 0.28 pg·mL−1; p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.43. In contrast, endotoxin units remained unchanged with PL. L:M significantly increased from 0.01 ± 0.01 at baseline to 0.06 ± 0.01 with PL only (p = 0.004, ηp2 = 0.51. Mean race times (h:min:s were not statistically different between groups despite faster times with both pro/prebiotoic groups (LAB4ANTI: 13:17:07 ± 0:34:48; LAB4: 12

  11. An Exploratory Investigation of Endotoxin Levels in Novice Long Distance Triathletes, and the Effects of a Multi-Strain Probiotic/Prebiotic, Antioxidant Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Justin D; Suckling, Craig A; Peedle, Georgia Y; Murphy, Joseph A; Dawkins, Tony G; Roberts, Michael G

    2016-11-17

    Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ ANTI ; 30 billion CFU·day -1 containing 10 billion CFU·day -1 Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day -1 Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9.5 billion CFU·day -1 Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL-20 (NCIMB 30172) and 0.5 billion CFU·day -1 Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL-34 (NCIMB 30153)/55.8 mg·day -1 fructooligosaccharides/ 400 mg·day -1 α-lipoic acid, 600 mg·day -1 N -acetyl-carnitine); matched pro/prebiotic (LAB⁴) or placebo (PL) for 12 weeks preceding a long-distance triathlon. Plasma endotoxin units (via Limulus amebocyte lysate chromogenic quantification) and GI permeability (via 5 h urinary lactulose (L): mannitol (M) recovery) were assessed at baseline, pre-race and six days post-race. Endotoxin unit levels were not significantly different between groups at baseline (LAB⁴ ANTI : 8.20 ± 1.60 pg·mL -1 ; LAB⁴: 8.92 ± 1.20 pg·mL -1 ; PL: 9.72 ± 2.42 pg·mL -1 ). The use of a 12-week LAB⁴ ANTI intervention significantly reduced endotoxin units both pre-race (4.37 ± 0.51 pg·mL -1 ) and six days post-race (5.18 ± 0.57 pg·mL -1 ; p = 0.03, ηp² = 0.35), but only six days post-race with LAB⁴ (5.01 ± 0.28 pg·mL -1 ; p = 0.01, ηp² = 0.43). In contrast, endotoxin units remained unchanged with PL. L:M significantly increased from 0.01 ± 0.01 at baseline to 0.06 ± 0.01 with PL only ( p = 0.004, ηp² = 0.51). Mean race times (h:min:s) were not statistically different between groups despite faster times with both pro/prebiotoic groups (LAB⁴ ANTI : 13:17:07 ± 0

  12. Noninvasive characterization of carotid plaque strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir A; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Hatsukami, Thomas; Cebral, Juan; Jones, Michael; Huston, John; Howard, George; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-06-01

    Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology. We analyzed carotid ultrasound B-mode cine loops obtained in patients with asymptomatic ≥50% stenosis during routine clinical scanning. Optical flow methods were used to quantify plaque motion and shear strain during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude (maximum absolute shear strain rate [MASSR]) and variability (entropy of shear strain rate [ESSR] and variance of shear strain rate [VSSR]) of strain were combined into a composite shear strain index (SSI), which was assessed for interscan repeatability and correlated with plaque echolucency. Nineteen patients (mean age, 70 years) constituting 36 plaques underwent imaging; 37% of patients (n = 7) showed high strain (SSI ≥0.5; MASSR, 2.2; ESSR, 39.7; VSSR, 0.03) in their plaques; the remaining clustered into a low-strain group (SSI routine B-mode imaging using clinical ultrasound machines. High plaque strain correlates with known high-risk echolucent morphology. Strain measurement can complement identification of patients at high risk for plaque disruption and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  14. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  15. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R E ) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 x 10 -13 W m -2 Hz -1 at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R E assuming the power falls off as r -2 . A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3

  16. Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.

    1997-01-01

    Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)

  17. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelorget, Bruno; Francois, Manuel; Vial-Edwards, Cristian; Montay, Guillaume; Daniel, Laurent; Lu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force (ε t ≅ 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements

  18. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Vial-Edwards, Cristian [Departemento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 6904411 Santiago (Chile); Montay, Guillaume [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Daniel, Laurent [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Lu, Jian [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force ({epsilon} {sup t} {approx_equal} 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements.

  19. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  20. Deep levels in as-grown and Si-implanted In(0.2)Ga(0.8)As-GaAs strained-layer superlattice optical guiding structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, S.; Das, U.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Trap levels in about 2-micron In(0.2)Ga(0.8)As(94 A)/GaAs(25 A) strained-layer superlattices, suitable for optical waveguides, have been identified and characterized by deep-level transient spectroscopy and optical deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements. Several dominant electron and hole traps with concentrations of approximately 10 to the 14th/cu cm, and thermal ionization energies Delta-E(T) varying from 0.20 to 0.75 eV have been detected. Except for a 0.20-eV electron trap, which might be present in the In(0.2)Ga(0.8)As well regions, all the other traps have characteristics similar to those identified in molecular-beam epitaxial GaAs. Of these, a 0.42-eV hole trap is believed to originate from Cu impurities, and the others are probably related to native defects. Upon Si implantation and halogen lamp annealing, new deep centers are created. These are electron traps with Delta-E(T) = 0.81 eV and hole traps with Delta-E(T) = 0.46 eV. Traps occurring at room temperature may present limitations for optical devices.

  1. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  2. Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, H.

    2002-01-01

    By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.

  3. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  4. Efeito de níveis de água, coberturas do solo e condições ambientais na temperatura do solo e no cultivo de morangueiro em ambiente protegido e a céu aberto Effect of water levels, soil covers and enviroment in maximum soil temperature in strawberry crop in field and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. de M. Pires

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura do solo é um importante parâmetro no cultivo do morangueiro, pois interfere no desenvolvimento vegetativo, na sanidade e na produção. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de água, coberturas de canteiro em campo aberto e em ambiente protegido, na temperatura máxima do solo no cultivo do morangueiro. Foram realizados dois experimentos: um em cultivo protegido e outro a campo aberto, em Atibaia - SP, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (coberturas do solo e níveis de irrigação, em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. As coberturas de solo utilizadas foram filmes de polietileno preto e transparente. A irrigação localizada foi aplicada por gotejo sempre que o potencial de água no solo atingisse -0,010 (N1, -0,035 (N2 e -0,070 (N3 MPa, em tensiômetros instalados a 10 cm de profundidade. A temperatura do solo foi avaliada por termógrafos, sendo os sensores instalados a 5 cm de profundidade. Houve influência do ambiente de cultivo, da cobertura do solo e dos níveis de irrigação na temperatura máxima do solo. A temperatura do solo sob diferentes coberturas dependeu não somente das características físicas do plástico, como também da forma de instalação no canteiro. A temperatura máxima do solo aumentou com a diminuição do potencial da água no solo, no momento da irrigação.The soil temperature is an important parameter in strawberry crop, because, it interferes in vegetative development, plant health conditions and yield. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different water levels, soil covers in field conditions and greenhouse in maximum soil temperature in strawberry crop. Two experiments were accomplished, one in greenhouse and other in field conditions, at Atibaia - SP, Brazil. The experimental design was a factorial 2 x 3 (soil covers and water levels, with 5 repetitions. The soil covers were clear and black plastics. The trickle irrigation was applied

  5. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  6. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  7. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  8. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  9. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  10. Turbidity maximum formation in a well-mixed macrotidal estuary : The role of tidal pumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Wang, Y.; Gao, J.; Gao, S.; Flemming, B.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, vertical circulation (induced by gravity circulation and tidal straining), tidal pumping, and resuspension are suggested as the major processes for the formation and maintenance of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). Due to strong mixing, tidal pumping is considered as the

  11. Conduction band structure and electron mobility in uniaxially strained Si via externally applied strain in nanomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Feng [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Euaruksakul, Chanan; Himpsel, F J; Lagally, Max G [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Liu Zheng; Liu Feng, E-mail: lagally@engr.wisc.edu [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2011-08-17

    Strain changes the band structure of semiconductors. We use x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the change in the density of conduction band (CB) states when silicon is uniaxially strained along the [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] directions. High stress can be applied to silicon nanomembranes, because their thinness allows high levels of strain without fracture. Strain-induced changes in both the sixfold degenerate {Delta} valleys and the eightfold degenerate L valleys are determined quantitatively. The uniaxial deformation potentials of both {Delta} and L valleys are directly extracted using a strain tensor appropriate to the boundary conditions, i.e., confinement in the plane in the direction orthogonal to the straining direction, which correspond to those of strained CMOS in commercial applications. The experimentally determined deformation potentials match the theoretical predictions well. We predict electron mobility enhancement created by strain-induced CB modifications.

  12. Quality, precision and accuracy of the maximum No. 40 anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermeir, J. [Otech Engineering, Davis, CA (United States); Blittersdorf, D. [NRG Systems Inc., Hinesburg, VT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper synthesizes available calibration data for the Maximum No. 40 anemometer. Despite its long history in the wind industry, controversy surrounds the choice of transfer function for this anemometer. Many users are unaware that recent changes in default transfer functions in data loggers are producing output wind speed differences as large as 7.6%. Comparison of two calibration methods used for large samples of Maximum No. 40 anemometers shows a consistent difference of 4.6% in output speeds. This difference is significantly larger than estimated uncertainty levels. Testing, initially performed to investigate related issues, reveals that Gill and Maximum cup anemometers change their calibration transfer functions significantly when calibrated in the open atmosphere compared with calibration in a laminar wind tunnel. This indicates that atmospheric turbulence changes the calibration transfer function of cup anemometers. These results call into question the suitability of standard wind tunnel calibration testing for cup anemometers. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, K; Andersson, T; Vaupel, J; Rau, R; Ahlbom, A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size. The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality amongst centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age. Mortality amongst centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum lifespan and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. Uniaxial Drawing of Graphene-PVA Nanocomposites: Improvement in Mechanical Characteristics via Strain-Induced Exfoliation of Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Rahim; Habib, Amir; Akram, Muhammad Aftab; Zia, Tanveer-ul-Haq; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-stabilized graphene nanosheets (GNS) of lateral dimension (L) ~1??m are obtained via liquid phase exfoliation technique to prepare its composites in the PVA matrix. These composites show low levels of reinforcements due to poor alignment of GNS within the matrix as predicted by the modified Halpin-Tsai model. Drawing these composites up to 200?% strain, a significant improvement in mechanical properties is observed. Maximum values for Young?s modulus and strength are ~...

  15. Influence of gamma-rays and some cultural conditions on the enhancement of cellulase production by some fungal strains isolated from cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Abo-State, M.A.; Girigs, A.M.P.; Youssef, Kh.A.; El-Mahalawy, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, out of 51 fungal strains isolated from the cellulosic wastes, only 19 were CMCase-producers. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were the most common fungal genera isolated from the cellulosic wastes. Fusarium neoceras, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporium produced CMCase activity than Trichoderma viride. Out of 23 gamma-irradiated survivors from A.fumigatus and F. neoceras showing CMCase production, only two mutant strains A.fumigatus 8G-2 and F. neoceras 4G-2 produced the highest levels of CMCase than the parent strains. The results indicated that the maximum level of of CMCase activity was produced by A.fumigatus and F. neoceras strains under optiminizing conditions.

  16. Life Stress, Strain, and Deviance Across Schools: Testing the Contextual Version of General Strain Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwu; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    General Strain Theory delineates different types of strain and intervening processes from strain to deviance and crime. In addition to explaining individual strain-crime relationship, a contextualized version of general strain theory, which is called the Macro General Strain Theory, has been used to analyze how aggregate variables influence aggregate and individual deviance and crime. Using a sample of 1,852 students (Level 1) nested in 52 schools (Level 2), the current study tests the Macro General Strain Theory using Chinese data. The results revealed that aggregate life stress and strain have influences on aggregate and individual deviance, and reinforce the individual stress-deviance association. The current study contributes by providing the first Macro General Strain Theory test based on Chinese data and offering empirical evidence for the multilevel intervening processes from strain to deviance. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  18. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  19. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  20. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  1. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  2. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  3. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  4. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  5. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-04-01

    Strain anisotropy was investigated at temperatures in the range 293 to 1117K in circular tensile specimens prepared from rolled Zircaloy-2 plate so that their tensile axes were parallel to and transverse to the rolling direction. The strain anisotropy factor for both types of specimen increased markedly in the high alpha phase region above 923K reaching a maximum at circa 1070K. Above this temperature in the alpha-plus-beta phase region the strain anisotropy decreased rapidly as the proportion of beta phase increased and was almost non-existent at 1173K. The strain anisotropy was markedly strain dependent, particularly in the high alpha phase region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 type fuel rod tubing specimens which were strained under biaxial conditions using cooling conditions which promoted uniform diametral strain over most of their lengths (circa 250 mm). In these circumstances the strain anisotropy is manifest by a reduction in length. Measurement of this change along with that in diameter and wall thickness produced data from which the strain anisotropy factor was calculated. The results, although influenced by additional factors discussed in the paper, were similar to those observed in the uniaxial Zircaloy-2 tensile tests. (author)

  6. Medically Complex Home Care and Caregiver Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sara M.; Macdonald, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To examine (a) whether the content of caregiving tasks (i.e., nursing vs. personal care) contributes to variation in caregivers' strain and (b) whether the level of complexity of nursing tasks contributes to variation in strain among caregivers providing help with such tasks. Design and methods: The data came from the Cash…

  7. Occupational stress and strain in the Royal Navy 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, R S; Brasher, K; Dew, A; Kilminster, S

    2008-12-01

    Previous surveys of psychological strain in the Naval Service (NS) have shown higher than expected levels of strain when compared to the general population. To repeat the survey last carried out in 2004 and to obtain further information on the nature of the occupational stressors associated with strain. General Health Questionnaire-12 strain rates and job/life stressors were measured using a Work and Well-Being Questionnaire. Models of strain were developed for male and female personnel in the Royal Navy (RN) and males in the Royal Marines (RM). The response rate was 57%. The psychological strain rate was 31.5% overall. Personnel suffering from strain tended to be 'overcommitted' to work, had low levels of commitment to the NS and had suffered stressful life events (SLEs) in the previous 12 months. Strain rates declined with age and rank in males, but not in females. Strain was significantly positively correlated with levels of overcommitment, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), role conflict, work-family conflict, organizational commitment and exposure to SLEs. Models of strain in the males and females in the RN and in the RM accounted for between 37 and 44% of the variance in strain. The survey provides evidence for both the demand control and ERI models-components of these models contribute independently to strain. High levels of commitment to the organization were associated with lower strain and exposure to SLEs to higher strain.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the enterocin P structural gene of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from nonfermented animal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlindo, Samuel; Calo, Pilar; Franco, Carlos; Prado, Marta; Cepeda, Alberto; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2006-12-01

    The bacteriocins produced by two lactic acid bacteria isolated from nonfermented fresh meat and fish, respectively, and exhibiting a remarkable antilisterial activity, were characterized. Bacteriocinogenic strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium and the maximum bacteriocin production by both strains was detected in the stationary phase of growth. The activity against Listeria monocytogenes was maintained in pH range of 3-7 and was stable in both strains after heating at 100 or 121 degrees C. The genes coding for enterocin P were detected, isolated, and sequenced in both E. faecium strains. They exhibited DNA/DNA homology in the 87.1-97.2% range with respect to the other four enterocin P genes reported so far. Three single nucleotide polymorphism events, silent at the amino acid level, were detected at nucleotide positions 45 (G/A), 75 (A/G), and 90 (T/C) in E. faecium LHICA 28-4 and may explain the differences reported for those loci in other enterocin P-producing E. faecium strains. This work provides the first description of enterocin P-producing E. faecium strains in nonfermented foodstuffs and, in the case of E. faecium LHICA 51, the first report of an enterocin P-producing strain isolated from fish so far.

  9. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  10. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  11. Maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Veenings, B.; Asma, G.B.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors in older persons living in the community or homes for the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Emergency departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 70 and older who

  12. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  13. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  14. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  15. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  16. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  17. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum stipend established under this section. (e) A trainee at a non-Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental laboratory who is assigned to a Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student...

  18. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt,Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Centre for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2014-06-16

    Inspired by Jacobson’s thermodynamic approach, Cai et al. have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.75.084003 of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p(ρ,a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p=ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  19. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  20. Occurrence and Impact of Insects in Maximum Growth Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of the relationships between intensive management practices and insect infestation using maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine constructed over five years using a hierarchy of cultural treatments-monitoring differences in growth and insect infestation levels related to the increasing management intensities. This study shows that tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management tree growth, at least initially.

  1. Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Turan, Mehmet; Clementson, Cameron P; Sitti, Metin

    2016-03-02

    There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11,344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics.

  2. Enhanced Strain Measurement Range of an FBG Sensor Embedded in Seven-Wire Steel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Song-Yi; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2017-07-18

    FBG sensors offer many advantages, such as a lack of sensitivity to electromagnetic waves, small size, high durability, and high sensitivity. However, their maximum strain measurement range is lower than the yield strain range (about 1.0%) of steel strands when embedded in steel strands. This study proposes a new FBG sensing technique in which an FBG sensor is recoated with polyimide and protected by a polyimide tube in an effort to enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands. The validation test results showed that the proposed FBG sensing technique has a maximum strain measurement range of 1.73% on average, which is 1.73 times higher than the yield strain of the strands. It was confirmed that recoating the FBG sensor with polyimide and protecting the FBG sensor using a polyimide tube could effectively enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands.

  3. Biodegradation of hard keratins by two bacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laba, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Extensive quantities of keratinic by-products are disposed annually by animal-processing industry, causing a mounting ecological problem due to extreme resilience of these materials to enzymatic breakdown. There is a growing trend to apply cheap and environment-friendly methods to recycle keratinic wastes. Soil bacteria of profound keratinolytic potential, especially spore-forming rods from the genus Bacillus, play a significant role in keratinase-mediated biodegradation of keratins, therefore could be effective in hastening their biodegradation. Keratin hydrolysis in microbial cultures is one of the most promising techniques not only to utilize this protein but also to obtain valuable by products. The study was undertaken to investigate the biodegradation process of various keratinic materials by two Bacillus strains. Two keratinolytic strains, Bacillus cereus and B. polymyxa, were subject to cultures in the presence of several keratinic appendages, like chicken feathers, barbs and rachea of ostrich feathers, pig bristle, lamb wool, human hair and stratum corneum of epidermis, as main nutrient sources. Bacterial ability to decompose these waste materials was evaluated, at the background of keratinase and protease biosynthesis, in brief four-day cultures. Keratinolytic activity was measured on soluble keratin preparation and proteases were assayed on casein. Additionally, amounts of liberated proteins, amino acids and thiols were evaluated. Residual keratin weight was tested afterwards. Both tested strains proved to be more adapted for fast biodegradation of feather β-keratins than hair-type α-keratins. B. cereus revealed its significant proteolytic potential, especially on whole chicken feathers (230 PU) and stratum corneum (180 PU), but also on separated barbs and rachea, which appeared to be moderate protease inducers. Keratinolytic activity of B. cereus was comparable on most substrates and maximum level obtained was 11 KU. B. polymyxa was found to be a

  4. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  5. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  6. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  7. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  8. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  9. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  10. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  11. Maximum entropy analysis of liquid diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Nickel, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum entropy method for reducing truncation effects in the inverse Fourier transform of structure factor, S(q), to pair correlation function, g(r), is described. The advantages and limitations of the method are explored with the PY hard sphere structure factor as model input data. An example using real data on liquid chlorine, is then presented. It is seen that spurious structure is greatly reduced in comparison to traditional Fourier transform methods. (author)

  12. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  13. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  14. maximum neutron flux at thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.

    1968-10-01

    Since actual research reactors are technically complicated and expensive facilities it is important to achieve savings by appropriate reactor lattice configurations. There is a number of papers, and practical examples of reactors with central reflector, dealing with spatial distribution of fuel elements which would result in higher neutron flux. Common disadvantage of all the solutions is that the choice of best solution is done starting from the anticipated spatial distributions of fuel elements. The weakness of these approaches is lack of defined optimization criteria. Direct approach is defined as follows: determine the spatial distribution of fuel concentration starting from the condition of maximum neutron flux by fulfilling the thermal constraints. Thus the problem of determining the maximum neutron flux is solving a variational problem which is beyond the possibilities of classical variational calculation. This variational problem has been successfully solved by applying the maximum principle of Pontrjagin. Optimum distribution of fuel concentration was obtained in explicit analytical form. Thus, spatial distribution of the neutron flux and critical dimensions of quite complex reactor system are calculated in a relatively simple way. In addition to the fact that the results are innovative this approach is interesting because of the optimization procedure itself [sr

  15. Carbon Nanofiber Cement Sensors to Detect Strain and Damage of Concrete Specimens Under Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galao, Oscar; Baeza, F Javier; Zornoza, Emilio; Garcés, Pedro

    2017-11-24

    Cement composites with nano-additions have been vastly studied for their functional applications, such as strain and damage sensing. The capacity of a carbon nanofiber (CNF) cement paste has already been tested. However, this study is focused on the use of CNF cement composites as sensors in regular concrete samples. Different measuring techniques and humidity conditions of CNF samples were tested to optimize the strain and damage sensing of this material. In the strain sensing tests (for compressive stresses up to 10 MPa), the response depends on the maximum stress applied. The material was more sensitive at higher loads. Furthermore, the actual load time history did not influence the electrical response, and similar curves were obtained for different test configurations. On the other hand, damage sensing tests proved the capability of CNF cement composites to measure the strain level of concrete samples, even for loads close to the material's strength. Some problems were detected in the strain transmission between sensor and concrete specimens, which will require specific calibration of each sensor one attached to the structure.

  16. Benefits of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) concept in aquatic toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Boegi, Christian; Winter, Matthew J.; Owens, J. Willie

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic organisms and the

  17. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  18. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  19. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  20. DNA degradation, UV sensitivity and SOS-mediated mutagenesis in strains of Escherichia coli deficient in single-strand DNA binding protein: Effects of mutations and treatments that alter levels of exonuclease V or RecA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, H.B.; Witkin, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    Certain strains suppress the temperature-sensitivity caused by ssb-1, which encodes a mutant ssDNA binding protein (SSB). At 42 0 C, such strains are extremely UV-sensitive, degrade their DNA extensively after UV irradiation, and are defficient in UV mutability and UV induction of recA protein synthesis. We transduced recC22, which eliminates Exonuclease V activity, and recAo281, which causes operator-constitutive synthesis of recA protein, into such an ssb-1 strain. Both double mutants degraded their DNA extensively at 42 0 C after UV irradiation, and both were even more UV-sensitive than the ssb-1 single mutant. We conclude that one or more nucleases other than Exonuclease V degrades DNA in the ssb recC strain, and that recA protein, even if synthesized copiously, can function efficiently in recombinational DNA repair and in control of post-UV DNA degradation only if normal SSB is also present. Pretreatment with nalidixic acid at 30 0 C restored normal UV mutability at 42 0 C, but did not increase UV resistance, in an ssb-1 strain. Another ssb allele, ssb-113, which blocks SOS induction at 30 0 C, increases spontaneous mutability more than tenfold. The ssb-113 allele was transduced into the SOS-constitutive recA730 strain SC30. This double mutant expressed the same elevated spontaneous and UV-induced mutability at 30 0 C as the ssb + recA730 strain, and was three times more UV-resistant than its ssb-113 recA + parent. We conclude that ssb-1 at 42 0 C and ssb-113 at 30 0 C block UV-induced activation of recA protease, but that neither allele interferes with subsequent steps in SOS-mediated mutagenesis. (orig.)

  1. Modelling information flow along the human connectome using maximum flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Youngwook; Kim, Jieun E; Yoon, Sujung

    2018-01-01

    The human connectome is a complex network that transmits information between interlinked brain regions. Using graph theory, previously well-known network measures of integration between brain regions have been constructed under the key assumption that information flows strictly along the shortest paths possible between two nodes. However, it is now apparent that information does flow through non-shortest paths in many real-world networks such as cellular networks, social networks, and the internet. In the current hypothesis, we present a novel framework using the maximum flow to quantify information flow along all possible paths within the brain, so as to implement an analogy to network traffic. We hypothesize that the connection strengths of brain networks represent a limit on the amount of information that can flow through the connections per unit of time. This allows us to compute the maximum amount of information flow between two brain regions along all possible paths. Using this novel framework of maximum flow, previous network topological measures are expanded to account for information flow through non-shortest paths. The most important advantage of the current approach using maximum flow is that it can integrate the weighted connectivity data in a way that better reflects the real information flow of the brain network. The current framework and its concept regarding maximum flow provides insight on how network structure shapes information flow in contrast to graph theory, and suggests future applications such as investigating structural and functional connectomes at a neuronal level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  3. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-03-11

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  4. Development of piping strain sensor for stress evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahama, Tsunemichi; Nishimura, Kazuma; Ninomiya, Seiichiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    In a small diameter piping, stresses are generated due to internal fluid or pump vibrations especially around the welding parts. Authors have successfully developed a pipe strain sensor which is able to measure such stresses. Unlike conventional methods using strain gages and adhesive bond, the sensor can measure the strain without putting adhesive bond on the piping surface. However, the strain sensor can provide measurements with a level of accuracy equivalent to that of conventional method using strain gages and adhesive bond. Accordingly, the strain sensor can significantly reduce the working time without any loss of the measurement accuracy. (author)

  5. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  6. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  7. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  8. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

    2007-08-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  9. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  10. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  11. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  12. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  13. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.

    2017-06-01

    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  14. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  15. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  16. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  17. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  18. Multilocus Sequence Typing Reveals Relevant Genetic Variation and Different Evolutionary Dynamics among Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scortichini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj strains originating from Juglans regia cultivation in different countries were molecularly typed by means of MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST, using acnB, gapA, gyrB and rpoD gene fragments. A total of 2.5 kilobases was used to infer the phylogenetic relationship among the strains and possible recombination events. Haplotype diversity, linkage disequilibrium analysis, selection tests, gene flow estimates and codon adaptation index were also assessed. The dendrograms built by maximum likelihood with concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed two major and two minor phylotypes. The same haplotype was found in strains originating from different continents, and different haplotypes were found in strains isolated in the same year from the same location. A recombination breakpoint was detected within the rpoD gene fragment. At the pathovar level, the Xaj populations studied here are clonal and under neutral selection. However, four Xaj strains isolated from walnut fruits with apical necrosis are under diversifying selection, suggesting a possible new adaptation. Gene flow estimates do not support the hypothesis of geographic isolation of the strains, even though the genetic diversity between the strains increases as the geographic distance between them increases. A triplet deletion, causing the absence of valine, was found in the rpoD fragment of all 45 Xaj strains when compared with X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306. The codon adaptation index was high in all four genes studied, indicating a relevant metabolic activity.

  19. Microprocessor-controlled step-down maximum-power-point tracker for photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazmuder, R. K.; Haidar, S.

    1992-12-01

    An efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) has been developed and can be used with a photovoltaic (PV) array and a load which requires lower voltage than the PV array voltage to be operated. The MPPT makes the PV array to operate at maximum power point (MPP) under all insolation and temperature, which ensures the maximum amount of available PV power to be delivered to the load. The performance of the MPPT has been studied under different insolation levels.

  20. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  1. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  2. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  3. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  4. Development of intra-strain self-cloning procedure for breeding baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Youji; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Chisato; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This self-cloning procedure was performed without using DNA from other Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis and was therefore designated an intra-strain self-cloning procedure. Using this self-cloning procedure, we succeeded in producing self-cloning baker's yeast strains that harbor the TDH3p-PDE2 gene heterozygously and homozygously, designated TDH3p-PDE2 hetero and TDH3p-PDE2 homo strains, respectively. These self-cloning strains expressed much higher levels of PDE2 mRNA than the parental strain and exhibited higher viability after freeze stress, as well as higher fermentation ability in frozen dough, when compared with the parental strain. The TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain was genetically more stable than the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain. These results indicate that both heterozygous and homozygous strains of self-cloning PDE2-overexpressing freeze-tolerant strains of industrial baker's yeast can be prepared using the intra-strain self-cloning procedure, and, from a practical viewpoint, the TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain constructed in this study is preferable to the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain for frozen dough baking. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analogue of Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals minimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Zelikin

    2016-01-01

    The theorem like Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals is proved. Unlike the usual maximum principle, the maximum should be taken not over all matrices, but only on matrices of rank one. Examples are given.

  6. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  7. Production of an extracellular thermohalophilic lipase from a moderately halophilic bacterium, Salinivibrio sp. strain SA-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Salehghamari, Ensieh; Khajeh, Khosro; Kabiri, Mahbube; Naddaf, Saied

    2008-06-01

    Fifty strains of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from various salty environments in Iran. A strain designated as SA-2 was shown to be the best producer of extracellular lipase and was selected for further studies. Biochemical and physiological characterization along with 16S rDNA sequence analysis placed SA-2 in the genus Salinivibrio. The optimum salt, pH, temperature and aeration for enzyme production were 0.1 M KCl, pH 8, 35 degrees C and 150 rpm, respectively. The enzyme production was synchronized bacterial growth and reached a maximum level during the early-stationary phase in the basal medium containing 1 M NaCl. Triacylglycerols enhanced lipase production, while carbohydrates had inhibitory effects on it. The maximum lipase activity was obtained at pH 7.5, 50 degrees C and CaCl(2) concentration of 0.01 M. The enzyme was stable at pH range of 7.5-8 and retained 90% of its activity at 80 degrees C for 30 min. Different concentrations of NaNO(3), Na(2)SO(4), KCl and NaCl had no affect on lipase stability for 3 h. These results suggest that the lipase secreted by Salinivibrio sp. strain SA-2 is industrially important from the perspective of its tolerance to a broad temperature range, its moderate thermoactivity and its high tolerance to a wide range of salt concentrations (0-3 M NaCl).

  8. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  9. The High Level Vibration Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  10. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  11. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  12. The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.

  13. Use of Supplemental Short Pre-Contoured Accessory Rods and Cobalt Chrome Alloy Posterior Rods Reduces Primary Rod Strain and Range of Motion Across the Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin; Dahl, Benny

    2016-01-01

    and rod strain is necessary to determine the biomechanical efficacy of these techniques. METHODS: Five specimens (T12-S1) underwent PSO at L3 with pedicle screw stabilization at L1-S1. Pedicle subtraction was adjusted to achieve a final lordosis of 70°. Flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending, and axial...

  14. Magma flow paths and strain patterns in magma chambers growing by floor subsidence: a model based on magnetic fabric study of shallow-level plutons in the Stiavnica volcano-plutonic complex, Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, J.; Chadima, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 11 (2014), Article 873 ISSN 0258-8900 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) * caldera * intrusive strain * magma emplacement * pluton floor subsidence * stratovolcano Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014

  15. Hydrogen trapping energy levels and hydrogen diffusion at high and low strain rates (~10{sup 5} s{sup −1} and 10{sup −7} s{sup −1}) in lean duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, R., E-mail: barrav@post.bgu.ac.il; Eliezer, D.

    2016-09-30

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) alloys are high strength steels combined with ductility and excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking, which makes them attractive for the pressure vessels or underwater pipelines industries. Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is caused by the action of hydrogen in combination with residual or applied stress and can lead to the mechanical degradation of a material. Dynamic and quasi-static experiments were conducted at room temperature and strain rates of 10{sup 5} s{sup −1} and 10{sup −7} s{sup −1} on gas-phase hydrogen charged DSS. Hydrogen trapping in the various defects and its effect on the mechanical properties are discussed in details. A linear model of Lee and Lee was applied to calculate the trap activation energies. It was found that lower strain rates (~10{sup −7} s{sup −1}) will create less deep hydrogen trapping energies values; ~40% lower than in non-loaded sample. In addition, higher dynamic pressure will create higher trapping energy sites for hydrogen. Based on our experimental studies we developed an analytical model for hydrogen trapping. We have found that the strain rate has a direct influence on both hydrogen diffusion and hydrogen potential trapping sites. During deformation processes created at low strain rates (~10{sup −7} s{sup −1}) hydrogen has enough time to migrate with dislocations from deeper potential trapping sites to lower potential trapping sites.

  16. Towards development of nanofibrous large strain flexible strain sensors with programmable shape memory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Asif, H.; Naguib, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospun polymeric fibers can be used as strain sensors due to their large surface to weight/volume ratio, high porosity and pore interconnectivity. Large strain flexible strain sensors are used in numerous applications including rehabilitation, health monitoring, and sports performance monitoring where large strain detection should be accommodated by the sensor. This has boosted the demand for a stretchable, flexible and highly sensitive sensor able to detect a wide range of mechanically induced deformations. Herein, a physically cross-linked polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blend is made into nanofiber networks via electrospinning. The PLA/TPU weight ratio is optimized to obtain a maximum attainable strain of 100% while maintaining its mechanical integrity. The TPU/PLA fibers also allowed for their thermally activated recovery due to shape memory properties of the substrate. This novel feature enhances the sensor’s performance as it is no longer limited by its plastic deformation. Using spray coating method, a homogeneous layer of single-walled carbon nanotube is deposited onto the as-spun fiber mat to induce electrical conductivity to the surface of the fibers. It is shown that stretching and bending the sensor result in a highly sensitive and linear response with a maximum gauge factor of 33.

  17. Modelling maximum likelihood estimation of availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Rock, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Suppose the performance of a nuclear powered electrical generating power plant is continuously monitored to record the sequence of failure and repairs during sustained operation. The purpose of this study is to assess one method of estimating the performance of the power plant when the measure of performance is availability. That is, we determine the probability that the plant is operational at time t. To study the availability of a power plant, we first assume statistical models for the variables, X and Y, which denote the time-to-failure and the time-to-repair variables, respectively. Once those statistical models are specified, the availability, A(t), can be expressed as a function of some or all of their parameters. Usually those parameters are unknown in practice and so A(t) is unknown. This paper discusses the maximum likelihood estimator of A(t) when the time-to-failure model for X is an exponential density with parameter, lambda, and the time-to-repair model for Y is an exponential density with parameter, theta. Under the assumption of exponential models for X and Y, it follows that the instantaneous availability at time t is A(t)=lambda/(lambda+theta)+theta/(lambda+theta)exp[-[(1/lambda)+(1/theta)]t] with t>0. Also, the steady-state availability is A(infinity)=lambda/(lambda+theta). We use the observations from n failure-repair cycles of the power plant, say X 1 , X 2 , ..., Xsub(n), Y 1 , Y 2 , ..., Ysub(n) to present the maximum likelihood estimators of A(t) and A(infinity). The exact sampling distributions for those estimators and some statistical properties are discussed before a simulation model is used to determine 95% simulation intervals for A(t). The methodology is applied to two examples which approximate the operating history of two nuclear power plants. (author)

  18. Maximum entropy technique in the doublet structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belashev, B.Z.; Panebrattsev, Yu.A.; Shakhaliev, Eh.I.; Soroko, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Technique (MENT) for solution of the inverse problems is explained. The effective computer program for resolution of the nonlinear equations system encountered in the MENT has been developed and tested. The possibilities of the MENT have been demonstrated on the example of the MENT in the doublet structure analysis of noisy experimental data. The comparison of the MENT results with results of the Fourier algorithm technique without regularization is presented. The tolerant noise level is equal to 30% for MENT and only 0.1% for the Fourier algorithm

  19. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T ampersand E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit

  20. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  1. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  2. Brittle superconducting magnets: an equivilent strain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, E.; Danuso, M.

    2010-01-01

    To exceed fields of 10 T in accelerator magnets, brittle superconductors like A15 Nb 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al or ceramic High Temperature Superconductors have to be used. For such brittle superconductors it is not their maximum tensile yield stress that limits their structural resistance as much as strain values that provoke deformations in their delicate lattice, which in turn affect their superconducting properties. Work on the sensitivity of Nb 3 Sn cables to strain has been conducted in a number of stress states, including uniaxial and multi-axial, producing usually different results. This has made the need of a constituent design criterion imperative for magnet builders. In conventional structural problems an equivalent stress model is typically used to verify mechanical soundness. In the superconducting community a simple scalar equivalent strain to be used in place of an equivalent stress would be an extremely useful tool. As is well known in fundamental mechanics, there is not one single way to reduce a multiaxial strain state as represented by a 2nd order tensor to a scalar. The conceptual experiment proposed here will help determine the best scalar representation to use in the identification of an equivalent strain model.

  3. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  4. Growth and α-amylase production by strains of Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cassava starch medium was used to analyse the dynamics of batch growth and α-amylase production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from cassava dried chips. The strains displayed a growth of 0.5h-1 and 0.55 h-1, a biomass yield on cassava starch of 0.49g/g and 0.5g/g, a maximum ...

  5. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  6. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.

  7. Maximum mass of magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto; Martínez, Aurora Perez

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the problem of the maximum masses of magnetized white dwarfs (WDs). The impact of a strong magnetic field on the structure equations is addressed. The pressures become anisotropic due to the presence of the magnetic field and split into parallel and perpendicular components. We first construct stable solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for parallel pressures and find that physical solutions vanish for the perpendicular pressure when B ≳ 10 13 G. This fact establishes an upper bound for a magnetic field and the stability of the configurations in the (quasi) spherical approximation. Our findings also indicate that it is not possible to obtain stable magnetized WDs with super-Chandrasekhar masses because the values of the magnetic field needed for them are higher than this bound. To proceed into the anisotropic regime, we can apply results for structure equations appropriate for a cylindrical metric with anisotropic pressures that were derived in our previous work. From the solutions of the structure equations in cylindrical symmetry we have confirmed the same bound for B ∼ 10 13 G, since beyond this value no physical solutions are possible. Our tentative conclusion is that massive WDs with masses well beyond the Chandrasekhar limit do not constitute stable solutions and should not exist. (paper)

  8. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  9. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R

    2004-01-01

    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization

  10. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2013-09-01

    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  11. Paving the road to maximum productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C

    1998-01-01

    "Job security" is an oxymoron in today's environment of downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions. Workers find themselves living by new rules in the workplace that they may not understand. How do we cope? It is the leader's charge to take advantage of this chaos and create conditions under which his or her people can understand the need for change and come together with a shared purpose to effect that change. The clinical laboratory at Arkansas Children's Hospital has taken advantage of this chaos to down-size and to redesign how the work gets done to pave the road to maximum productivity. After initial hourly cutbacks, the workers accepted the cold, hard fact that they would never get their old world back. They set goals to proactively shape their new world through reorganizing, flexing staff with workload, creating a rapid response laboratory, exploiting information technology, and outsourcing. Today the laboratory is a lean, productive machine that accepts change as a way of life. We have learned to adapt, trust, and support each other as we have journeyed together over the rough roads. We are looking forward to paving a new fork in the road to the future.

  12. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  13. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-12-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference and for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (MP). In this manuscript, we focus on this method and on ancestral state inference for fully bifurcating trees. In particular, we investigate a conjecture published by Charleston and Steel in 1995 concerning the number of species which need to have a particular state, say a, at a particular site in order for MP to unambiguously return a as an estimate for the state of the last common ancestor. We prove the conjecture for all even numbers of character states, which is the most relevant case in biology. We also show that the conjecture does not hold in general for odd numbers of character states, but also present some positive results for this case.

  14. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  15. Long term strain behavior of PMMA based polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Nielsen, Kristian; Woyessa, Getinet

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting on the viscoelasticity of PMMA based Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensors when exposed to repeated sequences of long term strain and relaxation with various duty-cycles. In terms of the FBG wavelength and how it follows the strain cycle, we have shown that in the small strain...... regime (up to 1%) an elastic-dominated fast relaxing range, which is followed by a mainly viscous relaxation, depends both on the strain level and on the strain duration. For a small ratio of the strain-relax durations, this fast relaxation range stays almost the same. However, with increasing strain...... duration, for the same relaxation time, this range will be shortened, which might influence the sensing capabilities of the fiber sensor....

  16. Influence of strain on dislocation core in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, L.; Godet, J.; Brochard, S.

    2018-05-01

    First principles, density functional-based tight binding and semi-empirical interatomic potentials calculations are performed to analyse the influence of large strains on the structure and stability of a 60? dislocation in silicon. Such strains typically arise during the mechanical testing of nanostructures like nanopillars or nanoparticles. We focus on bi-axial strains in the plane normal to the dislocation line. Our calculations surprisingly reveal that the dislocation core structure largely depends on the applied strain, for strain levels of about 5%. In the particular case of bi-axial compression, the transformation of the dislocation to a locally disordered configuration occurs for similar strain magnitudes. The formation of an opening, however, requires larger strains, of about 7.5%. Furthermore, our results suggest that electronic structure methods should be favoured to model dislocation cores in case of large strains whenever possible.

  17. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  18. 20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52 Total annuity subject to maximum. The total annuity amount which is compared to the maximum monthly amount to...

  19. Measurement of the uniaxial mechanical properties of rat skin using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of skin tissue may vary according to the anatomical locations of a body. There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure the mechanical properties of skin at different anatomical locations. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are employed to determine the mechanical properties of skin tissue at back and abdomen locations of a rat body. The back and abdomen skins of eight rats are excised and subjected to a series of tensile tests. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain of skin tissues are measured using three stress definitions and four strain definitions. The results show that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the back skin is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus and maximum strain. No significant effects are observed on the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain measurements of abdomen skin by varying the stress definition. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum stress (20%), and elastic modulus (35%) of back skin are significantly higher than that of abdomen skin. The true stress-strain definition is favored to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue since it gives more accurate measurements of the skin's response using the instantaneous values. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    addition to the well-defined parameter full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The distribution of ... optical side-lobes in the diffraction pattern resulting in steep central maxima [6], reduc- tion of effects of ... and broad central peak. The idea of.

  1. Apodization Optimization of FBG Strain Sensor for Quasi-Distributed Sensing Measurement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Chaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimized apodization of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor (FBGS for quasi-distributed strain sensing applications is developed and introduced in this paper. The main objective of the proposed optimization is to obtain a reflectivity level higher than 90% and a side lobe level around −40 dB, which is suitable for use in quasi-distributed strain sensing application. For this purpose, different design parameters as apodization profile, grating length, and refractive index have been investigated to enhance and optimize the FBGS design. The performance of the proposed apodization has then been compared in terms of reflectivity, side lobe level (SLL, and full width at half maximum (FWHM with apodization profiles proposed by other authors. The optimized sensor is integrated on quasi-distributed sensing system of 8 sensors demonstrating high reliability. Wide strain sensitivity range for each channel has also been achieved in the quasi-distributed system. Results prove the efficiency of the proposed optimization which can be further implemented for any quasi-distributed sensing application.

  2. Hen genetic strain and extended cold storage influence on physical egg quality from cage-free aviary housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Karcher, D M; Regmi, P; Robison, C O; Gast, R K

    2018-04-02

    In the United States, there is an increase in need for cage-free eggs in retail and food manufacturing sectors. Understanding the impact of cage-free systems and the corresponding management on egg quality is pertinent as the U.S. industry adapts existing housing and builds new cage-free housing structures. A study was conducted comparing 2 brown shell and 2 white shell hen strains housed in a cage-free aviary system. Each set of eggs were placed in cold storage and assessed at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk. Eggs were collected at 21, 31, 42, and 60 wk of hen age. A full profile of physical quality measurements was conducted on up to 18 intact eggs for each hen strain/egg storage/hen age combination. Egg weight increased approximately 10 g for brown shell and 14 g for white shell eggs as hens aged. Many of the properties monitored were significantly impacted by all 3 main effects (hen strain, egg storage, and hen age) resulting in 3-way interactions. A brown and a white shell strain had stronger shells (44 N; P study also determined volume of shell, total length, maximum width, and percent length at maximum width to more accurately indicate egg shape than shape index. One brown shell strain produced eggs with the most consistent shape characteristics over the hen ages monitored. White shell eggs from the cage-free aviary housing produced the highest whole-egg total solids between 31 to 60 wk of hen age, whereas brown shell eggs resulted in the most consistent level of whole-egg total solids (22-23.5%). The brown and white shell strains in the current study produce cage-free aviary eggs with distinctive physical quality attributes. The outcomes from this study can be utilized by the U.S. egg industry in planning management strategies and market placement of cage-free eggs.

  3. Maximum Likelihood Blood Velocity Estimator Incorporating Properties of Flow Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    )-data under investigation. The flow physic properties are exploited in the second term, as the range of velocity values investigated in the cross-correlation analysis are compared to the velocity estimates in the temporal and spatial neighborhood of the signal segment under investigation. The new estimator...... has been compared to the cross-correlation (CC) estimator and the previously developed maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The results show that the CMLE can handle a larger velocity search range and is capable of estimating even low velocity levels from tissue motion. The CC and the MLE produce...... for the CC and the MLE. When the velocity search range is set to twice the limit of the CC and the MLE, the number of incorrect velocity estimates are 0, 19.1, and 7.2% for the CMLE, CC, and MLE, respectively. The ability to handle a larger search range and estimating low velocity levels was confirmed...

  4. Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Taylor, Andy

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior can help with mitigation of noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely subdominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estimates, demonstrating in our simple set-up that shear biases can be reduced by orders of magnitude and potentially to within the requirements of planned space-based surveys at mild signal-to-noise ratio. We find that second-order terms can exhibit significant cancellations at low signal-to-noise ratio when Gaussian noise is assumed, which has implications for inferring the performance of shear-measurement algorithms from simplified simulations. We discuss the viability of our point estimators as tools for lensing inference, arguing that they allow for the robust measurement of ellipticity and shear.

  5. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  6. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-01-01

    The strong crystallographic texture which is developed during the fabrication of zirconium-based alloys causes pronounced anisotropy in their mechanical properties, particularly deformation. The tendency for circular-section tension specimens with a high concentration of basal poles in one direction to become elliptical when deformed in tension has been used in this study to provide quantitative data on the effects of both strain and temperature on strain anisotropy. Tension tests were carried out over a temperature range of 293 to 1193 K on specimens machined from Zircaloy-2 plate. The strain anisotropy was found to increase markedly at temperatures over 923 K, reaching a maximum in the region of 1070 K. The strain anisotropy increased with increasing strain in this temperature region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized-water reactor fuel cladding by carrying out tube swelling tests and evaluating the axial deformation produced. Although scatter in the test results was higher than that exhibited in the tension tests, the general trend in the data was similar. The effects of the strain anisotropy observed are discussed in relation to the effects of temperature on the ductility of Zircaloy fuel cladding tubes during postulated largebreak loss-of-coolant accidents

  7. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hervé

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces

  8. A strained silicon cold electron bolometer using Schottky contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brien, T. L. R., E-mail: tom.brien@astro.cf.ac.uk; Ade, P. A. R.; Barry, P. S.; Dunscombe, C.; Morozov, D. V.; Sudiwala, R. V. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Parker, E. H. C.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Prunnila, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Mauskopf, P. D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 650 E. Tyler Mall, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We describe optical characterisation of a strained silicon cold electron bolometer (CEB), operating on a 350 mK stage, designed for absorption of millimetre-wave radiation. The silicon cold electron bolometer utilises Schottky contacts between a superconductor and an n{sup ++} doped silicon island to detect changes in the temperature of the charge carriers in the silicon, due to variations in absorbed radiation. By using strained silicon as the absorber, we decrease the electron-phonon coupling in the device and increase the responsivity to incoming power. The strained silicon absorber is coupled to a planar aluminium twin-slot antenna designed to couple to 160 GHz and that serves as the superconducting contacts. From the measured optical responsivity and spectral response, we calculate a maximum optical efficiency of 50% for radiation coupled into the device by the planar antenna and an overall noise equivalent power, referred to absorbed optical power, of 1.1×10{sup −16} W Hz{sup −1/2} when the detector is observing a 300 K source through a 4 K throughput limiting aperture. Even though this optical system is not optimized, we measure a system noise equivalent temperature difference of 6 mK Hz{sup −1/2}. We measure the noise of the device using a cross-correlation of time stream data, measured simultaneously with two junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, with a base correlated noise level of 300 pV Hz{sup −1/2} and find that the total noise is consistent with a combination of photon noise, current shot noise, and electron-phonon thermal noise.

  9. Standard practice for strain controlled thermomechanical fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the determination of thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) properties of materials under uniaxially loaded strain-controlled conditions. A “thermomechanical” fatigue cycle is here defined as a condition where uniform temperature and strain fields over the specimen gage section are simultaneously varied and independently controlled. This practice is intended to address TMF testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. While this practice is specific to strain-controlled testing, many sections will provide useful information for force-controlled or stress-controlled TMF testing. 1.2 This practice allows for any maximum and minimum values of temperature and mechanical strain, and temperature-mechanical strain phasing, with the restriction being that such parameters remain cyclically constant throughout the duration of the test. No restrictions are placed on en...

  10. Strain engineering of WS2, WSe2, and WTe2

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2014-01-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of WS2, WSe2, and WTe2 monolayers, taking into account the strong spin orbit coupling. A transition from a direct to an indirect band gap is achieved for compressive strain of 1% for WS2, 1.5% for WSe2, and 2% for WTe 2, while the nature of the band gap remains direct in the case of tensile strain. The size of the band gap passes through a maximum under compressive strain and decreases monotonically under tensile strain. A strong spin splitting is found for the valence band in all three compounds, which is further enhanced by tensile strain. The mobility of the electrons grows along the series WS2 < WSe2 < WTe2. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  11. Fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) using L. plantarum BFE 5092 and L. fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Kabisch, Jan; Rösch, Niels; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Frommherz, Lara; Nielsen, Dennis S; Krych, Lukasz; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-12-05

    Vegetables produced in Africa are sources of much needed micronutrients and fermentation is one way to enhance the shelf life of these perishable products. To prevent post-harvest losses and preserve African leafy vegetables, Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 and Lactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains were investigated for their application in fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) leaves. They were inoculated at 1×10 7 cfu/ml and grew to a maximum level of 10 8 cfu/ml during 24h submerged fermentation. The strains utilized simple sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, and sucrose) in the kale to quickly reduce the pH from pH6.0 to pH3.6 within 24h. The strains continued to produce both d and l lactic acid up to 144h, reaching a maximum concentration of 4.0g/l. Fermentations with pathogens inoculated at 10 4 cfu/ml showed that the quick growth of the starters inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as other enterobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4-region) amplicon sequencing showed that in the spontaneous fermentations a microbial succession took place, though with marked differences in biodiversity from fermentation to fermentation. The fermentations inoculated with starters however were clearly dominated by both the inoculated strains throughout the fermentations. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting showed that the strains established themselves at approx. equal proportions. Although vitamins C, B 1 and B 2 decreased during the fermentation, the final level of vitamin C in the product was an appreciable concentration of 35mg/100g. In conclusion, controlled fermentation of kale offers a promising avenue to prevent spoilage and improve the shelf life and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Synthesis report of the EU-project LISSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.

    2003-10-01

    The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are rather small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was to determine the local strain at failure. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called ''vanishing gap method'' and the ''forging die method''. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element calculations, for instance. To deepen the understanding of structural degradation and fracture and to allow extrapolations, advanced computational methods including damage models have been developed and validated. Several approaches were tried in parallel including so-called non-local concepts and descriptions of stochastic properties at grain size level. The experimental results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Also the maximum stress is approximately size independent, if failure occurs after the maximum stress is reached

  13. Review of strain buckling: analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to review the mechanical analysis methods reported in the literature to account for the specific behaviour that we call buckling under strain. In this report, this expression covers all buckling mechanisms in which the strains imposed play a role, whether they act alone (as in simple buckling under controlled strain), or whether they act with other loadings (primary loading, such as pressure, for example). Attention is focused on the practical problems relevant to LMFBR reactors. The components concerned are distinguished by their high slenderness ratios and by rather high thermal levels, both constant and variable with time. Conventional static buckling analysis methods are not always appropriate for the consideration of buckling under strain. New methods must therefore be developed in certain cases. It is also hoped that this review will facilitate the coding of these analytical methods to aid the constructor in his design task and to identify the areas which merit further investigation

  14. Determination of the maximum inhibitory dilution of cetylpyridinium chloride-based mouthwashes against staphylococcus aureus: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Watanabe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the maximum inhibitory dilution (MID of four cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC-based mouthwashes: CPC+Propolis, CPC+Malva, CPC+Eucaliptol+Juá+Romã+Propolis (Natural Honey® and CPC (Cepacol®, against 28 Staphylococcus aureus field strains, using the agar dilution method. Decimal dilutions ranging from 1/10 to 1/655,360 were prepared and added to Mueller Hinton Agar. Strains were inoculated using Steers multipoint inoculator. The inocula were seeded onto the surface of the culture medium in Petri dishes containing different dilutions of the mouthwashes. The dishes were incubated at 37ºC for 24 h. For readings, the MID was considered as the maximum dilution of mouthwash still capable of inhibiting microbial growth. The obtained data showed that CPC+Propolis had antimicrobial activity against 27 strains at 1/320 dilution and against all 28 strains at 1/160 dilution, CPC+Malva inhibited the growth of all 28 strains at 1/320 dilution, CPC+Eucaliptol+Juá+Romã+Propolis inhibited the growth of 2 strains at 1/640 dilution and all 28 strains at 1/320 dilution, and Cepacol® showed antimicrobial activity against 3 strains at 1/320 dilution and against all 28 strains at 1/160 dilution. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test, showing that the MID of Cepacol® was lower than that determined for the other products (p<0.05. In conclusion, CPC-mouthwashes showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and the addition of other substances to CPC improved its antimicrobial effect.

  15. Study of dynamic strain aging in dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, R.R.U.; Cunha, F.G.G.; Gonzalez, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of the high temperature mechanical behavior of a dual phase steel. ► Determination of the effect of dynamic strain aging on the strain hardening rate. ► Identification of the mechanism associated with dynamic strain aging. ► The value of the interaction energy carbon–dislocation in ferrite was confirmed. - Abstract: The susceptibility to dynamic strain aging of a dual phase steel was evaluated by the variation of mechanical properties in tension with the temperature and the strain rate. The tensile tests were performed at temperatures varying between 25 °C and 600 °C and at strain rates ranging from 10 −2 to 5 × 10 −4 s −1 . The studied steel presented typical manifestations related to dynamic strain aging: serrated flow (the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect) for certain combinations of temperature and strain rates; the presence of a plateau in the variation of yield stress with temperature; a maximum in the curves of tensile strength, flow stress, and work hardening exponent as a function of temperature; and a minimum in the variation of total elongation with temperature. The determined apparent activation energy values, associated with the beginning of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect and the maximum in the variation of flow stress with temperature, were 83 kJ/mol and 156 kJ/mol, respectively. These values suggest that the mechanism responsible for dynamic strain aging in the dual phase steel is the locking of dislocations by carbon atoms in ferrite and that the formation of clusters and/or transition carbides and carbide precipitation in martensite do not interfere with the dynamic strain aging process.

  16. Determining Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration in a Distribution Grid considering Grid Operation Limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    High penetration of photovoltaic panels in distribution grid can bring the grid to its operation limits. The main focus of the paper is to determine maximum photovoltaic penetration level in the grid. Three main criteria were investigated for determining maximum penetration level of PV panels...... for this grid: even distribution of PV panels, aggregation of panels at the beginning of each feeder, and aggregation of panels at the end of each feeder. Load modeling is done using Velander formula. Since PV generation is highest in the summer due to irradiation, a summer day was chosen to determine maximum......; maximum voltage deviation of customers, cables current limits, and transformer nominal value. Voltage deviation of different buses was investigated for different penetration levels. The proposed model was simulated on a Danish distribution grid. Three different PV location scenarios were investigated...

  17. Determination of the maximum-depth to potential field sources by a maximum structural index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and fast determination of the limiting depth to the sources may represent a significant help to the data interpretation. To this end we explore the possibility of determining those source parameters shared by all the classes of models fitting the data. One approach is to determine the maximum depth-to-source compatible with the measured data, by using for example the well-known Bott-Smith rules. These rules involve only the knowledge of the field and its horizontal gradient maxima, and are independent from the density contrast. Thanks to the direct relationship between structural index and depth to sources we work out a simple and fast strategy to obtain the maximum depth by using the semi-automated methods, such as Euler deconvolution or depth-from-extreme-points method (DEXP). The proposed method consists in estimating the maximum depth as the one obtained for the highest allowable value of the structural index (Nmax). Nmax may be easily determined, since it depends only on the dimensionality of the problem (2D/3D) and on the nature of the analyzed field (e.g., gravity field or magnetic field). We tested our approach on synthetic models against the results obtained by the classical Bott-Smith formulas and the results are in fact very similar, confirming the validity of this method. However, while Bott-Smith formulas are restricted to the gravity field only, our method is applicable also to the magnetic field and to any derivative of the gravity and magnetic field. Our method yields a useful criterion to assess the source model based on the (∂f/∂x)max/fmax ratio. The usefulness of the method in real cases is demonstrated for a salt wall in the Mississippi basin, where the estimation of the maximum depth agrees with the seismic information.

  18. In vitro quantification of strain patterns in the craniofacial skeleton due to masseter and temporalis activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Regev, Eran; Whyne, Cari M; Beek, Marteen; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2012-09-01

    Many complications in craniofacial surgery can be attributed to a lack of characterization of facial skeletal strain patterns. This study aimed to delineate human midfacial strain patterns under uniform muscle loading. The left sides of 5 fresh-frozen human cadaveric heads were dissected of all soft tissues except the temporalis and masseter muscles. Tensile forces were applied to the free mandibular ends of the muscles. Maxillary alveolar arches were used to restrain the skulls. Eight strain gauges were bonded to the surface of the midface to measure the strain under single muscle loading conditions (100 N). Maxillary strain gauges revealed a biaxial load state for both muscles. Thin antral bone experienced high maximum principal tensile strains (maximum of 685.5 με) and high minimum principal compressive strains (maximum of -722.44 με). Similar biaxial patterns of lower magnitude were measured on the zygoma (maximum of 208.59 με for maximum principal strains and -78.11 με for minimum principal strains). Results, consistent for all specimens and counter to previously accepted concepts of biomechanical behavior of the midface under masticatory muscle loading, included high strain in the thin maxillary antral wall, rotational bending through the maxilla and zygoma, and a previously underestimated contribution of the temporalis muscle. This experimental model produced repeatable strain patterns quantifying the mechanics of the facial skeleton. These new counterintuitive findings underscore the need for accurate characterization of craniofacial strain patterns to address problems in the current treatment methods and develop robust design criteria.

  19. The effects of temperature and strain rate on the dynamic flow behaviour of different steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-S.; Liu, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    A compressive type split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized to compare the impact plastic behaviour of three steels with different levels of carbon content. S15C low carbon steel, S50C medium alloy heat treatable steel (abbreviated hereafter to medium carbon steel) and SKS93 tool steel with a high carbon and low alloy content (abbreviated hereafter to high carbon steel) are tested under strain rates ranging from 1.1 x 10 3 s -1 to 5.5 x 10 3 s -1 and temperatures ranging from 25 to 800 deg. C. The effects of the carbon content, strain rate and temperature on the mechanical responses of the three steels are evaluated. The microstructures of the impacted specimens are studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It is found that an increased carbon content enhances the dynamic flow resistance of the three steels. Additionally, the flow stress increases with strain and strain rate in every case. A thermal softening effect is identified in the plastic behaviour of the three steels. The activation energy, ΔG * , varies as a function of the strain rate and temperature, but is apparently insensitive to the carbon content level. The present study identifies maximum ΔG * values of 58 kJ/mol for the S15C low carbon steel, 54.9 kJ/mol for the S50C medium carbon steel, and 56.4 kJ/mol for the SKS93 high carbon steel. A Zerilli-Armstrong BCC constitutive model with appropriate coefficients is applied to describe the high strain rate plastic behaviours of the S15C, S50C and SKS93 steels. The errors between the calculated stress and the measured stress are found to be less than 5%. The microstructural observations reveal that the dislocation density and the degree of dislocation tangling increase with increasing strain rate in all three steels. Additionally, the TEM observations indicate that a higher strain rate reduces the size of the dislocation cells. The annihilation of dislocations occurs more readily at elevated temperatures. The square root of the dislocation

  20. Weighted Maximum-Clique Transversal Sets of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Min Lee

    2011-01-01

    A maximum-clique transversal set of a graph G is a subset of vertices intersecting all maximum cliques of G. The maximum-clique transversal set problem is to find a maximum-clique transversal set of G of minimum cardinality. Motivated by the placement of transmitters for cellular telephones, Chang, Kloks, and Lee introduced the concept of maximum-clique transversal sets on graphs in 2001. In this paper, we study the weighted version of the maximum-clique transversal set problem for split grap...

  1. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  2. ECONOMIC REASONING MAXIMUM SLOPE IN DESIGN HIGH-SPEED LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHERNYSHOVA O. S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem The worldwide design standards high-speed lines are somewhat different. This is due to several reasons: different levels of design speed, differences of characteristics of rolling stock and, in particular, the features of the design plan and longitudinal profile, that are associated primarily with the conditions of the relief. In the design of high-speed railways in Ukraine should take into account these features and determine what the maximum slope values can be used in difficult conditions, as well as how it will affect the operational and capital costs. Purpose. To determine the optimal design parameters of the longitudinal profile. Conclusion. The results are based not only on technical, but also economic indicators and allow the assessment of the necessary capital expenditures and expected cost of the railway in the future. Analytical dependences, to predict the expected operating costs of the railway, depending on the maximum slope, its length and the total length of the section.

  3. A simple maximum power point tracker for thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraskevas, Alexandros; Koutroulis, Eftichios

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for thermoelectric generators is proposed. • A power converter is controlled to operate on a pre-programmed locus. • The proposed MPPT technique has the advantage of operational and design simplicity. • The experimental average deviation from the MPP power of the TEG source is 1.87%. - Abstract: ThermoElectric Generators (TEGs) are capable to harvest the ambient thermal energy for power-supplying sensors, actuators, biomedical devices etc. in the μW up to several hundreds of Watts range. In this paper, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for TEG elements is proposed, which is based on controlling a power converter such that it operates on a pre-programmed locus of operating points close to the MPPs of the power–voltage curves of the TEG power source. Compared to the past-proposed MPPT methods for TEGs, the technique presented in this paper has the advantage of operational and design simplicity. Thus, its implementation using off-the-shelf microelectronic components with low-power consumption characteristics is enabled, without being required to employ specialized integrated circuits or signal processing units of high development cost. Experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that for MPP power levels of the TEG source in the range of 1–17 mW, the average deviation of the power produced by the proposed system from the MPP power of the TEG source is 1.87%.

  4. Noise and physical limits to maximum resolution of PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S. [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Vicente, E.; Vaquero, J.J.; Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital GU ' Gregorio Maranon' , E-28007 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jose@nuc2.fis.ucm.es

    2007-10-01

    In this work we show that there is a limit for the maximum resolution achievable with a high resolution PET scanner, as well as for the best signal-to-noise ratio, which are ultimately related to the physical effects involved in the emission and detection of the radiation and thus they cannot be overcome with any particular reconstruction method. These effects prevent the spatial high frequency components of the imaged structures to be recorded by the scanner. Therefore, the information encoded in these high frequencies cannot be recovered by any reconstruction technique. Within this framework, we have determined the maximum resolution achievable for a given acquisition as a function of data statistics and scanner parameters, like the size of the crystals or the inter-crystal scatter. In particular, the noise level in the data as a limitation factor to yield high-resolution images in tomographs with small crystal sizes is outlined. These results have implications regarding how to decide the optimal number of voxels of the reconstructed image or how to design better PET scanners.

  5. Noise and physical limits to maximum resolution of PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S.; Vicente, E.; Vaquero, J.J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we show that there is a limit for the maximum resolution achievable with a high resolution PET scanner, as well as for the best signal-to-noise ratio, which are ultimately related to the physical effects involved in the emission and detection of the radiation and thus they cannot be overcome with any particular reconstruction method. These effects prevent the spatial high frequency components of the imaged structures to be recorded by the scanner. Therefore, the information encoded in these high frequencies cannot be recovered by any reconstruction technique. Within this framework, we have determined the maximum resolution achievable for a given acquisition as a function of data statistics and scanner parameters, like the size of the crystals or the inter-crystal scatter. In particular, the noise level in the data as a limitation factor to yield high-resolution images in tomographs with small crystal sizes is outlined. These results have implications regarding how to decide the optimal number of voxels of the reconstructed image or how to design better PET scanners

  6. Impact of exopolysaccharide production on functional properties of some Lactobacillus salivarius strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Emin; İspirli, Hümeyra; Sert, Durmuş; Yılmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize functional properties of Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from chicken feces. Detection of genes responsible for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production revealed that all strains harbored a dextransucrase gene, but p-gtf gene was only detected in strain E4. Analysis of EPS production levels showed significant alterations among strains tested. Biofilm formation was found to be medium composition dependant, and there was a negative correlation with biofilm formation and EPS production. Autoaggregation properties and coaggregation of L. salivarius strains with chicken pathogens were appeared to be specific at strain level. An increment in bacterial adhesion to chicken gut explants was observed in L. salivarius strains with the reduction in EPS production levels. This study showed that strain-specific properties can determine the functional properties of L. salivarius strains, and the interference of these properties might be crucial for final selection of these strains for technological purposes.

  7. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  8. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  9. Maximum entropy models of ecosystem functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Using organism-level traits to deduce community-level relationships is a fundamental problem in theoretical ecology. This problem parallels the physical one of using particle properties to deduce macroscopic thermodynamic laws, which was successfully achieved with the development of statistical physics. Drawing on this parallel, theoretical ecologists from Lotka onwards have attempted to construct statistical mechanistic theories of ecosystem functioning. Jaynes’ broader interpretation of statistical mechanics, which hinges on the entropy maximisation algorithm (MaxEnt), is of central importance here because the classical foundations of statistical physics do not have clear ecological analogues (e.g. phase space, dynamical invariants). However, models based on the information theoretic interpretation of MaxEnt are difficult to interpret ecologically. Here I give a broad discussion of statistical mechanical models of ecosystem functioning and the application of MaxEnt in these models. Emphasising the sample frequency interpretation of MaxEnt, I show that MaxEnt can be used to construct models of ecosystem functioning which are statistical mechanical in the traditional sense using a savanna plant ecology model as an example

  10. Maximum entropy models of ecosystem functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Jason, E-mail: jason.bertram@anu.edu.au [Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-12-05

    Using organism-level traits to deduce community-level relationships is a fundamental problem in theoretical ecology. This problem parallels the physical one of using particle properties to deduce macroscopic thermodynamic laws, which was successfully achieved with the development of statistical physics. Drawing on this parallel, theoretical ecologists from Lotka onwards have attempted to construct statistical mechanistic theories of ecosystem functioning. Jaynes’ broader interpretation of statistical mechanics, which hinges on the entropy maximisation algorithm (MaxEnt), is of central importance here because the classical foundations of statistical physics do not have clear ecological analogues (e.g. phase space, dynamical invariants). However, models based on the information theoretic interpretation of MaxEnt are difficult to interpret ecologically. Here I give a broad discussion of statistical mechanical models of ecosystem functioning and the application of MaxEnt in these models. Emphasising the sample frequency interpretation of MaxEnt, I show that MaxEnt can be used to construct models of ecosystem functioning which are statistical mechanical in the traditional sense using a savanna plant ecology model as an example.

  11. Maximum entropy principle and hydrodynamic models in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, M.; Reggiani, L.

    2012-01-01

    numerical density n and of the effective temperature T; ii) the results available from literature in the framework both of a quantum Boltzmann gas and a degenerate quantum Fermi gas are recovered as particular cases; iii) the statistics for the quantum Fermi and Bose gases at different levels of degeneracy are explicitly incorporated; iv) a set of relevant applications admitting exact analytical equations are explicitly given and discussed; v) the quantum maximum entropy principle keeps full validity in the classical limit, when ħ→→ 0. Future perspectives of the MEP, are briefly addressed.

  12. ON THE MAXIMUM MASS OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris L.; Bulik, Tomasz; Ruiter, Ashley; Valsecchi, Francesca; Vink, Jorick S.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the spectrum of compact object masses: neutron stars and black holes (BHs) that originate from single stars in different environments. In particular, we calculate the dependence of maximum BH mass on metallicity and on some specific wind mass loss rates (e.g., Hurley et al. and Vink et al.). Our calculations show that the highest mass BHs observed in the Galaxy M bh ∼ 15 M sun in the high metallicity environment (Z = Z sun = 0.02) can be explained with stellar models and the wind mass loss rates adopted here. To reach this result we had to set luminous blue variable mass loss rates at the level of ∼10 -4 M sun yr -1 and to employ metallicity-dependent Wolf-Rayet winds. With such winds, calibrated on Galactic BH mass measurements, the maximum BH mass obtained for moderate metallicity (Z = 0.3 Z sun = 0.006) is M bh,max = 30 M sun . This is a rather striking finding as the mass of the most massive known stellar BH is M bh = 23-34 M sun and, in fact, it is located in a small star-forming galaxy with moderate metallicity. We find that in the very low (globular cluster-like) metallicity environment the maximum BH mass can be as high as M bh,max = 80 M sun (Z = 0.01 Z sun = 0.0002). It is interesting to note that X-ray luminosity from Eddington-limited accretion onto an 80 M sun BH is of the order of ∼10 40 erg s -1 and is comparable to luminosities of some known ultra-luminous X-ray sources. We emphasize that our results were obtained for single stars only and that binary interactions may alter these maximum BH masses (e.g., accretion from a close companion). This is strictly a proof-of-principle study which demonstrates that stellar models can naturally explain even the most massive known stellar BHs.

  13. Genetic analysis of imported dengue virus strains by Iranian travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman Shahhosseini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus sequences used in this study were obtained from two Iranian patients who were both with a history of traveling to Malaysia. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree demonstrated that two sequences were grouped into dengue virus 1. Specifically, strains IranDF1 and Iran-DF2 clustered in genotype I and III, respectively.

  14. Maximum permissible concentrations of uranium in air

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    The retention of uranium by bone and kidney has been re-evaluated taking account of recently published data for a man who had been occupationally exposed to natural uranium aerosols and for adults who had ingested uranium at the normal dietary levels. For life-time occupational exposure to uranium aerosols the new retention functions yield a greater retention in bone and a smaller retention in kidney than the earlier ones, which were based on acute intakes of uranium by terminal patients. Hence bone replaces kidney as the critical organ. The (MPC) sub a for uranium 238 on radiological considerations using the current (1959) ICRP lung model for the new retention functions is slightly smaller than for earlier functions but the (MPC) sub a determined by chemical toxicity remains the most restrictive.

  15. Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of photovoltaic ... Determination of MPP enables the PV system to deliver maximum available power. ..... adaptive artificial neural network: Proposition for a new sizing procedure.

  16. Maximum power per VA control of vector controlled interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thakur Sumeet Singh

    2018-04-11

    Apr 11, 2018 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New ... The MPVA operation allows maximum-utilization of the drive-system. ... Permanent magnet motor; unity power factor; maximum VA utilization; ...

  17. Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Si and Ge has been studied using multipole, maximum entropy method (MEM) and ... and electron density distribution using the currently available versatile ..... data should be subjected to maximum possible utility for the characterization of.

  18. Strains and Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lot of pressure on a muscle or you push it too far, such as when lifting a heavy object. Strains may be more likely to happen if you haven't warmed up first to get blood circulating to the muscles. They're also common for someone returning to a sport after the off-season. That first time playing ...

  19. A maximum entropy reconstruction technique for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilsky, A V; Lozhkin, V A; Markovich, D M; Tokarev, M P

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies a novel approach for reducing tomographic PIV computational complexity. The proposed approach is an algebraic reconstruction technique, termed MENT (maximum entropy). This technique computes the three-dimensional light intensity distribution several times faster than SMART, using at least ten times less memory. Additionally, the reconstruction quality remains nearly the same as with SMART. This paper presents the theoretical computation performance comparison for MENT, SMART and MART, followed by validation using synthetic particle images. Both the theoretical assessment and validation of synthetic images demonstrate significant computational time reduction. The data processing accuracy of MENT was compared to that of SMART in a slot jet experiment. A comparison of the average velocity profiles shows a high level of agreement between the results obtained with MENT and those obtained with SMART. (paper)

  20. Simultaneous maximum a posteriori longitudinal PET image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sam; Reader, Andrew J.

    2017-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is frequently used to monitor functional changes that occur over extended time scales, for example in longitudinal oncology PET protocols that include routine clinical follow-up scans to assess the efficacy of a course of treatment. In these contexts PET datasets are currently reconstructed into images using single-dataset reconstruction methods. Inspired by recently proposed joint PET-MR reconstruction methods, we propose to reconstruct longitudinal datasets simultaneously by using a joint penalty term in order to exploit the high degree of similarity between longitudinal images. We achieved this by penalising voxel-wise differences between pairs of longitudinal PET images in a one-step-late maximum a posteriori (MAP) fashion, resulting in the MAP simultaneous longitudinal reconstruction (SLR) method. The proposed method reduced reconstruction errors and visually improved images relative to standard maximum likelihood expectation-maximisation (ML-EM) in simulated 2D longitudinal brain tumour scans. In reconstructions of split real 3D data with inserted simulated tumours, noise across images reconstructed with MAP-SLR was reduced to levels equivalent to doubling the number of detected counts when using ML-EM. Furthermore, quantification of tumour activities was largely preserved over a variety of longitudinal tumour changes, including changes in size and activity, with larger changes inducing larger biases relative to standard ML-EM reconstructions. Similar improvements were observed for a range of counts levels, demonstrating the robustness of the method when used with a single penalty strength. The results suggest that longitudinal regularisation is a simple but effective method of improving reconstructed PET images without using resolution degrading priors.

  1. Modeling fracture in the context of a strain-limiting theory of elasticity: a single anti-plane shear crack

    KAUST Repository

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    2011-01-06

    This paper is the first part of an extended program to develop a theory of fracture in the context of strain-limiting theories of elasticity. This program exploits a novel approach to modeling the mechanical response of elastic, that is non-dissipative, materials through implicit constitutive relations. The particular class of models studied here can also be viewed as arising from an explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is specified to be a nonlinear function of stress. This modeling construct generalizes the classical Cauchy and Green theories of elasticity which are included as special cases. It was conjectured that special forms of these implicit theories that limit strains to physically realistic maximum levels even for arbitrarily large stresses would be ideal for modeling fracture by offering a modeling paradigm that avoids the crack-tip strain singularities characteristic of classical fracture theories. The simplest fracture setting in which to explore this conjecture is anti-plane shear. It is demonstrated herein that for a specific choice of strain-limiting elasticity theory, crack-tip strains do indeed remain bounded. Moreover, the theory predicts a bounded stress field in the neighborhood of a crack-tip and a cusp-shaped opening displacement. The results confirm the conjecture that use of a strain limiting explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is given as a function of stress for modeling the bulk constitutive behavior obviates the necessity of introducing ad hoc modeling constructs such as crack-tip cohesive or process zones in order to correct the unphysical stress and strain singularities predicted by classical linear elastic fracture mechanics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  3. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840... COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any...

  4. 7 CFR 3565.210 - Maximum interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum interest rate. 3565.210 Section 3565.210... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.210 Maximum interest rate. The interest rate for a guaranteed loan must not exceed the maximum allowable rate specified by the Agency in...

  5. Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon

    2017-01-01

    The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor o...

  6. Tail Risk Constraints and Maximum Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Geman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection in the financial literature has essentially been analyzed under two central assumptions: full knowledge of the joint probability distribution of the returns of the securities that will comprise the target portfolio; and investors’ preferences are expressed through a utility function. In the real world, operators build portfolios under risk constraints which are expressed both by their clients and regulators and which bear on the maximal loss that may be generated over a given time period at a given confidence level (the so-called Value at Risk of the position. Interestingly, in the finance literature, a serious discussion of how much or little is known from a probabilistic standpoint about the multi-dimensional density of the assets’ returns seems to be of limited relevance. Our approach in contrast is to highlight these issues and then adopt throughout a framework of entropy maximization to represent the real world ignorance of the “true” probability distributions, both univariate and multivariate, of traded securities’ returns. In this setting, we identify the optimal portfolio under a number of downside risk constraints. Two interesting results are exhibited: (i the left- tail constraints are sufficiently powerful to override all other considerations in the conventional theory; (ii the “barbell portfolio” (maximal certainty/ low risk in one set of holdings, maximal uncertainty in another, which is quite familiar to traders, naturally emerges in our construction.

  7. Indirect effect of financial strain on daily cortisol output through daily negative to positive affect index in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Eli; Haritatos, Jana; Adler, Nancy E; Sidney, Steve; Schwartz, Joseph E; Epel, Elissa S

    2013-12-01

    Daily affect is important to health and has been linked to cortisol. The combination of high negative affect and low positive affect may have a bigger impact on increasing HPA axis activity than either positive or negative affect alone. Financial strain may both dampen positive affect as well as increase negative affect, and thus provides an excellent context for understanding the associations between daily affect and cortisol. Using random effects mixed modeling with maximum likelihood estimation, we examined the relationship between self-reported financial strain and estimated mean daily cortisol level (latent cortisol variable), based on six salivary cortisol assessments throughout the day, and whether this relationship was mediated by greater daily negative to positive affect index measured concurrently in a sample of 776 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study participants. The analysis revealed that while no total direct effect existed for financial strain on cortisol, there was a significant indirect effect of high negative affect to low positive affect, linking financial strain to elevated cortisol. In this sample, the effects of financial strain on cortisol through either positive affect or negative affect alone were not significant. A combined affect index may be a more sensitive and powerful measure than either negative or positive affect alone, tapping the burden of chronic financial strain, and its effects on biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycogen production for biofuels by the euryhaline cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 from an oceanic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Shimpei; Nishida, Atsumi; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria and microalgae have attracted attention as an alternative carbon source for the next generation of biofuels. Glycogen abundantly accumulated in cyanobacteria is a promising feedstock which can be converted to ethanol through saccharification and fermentation processes. In addition, the utilization of marine cyanobacteria as a glycogen producer can eliminate the need for a freshwater supply. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a fast-growing marine coastal euryhaline cyanobacteria, however, the glycogen yield has not yet been determined. In the present study, the effects of light intensity, CO2 concentration, and salinity on the cell growth and glycogen content were investigated in order to maximize glycogen production in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. The optimal culture conditions for glycogen production in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 were investigated. The maximum glycogen production of 3.5 g L(-1) for 7 days (a glycogen productivity of 0.5 g L(-1) d(-1)) was obtained under a high light intensity, a high CO2 level, and a nitrogen-depleted condition in brackish water. The glycogen production performance in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 was the best ever reported in the α-polyglucan (glycogen or starch) production of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In addition, the robustness of glycogen production in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 to salinity was evaluated in seawater and freshwater. The peak of glycogen production of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 in seawater and freshwater were 3.0 and 1.8 g L(-1) in 7 days, respectively. Glycogen production in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 maintained the same level in seawater and half of the level in freshwater compared with the optimal result obtained in brackish water. We conclude that Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 has high glycogen production activity and glycogen can be provided from coastal water accompanied by a fluctuation

  9. Prevalence of job strain among Indian foundry shop floor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, G Madhan; Elangovan, S; Prasad, P S S; Krishna, P Rama; Mokkapati, Anil Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Global competition in manufacturing sector demand higher productivity levels. In this context, workers in this sector are set with high output targets, leading to job strain. In addition to the strain, hazardous conditions also prevail in some of the manufacturing processes like foundry activities. This paper attempts to appraise the prevalence of job strain among foundry shop floor workers in India with the help of Demands-Control model [8]. In this study, data was collected through a survey using 49-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) [9], a widely used and well-validated test for job strain. Then the data was subjected to statistical analysis after ascertaining the reliability. This survey has revealed that 25% of workers in foundry were experiencing high job strain. Hazardous working conditions, limited decision making authority, etc. appear to be the main contributing factors for the higher levels of strain.

  10. Accurate Maximum Power Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems Affected by Partial Shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Guerriero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A maximum power tracking algorithm exploiting operating point information gained on individual solar panels is presented. The proposed algorithm recognizes the presence of multiple local maxima in the power voltage curve of a shaded solar field and evaluates the coordinated of the absolute maximum. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evidenced by means of circuit level simulation and experimental results. Experiments evidenced that, in comparison with a standard perturb and observe algorithm, we achieve faster convergence in normal operating conditions (when the solar field is uniformly illuminated and we accurately locate the absolute maximum power point in partial shading conditions, thus avoiding the convergence on local maxima.

  11. UTILIZATION OF PINE NEEDLES AS BED MATERIAL IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID BY LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Ghosh

    Full Text Available Pine needles, which are abundantly found as underexploited biomass in coniferous forests, are responsible for fire hazards and air pollution. Utilization of pine needles as bed material in lactic acid production with solid state fermentation (SSF has been studied here. This investigation compared lactic acid production by pure strains of Lactobacilli, (1 L. delbrueckii (NCIM2025; (2 L. pentosus (NCIM 2912; (3 Lactobacillus sp. (NCIM 2734; (4 Lactobacillus sp. (NCIM2084; and a co-culture of the first two strains. The studies required 6 g per flask powdered dry pine needles as bed material, 2 g/L (inoculum, liquid production media based on pure glucose or whey substituted glucose, at 60, 80, and 120 g/L sugar levels, 37 oC, and an initial pH of 6.5. Co-culture attained a maximum lactic acid concentration of 45.10 g/L, followed by that of strain-1, 43.87 g/L and strain-4, 26.15 g/L, in 80 g/L pure glucose media. With 120g/L total sugar in whey-substituted media, the co-culture attained maximum lactic acid production of 44.88 g/L followed by that of strain-1, 43.67 g/L. The present experimental studies indicated better compatibility of pine needle bed with co-culture in solid state fermentation of lactic acid, which may prove to be an eco-friendly technology for utilization of biomass as well as minimizing fires in coniferous forests.

  12. Maximum Range of a Projectile Thrown from Constant-Speed Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    The problem of determining the angle ? at which a point mass launched from ground level with a given speed v[subscript 0] will reach a maximum distance is a standard exercise in mechanics. There are many possible ways of solving this problem, leading to the well-known answer of ? = p/4, producing a maximum range of D[subscript max] = v[superscript…

  13. Glucose and maltose metabolism in MIG1-disrupted and MAL-constitutive strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Christopher; Olsson, Lisbeth; Rønnow, B

    1997-01-01

    in a mixed glucose-maltose medium revealed that the MAL-constitutive strains were more alleviated than the single MIG1-disrupted transformant. While all transformants exhibited higher maximum specific growth rates (0.24-0.25 h(-1)) in glucose-maltose mixtures than the wild type strain (0.20 h(-1)), the MAL-constitutive...

  14. Strain characterization of FinFETs using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, B.; Hemert, T. van; Hueting, R.J.E.; Wolters, R.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal induced strain in the channel region of silicon (Si) fin-field effect transistor (FinFET) devices has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The strain originates from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of Si and titanium-nitride. The Raman map of the device region is used to determine strain in the channel after preparing the device with the focused ion beam milling. Using the Raman peak shift relative to that of relaxed Si, compressive strain values up to – 0.88% have been obtained for a 5 nm wide silicon fin. The strain is found to increase with reducing fin width though it scales less than previously reported results from holographic interferometry. In addition, finite-element method (FEM) simulations have been utilized to analyze the amount of strain generated after thermal processing. It is shown that obtained FEM simulated strain values are in good agreement with the calculated strain values obtained from Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: ► Strain is characterized in nanoscale devices with Raman spectroscopy. ► There is a fin width dependence of the originated strain. ► Strain levels obtained from this technique is in correlation with device simulations

  15. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernberg, I.; Ursing, J.

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author)

  16. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjernberg, I; Ursing, J [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Malmoe General Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author).

  17. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, R. G. P.; Nillesen, M. M.; Verrijp, C. N.; Singh, S. K.; Lammens, M. M. Y.; van der Laak, J. A. W. M.; van Wetten, H. B.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2010-02-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  18. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M [Department of Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: R.Lopata@cukz.umcn.nl

    2010-02-21

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve ({delta}p: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy ({delta}p = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  19. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L; Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M; Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B; Kapusta, L

    2010-01-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of Hungarian goose parvovirus isolates and vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Mató, Tamás; Markos, Béla; Palya, Vilmos

    2004-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to analyse goose parvovirus field isolates and vaccine strains. Two fragments of the genome were amplified. Fragment "A" represents a region of VP3 gene, while fragment "B" represents a region upstream of the VP3 gene, encompassing part of the VP1 gene. In the region of fragment "A" the deduced amino acid sequence of the strains was identical, therefore differentiation among strains could be done only at the nucleotide level, which resulted in the formation of three groups: Hungarian, West-European and Asian strains. In the region of fragment "B", separation of groups could be done by both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence level. The nucleotide sequences resulted in the same groups as for fragment "A" but with a different clustering pattern among the Hungarian strains. Within the "Hungarian" group most of the recent field isolates fell into one cluster, very closely related or identical to each other, indicating a very slow evolutionary change. The attenuated strains and field isolates from 1979/80 formed a separate cluster. When vaccine strains and field isolates were compared, two specific amino acid differences were found that can be considered as possible markers for vaccinal strains. Sequence analysis of fragment "B" seems to be a suitable method for differentiation of attenuated vaccine strains from virulent strains. Copyright 2004 Houghton Trust Ltd

  1. Characterization of indigenous lactobacillus strains for probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojgani, Naheed; Hussaini, Fatimah; Vaseji, Narges

    2015-02-01

    Probiotics are defined as adequate amount of live microorganisms able to confer health benefits on the host. Currently, most commercially available probiotic products in the market belong to genera Lactobacillus. Traditional dairy products are usually rich source of Lactobacillus strains with significant health benefits. In order to evaluate the probiotic potential of these bacteria, it is essential to assess their health benefits, efficacy, and safety. The probiotic efficacy of two Lactobacillus strains namely Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 and L. brevis LB32 was evaluated. They were previously isolated from ewes' milk in a rural area in East Azerbaijan, Iran. The selected isolates were tested for certain phenotypic characters and identified to genus and species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species specific primers. Further analysis included acid and bile resistance, antagonistic activity, cholesterol removing ability, survival in simulated gastric and upper intestine contents, aggregation and coaggregation properties. Finally, the adhering ability of the selected Lactobacillus strains to epithelial cells was tested using Caco-2 cell lines. The selected isolates tolerated bile salt concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 3%, however their coefficient of inhibition were varied. Both isolates hydrolyzed bile and grew at pH values of 3, 4, and 5, while isolate LP05 was not able to hydrolyze arginine. Based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific primers, the isolates were identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05. In contrast to simulated gastric conditions, the growth rate of the isolates in alkaline conditions of upper intestine increased significantly with the passage of time reaching its maximum in 24 hours. These 2 isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Furthermore, L. brevis LB32 was able to reduce approximately 86% of

  2. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum engine power, displacement... Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. This section describes...

  3. Competitive exclusion principle for SIS and SIR models with n strains

    OpenAIRE

    Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    We consider SIS and SIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maximum of each individual basic re...

  4. Fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) using L. plantarum BFE 5092 and L. fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Trierweiler, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables produced in Africa are sources of much needed micronutrients and fermentation is one way to enhance the shelf life of these perishable products. To prevent post-harvest losses and preserve African leafy vegetables, Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 and Lactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620...... starter strains were investigated for their application in fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) leaves. They were inoculated at 1×10(7)cfu/ml and grew to a maximum level of 10(8)cfu/ml during 24h submerged fermentation. The strains utilized simple sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, and sucrose......) in the kale to quickly reduce the pH from pH6.0 to pH3.6 within 24h. The strains continued to produce both d and l lactic acid up to 144h, reaching a maximum concentration of 4.0g/l. Fermentations with pathogens inoculated at 10(4)cfu/ml showed that the quick growth of the starters inhibited the growth...

  5. Photoacclimation of cultured strains of the cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bañares-España, E.; Kromkamp, J.C.; López-Rodas, V.; Costas, E.; Flores-Moya, A.

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa forms blooms that can consist of colonies. We have investigated how M.aeruginosa acclimatizes to changing light conditions such as can occur during blooms. Three different strains were exposed to two irradiance levels: lower (LL) and higher (HL) than the

  6. Falling balls and simple shearing strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L; Pacheco, A F

    2006-01-01

    The problem of particles falling under gravity allows us to relate Hamiltonian mechanics to such different subjects as elasticity and fluid mechanics. It is with this in mind that mechanics gives us the opportunity of introducing, in a rather simple and unusual form, some concepts such as vorticity, the incompressibility condition or simple shear strain to physics students at the undergraduate level

  7. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  8. A comparison of physiological strain of carriers in underground manual coal mines in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, R.; Dey, N.C.; Samanta, A.; Biswas, R. [University College of Medical Science, Lumbini (Nepal). Dept. of Physics

    2008-07-15

    Thirty nine healthy carriers (23-57 years of age) were investigated in underground manual coal mines in West Bengal, India during two different work spells of a single work shift. We compared physiological strain of workers <40 and {ge} 40 years of age. For both groups, mean heart rate was 124-133 beats/min, with a mean corresponding relative cardiac cost of 50-66%. Maximum aerobic capacities were estimated indirectly, following a standard step test protocol. Average oxygen consumption was 1.07-1.1 l/min, with an energy expenditure of 5.35-5.5 kcal/min among both age groups. Acceptable levels of physiological strain were well encroached, and older workers faced the maximum burden. The tasks studied were heavy to very heavy in nature. The weight of load carriage at a spontaneously chosen speed and the prevailing environmental conditions merit serious attention. There is extreme need of ergonomic interventions in reducing the postural load and musculoskeletal discomforts in this population.

  9. Strain Induced Adatom Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to sup...

  10. The maximum entropy production and maximum Shannon information entropy in enzyme kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Markovič, Rene; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate that the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) serves as a physical selection principle for the description of the most probable non-equilibrium steady states in simple enzymatic reactions. A theoretical approach is developed, which enables maximization of the density of entropy production with respect to the enzyme rate constants for the enzyme reaction in a steady state. Mass and Gibbs free energy conservations are considered as optimization constraints. In such a way computed optimal enzyme rate constants in a steady state yield also the most uniform probability distribution of the enzyme states. This accounts for the maximal Shannon information entropy. By means of the stability analysis it is also demonstrated that maximal density of entropy production in that enzyme reaction requires flexible enzyme structure, which enables rapid transitions between different enzyme states. These results are supported by an example, in which density of entropy production and Shannon information entropy are numerically maximized for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase.

  11. Solar Maximum Mission Experiment - Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry on the Solar Maximum Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Cheng, C. C.; Woodgate, B. E.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Gurman, J. B.; Hyder, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft is described. It is pointed out that the instrument, which operates in the wavelength range 1150-3600 A, has a spatial resolution of 2-3 arcsec and a spectral resolution of 0.02 A FWHM in second order. A Gregorian telescope, with a focal length of 1.8 m, feeds a 1 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometer. A polarimeter comprising rotating Mg F2 waveplates can be inserted behind the spectrometer entrance slit; it permits all four Stokes parameters to be determined. Among the observing modes are rasters, spectral scans, velocity measurements, and polarimetry. Examples of initial observations made since launch are presented.

  12. Ratchetting strain prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noban, Mohammad; Jahed, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    A time-efficient method for predicting ratchetting strain is proposed. The ratchetting strain at any cycle is determined by finding the ratchetting rate at only a few cycles. This determination is done by first defining the trajectory of the origin of stress in the deviatoric stress space and then incorporating this moving origin into a cyclic plasticity model. It is shown that at the beginning of the loading, the starting point of this trajectory coincides with the initial stress origin and approaches the mean stress, displaying a power-law relationship with the number of loading cycles. The method of obtaining this trajectory from a standard uniaxial asymmetric cyclic loading is presented. Ratchetting rates are calculated with the help of this trajectory and through the use of a constitutive cyclic plasticity model which incorporates deviatoric stresses and back stresses that are measured with respect to this moving frame. The proposed model is used to predict the ratchetting strain of two types of steels under single- and multi-step loadings. Results obtained agree well with the available experimental measurements

  13. Effect of Agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca; Arrizon, Javier; Ramirez, Jesús; Solis-Pacheco, Josué

    2007-02-01

    In this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages was performed. The three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery) and were evaluated for the beta(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the beta-glucan/ mannan ratio during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice and in YPD media (control). Fermentations were performed in shake flasks with 30 g l(-1) sugar concentration of A. tequilana juice and with the control YPD using 30 g l(-1) of glucose. The three yeasts strains showed different levels of beta-glucan and mannan when they were grown in A. tequilana juice in comparison to the YPD media. The maximum rate of cell wall lyses was 50% lower in fermentations with A. tequilana juice for yeasts isolated from tequila and mezcal than compared to the bakery yeast.

  14. Uniaxial Drawing of Graphene-PVA Nanocomposites: Improvement in Mechanical Characteristics via Strain-Induced Exfoliation of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Rahim; Habib, Amir; Akram, Muhammad Aftab; Zia, Tanveer-ul-Haq; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-stabilized graphene nanosheets (GNS) of lateral dimension ( L) ~1 μm are obtained via liquid phase exfoliation technique to prepare its composites in the PVA matrix. These composites show low levels of reinforcements due to poor alignment of GNS within the matrix as predicted by the modified Halpin-Tsai model. Drawing these composites up to 200 % strain, a significant improvement in mechanical properties is observed. Maximum values for Young's modulus and strength are ~×4 and ~×2 higher respectively than that of neat PVA. Moreover, the rate of increase of the modulus with GNS volume fraction is up to 700 GPa, higher than the values predicted using the Halpin-Tsai theory. However, alignment along with strain-induced de-aggregation of GNS within composites accounts well for the obtained results as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization.

  15. Tunable Polymer Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Inscription: Fabrication of Dual-FBG Temperature Compensated Polymer Optical Fiber Strain Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate stable wavelength tunable inscription of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). By straining the fiber during FBG inscription, we linearly tune the center wavelength over 7 nm with less than 1% strain. Above 1% strain, the tuning curve saturates and we show a maximum tuning...... of 12 nm with 2.25% strain. We use this inscription method to fabricate a dual-FBG strain sensor in a poly (methyl methacrylate) single-mode microstructured polymer optical fiber and demonstrate temperature compensated strain sensing around 850 nm....

  16. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  17. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  18. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  19. Gallic acid production under anaerobic submerged fermentation by two bacilli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zárate, Pedro; Cruz, Mario A; Montañez, Julio; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Wong-Paz, Jorge E; Belmares, Ruth E; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-12-30

    Tannase is an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of ester bonds in gallotannins such as tannic acid. In recent years, the interest on bacterial tannases has increased because of its wide applications. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) plays an important role in food tannin biotransformation, it has the ability of hydrolyse tannins in ruminants intestine. The finding of tannin hydrolysis by LAB has sparked their use as tannase producer. The bacterial strains used in the present work were identified as Bacillus subtilis AM1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1. The maximal tannase production levels were 1400 and 1239 U/L after 32 and 36 h of fermentation respectively, for B. subtilis AM1 and L. plantarum CIR1. Maximum gallic acid release was 24.16 g/L for B. subtilis AM1 and 23.73 g/L for L. plantarum CIR1. HPLC analysis showed the formation of another peaks in the retention time range of 9-14 min, which could be attributed to the formation of di or tri-galloyl glucose. According to database, the strains were identified as Bacillus subtilis AM1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1. In conclusion, both strains had the capability to produce good titres of extracellular tannase and release gallic acid.

  20. Intramyocardial strain estimation from cardiac cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakib, Ahmed; Beache, Garth M; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2015-08-01

    Functional strain is one of the important clinical indicators for the quantification of heart performance and the early detection of cardiovascular diseases, and functional strain parameters are used to aid therapeutic decisions and follow-up evaluations after cardiac surgery. A comprehensive framework for deriving functional strain parameters at the endocardium, epicardium, and mid-wall of the left ventricle (LV) from conventional cine MRI data was developed and tested. Cine data were collected using short TR-/TE-balanced steady-state free precession acquisitions on a 1.5T Siemens Espree scanner. The LV wall borders are segmented using a level set-based deformable model guided by a stochastic force derived from a second-order Markov-Gibbs random field model that accounts for the object shape and appearance features. Then, the mid-wall of the segmented LV is determined based on estimating the centerline between the endocardium and epicardium of the LV. Finally, a geometrical Laplace-based method is proposed to track corresponding points on successive myocardial contours throughout the cardiac cycle in order to characterize the strain evolutions. The method was tested using simulated phantom images with predefined point locations of the LV wall throughout the cardiac cycle. The method was tested on 30 in vivo datasets to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed framework to index functional strain parameters. The cine MRI-based model agreed with the ground truth for functional metrics to within 0.30 % for indexing the peak systolic strain change and 0.29 % (per unit time) for indexing systolic and diastolic strain rates. The method was feasible for in vivo extraction of functional strain parameters. Strain indexes of the endocardium, mid-wall, and epicardium can be derived from routine cine images using automated techniques, thereby improving the utility of cine MRI data for characterization of myocardial function. Unlike traditional texture-based tracking, the