OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
78 FR 26383 - Annual Indexing of Basic Statutory Mortgage Limits for Multifamily Housing Programs
2013-05-06
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Annual Indexing of Basic Statutory Mortgage Limits for Multifamily Housing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION:...
76 FR 79704 - Annual Indexing of Basic Statutory Mortgage Limits for Multifamily Housing Programs
2011-12-22
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Annual Indexing of Basic Statutory Mortgage Limits for Multifamily Housing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION:...
75 FR 5800 - Annual Indexing of Basic Statutory Mortgage Limits for Multifamily Housing Programs
2010-02-04
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Annual Indexing of Basic Statutory Mortgage Limits for Multifamily Housing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION:...
76 FR 10387 - Annual Indexing of Basic Statutory Mortgage Limits for Multifamily Housing Programs
2011-02-24
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Annual Indexing of Basic Statutory Mortgage Limits for Multifamily Housing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION:...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
A Note on k-Limited Maximum Base
Yang Ruishun; Yang Xiaowei
2006-01-01
The problem of k-limited maximum base was specified into two special problems of k-limited maximum base; that is, let subset D of the problem of k-limited maximum base be an independent set and a circuit of the matroid, respectively. It was proved that under this circumstance the collections of k-limited base satisfy base axioms. Then a new matroid was determined, and the problem of k-limited maximum base was transformed to the problem of maximum base of this new matroid. Aiming at the problem, two algorithms, which in essence are greedy algorithms based on former matroid, were presented for the two special problems of k-limited maximum base. They were proved to be reasonable and more efficient than the algorithm presented by Ma Zhongfan in view of the complexity of algorithm.
5 CFR 550.105 - Biweekly maximum earnings limitation.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. 550.105 Section 550.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.105 Biweekly...
5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550.106 Section 550.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual...
Radiation Pressure Acceleration: the factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy
Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Leemans, W P
2016-01-01
Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it trans...
Noise and physical limits to maximum resolution of PET images
Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S. [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Vicente, E.; Vaquero, J.J.; Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital GU ' Gregorio Maranon' , E-28007 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jose@nuc2.fis.ucm.es
2007-10-01
In this work we show that there is a limit for the maximum resolution achievable with a high resolution PET scanner, as well as for the best signal-to-noise ratio, which are ultimately related to the physical effects involved in the emission and detection of the radiation and thus they cannot be overcome with any particular reconstruction method. These effects prevent the spatial high frequency components of the imaged structures to be recorded by the scanner. Therefore, the information encoded in these high frequencies cannot be recovered by any reconstruction technique. Within this framework, we have determined the maximum resolution achievable for a given acquisition as a function of data statistics and scanner parameters, like the size of the crystals or the inter-crystal scatter. In particular, the noise level in the data as a limitation factor to yield high-resolution images in tomographs with small crystal sizes is outlined. These results have implications regarding how to decide the optimal number of voxels of the reconstructed image or how to design better PET scanners.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do the statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking investments? 1500.7 Section 1500.7 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.7 How do the...
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do the statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking investments? 225.176 Section 225.176 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...
Maximum Likelihood Position Location with a Limited Number of References
D. Munoz-Rodriguez
2011-04-01
Full Text Available A Position Location (PL scheme for mobile users on the outskirts of coverage areas is presented. The proposedmethodology makes it possible to obtain location information with only two land-fixed references. We introduce ageneral formulation and show that maximum-likelihood estimation can provide adequate PL information in thisscenario. The Root Mean Square (RMS error and error-distribution characterization are obtained for differentpropagation scenarios. In addition, simulation results and comparisons to another method are provided showing theaccuracy and the robustness of the method proposed. We study accuracy limits of the proposed methodology fordifferent propagation environments and show that even in the case of mismatch in the error variances, good PLestimation is feasible.
Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes
Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ferrara, Andrea
2017-02-01
The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼1010 M ⊙, nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds (M • ≳ 104 M ⊙) hosted in small isolated halos (M h ≲ 109 M ⊙) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies (ɛ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M •–σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high-z, but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 104–6 M ⊙, we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.
Concerning the maximum frequency limits of Gunn operators
R; F; Macpherson; G; M; Dunn; Ata; Khalid; D; R; S; Cumming
2015-01-01
The length of the transit region of a Gunn diode determines the natural frequency at which it operates in fundamental mode-the shorter the device,the higher the frequency of operation.The long-held view on Gunn diode design is that for a functioning device the minimum length of the transit region is about 1.5μm,limiting the devices to fundamental mode operation at frequencies of roughly 60 GHz.The authors posit that this theoretical restriction is a consequence of limits of the hydrodynamic models by which it was determined.Study of these devices by more advanced Monte Carlo techniques,which simulate the ballistic transport and electron-phonon interactions that govern device behaviour,offers a new lower bound of 0.5μm,which is already being approached by the experimental evidence shown in planar and vertical devices exhibiting Gunn operation at 0.6μm and 0.7μm.It is shown that the limits for Gunn domain operation are determined by the device length required for the transferred electron effect to occur(approximately 0.15μm,which as demonstrated is largely field independent)and the fundamental size of the domain(approximately 0.3μm).At this new length,operation in fundamental mode at much higher frequencies becomes possible-the Monte Carlo model used predicts power output at frequencies over 300 GHz.
75 FR 76482 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): FHA Maximum Loan Limits for 2011
2010-12-08
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): FHA Maximum Loan Limits for 2011 AGENCY: Office...: This notice announces that FHA has posted on its Web site the single-family maximum loan limits for 2011. The loan limit limits can be found at...
5 CFR 630.302 - Maximum annual leave accumulation-forty-five day limitation.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum annual leave accumulation-forty-five day limitation. 630.302 Section 630.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.302 Maximum annual leave...
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6503(a)-1 Suspension of running of... the Tax Court, the notice of deficiency so given does not suspend the running of the period...
Kim, K. M.; Smetana, P.
1990-03-01
Growth of large diameter Czochralski (CZ) silicon crystals require complete elimination of dislocations by means of Dash technique, where the seed diameter is reduced to a small size typically 3 mm in conjunction with increase in the pull rate. The maximum length of the large CZ silicon is estimated at the fracture stress limit of the seed neck diameter ( d). The maximum lengths for 200 and 300 mm CZ crystals amount to 197 and 87 cm, respectively, with d = 0.3 cm; the estimated maximum weight is 144 kg.
Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna
2014-01-01
High penetration of photovoltaic panels in distribution grid can bring the grid to its operation limits. The main focus of the paper is to determine maximum photovoltaic penetration level in the grid. Three main criteria were investigated for determining maximum penetration level of PV panels...... for this grid: even distribution of PV panels, aggregation of panels at the beginning of each feeder, and aggregation of panels at the end of each feeder. Load modeling is done using Velander formula. Since PV generation is highest in the summer due to irradiation, a summer day was chosen to determine maximum...
Maximum principle and convergence of central schemes based on slope limiters
Mehmetoglu, Orhan
2012-01-01
A maximum principle and convergence of second order central schemes is proven for scalar conservation laws in dimension one. It is well known that to establish a maximum principle a nonlinear piecewise linear reconstruction is needed and a typical choice is the minmod limiter. Unfortunately, this implies that the scheme uses a first order reconstruction at local extrema. The novelty here is that we allow local nonlinear reconstructions which do not reduce to first order at local extrema and still prove maximum principle and convergence. © 2011 American Mathematical Society.
Rannama, Indrek; Port, Kristjan; Bazanov, Boriss
2012-01-01
Maximum gears for youth category riders are limited. As a result, youth category riders are regularly compelled to ride in a high cadence regime. The aim of this study was to investigate if regular work at high cadence regime due to limited transmission in youth category riders reflects in effectual cadence at the point of maximal power generation during the 10 second sprint effort. 24 junior and youth national team cyclist’s average maximal peak power at various cadence regimes was registere...
Evaluating the time limit at maximum aerobic speed in elite swimmers. Training implications.
Renoux, J C
2001-12-01
The aim of the present study was to make use of the concepts of maximum aerobic speed (MAS) and time limit (tlim) in order to determine the relationship between these two elements, and this in an attempt to significantly improve both speed and swimming performance during a training season. To this same end, an intermittent training model was used, which was adapted to the value obtained for the time limit at maximum aerobic speed. During a 12 week training period, the maximum aerobic speed for a group of 9 top-ranking varsity swimmers was measured on two occasions, as was the tlim. The values generated indicated that: 1) there was an inverse relationship between MAS and the time this speed could be maintained, thus confirming the studies by Billat et al. (1994b); 2) a significant increase in MAS occurred over the 12 week period, although no such evolution was seen for the tlim; 3) there was an improvement in results; 4) the time limit could be used in designing a training program based on intermittent exercises. In addition, results of the present study should allow swimming coaches to draw up individualized training programs for a given swimmer by taking into consideration maximum aerobic speed, time limit and propelling efficiency.
Improved Reliability of Single-Phase PV Inverters by Limiting the Maximum Feed-in Power
Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
. The CPG control strategy is activated only when the DC input power from PV panels exceeds a specific power limit. It enables to limit the maximum feed-in power to the electric grids and also to improve the utilization of PV inverters. As a further study, this paper investigates the reliability performance...... of the power devices (e.g. IGBTs) used in PV inverters with the CPG control under different feed-in power limits. A long-term mission profile (i.e. solar irradiance and ambient temperature) based stress analysis approach is extended and applied to obtain the yearly electrical and thermal stresses of the power...
Osterloh, Frank E
2014-10-02
The Shockley-Queisser analysis provides a theoretical limit for the maximum energy conversion efficiency of single junction photovoltaic cells. But besides the semiconductor bandgap no other semiconductor properties are considered in the analysis. Here, we show that the maximum conversion efficiency is limited further by the excited state entropy of the semiconductors. The entropy loss can be estimated with the modified Sackur-Tetrode equation as a function of the curvature of the bands, the degeneracy of states near the band edges, the illumination intensity, the temperature, and the band gap. The application of the second law of thermodynamics to semiconductors provides a simple explanation for the observed high performance of group IV, III-V, and II-VI materials with strong covalent bonding and for the lower efficiency of transition metal oxides containing weakly interacting metal d orbitals. The model also predicts efficient energy conversion with quantum confined and molecular structures in the presence of a light harvesting mechanism.
Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree.
Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano
2016-01-01
Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses.
Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Muscarella, Marilena
2012-02-01
Sulphiting agents are commonly used food additives. They are not allowed in fresh meat preparations. In this work, 2250 fresh meat samples were analysed to establish the maximum concentration of sulphites that can be considered as "natural" and therefore be admitted in fresh meat preparations. The analyses were carried out by an optimised Monier-Williams Method and the positive samples confirmed by ion chromatography. Sulphite concentrations higher than the screening method LOQ (10.0 mg · kg(-1)) were found in 100 samples. Concentrations higher than 76.6 mg · kg(-1), attributable to sulphiting agent addition, were registered in 40 samples. Concentrations lower than 41.3 mg · kg(-1) were registered in 60 samples. Taking into account the distribution of sulphite concentrations obtained, it is plausible to estimate a maximum allowable limit of 40.0 mg · kg(-1) (expressed as SO(2)). Below this value the samples can be considered as "compliant".
State Park Statutory Boundaries
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...
Scaling of wingbeat frequency with body mass in bats and limits to maximum bat size.
Norberg, Ulla M Lindhe; Norberg, R Åke
2012-03-01
The ability to fly opens up ecological opportunities but flight mechanics and muscle energetics impose constraints, one of which is that the maximum body size must be kept below a rather low limit. The muscle power available for flight increases in proportion to flight muscle mass and wingbeat frequency. The maximum wingbeat frequency attainable among increasingly large animals decreases faster than the minimum frequency required, so eventually they coincide, thereby defining the maximum body mass at which the available power just matches up to the power required for sustained aerobic flight. Here, we report new wingbeat frequency data for 27 morphologically diverse bat species representing nine families, and additional data from the literature for another 38 species, together spanning a range from 2.0 to 870 g. For these species, wingbeat frequency decreases with increasing body mass as M(b)(-0.26). We filmed 25 of our 27 species in free flight outdoors, and for these the wingbeat frequency varies as M(b)(-0.30). These exponents are strikingly similar to the body mass dependency M(b)(-0.27) among birds, but the wingbeat frequency is higher in birds than in bats for any given body mass. The downstroke muscle mass is also a larger proportion of the body mass in birds. We applied these empirically based scaling functions for wingbeat frequency in bats to biomechanical theories about how the power required for flight and the power available converge as animal size increases. To this end we estimated the muscle mass-specific power required for the largest flying extant bird (12-16 kg) and assumed that the largest potential bat would exert similar muscle mass-specific power. Given the observed scaling of wingbeat frequency and the proportion of the body mass that is made up by flight muscles in birds and bats, we estimated the maximum potential body mass for bats to be 1.1-2.3 kg. The largest bats, extinct or extant, weigh 1.6 kg. This is within the range expected if it
Seymour, Roger S
2010-09-01
Effect of size of inflorescences, flowers and cones on maximum rate of heat production is analysed allometrically in 23 species of thermogenic plants having diverse structures and ranging between 1.8 and 600 g. Total respiration rate (, micromol s(-1)) varies with spadix mass (M, g) according to in 15 species of Araceae. Thermal conductance (C, mW degrees C(-1)) for spadices scales according to C = 18.5M(0.73). Mass does not significantly affect the difference between floral and air temperature. Aroids with exposed appendices with high surface area have high thermal conductance, consistent with the need to vaporize attractive scents. True flowers have significantly lower heat production and thermal conductance, because closed petals retain heat that benefits resident insects. The florets on aroid spadices, either within a floral chamber or spathe, have intermediate thermal conductance, consistent with mixed roles. Mass-specific rates of respiration are variable between species, but reach 900 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in aroid male florets, exceeding rates of all other plants and even most animals. Maximum mass-specific respiration appears to be limited by oxygen delivery through individual cells. Reducing mass-specific respiration may be one selective influence on the evolution of large size of thermogenic flowers.
Dhara, Chirag; Kleidon, Axel
2015-01-01
Convective and radiative cooling are the two principle mechanisms by which the Earth's surface transfers heat into the atmosphere and that shape surface temperature. However, this partitioning is not sufficiently constrained by energy and mass balances alone. We use a simple energy balance model in which convective fluxes and surface temperatures are determined with the additional thermodynamic limit of maximum convective power. We then show that the broad geographic variation of heat fluxes and surface temperatures in the climatological mean compare very well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis over land and ocean. We also show that the estimates depend considerably on the formulation of longwave radiative transfer and that a spatially uniform offset is related to the assumed cold temperature sink at which the heat engine operates.
Limit Distribution Theory for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of a Log-Concave Density.
Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Rufibach, Kaspar; Wellner, Jon A
2009-06-01
We find limiting distributions of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of a log-concave density, i.e. a density of the form f(0) = exp varphi(0) where varphi(0) is a concave function on R. Existence, form, characterizations and uniform rates of convergence of the MLE are given by Rufibach (2006) and Dümbgen and Rufibach (2007). The characterization of the log-concave MLE in terms of distribution functions is the same (up to sign) as the characterization of the least squares estimator of a convex density on [0, infinity) as studied by Groeneboom, Jongbloed and Wellner (2001b). We use this connection to show that the limiting distributions of the MLE and its derivative are, under comparable smoothness assumptions, the same (up to sign) as in the convex density estimation problem. In particular, changing the smoothness assumptions of Groeneboom, Jongbloed and Wellner (2001b) slightly by allowing some higher derivatives to vanish at the point of interest, we find that the pointwise limiting distributions depend on the second and third derivatives at 0 of H(k), the "lower invelope" of an integrated Brownian motion process minus a drift term depending on the number of vanishing derivatives of varphi(0) = log f(0) at the point of interest. We also establish the limiting distribution of the resulting estimator of the mode M(f(0)) and establish a new local asymptotic minimax lower bound which shows the optimality of our mode estimator in terms of both rate of convergence and dependence of constants on population values.
Time-optimal excitation of maximum quantum coherence: Physical limits and pulse sequences
Köcher, S. S.; Heydenreich, T.; Zhang, Y.; Reddy, G. N. M.; Caldarelli, S.; Yuan, H.; Glaser, S. J.
2016-04-01
Here we study the optimum efficiency of the excitation of maximum quantum (MaxQ) coherence using analytical and numerical methods based on optimal control theory. The theoretical limit of the achievable MaxQ amplitude and the minimum time to achieve this limit are explored for a set of model systems consisting of up to five coupled spins. In addition to arbitrary pulse shapes, two simple pulse sequence families of practical interest are considered in the optimizations. Compared to conventional approaches, substantial gains were found both in terms of the achieved MaxQ amplitude and in pulse sequence durations. For a model system, theoretically predicted gains of a factor of three compared to the conventional pulse sequence were experimentally demonstrated. Motivated by the numerical results, also two novel analytical transfer schemes were found: Compared to conventional approaches based on non-selective pulses and delays, double-quantum coherence in two-spin systems can be created twice as fast using isotropic mixing and hard spin-selective pulses. Also it is proved that in a chain of three weakly coupled spins with the same coupling constants, triple-quantum coherence can be created in a time-optimal fashion using so-called geodesic pulses.
Marczak Monika
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between lipophilicity and maximum residue limit (MRL value specified for veterinary drugs in the fatty tissue of various animal species. The analysis was performed on a group of 73 compounds with different modes of action and MRL values determined for the fatty tissue of animals. Additionally, the logarithm of water/organic phase partition ratio (LogP and the ratio of ionised and unionised substance in buffer with pH 7.4 (LogD7.4 were calculated. The main analysis was performed after the division of the whole group into six fractions. The linear correlation and regression analysis were used to determine the indirect relationship between the mean arithmetic value of LogP or LogD7.4 in selected fractions and related LogMRL of the drugs tested. The calculations revealed a linear correlation between fractioned lipophilicity and LogMRL values for the analysed compounds. The existence of indirect relationship between lipophilicity and MRL values determined for fatty tissue was confirmed.
Maximum Parsimony and the Skewness Test: A Simulation Study of the Limits of Applicability
Määttä, Jussi; Roos, Teemu
2016-01-01
The maximum parsimony (MP) method for inferring phylogenies is widely used, but little is known about its limitations in non-asymptotic situations. This study employs large-scale computations with simulated phylogenetic data to estimate the probability that MP succeeds in finding the true phylogeny for up to twelve taxa and 256 characters. The set of candidate phylogenies are taken to be unrooted binary trees; for each simulated data set, the tree lengths of all (2n − 5)!! candidates are computed to evaluate quantities related to the performance of MP, such as the probability of finding the true phylogeny, the probability that the tree with the shortest length is unique, the probability that the true phylogeny has the shortest tree length, and the expected inverse of the number of trees sharing the shortest length. The tree length distributions are also used to evaluate and extend the skewness test of Hillis for distinguishing between random and phylogenetic data. The results indicate, for example, that the critical point after which MP achieves a success probability of at least 0.9 is roughly around 128 characters. The skewness test is found to perform well on simulated data and the study extends its scope to up to twelve taxa. PMID:27035667
Pesticide food safety standards as companions to tolerances and maximum residue limits
Carl K Winter; Elizabeth A Jara
2015-01-01
Alowable levels for pesticide residues in foods, known as tolerances in the US and as maximum residue limits (MRLs) in much of the world, are widely yet inappropriately perceived as levels of safety concern. A novel approach to develop scientiifcaly defensible levels of safety concern is presented and an example to determine acute and chronic pesticide food safety standard (PFSS) levels for the fungicide captan on strawberries is provided. Using this approach, the chronic PFSS level for captan on strawberries was determined to be 2000 mg kg–1 and the acute PFSS level was determined to be 250 mg kg–1. Both levels are far above the existing tolerance and MRLs that commonly range from 3 to 20 mg kg–1, and provide evidence that captan residues detected at levels greater than the tolerance or MRLs are not of acute or chronic health concern even though they represent violative residues. The beneifts of developing the PFSS approach to serve as a companion to existing tolerances/MRLs include a greater understanding concerning the health signiifcance, if any, from exposure to violative pesticide residues. In addition, the PFSS approach can be universaly applied to al potential pesticide residues on al food commodities, can be modiifed by speciifc jurisdictions to take into account differences in food consumption practices, and can help prioritize food residue monitoring by identifying the pesticide/commodity combinations of the greatest potential food safety concern and guiding development of ifeld level analytical methods to detect pesticide residues on prioritized pesticide/commodity combinations.
The Betz-Joukowsky limit for the maximum power coefficient of wind turbines
Okulov, Valery; van Kuik, G.A.M.
2009-01-01
The article addresses to a history of an important scientific result in wind energy. The maximum efficiency of an ideal wind turbine rotor is well known as the ‘Betz limit’, named after the German scientist that formulated this maximum in 1920. Also Lanchester, a British scientist, is associated...
17 CFR 200.2 - Statutory functions.
2010-04-01
... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization and Program Management § 200.2 Statutory... interest and the interest of investors and consumers. The Act generally limits a public-utility holding... represent the debtors by proscribing certain relationships that could conflict with proper exercise...
Maximum detection range limitation of pulse laser radar with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array
Luo, Hanjun; Xu, Benlian; Xu, Huigang; Chen, Jingbo; Fu, Yadan
2015-05-01
When designing and evaluating the performance of laser radar system, maximum detection range achievable is an essential parameter. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model of maximum detection range for simulating the Geiger-mode laser radar's ranging performance. Based on the laser radar equation and the requirement of the minimum acceptable detection probability, and assuming the primary electrons triggered by the echo photons obey Poisson statistics, the maximum range theoretical model is established. By using the system design parameters, the influence of five main factors, namely emitted pulse energy, noise, echo position, atmospheric attenuation coefficient, and target reflectivity on the maximum detection range are investigated. The results show that stronger emitted pulse energy, lower noise level, more front echo position in the range gate, higher atmospheric attenuation coefficient, and higher target reflectivity can result in greater maximum detection range. It is also shown that it's important to select the minimum acceptable detection probability, which is equivalent to the system signal-to-noise ratio for producing greater maximum detection range and lower false-alarm probability.
2012-01-01
We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are ...
Shurtleff, Amy C; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S; Bavari, Sina
2012-12-01
We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review.
Jean Patterson
2012-12-01
Full Text Available We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4 containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review.
Maximum acceptable inherent buoyancy limit for aircrew/passenger helicopter immersion suit systems.
Brooks, C J
1988-12-01
Helicopter crew and passengers flying over cold water wear immersion suits to provide hypothermic protection in case of ditching in cold water. The suits and linings have trapped air in the material to provide the necessary insulation and are thus very buoyant. By paradox, this buoyancy may be too much for a survivor to overcome in escaping from the cabin of a rapidly sinking inverted helicopter. The Canadian General Standard Board requested that research be conducted to investigate what should be the maximum inherent buoyancy in an immersion suit that would not inhibit escape, yet would provide adequate thermal insulation. This experiment reports on 12 subjects who safely escaped with 146N (33 lbf) of added buoyancy from a helicopter underwater escape trainer. It discusses the logic for and recommendation that the inherent buoyancy in a helicopter crew/passenger immersion suit system should not exceed this figure.
Maximum precision closed-form solution for localizing diffraction-limited spots in noisy images.
Larkin, Joshua D; Cook, Peter R
2012-07-30
Super-resolution techniques like PALM and STORM require accurate localization of single fluorophores detected using a CCD. Popular localization algorithms inefficiently assume each photon registered by a pixel can only come from an area in the specimen corresponding to that pixel (not from neighboring areas), before iteratively (slowly) fitting a Gaussian to pixel intensity; they fail with noisy images. We present an alternative; a probability distribution extending over many pixels is assigned to each photon, and independent distributions are joined to describe emitter location. We compare algorithms, and recommend which serves best under different conditions. At low signal-to-noise ratios, ours is 2-fold more precise than others, and 2 orders of magnitude faster; at high ratios, it closely approximates the maximum likelihood estimate.
Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Guan, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Bras, R. L.; Simmons, C. T.
2015-12-01
Quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) and its partition over regions of heterogeneous topography and canopy poses a challenge using traditional approaches. In this study, we report the results of a novel field experiment design guided by the Maximum Entropy Production model of ET (MEP-ET), formulated for estimating evaporation and transpiration from homogeneous soil and canopy. A catchment with complex terrain and patchy vegetation in South Australia was instrumented to measure temperature, humidity and net radiation at soil and canopy surfaces. Performance of the MEP-ET model to quantify transpiration and soil evaporation was evaluated during wet and dry conditions with independently and directly measured transpiration from sapflow and soil evaporation using the Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB). MEP-ET transpiration shows remarkable agreement with that obtained through sapflow measurements during wet conditions, but consistently overestimates the flux during dry periods. However, an additional term introduced to the original MEP-ET model accounting for higher stomatal regulation during dry spells, based on differences between leaf and air vapor pressure deficits and temperatures, significantly improves the model performance. On the other hand, MEP-ET soil evaporation is in good agreement with that from BREB regardless of moisture conditions. The experimental design allows a plot and tree scale quantification of evaporation and transpiration respectively. This study confirms for the first time that the MEP-ET originally developed for homogeneous open bare soil and closed canopy can be used for modeling ET over heterogeneous land surfaces. Furthermore, we show that with the addition of an empirical function simulating the plants ability to regulate transpiration, and based on the same measurements of temperature and humidity, the method can produce reliable estimates of ET during both wet and dry conditions without compromising its parsimony.
Zile, M R; Izzi, G; Gaasch, W H
1991-02-01
We tested the hypothesis that maximum systolic elastance (Emax) fails to detect a decline in left ventricular (LV) contractile function when diastolic dysfunction is present. Canine hearts were studied in an isolated blood-perfused heart apparatus (isovolumic LV); contractile dysfunction was produced by 60 or 90 minutes of global ischemia, followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion. Nine normal hearts underwent 60 minutes of ischemia, and five underwent 90 minutes of ischemia. After the ischemia-reperfusion sequence, developed pressure, pressure-volume area, and myocardial ATP level were significantly less than those at baseline in all 14 hearts. In the group undergoing 60 minutes of ischemia, LV diastolic pressure did not increase, whereas Emax decreased from 5.2 +/- 2.5 to 2.9 +/- 1.4 mm Hg/ml (p less than 0.05). In the group undergoing 90 minutes of ischemia, diastolic pressure increased (from 10 +/- 2 to 37 +/- 20 mm Hg, p less than 0.05), and Emax did not change significantly (from 5.1 +/- 4.3 to 4.3 +/- 2.5 mm Hg/ml). A second series of experiments was performed in 13 hearts with pressure-overload hypertrophy (aortic-band model with echocardiography and catheterization studies before the ischemia-reperfusion protocol). Five had evidence for pump failure, whereas eight remained compensated. After 60 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion, developed pressure, pressure-volume area, and myocardial ATP level were significantly less than those at baseline in all 13 hearts. In the group with compensated LV hypertrophy, LV diastolic pressure did not change, whereas Emax decreased from 6.9 +/- 3.0 to 3.1 +/- 2.3 mm Hg/ml (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Longitudinal Examination of Age-Predicted Symptom-Limited Exercise Maximum Heart Rate
Zhu, Na; Suarez, Jose; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Crow, Richard S.; Bouchard, Claude; Haskell, William; Jacobs, David R.
2010-01-01
Purpose To estimate the association of age with maximal heart rate (MHR). Methods Data were obtained in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants were black and white men and women aged 18-30 in 1985-86 (year 0). A symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test was completed at years 0, 7, and 20 by 4969, 2583, and 2870 participants, respectively. After exclusion 9622 eligible tests remained. Results In all 9622 tests, estimated MHR (eMHR, beats/minute) had a quadratic relation to age in the age range 18 to 50 years, eMHR=179+0.29*age-0.011*age2. The age-MHR association was approximately linear in the restricted age ranges of consecutive tests. In 2215 people who completed both year 0 and 7 tests (age range 18 to 37), eMHR=189–0.35*age; and in 1574 people who completed both year 7 and 20 tests (age range 25 to 50), eMHR=199–0.63*age. In the lowest baseline BMI quartile, the rate of decline was 0.20 beats/minute/year between years 0-7 and 0.51 beats/minute/year between years 7-20; while in the highest baseline BMI quartile there was a linear rate of decline of approximately 0.7 beats/minute/year over the full age of 18 to 50 years. Conclusion Clinicians making exercise prescriptions should be aware that the loss of symptom-limited MHR is much slower at young adulthood and more pronounced in later adulthood. In particular, MHR loss is very slow in those with lowest BMI below age 40. PMID:20639723
Page STATUTORY LIMITATIONS TO TESTAMENTARY FREEDOM ...
Fr. Ikenga
Scholarly Works. Paper 950 ..... required for his or her maintenance or not.42 Section 2(3) goes on to stipulate that all applications ... deceased testator's spouse or civil partner, former spouse who has not remarried or civil partner who has not ...
Kinoshita, Takashi, E-mail: tkino@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kawayama, Tomotaka, E-mail: kawayama_tomotaka@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Imamura, Youhei, E-mail: mamura_youhei@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Sakazaki, Yuki, E-mail: sakazaki@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Hirai, Ryo, E-mail: hirai_ryou@kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ishii, Hidenobu, E-mail: shii_hidenobu@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Suetomo, Masashi, E-mail: jin_t_f_c@yahoo.co.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Matsunaga, Kazuko, E-mail: kmatsunaga@kouhoukai.or.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Azuma, Koichi, E-mail: azuma@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori, E-mail: kimichan@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Hoshino, Tomoaki, E-mail: hoshino@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)
2015-04-15
Highlights: •It is often to use computed tomography (CT) scan for diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. •CT scan is more expensive and higher. •A plane chest radiography more simple and cheap. Moreover, it is useful as detection of pulmonary emphysema, but not airflow limitation. •Our study demonstrated that the maximum inspiratory and expiratory plane chest radiography technique could detect severe airflow limitations. •We believe that the technique is helpful to diagnose the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. -- Abstract: Background: The usefulness of paired maximum inspiratory and expiratory (I/E) plain chest radiography (pCR) for diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still unclear. Objectives: We examined whether measurement of the I/E ratio using paired I/E pCR could be used for detection of airflow limitation in patients with COPD. Methods: Eighty patients with COPD (GOLD stage I = 23, stage II = 32, stage III = 15, stage IV = 10) and 34 control subjects were enrolled. The I/E ratios of frontal and lateral lung areas, and lung distance between the apex and base on pCR views were analyzed quantitatively. Pulmonary function parameters were measured at the same time. Results: The I/E ratios for the frontal lung area (1.25 ± 0.01), the lateral lung area (1.29 ± 0.01), and the lung distance (1.18 ± 0.01) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in COPD patients compared with controls (1.31 ± 0.02 and 1.38 ± 0.02, and 1.22 ± 0.01, respectively). The I/E ratios in frontal and lateral areas, and lung distance were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in severe (GOLD stage III) and very severe (GOLD stage IV) COPD as compared to control subjects, although the I/E ratios did not differ significantly between severe and very severe COPD. Moreover, the I/E ratios were significantly correlated with pulmonary function parameters. Conclusions: Measurement of I/E ratios on paired I/E pCR is simple and
Liang Xu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming to reduce the number of crashes caused by speeding at night on road section with a crosswalk, a study was conducted on the maximum speed limit and safe average luminance at night. In order to investigate the potential relationship between drivers’ recognitive characteristics and driving speed under different road lighting features, data of remaining driving time (period from the time that crossing pedestrian is recognized to the time that vehicle arrives at crosswalk with an uniform speed were recorded. The results of the data analysis show that it is more difficult for divers to recognize crossing pedestrian at night when a single pedestrian is statistic and wears dark clothes. The remaining driving time decreases with the increase of driving speed and the decrease of road luminance. With the collected data, several multivariate nonlinear regression models were established to capture the relationship among the variables of remaining driving time at night, the driving speed, and the average luminance. Then the modeling results were used to develop the reasonable speed limit and safe average luminance by physical equations. The case studies are also introduced at the end of the paper.
Eugen Nicolaescu
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Lately, more and more analysts have remarked different activities susceptible to fraud or/and complicity between the boards of certain big companies and accountants/ auditors, which ended up with handing in untrue financial statements, the main indicators being mystified and rendering unreal images. It is obvious that the authorities in real estates have mainly adopted solutions that aimed at ignoring the procedure in accordance with which the same company should not offer both accounting services and audit services, or sometimes even fiscal consulting to the same client. Thus, statutory audit has acquired more importance, and the regulation has become more stretched and was included in the legislation related to trading companies and special legislation: real estates, banking sector, insurances and re-insurances, criteria for great tax payers. The statutory audit performed only by financial auditors was accepted by the E.U. under surveillance through E.C. Directive 3/2006, which required for a new additional legislation with supplementary requirements regarding the job itself. In the last year, people have discussed about a new Directive or even Regulation that is meant to adjust strongly the statutory audit to a dangerous component for a liberal profession, namely the involvement of the state bodies in the job description related to financial auditor. Such an intention is a sort of nationalization of this profession, a return in time and the waiving of all the achievements of the profession. In this context, it is natural to think of the future of statutory audit.
Janská, Veronika; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytrý, Milan; Divíšek, Jan; Anenkhonov, Oleg; Korolyuk, Andrey; Lashchinskyi, Nikolai; Culek, Martin
2017-03-01
We modelled the European distribution of vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using present-day data from Siberia, a region hypothesized to be a modern analogue of European glacial climate. Distribution models were calibrated with current climate using 6274 vegetation-plot records surveyed in Siberia. Out of 22 initially used vegetation types, good or moderately good models in terms of statistical validation and expert-based evaluation were computed for 18 types, which were then projected to European climate at the LGM. The resulting distributions were generally consistent with reconstructions based on pollen records and dynamic vegetation models. Spatial predictions were most reliable for steppe, forest-steppe, taiga, tundra, fens and bogs in eastern and central Europe, which had LGM climate more similar to present-day Siberia. The models for western and southern Europe, regions with a lower degree of climatic analogy, were only reliable for mires and steppe vegetation, respectively. Modelling LGM vegetation types for the wetter and warmer regions of Europe would therefore require gathering calibration data from outside Siberia. Our approach adds value to the reconstruction of vegetation at the LGM, which is limited by scarcity of pollen and macrofossil data, suggesting where specific habitats could have occurred. Despite the uncertainties of climatic extrapolations and the difficulty of validating the projections for vegetation types, the integration of palaeodistribution modelling with other approaches has a great potential for improving our understanding of biodiversity patterns during the LGM.
Beltrán, M C; Romero, T; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P
2013-01-01
The Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test (Charm MRL BLTET; Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) is an immunoreceptor assay utilizing Rapid One-Step Assay lateral flow technology that detects...
STATUTORY AUDIT AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT
Suciu Gheorghe
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The financial audit has two components: the statutory audit (mandatory for certain companies made by financial auditors and the optional audit which can be done by other professionals (chartered accountants, evaluators, and tax matters members. The statutory audit represents the examination done by an authorized and independent professional of the financial statement of a company, in order to express a motivated opinion regarding the position, situation and financial performance. The statutory audit is established by law for those companies which have a significant public impact. The financial statement represents the management’s statement through which the firm communicates with the stakeholders: shareholders, creditors, investors, clients, debtors, contractors, employees, state institutions and thepopulation. The objective of the performance audit is the efficiency and effectiveness with which the audited company uses its resources in order to accomplish its responsibilities. The audit committees have a greater responsibility especially after the scandals in the US (Enron, WorldCom, Adelphia, through the Sarbanes-Oxley act from 2002. The audit committee has the following attributions: it monitors the financial reports made by the executive management, helps internal investigations, monitors and evaluates the activity of the internal audit department, gives recommendations to the administration council regarding the problems encountered when communicating with the shareholders, replacing or extending the mandate of the external auditor and authorizes the approval of this person’s fees.
Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Moser, Martin
2013-01-01
We investigate the maximum increment of a random walk with heavy-tailed jump size distribution. Here heavy-tailedness is understood as regular variation of the finite-dimensional distributions. The jump sizes constitute a strictly stationary sequence. Using a continuous mapping argument acting on...... on the point processes of the normalized jump sizes, we prove that the maximum increment of the random walk converges in distribution to a Fréchet distributed random variable....
76 FR 42684 - Statutory Invention Registration
2011-07-19
... Patent and Trademark Office Statutory Invention Registration ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... drawings be published as a statutory invention registration (SIR). A published SIR is not a patent. It has... obtaining patents on the inventions claimed in the applications. However, given that 37 CFR 1.211 requires...
5 CFR 551.214 - Statutory exclusion.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory exclusion. 551.214 Section 551.214 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.214 Statutory exclusion....
39 CFR 3002.2 - Statutory functions.
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory functions. 3002.2 Section 3002.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.2 Statutory functions. (a) Areas of jurisdiction. The Commission has jurisdiction over changes in postal rates and fees under 39 U.S.C. 3622,...
15 CFR 200.100 - Statutory functions.
2010-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory functions. 200.100 Section..., PROCEDURES, AND FEES § 200.100 Statutory functions. (a) The National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) has been assigned the following functions (15 U.S.C. 271 et seq.): (1) The custody,...
1 CFR 21.52 - Statutory material.
2010-01-01
... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory material. 21.52 Section 21.52 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF... material. (a) United States Code. All citations to statutory authority shall include a United States Code...
49 CFR 1101.1 - Statutory definitions.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory definitions. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE DEFINITIONS AND CONSTRUCTION § 1101.1 Statutory definitions. The definitions contained in section 10102...
45 CFR 1225.21 - Statutory rights.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory rights. 1225.21 Section 1225.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Statutory rights. (a) A Volunteer, trainee, or applicant is authorized to file a civil action in...
Lorenz, Ralph D
2010-05-12
The 'two-box model' of planetary climate is discussed. This model has been used to demonstrate consistency of the equator-pole temperature gradient on Earth, Mars and Titan with what would be predicted from a principle of maximum entropy production (MEP). While useful for exposition and for generating first-order estimates of planetary heat transports, it has too low a resolution to investigate climate systems with strong feedbacks. A two-box MEP model agrees well with the observed day : night temperature contrast observed on the extrasolar planet HD 189733b.
Kaiadi, Mehrzad; Tunestål, Per; Johansson, Bengt
2010-01-01
High EGR rates combined with turbocharging has been identified as a promising way to increase the maximum load and efficiency of heavy duty spark ignition Natural Gas engines. With stoichiometric conditions a three way catalyst can be used which means that regulated emissions can be kept at very low levels. Most of the heavy duty NG engines are diesel engines which are converted for SI operation. These engine's components are in common with the diesel-engine which put limits on higher exh...
Comparative study on maximum residue limits standards of pesticides in peanuts%花生农药最大残留限量标准比对研究
丁小霞; 李培武; 周海燕; 李娟; 白艺珍
2011-01-01
It is important to protect the health of consumers and standardize the agricultural products in trading market. One essential aspect is to develop and implement a standardized scientific and applicable maximum residue limits( MRL) pesticides. A comparative study of maximum residue limits standards of pesticides in peanuts was carried out among China,Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) , Unite States, Japan and European Union. Corre-sponding suggestion was put forward after analyzing the problems in maximum residue limit standards of pesticides in China.%制定和实施科学合理的农药最大残留限量标准是保护消费者健康和规范农产品国际贸易的重要手段.对我国、国际食品法典委员会、花生主产国美国以及我国花生主要出口目的国日本和欧盟的花生农药最大残留限量标准进行了系统比较,分析了我国花生农药最大残留限量标准存在的问题,提出了相应的建议.
2 CFR 175.10 - Statutory requirement.
2010-01-01
... trafficking in persons during the period of time that the award is in effect; (b) Procures a commercial sex... Reserved AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS § 175.10 Statutory requirement. In each agency award...
Held, Louis F.; Pritchard, Ernest I.
1946-01-01
An investigation was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of utilizing the high-performance characteristics of triptane and xylidines blended with 28-R fuel in order to increase fuel economy by the use of high compression ratios and maximum-economy spark setting. Full-scale single-cylinder knock tests were run with 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark settings at compression ratios of 6.9, 8.0, and 10.0, and with two inlet-air temperatures. The fuels tested consisted of triptane, four triptane and one xylidines blend with 28-R, and 28-R fuel alone. Indicated specific fuel consumption at lean mixtures was decreased approximately 17 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 and maximum-economy spark setting, as compared to that obtained with a compression ratio of 6.9 and normal spark setting. When compression ratio was increased from 6.9 to 10.0 at an inlet-air temperature of 150 F, normal spark setting, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.065, 55-percent triptane was required with 28-R fuel to maintain the knock-limited brake power level obtained with 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.9. Brake specific fuel consumption was decreased 17.5 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 relative to that obtained at a compression ratio of 6.9. Approximately similar results were noted at an inlet-air temperature of 250 F. For concentrations up through at least 20 percent, triptane can be more efficiently used at normal than at maximum-economy spark setting to maintain a constant knock-limited power output over the range of compression ratios tested.
Grujicic, M.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.
2015-01-01
Our recently developed multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the process optimization for the attainment of maximum ballistic limit within the weld. The original model consists of six modules, each dedicated to handling a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e., (a) electro-dynamics of the welding gun; (b) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler metal consumable electrode to the weld; (c) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (d) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; (e) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties; and (f) spatial distribution of the material ballistic limit. In the present work, the model is upgraded through the introduction of the seventh module in recognition of the fact that identification of the optimum GMAW process parameters relative to the attainment of the maximum ballistic limit within the weld region entails the use of advanced optimization and statistical sensitivity analysis methods and tools. The upgraded GMAW process model is next applied to the case of butt welding of MIL A46100 (a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel) workpieces using filler metal electrodes made of the same material. The predictions of the upgraded GMAW process model pertaining to the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt weld are found to be consistent with general expectations and prior observations.
Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Umenei, Aghuinyue Esai
2014-07-07
In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates.
42 CFR 489.1 - Statutory basis.
2010-10-01
... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL General Provisions § 489.1 Statutory basis... services covered under Medicare and the providers that may be reimbursed for furnishing those services....
28 CFR 33.2 - Statutory authority.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory authority. 33.2 Section 33.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice...-115, Pub. L. 96-157, and Pub. L. 98-473) (hereinafter referred to as the Justice Assistance Act...
32 CFR 507.5 - Statutory authority.
2010-07-01
... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS MANUFACTURE AND SALE OF DECORATIONS, MEDALS, BADGES, INSIGNIA, COMMERCIAL USE OF HERALDIC DESIGNS AND HERALDIC QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM Introduction § 507.5 Statutory authority. (a) The...
29 CFR 780.501 - Statutory provision.
2010-07-01
..., PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or... Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Introductory § 780.501 Statutory provision. Section 13(a)(14) of the Fair..., fermenting, bulking, rebulking, sorting, grading, aging, and baling) of such tobacco, prior to the...
20 CFR 61.1 - Statutory provisions
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions 61.1 Section 61.1 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY... of workers' compensation benefits paid under the Defense Base Act (42 U.S.C. 1651 et seq.), or under...
5 CFR 792.101 - Statutory requirements.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory requirements. 792.101 Section 792.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... services shall make optimal use of existing government facilities, services, and skills. ...
36 CFR 14.70 - Statutory authority.
2010-07-01
... distribution of electrical power, and for poles and lines for communication purposes and for radio, television...-OF-WAY Power Transmission Lines, General § 14.70 Statutory authority. (a) The Act of February 15... electrical plants, poles, and lines for the generation and distribution of electrical power, and...
37 CFR 1.293 - Statutory invention registration.
2010-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory invention... Public Use Proceedings § 1.293 Statutory invention registration. (a) An applicant for an original patent... specification and drawings be published as a statutory invention registration. Any such request must be signed...
37 CFR 1.297 - Publication of statutory invention registration.
2010-07-01
... invention registration. 1.297 Section 1.297 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Protests and Public Use Proceedings § 1.297 Publication of statutory invention registration. (a) If the request for a statutory invention registration is approved the statutory invention...
Rama, Aarti; Kesari, Shreekant; Das, Pradeep; Kumar, Vijay
2017-07-24
Extensive application of routine insecticide i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India, had evoked the problem of resistance/tolerance against DDT, eventually nullifying the DDT dependent strategies to control this vector. Because tolerating an hour-long exposure to DDT is not challenging enough for the resistant P. argentipes, estimating susceptibility by exposing sand flies to insecticide for just an hour becomes a trivial and futile task.Therefore, this bioassay study was carried out to investigate the maximum limit of exposure time to which DDT resistant P. argentipes can endure the effect of DDT for their survival. The mortality rate of laboratory-reared DDT resistant strain P. argentipes exposed to DDT was studied at discriminating time intervals of 60 min and it was concluded that highly resistant sand flies could withstand up to 420 min of exposure to this insecticide. Additionally, the lethal time for female P. argentipes was observed to be higher than for males suggesting that they are highly resistant to DDT's toxicity. Our results support the monitoring of tolerance limit with respect to time and hence points towards an urgent need to change the World Health Organization's protocol for susceptibility identification in resistant P. argentipes.
Potvin, Jean; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Shadwick, Robert E
2012-01-01
Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti) and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals), the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting individual prey
Jean Potvin
Full Text Available Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals, the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae, fin (Balaenoptera physalus, blue (Balaenoptera musculus and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting
26 CFR 1.823-6 - Determination of statutory underwriting income or loss.
2010-04-01
... of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.823-6 Determination of statutory underwriting income... provided by subdivision (v) of this subparagraph. (ii) Limitations. Amounts representing return premiums... matter of actual practice, are paid to subscribers or policyholders who terminate their contracts....
Dodrill, Michael J.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Haye, John W
2016-01-01
The cold and clear water conditions present below many large dams create ideal conditions for the development of economically important salmonid fisheries. Many of these tailwater fisheries have experienced declines in the abundance and condition of large trout species, yet the causes of these declines remain uncertain. Here, we develop, assess, and apply a drift-foraging bioenergetics model to identify the factors limiting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth in a large tailwater. We explored the relative importance of temperature, prey quantity, and prey size by constructing scenarios where these variables, both singly and in combination, were altered. Predicted growth matched empirical mass-at-age estimates, particularly for younger ages, demonstrating that the model accurately describes how current temperature and prey conditions interact to determine rainbow trout growth. Modeling scenarios that artificially inflated prey size and abundance demonstrate that rainbow trout growth is limited by the scarcity of large prey items and overall prey availability. For example, shifting 10% of the prey biomass to the 13 mm (large) length class, without increasing overall prey biomass, increased lifetime maximum mass of rainbow trout by 88%. Additionally, warmer temperatures resulted in lower predicted growth at current and lower levels of prey availability; however, growth was similar across all temperatures at higher levels of prey availability. Climate change will likely alter flow and temperature regimes in large rivers with corresponding changes to invertebrate prey resources used by fish. Broader application of drift-foraging bioenergetics models to build a mechanistic understanding of how changes to habitat conditions and prey resources affect growth of salmonids will benefit management of tailwater fisheries.
Brigham-Grette, J.; Gualtieri, L.M.; Glushkova, O.Y.; Hamilton, T.D.; Mostoller, D.; Kotov, A.
2003-01-01
The Pekulney Mountains and adjacent Tanyurer River valley are key regions for examining the nature of glaciation across much of northeast Russia. Twelve new cosmogenic isotope ages and 14 new radiocarbon ages in concert with morphometric analyses and terrace stratigraphy constrain the timing of glaciation in this region of central Chukotka. The Sartan Glaciation (Last Glacial Maximum) was limited in extent in the Pekulney Mountains and dates to ???20,000 yr ago. Cosmogenic isotope ages > 30,000 yr as well as non-finite radiocarbon ages imply an estimated age no younger than the Zyryan Glaciation (early Wisconsinan) for large sets of moraines found in the central Tanyurer Valley. Slope angles on these loess-mantled ridges are less than a few degrees and crest widths are an order of magnitude greater than those found on the younger Sartan moraines. The most extensive moraines in the lower Tanyurer Valley are most subdued implying an even older, probable middle Pleistocene age. This research provides direct field evidence against Grosswald's Beringian ice-sheet hypothesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.
1984-10-19
A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.
Beltrán, M C; Romero, T; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P
2013-05-01
The Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test (Charm MRL BLTET; Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) is an immunoreceptor assay utilizing Rapid One-Step Assay lateral flow technology that detects β-lactam or tetracycline drugs in raw commingled cow milk at or below European Union maximum residue levels (EU-MRL). The Charm MRL BLTET test procedure was recently modified (dilution in buffer and longer incubation) by the manufacturers to be used with raw ewe and goat milk. To assess the Charm MRL BLTET test for the detection of β-lactams and tetracyclines in milk of small ruminants, an evaluation study was performed at Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Animal of Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain). The test specificity and detection capability (CCβ) were studied following Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Specificity results obtained in this study were optimal for individual milk free of antimicrobials from ewes (99.2% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) and goats (97.9% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) along the entire lactation period regardless of whether the results were visually or instrumentally interpreted. Moreover, no positive results were obtained when a relatively high concentration of different substances belonging to antimicrobial families other than β-lactams and tetracyclines were present in ewe and goat milk. For both types of milk, the CCβ calculated was lower or equal to EU-MRL for amoxicillin (4 µg/kg), ampicillin (4 µg/kg), benzylpenicillin (≤ 2 µg/kg), dicloxacillin (30 µg/kg), oxacillin (30 µg/kg), cefacetrile (≤ 63 µg/kg), cefalonium (≤ 10 µg/kg), cefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), desacetylcefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), cefazolin (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefoperazone (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefquinome (20 µg/kg), ceftiofur (≤ 50 µg/kg), desfuroylceftiofur (≤ 50µg/kg), and cephalexin (≤ 50 µg/kg). However, this test could neither detect cloxacillin nor nafcillin at or below EU-MRL (CCβ >30 µg/kg). The
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
48 CFR 241.103 - Statutory and delegated authority.
2010-10-01
... 241.103 Statutory and delegated authority. (1) The contracting officer may enter into a utility... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory and delegated authority. 241.103 Section 241.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...
49 CFR 577.9 - Conformity to statutory requirements.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conformity to statutory requirements. 577.9 Section 577.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... NOTIFICATION § 577.9 Conformity to statutory requirements. A notification that does not conform to...
18 CFR 706.212 - Miscellaneous statutory provisions.
2010-04-01
... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.212 Miscellaneous statutory provisions. The attention of each employee is directed to the following statutory provisions: (a... Government Service. (b) Chapter 11 of Title 18, United States Code, relating to bribery, graft and...
Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Herrmann, O.E.
1990-01-01
An algorithm based on an alternative scheduling approach for iterative acyclic and cyclid DFGs (data-flow graphs) with limited resources that exploits inter- and intra-iteration parallelism is presented. The method is based on guiding the scheduling algorithm with the information supplied by a
Forster, Christine
2014-09-01
This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.
37 CFR 1.296 - Withdrawal of request for publication of statutory invention registration.
2010-07-01
... publication of statutory invention registration. 1.296 Section 1.296 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... for publication of statutory invention registration. A request for a statutory invention registration... statutory invention registration issued pursuant to § 1.294(c) by filing a request to withdraw the request...
Military Officer Personnel Management: Key Concepts and Statutory Provisions
2016-05-10
Military Officer Personnel Management : Key Concepts and Statutory Provisions Lawrence Kapp Specialist in Military Manpower Policy May 10......Congressional Research Service Summary Congress and the executive branch are currently considering changes to the officer personnel management system
Application of goal programming technique in government statutory ...
Application of goal programming technique in government statutory budget in Anambra State. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... data obtained from the 15 communities of Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra State.
Recovery in England: transforming statutory services?
Perkins, Rachel; Slade, Mike
2012-02-01
English mental health policy has explicitly supported a focus on recovery since 2001. More recently, this has been elaborated through policy support for social inclusion, employment and well-being. We review several drivers for this political orientation, including a refocusing of the role of health services as a whole from treating illnesses to helping people to make the most of their lives, the shift to greater power for the individual, reflected in personal social care and personal health budgets, and the evidence informing clinical guidelines issued by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). A disjunction remains between policy and practice, with organizational policies espousing a recovery orientation and teams re-branding as 'recovery and support' teams, whilst pursuing clinical practices which prioritize symptomatic treatment rather than recovery support. The next phase of development in English statutory mental health services is therefore bridging this gap, through organizational transformation in mental health services towards a focus on recovery. We describe two funded initiatives to support this process of organizational transformation. The first (ImROC) is a national initiative to develop a pro-recovery organizational climate. The second (REFOCUS) is a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940) investigating a team-level pro-recovery intervention.
Statutory Compensation for the Wrongly Imprisoned.
Simms, Tina
2016-04-01
This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both. The wrongly imprisoned experience the same effects of incarceration as other prisoners; their psychological trauma, however, is exacerbated by the fact that they are innocent. Furthermore, upon release, exonerees have fewer reentry supports available to them compared with prisoners released on parole. This article supports the position that the state has a responsibility to provide adequate compensation, monetarily and servicewise, to the wrongly imprisoned, and that compensation by statutory means should be standard in every state. This article also highlights how social workers are uniquely qualified to provide immediate and long-term social and mental health services to exonerees, as well as to advocate for comprehensive exoneree compensation through state statutes.
Chupkovich, P J
1993-01-01
A medical malpractice insurance crisis occurred in the mid-1970s and mid-1980s evidenced by escalating malpractice insurance rates and increasing numbers of malpractice claims. Insurance companies maintained that the increase in insurance rates was necessary because of the sharp rise in the number of malpractice lawsuits, astronomical damage awards, and ineffective mechanisms to prevent and to eliminate nonmeritorious claims. Physicians responded by forming their own insurance companies, cancelling high-risk procedures, and orchestrating intensive legislative lobbying for tort reform. Insurance companies, physicians, and the legislature collaborated efforts to resolve this medical malpractice crisis. A national debate erupted regarding the proper way to address the medical malpractice insurance crisis. Insurance companies and physicians pressured state legislatures to reform liability laws that, in their opinion, permitted recovery of excessive damage awards by plaintiffs. Consumer groups and lawyers suggested tighter regulation of the insurance industry. State legislatures, in an attempt to remedy the perception that injured plaintiffs were overcompensated for their injuries, enacted "tort reform legislation," which included statutory caps on damages recoverable in medical malpractice actions. As a result of the extensive lobbying effort by physicians and insurance companies, twenty-seven states enacted statutes limiting recovery of damages in medical malpractice lawsuits. Lawyers responded by challenging state malpractice legislation on constitutional grounds, alleging violations of federal and state equal protection and due process clauses and the Seventh Amendment right to a jury trial. Opponents of the cap also asserted violations of state constitution provisions such as the "open courts" provision or the "special legislation" clause. To date, the state courts have held that statutory caps are unconstitutional. Statutory caps and other tort reform measures are
In control? IQC consensus and statutory regulation.
Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula
2016-06-13
have provided a template to potentially harmonise IQC practice nationally. Given the central and critical role that IQC practice plays in ensuring the quality of patient results' importance, the authors contend that the time has come for international consensus and statutory regulation regarding the minimally acceptable criteria for its implementation, monitoring and review.
陈富坚; 黄世斌; 包惠明
2011-01-01
To solve the problems in the current deterministic method for determining a maximum speed limit for expressway operation against disastrous events, a reliability method was presented. The dynamic analysis was made for vehicle traveling at a horizontal curve of expressway, and respective maximum allowable speeds were deduced for vehicle in horizontal circular motion without sliding and that in emergency stopping without hitting an obstacle in the visual range. Based on Reliability engineering, the reliability of a maximum speed limit was defined. With safety of horizontal circular motion and emergency stopping as constraints, the performance function of the maximum speed limit was established and the model for calculation of its reliability and reliable indicator were deduced. For solution of the reliability model, Monte Carlo method was recommended due to multi-parameter high complexity of the non-linear performance function. With a self-developed program, a case study was conducted to illustrate the reliability analysis of the maximum speed limit for expressway safety management under a detrimental event. The reliability method for determining a maximum speed limit of expressway operation is helpful for improving traffic safety.%针对灾变事件下高速公路安全管理中采用定值型限速标准存在的问题,对基于可靠性的限速标准进行了探讨.通过对高速公路平曲线路段车辆行驶的动力学分析,推导了车辆作圆周运动而不发生横向滑移的最大允许车速,以及司机在弯道内发现障碍物而紧急安全停车的最大允许速度.以可靠性工程理论为依据,对高速公路限速标准的可靠度进行了定义,并以圆周运动安全和紧急刹车安全为约束条件建立了高速公路限速标准的功能函数,推导了相应的可靠性计算模型.针对限速标准功能函数的多参数复杂非线性特征,提出采用Monte Carlo法对限速标准可靠性计算模型进行求解.以所
Bühren, V; Perl, M
2016-11-01
The Hospital Group of the Statutory Accident Insurance (BG hospitals) was affected by the new requirements for severe injury procedures (SAV) in the same manner as all other maximum care hospitals. Simultaneously, the BG clinics were merged to form a centrally organized hospital group. A substantial need for adjustment existed for specialties, such as neurosurgery and visceral surgery at some sites. Needless to say, all trauma victims benefit from the high standards required by the Statutory Accident Insurance regardless of their insurance status. The provision of medical treatment with respect to its implementation into routine practice must be further optimized and additions, e.g. for the occurrence of complications are necessary.
48 CFR 841.103 - Statutory and delegated authority.
2010-10-01
... delegated the Secretary of Veterans Affairs authority to enter into public utility contracts for connection... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory and delegated authority. 841.103 Section 841.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...
48 CFR 41.103 - Statutory and delegated authority.
2010-10-01
...) Delegated authority. GSA has delegated its authority to enter into utility service contracts for periods not.... Contracting pursuant to this delegated authority shall be consistent with the requirements of this part. Other... statutory authority, GSA will, as necessary, conduct reviews of delegated agencies' acquisitions of utility...
Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape
Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.
2013-01-01
The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…
48 CFR 1426.7103-1 - Statutory basis.
2010-10-01
... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7103-1 Statutory basis... qualified minority business enterprises in awarding contracts under the Act and report annually to Congress... in programs carried out under the act. The Environmental Protection Agency has...
22 CFR 1203.735-216 - Miscellaneous statutory provisions.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Miscellaneous statutory provisions. 1203.735-216 Section 1203.735-216 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE..., United States Code, relating to bribery, graft, and conflicts of interest, as appropriate to...
19 CFR 200.735-113 - Miscellaneous statutory provisions.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous statutory provisions. 200.735-113 Section 200.735-113 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES... Government Service.” (b) Chapter 11 of Title 18, United States Code, relating to bribery, graft,...
Employment Rights of Handicapped Individuals: Statutory and Judicial Parameters.
Massaro, Toni M.
1978-01-01
Analyzes existing legislation, regulations, and case law interpreting statutory mandates to provide a survey of the current status of employment rights for the handicapped. Suggests an administrative framework to alleviate weaknesses in existing governmental programs. Available from Marshall-Wythe School of Law of the College of William and Mary,…
Statutory Law, Patriarchy and Inheritance: Home ownership among ...
AFRicAn SOciOLOGicAL REviEW. Statutory Law, Patriarchy and ... marriage. Widows are only denied inheritance rights if they cannot afford to pay the mortgage rates. ... specifically handles inheritance and other family laws. This means that ...
11 CFR 7.16 - Miscellaneous statutory provisions.
2010-01-01
... bribery, graft, and conflicts of interest, as appropriate to the employees concerned. (b) The prohibition... Responsibilities of Employees or Commissioners § 7.16 Miscellaneous statutory provisions. Each employee shall... employee of the Commission and of the Government. In particular, the attention of employees is directed...
25 CFR 700.565 - Miscellaneous statutory provisions.
2010-04-01
... States Code, relating to bribery, graftm and conflicts of interest, as appropriate to the employees... PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.565 Miscellaneous statutory provisions. Commission... as employees of the Commission and of the Government. The attention of Commission personnel...
76 FR 72982 - Cable Statutory License: Specialty Station List; Correction
2011-11-28
... the Federal Register on November 8, 2011 at 76 FR 69288: On page 69289, WNYA-CA, Albany, NY was... Copyright Office Cable Statutory License: Specialty Station List; Correction AGENCY: Copyright Office... use of the cable compulsory license. In response to the publication of an initial list of...
37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.
2010-07-01
... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and... decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. (a) Any requester who is dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than...
The maximum residue limits and determination of pesticide residues in asparagus%芦笋中农药最大残留限量及检测方法研究进展
宋欢; 车兰兰; 林勤保; 王蓉珍
2012-01-01
总结了芦笋中常用农药及欧盟、日本、美国和我国对其最大残留限量规定，并对农药残留相关检测方法在芦笋等果蔬中的应用进行综述，以期为我国芦笋中农药残留检测和控制提供参考。%Common pesticides used in asparagus planting and the maximum residue limits （MRLs） of those in European Union,Japan,USA and China were summarized,and also the application of relevant determination methods of pesticide residues to asparagus ,vegetables and fruit were reviewed. The paper is aimed at providing reference for pesticide residue determination and controlling in Chinese asparagus field.
Statutory compliance in assets disposal practices in the public sector: Evidence from Ghana
Oswald Atiga
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Background: This article examined the unserviceable assets disposal practices of five polytechnics (tertiary educational institutions in Ghana.Objectives: The aim was to determine the extent of statutory compliance, and the degree to which value for money was achieved in actual disposal.Method: A survey was conducted using interviewer-administered questionnaires containing five-point likert scale test items. Descriptive statistics and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed to analyse the data.Results: The study results showed that a limited number of polytechnics had internal policies to operationalise statutory procurement legislation. Top management demonstrated very clear understanding of procurement legislation whilst senior-level managers displayed mixed levels of understanding. The section of the legislation dealing with disposals and the procedures pertaining thereto is perceived to be difficult to implement and does not promote value for money. Top management’s interference in auctions was the toughest challenge in the process, whilst public auction was the predominant method used in assets disposal.Research limitations: The research was carried out in only five polytechnics. This study could be replicated in other tertiary institutions or in other sectors outside higher education.
杨艳红; 姜兆兴; 赵敏
2015-01-01
食品中农药的最大残留限量(MRLs)是保障食品质量安全的重要立法依据，也是指导食品和农产品等生产的关键技术指标。MRLs的制定方法不仅影响农产品行业的持续发展，而且还对提高我国农产品行业的国际竞争力起到积极作用。本文简要介绍目前国内外 MRLs 标准的现状、涉及农药的种类以及制定农药最大残留限量的依据，概述了基于田间实验数据制定最大残留限量的方法，并且比较了国际上欧盟(EU)、北美自由贸易协定(NAFTA)成员国、经济合作与发展组织(OECD)及农药残留联席会议(JMPR)的限量制定方案。%Pesticide maximum residue limit is a critical legislative basis for food safety and a key technical indicator to instruct food and agro-products. The establishing methods for MRLs not only influence the sustainable development of agricultural industry, but also play an actively role on the improvement of international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural industry. The current situation and principles employed to establish maximum residue limits were briefly introduced in this paper. The methods derived from field trials were summarized for setting MRLs. Meanwhile, the calculation methods proposed by European Union (EU), members of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Joint Meeting of Pesticide Residues (JMPR) were compared.
A constitutional evaluation of statutory and administrative impediments to voluntary sterilization.
Myers, W Douglas
1975-01-01
States, administrative agencies, hospitals, and physicians have placed significant limitations on the availability of elective sterilization (absolute prohibitions, requirements of spousal consent, age-parity requirements, and marital requirements). These limitations have presented obstacles for individuals seeking sterilization as a means of contraception. Analysis reveals that an individual should have a right to sterilization. However, to obtain a sterilization the individual must either comply with statutory requirements where they exist or challenge their constitutionality. If the restriction is the product of "state action," it may be challenged in the courts. Only hospitals of a "public" character, however, are subject to the constitutional mandates. If the individual is limited geographically, financially or otherwise, to a "private" hospital, he will not be able effectively to exercise his right to be sterilized.
45 CFR 1160.13 - Indemnification limits.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indemnification limits. 1160.13 Section 1160.13... ACT § 1160.13 Indemnification limits. The dollar amounts of the limits described below are found in the guidelines referred to in § 1160.1 and are based upon the statutory limits in the Arts...
Organization of the Statutory Audit of Financial Statements in Romania
Gabriela Ungureanu
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Economic entities around the world, regardless of their membership - public or private sector - the size, the object of activity, prepare financial statements for presentation of financial information users (investors, creditors, customers, suppliers, public institutions. The financial statements provide information about financial position, performance and changes in financial position of an entity - information underlying to base decision process. For Romania, the financial audit was not a tradition. Recognized as a top area of the accounting profession, financial audit was legislated in 1999. Statutory audit, audit of annual financial statements or consolidated annual statements have been established 9 years later (Emergency Regulation no. 90 June 24, 2008, by transposing Directive 2006/43/EC of 17 May 2006 of the European Parliament and of Council on statutory audit of annual accounts and consolidated accounts, in order to ensure oversight of auditors, in the public interest.
巩晖; 潘爱萍
2015-01-01
税收法定是调整和规范税收法律关系主体的最高原则，是实现税收法治的基本要求，贯穿税收法治全过程。目前，我国贯彻税收法定中存在着宪法中缺失税收法定条款、税法体系整体立法层次不高、税收行政执法约束有待加强、税法监督制约机制欠缺等现实问题。为全面落实税收法定，推进依法治税进程，应健全税收立法机制，强化税收执法约束，完善税法制约机制。%Statutory taxation is the highest principle in adjusting and regularizing subjects of legal relation in taxation law. It is the basic demand for realizing tax collection governed by law in the whole process. There are problems for the implementation of statutory taxation, including the lack of statutory clause, low legislative level of the taxation system, weak constraint power of administrative law enforcement in tax collection and the absence of supervision mechanism for taxation law. In this connection, taxation legislation system should be im-proved, tax law enforcement should be enhanced and the process of law-based tax administration should be advanced in implementing statutory taxation thoroughly and promoting the law-based tax administration.
29 CFR 553.201 - Statutory provisions: section 7(k).
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory provisions: section 7(k). 553.201 Section 553.201...: section 7(k). (a) Section 7(k) of the Act provides a partial overtime pay exemption for fire protection.... (b) As specified in §§ 553.20 through 553.28 of subpart A, workers employed under section 7(k) may...
Pre-Emption: Federal Statutory Intervention in State Taxation
David E.Wildasin
2007-01-01
This paper examines the implications of federal statutory restrictions on state government taxing powers. Such pre–emption can prevent states from pursuing policies that are best adapted to their economic circumstances and objectives, inefficiently constraining decentralized state tax policymaking. States policy choices may, however, harm the efficient operation of the US federation as a whole; in such cases, the "visible hand" of federal pre–emption may lead to improved policy outcomes. Exis...
赵明; 谢松梅; 杨劲; 魏敏吉
2014-01-01
During the assessment of bioequivalence in our country ,the in-terval limits for maximum concentration ( Cmax ) is in an alternating phase.The aim of this paper is to introduce some principles and thoughts of bioequivalence for area under the curve (AUC) and Cmax.Examples of two drugs evaluation were presented here , which might be helpful for the development and review of generics.%在国内的生物等效性评价中，峰浓度（Cmax ）的等效界值尚处在新老标准交替阶段。当 Cmax处在新老标准之间，如何进行审评决策，是一个需要认真考虑的问题。本文通过2个药物审评实例，介绍关于该类问题的思考原则和思路，以期为仿制药的研究开发和审评提供参考。
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Pick, V; Rossbach, C
2010-05-01
This investigation examines the specific demands of statutory health insurance organisations on hospitals. The need for such an analysis is determined by the increasing competition in the German health care system in the past years. Hospitals are confronted with growing and perhaps conflictual demands on the hospital's stakeholders. An empirical investigation should provide first insight into the widely unexplored relationship between statutory health insurances and hospitals. For this reason, 23 explorative interviews with managers of hospitals and statutory health insurance organisations were conducted. The resulting demands are structured and assigned to identified areas of demand. Aspects which are important for statutory health insurance organisations and aspects that hospitals assume are important were compared. Thus, an existing gap was identified. Furthermore, options for statutory health insurance (dis-)satisfaction are shown. Such an analysis is essential for hospitals to develop and maintain a positive relationship to the statutory health insurances and to achieve competitive advantages. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
Software Licenses: DOD’s Plan to Collect Inventory Data Meets Statutory Requirements
2014-07-01
SOFTWARE LICENSES DOD’s Plan to Collect Inventory Data Meets Statutory Requirements Report to Congressional...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Software Licenses: DOD’s Plan to Collect Inventory Data Meets Statutory Requirements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Highlights of GAO-14-625, a report to congressional committees July 2014 SOFTWARE LICENSES DOD’s Plan to Collect Inventory Data Meets Statutory
Statutory and other compensation for radiation-induced occupational diseases in the UK
McCaig, R.H. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom); Webb, G.A.M. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom)
1995-12-31
The statutory compensation scheme for occupational diseased in the UK is described, with particular reference to the prescription of diseases caused by exposure to ionising radiation. Only a small number of awards have been made under the statutory scheme. There also exists in UK a non statutory agreement between two of the major employers of radiation workers and their staff and trade unions. This provides an alternative to the statutory scheme or to legal action and is proving to be a satisfactory mechanism for settlements to be reached. (author).
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
李太平
2012-01-01
Under the information asymmetry and market supervision lack of agri-food quality,the excessively rigorous standard of maximum residue limits（MRLs）for pesticide in agrifood is not only unbeneficial to protect consumer health and ecological environment,but also aggregate serious pesticide residues in agrifood.Taking national standard Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides in Food（GB2763-2005）as a case,calculated the Theory Daily Intake（TDI）related agrifoods of 439 residue indexes of 126 pesticides with the quantity relation between MRLs,acceptable daily intake（ADI）and TDI,and compared with the customer＇s Real Daily Intake（RDI）related agrifoods.It was found that there were 111 residue indexes related agri-foods which TDI were overly above and beyond their RDI of Chinese residents,accounted for 23.22% of 478 pesticide residue indexes in this national standards.This evidence proved that the national standard had the excessively rigorous tendency really and suggested our government would revise this standard at once in order to eliminate the food safety management trap.%在农产品质量信息不对称、市场监管不到位的情况下,农药最大残留限量标准制定过严,不但不能保护消费者健康和农业生态环境,反而会加剧农产品的农药残留问题泛滥。利用农药最大残留限量（MRLs）、日允许摄入量（ADI）与被测食品每日最大理论摄入量（TDI）三者之间的数量关系,以《食品中农药最大残留限量》GB2763-2005为例,计算了126种农药439个残留指标的TDI值,发现有111个残留指标的TDI值远远大于我国居民每日实际摄入量（RDI）,占GB2763-2005国家标准478个残留限量指标的23.22%,表明我国农药最大残留限量国家标准部分指标值设定存在过严的倾向,建议政府尽快修订该标准,以消除食品安全管理隐患。
12 CFR 715.12 - Statutory audit remedies for Federal credit unions.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory audit remedies for Federal credit unions. 715.12 Section 715.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE AUDITS AND VERIFICATIONS § 715.12 Statutory audit remedies...
26 CFR 1.9006 - Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969.
2010-04-01
...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Reform Act of 1969 § 1.9006 Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969. Section 946 of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 729) provides as follows: Sec. 946... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969. 1...
32 CFR 700.322 - Assistant Secretaries of the Navy; statutory authorization.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Secretaries of the Navy; statutory... The Secretary of the Navy The Office of the Secretary of the Navy/the Civilian Executive Assistants § 700.322 Assistant Secretaries of the Navy; statutory authorization. There are four Assistant...
76 FR 7500 - Indian Trust Management Reform-Implementation of Statutory Changes
2011-02-10
... merely a grammatical change that is appropriate because the threshold amount will be determined as of a... Trust Management Reform--Implementation of Statutory Changes AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of... final rule implements the latest statutory changes to the Indian Land Consolidation Act, as amended...
76 FR 29814 - Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc
2011-05-23
... Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc and Policy of Denial Concerning Certain Non-U.S. Subsidiaries... BAE Systems plc (``BAES'') as a result of its conviction of conspiracy (18 U.S.C. 371) to...
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining origin of pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption-survivor's claim. 410.456 Section 410.456 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL..., including statutory presumption—survivor's claim. (a) If a miner was employed for 10 years or more in...
76 FR 45198 - Indian Trust Management Reform-Implementation of Statutory Changes
2011-07-28
... Trust Management Reform--Implementation of Statutory Changes AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of... interim final rule published and effective on February 10, 2011, to implement the latest statutory changes.... The Department did not receive any adverse comments, and therefore confirms the rule without change...
29 CFR 794.109 - Statutory basis for inclusion of activities in enterprise.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory basis for inclusion of activities in enterprise... Act The âenterpriseâ § 794.109 Statutory basis for inclusion of activities in enterprise. The “enterprise” for purposes of enterprise coverage under section 3(s) and the exemption provision in section 7(b...
29 CFR 794.111 - General characteristics of the statutory enterprise.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General characteristics of the statutory enterprise. 794... âenterpriseâ § 794.111 General characteristics of the statutory enterprise. As defined in the Act, the term “enterprise” is roughly descriptive of a business rather than of an establishment or of an employer although...
The role of scientists in statutory interpretation of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.
Wilhere, George F
2017-04-01
Like many federal statutes, the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) contains vague or ambiguous language. The meaning imparted to the ESA's unclear language can profoundly impact the fates of endangered and threatened species. Hence, conservation scientists should contribute to the interpretation of the ESA when vague or ambiguous language contains scientific words or refers to scientific concepts. Scientists need to know at least these 2 facts about statutory interpretation: statutory interpretation is subjective and the potential influence of normative values results in different expectations for the parties involved. With the possible exception of judges, all conventional participants in statutory interpretation are serving their own interests, advocating for their preferred policies, or biased. Hence, scientists can play a unique role by informing the interpretative process with objective, policy-neutral information. Conversely, scientists may act as advocates for their preferred interpretation of unclear statutory language. The different roles scientists might play in statutory interpretation raise the issues of advocacy and competency. Advocating for a preferred statutory interpretation is legitimate political behavior by scientists, but statutory interpretation can be strongly influenced by normative values. Therefore, scientists must be careful not to commit stealth policy advocacy. Most conservation scientists lack demonstrable competence in statutory interpretation and therefore should consult or collaborate with lawyers when interpreting statutes. Professional scientific societies are widely perceived by the public as unbiased sources of objective information. Therefore, professional scientific societies should remain policy neutral and present all interpretations of unclear statutory language; explain the semantics and science both supporting and contradicting each interpretation; and describe the potential consequences of implementing each interpretation
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
Measuring customer preferences in the German statutory health insurance.
Pendzialek, Jonas B; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie
2017-09-01
This paper investigates consumer preferences in the German statutory health insurance market. It further aims to test whether preferences differ by age and health status. Evidence is provided by a discrete choice experiment conducted in 2014 using the six most important attributes in sickness fund competition and ten random generated choice sets per participant. Price is found to be the most important attribute followed by additional benefits, managed care programmes, and distance to nearest branch. Other positive attributes of sickness funds are found to balance out a higher price, which would allow a sickness fund to position itself as high quality. However, significant differences in preferences were found between age and health status group. In particular, compromised health is associated with higher preference for illness-related additional benefits and less distance to the lowest branch, but lower preference for a lower price. Based on these differences, a distinct sickness fund offer could be constructed that would allow passive risk selection.
2010-07-01
... publication of a statutory invention registration and patent application to which the request is directed. 1... Public Use Proceedings § 1.294 Examination of request for publication of a statutory invention registration and patent application to which the request is directed. (a) Any request for a statutory invention...
2010-10-01
... evaluation count towards the statutory cap on administrative costs? 2522.540 Section 2522.540 Public Welfare... measurement or evaluation count towards the statutory cap on administrative costs? No, the costs of performance measurement and evaluation do not count towards the statutory five percent cap on administrative...
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
赵凤霞; 王正平; 宋学立; 朱景伟; 孙卉卉; 高相彬; 王海涛
2014-01-01
The heavy metal maximum residue limit standard of agricultural products between China and EU was compared to protect health of consumers and meet the demand of export trade development of agricultural products in China and main hazard of Pb,Cd,Hg,Sn,As,Cr and Ni to human body was discussed in the paper.The Pb MRLs of most agricultural products such as cereal,fruits and vegetables in China is no difference with in EU but the Pb MRLs of most agricultural products such as poultry & meat, aquatic animals and dairy products in China is higher than EU.The Cd MRLs of cereal,beans,fruits, vegetables,livestock liver and kidney is no difference with EU but the Cd MRLs of poultry & meat and aquatic products in China is higher than EU.The Hg MRLs of aquatic products is in accord with EU basically and the Hg content in cereal,vegetables,meats,dairy products,eggs and edible mushrooms is regulated in detail.The Sn MRLs of beverages in China is a little more than EU.Total As and inorganic As content in most agricultural products was regulated in GB2762 - 2012.The Ni MRLs of grease and grease products such as hydrogenated vegetable oil and products containing hydrogenated vegetable oil is 1.0 mg/kg.The suggestions to reduce heavy metal content in agricultural products is proposed according to the current status of high heavy metal content in some agricultural products in China compared with developed countries.%为了保护我国消费者的健康，满足农产品出口贸易发展的要求，通过收集整理，简述了 Pb、Cd、Hg、锡（Sn）、As、Cr 和镍（Ni）等几种重金属对人体的主要危害，并对这几种重金属在我国和欧盟主要农产品中的限量标准进行了详细的对比分析。结果表明：Pb，我国谷物、水果和蔬菜等大部分农产品中的限量标准与欧盟一致，禽畜肉类、水产动物类和乳品类等部分农产品中限量标准高于欧盟；Cd，我国的谷物、豆类、水果、蔬菜、禽畜肝脏
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
76 FR 4751 - Position Limits for Derivatives
2011-01-26
... submitted in English, or if not, accompanied by an English translation. Comments will be posted as received... prevent'' such burden. As the plain reading of the statutory text indicates, the prevention of sudden or... Thomas A. Hieronymus, Economics of Futures Trading 313 (1971) (``Limits on speculative positions have...
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
28 CFR 51.55 - Consistency with constitutional and statutory requirements.
2010-07-01
... free of discriminatory purpose and retrogressive effect in light of, and with particular attention... constitutional and statutory provisions designed to safeguard the right to vote from denial or abridgment...
Is it love or sexual abuse? Young adults' perceptions of statutory rape.
Oudekerk, Barbara A; Farr, Rachel H; Reppucci, N Dickon
2013-01-01
Adults under age 25 comprise the majority of statutory rape perpetrators, yet we know little about their perceptions of statutory relationships. We assessed 210 (50% male) young adults' perceptions of statutory rape involving a 15-year-old female adolescent and a male who was either 2, 4, or 6 years older. Across all age gaps, 73.7% of participants felt the relationship should not be a crime. Participants who read about a 4- or 6-year (versus 2-year) age gap perceived the relationship as significantly more of a crime and the older partner as more responsible and in need of legal intervention. Effects were partially mediated by perceptions of the relationship as exploitive. Results suggest a need to educate young adults about statutory rape.
Introducing a Statutory Minimum Wage in Middle and Low Income Countries
Margolis, David N.
2014-01-01
Consultable sur : http://wol.iza.org/articles/introducing-a-statutory-minimum-wage-in-middle-and-low-income-countries; International audience; The motivation for introducing statutory minimum wages in many developing countries is often threefold: poverty-reduction, social justice and growth. How well the policy succeeds in attaining these goals will depend on the national context and the numerous choices made when designing the policy. Institutional capacity in developing countries tends to b...
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
Falit, Benjamin P; Singh, Surya C; Brennan, Troyen A
2015-02-01
Widespread adoption of generic medications, made possible by the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984, has contained the cost of small-molecule drugs in the United States. Biologics, however, have yet to face competition from follow-on products and represent the fastest-growing sector of the US pharmaceutical market. We compare the legislative framework governing small-molecule generics to that which regulates follow-on biologics, and we examine management tools that are likely to be most successful in promoting biosimilars' adoption. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act established an abbreviated pathway for follow-on biologics, but weak statutory incentives create barriers to entry. Many authors have raised concerns that competition under the biologics act may be weaker than that posed by small-molecule generics under Hatch-Waxman, in part because of legislative choices such as the absence of market exclusivity for the first biosimilar approved and a requirement that follow-on manufacturers disclose their manufacturing processes to the manufacturer of the reference product. Provider skepticism and limited competition from biosimilars will challenge payers and pharmacy benefit managers to reduce prices and maximize uptake of follow-on biologics. Successful payers and pharmacy benefit managers will employ various strategies, including tiered formularies and innovative fee schedules, that can control spending by promoting uptake of biosimilars across both the pharmacy and medical benefits. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
2010-07-01
... independent statutory authority to lease space have GSA perform the leasing functions? 102-73.85 Section 102...-73.85 Can agencies with independent statutory authority to lease space have GSA perform the leasing functions? Yes, upon request, GSA may perform, on a reimbursable basis, all functions of leasing...
2010-04-01
... statutory requirement to coordinate these benefits? 30.627 Section 30.627 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF...' Compensation Benefits § 30.627 Under what circumstances will OWCP waive the statutory requirement to coordinate these benefits? A waiver to the requirement to coordinate Part E benefits with benefits paid under...
2010-07-01
....408b-4 Statutory exemption for investments in deposits of banks or similar financial institutions. (a... financial institution may make investments in deposits which bear a reasonable rate of interest in itself... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory exemption for investments in deposits of banks or...
Fundamental limitations in antenna resolution by maximum entropy methods
Bevensee, R.M.
1984-08-01
This paper summarizes work done during the past few years on antenna super-resolution of distant radiating sources, both incoherent with and without additive noise and coherent with and without additive noise.
5 CFR 582.402 - Maximum garnishment limitations.
2010-01-01
... Section 582.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... disposable earnings subject to garnishment to enforce any legal debt other than an order for child support or...), shall not exceed 25 percent of the employee-obligor's aggregate disposable earnings for any workweek....
77 FR 37554 - Calculation of Maximum Obligation Limitation
2012-06-22
... Orderly Liquidation Authority (``OLA'') to resolve a large interconnected financial company upon a... on financial stability in the United States and the use of OLA would avoid or mitigate such adverse... of law. \\7\\ Dodd Frank Act, section 202(a)(1)(A)(iii). The OLA in the Dodd-Frank Act is intended as...
76 FR 72645 - Calculation of Maximum Obligation Limitation
2011-11-25
... that fair value measurement is context dependant and the result of numerous variables, including the... fair value of the total consolidated assets of each covered financial company that are available for... of each covered financial company be measured at their ``fair value.'' The Dodd-Frank Act does not...
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
29 CFR 779.502 - Statutory provisions; regulations in part 1500 of this title.
2010-07-01
... Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.502 Statutory provisions; regulations in part 1500 of this title. (a) The Act's prohibitions in relation to employment of child labor, which may have... therefrom any oppressive child labor has been employed: Provided, That any such shipment or delivery...
29 CFR 575.7 - Statutory conditions for employment under the waiver.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory conditions for employment under the waiver. 575.7 Section 575.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN...
32 CFR 536.96 - Statutory authority for the National Guard Claims Act.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Statutory authority for the National Guard Claims Act. 536.96 Section 536.96 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...
26 CFR 1.424-1 - Definitions and special rules applicable to statutory options.
2010-04-01
... its place. 13. Section 1.424-1(g)(2), third sentence, the language “For statutory options... corporate merger, consolidation, acquisition of property or stock, separation, reorganization, or... becomes a subsidiary corporation of Y Corporation. After the acquisition, X employees remain employees of...
40 CFR 80.1100 - How is the statutory default requirement for 2006 implemented?
2010-07-01
... means a diesel fuel substitute produced from nonpetroleum renewable resources that meets the... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the statutory default requirement for 2006 implemented? 80.1100 Section 80.1100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...
2010-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satellite carrier statements... PROVISIONS § 201.11 Satellite carrier statements of account covering statutory licenses for secondary... royalty fees in the Copyright Office as required by the satellite carrier license of section 119(b)(1)...
Rethinking the making and breaking of traditional and statutory institutions in post-Nkrumah Ghana
Stacey, Paul Austin
2016-01-01
This article examines a complex dispute over the jurisdictions of traditional and statutory institutions that traversed shifts in forms of government in Ghana for nearly a decade following the ousting of Kwame Nkrumah in February 1966. The analysis emphasizes underlying processes of continuity...... a rethinking of the notion that the post-Nkrumah era heralded a state-initiated revival of traditional institutions....
48 CFR 1.109 - Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation.
2010-10-01
... calculated every 5 years, starting in October 2005, using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all-urban...-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation. 1.109 Section 1.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations..., Issuance 1.109 Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds—adjustment for inflation. (a) 41 U.S.C. 431a...
2013-10-23
... offenders accountable for their crimes of violence against women. The Department of Justice's Office on... on Violence Against Women Certification of Compliance With the Statutory Eligibility Requirements of the Violence Against Women Act as Amended for Applicants to the STOP (Services* Training*...
Provisions of State Constitutional and Statutory Law Governing the Structure of Education.
Johnston, A. P.
This document quotes from and summarizes each of the 50 states' constitutional and statutory provisions establishing the structure, the power, and the duties of the various state committees, commissions, offices, and agencies affecting the governance and control of education. Detailed investigation of the formal body of law revealed the subtle…
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining the existence of pneumoconiosis...- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.454 Determining the existence of pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption—survivor's claim. (a) Medical findings. A finding of the existence...
20 CFR 410.414 - Determining the existence of pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining the existence of pneumoconiosis... Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.414 Determining the existence of pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption. (a) General. A finding of the existence of pneumoconiosis as defined in § 410.110(o)(1) may...
48 CFR 201.109 - Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation.
2010-10-01
...-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation. 201.109 Section 201.109 Federal Acquisition... REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 201.109 Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation. (d) A matrix showing the most recent escalation adjustments of...
20 CFR 410.410 - Total disability due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.
2010-04-01
... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.410 Total disability due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory... their death. (For benefits to the eligible survivors of miners whose deaths are determined to have...
20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory...
37 CFR 270.1 - Notice of use of sound recordings under statutory license.
2010-07-01
... purposes of this section, the definition of a Service includes an entity that transmits an AM/FM broadcast signal over a digital communications network such as the Internet, regardless of whether the transmission... both. (b) Definitions. (1) A Notice of Use of Sound Recordings under Statutory License is a...
26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.
2010-04-01
... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the...
16 CFR 1101.62 - Statutory exceptions to section 6(b)(5) requirements.
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory exceptions to section 6(b)(5) requirements. 1101.62 Section 1101.62 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Information Submitted Pursuant to...
Rape, Statutory Rape, and Child Abuse: Legal Distinctions and Counselor Duties.
Mitchell, Clifton W.; Rogers, Reagan E.
2003-01-01
This article explains the legal distinctions between rape, statutory rape, and child abuse and school counselors' obligations related to each. In addition, complicating issues such as cultural differences as well as the potential effect of mandated reporting on counselors' roles are addressed. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)
29 CFR 794.106 - Statutory definition of “enterprise.”
2010-07-01
... § 794.106 Statutory definition of “enterprise.” The term “enterprise” is defined in section 3(r) of the...: “Enterprise” means the related activities performed (either through unified operation or common control) by... activities performed for such enterprise by an independent contractor: Provided, That within the meaning of...
42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.
2010-10-01
... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of alcohol abuse patient records were initially...
2011-10-31
... would apply to all statutory hybrid plans. If a cash balance plan uses a fixed interest rate as of the..., however, when a cash balance plan uses a variable interest rate--e.g., a rate that changes annually under... CORPORATION 29 CFR Parts 4001, 4022, 4041, and 4044 RIN 1212-AB17 Cash Balance Plans; Benefit...
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
2016-11-29
This rule amends the regulations for the STOP (ServicesTrainingOfficersProsecutors) Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program (STOP Program) and the general provisions governing Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) programs to comply with statutory changes and reduce repetition of statutory language. Also, this rule implements statutory requirements for nondisclosure of confidential or private information relating to all OVW grant programs.
29 CFR 778.101 - Maximum nonovertime hours.
2010-07-01
... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION The Overtime Pay... in any workweek without receiving additional compensation at not less than the statutory rate...
Bittel, R.; Mancel, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de la protection sanitaire
1968-10-01
The most important carriers of radioactive contamination of man are the whole of foodstuffs and not only ingested water or inhaled air. That is the reason why, in accordance with the spirit of the recent recommendations of the ICRP, it is proposed to substitute the idea of maximum levels of contamination of water to the MPC. In the case of aquatic food chains (aquatic organisms and irrigated foodstuffs), the knowledge of the ingested quantities and of the concentration factors food/water permit to determinate these maximum levels, or to find out a linear relation between the maximum levels in the case of two primary carriers of contamination (continental and sea waters). The notion of critical food-consumption, critical radioelements and formula of waste disposal are considered in the same way, taking care to attach the greatest possible importance to local situations. (authors) [French] Les vecteurs essentiels de la contamination radioactive de l'homme sont les aliments dans leur ensemble, et non seulement l'eau ingeree ou l'air inhale. C'est pourquoi, en accord avec l'esprit des recentes recommandations de la C.I.P.R., il est propose de substituer aux CMA la notion de niveaux limites de contamination des eaux. Dans le cas des chaines alimentaires aquatiques (organismes aquatiques et aliments irrigues), la connaissance des quantites ingerees et celle des facteurs de concentration aliments/eau permettent de determiner ces niveaux limites dans le cas de deux vecteurs primaires de contamination (eaux continentales et eaux oceaniques). Les notions de regime alimentaire critique, de radioelement critique et de formule de rejets sont envisagees, dans le meme esprit, avec le souci de tenir compte le plus possible des situations locales. (auteurs)
Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States
Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.
1977-01-01
Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.
Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition
Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana
2016-01-01
We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...
Paterson, Jeannie Marie
2011-01-01
Aim of the consumer guarantee law (CGL) - consumer guarantees operating as statutory rights - new regime does not completely harmonise and clarify the law - new standard of 'acceptable quality' - mandatory quality standards - express...
STATUTORY CANCELLATION OF THE LEASING CONTRACT - CONDITIONS AND EFFECTS
Raluca Antoanetta TOMESCU
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The leasing contract termination by cancellation may have both a conventional (commissioria lex and a legal nature. The legislature has stipulated in the leasing operations governing rules a number of cases in which the parties are entitled to request the contract cancellation but, these not being limiting, in the contract can also be inserted other clauses, according to the parties’ interests, which will result in the contractual relationship termination by cancellation. The contract cancellation will take effect only for the future (ex nunc, so the analysis of the conditions under which the cancellation can be declared and the effects this decision will produce, are of special importance in view of carrying out the leasing operations.
Refusing artificial nutrition and hydration: does statutory law send the wrong message?
Sieger, Carol E; Arnold, Jason F; Ahronheim, Judith C
2002-03-01
Ethical consensus and appellate court decisions view artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) as medical treatment that can be refused like other treatments. However, advance directive statutes may produce obstacles for refusal of ANH, as distinct from other life-sustaining treatments, in patients who lack capacity. This paper reviews state statutes and appellate case law regarding medical decision making for patients who lack decisional capacity. Twenty states (39%) have one or more explicit statutory provisions delineating a separate and more stringent standard for ANH refusal. These standards include higher evidentiary standard; requirement for specific preauthorization, qualifying medical conditions, second medical opinion, or judicial review; refusal not permitted; refusal not permitted if death would result from "starvation" or "dehydration"; and previous law with higher standard applies to old documents. In 11 of these states and in eight others, statutory law contains language that could be misinterpreted, implying, but not rising to, an explicitly higher standard. Four appellate decisions departed from the judicial consensus that ANH can be refused like other treatments, but subsequent court decisions or legislative enactments reduced or eliminated their impact. Legislators and the courts should ask whether higher standards for ANH refusal are appropriate in light of case law authority that ANH should not be treated differently and in light of statutory language that preserves those common law rights. These higher standards may make it more difficult in certain states to refuse ANH for patients who lack capacity or place a burden on good practice by making providers fearful of the law.
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
5 CFR 838.711 - Maximum former spouse survivor annuity.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum former spouse survivor annuity... Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities Limitations on Survivor Annuities § 838.711 Maximum former spouse survivor annuity. (a) Under CSRS, payments under a court order may not exceed the...
Chambers, Stephanie A; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S; MacGillivray, Steve
2015-06-01
To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date. Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures. Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.
2010-01-01
... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT
PETRU SERGIU SERBAN
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Burca Valentin
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The current context of globalization, financial markets mondialisation, internationalization of production and intensification of international trade relations represents references that justify the need for an international project of reducing international accounting differences between the local accounting referential. Recent developments in the area of financial reports improvements interest devotes international accounting convergence solution as the way forward. Regardless of the approach chosen by each country in the process of international accounting convergence, the situation of conflict situation between state vs. accounting profession persists nowadays. This situation has led to the establishment of a dual financial reporting system at the national level, not at all beneficial to the users of financial information. The success of international accounting convergence process is reduced to the level of the consolidated financial statements of listed companies. The next step that needs to be done is also to provide solutions of accounting convergence to the rest of the companies, and also to extend the normalization process for the statutory financial statements too. Positive effects of international accounting referential, confirmed by recent studies, become a solid base for adopting IFRS for statutory financial statements too. The main impediment that needs to be eliminated is to convince the state that this step is appropriate for all players of accounting information market. Considering romanian current situation, where from now IFRS is used to report the statutory financial statements of listed companies too, we try, by an empirical approach at the level of BVB, to look for the impact of such a legislative change. The main objective is to check if the state budget is affected consistently, and also take a look on the economic effects of IFRS adoption gained by companies, especially on evolution of rate-of-equity and short
Employers' Statutory Vicarious Liability in Terms of the Protection of Personal Information Act
Daleen Millard
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other
Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.
Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C
2007-10-01
Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system.
Maximum Spectral Luminous Efficacy of White Light
Murphy, T W
2013-01-01
As lighting efficiency improves, it is useful to understand the theoretical limits to luminous efficacy for light that we perceive as white. Independent of the efficiency with which photons are generated, there exists a spectrally-imposed limit to the luminous efficacy of any source of photons. We find that, depending on the acceptable bandpass and---to a lesser extent---the color temperature of the light, the ideal white light source achieves a spectral luminous efficacy of 250--370 lm/W. This is consistent with previous calculations, but here we explore the maximum luminous efficacy as a function of photopic sensitivity threshold, color temperature, and color rendering index; deriving peak performance as a function of all three parameters. We also present example experimental spectra from a variety of light sources, quantifying the intrinsic efficacy of their spectral distributions.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.
2010-04-01
...) project costs that are subject to the TDC limit (i.e., Housing Construction Costs and Community Renewal Costs); and (2) project costs that are not subject to the TDC limit (i.e., Additional Project Costs... expended for the project, and this becomes the maximum project cost for purposes of the ACC. (b) TDC...
[The well-informed patient from the statutory health insurance standpoint].
Wöllenstein, H
2004-10-01
By introducing competition into the statutory health insurance system the model of the informed patient has obtained new importance. As corporations of public law,more than 350 statutory health insurance funds (SHI funds) fulfil original tasks of in-forming and counselling patients. Although the SHI funds lack incentives for more patient orientation due to an inadequate risk equalization scheme, the SHI funds are extending their competences to support health consumer protection. On the one hand, attractive offers for information and counselling are being regarded as an important competitive field in the framework of the respective corporate strategy. On the other hand, the SHI funds are highly interested in having well-informed patients assume personal responsibility and through their well-directed demands contribute to more quality and efficiency in the healthcare system. Which objective need for in-formation does the population still have?What are the effects of medical lay knowledge on the communication between doc-tor and patient? From the SHI funds' point of view, however, there are many relevant questions still unsolved. Therefore, they consider health care research desirable to help them make user-oriented information avail-able for different target groups.
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Type of Instrument Is a TIA and What Statutory Authorities Does It Use? B Appendix B to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF..., App. B Appendix B to Part 37—What Type of Instrument Is a TIA and What Statutory Authorities Does...
2012-03-16
... Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). The preliminary results of this administrative review are... Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Statutory Time Limits Section 751(a)(3)(A) of the... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...
2012-02-24
... and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). The preliminary results of this... the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Statutory Time Limits Section 751(a)(3... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the...
Efficiency at Maximum Power of Interacting Molecular Machines
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2012-01-01
We investigate the efficiency of systems of molecular motors operating at maximum power. We consider two models of kinesin motors on a microtubule: for both the simplified and the detailed model, we find that the many-body exclusion effect enhances the efficiency at maximum power of the many- motor...... system, with respect to the single motor case. Remarkably, we find that this effect occurs in a limited region of the system parameters, compatible with the biologically relevant range....
Maximum frequency of the decametric radiation from Jupiter
Barrow, C. H.; Alexander, J. K.
1980-01-01
The upper frequency limits of Jupiter's decametric radio emission are found to be essentially the same when observed from the earth or, with considerably higher sensitivity, from the Voyager spacecraft close to Jupiter. This suggests that the maximum frequency is a real cut-off corresponding to a maximum gyrofrequency of about 38-40 MHz at Jupiter. It no longer appears to be necessary to specify different cut-off frequencies for the Io and non-Io emission as the maximum frequencies are roughly the same in each case.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
2013-01-08
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver and Certification of Statutory Provisions of Section 1003 of Public Law 100-204 Regarding the... 1987, Public Law 100-204, Title X. (U) This waiver shall be effective for a period of six months....
Tijdens, K.; van Klaveren, M.
1997-01-01
A repeated survey carried out among Dutch works councils revealed a lower degree of involvement in technological decisionmaking than four years earlier, as well as a lower perception of their influence. In all probability, decreased influence related to decreased attention. Their statutory rights
Gorkom, Kris Van
This publication summarizes and compares legal provisions covering teacher tenure and contracts for each of the 50 states. The report is organized in three sections. Section 1 presents a summary comparison of the provisions of Washington's teacher contract law with corresponding statutory requirements of the other 49 states. Section 2 identifies…
2010-07-01
... Report of Use. (d) Content. A “Report of Use of Sound Recordings under Statutory License” shall be... sound recording); (6) The marketing label of the commercially available album or other product on which the sound recording is found; (7) The catalog number; (8) The International Standard Recording...
26 CFR 1.9002 - Statutory provisions; Dealer Reserve Income Adjustment Act of 1960 (74 Stat. 124).
2010-04-01
... other disposition of customers' sales contracts, notes, and other evidences of indebtedness (or derived... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Dealer Reserve Income Adjustment Act of 1960 (74 Stat. 124). 1.9002 Section 1.9002 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...
2010-07-01
... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408. ...
The New Statutory Audit Framework in Europe: Implications for the Provision of Non-audit Services
Holm, Claus
2016-01-01
Purpose: The individual EU Member States have options on how they implement the new statutory audit framework in Europe. They may introduce stricter rules or apply certain exemptions where deemed appropriate. Denmark exemplifies Member States with a traditionally high level of non-audit services...... provided by its auditors. The aim of this study is to contrast the minimum implementation rationale observed in the Danish implementation process with an ex ante examination of fee dependency. Design/methodology/approach: The audit reform introduces a cap on non-audit fees which implies a regulator......-determined condition of non-independence. The cap is applied as a treatment effect on the ex ante relationship between audit fees and non-audit fees. In a sample with 3,238 observations, Denmark is compared with Finland, Germany, Sweden and the UK in order to determine whether the new measure will have different...
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
[Study on the maximum entropy principle and population genetic equilibrium].
Zhang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yan
2006-03-01
A general mathematic model of population genetic equilibrium about one locus was constructed based on the maximum entropy principle by WANG Xiao-Long et al. They proved that the maximum solve of the model was just the frequency distribution that a population reached Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium. It can suggest that a population reached Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium when the genotype entropy of the population reached the maximal possible value, and that the frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was equivalent to the distribution of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law about one locus. They further assumed that the frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was equivalent to all genetic equilibrium distributions. This is incorrect, however. The frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was only equivalent to the distribution of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to one locus or several limited loci. The case with regard to limited loci was proved in this paper. Finally we also discussed an example where the maximum entropy principle was not the equivalent of other genetic equilibria.
Combining Experiments and Simulations Using the Maximum Entropy Principle
Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2014-01-01
are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy...... in the context of a simple example, after which we proceed with a real-world application in the field of molecular simulations, where the maximum entropy procedure has recently provided new insight. Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results....... Three very recent papers have explored this problem using the maximum entropy approach, providing both new theoretical and practical insights to the problem. We highlight each of these contributions in turn and conclude with a discussion on remaining challenges....
A probabilistic approach to the concept of Probable Maximum Precipitation
Papalexiou, S. M.; D. Koutsoyiannis
2006-01-01
International audience; The concept of Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is based on the assumptions that (a) there exists an upper physical limit of the precipitation depth over a given area at a particular geographical location at a certain time of year, and (b) that this limit can be estimated based on deterministic considerations. The most representative and widespread estimation method of PMP is the so-called moisture maximization method. This method maximizes observed storms assuming...
The Maximum Patch Method for Directional Dark Matter Detection
Henderson, Shawn; Fisher, Peter
2008-01-01
Present and planned dark matter detection experiments search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoils in poorly known background conditions. In this environment, the maximum gap statistical method provides a way of setting more sensitive cross section upper limits by incorporating known signal information. We give a recipe for the numerical calculation of upper limits for planned directional dark matter detection experiments, that will measure both recoil energy and angle, based on the gaps between events in two-dimensional phase space.
Quantum-dot Carnot engine at maximum power.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2010-04-01
We evaluate the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum-dot Carnot heat engine. The universal values of the coefficients at the linear and quadratic order in the temperature gradient are reproduced. Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is recovered in the limit of weak dissipation.
33 CFR 401.3 - Maximum vessel dimensions.
2010-07-01
..., and having dimensions that do not exceed the limits set out in the block diagram in appendix I of this... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum vessel dimensions. 401.3 Section 401.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT...
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Mechanisms for Limiting Trade Mark Rights to Further Competition and Free Speech
Ramsey, Lisa P; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen
2013-01-01
to trade mark violations and (2) trade mark doctrines which give courts flexibility to permit unauthorized uses of marks that further the legitimate interests of the accused infringer and the public. Such a development should be welcomed and the article urges other nations to consider adopting one or both...... of these mechanisms for limiting trade mark rights to better protect the public interest in trade mark disputes. Finally, a proposal for reform is suggested. It consists of three parts: (1) domestic legislatures should revise their trade mark statutes to add more mandatory and specific limitations on trade mark...... rights that courts must apply in trade mark disputes, (2) legislatures should also enact permissive statutory provisions that give courts discretion to further limit trade mark rights and allow socially beneficial uses of marks that are not covered by the statutory limitations, and (3) legislators should...
2014-07-31
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Section 1080A, issued in January 2012, states that such reductions must be balanced with...preparation for future challenges and protection of the broad range of U.S. national security interests. One key to achieving this balance is determining the...addressed the statutory requirements, we used a scorecard methodology in which two analysts independently assessed the extent to which the report’s
The anencephalic organ donor: a challenge to existing moral and statutory laws.
Diaz, J H
1993-11-01
To inform physicians of the critical shortage of neonatal heart donors and to provide arguments for and against selecting brain-absent anencephalics as heart donors for brain-normal infants who are dying of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. International scientific journals of medicine, genetics, epidemiology, bioethics, and public health; adjudicated U.S. civil court cases; and state regulations and statutes. Worldwide experience with anencephalics as homologous organ donors. Demographic and epidemiologic data on anencephalic births and natural histories; U.S. civil, district, and appellate court case decisions directing or prohibiting organ donation; state determination-of-death acts; state uniform-anatomical-gift acts. Organization of all data into either moral challenges or legal challenges to anencephalic organ donation. Statutory laws pose a greater challenge to anencephalic organ donation than moral laws. Case law reviews eliminate substituted judgment rulings in directing anencephalic organ donation. A redefinition of brain death applying only to human beings born without a brain would make more donor hearts available to brain-normal infants dying of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Welti, Felix
2009-01-01
In setting health care priorities the law, and in particular the constitution, has to be obeyed. The social constitutional state must guarantee minimum access to health care. Members of the Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) shall have access to health care services protecting their life and ensuring their participation in society. They shall not be discriminated according to gender, race and ethnic origin, language, disability, age and sexual orientation. Essential decisions will have to be made by the legislator. Within the EC the right to access health care services in another EC member state may be an obstacle to prioritisation on the national level, e.g., to waiting lists. The exclusion of health care services on the basis of the social security law may be too simplistic an approach. Administrative discretion needs priorities, but it is unclear whether these are set to meet political priorities and real needs. The decisions of the Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss) are sophisticated enough but have to respect the rule of law. There are deficits in research on the prioritisation effects of health care law. Diminishing these deficits is a prerequisite for turning political priorities into effective legal provisions.
47 CFR 90.1215 - Power limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power limits. 90.1215 Section 90.1215... § 90.1215 Power limits. The transmitting power of stations operating in the 4940-4990 MHz band must not exceed the maximum limits in this section. (a)(1) The maximum conducted output power should not...
Microcanonical origin of the maximum entropy principle for open systems.
Lee, Julian; Pressé, Steve
2012-10-01
There are two distinct approaches for deriving the canonical ensemble. The canonical ensemble either follows as a special limit of the microcanonical ensemble or alternatively follows from the maximum entropy principle. We show the equivalence of these two approaches by applying the maximum entropy formulation to a closed universe consisting of an open system plus bath. We show that the target function for deriving the canonical distribution emerges as a natural consequence of partial maximization of the entropy over the bath degrees of freedom alone. By extending this mathematical formalism to dynamical paths rather than equilibrium ensembles, the result provides an alternative justification for the principle of path entropy maximization as well.
Efficiency of autonomous soft nanomachines at maximum power.
Seifert, Udo
2011-01-14
We consider nanosized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing nonequilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques, or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall into three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient," "strong and inefficient," and "balanced." For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
Maximum power point tracking for optimizing energy harvesting process
Akbari, S.; Thang, P. C.; Veselov, D. S.
2016-10-01
There has been a growing interest in using energy harvesting techniques for powering wireless sensor networks. The reason for utilizing this technology can be explained by the sensors limited amount of operation time which results from the finite capacity of batteries and the need for having a stable power supply in some applications. Energy can be harvested from the sun, wind, vibration, heat, etc. It is reasonable to develop multisource energy harvesting platforms for increasing the amount of harvesting energy and to mitigate the issue concerning the intermittent nature of ambient sources. In the context of solar energy harvesting, it is possible to develop algorithms for finding the optimal operation point of solar panels at which maximum power is generated. These algorithms are known as maximum power point tracking techniques. In this article, we review the concept of maximum power point tracking and provide an overview of the research conducted in this area for wireless sensor networks applications.
The evolution of maximum body size of terrestrial mammals.
Smith, Felisa A; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Dayan, Tamar; Ernest, S K Morgan; Evans, Alistair R; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; McCain, Christy; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica; Uhen, Mark D
2010-11-26
The extinction of dinosaurs at the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary was the seminal event that opened the door for the subsequent diversification of terrestrial mammals. Our compilation of maximum body size at the ordinal level by sub-epoch shows a near-exponential increase after the K/Pg. On each continent, the maximum size of mammals leveled off after 40 million years ago and thereafter remained approximately constant. There was remarkable congruence in the rate, trajectory, and upper limit across continents, orders, and trophic guilds, despite differences in geological and climatic history, turnover of lineages, and ecological variation. Our analysis suggests that although the primary driver for the evolution of giant mammals was diversification to fill ecological niches, environmental temperature and land area may have ultimately constrained the maximum size achieved.
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
1996-09-01
The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Scientific substantination of maximum allowable concentration of fluopicolide in water
Pelo I.М.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In order to substantiate fluopicolide maximum allowable concentration in the water of water reservoirs the research was carried out. Methods of study: laboratory hygienic experiment using organoleptic and sanitary-chemical, sanitary-toxicological, sanitary-microbiological and mathematical methods. The results of fluopicolide influence on organoleptic properties of water, sanitary regimen of reservoirs for household purposes were given and its subthreshold concentration in water by sanitary and toxicological hazard index was calculated. The threshold concentration of the substance by the main hazard criteria was established, the maximum allowable concentration in water was substantiated. The studies led to the following conclusions: fluopicolide threshold concentration in water by organoleptic hazard index (limiting criterion – the smell – 0.15 mg/dm3, general sanitary hazard index (limiting criteria – impact on the number of saprophytic microflora, biochemical oxygen demand and nitrification – 0.015 mg/dm3, the maximum noneffective concentration – 0.14 mg/dm3, the maximum allowable concentration - 0.015 mg/dm3.
Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.
Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis
2014-02-01
Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.
On some method of the space elevator maximum stress reduction
Ambartsumian S. A.
2007-03-01
Full Text Available The possibility of the realization and exploitation of the space elevator project is connected with a number of complicated problems. One of them are large elastic stresses arising in the space elevator ribbon body, which are considerably bigger that the limit of strength of modern materials. This note is devoted to the solution of problem of maximum stress reduction in the ribbon by the modification of the ribbon cross-section area.
2013-02-06
... capital reserve ratio and cited FHA's decision to continue taking steps to improve the MMIF's short- and... financial status of the MMIF reported a decline in the Fund's statutory capital reserve ratio and cited FHA... predicted economic factors have resulted in a lower statutory capital reserve ratio for the MMIF for...
Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
2006-01-01
Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John
2011-01-01
Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...
Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
2006-01-01
Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
Ingram, WT
2012-01-01
Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen
丁小霞; 李培武; 周海燕; 白艺珍; 印南日
2011-01-01
2009-2010年对全国产后花生黄曲霉毒素污染进行了普查监测,根据检测结果,利用蒙特卡罗方法,开展了我国与国际食品法典委员会(CAC)、欧盟、日本、澳大利亚和新西兰等国际组织和主要贸易国不同花生黄曲霉毒素限量对我国人群直接食用产后花生的致癌风险和对产业影响的研究.结果表明,不同花生黄曲霉毒素限量标准对我国人群摄入产后花生导致的原发性肝细胞癌年发生率影响差异不显著,但对经济和产业造成的影响差异显著.研究结果为制定我国花生黄曲霉毒素限量标准以及促进花生生产、贸易提供技术参考.%Based on the survey of aflatoxins contamination in post - harvest peanut in China, the cancer risk of Chinese populations for direct consumption of peanuts was estimated under currently existing maximum levels (MLs) in China, CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission), EU, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, and different scenarios were simulated by Monte Carlo method. The results implied that there were no significant differences in the yearly - incidence of primary hepatocellular carcinoma of Chinese populations under different MLs in peanut and peanut products, whereas significant differences were found for the influence of different MLs on economic interest and the development of peanut industry. This study provided a base for setting up the MLs standards of aflatoxins in China and classification of peanut products.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees
van Iersel, Leo
2009-01-01
A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.
STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS
无
2001-01-01
The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.
Maximum orbit plane change with heat-transfer-rate considerations
Lee, J. Y.; Hull, D. G.
1990-01-01
Two aerodynamic maneuvers are considered for maximizing the plane change of a circular orbit: gliding flight with a maximum thrust segment to regain lost energy (aeroglide) and constant altitude cruise with the thrust being used to cancel the drag and maintain a high energy level (aerocruise). In both cases, the stagnation heating rate is limited. For aeroglide, the controls are the angle of attack, the bank angle, the time at which the burn begins, and the length of the burn. For aerocruise, the maneuver is divided into three segments: descent, cruise, and ascent. During descent the thrust is zero, and the controls are the angle of attack and the bank angle. During cruise, the only control is the assumed-constant angle of attack. During ascent, a maximum thrust segment is used to restore lost energy, and the controls are the angle of attack and bank angle. The optimization problems are solved with a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. Numerical results for the Maneuverable Re-entry Research Vehicle with a heating-rate limit of 100 Btu/ft(2)-s show that aerocruise gives a maximum plane change of 2 deg, which is only 1 deg larger than that of aeroglide. On the other hand, even though aerocruise requires two thrust levels, the cruise characteristics of constant altitude, velocity, thrust, and angle of attack are easy to control.
Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding
Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao
2012-01-01
In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.
The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem
Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data
Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.
1997-01-01
EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...
Gerrit Pienaar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available It is an accepted principle in South African law that movable property acquired in an original way (by operation of law is not burdened by any limited real rights, as previous limited real rights are extinguished on the vesting of ownership (mobilia non habent sequelam. It is assumed by some South African writers that the same principles are applicable to the original acquisition of immovable property and that all existing limited real rights fall away on original acquisition of ownership. In this article the nature of limited real rights to immovable property is examined, and the notion that ownership is the "mother" right on which all limited real rights are based is scrutinised critically. The nature and establishment of limited real rights are used to distinguish between the essence and effect of limited real rights in the case of immovable property. The recognition of limited real rights as constitutional property is used as a further argument that limited real rights cannot be extinguished automatically by the original acquisition of immovable property, as such common law or statutory measures will constitute an arbitrary deprivation of property in terms of section 25 of the Constitution. The statutory provisions regarding limited real rights in the case of prescription and expropriation are then analysed as an indication that it is not a general principle that limited real rights are extinguished automatically on the original acquisition of ownership of immovable property.
Optical and terahertz spectra analysis by the maximum entropy method.
Vartiainen, Erik M; Peiponen, Kai-Erik
2013-06-01
Phase retrieval is one of the classical problems in various fields of physics including x-ray crystallography, astronomy and spectroscopy. It arises when only an amplitude measurement on electric field can be made while both amplitude and phase of the field are needed for obtaining the desired material properties. In optical and terahertz spectroscopies, in particular, phase retrieval is a one-dimensional problem, which is considered as unsolvable in general. Nevertheless, an approach utilizing the maximum entropy principle has proven to be a feasible tool in various applications of optical, both linear and nonlinear, as well as in terahertz spectroscopies, where the one-dimensional phase retrieval problem arises. In this review, we focus on phase retrieval using the maximum entropy method in various spectroscopic applications. We review the theory behind the method and illustrate through examples why and how the method works, as well as discuss its limitations.
Optimal Portfolio Strategy under Rolling Economic Maximum Drawdown Constraints
Xiaojian Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of optimal portfolio strategy under the constraints of rolling economic maximum drawdown. A more practical strategy is developed by using rolling Sharpe ratio in computing the allocation proportion in contrast to existing models. Besides, another novel strategy named “REDP strategy” is further proposed, which replaces the rolling economic drawdown of the portfolio with the rolling economic drawdown of the risky asset. The simulation tests prove that REDP strategy can ensure the portfolio to satisfy the drawdown constraint and outperforms other strategies significantly. An empirical comparison research on the performances of different strategies is carried out by using the 23-year monthly data of SPTR, DJUBS, and 3-month T-bill. The investment cases of single risky asset and two risky assets are both studied in this paper. Empirical results indicate that the REDP strategy successfully controls the maximum drawdown within the given limit and performs best in both return and risk.
Optimal Control of Polymer Flooding Based on Maximum Principle
Yang Lei
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Polymer flooding is one of the most important technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. In this paper, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems (DPSs for polymer injection strategies is established, which involves the performance index as maximum of the profit, the governing equations as the fluid flow equations of polymer flooding, and the inequality constraint as the polymer concentration limitation. To cope with the optimal control problem (OCP of this DPS, the necessary conditions for optimality are obtained through application of the calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s weak maximum principle. A gradient method is proposed for the computation of optimal injection strategies. The numerical results of an example illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Diana Ildusovna Khairullina
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Objective to reveal the need for separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of dwellingconstruction cooperative. Methods in this work the abstractlogical method of research has been applied. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal documents regulating the activities of dwellingconstruction cooperatives the business activities of cooperatives were determined the income and expenses received by the cooperative from business activity were reviewed. Scientific novelty the technique is proposed of separate accounting of expenditures from business and statutory activities in dwellingconstruction cooperative. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in dwellingconstruction cooperatives as well as in research and teaching activity. nbsp
Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers
Veerachary, Mummadi
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs
Peter Recht
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.
Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem
Hoede, Cornelis
1988-01-01
The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs
J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum
Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.
2012-01-01
We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the i
Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy
L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability
R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings
2010-01-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v
Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems
Lasak, Katarzyna
In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...
Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes
Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael
EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...
Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays
Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.
1971-01-01
Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....
[Evolutionary process unveiled by the maximum genetic diversity hypothesis].
Huang, Yi-Min; Xia, Meng-Ying; Huang, Shi
2013-05-01
As two major popular theories to explain evolutionary facts, the neutral theory and Neo-Darwinism, despite their proven virtues in certain areas, still fail to offer comprehensive explanations to such fundamental evolutionary phenomena as the genetic equidistance result, abundant overlap sites, increase in complexity over time, incomplete understanding of genetic diversity, and inconsistencies with fossil and archaeological records. Maximum genetic diversity hypothesis (MGD), however, constructs a more complete evolutionary genetics theory that incorporates all of the proven virtues of existing theories and adds to them the novel concept of a maximum or optimum limit on genetic distance or diversity. It has yet to meet a contradiction and explained for the first time the half-century old Genetic Equidistance phenomenon as well as most other major evolutionary facts. It provides practical and quantitative ways of studying complexity. Molecular interpretation using MGD-based methods reveal novel insights on the origins of humans and other primates that are consistent with fossil evidence and common sense, and reestablished the important role of China in the evolution of humans. MGD theory has also uncovered an important genetic mechanism in the construction of complex traits and the pathogenesis of complex diseases. We here made a series of sequence comparisons among yeasts, fishes and primates to illustrate the concept of limit on genetic distance. The idea of limit or optimum is in line with the yin-yang paradigm in the traditional Chinese view of the universal creative law in nature.
Application of Maximum Entropy Distribution to the Statistical Properties of Wave Groups
无
2007-01-01
The new distributions of the statistics of wave groups based on the maximum entropy principle are presented. The maximum entropy distributions appear to be superior to conventional distributions when applied to a limited amount of information. Its applications to the wave group properties show the effectiveness of the maximum entropy distribution. FFT filtering method is employed to obtain the wave envelope fast and efficiently. Comparisons of both the maximum entropy distribution and the distribution of Longuet-Higgins (1984) with the laboratory wind-wave data show that the former gives a better fit.
Solar maximum mission panel jettison analysis remote manipulator system
Bauer, R. B.
1980-01-01
A study is presented of the development of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) configurations for jettison of the solar panels on the Solar Maximum Mission/Multimission Satellite. A valid RMS maneuver between jettison configurations was developed. Arm and longeron loads and effector excursions due to the solar panel jettison were determined to see if they were within acceptable limits. These loads and end effector excursions were analyzed under two RMS modes, servos active in position hold submode, and in the brakes on mode.
Combining Experiments and Simulations Using the Maximum Entropy Principle
Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2014-01-01
applications in our field has grown steadily in recent years, in areas as diverse as sequence analysis, structural modelling, and neurobiology. In this Perspectives article, we give a broad introduction to the method, in an attempt to encourage its further adoption. The general procedure is explained...... in the context of a simple example, after which we proceed with a real-world application in the field of molecular simulations, where the maximum entropy procedure has recently provided new insight. Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results...
Model Selection Through Sparse Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Banerjee, Onureena; D'Aspremont, Alexandre
2007-01-01
We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added l_1-norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive l_1-norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov's first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright & Jordan (2006)), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for...
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation
Lei Luo
2013-01-01
item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....
Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams
Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn
2016-01-01
Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-01-01
An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...
A stochastic maximum principle via Malliavin calculus
Øksendal, Bernt; Zhou, Xun Yu; Meyer-Brandis, Thilo
2008-01-01
This paper considers a controlled It\\^o-L\\'evy process where the information available to the controller is possibly less than the overall information. All the system coefficients and the objective performance functional are allowed to be random, possibly non-Markovian. Malliavin calculus is employed to derive a maximum principle for the optimal control of such a system where the adjoint process is explicitly expressed.
Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-08
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs
Wang, Long; Wang, Yi
2012-01-01
Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.
Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error
Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun
2016-09-01
We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.
Perego, D L
2002-01-01
A limit on the tau neutrino mass is obtained using all the $Z^{0} \\to \\tau^{+} \\tau^{-}$ data collected at LEP by the DELPHI detector between 1992 and 1995. In this analysis events in which one of the taus decays into one charged particle, while the second $\\tau$ decays into f{}ive charged pions (1-5 topology) have been used. The neutrino mass is determined from a bidimensional \\fit ~on the invariant mass $m^{*}_{5 \\pi}$ and on the energy $E_{5 \\pi}$ of the f{}ive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ system. The result found is $m_{\
A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs
Zhang Heping
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density
Awad, Adel
2014-01-01
Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example w...
Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion
Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles
2016-07-01
Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-01-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Maximum capacities of the 100-B water plant
Strand, N.O.
1953-04-27
Increases in process water flows will be needed as the current program of increasing pile power levels continues. The future process water flows that will be required are known to be beyond the present maximum capacities of component parts of the water system. It is desirable to determine the present maximum capacities of each major component part so that plans can be mode for modifications and/or additions to the present equipment to meet future required flows. The apparent hydraulic limit of the present piles is about 68,000 gpm. This figure is based on a tube inlet pressure of 400 psi, a tube flow of 34 gpm, and 2,000 effective tubes. In this document the results of tests and calculations to determine the present maximum capacities of each major component part of the 100-B water system will be presented. Emergency steam operated pumps will not be considered as it is doubtful of year around operation of a steam driven pump could be economically justified. Some possible ways to increase the process water flows of each component part of the water system to the ultimate of 68,000 gpm are given.
Mitigation of maximum world oil production: Shortage scenarios
Hirsch, Robert L. [Management Information Services, Inc., 723 Fords Landing Way, Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)
2008-02-15
A framework is developed for planning the mitigation of the oil shortages that will be caused by world oil production reaching a maximum and going into decline. To estimate potential economic impacts, a reasonable relationship between percent decline in world oil supply and percent decline in world GDP was determined to be roughly 1:1. As a limiting case for decline rates, giant fields were examined. Actual oil production from Europe and North America indicated significant periods of relatively flat oil production (plateaus). However, before entering its plateau period, North American oil production went through a sharp peak and steep decline. Examination of a number of future world oil production forecasts showed multi-year rollover/roll-down periods, which represent pseudoplateaus. Consideration of resource nationalism posits an Oil Exporter Withholding Scenario, which could potentially overwhelm all other considerations. Three scenarios for mitigation planning resulted from this analysis: (1) A Best Case, where maximum world oil production is followed by a multi-year plateau before the onset of a monatomic decline rate of 2-5% per year; (2) A Middling Case, where world oil production reaches a maximum, after which it drops into a long-term, 2-5% monotonic annual decline; and finally (3) A Worst Case, where the sharp peak of the Middling Case is degraded by oil exporter withholding, leading to world oil shortages growing potentially more rapidly than 2-5% per year, creating the most dire world economic impacts. (author)
Gordon, Jason; Landry, Robert J., III
2015-01-01
... of a closely-held business in bankruptcy and makes a statutory proposal to remedy the inequitable risk-shifting effect of the bankruptcy of the closely-held business. INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship and policies encouraging entrepreneurial activity are vital to the United States' economy.1 An antecedent to the decision to pursue a new venture is the ava...
Efficiency at Maximum Power of Low-Dissipation Carnot Engines
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; van den Broeck, Christian
2010-10-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η*, of engines performing finite-time Carnot cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For engines reaching Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th in the reversible limit (long cycle time, zero dissipation), we find in the limit of low dissipation that η* is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. These bounds are reached when the ratio of the dissipation during the cold and hot isothermal phases tend, respectively, to zero or infinity. For symmetric dissipation (ratio one) the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-Tc/Th is recovered.
Efficiency at maximum power of low-dissipation Carnot engines.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2010-10-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η*, of engines performing finite-time Carnot cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For engines reaching Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th in the reversible limit (long cycle time, zero dissipation), we find in the limit of low dissipation that η* is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. These bounds are reached when the ratio of the dissipation during the cold and hot isothermal phases tend, respectively, to zero or infinity. For symmetric dissipation (ratio one) the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-√Tc/Th] is recovered.
Combining experiments and simulations using the maximum entropy principle.
Wouter Boomsma
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A key component of computational biology is to compare the results of computer modelling with experimental measurements. Despite substantial progress in the models and algorithms used in many areas of computational biology, such comparisons sometimes reveal that the computations are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy applications in our field has grown steadily in recent years, in areas as diverse as sequence analysis, structural modelling, and neurobiology. In this Perspectives article, we give a broad introduction to the method, in an attempt to encourage its further adoption. The general procedure is explained in the context of a simple example, after which we proceed with a real-world application in the field of molecular simulations, where the maximum entropy procedure has recently provided new insight. Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results that are at not in complete and quantitative accordance with experiments. A common solution to this problem is to explicitly ensure agreement between the two by perturbing the potential energy function towards the experimental data. So far, a general consensus for how such perturbations should be implemented has been lacking. Three very recent papers have explored this problem using the maximum entropy approach, providing both new theoretical and practical insights to the problem. We highlight each of these contributions in turn and conclude with a discussion on remaining challenges.
Combining experiments and simulations using the maximum entropy principle.
Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2014-02-01
A key component of computational biology is to compare the results of computer modelling with experimental measurements. Despite substantial progress in the models and algorithms used in many areas of computational biology, such comparisons sometimes reveal that the computations are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy applications in our field has grown steadily in recent years, in areas as diverse as sequence analysis, structural modelling, and neurobiology. In this Perspectives article, we give a broad introduction to the method, in an attempt to encourage its further adoption. The general procedure is explained in the context of a simple example, after which we proceed with a real-world application in the field of molecular simulations, where the maximum entropy procedure has recently provided new insight. Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results that are at not in complete and quantitative accordance with experiments. A common solution to this problem is to explicitly ensure agreement between the two by perturbing the potential energy function towards the experimental data. So far, a general consensus for how such perturbations should be implemented has been lacking. Three very recent papers have explored this problem using the maximum entropy approach, providing both new theoretical and practical insights to the problem. We highlight each of these contributions in turn and conclude with a discussion on remaining challenges.
Tests of maximum oxygen intake. A critical review.
Shephard, R J
1984-01-01
The determinants of endurance effort vary, depending upon the extent of the muscle mass that is activated. Large muscle work, such as treadmill running, is halted by impending circulatory failure; lack of venous return may compound the basic problem of an excessive cardiac work-load. If the task calls for use of a smaller muscle mass, there is ultimately difficulty in perfusing the active muscles, and glycolysis is halted by an accumulation of acid metabolites. Simple field tests of endurance, such as Cooper's 12-minute run and the Canadian Home Fitness Test, have some value in the rapid screening of large populations, but like other submaximal tests of human performance they lack the precision needed to advise the individual. The directly measured maximum oxygen intake (VO2 max) varies with the type of exercise. The highest values are obtained during uphill treadmill running, but well trained athletes often approach these values during performance of sport-specific tasks. Limitations of methodology and wide interindividual variations of constitutional potential limit the interpretation of maximum oxygen intake data in terms of personal fitness, exercise prescription and the monitoring of training responses. The main practical value of VO2 max measurement is in the functional assessment of patients with cardiorespiratory disease, since changes are then large relative to the precision of the test.
Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somer, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somer, MA (United States); Osser, R. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somer, MA (United States)
2012-03-01
This project examines a large-scale renovation project within a 500 unit, 1960's era subsidized urban housing community. This research focuses on the airflow control and window replacement measures implemented as part of the renovations to the low-rise apartment buildings. The window replacement reduced the nominal conductive loss of the apartment enclosure by approximately 15%; air sealing measures reduced measured air leakage by approximately 40% on average.
Extracting maximum petrophysical and geological information from a limited reservoir database
Ali, M.; Chawathe, A.; Ouenes, A. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others
1997-08-01
The characterization of old fields lacking sufficient core and log data is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology that uses new and conventional tools to build a reliable reservoir model for the Sulimar Queen field. At the fine scale, permeability measured on a fine grid with a minipermeameter was used in conjunction with the petrographic data collected on multiple thin sections. The use of regression analysis and a newly developed fuzzy logic algorithm led to the identification of key petrographic elements which control permeability. At the log scale, old gamma ray logs were first rescaled/calibrated throughout the entire field for consistency and reliability using only four modem logs. Using data from one cored well and the rescaled gamma ray logs, correlations between core porosity, permeability, total water content and gamma ray were developed to complete the small scale characterization. At the reservoir scale, outcrop data and the rescaled gamma logs were used to define the reservoir structure over an area of ten square miles where only 36 wells were available. Given the structure, the rescaled gamma ray logs were used to build the reservoir volume by identifying the flow units and their continuity. Finally, history-matching results constrained to the primary production were used to estimate the dynamic reservoir properties such as relative permeabilities to complete the characterization. The obtained reservoir model was tested by forecasting the waterflood performance and which was in good agreement with the actual performance.
Hydrodynamic states in water below the temperature of the density maximum: the limit to supercooling
van der Elsken, J.; van Boom, L.; Bot, A.
1988-01-01
Spectra of fluctuations in the total intensity of laser light deflected by supercooled water show that even under carefully controlled conditions large samples give convection when cooled below -0%. This is in agreement with the Rayleigh versus Prandtlnumber relation for supercooled water.
Pushing desalination recovery to the maximum limit: Membrane and thermal processes integration
Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil
2017-05-05
The economics of seawater desalination processes has been continuously improving as a result of desalination market expansion. Presently, reverse osmosis (RO) processes are leading in global desalination with 53% share followed by thermally driven technologies 33%, but in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries their shares are 42% and 56% respectively due to severe feed water quality. In RO processes, intake, pretreatment and brine disposal cost 25% of total desalination cost at 30–35% recovery. We proposed a tri-hybrid system to enhance overall recovery up to 81%. The conditioned brine leaving from RO processes supplied to proposed multi-evaporator adsorption cycle driven by low temperature industrial waste heat sources or solar energy. RO membrane simulation has been performed using WinFlow and IMSDesign commercial softwares developed by GE and Nitto. Detailed mathematical model of overall system is developed and simulation has been conducted in FORTRAN. The final brine reject concentration from tri-hybrid cycle can vary from 166,000ppm to 222,000ppm if RO retentate concentration varies from 45,000ppm to 60,000ppm. We also conducted economic analysis and showed that the proposed tri-hybrid cycle can achieve highest recovery, 81%, and lowest energy consumption, 1.76kWhelec/m3, for desalination reported in the literature up till now.
Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2013-01-01
We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors......, as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics....
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering
JIANG Wei; QU Jiao; LI Benxi
2007-01-01
With the development of Support Vector Machine (SVM),the "kernel method" has been studied in a general way.In this paper,we present a novel Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering algorithm (KMEC).By using mercer kernel functions,the proposed algorithm is firstly map the data from their original space to high dimensional space where the data are expected to be more separable,then perform MEC clustering in the feature space.The experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance in the non-hyperspherical and complex data structure.
The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.
Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M
2003-11-14
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.
Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension
Bastea, S
2009-01-27
Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.
Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming
Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.
1988-05-01
Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.
Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2012-01-01
In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...
Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review
Baggenstoss, Paul M.
2017-06-01
We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.
CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer
2011-12-01
CORA analyzes emission line spectra with low count numbers and fits them to a line using the maximum likelihood technique. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise, the software derives the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. CORA has been applied to an X-ray spectrum with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory.
Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2014-04-01
We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.
Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits
Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej
2015-03-01
The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.
Zipf's law and maximum sustainable growth
Malevergne, Y; Sornette, D
2010-01-01
Zipf's law states that the number of firms with size greater than S is inversely proportional to S. Most explanations start with Gibrat's rule of proportional growth but require additional constraints. We show that Gibrat's rule, at all firm levels, yields Zipf's law under a balance condition between the effective growth rate of incumbent firms (which includes their possible demise) and the growth rate of investments in entrant firms. Remarkably, Zipf's law is the signature of the long-term optimal allocation of resources that ensures the maximum sustainable growth rate of an economy.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan limits. 4274.331 Section 4274.331 Agriculture... (IRP) § 4274.331 Loan limits. (a) Intermediary. (1) No loan to an intermediary will exceed the maximum... be used for loans to ultimate recipients that exceed $150,000. This limit does not apply to...
Antfolk, Jan
2017-03-01
Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.
Accurate structural correlations from maximum likelihood superpositions.
Douglas L Theobald
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The cores of globular proteins are densely packed, resulting in complicated networks of structural interactions. These interactions in turn give rise to dynamic structural correlations over a wide range of time scales. Accurate analysis of these complex correlations is crucial for understanding biomolecular mechanisms and for relating structure to function. Here we report a highly accurate technique for inferring the major modes of structural correlation in macromolecules using likelihood-based statistical analysis of sets of structures. This method is generally applicable to any ensemble of related molecules, including families of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR models, different crystal forms of a protein, and structural alignments of homologous proteins, as well as molecular dynamics trajectories. Dominant modes of structural correlation are determined using principal components analysis (PCA of the maximum likelihood estimate of the correlation matrix. The correlations we identify are inherently independent of the statistical uncertainty and dynamic heterogeneity associated with the structural coordinates. We additionally present an easily interpretable method ("PCA plots" for displaying these positional correlations by color-coding them onto a macromolecular structure. Maximum likelihood PCA of structural superpositions, and the structural PCA plots that illustrate the results, will facilitate the accurate determination of dynamic structural correlations analyzed in diverse fields of structural biology.
Maximum entropy production and the fluctuation theorem
Dewar, R C [Unite EPHYSE, INRA Centre de Bordeaux-Aquitaine, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon Cedex (France)
2005-05-27
Recently the author used an information theoretical formulation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (MaxEnt) to derive the fluctuation theorem (FT) concerning the probability of second law violating phase-space paths. A less rigorous argument leading to the variational principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) was also given. Here a more rigorous and general mathematical derivation of MEP from MaxEnt is presented, and the relationship between MEP and the FT is thereby clarified. Specifically, it is shown that the FT allows a general orthogonality property of maximum information entropy to be extended to entropy production itself, from which MEP then follows. The new derivation highlights MEP and the FT as generic properties of MaxEnt probability distributions involving anti-symmetric constraints, independently of any physical interpretation. Physically, MEP applies to the entropy production of those macroscopic fluxes that are free to vary under the imposed constraints, and corresponds to selection of the most probable macroscopic flux configuration. In special cases MaxEnt also leads to various upper bound transport principles. The relationship between MaxEnt and previous theories of irreversible processes due to Onsager, Prigogine and Ziegler is also clarified in the light of these results. (letter to the editor)
Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto
2017-08-01
An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.
Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment
Lehman, Martin
2013-10-01
The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.
47 CFR 74.735 - Power limitations.
2010-10-01
... larger ERP. Applications proposing the use of directional antenna systems must be accompanied by the... Booster Stations § 74.735 Power limitations. (a) The maximum peak effective radiated power (ERP) of an...-13; and (2) 150 kW for UHF channels 14-69. (b) The maximum ERP of a digital low power TV,...
26 CFR 303.1 - Statutory provisions; section 36, Trading With the Enemy Act.
2010-04-01
... effectuate this section. Statutes of limitations on assessment, collection, refund, or credit of Federal... assessment; and also any interest, penalty, additional amount, or addition thereto not arising from any act, omission, neglect, failure, or delay on the part of the Custodian. (e) Any tax exemption accorded to...
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
Fundamental Limits of Ultrathin Metasurfaces
Arbabi, Amir
2014-01-01
We present universal theoretical limits on the operation and performance of non-magnetic passive ultrathin metasurfaces. In particular, we prove that their local transmission, reflection, and polarization conversion coefficients are confined to limited regions of the complex plane. As a result, full control over the phase of the light transmitted through such metasurfaces cannot be achieved if the polarization of the light is not to be affected at the same time. We also establish fundamental limits on the maximum polarization conversion efficiency of these metasurfaces, and show that they cannot achieve more than 25% polarization conversion efficiency in transmission.
Efficiency at maximum power of a discrete feedback ratchet
Jarillo, Javier; Tangarife, Tomás; Cao, Francisco J.
2016-01-01
Efficiency at maximum power is found to be of the same order for a feedback ratchet and for its open-loop counterpart. However, feedback increases the output power up to a factor of five. This increase in output power is due to the increase in energy input and the effective entropy reduction obtained as a consequence of feedback. Optimal efficiency at maximum power is reached for time intervals between feedback actions two orders of magnitude smaller than the characteristic time of diffusion over a ratchet period length. The efficiency is computed consistently taking into account the correlation between the control actions. We consider a feedback control protocol for a discrete feedback flashing ratchet, which works against an external load. We maximize the power output optimizing the parameters of the ratchet, the controller, and the external load. The maximum power output is found to be upper bounded, so the attainable extracted power is limited. After, we compute an upper bound for the efficiency of this isothermal feedback ratchet at maximum power output. We make this computation applying recent developments of the thermodynamics of feedback-controlled systems, which give an equation to compute the entropy reduction due to information. However, this equation requires the computation of the probability of each of the possible sequences of the controller's actions. This computation becomes involved when the sequence of the controller's actions is non-Markovian, as is the case in most feedback ratchets. We here introduce an alternative procedure to set strong bounds to the entropy reduction in order to compute its value. In this procedure the bounds are evaluated in a quasi-Markovian limit, which emerge when there are big differences between the stationary probabilities of the system states. These big differences are an effect of the potential strength, which minimizes the departures from the Markovianicity of the sequence of control actions, allowing also to
47 CFR 22.627 - Effective radiated power limits.
2010-10-01
... radiated power limits. The effective radiated power (ERP) of transmitters operating on the channels listed in § 22.621 must not exceed the limits in this section. (a) Maximum ERP. The ERP must not exceed the applicable limits in this paragraph under any circumstances. Frequency range (MHz) Maximum ERP (watts)...
47 CFR 22.535 - Effective radiated power limits.
2010-10-01
... limits. The effective radiated power (ERP) of transmitters operating on the channels listed in § 22.531 must not exceed the limits in this section. (a) Maximum ERP. The ERP must not exceed the applicable limits in this paragraph under any circumstances. Frequency range (MHz) Maximum ERP (Watts) 35-36 600...
Maximum entropy principle and texture formation
Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier
2006-01-01
The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.
MLDS: Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling in R
Kenneth Knoblauch
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The MLDS package in the R programming language can be used to estimate perceptual scales based on the results of psychophysical experiments using the method of difference scaling. In a difference scaling experiment, observers compare two supra-threshold differences (a,b and (c,d on each trial. The approach is based on a stochastic model of how the observer decides which perceptual difference (or interval (a,b or (c,d is greater, and the parameters of the model are estimated using a maximum likelihood criterion. We also propose a method to test the model by evaluating the self-consistency of the estimated scale. The package includes an example in which an observer judges the differences in correlation between scatterplots. The example may be readily adapted to estimate perceptual scales for arbitrary physical continua.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-06-01
Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.
Maximum Segment Sum, Monadically (distilled tutorial
Jeremy Gibbons
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The maximum segment sum problem is to compute, given a list of integers, the largest of the sums of the contiguous segments of that list. This problem specification maps directly onto a cubic-time algorithm; however, there is a very elegant linear-time solution too. The problem is a classic exercise in the mathematics of program construction, illustrating important principles such as calculational development, pointfree reasoning, algebraic structure, and datatype-genericity. Here, we take a sideways look at the datatype-generic version of the problem in terms of monadic functional programming, instead of the traditional relational approach; the presentation is tutorial in style, and leavened with exercises for the reader.
Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms
McElwaine, J N
1997-01-01
This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.
Maximum process problems in optimal control theory
Goran Peskir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Given a standard Brownian motion (Btt≥0 and the equation of motion dXt=vtdt+2dBt, we set St=max0≤s≤tXs and consider the optimal control problem supvE(Sτ−Cτ, where c>0 and the supremum is taken over all admissible controls v satisfying vt∈[μ0,μ1] for all t up to τ=inf{t>0|Xt∉(ℓ0,ℓ1} with μ0g∗(St, where s↦g∗(s is a switching curve that is determined explicitly (as the unique solution to a nonlinear differential equation. The solution found demonstrates that the problem formulations based on a maximum functional can be successfully included in optimal control theory (calculus of variations in addition to the classic problem formulations due to Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza.
Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization
Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui
2014-11-01
The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.
Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy
Moffat, J. W.
2016-11-01
We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.
Video segmentation using Maximum Entropy Model
QIN Li-juan; ZHUANG Yue-ting; PAN Yun-he; WU Fei
2005-01-01
Detecting objects of interest from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in automated visual surveillance.Most current approaches only focus on discriminating moving objects by background subtraction whether or not the objects of interest can be moving or stationary. In this paper, we propose layers segmentation to detect both moving and stationary target objects from surveillance video. We extend the Maximum Entropy (ME) statistical model to segment layers with features, which are collected by constructing a codebook with a set of codewords for each pixel. We also indicate how the training models are used for the discrimination of target objects in surveillance video. Our experimental results are presented in terms of the success rate and the segmenting precision.
BINDER DRAINAGE TEST FOR POROUS MIXTURES MADE BY VARYING THE MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZES
Hardiman Hardiman
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Binder drainage occurs with mixes of small aggregate surface area particularly porous asphalt. The binder drainage test, developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, UK, is commonly used to set an upper limit on the acceptable binder content for a porous mix. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the effects of different binder types on the binder drainage characteristics of porous mix made of various maximum aggregate sizes 20, 14 and 10 mm. Two types of binder were used, conventional 60/70 pen bitumen, and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS modified bitumen. The amount of binder lost through drainage after three hours at the maximum mixing temperature were measured in duplicate for mixes of different maximum sizes and binder contents. The maximum mixing temperature adopted depends on the types of binder used. The retained binder is plotted against the initial mixed binder content, together with the line of equality where the retained binder equals the mixed binder content. The results indicate the significant contribution of using SBS modified bitumen to increase the target bitumen binder content. Their significance is discussed in terms of target binder content, the critical binder content, the maximum mixed binder content and the maximum retained binder content values obtained from the binder drainage test. It was concluded that increasing maximum aggregate sizes decrease the maximum retained binder content, critical binder content, target binder content, maximum mixed binder content, and mixed content for both binders, but however for all mixtures, SBS is the highest.
Evaluation of pliers' grip spans in the maximum gripping task and sub-maximum cutting task.
Kim, Dae-Min; Kong, Yong-Ku
2016-12-01
A total of 25 males participated to investigate the effects of the grip spans of pliers on the total grip force, individual finger forces and muscle activities in the maximum gripping task and wire-cutting tasks. In the maximum gripping task, results showed that the 50-mm grip span had significantly higher total grip strength than the other grip spans. In the cutting task, the 50-mm grip span also showed significantly higher grip strength than the 65-mm and 80-mm grip spans, whereas the muscle activities showed a higher value at 80-mm grip span. The ratios of cutting force to maximum grip strength were also investigated. Ratios of 30.3%, 31.3% and 41.3% were obtained by grip spans of 50-mm, 65-mm, and 80-mm, respectively. Thus, the 50-mm grip span for pliers might be recommended to provide maximum exertion in gripping tasks, as well as lower maximum-cutting force ratios in the cutting tasks.
Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference
Hall, Alex
2016-01-01
We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with very promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior mitigates noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely sub-dominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estima...
Fundamental gravitational limitations to quantum computing
Gambini, R; Pullin, J; Gambini, Rodolfo; Porto, Rafael A.; Pullin, Jorge
2005-01-01
Lloyd has considered the ultimate limitations physics places on quantum computers. He concludes in particular that for an ``ultimate laptop'' (a computer of one liter of volume and one kilogram of mass) the maximum number of operations per second is bounded by $10^{51}$. The limit is derived considering ordinary quantum mechanics. Here we consider additional limits that are placed by quantum gravity ideas, namely the use of a relational notion of time and fundamental gravitational limits that exist on time measurements. We then particularize for the case of an ultimate laptop and show that the maximum number of operations is further constrained to $10^{47}$ per second.
Unification of Field Theory and Maximum Entropy Methods for Learning Probability Densities
Kinney, Justin B
2014-01-01
Bayesian field theory and maximum entropy are two methods for learning smooth probability distributions (a.k.a. probability densities) from finite sampled data. Both methods were inspired by statistical physics, but the relationship between them has remained unclear. Here I show that Bayesian field theory subsumes maximum entropy density estimation. In particular, the most common maximum entropy methods are shown to be limiting cases of Bayesian inference using field theory priors that impose no boundary conditions on candidate densities. This unification provides a natural way to test the validity of the maximum entropy assumption on one's data. It also provides a better-fitting nonparametric density estimate when the maximum entropy assumption is rejected.
Effective soil hydraulic conductivity predicted with the maximum power principle
Westhoff, Martijn; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Zehe, Erwin; Dewals, Benjamin
2016-04-01
Drainage of water in soils happens for a large extent through preferential flowpaths, but these subsurface flowpaths are extremely difficult to observe or parameterize in hydrological models. To potentially overcome this problem, thermodynamic optimality principles have been suggested to predict effective parametrization of these (sub-grid) structures, such as the maximum entropy production principle or the equivalent maximum power principle. These principles have been successfully applied to predict heat transfer from the Equator to the Poles, or turbulent heat fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. In these examples, the effective flux adapts itself to its boundary condition by adapting its effective conductance through the creation of e.g. convection cells. However, flow through porous media, such as soils, can only quickly adapt its effective flow conductance by creation of preferential flowpaths, but it is unknown if this is guided by the aim to create maximum power. Here we show experimentally that this is indeed the case: In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoirs connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. From the steady state potential difference and the observed flow through the aquifer, and effective hydraulic conductance can be determined. This observed conductance does correspond to the one maximizing power of the flux through the confined aquifer. Although this experiment is done in an idealized setting, it opens doors for better parameterizing hydrological models. Furthermore, it shows that hydraulic properties of soils are not static, but they change with changing boundary conditions. A potential limitation to the principle is that it only applies to steady state conditions
Maximum entropy production in environmental and ecological systems.
Kleidon, Axel; Malhi, Yadvinder; Cox, Peter M
2010-05-12
The coupled biosphere-atmosphere system entails a vast range of processes at different scales, from ecosystem exchange fluxes of energy, water and carbon to the processes that drive global biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric composition and, ultimately, the planetary energy balance. These processes are generally complex with numerous interactions and feedbacks, and they are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), based on statistical mechanics and information theory, states that thermodynamic processes far from thermodynamic equilibrium will adapt to steady states at which they dissipate energy and produce entropy at the maximum possible rate. This issue focuses on the latest development of applications of MEP to the biosphere-atmosphere system including aspects of the atmospheric circulation, the role of clouds, hydrology, vegetation effects, ecosystem exchange of energy and mass, biogeochemical interactions and the Gaia hypothesis. The examples shown in this special issue demonstrate the potential of MEP to contribute to improved understanding and modelling of the biosphere and the wider Earth system, and also explore limitations and constraints to the application of the MEP principle.
Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement.
Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Kim, Myungki; Dhuey, Scott; Lakhani, Amit; Choo, Hyuck; Schuck, Peter James; Cabrini, Stefano; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Bokor, Jeffrey; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C
2011-07-13
Optical antennas have generated much interest in recent years due to their ability to focus optical energy beyond the diffraction limit, benefiting a broad range of applications such as sensitive photodetection, magnetic storage, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. To achieve the maximum field enhancement for an optical antenna, parameters such as the antenna dimensions, loading conditions, and coupling efficiency have been previously studied. Here, we present a framework, based on coupled-mode theory, to achieve maximum field enhancement in optical antennas through optimization of optical antennas' radiation characteristics. We demonstrate that the optimum condition is achieved when the radiation quality factor (Q(rad)) of optical antennas is matched to their absorption quality factor (Q(abs)). We achieve this condition experimentally by fabricating the optical antennas on a dielectric (SiO(2)) coated ground plane (metal substrate) and controlling the antenna radiation through optimizing the dielectric thickness. The dielectric thickness at which the matching condition occurs is approximately half of the quarter-wavelength thickness, typically used to achieve constructive interference, and leads to ∼20% higher field enhancement relative to a quarter-wavelength thick dielectric layer.
Maximum mass, moment of inertia and compactness of relativistic stars
Breu, Cosima
2016-01-01
A number of recent works have highlighted that it is possible to express the properties of general-relativistic stellar equilibrium configurations in terms of functions that do not depend on the specific equation of state employed to describe matter at nuclear densities. These functions are normally referred to as "universal relations" and have been found to apply, within limits, both to static or stationary isolated stars, as well as to fully dynamical and merging binary systems. Further extending the idea that universal relations can be valid also away from stability, we show that a universal relation is exhibited also by equilibrium solutions that are not stable. In particular, the mass of rotating configurations on the turning-point line shows a universal behaviour when expressed in terms of the normalised Keplerian angular momentum. In turn, this allows us to compute the maximum mass allowed by uniform rotation, M_{max}, simply in terms of the maximum mass of the nonrotating configuration, M_{TOV}, findi...
Maximum Allowable Dynamic Load of Mobile Manipulators with Stability Consideration
Heidary H. R.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available High payload to mass ratio is one of the advantages of mobile robot manipulators. In this paper, a general formula for finding the maximum allowable dynamic load (MADL of wheeled mobile robot is presented. Mobile manipulators operating in field environments will be required to manipulate large loads, and to perform such tasks on uneven terrain, which may cause the system to reach dangerous tip-over instability. Therefore, the method is expanded for finding the MADL of mobile manipulators with stability consideration. Moment-Height Stability (MHS criterion is used as an index for the system stability. Full dynamic model of wheeled mobile base and mounted manipulator is considered with respect to the dynamic of non-holonomic constraint. Then, a method for determination of the maximum allowable loads is described, subject to actuator constraints and by imposing the stability limitation as a new constraint. The actuator torque constraint is applied by using a speed-torque characteristics curve of a typical DC motor. In order to verify the effectiveness of the presented algorithm, several simulation studies considering a two-link planar manipulator, mounted on a mobile base are presented and the results are discussed.
Measuring of the maximum measurable velocity for dual-frequency laser interferometer
Zhiping Zhang; Zhaogu Cheng; Zhaoyu Qin; Jianqiang Zhu
2007-01-01
There is an increasing demand on the measurable velocity of laser interferometer in manufacturing technologies. The maximum measurable velocity is limited by frequency difference of laser source, optical configuration, and electronics bandwidth. An experimental setup based on free falling movement has been demonstrated to measure the maximum easurable velocity for interferometers. Measurement results show that the maximum measurable velocity is less than its theoretical value. Moreover, the effect of kinds of factors upon the measurement results is analyzed, and the results can offer a reference for industrial applications.
Hardware Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators
Maganga, Othman; Phillip, Navneesh; Burnham, Keith J.; Montecucco, Andrea; Siviter, Jonathan; Knox, Andrew; Simpson, Kevin
2014-06-01
This work describes the practical implementation of two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, namely those of perturb and observe, and extremum seeking control. The proprietary dSPACE system is used to perform hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation whereby the two control algorithms are implemented using the MATLAB/Simulink (Mathworks, Natick, MA) software environment in order to control a synchronous buck-boost converter connected to two commercial thermoelectric modules. The process of performing HIL simulation using dSPACE is discussed, and a comparison between experimental and simulated results is highlighted. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the two MPPT algorithms, and in conclusion the benefits and limitations of real-time implementation of MPPT controllers using dSPACE are discussed.
Vector control structure of an asynchronous motor at maximum torque
Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Gillich, N.; Raduca, E.
2016-02-01
Vector control methods offer the possibility to gain high performance, being widely used. Certain applications require an optimum control in limit operating conditions, as, at maximum torque, that is not always satisfied. The paper presents how the voltage and the frequency for an asynchronous machine (ASM) operating at variable speed are determinate, with an accent on the method that keeps the rotor flux constant. The simulation analyses consider three load types: variable torque and speed, variable torque and constant speed, constant torque and variable speed. The final values of frequency and voltage are obtained through the proposed control schemes with one controller using the simulation language based on the Maple module. The dynamic analysis of the system is done for the case with P and PI controller and allows conclusions on the proposed method, which can have different applications, as the ASM in wind turbines.
Maximum, minimum, and optimal mutation rates in dynamic environments
Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man
2009-12-01
We analyze the dynamics of the parallel mutation-selection quasispecies model with a changing environment. For an environment with the sharp-peak fitness function in which the most fit sequence changes by k spin flips every period T , we find analytical expressions for the minimum and maximum mutation rates for which a quasispecies can survive, valid in the limit of large sequence size. We find an asymptotic solution in which the quasispecies population changes periodically according to the periodic environmental change. In this state we compute the mutation rate that gives the optimal mean fitness over a period. We find that the optimal mutation rate per genome, k/T , is independent of genome size, a relationship which is observed across broad groups of real organisms.
On the maximum mass of magnetised white dwarfs
Chatterjee, D; Chamel, N; Novak, J; Oertel, M
2016-01-01
We develop a detailed and self-consistent numerical model for extremely-magnetised white dwarfs, which have been proposed as progenitors of overluminous Type Ia supernovae. This model can describe fully-consistent equilibria of magnetic stars in axial symmetry, with rotation, general-relativistic effects and realistic equations of state (including electron-ion interactions and taking into account Landau quantisation of electrons due to the magnetic field). We study the influence of each of these ingredients onto the white dwarf structure and, in particular, on their maximum mass. We perform an extensive stability analysis of such objects, with their highest surface magnetic fields reaching $\\sim 10^{13}~G$ (at which point the star adopts a torus-like shape). We confirm previous speculations that although very massive strongly magnetised white dwarfs could potentially exist, the onset of electron captures and pycnonuclear reactions may severely limit their stability. Finally, the emission of gravitational wave...
Maximum caliber inference and the stochastic Ising model
Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan
2016-11-01
We investigate the maximum caliber variational principle as an inference algorithm used to predict dynamical properties of complex nonequilibrium, stationary, statistical systems in the presence of incomplete information. Specifically, we maximize the path entropy over discrete time step trajectories subject to normalization, stationarity, and detailed balance constraints together with a path-dependent dynamical information constraint reflecting a given average global behavior of the complex system. A general expression for the transition probability values associated with the stationary random Markov processes describing the nonequilibrium stationary system is computed. By virtue of our analysis, we uncover that a convenient choice of the dynamical information constraint together with a perturbative asymptotic expansion with respect to its corresponding Lagrange multiplier of the general expression for the transition probability leads to a formal overlap with the well-known Glauber hyperbolic tangent rule for the transition probability for the stochastic Ising model in the limit of very high temperatures of the heat reservoir.
Semiclassical decay of strings with maximum angular momentum
Iengo, R; Iengo, Roberto; Russo, Jorge G.
2003-01-01
A highly excited (closed or open) string state on the leading Regge trajectory can be represented by a rotating soliton solution. There is a semiclassical probability per unit cycle that this string can spontaneously break into two pieces. Here we find the resulting solutions for the outgoing two pieces, which describe two specific excited string states, and show that this semiclassical picture reproduces very accurately the features of the quantum calculation of decay in the large mass M limit. In particular, this picture prescribes the precise analytical relation of the masses M_1 and M_2 of the decay products, and indicates that the lifetime of these string states grows with the mass as T= const. a' M, in agreement with the quantum calculation. Thus, surprisingly, a string with maximum angular momentum becomes more stable for larger masses. We also point out some interesting features of the evolution after the splitting process.
20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...
Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion
Bethe, H. A.
1950-01-31
The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)
Proposed principles of maximum local entropy production.
Ross, John; Corlan, Alexandru D; Müller, Stefan C
2012-07-12
Articles have appeared that rely on the application of some form of "maximum local entropy production principle" (MEPP). This is usually an optimization principle that is supposed to compensate for the lack of structural information and measurements about complex systems, even systems as complex and as little characterized as the whole biosphere or the atmosphere of the Earth or even of less known bodies in the solar system. We select a number of claims from a few well-known papers that advocate this principle and we show that they are in error with the help of simple examples of well-known chemical and physical systems. These erroneous interpretations can be attributed to ignoring well-established and verified theoretical results such as (1) entropy does not necessarily increase in nonisolated systems, such as "local" subsystems; (2) macroscopic systems, as described by classical physics, are in general intrinsically deterministic-there are no "choices" in their evolution to be selected by using supplementary principles; (3) macroscopic deterministic systems are predictable to the extent to which their state and structure is sufficiently well-known; usually they are not sufficiently known, and probabilistic methods need to be employed for their prediction; and (4) there is no causal relationship between the thermodynamic constraints and the kinetics of reaction systems. In conclusion, any predictions based on MEPP-like principles should not be considered scientifically founded.
Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.
Dewar, Roderick C
2010-05-12
Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.
Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection
Hogden, J.
1997-05-01
The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-07-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.
2002-07-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
Finding maximum JPEG image block code size
Lakhani, Gopal
2012-07-01
We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.
Maximum likelihood estimates of pairwise rearrangement distances.
Serdoz, Stuart; Egri-Nagy, Attila; Sumner, Jeremy; Holland, Barbara R; Jarvis, Peter D; Tanaka, Mark M; Francis, Andrew R
2017-06-21
Accurate estimation of evolutionary distances between taxa is important for many phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Distances can be estimated using a range of different evolutionary models, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale genome rearrangements. Corresponding corrections for genome rearrangement distances fall into 3 categories: Empirical computational studies, Bayesian/MCMC approaches, and combinatorial approaches. Here, we introduce a maximum likelihood estimator for the inversion distance between a pair of genomes, using a group-theoretic approach to modelling inversions introduced recently. This MLE functions as a corrected distance: in particular, we show that because of the way sequences of inversions interact with each other, it is quite possible for minimal distance and MLE distance to differently order the distances of two genomes from a third. The second aspect tackles the problem of accounting for the symmetries of circular arrangements. While, generally, a frame of reference is locked, and all computation made accordingly, this work incorporates the action of the dihedral group so that distance estimates are free from any a priori frame of reference. The philosophy of accounting for symmetries can be applied to any existing correction method, for which examples are offered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boedeker, Peter
2017-01-01
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) is a useful tool when analyzing data collected from groups. There are many decisions to be made when constructing and estimating a model in HLM including which estimation technique to use. Three of the estimation techniques available when analyzing data with HLM are maximum likelihood, restricted maximum…
Götze, R
2016-11-01
Background: The expansion of trust law to the German statutory health insurance (SHI) and the declining numbers of sickness funds suggest a strong concentration process in the German SHI market. The paper examines the level and development of market concentration since the introduction of the free choice of sickness funds in 1996. Data: The study is based on a dataset containing information on membership, contribution rate, openness, area of activity and legal successor for all sickness funds in the period from 1996 to 2013. Methods: Market concentration is measured by the concentration rate (cumulative market share of the largest market participants) and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI). In addition, the change in the HHI is also disaggregated into 3 factors: opening, switching and fusion of sickness funds. Results: Concentration rate and HHI decreased significantly between 1996 and 2008 due to opening of former closed sickness funds and a switching behaviour from large to small funds. The SHI Competition Enhancement Act of 2007 led to a turnaround. The reform permitted cross-type mergers and introduced a completely new system of budget allocation with the central health fund. The latter put an end to the growing membership of small funds due to adverse selection processes. As a result, market concentration in the German SHI rises. Although recent mega-mergers were uncritical for nationwide competition, the study already indicates the risk of market dominance on the regional level.
Tsai, Shiu-Lin; Acosta, Elvira; Cardenas, Toni; Sigall, Jeremy K; Van Geem, Kevin
2017-07-01
Rapes involving adolescents who present to the emergency department (ED) are fraught with ethical and legal complexities and are often emotionally turbulent for patients, their families, and medical providers. Management requires a thoughtful approach from multiple standpoints, including legal, psychosocial, ethical, and medical ones. However, there is no standardized sexual assault education for emergency medicine residents, and management practices vary widely.(1,2) We present a hypothetical statutory rape case based on real cases that occurred in New York City and bring together the perspectives of an attorney on the legal parameters, two social workers on the psychosocial issues, an ethicist on the moral considerations, and a pediatric emergency physician-who is also a sexual assault forensic examiner-on the medical treatments. We aim to provide a framework for physicians to navigate issues of patient-physician privilege involving minors, privacy rules, and mandatory reporting laws. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bonnaire, F; Goepel, M; Bula, P
2016-11-01
The requirements of the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) for the new treatment procedure were presented on 1 January 2013 in a new catalogue. The implementation of the certification of hospitals for the very severe injury procedure (SAV) by the DGUV should have been completed by 2014. These requirements placed high demands on trauma-oriented hospitals because of the high structural and personnel prerequisites. The background to the new organization was the wish of the DGUV for quality improvement in patient treatment in hospitals for patients with very severe occupational and occupation-related trauma by placement in qualified centers with high case numbers. No increase in income was planned for the hospitals to cope with the necessary improvements in quality. After 2 years of experience with the SAV we can confirm for a community hospital that the structural requirements could be improved (e.g. establishment of departments of neurosurgery, plastic surgery and thoracic surgery) but the high requirements for qualification and attendance of physicians on duty are a continuous problem and are also costly. The numbers of severely injured trauma patients have greatly increased, particularly in 2015. The charges for the complex treatment are not adequately reflected in the German diagnosis-related groups system and no extra flat rate funding per case is explicitly planned in the DRG remuneration catalogue. The invoicing of a center surcharge in addition to the DRG charges has not been introduced.
Epping, Jelena; Muschik, Denise; Geyer, Siegfried
2017-08-16
Most studies on health disparities deal with the occurrence of disease, but little is known about inequalities in the utilization of mental health services. This paper examines social inequalities in the utilization of outpatient psychotherapy within a health care system where there are low financial barriers to health care and a lack of specific health policies to address access to psychotherapeutic services. Registry data of German statutory health insurance for the year 2013 were used (total population: N = 746,963; 10,711 women and men with psychotherapy). Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effects of three socio-economic (SES) indicators on the utilization of psychotherapy. Utilization of psychotherapy by SES status did not correspond to the social structure of the insured population. Social disparities that disadvantaged less privileged women and men were found; this applied to education, income and occupational position. The most pronounced differences were found for education. In contrast, effects of income were rather small. These findings must be interpreted against the backdrop of the absence of financial barriers to outpatient psychotherapy in Germany. A marked degree of psychotherapy under-utilization was found for lower SES groups. Psychotherapists should pay increased attention to clients with lower socio-economic position. Enhancing mental health literacy, as well as reducing the stigma of mental illness, is crucial for increasing the usage of psychotherapeutic services of those who need it most. Relevant health policy is needed to reduce the barriers to, and consequently increase psychotherapy utilization.
Höer, Ariane; Schiffhorst, Guido; Zimmermann, Anne; Fischaleck, Johann; Gehrmann, Luise; Ahrens, Henrik; Carl, Gunther; Sigel, Karl-Otto; Osowski, Ulrike; Klein, Maria; Bleß, Hans-Holger
2014-09-10
Healthcare-utilization data for multiple sclerosis (MS) are scarce in Germany. The Purpose of the study was to analyse administrative prevalence of MS, medication use and type of specialists involved in MS treatment in the outpatient setting in Bavaria. Pseudonymized claims data from Bavarian Statutory Health Insurance (SHI)-accredited physicians were used. Administrative prevalence of MS was defined as having ≥1 MS diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, code G35) documented by a neurologist or psychiatrist, or ≥1 prescription for disease-modifying drugs (DMDs)). The administrative prevalence calculated for Bavaria was projected to Germany. DMD prescription and involvement of different specialities in health care service for MS patients was analysed. Administrative prevalence of MS in Bavaria increased from 0.123% to 0.175% of insured persons between 2005 and 2009; when projected, this yielded ~102,000-143,000 patients with MS in the German population. The percentage of patients receiving ≥1 DMD prescription increased from 45.5% to 50.5%. Patients with MS were mainly treated by neurologists in the ambulatory care setting. These results provide important information on the administrative prevalence of MS in Bavaria and on healthcare provision for patients, which is relevant for resource planning in the healthcare sector.
Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.
Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi
2006-04-01
Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).
Hari Setiyawati
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to see whether there is an influence of Weaknesses of the Internal Control System and Non-compliance With Statutory Provisions on the audit opinion of the audit board. The weakness of the internal control system measured by the audit findings Audit Board consisting of weaknesses of the accounting control system and reporting, and weaknesses of the budget implementation control system and weaknesses of the internal control structure. While non-compliance with statutory provisions are measured based on the audit findings Audit Board consisting of local loss, the potential loss of local , lack of receipt, administration, waste, inefficiency and ineffectiveness. This study is a survey of the region of the provincial government of DKI Jakarta and Banten for 2010 to 2014. Samples in this study were all the Local Government Unit that generate financial reports of local governments totaling nine units, so this study is census research, in the sense that the entire population sampled. Data analysis method used is the ordinal logistic regression because the dependent variable is the rank (category and the data is not normal. From the results of the data analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that the weaknesses of the internal control system and non-compliance with statutory provisions affect the audit opinion of the audit board either jointly or partially
The Prediction of Maximum Amplitudes of Solar Cycles and the Maximum Amplitude of Solar Cycle 24
无
2002-01-01
We present a brief review of predictions of solar cycle maximum ampli-tude with a lead time of 2 years or more. It is pointed out that a precise predictionof the maximum amplitude with such a lead-time is still an open question despiteprogress made since the 1960s. A method of prediction using statistical character-istics of solar cycles is developed: the solar cycles are divided into two groups, ahigh rising velocity (HRV) group and a low rising velocity (LRV) group, dependingon the rising velocity in the ascending phase for a given duration of the ascendingphase. The amplitude of Solar Cycle 24 can be predicted after the start of thecycle using the formula derived in this paper. Now, about 5 years before the startof the cycle, we can make a preliminary prediction of 83.2-119.4 for its maximumamplitude.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 401.28 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.28 Speed limits. (a) The maximum speed over the bottom for a vessel of more than 12 m in overall length shall be regulated so as not...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 25.25 Section 25.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weights....
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight....
Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability
Kirkaldy, J. S.
1985-05-01
The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are
Neuromuscular determinants of maximum walking speed in well-functioning older adults.
Clark, David J; Manini, Todd M; Fielding, Roger A; Patten, Carolynn
2013-03-01
Maximum walking speed may offer an advantage over usual walking speed for clinical assessment of age-related declines in mobility function that are due to neuromuscular impairment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which maximum walking speed is affected by neuromuscular function of the lower extremities in older adults. We recruited two groups of healthy, well functioning older adults who differed primarily on maximum walking speed. We hypothesized that individuals with slower maximum walking speed would exhibit reduced lower extremity muscle size and impaired plantarflexion force production and neuromuscular activation during a rapid contraction of the triceps surae muscle group (soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (MG)). All participants were required to have usual 10-meter walking speed of >1.0m/s. If the difference between usual and maximum 10m walking speed was 0.6m/s, the individual was assigned to the "Faster" group (n=12). Peak rate of force development (RFD) and rate of neuromuscular activation (rate of EMG rise) of the triceps surae muscle group were assessed during a rapid plantarflexion movement. Muscle cross sectional area of the right triceps surae, quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Across participants, the difference between usual and maximal walking speed was predominantly dictated by maximum walking speed (r=.85). We therefore report maximum walking speed (1.76 and 2.17m/s in Slower and Faster, ptriceps surae (p=.44), quadriceps (p=.76) and hamstrings (p=.98). MG rate of EMG rise was positively associated with RFD and maximum 10m walking speed, but not the usual 10m walking speed. These findings support the conclusion that maximum walking speed is limited by impaired neuromuscular force and activation of the triceps surae muscle group. Future research should further evaluate the utility of maximum walking speed for use in clinical assessment to detect and monitor age
40 CFR 147.1803 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule-maximum injection pressure.
2010-07-01
... authorized by rule-maximum injection pressure. 147.1803 Section 147.1803 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED...—maximum injection pressure. The owner or operator shall limit injection pressure to the lesser of: (a) A...
Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.
1975-01-01
New results and insights concerning a previously published iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions were discussed. It was shown that the procedure converges locally to the consistent maximum likelihood estimate as long as a specified parameter is bounded between two limits. Bound values were given to yield optimal local convergence.
L. M. Miller
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The availability of wind power for renewable energy extraction is ultimately limited by how much kinetic energy is generated by natural processes within the Earth system and by fundamental limits of how much of the wind power can be extracted. Here we use these considerations to provide a maximum estimate of wind power availability over land. We use three different methods. First, we use simple, established estimates of the energetics of the atmospheric circulation, which yield about 38 TW of wind power available for extraction. Second, we set up a simple momentum balance model to estimate maximum extractability which we then apply to reanalysis climate data, yielding an estimate of 17 TW. Finally, we perform climate model simulations in which we extract different amounts of momentum from the atmospheric boundary layer to obtain a maximum estimate of how much power can be extracted, yielding 36 TW. These three methods consistently yield maximum estimates in the range of 17–38 TW and are notably less than recent estimates that claim abundant wind power availability. Furthermore, we show with the climate model simulations that the climatic effects at maximum wind power extraction are similar in magnitude to those associated with a doubling of atmospheric CO_{2}. We conclude that in order to understand fundamental limits to renewable energy resources, as well as the impacts of their utilization, it is imperative to use a thermodynamic, Earth system perspective, rather than engineering specifications of the latest technology.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Inmates of a Maximum Security Prison ...
USER
Maximum Security Prison; and also to determine the effects of age, gender, and period of incarceration on CRF. A total of 247 apparently healthy inmates of Maiduguri Maximum Security ... with different types of cardiovascular and metabolic.
Maximum likelihood polynomial regression for robust speech recognition
LU Yong; WU Zhenyang
2011-01-01
The linear hypothesis is the main disadvantage of maximum likelihood linear re- gression （MLLR）. This paper applies the polynomial regression method to model adaptation and establishes a nonlinear model adaptation algorithm using maximum likelihood polyno
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the USGS's California State Waters Mapping Project, depth to base of last glacial maximum within the 3-nautical mile limit between Gaviota and Hueneme...
2010-07-01
... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.55 Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the USGS's California State Waters Mapping Project, depth to base of last glacial maximum within the 3-nautical mile limit between Gaviota and Hueneme...
Recommended Maximum Temperature For Mars Returned Samples
Beaty, D. W.; McSween, H. Y.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Hays, L. E.
2016-01-01
The Returned Sample Science Board (RSSB) was established in 2015 by NASA to provide expertise from the planetary sample community to the Mars 2020 Project. The RSSB's first task was to address the effect of heating during acquisition and storage of samples on scientific investigations that could be expected to be conducted if the samples are returned to Earth. Sample heating may cause changes that could ad-versely affect scientific investigations. Previous studies of temperature requirements for returned mar-tian samples fall within a wide range (-73 to 50 degrees Centigrade) and, for mission concepts that have a life detection component, the recommended threshold was less than or equal to -20 degrees Centigrade. The RSSB was asked by the Mars 2020 project to determine whether or not a temperature requirement was needed within the range of 30 to 70 degrees Centigrade. There are eight expected temperature regimes to which the samples could be exposed, from the moment that they are drilled until they are placed into a temperature-controlled environment on Earth. Two of those - heating during sample acquisition (drilling) and heating while cached on the Martian surface - potentially subject samples to the highest temperatures. The RSSB focused on the upper temperature limit that Mars samples should be allowed to reach. We considered 11 scientific investigations where thermal excursions may have an adverse effect on the science outcome. Those are: (T-1) organic geochemistry, (T-2) stable isotope geochemistry, (T-3) prevention of mineral hydration/dehydration and phase transformation, (T-4) retention of water, (T-5) characterization of amorphous materials, (T-6) putative Martian organisms, (T-7) oxidation/reduction reactions, (T-8) (sup 4) He thermochronometry, (T-9) radiometric dating using fission, cosmic-ray or solar-flare tracks, (T-10) analyses of trapped gasses, and (T-11) magnetic studies.
The problem of the maximum volumes and particle horizon in the Friedmann universe model
Gong, S. M.
1989-08-01
The maximum volume of the closed Friedmann universe is further investigated and is shown to be 2 x pi squared x R cubed (t), instead of pi squared x R cubed (t) as found previously. This discrepancy comes from the incomplete use of the volume formula of 3-dimensional spherical space in the astronomical literature. Mathematically, the maximum volume exists at any cosmic time t in a 3-dimensional spherical case. However, the Friedmann closed universe in expansion reaches its maximum volume only at the time of the maximum scale factor. The particle horizon has no limitation for the farthest objects in the closed Friedmann universe if the proper distance of objects is compared with the particle horizon as is should be. This leads to absurdity if the luminosity distance of objects is compared with the proper distance of the particle horizon.
Kopkow, C; Lange, T; Schmitt, J; Petzold, T
2016-11-17
Background: Both at the national and international levels, direct access for patients to physical therapy services is currently under debate. Direct access for patients seeking physical therapy care might reduce waiting time and costs, and thus be of benefit for patients and health insurance companies. To critically evaluate this situation, reliable and valid data are needed, but currently lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the health care situation for physical therapy services included in the catalogue of remedies from 2004 up to 2014 in Germany. Methods: To obtain information regarding physical therapy services included in the catalogue of remedies, the freely available "Heilmittel-Informations-System (GKV-HIS)" was used. Data from the regional Associations of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians as well as data from federal reports were extracted for the years from 2004 up to 2014. Results: Prescription of physical therapy increased continuously from 2004 and 2014. In 2004, 155 677 860 and in 2014, 254 695 514 physical therapies were prescribed (increase of 61%). The highest number of physical therapies was prescribed in Saxony for all years, whereas in North Rhine-Westphalia and Hessen the lowest number per 1 000 GKV insured persons. Gross sales from physical therapy services differed between federal states and were the highest in Saxony (2004: 59.8; 2009: 54.6, 2014: 76.7) and Baden-Wuerttemberg (2004: 60.0; 2009: 57.6; 2014: 68.0). Discussion: The results of this study show utilization of physical therapy services as defined in the catalogue of remedies in Germany to be heterogeneous. However, causal relationship cannot be identified on the basis of the analyzed data highlighting the need for further research. Criteria for structural-, process- and outcome-quality are needed to be able to evaluate the quality of physical therapy services. To ensure the quality of physical therapy services, interprofessional and patient relevant research
Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam; Knieps, Franz; Bärnighausen, Till
2017-08-26
Bismarck's Health Insurance Act of 1883 established the first social health insurance system in the world. The German statutory health insurance system was built on the defining principles of solidarity and self-governance, and these principles have remained at the core of its continuous development for 135 years. A gradual expansion of population and benefits coverage has led to what is, in 2017, universal health coverage with a generous benefits package. Self-governance was initially applied mainly to the payers (the sickness funds) but was extended in 1913 to cover relations between sickness funds and doctors, which in turn led to the right for insured individuals to freely choose their health-care providers. In 1993, the freedom to choose one's sickness fund was formally introduced, and reforms that encourage competition and a strengthened market orientation have gradually gained importance in the past 25 years; these reforms were designed and implemented to protect the principles of solidarity and self-governance. In 2004, self-governance was strengthened through the establishment of the Federal Joint Committee, a major payer-provider structure given the task of defining uniform rules for access to and distribution of health care, benefits coverage, coordination of care across sectors, quality, and efficiency. Under the oversight of the Federal Joint Committee, payer and provider associations have ensured good access to high-quality health care without substantial shortages or waiting times. Self-governance has, however, led to an oversupply of pharmaceutical products, an excess in the number of inpatient cases and hospital stays, and problems with delivering continuity of care across sectoral boundaries. The German health insurance system is not as cost-effective as in some of Germany's neighbouring countries, which, given present expenditure levels, indicates a need to improve efficiency and value for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Philip J. van der Wees
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background Both rising healthcare costs and the global financial crisis have fueled a search for policy tools in order to avoid unsustainable future financing of essential health benefits. The scope of essential health benefits (the range of services covered and depth of coverage (the proportion of costs of the covered benefits that is covered publicly are corresponding variables in determining the benefits package. We hypothesized that a more comprehensive health benefit package may increase user costsharing charges. Methods We conducted a desktop research study to assess the interrelationship between the scope of covered health benefits and the height of statutory spending in a sample of 8 European countries: Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland, Sweden, and Switzerland. We conducted a targeted literature search to identify characteristics of the healthcare systems in our sample of countries. We analyzed similarities and differences based on the dimensions of publicly financed healthcare as published by the European Observatory on Health Care Systems. Results We found that the scope of services is comparable and comprehensive across our sample, with only marginal differences. Cost-sharing arrangements show the most variation. In general, we found no direct interrelationship in this sample between the ranges of services covered in the health benefits package and the height of public spending on healthcare. With regard to specific services (dental care, physical therapy, we found indications of an association between coverage of services and cost-sharing arrangements. Strong variations in the volume and price of healthcare services between the 8 countries were found for services with large practice variations. Conclusion Although reducing the scope of the benefit package as well as increasing user charges may contribute to the financial sustainability of healthcare, variations in the volume and price of care seem to have
Statutory Interpretation through the Prism of the Bill of Rights: S v Litako 2014 SACR 431 (SCA
Salona Lutchman
2015-07-01
Full Text Available On 16 April 2014, the Supreme Court of Appeal handed down judgment in the matter of S v Litako 2014 2 SACR 431 (SCA ("Litako". The judgment reconsiders the landmark decision of the same court, S v Ndhlovu 2002 2 SACR 325 (SCA ("Ndhlovu" in which the court held that an informal admission made by one accused could be admitted against a co-accused even if the accused in court denies making the statement and the statement itself is therefore considered to be hearsay. The court in Ndhlovu applied section 3 of the Law of Evidence Amendment Act 45 of 1988 and found that the hearsay extra curial admission could be admitted in the interests of justice. In Litako the court found that section 3 did not overrule an existing common law rule, which is that the extra curial statement of an accused (whether an informal admission or a confession cannot be tendered against a co-accused. This is because section 3 does not expressly overrule this common law rule. Rather, the provision itself requests that its application be subject to the common law. The judgment is important for various reasons. Firstly, it is generally in keeping with the existing rule on the cautionary treatment of accomplice evidence. Secondly, the judgment highlights the current confusion in the relationship between statute and common law with regards to informal admissions and confessions. Thirdly, the court employs methods of statutory interpretation to re-examine the principle from Ndhlovu and finds that the court in that case did not apply its mind correctly in disregarding the common law rule. The court undertook a teleological approach to interpretation by infusing the meaning of the words with the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights and found that the statute had not overruled the common law rule.
Limiting Civil Liability in the Sphere of Business Auditing
Carmen COSTULEANU
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The statutory audit of business entities is represented by the audit of annual financial accounts or consolidated financial accounts, according to the Community legislation transposed in national regulations. Negligence or imprudence in performing the activities related to this type of audit entail special consequences. It is to some of the elements derived from this context that we refer in this paper, especially as there is often the underlying risk for the auditor to be held liable. It is worth noting that one cannot claim several compensations for the same action. Then, the auditor is not jointly liable with the other authors of the illicit actions which have caused damages. On the other hand, limited liability does not apply to the situations when it has been proven that the auditor has breached his professional duties with direct intent.
M. Mihelich
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at first order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP(N tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS(N tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists (N ≈ 10 ~ 100, we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N* such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium fluxes imposed to the boundaries. We find that the optimal resolution N* depends on the non equilibrium fluxes, so that deeper convection should be represented on finer grids. This result points to the inadequacy of using a single grid for representing convection in climate and weather models. Moreover, the application of this principle to passive scalar transport parametrization is therefore expected to provide both the value of the optimal flux, and of the optimal number of degrees of freedom (resolution to describe the system.
20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount of...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
2010-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
Maximum Performance Tests in Children with Developmental Spastic Dysarthria.
Wit, J.; And Others
1993-01-01
Three Maximum Performance Tasks (Maximum Sound Prolongation, Fundamental Frequency Range, and Maximum Repetition Rate) were administered to 11 children (ages 6-11) with spastic dysarthria resulting from cerebral palsy and 11 controls. Despite intrasubject and intersubject variability in normal and pathological speakers, the tasks were found to be…
Maximum physical capacity testing in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy
Knutsen, L.; Quist, M; Midtgaard, J
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the field of physical exercise in rehabilitation of cancer patients, leading to requirements for objective maximum physical capacity measurement (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and one-repetition maximum (1RM)) to determine...
Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs
Bonacci, Ognjen
2001-07-01
Analyses are presented of the conditions that limit the discharge of some karst springs. The large number of springs studied show that, under conditions of extremely intense precipitation, a maximum value exists for the discharge of the main springs in a catchment, independent of catchment size and the amount of precipitation. Outflow modelling of karst-spring discharge is not easily generalized and schematized due to numerous specific characteristics of karst-flow systems. A detailed examination of the published data on four karst springs identified the possible reasons for the limitation on the maximum flow rate: (1) limited size of the karst conduit; (2) pressure flow; (3) intercatchment overflow; (4) overflow from the main spring-flow system to intermittent springs within the same catchment; (5) water storage in the zone above the karst aquifer or epikarstic zone of the catchment; and (6) factors such as climate, soil and vegetation cover, and altitude and geology of the catchment area. The phenomenon of limited maximum-discharge capacity of karst springs is not included in rainfall-runoff process modelling, which is probably one of the main reasons for the present poor quality of karst hydrological modelling. Résumé. Les conditions qui limitent le débit de certaines sources karstiques sont présentées. Un grand nombre de sources étudiées montrent que, sous certaines conditions de précipitations extrêmement intenses, il existe une valeur maximale pour le débit des sources principales d'un bassin, indépendante des dimensions de ce bassin et de la hauteur de précipitation. La modélisation des débits d'exhaure d'une source karstique n'est pas facilement généralisable, ni schématisable, à cause des nombreuses caractéristiques spécifiques des écoulements souterrains karstiques. Un examen détaillé des données publiées concernant quatre sources karstiques permet d'identifier les raisons possibles de la limitation de l'écoulement maximal: (1
Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for Rare Earth Elements (REEs)
Sneller FEC; Kalf DF; Weltje L; Wezel AP van; CSR
2000-01-01
In this report maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for Rare Earth Elements (REEs), which are also known as lanthanides. The REEs selected for derivation of environmental risk limits in this report are Yttrium (Y), Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce), Pra
17 CFR 148.7 - Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees.
2010-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rulemaking on maximum rates for attorney fees. 148.7 Section 148.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... increase in the cost of living or by special circumstances (such as limited availability of...
The maximum of the periodogram for a heavy-tailed sequence
Mikosch, T; Resnick, S; Samorodnitsky, G
2000-01-01
We consider the maximum of the periodogram based on an infinite variance heavy-tailed sequence. For alpha <1 we show that the maxima constitute a weakly convergent sequence and find its limiting distribution. For 1 alpha <2 we show that the sequence of the maxima is not tight and find a normalizatio
Berry, Vincent; Nicolas, François
2006-01-01
Given a set of evolutionary trees on a same set of taxa, the maximum agreement subtree problem (MAST), respectively, maximum compatible tree problem (MCT), consists of finding a largest subset of taxa such that all input trees restricted to these taxa are isomorphic, respectively compatible. These problems have several applications in phylogenetics such as the computation of a consensus of phylogenies obtained from different data sets, the identification of species subjected to horizontal gene transfers and, more recently, the inference of supertrees, e.g., Trees Of Life. We provide two linear time algorithms to check the isomorphism, respectively, compatibility, of a set of trees or otherwise identify a conflict between the trees with respect to the relative location of a small subset of taxa. Then, we use these algorithms as subroutines to solve MAST and MCT on rooted or unrooted trees of unbounded degree. More precisely, we give exact fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, whose running time is uniformly polynomial when the number of taxa on which the trees disagree is bounded. The improves on a known result for MAST and proves fixed-parameter tractability for MCT.
2008-05-22
On September 20, 2007, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (72 FR 53734) proposing to conform its regulations to recent statutory amendments to the Controlled Substances Act that changed certain patient limitations for practitioners who dispense or prescribe certain narcotic drugs for maintenance or detoxification treatment. DEA received one comment in support of this rulemaking. DEA is finalizing the rule as proposed.
Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood bilateral filter for ultrasound image enhancement.
Li, Haiyan; Wu, Jun; Miao, Aimin; Yu, Pengfei; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Yufeng
2017-04-17
Ultrasound imaging plays an important role in computer diagnosis since it is non-invasive and cost-effective. However, ultrasound images are inevitably contaminated by noise and speckle during acquisition. Noise and speckle directly impact the physician to interpret the images and decrease the accuracy in clinical diagnosis. Denoising method is an important component to enhance the quality of ultrasound images; however, several limitations discourage the results because current denoising methods can remove noise while ignoring the statistical characteristics of speckle and thus undermining the effectiveness of despeckling, or vice versa. In addition, most existing algorithms do not identify noise, speckle or edge before removing noise or speckle, and thus they reduce noise and speckle while blurring edge details. Therefore, it is a challenging issue for the traditional methods to effectively remove noise and speckle in ultrasound images while preserving edge details. To overcome the above-mentioned limitations, a novel method, called Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood switching bilateral filter (RSBF) is proposed to enhance ultrasound images by two steps: noise, speckle and edge detection followed by filtering. Firstly, a sorted quadrant median vector scheme is utilized to calculate the reference median in a filtering window in comparison with the central pixel to classify the target pixel as noise, speckle or noise-free. Subsequently, the noise is removed by a bilateral filter and the speckle is suppressed by a Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood filter while the noise-free pixels are kept unchanged. To quantitatively evaluate the performance of the proposed method, synthetic ultrasound images contaminated by speckle are simulated by using the speckle model that is subjected to Rayleigh distribution. Thereafter, the corrupted synthetic images are generated by the original image multiplied with the Rayleigh distributed speckle of various signal to noise ratio (SNR) levels and
Present and Last Glacial Maximum climates as states of maximum entropy production
Herbert, Corentin; Kageyama, Masa; Dubrulle, Berengere
2011-01-01
The Earth, like other planets with a relatively thick atmosphere, is not locally in radiative equilibrium and the transport of energy by the geophysical fluids (atmosphere and ocean) plays a fundamental role in determining its climate. Using simple energy-balance models, it was suggested a few decades ago that the meridional energy fluxes might follow a thermodynamic Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle. In the present study, we assess the MEP hypothesis in the framework of a minimal climate model based solely on a robust radiative scheme and the MEP principle, with no extra assumptions. Specifically, we show that by choosing an adequate radiative exchange formulation, the Net Exchange Formulation, a rigorous derivation of all the physical parameters can be performed. The MEP principle is also extended to surface energy fluxes, in addition to meridional energy fluxes. The climate model presented here is extremely fast, needs very little empirical data and does not rely on ad hoc parameterizations. We in...
Relative azimuth inversion by way of damped maximum correlation estimates
Ringler, A.T.; Edwards, J.D.; Hutt, C.R.; Shelly, F.
2012-01-01
Horizontal seismic data are utilized in a large number of Earth studies. Such work depends on the published orientations of the sensitive axes of seismic sensors relative to true North. These orientations can be estimated using a number of different techniques: SensOrLoc (Sensitivity, Orientation and Location), comparison to synthetics (Ekstrom and Busby, 2008), or by way of magnetic compass. Current methods for finding relative station azimuths are unable to do so with arbitrary precision quickly because of limitations in the algorithms (e.g. grid search methods). Furthermore, in order to determine instrument orientations during station visits, it is critical that any analysis software be easily run on a large number of different computer platforms and the results be obtained quickly while on site. We developed a new technique for estimating relative sensor azimuths by inverting for the orientation with the maximum correlation to a reference instrument, using a non-linear parameter estimation routine. By making use of overlapping windows, we are able to make multiple azimuth estimates, which helps to identify the confidence of our azimuth estimate, even when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, our algorithm has been written as a stand-alone, platform independent, Java software package with a graphical user interface for reading and selecting data segments to be analyzed.
Local image statistics: maximum-entropy constructions and perceptual salience.
Victor, Jonathan D; Conte, Mary M
2012-07-01
The space of visual signals is high-dimensional and natural visual images have a highly complex statistical structure. While many studies suggest that only a limited number of image statistics are used for perceptual judgments, a full understanding of visual function requires analysis not only of the impact of individual image statistics, but also, how they interact. In natural images, these statistical elements (luminance distributions, correlations of low and high order, edges, occlusions, etc.) are intermixed, and their effects are difficult to disentangle. Thus, there is a need for construction of stimuli in which one or more statistical elements are introduced in a controlled fashion, so that their individual and joint contributions can be analyzed. With this as motivation, we present algorithms to construct synthetic images in which local image statistics--including luminance distributions, pair-wise correlations, and higher-order correlations--are explicitly specified and all other statistics are determined implicitly by maximum-entropy. We then apply this approach to measure the sensitivity of the human visual system to local image statistics and to sample their interactions.
Continuous maximum flow segmentation method for nanoparticle interaction analysis.
Marak, L; Tankyevych, O; Talbot, H
2011-10-01
In recent years, tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction approaches using electrons rather than X-rays have become popular. Such images produced with a transmission electron microscope make it possible to image nanometre-scale materials in three-dimensional. However, they are also noisy, limited in contrast and most often have a very poor resolution along the axis of the electron beam. The analysis of images stemming from such modalities, whether fully or semiautomated, is therefore more complicated. In particular, segmentation of objects is difficult. In this paper, we propose to use the continuous maximum flow segmentation method based on a globally optimal minimal surface model. The use of this fully automated segmentation and filtering procedure is illustrated on two different nanoparticle samples and provide comparisons with other classical segmentation methods. The main objectives are the measurement of the attraction rate of polystyrene beads to silica nanoparticle (for the first sample) and interaction of silica nanoparticles with large unilamellar liposomes (for the second sample). We also illustrate how precise measurements such as contact angles can be performed.
On a robust and efficient maximum depth estimator
ZUO YiJun; LAI ShaoYong
2009-01-01
The best breakdown point robustness is one of the most outstanding features of the univariate median. For this robustness property, the median, however, has to pay the price of a low efficiency at normal and other light-tailed models. Affine equivariant multivariate analogues of the univariate median with high breakdown points were constructed in the past two decades. For the high breakdown robustness, most of them also have to sacrifice their efficiency at normal and other models,nevertheless. The affine equivariant maximum depth estimator proposed and studied in this paper turns out to be an exception. Like the univariate median, it also possesses a highest breakdown point among all its multivariate competitors. Unlike the univariate median, it is also highly efficient relative to the sample mean at normal and various other distributions, overcoming the vital low-efficiency shortcoming of the univariate and other multivariate generalized medians. The paper also studies the asymptotics of the estimator and establishes its limit distribution without symmetry and other strong assumptions that are typically imposed on the underlying distribution.
Maximum likelihood sequence estimation for optical complex direct modulation.
Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Shieh, William
2017-04-17
Semiconductor lasers are versatile optical transmitters in nature. Through the direct modulation (DM), the intensity modulation is realized by the linear mapping between the injection current and the light power, while various angle modulations are enabled by the frequency chirp. Limited by the direct detection, DM lasers used to be exploited only as 1-D (intensity or angle) transmitters by suppressing or simply ignoring the other modulation. Nevertheless, through the digital coherent detection, simultaneous intensity and angle modulations (namely, 2-D complex DM, CDM) can be realized by a single laser diode. The crucial technique of CDM is the joint demodulation of intensity and differential phase with the maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE), supported by a closed-form discrete signal approximation of frequency chirp to characterize the MLSE transition probability. This paper proposes a statistical method for the transition probability to significantly enhance the accuracy of the chirp model. Using the statistical estimation, we demonstrate the first single-channel 100-Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 1600-km fiber with only 10G-class DM lasers.
LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL
Don Augenstein
2001-02-01
The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.
Unification of field theory and maximum entropy methods for learning probability densities.
Kinney, Justin B
2015-09-01
The need to estimate smooth probability distributions (a.k.a. probability densities) from finite sampled data is ubiquitous in science. Many approaches to this problem have been described, but none is yet regarded as providing a definitive solution. Maximum entropy estimation and Bayesian field theory are two such approaches. Both have origins in statistical physics, but the relationship between them has remained unclear. Here I unify these two methods by showing that every maximum entropy density estimate can be recovered in the infinite smoothness limit of an appropriate Bayesian field theory. I also show that Bayesian field theory estimation can be performed without imposing any boundary conditions on candidate densities, and that the infinite smoothness limit of these theories recovers the most common types of maximum entropy estimates. Bayesian field theory thus provides a natural test of the maximum entropy null hypothesis and, furthermore, returns an alternative (lower entropy) density estimate when the maximum entropy hypothesis is falsified. The computations necessary for this approach can be performed rapidly for one-dimensional data, and software for doing this is provided.
Assurance of the Maximum Destruction in Battlefield using Cost-Effective Approximation Techniques
Fariha Tasmin Jaigirdar
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Military Applications of Wireless Sensor Network in domains of maximizing security and gaining maximum benefits while attacking the opponent is a challenging and prominent area of research now-a-days. A commander’s goal in a battle field is not limited by securing his troops and the country but also to deliver proper commands to assault the enemies using the minimum number of resources. In this paper, we propose two efficient and low cost approximation algorithms—the maximum clique analysis and the maximum degree analysis techniques. Both of the techniques find the strategies of maximizing the destruction in a battlefield to defeat the opponent by utilizing limited resources. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in the prescribed areas of applications. Gaining the cost-effectiveness of the algorithms are also major concerns of this research. A comparative study explaining the number of resources required for commencing required level of destruction made to the opponents has been provided in this paper. The studies show that the maximum degree analysis technique is able to perform more destruction than the maximum clique analysis technique using same number of resources and requires relatively less computational complexity as well.
Statutes of limitations: the special problem of DES suits.
Feigin, C A
1981-01-01
In 1971, medical studies determined that DES causes a rare type of vaginal cancer in a small number of daughters of mothers who took DES during pregnancy. Subsequently, medical studies determined that exposure to DES can cause other vaginal abnormalities in the daughters, some of which may be precancerous. As a result of these discoveries, many lawsuits have been filed by these daughters against DES manufacturers. Many DES suits may be barred by statutes of limitations, both because the number of years between the daughters' exposure to DES in utero and the discovery that DES can cause injuries exceeds the statutory period, and because the cancer or other injuries caused by DES may not develop for many additional years. This Note discusses two methods that DES plaintiffs may be able to use to overcome the potential statutes of limitations bar: the discovery rule, and state provisions which toll the statute of limitations for minors. The Note contends that courts should apply an expanded discovery rule to DES suits to avoid the unfair result of barring a claim before the plaintiff could have known that she had a cause of action. In addition, the Note argues that the injury which causes the statute of limitations to begin to run in DES suits should not be rigidly defined. Finally, the Note urges that courts allow eligible DES plaintiffs to take advantage of applicable state provisions that toll the statute of limitations for minors.
Streibelt, M; Buschmann-Steinhage, R
2011-06-01
Work-related medical rehabilitation (Work MR) is a specific part of medical rehabilitation, which is well-established and broadly investigated. In almost all indications there is evidence of benefit of Work MR in patients with distinctive work-related problems due to chronic disease or disability. Nevertheless, there is a lack of implementation in clinical practice. This is due to a variety of reasons, mainly a missing definition of the appropriate Work MR interventions. The development of a Profile of Requirements (PoR) for defining contents and patterns of Work MR on behalf of the Statutory Pension Insurance (SPI) therefore is a fundamental step towards evidence-based, needs-focused rehabilitation management. The article introduces such a PoR - for the present focused on somatic indications. The PoR was developed by an SPI expert group and revised in an extensive discourse within the SPI. A strategy involved in this context was the dissemination of work-related therapeutical concepts in medical rehabilitation. In the PoR, Work MR is defined as a concrete work-related designing of therapeutical interventions as well as an integrated "philosophy" in thinking and practicing of the actors involved. Work MR is differentiated in 3 intervention levels: While work-related basic interventions (Level A) are provided in all facilities for all patients, core interventions (Level B) as well as specific interventions (Level C) are explicitly concentrated on patient subgroups with distinct work-related problems. In the PoR the relevant diagnostic and therapeutic work-related interventions are attributed to the different intervention levels and described concerning the concrete arrangement. The 3 central core interventions "Work-related psychological group interventions", "Work-related internal load test" and "Work conditioning" are presented. The decisive benefit of the PoR is to substantiate the requirements of Work MR on behalf of the SPI often worded in a rather unspecific
Westhoff, M.; Erpicum, S.; Archambeau, P.; Pirotton, M.; Zehe, E.; Dewals, B.
2015-12-01
Power can be performed by a system driven by a potential difference. From a given potential difference, the power that can be subtracted is constraint by the Carnot limit, which follows from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. If the system is such that the flux producing power (with power being the flux times its driving potential difference) also influences the potential difference, a maximum in power can be obtained as a result of the trade-off between the flux and the potential difference. This is referred to as the maximum power principle. It has already been shown that the atmosphere operates close to this maximum power limit when it comes to heat transport from the Equator to the poles, or vertically, from the surface to the atmospheric boundary layer. To reach this state of maximum power, the effective thermal conductivity of the atmosphere is adapted by the creation of convection cells. The aim of this study is to test if the soil's effective hydraulic conductivity also adapts in such a way that it produces maximum power. However, the soil's hydraulic conductivity adapts differently; for example by the creation of preferential flow paths. Here, this process is simulated in a lab experiment, which focuses on preferential flow paths created by piping. In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles, with the aim to test if the effective hydraulic conductivity of the sand bed can be predicted with the maximum power principle. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoir connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. The results will indicate whether the maximum power principle does apply for groundwater flow and how it should be applied. Because of the different way of adaptation of flow conductivity, the results differ from that of the
Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
2013-07-01
Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ⁎ 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ⁎ 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.
Kim, Leonard; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning
2013-01-01
Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) * 0.930 (R(2) = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) * 0.955 (R(2) = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.
An Interval Maximum Entropy Method for Quadratic Programming Problem
RUI Wen-juan; CAO De-xin; SONG Xie-wu
2005-01-01
With the idea of maximum entropy function and penalty function methods, we transform the quadratic programming problem into an unconstrained differentiable optimization problem, discuss the interval extension of the maximum entropy function, provide the region deletion test rules and design an interval maximum entropy algorithm for quadratic programming problem. The convergence of the method is proved and numerical results are presented. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the method is reliable and efficient.
Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: thom1@pml.ac.uk; Boegi, Christian [BASF SE, Product Safety, GUP/PA, Z470, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Winter, Matthew J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owens, J. Willie [The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, 11810 East Miami River Road, Cincinnati, OH 45252 (United States)
2009-02-19
There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic
Integer Programming Model for Maximum Clique in Graph
YUAN Xi-bo; YANG You; ZENG Xin-hai
2005-01-01
The maximum clique or maximum independent set of graph is a classical problem in graph theory. Combined with Boolean algebra and integer programming, two integer programming models for maximum clique problem,which improve the old results were designed in this paper. Then, the programming model for maximum independent set is a corollary of the main results. These two models can be easily applied to computer algorithm and software, and suitable for graphs of any scale. Finally the models are presented as Lingo algorithms, verified and compared by several examples.
Counterexamples to convergence theorem of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm
于剑; 石洪波; 黄厚宽; 孙喜晨; 程乾生
2003-01-01
In this paper, we surveyed the development of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm, pointed out that the maximum-entropy clustering algorithm is not new in essence, and constructed two examples to show that the iterative sequence given by the maximum-entropy clustering algorithm may not converge to a local minimum of its objective function, but a saddle point. Based on these results, our paper shows that the convergence theorem of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm put forward by Kenneth Rose et al. does not hold in general cases.
Hansen, H; Lütticke, J; Pfaff, H
2004-04-01
Starting from the fact that statutory health insurance bodies are increasingly important hospital stakeholders, the article focuses on the question of demands on and benefit from an insurance-orientated hospital management. A methodological approach is chosen which takes the views of the stakeholder health insurance as a starting point: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 executives of different statutory health insurance. Data analysis was based on the "zusammenfassende Inhaltsanalyse" (literal translation: summarizing content analysis), developed by Mayring. From the participants' points of view the highly regulated relationship between hospitals and insurances offers opportunities for active development. The analysis of expectance distinguishes between five areas of demand: "Hospital services", "service development", "case management", "management of conflicts/reviews" and "budget negotiations". Within these areas dimensions of demand are differentiated. Most participants feel that an insurance-oriented hospital management is beneficial to the hospital. A number of specific demands is identified on which management activities can be based. Hospitals need to consider carefully the benefit of insurance-orientation and suitable measures in the light of hospital-specific aims and strategies.
Glacial effects limiting mountain height.
Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E
2009-08-13
The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.
Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator
Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Min-Hyun; Cho, Yeonchoo; Nam, Seung-Geol; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Park, Seongjun
2017-07-01
Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.
Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks
Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus
2011-01-01
transformer or using solar inverters with new grid support features. This study presents a methodology for the estimation of maximum PV hosting capacity including IEC 60076-7 based thermal model of distribution transformer. Certain part of a real distribution network of Braedstrup suburban area in Denmark...... is used in simulation as a case study model. Furthermore, varying solutions (utilizing thermally upgraded insulation paper in transformers, reactive power services from solar inverters, etc.) are implemented on the network under investigation to examine PV penetration level and finally key results learnt......Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...
The maximum efficiency of nano heat engines depends on more than temperature
Woods, Mischa; Ng, Nelly; Wehner, Stephanie
Sadi Carnot's theorem regarding the maximum efficiency of heat engines is considered to be of fundamental importance in the theory of heat engines and thermodynamics. Here, we show that at the nano and quantum scale, this law needs to be revised in the sense that more information about the bath other than its temperature is required to decide whether maximum efficiency can be achieved. In particular, we derive new fundamental limitations of the efficiency of heat engines at the nano and quantum scale that show that the Carnot efficiency can only be achieved under special circumstances, and we derive a new maximum efficiency for others. A preprint can be found here arXiv:1506.02322 [quant-ph] Singapore's MOE Tier 3A Grant & STW, Netherlands.
Combining Experiments and Simulations Using the Maximum Entropy Principle
Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2014-01-01
are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy...
49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...
Parametric optimization of thermoelectric elements footprint for maximum power generation
Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Hao
2014-01-01
The development studies in thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems are mostly disconnected to parametric optimization of the module components. In this study, optimum footprint ratio of n- and p-type thermoelectric (TE) elements is explored to achieve maximum power generation, maximum cost-perform...
30 CFR 56.19066 - Maximum riders in a conveyance.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum riders in a conveyance. 56.19066 Section 56.19066 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19066 Maximum riders in a conveyance. In shafts inclined over 45...
30 CFR 57.19066 - Maximum riders in a conveyance.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum riders in a conveyance. 57.19066 Section 57.19066 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19066 Maximum riders in a conveyance. In shafts inclined over 45...
Maximum Atmospheric Entry Angle for Specified Retrofire Impulse
T. N. Srivastava
1969-07-01
Full Text Available Maximum atmospheric entry angles for vehicles initially moving in elliptic orbits are investigated and it is shown that tangential retrofire impulse at the apogee results in the maximum entry angle. Equivalence of maximizing the entry angle and minimizing the retrofire impulse is also established.
46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a)...
20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.
2010-04-01
... rate effective on the date the supplemental annuity begins, before any reduction for a private pension... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52...
49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at a...
Maximum-entropy clustering algorithm and its global convergence analysis
无
2001-01-01
Constructing a batch of differentiable entropy functions touniformly approximate an objective function by means of the maximum-entropy principle, a new clustering algorithm, called maximum-entropy clustering algorithm, is proposed based on optimization theory. This algorithm is a soft generalization of the hard C-means algorithm and possesses global convergence. Its relations with other clustering algorithms are discussed.
Distribution of maximum loss of fractional Brownian motion with drift
Çağlar, Mine; Vardar-Acar, Ceren
2013-01-01
In this paper, we find bounds on the distribution of the maximum loss of fractional Brownian motion with H >= 1/2 and derive estimates on its tail probability. Asymptotically, the tail of the distribution of maximum loss over [0, t] behaves like the tail of the marginal distribution at time t.
48 CFR 436.575 - Maximum workweek-construction schedule.
2010-10-01
...-construction schedule. 436.575 Section 436.575 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Maximum workweek-construction schedule. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-75, Maximum Workweek-Construction Schedule, if the clause at FAR 52.236-15 is used and the contractor's...
30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings. ...
32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...
The mechanics of granitoid systems and maximum entropy production rates.
Hobbs, Bruce E; Ord, Alison
2010-01-13
A model for the formation of granitoid systems is developed involving melt production spatially below a rising isotherm that defines melt initiation. Production of the melt volumes necessary to form granitoid complexes within 10(4)-10(7) years demands control of the isotherm velocity by melt advection. This velocity is one control on the melt flux generated spatially just above the melt isotherm, which is the control valve for the behaviour of the complete granitoid system. Melt transport occurs in conduits initiated as sheets or tubes comprising melt inclusions arising from Gurson-Tvergaard constitutive behaviour. Such conduits appear as leucosomes parallel to lineations and foliations, and ductile and brittle dykes. The melt flux generated at the melt isotherm controls the position of the melt solidus isotherm and hence the physical height of the Transport/Emplacement Zone. A conduit width-selection process, driven by changes in melt viscosity and constitutive behaviour, operates within the Transport Zone to progressively increase the width of apertures upwards. Melt can also be driven horizontally by gradients in topography; these horizontal fluxes can be similar in magnitude to vertical fluxes. Fluxes induced by deformation can compete with both buoyancy and topographic-driven flow over all length scales and results locally in transient 'ponds' of melt. Pluton emplacement is controlled by the transition in constitutive behaviour of the melt/magma from elastic-viscous at high temperatures to elastic-plastic-viscous approaching the melt solidus enabling finite thickness plutons to develop. The system involves coupled feedback processes that grow at the expense of heat supplied to the system and compete with melt advection. The result is that limits are placed on the size and time scale of the system. Optimal characteristics of the system coincide with a state of maximum entropy production rate.
On the Maximum Storage Capacity of the Hopfield Model
Folli, Viola; Leonetti, Marco; Ruocco, Giancarlo
2017-01-01
Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have traditionally been of great interest for their capacity to store memories. In past years, several works have been devoted to determine the maximum storage capacity of RNN, especially for the case of the Hopfield network, the most popular kind of RNN. Analyzing the thermodynamic limit of the statistical properties of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the Hopfield neural network, it has been shown in the literature that the retrieval errors diverge when the number of stored memory patterns (P) exceeds a fraction (≈ 14%) of the network size N. In this paper, we study the storage performance of a generalized Hopfield model, where the diagonal elements of the connection matrix are allowed to be different from zero. We investigate this model at finite N. We give an analytical expression for the number of retrieval errors and show that, by increasing the number of stored patterns over a certain threshold, the errors start to decrease and reach values below unit for P ≫ N. We demonstrate that the strongest trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness relies on the number of patterns (P) that are stored in the network by appropriately fixing the connection weights. When P≫N and the diagonal elements of the adjacency matrix are not forced to be zero, the optimal storage capacity is obtained with a number of stored memories much larger than previously reported. This theory paves the way to the design of RNN with high storage capacity and able to retrieve the desired pattern without distortions. PMID:28119595
The maximum life expectancy for a micro-fabricated diaphragm
Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan; Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Popa, Viorica
2015-02-01
Micro-fabricated diaphragms can be used to provide pumping action in microvalve and microfluidic applications. The functionality of the microdiaphragm in a wirelessly actuated micropump plays a major role in low-powered device actuation. In developing micropumps and their components, it is becoming an increasing trend to predict the performance before the prototype is fabricated. Because performance prediction allows for an accurate estimation of yield and lifetime, in addition to developing better understanding of the device while taking into account the details of the device structure and second order effects. Hence avoid potential pitfalls in the device operation in a practical environment. The goal of this research is to determine via FEA the life expectancy for a corrugated circular diaphragm made out of an aluminum alloy. The geometry of the diaphragm is given below being generated within SolidWorks 2010, all the calculations were made using Ansys 13TM . The sound design of a micropump is heavily depending on the lifetime expectancy of the working part of the device which is the diaphragm. This will be subjected on cyclic loading and the fatigue will limit the life of this part. Once the diaphragm is breaking, the micropump is no more able to fulfill its scope. Any micropump manufacturer will then be very concerned on the life expectancy from the fatigue point of view of the diaphragms. The diaphragm circular and corrugated and made of Al alloy, showed a very good behavior from the fatigue point of view, the maximum life expectancy being 1.9 years of continuous functioning with 100 cycles per second. This work showed an simple and forward application of FEA analysis methods in order to estimate the fatigue behavior of corrugated circular microdiaphragms.
Maximum Principles for Discrete and Semidiscrete Reaction-Diffusion Equation
Petr Stehlík
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study reaction-diffusion equations with a general reaction function f on one-dimensional lattices with continuous or discrete time ux′ (or Δtux=k(ux-1-2ux+ux+1+f(ux, x∈Z. We prove weak and strong maximum and minimum principles for corresponding initial-boundary value problems. Whereas the maximum principles in the semidiscrete case (continuous time exhibit similar features to those of fully continuous reaction-diffusion model, in the discrete case the weak maximum principle holds for a smaller class of functions and the strong maximum principle is valid in a weaker sense. We describe in detail how the validity of maximum principles depends on the nonlinearity and the time step. We illustrate our results on the Nagumo equation with the bistable nonlinearity.
Experimental study on prediction model for maximum rebound ratio
LEI Wei-dong; TENG Jun; A.HEFNY; ZHAO Jian; GUAN Jiong
2007-01-01
The proposed prediction model for estimating the maximum rebound ratio was applied to a field explosion test, Mandai test in Singapore.The estimated possible maximum Deak particle velocities(PPVs)were compared with the field records.Three of the four available field-recorded PPVs lie exactly below the estimated possible maximum values as expected.while the fourth available field-recorded PPV lies close to and a bit higher than the estimated maximum possible PPV The comparison results show that the predicted PPVs from the proposed prediction model for the maximum rebound ratio match the field.recorded PPVs better than those from two empirical formulae.The very good agreement between the estimated and field-recorded values validates the proposed prediction model for estimating PPV in a rock mass with a set of ipints due to application of a two dimensional compressional wave at the boundary of a tunnel or a borehole.
Nonuniform sampling and maximum entropy reconstruction in multidimensional NMR.
Hoch, Jeffrey C; Maciejewski, Mark W; Mobli, Mehdi; Schuyler, Adam D; Stern, Alan S
2014-02-18
NMR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and versatile analytic tools available to chemists. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) played a seminal role in the development of modern NMR, including the multidimensional methods that are essential for characterizing complex biomolecules. However, it suffers from well-known limitations: chiefly the difficulty in obtaining high-resolution spectral estimates from short data records. Because the time required to perform an experiment is proportional to the number of data samples, this problem imposes a sampling burden for multidimensional NMR experiments. At high magnetic field, where spectral dispersion is greatest, the problem becomes particularly acute. Consequently multidimensional NMR experiments that rely on the DFT must either sacrifice resolution in order to be completed in reasonable time or use inordinate amounts of time to achieve the potential resolution afforded by high-field magnets. Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) reconstruction is a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis that can provide high-resolution spectral estimates from short data records. It can also be used with nonuniformly sampled data sets. Since resolution is substantially determined by the largest evolution time sampled, nonuniform sampling enables high resolution while avoiding the need to uniformly sample at large numbers of evolution times. The Nyquist sampling theorem does not apply to nonuniformly sampled data, and artifacts that occur with the use of nonuniform sampling can be viewed as frequency-aliased signals. Strategies for suppressing nonuniform sampling artifacts include the careful design of the sampling scheme and special methods for computing the spectrum. Researchers now routinely report that they can complete an N-dimensional NMR experiment 3(N-1) times faster (a 3D experiment in one ninth of the time). As a result, high-resolution three- and four-dimensional experiments that were prohibitively time consuming are now practical
Site Specific Probable Maximum Precipitation Estimates and Professional Judgement
Hayes, B. D.; Kao, S. C.; Kanney, J. F.; Quinlan, K. R.; DeNeale, S. T.
2015-12-01
State and federal regulatory authorities currently rely upon the US National Weather Service Hydrometeorological Reports (HMRs) to determine probable maximum precipitation (PMP) estimates (i.e., rainfall depths and durations) for estimating flooding hazards for relatively broad regions in the US. PMP estimates for the contributing watersheds upstream of vulnerable facilities are used to estimate riverine flooding hazards while site-specific estimates for small water sheds are appropriate for individual facilities such as nuclear power plants. The HMRs are often criticized due to their limitations on basin size, questionable applicability in regions affected by orographic effects, their lack of consist methods, and generally by their age. HMR-51 for generalized PMP estimates for the United States east of the 105th meridian, was published in 1978 and is sometimes perceived as overly conservative. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is currently reviewing several flood hazard evaluation reports that rely on site specific PMP estimates that have been commercially developed. As such, NRC has recently investigated key areas of expert judgement via a generic audit and one in-depth site specific review as they relate to identifying and quantifying actual and potential storm moisture sources, determining storm transposition limits, and adjusting available moisture during storm transposition. Though much of the approach reviewed was considered a logical extension of HMRs, two key points of expert judgement stood out for further in-depth review. The first relates primarily to small storms and the use of a heuristic for storm representative dew point adjustment developed for the Electric Power Research Institute by North American Weather Consultants in 1993 in order to harmonize historic storms for which only 12 hour dew point data was available with more recent storms in a single database. The second issue relates to the use of climatological averages for spatially
Solar Forcing of Greenland Climate during the Last Glacial Maximum
Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Svensson, Anders; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Beer, Juerg; Sjolte, Jesper; Björck, Svante
2014-05-01
The role of solar forcing in climate changes is a matter of continuous debate. Challenges arise from the short period of direct observations of total solar irradiance (TSI), which indicate minor TSI variations of approximately 1 ‰ over an 11-year cycle, and the limited understanding of possible feedback mechanisms. Opposed to this, there is evidence from paleoclimate records for a tight coupling of solar activity and regional climate (e.g., Bond et al. 2001, Martin-Puertas et al. 2012). One proposed mechanism to amplify the Sun's influence on climate involves the relatively large modulation of the solar UV output (Haigh et al. 2010). This alters the radiative balance in the stratosphere via ozone feedback processes and eventually propagates downwards causing changes in the tropospheric circulation (Inesson et al. 2011). The regional response to this forcing may, however, also depend on orbital forcing of the mean state of the atmosphere (Dietrich et al. 2012). Prior to direct observations cosmogenic radionuclides such as 10Be and 14C are the most reliable proxies of solar activity. Their atmospheric production rates depend on the flux of galactic cosmic rays into the atmosphere which in turn is modulated by the strength of the Earth's and the solar magnetic fields. However, archives of 10Be and 14C are additionally affected by changes of their respective geochemical environment. Owing to their fundamentally different geochemistry, a combined analysis of 10Be and 14C records can aid to isolate production rate variations more reliably and thus, lead to improved reconstructions of solar variability. Due to the absence of high-quality high-resolution data this approach has so far been limited to the Holocene. We will present the first solar activity reconstruction for the end of the last glacial (22.5 - 10 ka BP) based on the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be and 14C. We will compare glacial solar activity variations to Holocene features through combined interpretation
L. M. Miller
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The availability of wind power for renewable energy extraction is ultimately limited by how much kinetic energy is generated by natural processes within the Earth system and by fundamental limits of how much of the wind power can be extracted. Here we use these considerations to provide a maximum estimate of wind power availability over land. We use several different methods. First, we outline the processes associated with wind power generation and extraction with a simple power transfer hierarchy based on the assumption that available wind power will not geographically vary with increased extraction for an estimate of 68 TW. Second, we set up a simple momentum balance model to estimate maximum extractability which we then apply to reanalysis climate data, yielding an estimate of 21 TW. Third, we perform general circulation model simulations in which we extract different amounts of momentum from the atmospheric boundary layer to obtain a maximum estimate of how much power can be extracted, yielding 18–34 TW. These three methods consistently yield maximum estimates in the range of 18–68 TW and are notably less than recent estimates that claim abundant wind power availability. Furthermore, we show with the general circulation model simulations that some climatic effects at maximum wind power extraction are similar in magnitude to those associated with a doubling of atmospheric CO_{2}. We conclude that in order to understand fundamental limits to renewable energy resources, as well as the impacts of their utilization, it is imperative to use a "top-down" thermodynamic Earth system perspective, rather than the more common "bottom-up" engineering approach.