Sample records for maximum sorption capacity

  1. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)


    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  2. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    Bradl, H.B. [Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)


    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  3. Applied stress reduces the CO2 sorption capacity of coal

    Hol, S.; Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.


    Though the adsorption of CO2 by coal has been extensively studied in experiments, few systematic studies have been done on the effects of the stress state within the coal on CO2 sorption. To investigate whether or not the CO2 sorption capacity of coal is influenced by the application of an effective

  4. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.

    Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M


    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities.

  5. Impact of operating conditions on cooling capacity for sorption systems using water as refrigerant

    Tremeac, Brice; Giraud, Florine; Vallon, Pierrick


    The implementation of compact heat exchanger in sorption systems is a key factor to allow the development of these systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a statistical model with a design of experiment (DOE) methodology and use dimensionless number to evaluate and understand the influence of the height of refrigerant liquid and secondary fluid inlet temperature on cooling capacity of a compact pate-type evaporator for sorption systems working near vacuum pressure. For this purpose, an experimental campaign was conducted on a small adsorption test bench using 13X/water as working couple. Cooling capacities from 640 to 2000 W were measured. The DOE is a Doelhert type with two parameters: the inlet secondary fluid temperature (from 10 to 21 °C) and the filing level of refrigerant in the evaporator (from 6 to 24 cm). Thanks to the exploitation of the mathematical model obtained, optimal points under different constraints were found. A maximum cooling capacity of 2021 +/-75 W in the entire experimental field was predicted for a secondary fluid inlet temperature of 25°C and a height of liquid level of 19.2 cm. Bond number and modified Jacob number per the ratio Psat/Ptriple were analyzed. The dimensionless numbers are correlated to the cooling capacity as a first step for designing compact plate-type evaporator for adsorption systems using water as refrigerant.

  6. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    Wu, Jingya


    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  7. Application of HPLC capacity coefficients to characterize the sorption of polycyclic aromatic compounds to humic acid

    Nielsen, T.; Helweg, C.; Siigur, K.


    The sorption coefficients to humic acid of 46 PAC having a wide range in polarity were compared with the capacity coefficients of the PAC to a non-polar HPLC column material (ODS) and a polar one (Diol). It is shown that polar interactions contribute to the sorption of polar PAC in addition...

  8. Effects of yeast cell-wall characteristics on 4-ethylphenol sorption capacity in model wine.

    Pradelles, Rémi; Alexandre, Herve; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Chassagne, David


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an efficient biosorbant, used in winemaking to reduce the concentration of undesirable molecules such as fatty acids. Volatile phenols such as 4-ethylphenol, which causes a horsy smell in wine, are particular targets of this type of curative process. This study demonstrates that the sorption capacity of 4-ethylphenol by yeasts is greatly influenced by strain nature, methods, and medium used for biomass production and drying after harvesting. S. cerevisiae mutant strains with deletion of genes encoding specific proteins involved in cell-wall structure and composition were studied, and a major role for mannoproteins in 4-ethylphenol sorption was identified. It was confirmed that 4-ethylphenol sorption occurs at the surface of the yeast wall and that not all mannoproteins are determinants of sorption: the sorption capacity of cells with deletion of the Gas1p-encoding gene was 75% lower than that of wild type. Physicochemical properties of yeast cell surface have been also studied.

  9. Contributions of a compost-biochar mixture to the metal sorption capacity of a mine tailing.

    Forján, R; Asensio, V; Rodríguez-Vila, A; Covelo, E F


    One technique applied to restore degraded or contaminated soils is to use amendments made of different types of waste materials, which in turn may contain metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn. For this reason, it is important to determine the capacity of the soil to retain these materials, and to compare the sorption capacity between an amended soil and another unamended soil. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility and availability of these metals in the soil after applying the amendment, and how it affected the soil's sorption capacity. Sorption isotherms were compared with the empirical models of Langmuir and Freundlich to estimate the sorption capacity. The overall capacity of the soils to sorb Cu, Pb or Zn was evaluated as the slope Kr. The amendments used in this study were a mixture made of compost and biochar in different proportions (20, 40, 60, 100 %), which were applied to the mine tailing from a settling pond from a copper mine. The mine tailing that were amended with the mixture of compost and biochar had a higher sorption capacity than the mine tailing from the unamended pond, and their sorption isotherms had a greater affinity towards Cu, Pb and Zn than the mine tailing that was studied. Therefore, the results obtained show that adding a mixture of compost and biochar favours the retention of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine tailing.


    杨超; 陈学旗


    The computational complexity of inverse mimimum capacity path problem with lower bound on capacity of maximum capacity path is examined, and it is proved that solution of this problem is NP-complete. A strong polynomial algorithm for a local optimal solution is provided.

  11. Maximum physical capacity testing in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Knutsen, L.; Quist, M; Midtgaard, J


    BACKGROUND: Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the field of physical exercise in rehabilitation of cancer patients, leading to requirements for objective maximum physical capacity measurement (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and one-repetition maximum (1RM)) to determine...

  12. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H


    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  13. A study on the effect of coating's sorption capacity on the porosity in lost foam aluminum alloy casting


    Effects of coating constituent, coating density, coating layer thickness and temperature on coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products have been studied systematically. It has been found that the effect of attapulgite clay on sorption capacity is the largest among coating constituents. The sorption capacity of the coating with 2 %attapulgite clay is elevated by 81%. The relationship between casting porosity and coating sorption capacity has been studied. It has been pointed out that higher coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products is helpful to decrease the casting porosity. Results also show that the sorption capacity of self- developed HW- 1 coating for polystyrene decomposition products is as good as that of Ashland coating from America.

  14. Influence of pig manure biochar mineral content on Cr(III) sorption capacity

    Wnetrzak, Renata; Leahy, J.J.; Chojnacka, Katarzyna W.


    BACKGROUND: The adsorption of Cr(III) ions on various pig manure biochar (BC) samples was investigated to determine the effect of operating conditions (initial pH, sorbate and sorbent concentrations) on sorptive capacity. The BC samples with higher sorption capacity showed high surface area...

  15. Study of sepiolite from Goles (Kosovo, Yugoslavia. I. Sorption capacity



    Full Text Available The sorption of molecules of different size and polarity (water, n-hexane, isooctane, benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, isopropanol, isobutanol, methanol, ethanol by sepiolite from Goles, i.e. from the biggest to-date known Yugoslav deposit, was studied in this work. The BET surface area observed with different sorbates varied from 227 to 314 m2/g, due to only partial migration of sorbate molecules into the pores or to imperfect packing of the sorbate molecules. The value of the outer surface area suggested that the average thickness of the fibers of Goles sepiolite was approximately 15 nm.

  16. Prediction of the sorption capacities and affinities of organic chemicals by XAD-7.

    Yang, Kun; Qi, Long; Wei, Wei; Wu, Wenhao; Lin, Daohui


    Macro-porous resins are widely used as adsorbents for the treatment of organic contaminants in wastewater and for the pre-concentration of organic solutes from water. However, the sorption mechanisms for organic contaminants on such adsorbents have not been systematically investigated so far. Therefore, in this study, the sorption capacities and affinities of 24 organic chemicals by XAD-7 were investigated and the experimentally obtained sorption isotherms were fitted to the Dubinin-Ashtakhov model. Linear positive correlations were observed between the sorption capacities and the solubilities (SW) of the chemicals in water or octanol and between the sorption affinities and the solvatochromic parameters of the chemicals, indicating that the sorption of various organic compounds by XAD-7 occurred by non-linear partitioning into XAD-7, rather than by adsorption on XAD-7 surfaces. Both specific interactions (i.e., hydrogen-bonding interactions) as well as nonspecific interactions were considered to be responsible for the non-linear partitioning. The correlation equations obtained in this study allow the prediction of non-linear partitioning using well-known chemical parameters, namely SW, octanol-water partition coefficients (KOW), and the hydrogen-bonding donor parameter (αm). The effect of pH on the sorption of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) could also be predicted by combining the correlation equations with additional equations developed from the estimation of IOC dissociation rates. The prediction equations developed in this study and the proposed non-linear partition mechanism shed new light on the selective removal and pre-concentration of organic solutes from water and on the regeneration of exhausted XAD-7 using solvent extraction.

  17. Methods for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of coal: Experimental and theoretical high pressure isotherms

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich


    One way to reduce CO2 emissions discharged into the atmosphere is by trapping it and storing it in suitable repositories, including coal-bearing strata. The history of coal mining in the Czech Republic is very rich but most of the mines have been closed down in recent years. However, the unmined coal seams are interesting for the purposes of CO2 storage, especially due the opportunities they offer for recovering coal-bed methane. Mine structures of this kind can be found in large parts of the Upper Silesian Basin, where the total storage capacity has been estimated at about 380 Mt CO2. This is an interesting storage potential. In order to identify a suitable high-capacity locality for CO2 storage within a coal seam, it is necessary to study not only the geological conditions within the seam, but also the textural properties of the coal, which control the mechanism and the extent of the storage. The major storage mechanism is by sorption processes that take place in the coal porous system (adsorption in micropores and on the surface of meso/macropores, and absorption in the macromolecular structure). The CO2 sorption capacity is generally indirectly determined in a laboratory by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide captured in a coal sample at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption techniques. The low pressure sorption technique can be used, by setting the partial volumes of CO2 according to its binding and storage mode. The sorption capacity is determined by extrapolation to the saturation pressure as the sum of the individual partially sorbed volumes. The aim of the study was to determine the partial volumes of CO2 bound by different mechanisms in the individual parts of the porous system of the coal, and to compare the sum with the results obtained by the high pressure isotherm. The study was carried out with 3 samples from a borehole survey in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. A high pressure

  18. Maximum capacities of the 100-B water plant

    Strand, N.O.


    Increases in process water flows will be needed as the current program of increasing pile power levels continues. The future process water flows that will be required are known to be beyond the present maximum capacities of component parts of the water system. It is desirable to determine the present maximum capacities of each major component part so that plans can be mode for modifications and/or additions to the present equipment to meet future required flows. The apparent hydraulic limit of the present piles is about 68,000 gpm. This figure is based on a tube inlet pressure of 400 psi, a tube flow of 34 gpm, and 2,000 effective tubes. In this document the results of tests and calculations to determine the present maximum capacities of each major component part of the 100-B water system will be presented. Emergency steam operated pumps will not be considered as it is doubtful of year around operation of a steam driven pump could be economically justified. Some possible ways to increase the process water flows of each component part of the water system to the ultimate of 68,000 gpm are given.

  19. Support vector regression model for predicting the sorption capacity of lead (II

    Nusrat Parveen


    Full Text Available Biosorption is supposed to be an economical process for the treatment of wastewater containing heavy metals like lead (II. In this research paper, the support vector regression (SVR has been used to predict the sorption capacity of lead (II ions with the independent input parameters being: initial lead ion concentration, pH, temperature and contact time. Tree fern, an agricultural by-product, has been employed as a low cost biosorbent. Comparison between multiple linear regression (MLR and SVR-based models has been made using statistical parameters. It has been found that the SVR model is more accurate and generalized for prediction of the sorption capacity of lead (II ions.

  20. Contribution of wastes and biochar amendment to the sorption capacity of heavy metals by a minesoil

    Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.


    The use of wastes as soil amendments is a technique applied to reduce the available concentration of heavy metals in polluted sites (Pérez-de-Mora et al., 2005). However, the used wastes sometimes have high concentration of metals such as Cu, Pb, and Zn. Therefore, the sorption capacity of the amendments is important to understand its behavior in soil. The settling pond soil in a mine (S) located at Touro (Spain) was amended with a mixture of sewage sludges, sludges from an aluminum plant, ash, food industry wastes, sands from a wastewater treatment plant and biochar (A). The present study was performed to determine the influence of the addition of the amendment (A) in the sorption capacity of Cu, Pb, and Zn of the studied soil (S). The amendment (A) and the soil (S) were mixed (SA) at 20, 40, 60% and then introduced into glass vessels. The amendment A and S the soil at 100% were also introduced in glass vials as control samples. Mixtures and controls were incubated to field capacity for one month. To evaluate the sorption capacity of the soil and the mixtures soil-amendment, sorption isotherms were constructed using multiple-metal solutions of Cu, Pb and Zn nitrates (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol L-1) containing 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte (Vega et al., 2009). The overall capacity of the soil to sorb Cu, Pb y Zn was evaluated as the slope Kr (Vega et al., 2008). The sorption capacity of the amendment (A) is higher than the soil (S) for the three studied elements, which reflects that this amendment has a binding capacity of Cu, Pb and Zn higher than soil (S) (P Science of the Total Environment. 443:446-453. Pérez-de-Mora, A.; Madrid, F.; Cabrera, F.; Madejón, E. 2007. Geoderma. 139: 1-10 Vega, F.A.; Covelo, E.F.; Andrade, M.L. 2009. J. Hazard. Mater. 169: 36-45. Vega, F.A.; Covelo, E.F.; Andrade, M.L. 2008. J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 327: 275-286.

  1. Biomimetic block copolymer particles with gated nanopores and ultrahigh protein sorption capacity

    Yu, Haizhou


    The design of micro-or nanoparticles that can encapsulate sensitive molecules such as drugs, hormones, proteins or peptides is of increasing importance for applications in biotechnology and medicine. Examples are micelles, liposomes and vesicles. The tiny and, in most cases, hollow spheres are used as vehicles for transport and controlled administration of pharmaceutical drugs or nutrients. Here we report a simple strategy to fabricate microspheres by block copolymer self-assembly. The microsphere particles have monodispersed nanopores that can act as pH-responsive gates. They contain a highly porous internal structure, which is analogous to the Schwarz P structure. The internal porosity of the particles contributes to their high sorption capacity and sustained release behaviour. We successfully separated similarly sized proteins using these particles. The ease of particle fabrication by macrophase separation and self-assembly, and the robustness of the particles makes them ideal for sorption, separation, transport and sustained delivery of pharmaceutical substances. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  2. Maximum work configurations of finite potential capacity reservoir chemical engines


    An isothermal endoreversible chemical engine operating between the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the infinite potential capacity low-chemical-potential reservoir has been studied in this work.Optimal control theory was applied to determine the optimal cycle configurations corresponding to the maximum work output per cycle for the fixed total cycle time and a universal mass transfer law.Analyses of special examples showed that the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μ,where△μis the chemical potential difference,is an isothermal endoreversible chemical engine cycle,in which the chemical potential(or the concentration) of the key component in the working substance of low-chemical-potential side is a constant,while the chemical potentials(or the concentrations) of the key component in the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the corresponding side working substance change nonlinearly with time,and the difference of the chemical potentials(or the ratio of the concentrations) of the key component between the high-chemical-potential reservoir and the working substance is a constant.While the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μc,where △μc is the concentration difference,is different from that with the mass transfer law g∝△μ significantly.When the high-chemical-potential reservoir is also an infinite potential capacity chemical potential reservoir,the optimal cycle configuration of the isothermal endoreversible chemical engine consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches,which is independent of the mass transfer law.The object studied in this paper is general,and the results can provide some guidelines for optimal design and operation of real chemical engines.

  3. On the Maximum Storage Capacity of the Hopfield Model

    Folli, Viola; Leonetti, Marco; Ruocco, Giancarlo


    Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have traditionally been of great interest for their capacity to store memories. In past years, several works have been devoted to determine the maximum storage capacity of RNN, especially for the case of the Hopfield network, the most popular kind of RNN. Analyzing the thermodynamic limit of the statistical properties of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the Hopfield neural network, it has been shown in the literature that the retrieval errors diverge when the number of stored memory patterns (P) exceeds a fraction (≈ 14%) of the network size N. In this paper, we study the storage performance of a generalized Hopfield model, where the diagonal elements of the connection matrix are allowed to be different from zero. We investigate this model at finite N. We give an analytical expression for the number of retrieval errors and show that, by increasing the number of stored patterns over a certain threshold, the errors start to decrease and reach values below unit for P ≫ N. We demonstrate that the strongest trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness relies on the number of patterns (P) that are stored in the network by appropriately fixing the connection weights. When P≫N and the diagonal elements of the adjacency matrix are not forced to be zero, the optimal storage capacity is obtained with a number of stored memories much larger than previously reported. This theory paves the way to the design of RNN with high storage capacity and able to retrieve the desired pattern without distortions. PMID:28119595

  4. Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.

    Donovan, Therese M; Warrington, Gregory S; Schwenk, W Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H


    Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be

  5. Evaluation of biosorbents based on the mycelium of penicillium chrysogenum for their sorption capacity for UOsub(2)sup(2+)

    Jandl, J.; Novosad, J.; Jilek, R.; Pospisilik, K. (Vysoka Skola Veterinarska, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))


    Three types of biosorbents based on the mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum were evaluated for their sorption of UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ and for the elution of the retained uranium. Their useful and total sorption capacities for uranium in the form of UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ were calculated from their respective breakthrough curves. Evidence is presented that the retained uranium can be easily eluted with nitric acid.

  6. Measurement techniques for carbon dioxide sorption capacity on various coal samples: critical review

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.


    Underground carbon sequestration is proposed as a geologic disposal technique for the long-term storage of CO2 emissions to mitigate climate change and air pollution. Coal bed seams have large CO2 adsorption capacity, long time CO2 trapping and extra enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (CBM). However, CO2 sorption capacity is one of significant steps required to be determined accurately in any feasibility evaluation of carbon sequestration. Hence, in lab scale, there are three methods for CO2 adsorption capacity measurements namely manometric/volumetric, gravimetric and new capsule techniques for gas sorption on variety of sorbents. The manometric and volumetric methods require accurate determination of cell and void volumes and suitable equation of state (EoS). The gravimetric method requires a very accurate sensitive balance and less buoyancy effect and it is the best technique for small amounts (milligrams) of sorbents and the adsorption equilibrium can be mentored. Among all gas adsorption measurement techniques, the newly developed method “capsule method” exhibits the highest CO2 adsorption capacity on Polish coal by 4.08 mmol/g because capsule method that directly measures CO2 uptake of solid coal matrix cylinders, without the application of the equation of state (EoS) for CO2 or volumetric corrections. The main advantage of capsule method is that it is independent of any Equation of State (EoS), and it has no volumetric effects or impurities distort the shape of the gas adsorption isotherm. The disadvantage of capsule method is time-consuming and it is not easy to implement.

  7. A simple method for estimating cation exchange capacity from water vapor sorption

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus


    (PTFs) for estimating CEC from soil water content considering hysteresis have been developed based on 203 differently-textured soils. Furthermore, we compared the performance of the new PTFs with existing PTFs that predict CEC from clay content, organic carbon, soil pH and specific surface area. The new...... of the new PTFs, thus a simple measure of soil water content at an arbitrary relative humidity can provide reasonably accurate CEC estimates for large scale studies.......Knowledge of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is crucial for soil fertility considerations, sorption and release of polar and non-polar compounds, engineering applications, and other biogeochemical processes. Standard procedures such as the ammonium acetate or the BaCl2 compulsive exchange...

  8. A simple method for estimating cation exchange capacity from water vapor sorption

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus


    Knowledge of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is crucial for soil fertility considerations, sorption and release of polar and non-polar compounds, engineering applications, and other biogeochemical processes. Standard procedures such as the ammonium acetate or the BaCl2 compulsive exchange...... methods are expensive and laborious, and in previous studies the CEC has been predicted from parameters such as particle size distribution and organic matter content, specific surface area, clay content, and from Atterberg limits. In this study, relative humidity (RH)-dependent pedotransfer functions...... (PTFs) for estimating CEC from soil water content considering hysteresis have been developed based on 203 differently-textured soils. Furthermore, we compared the performance of the new PTFs with existing PTFs that predict CEC from clay content, organic carbon, soil pH and specific surface area. The new...

  9. Power optimization for maximum channel capacity in MIMO relay system


    Introducing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay channel could offer significant capacity gain.And it is of great importance to develop effective power allocation strategies to achieve power efficiency and improve channel capacity in amplify-and-forward relay system.This article investigates a two-hop MIMO relay system with multiple antennas in relay node (RN) and receiver (RX).Maximizing capacity with antenna selection (MCAS) and maximizing capacity with eigen-decomposition (MCED) schemes are proposed to efficiently allocate power among antennas in RN under first and second hop limited scenarios.The analysis and simulation results show that both MCED and MCAS can improve the channel capacity compared with uniform power allocation (UPA) scheme in most of the studied areas.The MCAS bears comparison with MCED with an acceptable capacity loss, but lowers the complexity by saving channel state information (CSI) feedback to the transmitter (TX).Moreover, when the RN is close to RX, the performance of UPA is also close to the upper bound as the performance of first hop is limited.

  10. Application of multiple sorption model to estimation of CO2 sequestration capacity or CH4 recovery in polish hard coals

    Jodłowski Grzegorz


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate the theoretical capacity of coal deposits in terms of carbon dioxide storage and methane recovery estimate during the injection of carbon dioxide. The Multiple Sorption Model was used for this purpose. The range of sorption measurement data on which the simulations were based does not exceed the critical point for both methane and carbon dioxide. The model allows to calculate absorption, adsorption, expansion and total theoretical sorption. For further consideration absorption was used as the process of the percolation of the gas in the bulk of the coal matter as well as the total theoretical sorption, the occurrence of which is possible due to the presence of fractures in the coal seam. Calculated levels of absorption and the total theoretical adsorption were applied to estimate the possible storage capacity of carbon dioxide based on the data associated with the content of coal in the mining fields of individual Polish coal mines. Moreover, MSM development for the gas mixture sorption can be used to roughly assess the recovery of methane naturally occurring in coal deposits during such a process.

  11. Effects of surface water on gas sorption capacities of gravimetric sensing layers analyzed by molecular descriptors of organic adsorbates.

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Mitsui, Kouta; Nakamura, Masayuki; Seyama, Michiko


    The gas sorption capacities of sputtered carbonaceous films are evaluated with quartz crystal resonators. These films are sensitive to 20 ppm organic vapors and exhibit structure-dependent responses. Films derived from synthetic polymers are hydrophobic, whereas films derived from biomaterials are amphiphilic or hydrophilic. Polyethylene (PE) film has an extremely high sorption capacity for a wide range of vapors. Transient sorption responses are investigated using a humidified carrier by employing carboxylic acid esters, whose aliphatic groups are systematically changed. Small esters with a higher affinity to water induce negative U-shaped responses from amphiphilic films derived from biomaterials. On the other hand, polymeric films exhibit positive exponential response curves. Even if the concentrations are decreased, the response intensities are enhanced with the incremental expansion of carbon chains of aliphatic groups. Only fluoropolymer film shows the opposite tendency. The modeling of quantitative structure property relationships has indicated that the sorption capacities of the PE film to the carboxylic acid esters are fundamentally governed by electrostatic interactions. The intermolecular attractive forces are basically attributable to interactions between the positively polarized sites in esters and the negatively polarized/charged sites in PE film.

  12. Maximum Flow in Planar Networks with Exponentially Distributed Arc Capacities.


    avoid constructing the dual, are described in Itai and Shiloach P 97 91. In this paper, we consider the maximum flow problem in (st) planar networks...use arc e and lies completely below P. If no such path exists we say P(e) - *. An algorithm tc construct P(e) given P and e is described in Itai and...suggested in Ford and Fulkerson [1956], developed in Berge and Ghouila-Houri [1962] and its time complexity is reduced to 0( IVI log IVI ) by Itai and

  13. Sorption Capacity Measurement of Chlorella Vulgaris and Scenedesmus Acutus to Remove Chromium from Tannery Waste Water

    Ardila, Liliana; Godoy, Rubén; Montenegro, Luis


    Tanning process is a polluting activity due to the release of toxic agents into the environment. One of the most important of those toxic chemicals is chromium. Different alternatives have been proposed for the removal of this metal from tanning waste water which include the optimization of the productive processes, physicochemical and biochemical waste water treatment. In this study, the biological adsorption process of trivalent chromium was carried out in synthetic water and tannery waste water through two types of native green microalgae, called Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acutus in Free State and immobilized in PVA state. This, considering that cellular wall of microalgae has functional groups like amines and carboxyl that might bind with trivalent chromium. Statistical significance of variables as pH temperature, chromium and algae concentrations was evaluated just like bio sorption capacity of different types of water and kind of bioadsorbent was calculated to determine if this process is a competitive solution comparing to other heavy metal removal processes.


    Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M


    The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs from these cementitious materials with the intent to demonstrate that desorption occurs at a much slower rate than adsorption, thus permitting the use of kinetic terms instead of (or along with) the steady state K{sub d} term. Another very important parameter measured was the reduction capacity of these materials. This parameter is used to estimate the duration that the Saltstone facility remains in a reduced chemical state, a condition that maintains several otherwise mobile radionuclides in an immobile form. Key findings of this study follow. K{sub d} values for Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, I, Np, Pa, Pu, Se, Sn, Tc, U, and Y for Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete were measured under oxidized and reduced conditions. Precipitation of several of the higher valence state radionuclides was observed. There was little evidence that the Vault 2 and Saltstone K{sub d} values differed from previous SRS K{sub d} values measured with reducing grout (Kaplan and Coates 2007). These values also supported a previous finding that K{sub d} values of slag-containing cementitious materials, tend to be greater for cations and about the same for anions, than regular cementitious materials without slag. Based on these new findings, it was suggested that all previous reducing concrete K{sub d} values be used in future PAs, except Np(V) and Pu(IV) K{sub d} values, which should be increased, and I values, which should be slightly decreased in all three stages of concrete aging. The reduction capacity of Saltstone, consisting of 23 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 821.8 microequivalents per

  15. Sorption capacity studies of Scheldt sediments for /sup 60/Co, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 137/Cs

    Meeussen, M.A.; Willems, G.J.; De Ranter, C.J.


    Using /sup 60/Co, /sup 85/Sr and /sup 137/Cs as tracer ions the sorption capacity of Scheldt sediments for Co/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/ and Cs/sup +/ was studied and their distribution coefficients between sediment and Scheldt water were determined. It is found that clay and silt samples show relatively high sorption capacities for cobalt and cesium, compared with the low fixation rate for strontium. The selectivity of the sediments for a particular ion, in competition with other ions, was studied and the sequence found is in accordance with the distribution coefficients. From these experiments it may be concluded that the high salt concentrations, present in normal Scheldt water, will limit the risks of radioactive isotopes accumulation in the sediments.

  16. Temperature dependence of sorption of gases by coals and charcoals

    Sakurovs, Richard; Day, Stuart; Weir, Steve; Duffy, Greg (CSIRO Energy Technology PO Box 330 Newcastle 2300 Australia)


    Modelling the sorption properties of coals for carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions is necessary for accurate prediction of the sequestering ability of coals in seams. We present recent data for sorption curves of three dry Argonne Premium coals, for carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen at two different temperatures at pressures up to 15 MPa. The sorption capacity of coals tends to decrease with increasing temperature. An investigation into literature values for sorption of nitrogen and methane by charcoal also show sorption capacities that decrease dramatically with increasing temperature. This is inconsistent with expectations from Langmuir models of coal sorption, which predict a sorption capacity that is independent of temperature. We have successfully fitted the isotherms using a modified Dubinin-Radushkevich equation that uses gas density rather than pressure. A simple pore-filling model that assumes there is a maximum pore width that can be filled in supercritical conditions and that this maximum pore width decreases with increasing temperature, can explain this temperature dependence of sorption capacity. It can also explain why different supercritical gases give apparently different surface sorption capacities on the same material. The calculated heat of sorption for these gases on these coals is similar to those found for these gases on activated carbon. (author)


    Zi-yan WU


    A discrete optimum mathematical model to derive the "maximum capacity" of people in a roomor in a space used for public gatherings is developed. There are two outcomes in the model. One isfocused on whether the person farthest from exits can escape from the room. The other concentrateson the evacuation time of all the people in the room. According to the results of the two outcomes, amore reasonable "maximum capacity" can be worked out in a simple way.

  18. Novel experimental methods for assessment of hydrogen storage capacity and modelling of sorption in Cu-BTC

    Khvostikova, O. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, TU Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 7, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Assfour, B.; Seifert, G. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, TU Dresden, Bergstr. 66b, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Hermann, H.; Horst, A.; Ehrenberg, H. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)


    Novel experimental procedures for hydrogen adsorption studies are presented. The methods provide an important advantage: pure material sorption behaviour can be directly determined without the use of equations of state (EOS) at low temperatures. The storage properties of Cu-BTC [Cu{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}, BTC - 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate] were investigated under different thermodynamic conditions. The maximum hydrogen uptake of 4.6 wt% was observed at 25 K. We compared the results obtained in this work with previously reported experimental data to prove the validity of the novel methods for the hydrogen sorption measurements. The experimental data of the present work show a good agreement with the results reported in the literature. Additionally, the modelling of the hydrogen sorption processes in Cu-BTC was carried out. The simulations were performed in the form of isotherms and isobars. Fairly good agreement with experimental data has been achieved. Uncertainties in MOF-H{sub 2} interactions are most likely the major reasons for the remaining difference between simulations and experiments. (author)

  19. Effect of degree of crystallinity and the contents of aluminium oxide and sodium oxide on water sorption capacity in NaY zeolite

    Kešelj Dragana M.


    Full Text Available The paper presents mathematical models which describe the dependence between water sorption capacity, on one hand, and the degree of crystallinity and the content of Na2O and Al2O3 in NaY zeolite, on the other. NaY was synthesized from sodium aluminate solution, water glass and sulfuric acid under different conditions of crystallization. The obtained zeolite powders underwent chemical analysis (Na2O, Al2O3, water sorption capacity (WSC, as well as diffraction analysis which served to determine the degree of crystallinity (CD. Zeolite powder samples had the following values: for the content of Na2O from 13.81 to 16.14%, for Al2O3 from 21.58 to 27.17%, degree of crystallinity from 58.70 to 114.00 and WSC from 21.32 to 36.59%, and regression analysis lead to the conclusion that there is a significant correlation between water sorption capacity and the degree of crystallinity, unlike the contents of Na2O and Al2O3 in the zeolite powder, whose correlation with water sorption capacity was neglibile. The mathematical model obtained by linear regression analysis had a high R2= 0.796, where as non-linear regressional analysis produced a better mathematical model R2= 0.912, where water sorption capacity was expressed through a quadratic model.



    To design the amorphous hydrogen storage alloy efficiently, the maximum hydrogen capacities for Zr-Ni amorphous alloy were calculated. Based on the Rhomb Unit Structure Model(RUSM) for amorphous alloy and the experimental result that hydrogen atoms exist in 3Zr1Ni and 4Zr tetrahedron interstices in Zr-Ni amorphous alloy, the numbers of 3Zr-1Ni and 4Zr tetrahedron interstices in a RUSM were calculated which correspond to the hydrogen capacity. The two extremum Zr distribution states were calculated, such as highly heterogeneous Zr distribution and homogeneous Zr distribution. The calculated curves of hydrogen capacity with different Zr contents at two states indicate that the hydrogen capacity increases with increasing Zr content and reaches its maximum when Zr is 75%. The theoretical maximum hydrogen capacity for Zr-Ni amorphous alloy is 2.0(H/M). Meanwhile, the hydrogen capacity of heterogeneous Zr distribution alloy is higher than that of homogenous one at the same Zr content. The experimental results prove the calculated results reasonable, and accordingly, the experimental results that the distribution of Zr atom in amorphous alloy occur heterogeneous after a few hydrogen absorption-desorption cycles can be explained.


    Vasile Rusu


    Full Text Available Studies of the sorption capacity towards Cu2+ ions of diatomite from the Ghidirim location of RM, as well as of the extracted clay phase are presented. Separated clay fraction from diatomic material is clean enough, and especially is rich in montmorillonite. Maximum sorption capacity for studied clay fraction is achieved by rising the temperature of calcination treatment up to 200oC. At higher temperatures the lattice of montmorillonite is contracted and its sorption capacity towards Cu2+ ions decreases strongly.

  2. Method for Determining the Maximum Allowable Capacity of Wind Farm Based on Box Set Robust Optimization

    Lihui Guo


    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of wind power, the randomness and volatility of wind power output would have a greater impact on safety and steady operation of power system. In allusion to the uncertainty of wind speed and load demand, this paper applied box set robust optimization theory in determining the maximum allowable installed capacity of wind farm, while constraints of node voltage and line capacity are considered. Optimized duality theory is used to simplify the model and convert uncertainty quantities in constraints into certainty quantities. Under the condition of multi wind farms, a bilevel optimization model to calculate penetration capacity is proposed. The result of IEEE 30-bus system shows that the robust optimization model proposed in the paper is correct and effective and indicates that the fluctuation range of wind speed and load and the importance degree of grid connection point of wind farm and load point have impact on the allowable capacity of wind farm.

  3. Effectiveness of a rock phosphate solubilizing fungus to increase soil solution phosphate impaired by the soil phosphate sorption capacity

    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega


    Full Text Available Available phosphate (P deficiency in tropical soils has been recognized as a major factor that limits soil quality and plant performance. To overcome this, it is necessary to add high amounts of soluble P-fertilizers; however, this is inefficient and costly. Alternatively, rock phosphates (RP can be used, but their low reactivity limits their use. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM can enhance RP dissolution and, thus, improve the RP agronomic effectiveness as fertilizer. Nonetheless, their effectiveness may be impaired by the soil P fixation capacity. An experiment was carried out to assess the in vitro effectiveness of the fungus Mortierella sp. to dissolve RP in an axenic culture medium and, thus, enhance the solution P concentration in the presence of aliquots of soils with contrasting P fixation capacity. The results showed that the fungus was capable of lowering the medium pH from 7.7 to 3.0 and, thus, dissolving the RP. The presence of soil aliquots in the medium controlled the effectiveness of the fungus to increase the concentration of the soluble P. In the presence of soils with a low or medium P sorption capacity, the concentration of the soluble P was high (63.8-146.6 mg L-1 in comparison with the inoculated (soilless treatment (50.0 mg L-1 and the uninoculated control (0.7 mg L-1. By contrast, with very-high P fixing soil aliquots, the concentration of the soluble P was very low (3.6-33.1 mg L-1; in addition, in these soils, the fungus immobilized more P into its mycelia than in soils with a low or medium P fixation capacity. The capacity of a soil to fix P seems to be a good predictor for the effectiveness of this fungus to increase the soluble P concentration via RP dissolution.

  4. Maximum Power Point Characteristics of Generalized Heat Engines with Finite Time and Finite Heat Capacities

    Abhishek Khanna


    Full Text Available We revisit the problem of optimal power extraction in four-step cycles (two adiabatic and two heat-transfer branches when the finite-rate heat transfer obeys a linear law and the heat reservoirs have finite heat capacities. The heat-transfer branch follows a polytropic process in which the heat capacity of the working fluid stays constant. For the case of ideal gas as working fluid and a given switching time, it is shown that maximum work is obtained at Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. Our expressions clearly show the dependence on the relative magnitudes of heat capacities of the fluid and the reservoirs. Many previous formulae, including infinite reservoirs, infinite-time cycles, and Carnot-like and non-Carnot-like cycles, are recovered as special cases of our model.

  5. Sorption kinetics of hexadecyltrimethylammonium on natural clinoptilolite

    Li, Z.


    Sorption kinetics of hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) chloride on a natural clinoptilolite was studied in this research. The amount of HDTMA sorbed is a function of the initial HDTMA input and the sorption time. When the initial HDTMA input is less than the external cation-exchange capacity of the clinoptilolite, the HDTMA sorption is fast and equilibrium can be established in 1 h. As the initial HDTMA input is greater than the external cation-exchange capacity of clinoptilolite, which will result in more than a monolayer HDTMA surface coverage, the time for HDTMA sorption to reach equilibrium increases exponentially. The HDTMA sorption maximum on clinoptilolite increases logarithmically with mixing time. The counterion solution concentration data suggest that at the initial stage HDTMA molecules sorb on the zeolite via micelle forms, which is manifested by a decrease in chloride solution concentration with time. When HDTMA solution concentration is depleted to less than its critical micelle concentration, the adsorbed micelles (admicelles) rearrange themselves to a more stable monolayer or bilayer configuration, which is reflected by an increase in counterion solution concentration due to the desorption of chloride from admicelles. The time required for the surface rearrangement increases exponentially as the HDTMA input increases. The data of HDTMA sorption kinetics were fitted to different kinetic models, and the parabolic diffusion model fits the data best for the HDTMA sorption, counterion sorption at the initial stage and counterion desorption at the rearrangement stage. Thus, the sorption of HDTMA on clinoptilolite surfaces is diffusion controlled. The results also indicate that it is incomplete to discuss surfactant sorption without counterion concentration data.

  6. Characteristics of Amine Surfactant Modified Peanut Shell and Its Sorption Property for Cr(VI)

    岳敏; 张猛; 刘斌; 许醒; 李小明; 岳钦艳; 马春元


    Modified peanut shell (MPS) was prepared by amination reaction with peanut shell (PS) as the starting material. The sorption of Cr(VI) oxyanions on MPS in static and column tests were investigated. In addition, the sorption isotherm and kinetic models were applied to confirm the sorption capacity and the sorption mechanisms. BET surface area analysis showed the physicochemical characteristics of the samples. The results of zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectra analysis illustrated that chemical adsorption and ion ex-change are the potential sorption mechanism. The static sorption test showed that the maximum sorption capacity (qmax) of MPS for Cr(VI) increased with temperature, which indicated that the Cr(VI) sorption process was endo-thermic. The saturated sorption capacity of Cr(VI) in the column sorption test was 138.34 mg·g-1, which accounted for 93.9%of the qmax at 25 °C. The regeneration capacity of MPS was evaluated using HCl solution as an eluent. The high regeneration efficiency (82.6%) validated the dominance of the ion exchange mechanism in the Cr(VI) sorption process with Cl-ions displacing Cr(VI) oxyanion on MPS. The Langmuir isotherm model showed a higher correlation coefficient than the other adsorption isotherm models. And in the kinetic study, a pseudo-second-order model fit the data best.

  7. New Fiber Materials with Sorption Capacity at 5.0 g-U/kg Adsorbent under Marine Testing Conditions

    Saito, Tomonori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, Sadananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schlafer, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flicker Byers, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    capacities: RIGP adsorbent achieved 5.00 ± 0.15 g U/kg-ads., while ATRP adsorbent achieved 6.56 ± 0.33 g U/kg-ads., after 56 days of seawater exposure. These achieved values are the highest adsorption capacities ever reported for uranium extraction from seawater. The study successfully demonstrated new fiber materials with sorption capacity at 5.0 g-U/kg adsorbent under marine testing conditions. Further optimization, investigation of other new materials as well as deepening our understanding will develop adsorbents that have even higher uranium adsorption capacity, increased selectivity, and faster kinetics.

  8. Graft copolymer based on (sodium alginate-g-acrylamide): Characterization and study of Water swelling capacity, metal ion sorption, flocculation and resistance to biodegradability.

    Sand, Arpit; Vyas, Aparna; Gupta, A K


    Graft copolymer of alginate and acrylamide was synthesized by grafting acrylamide chains on to alginate by free radical polymerization using potassium bromate/thiourea redox system in an inert atmosphere. The reaction conditions for maximum grafting have been optimized by varying the reaction variables, including the concentration of acrylamide (3.0×10(2)-9.3×10(2)moldm(-3)), potassium bromate (8×10(-3)-16×10(-3)moldm(-3)), thiourea (1.6×10(-3)-4.8×10(-3)moldm(-3)), sulphuric acid (3.0×10(-3)-7×10(-3)moldm(-3)), alginate (0.6-1.6gdm(-3)) along with time duration (60-180min) and temperature (30-50°C). Water swelling capacity, metal ion sorption, flocculation and resistance to biodegradability studies of synthesized graft copolymer have been performed with respect to the parent polymer. The grafted polymers were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Weakly and strongly polynomial algorithms for computing the maximum decrease in uniform arc capacities

    Ghiyasvand Mehdi


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new problem on a directed network is presented. Let D be a feasible network such that all arc capacities are equal to U. Given a t > 0, the network D with arc capacities U - t is called the t-network. The goal of the problem is to compute the largest t such that the t-network is feasible. First, we present a weakly polynomial time algorithm to solve this problem, which runs in O(log(nU maximum flow computations, where n is the number of nodes. Then, an O(m2n time approach is presented, where m is the number of arcs. Both the weakly and strongly polynomial algorithms are inspired by McCormick and Ervolina (1994.

  10. Survivable VON mapping with ambiguity similitude for differentiable maximum shared capacity in elastic optical networks

    Yang, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Bai, Wei; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhu; Zhou, Ziguan; Ou, Qinghai


    Virtualization is considered to be a promising solution to support various emerging applications. This paper illustrates the problem of virtual mapping from a new perspective, and mainly focuses on survivable mapping of virtual networks and the potential trade-off between spectral resource usage effectiveness and failure resilience level. We design an optimum shared protection mapping (OSPM) scheme in elastic optical networks. A differentiable maximum shared capacity of each frequency slot is defined to more efficiently shared protection resource. In order to satisfy various assessment standards, a metric called ambiguity similitude is defined for the first time to give insight on the optimizing difficulty. Simulation results are presented to compare the outcome of the novel OSPM algorithm with traditional dedicated link protection and maximum shared protection mapping. By synthetic analysis, OSPM outperforms the other two schemes in terms of striking a perfect balance among blocking probability, resources utilization, protective success rate, and spectrum redundancy.

  11. Kinetic Model of the Sorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ From Aqueous Solution Using Carbonized Treculia Africana Husk as Biomass

    , A.K. Asiagwu; , P.E Omuku; , J.I. Odiachi; , V.N. Okafor


    The sorption kinetics of model (Cu2+ and Pb“) from aqueous solution using carbonized Africana brad fruit (Treculia Africana) husk was investigated. The effect of contact time, variation in mass and particle size of adsorbent and adsorption isotherms were studied. The time-dependent experiment showed rapid sorption between 15-30 minutes with maximum sorption at 30mins, after which the rate of adsorption became almost constant. The sorption capacity is dependent on its particle size. A particle...

  12. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J


    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.

  13. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Glynn, P.D.


    One-dimensional (1D) geochemical transport modeling is used to demonstrate the effects of speciation and sorption reactions on the ground-water transport of Np and Pu, two redox-sensitive elements. Earlier 1D simulations (Reardon, 1981) considered the kinetically limited dissolution of calcite and its effect on ion-exchange reactions (involving 90Sr, Ca, Na, Mg and K), and documented the spatial variation of a 90Sr partition coefficient under both transient and steady-state chemical conditions. In contrast, the simulations presented here assume local equilibrium for all reactions, and consider sorption on constant potential, rather than constant charge, surfaces. Reardon's (1981) seminal findings on the spatial and temporal variability of partitioning (of 90Sr) are reexamined and found partially caused by his assumption of a kinetically limited reaction. In the present work, sorption is assumed the predominant retardation process controlling Pu and Np transport, and is simulated using a diffuse-double-layer-surface-complexation (DDLSC) model. Transport simulations consider the infiltration of Np- and Pu-contaminated waters into an initially uncontaminated environment, followed by the cleanup of the resultant contamination with uncontaminated water. Simulations are conducted using different spatial distributions of sorption capacities (with the same total potential sorption capacity, but with different variances and spatial correlation structures). Results obtained differ markedly from those that would be obtained in transport simulations using constant Kd, Langmuir or Freundlich sorption models. When possible, simulation results (breakthrough curves) are fitted to a constant K d advection-dispersion transport model and compared. Functional differences often are great enough that they prevent a meaningful fit of the simulation results with a constant K d (or even a Langmuir or Freundlich) model, even in the case of Np, a weakly sorbed radionuclide under the

  14. Evaluation of terrestrial plants extracts for uranium sorption and characterization of potent phytoconstituents.

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Thulasidas, S K; Kulkarni, Madhuri J; Natarajan, V; Manchanda, Vijay K


    Sorption capacity of four plants (Funaria hygrometrica, Musa acuminata, Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) extracts/fractions for uranium, a radionuclide was investigated by EDXRF and tracer studies. The maximum sorption capacity, i.e., 100% (complete sorption) was observed in case of Musa acuminata extract and fractions. Carbohydrate, proteins, phenolics and flavonoids contents in the active fraction (having maximum sorption capacity) were also determined. Further purification of the most active fraction provided three pure molecules, mannitol, sorbitol and oxo-linked potassium oxalate. The characterization of isolated molecules was achieved by using FTIR, NMR, GC-MS, MS-MS, and by single crystal-XRD analysis. Of three molecules, oxo-linked potassium oxalate was observed to have 100% sorption activity. Possible binding mechanism of active molecule with the uranyl cation has been purposed.

  15. Sorption of copper by chemically modified aspen wood fibers.

    Huang, Liyuan; Ou, Zhaoyang; Boving, Thomas B; Tyson, Julian; Xing, Baoshan


    Sorption of copper (Cu(2+)) by untreated and treated (bleaching and hydrolysis) aspen wood fibers, cellulose and lignin was examined to understand the Cu(2+) sorption behavior by these natural sorbents. All sorbents were characterized by solid-state (13)C NMR and FTIR. Bleaching broke up aromatic structures and increased hydrophilicity of the fibers, whereas hydrolysis decreased carbohydrate content, producing a more hydrophobic structure. Copper sorption was a function of pH; the percentage of Cu(2+) sorption steadily increased from pH 1.5 to 4.5 with a maximum sorption amount at around pH 5.5 for all the materials. All isotherms fitted well to the Langmuir equation. Bleached sample (BL) had a highest sorption capacity, followed by untreated (UTR), cellulose (CEL), and hydrolyzed (HHY), while lignin (LIG) had little Cu(2+) sorption under the studied conditions. The results suggested that carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-CHOH) in carbohydrates are mainly responsible for Cu(2+) sorption, and that ion exchange may be a main sorption mechanism for the studied sorbents. Additionally, the sorption capacity for Cu(2+) on all sorbents decreased with the increase of the initial concentrations of Ca(2+), Na(+) or Al(3+). Copper sorption decreased rapidly at low initial concentrations of Ca(2+), Na(+) or Al(3+). However, the decline of Cu(2+) sorption slowed down when initial Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentration was higher than 0.05M or initial Al(3+) concentration was greater than 0.005M, indicating that specific adsorption may be taking place. Therefore, the majority of sorbed Cu(2+) to aspen wood fibers could be through ion exchange (especially, for UTR, BL and CEL), while a faction of sorbed Cu(2+) via inner-sphere complex (or specific adsorption).

  16. Maximum jaw opening capacity in adolescents in relation to general joint mobility.

    Westling, L; Helkimo, E


    Mandibular jaw opening was related with general joint mobility in a non-patient adolescent group. The angular rotation of the mandible at maximum jaw opening was slightly larger in females than in males and significantly larger in hypermobile individuals. No significant relationship between linear measuring of maximal mandibular opening capacity and peripheral joint mobility was found either at active (AROM) or at passive range of mandibular opening (PROM). PROM was strongly correlated to the mandibular length. Clinical signs in the great jaw closer muscles could not be associated to decreased AROM. The mean value of the difference between PROM-AROM (DPA) was 1.2 mm. Frequent clenching and/or grinding was correlated to increased DPA only in hypermobile adolescents (r = 0.49***). Those with DPA exceeding 5mm had all reciprocal clicking.

  17. Selectivity sequences and sorption capacities of phosphatic clay and humus rich soil towards the heavy metals present in zinc mine tailing.

    Chaturvedi, Pranav Kumar; Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra


    Sorption efficacy of phosphatic clay and humus rich soil alone and on combination were tested towards heavy metals present in zinc mine tailing (Zawar Zinc Mine), Udaipur (India). Characterization of the zinc mine tailing sample indicated the presence of Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn in the concentration of 637, 186, 720 and 577microg(-1), respectively. For sorption efficacy, the zinc mine tailing soil were properly amended with phosphatic clay and humus rich soil separately and in combination and leachability study was performed by batch experiment at different pH range from 3 to 9. The data showed that the percent leachability of heavy metal in non-amended soil was 75-90%. After amendment with phosphatic clay percent leachability of heavy metals became 35-45%. Further, the addition of humus soil to phosphatic clay decreased the percent leachability up to 5-15% at all tested pH. Column leachability experiment was performed to evaluate the rate of leachability. The shape of cumulative curves of Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn showed an increase in its concavity in following order: PbCu>Zn>Mn. Further, Langmuir isotherms applied for the sorption studies indicated that phosphatic clay in the presence of humus soil had high affinity for Pb followed by Cu, Zn and Mn, with sorption capacities (b) 139.94, 97.02, 83.32 and 67.58microgg(-1), respectively.

  18. Factors affecting estimation of the maximum aerobic capacity by treadmill test in students of medical emergencies in Qazvin

    P. Heydari


    Full Text Available Background: The maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max can be used to evaluate the cardio-pulmonary condition and to provide physiological balance between a person and his job. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the maximum aerobic capacity and its associated factors among students of medical emergencies in Qazvin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 male students of medical emergencies in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2015. The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. The participants meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Gerkin treadmill protocol. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis. Findings: Mean maximum aerobic capacity was 1.94±0.27 L/min. The maximum aerobic capacity was associated with weight and height groups. There was significant positive correlation between maximal aerobic capacity and height, weight and body mass index. Conclusion: The Gerkin treadmill test is useful for estimation of the maximum aerobic capacity and the maximum working ability in students of medical emergencies.

  19. Phosphorus Sorption Capacities of Steel Slag in Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands for Treating Urban Runoff: Saturation Potential and Longevity

    Guo, W. J.; Zhao, L. Y.; Zhao, W. H.; Li, Q. Y.; Wu, Z. B.


    Two parallel pilot-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems were constructed on the bank of Nanfeihe River. The phosphate (PO4 3-) isothermal adsorption properties of the upper substrate steel furnace slag (SFS) in up-flow chamber was investigated during one-year operation period. The maximum phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity of SFS 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 months service time were 848.9 mg/kg, 968.1 mg/kg, 824.5 mg/kg, 788.7 mg/kg, 864.7 mg/kg and 960.3 mg/kg, respectively. The saturated adsorption amount of SFS had not decreased with the service time prolonging in ICW. The longevity of a full-scale system could not be reliably estimated only based on the theoretical saturated adsorption capacity from laboratory experiments.

  20. A comparative study of phosphate sorption in lowland soils under oxic and anoxic conditions

    Heiberg, Lisa; Pedersen, Thomas Vils; Jensen, Henning S.;


    of 36 to 93% of the dithionite-extractable FeIII (FeBD). Langmuir fitted Pi sorption isotherms showed a Pi release of up to 1.1 mmol kg-1 in six soils when Pi concentrations in the matrix (Psol) were lower than 10 µM. Phosphate desorption was attributed to dissolution of amorphous iron oxides......Received for publication June 13, 2009. Phosphate (Pi) release due to FeIII oxide dissolution is well documented for soils undergoing reduction. The Pi sorption properties of soils in anoxic conditions are, however, still under consideration. In this investigation, Pi sorption to strictly anoxic...... FeII phosphates may have caused the higher sorption capacities. Use of maximum sorption capacity (Smax) is therefore misleading as a measure of Pi sorption at low Psol concentrations. The results demonstrate that none of the strongly anoxic soils, irrespective of the initial FeIII oxide content...

  1. Competitive sorption of cadmium and lead in acid soils of central Spain

    Serrano, S.; Garrido, F.; Campbell, C.G.; Garcia-Gonzolez, Maria Teresa


    The bioavailability and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment are controlled by chemical sorption. To assess competitive sorption of Pb and Cd, batch equilibrium experiments (generating sorption isotherms) and kinetics sorption studies were performed using single and binary metal solutions in surface samples of four soils from central Spain. For comparisons between soils, as well as, single and binary metal solutions, soil chemical processes were characterized using the Langmuir equation, ionic strength, and an empirical power function for kinetic sorption. In addition, soil pH and clay mineralogy were used to explain observed sorption processes. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equation and the sorption kinetics were well described by an empirical power function within the reaction times in this study. Soils with higher pH and clay content (characterized by having smectite) had the greatest sorption capacity as estimated by the maximum sorption parameter (Q) of the Langmuir equation. All soils exhibited greater sorption capacity for Pb than Cd and the presence of both metals reduced the tendency for either to be sorbed although Cd sorption was affected to a greater extent than that of Pb. The Langmuir binding strength parameter (k) was always greater for Pb than for Cd. However, these k values tended to increase as a result of the simultaneous presence of both metals, that may indicate competition for sorption sites promoting the retention of both metals on more specific sorption sites. The kinetic experiments showed that Pb sorption is initially faster than Cd sorption from both single and binary solutions although the simultaneous presence of both metals affected the sorption of Cd at short times while only a minor effect was observed on Pb. The estimated exponents of the kinetic function were in all cases smaller for Pb than for Cd, likely due to diffusion processes into micropores or interlayer space of the clay minerals which

  2. Factors controlling variability in the oxidative capacity of the troposphere since the Last Glacial Maximum

    L. T. Murray


    Full Text Available The oxidative capacity of past atmospheres is highly uncertain. We present here a new climate-biosphere-chemistry modeling framework to determine oxidant levels in the present and past troposphere. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model driven by meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS ModelE, with land cover and fire emissions from dynamic global vegetation models. We present time-slice simulations for the present day, late preindustrial (AD 1770, and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 19–23 ka, and we test the sensitivity of model results to uncertainty in lightning and fire emissions. We find that most preindustrial and paleo climate simulations yield reduced oxidant levels relative to the present day. Contrary to prior studies, tropospheric mean OH in our ensemble shows little change at the LGM relative to the preindustrial (0.5 ± 12%, despite large reductions in methane concentrations. We find a simple linear relationship between tropospheric mean ozone photolysis rates, water vapor, and total emissions of NOx and reactive carbon that explains 72% of the variability in global mean OH in 11 different simulations across the last glacial-interglacial time interval and the Industrial Era. Key parameters controlling the tropospheric oxidative capacity over glacial-interglacial periods include overhead stratospheric ozone, tropospheric water vapor, and lightning NOx emissions. Variability in global mean OH since the LGM is insensitive to fire emissions. Our simulations are broadly consistent with ice-core records of Δ17O in sulfate and nitrate at the LGM, and CO, HCHO, and H2O2 in the preindustrial. Our results imply that the glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric methane observed in ice cores are predominantly driven by changes in its sources as opposed to its sink with OH.

  3. Sorption of roxarsone onto soils with different physicochemical properties.

    Fu, Qing-Long; He, Jian-Zhou; Blaney, Lee; Zhou, Dong-Mei


    Elevated roxarsone (ROX) concentrations in soils, caused by land application of ROX-bearing poultry litter, mandate investigation of ROX sorption onto soils. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of ROX sorption onto five soils were carried out to explore the relationship between sorption parameters and soil properties, and to reveal the effects of coexisting humic acid (HA), P(V), As(V), and As(III) on ROX transport. Experimental results indicated that ROX sorption reached equilibrium within 24 h, with pseudo-second order rate constants of 5.74-5.26 × 10(2) g/(mg h); film and intra-particle diffusion were the rate-limiting processes. ROX sorption to soils involved partitioning and adsorption phenomena; however, their relative contributions varied for different soils. The maximum ROX sorption varied with soil type, ranging from 0.59 to 4.12 mg/g. Results from correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions revealed that the maximum sorption capacities, partition coefficients, and desorption percentages were correlated with soil properties, especially iron content, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. ROX sorption to soils was affected more by soil pH than the initial pH of ROX-containing solutions. Carboxylic and amide functional groups were determined to be responsible for ROX sorption to soils. ROX sorption capacities decreased in the presence of HA, P(V), As(V), and As(III), indicating that ROX mobility in soils was facilitated by dissolved organic matter (DOM) and competing anions.

  4. Effect of precipitation, sorption and stable of isotope on maximum release rates of radionuclides from engineered barrier system (EBS) in deep repository.

    Malekifarsani, A; Skachek, M A


    shown that the concentrations of the following radionuclides are limited by solubility and precipitate around the waste and buffer: U, Np, Ra, Sm, Zr, Se, Tc, and Pd. The Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case precipitation shows that some nuclides such as Cs-135, Nb-94, Nb-93 m, Zr-93, Sn-126, Th-230, Pu-240, Pu-242, Pu-239, Cm-245, Am-243, Cm-245, U-233, Ac-227, Pb-210, Pa-231 and Th-229 are very little changed in case the maximum release rate from EBS corresponding to eliminate precipitation in buffer material. Some nuclides such as Se-79, Tc-99, Pd-107, Th-232, U-236, U-233, Ra-226, Np-237 U-235, U-234, and U-238 are virtually changed in the maximum release rate compared to case that taking account precipitation. In Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case to taking account stable isotopes (according to the table of inventory) there are only some nuclides with their stable isotopes in the vitrified waste. And calculation shows that Pd-107 and Se-79 are very increase in case eliminate stable isotope. The Sensitivity of maximum release rates in case retardation with sorption shows that some nuclides such as Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-239, Cm-245, Am-241, Cm-246, and Am-243 are increased in some time in case maximum release rate from EBS corresponding to eliminate retardation in buffer material. Some nuclides such as U-235, U-233 and U-236 have a little decrease in case maximum release because their parents have short live and before decay to their daughter will released from the EBS. If the characteristic time taken for a nuclide to diffuse across the buffer exceeds its half-life, then the release rate of that nuclide from the EBS will be attenuated by radioactive decay. Thus, the retardation of the diffusion process due to sorption tends to reduce the release rates of short-lived nuclides more effectively than for the long-lived ones. For example, release rates of Pu-240, Cm-246 and Am-241, which are relatively short-lived and strongly sorbing, are very small

  5. Liquid films on shake flask walls explain increasing maximum oxygen transfer capacities with elevating viscosity.

    Giese, Heiner; Azizan, Amizon; Kümmel, Anne; Liao, Anping; Peter, Cyril P; Fonseca, João A; Hermann, Robert; Duarte, Tiago M; Büchs, Jochen


    In biotechnological screening and production, oxygen supply is a crucial parameter. Even though oxygen transfer is well documented for viscous cultivations in stirred tanks, little is known about the gas/liquid oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures that become increasingly viscous during cultivation. Especially the oxygen transfer into the liquid film, adhering on the shake flask wall, has not yet been described for such cultivations. In this study, the oxygen transfer of chemical and microbial model experiments was measured and the suitability of the widely applied film theory of Higbie was studied. With numerical simulations of Fick's law of diffusion, it was demonstrated that Higbie's film theory does not apply for cultivations which occur at viscosities up to 10 mPa s. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the maximum oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax increases in shake flasks when viscosity is increased from 1 to 10 mPa s, leading to an improved oxygen supply for microorganisms. Additionally, the OTRmax does not significantly undermatch the OTRmax at waterlike viscosities, even at elevated viscosities of up to 80 mPa s. In this range, a shake flask is a somehow self-regulating system with respect to oxygen supply. This is in contrary to stirred tanks, where the oxygen supply is steadily reduced to only 5% at 80 mPa s. Since, the liquid film formation at shake flask walls inherently promotes the oxygen supply at moderate and at elevated viscosities, these results have significant implications for scale-up.

  6. Arsenic sorption onto laterite iron concretions: temperature effect.

    Partey, Frederick; Norman, David; Ndur, Samuel; Nartey, Robert


    We investigated arsenate and arsenite sorption onto laterite iron concretions (LIC) to test its suitability for use in the low-tech treatment of arsenic-bearing drinking water. Batch experiments on crushed LIC from Prestea, Ghana were conducted at a series of temperatures, ionic strengths, and pHs. The point of zero net charge on laterite iron concretion was determined by potentiometric titrations yielding an average pHp(ZNC) around 8.64. Experiments show that sorption capacity for both arsenite and arsenate increase with temperature. The equilibrium sorption capacity for arsenite was larger than that for arsenate over the 25 to 60 degrees C temperature range. A Langmuir model satisfactorily fits the arsenite and arsenate sorption isotherm data. Both arsenite and arsenate sorbed over the pH range of natural waters. Arsenite sorption increases with increasing solution pH to a maximum at pH 7, then decreases with further increase in solution pH. Arsenate sorption, on the other hand, shows little change with increasing solution pH. Increasing solution ionic strength 10-fold results in a slight increase in sorption. Ionic strength experiments show that an inner-sphere sorption mechanism is responsible for As (V) sorption on LIC, while As (III) sorption is by an outer-sphere mechanism. Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees) for arsenite and arsenate sorption onto LIC was calculated from Langmuir isotherms; the negative values agree with reaction spontaneity. The positive values of the standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees) show the endothermic nature of arsenite and arsenate sorption onto LIC. Positive entropy (DeltaS degrees) values suggest the affinity of LIC for the arsenic species in solution. Analysis of the arsenic sorption data suggests that LIC can be used for low-tech natural-materials arsenic water treatment. Laterite iron concretions have a number of advantages for this use over commercial materials, including the ability to remove arsenic from waters with a wide

  7. Sorption and desorption of pentachlorophenol to black carbon of three different origins.

    Luo, Ling; Lou, Liping; Cui, Xinyi; Wu, Binbin; Hou, Jiaai; Xun, Bei; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Yingxu


    Rice straw charcoal, soot and fly ash (collectively termed "black carbon" or BC), which were found to widely exist in the environment and exhibit strong sorption of many organic compounds, were prepared for this study, and recorded as RC, SC, and FC, respectively. The characterization, sorption isotherm, and the effect of pH (from 3.0 to 9.0) on sorption capacity of each BC were investigated. It is demonstrated that RC possessed the largest surface area (234.9 m(2)/g), the highest porosity (0.4392 mL/g), and the largest amount of functional groups (2.995 mmol/g) of all. All the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dual-mode model can fit the sorption data of each BC well. The pH value could apparently affect the sorption capacity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to BCs, which reached maximum value at pH 4.0. Furthermore, in order to validate the effect of pH on desorption capacity, we designed sorption-desorption cycle experiments at pH 9.0 and then pH 7.0, and found that the effect of pH on irreversible sorption and hysteresis effects were significant. As pH value decreasing from 9.0 to 7.0, the irreversible sorption capacities for RC, FC, and SC increased, and the desorption hysteresis index (H) values of PCP increased approximately 3 times for each BC.

  8. Modelling the fate of ciprofloxacin in activated sludge systems - The relevance of the sorption process

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang

    . In a previous study [1], a daily systematic reduction of ciprofloxacin removal in a full-scale WWTP (Bekkelaget, Norway) was associated to deteriorated sorption. Therefore, in this study we further investigated the sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge at laboratory- and full-scale. Targeted batch...... of ciprofloxacin in a full-scale activated sludge system. Sorption was described by linear kinetics and, in an extended version of ASM-X, using a Freundlich-based submodel. In the latter case, Freundlich parameter values estimated from the batch experiments were used for model calibration. The prediction accuracy...... was statistically evaluated in the two cases by comparing the model output with measured data. Batch experiments showed that maximum sorption capacity occurred at pH=7.4, corresponding to the isoelectric point of ciprofloxacin. A pH increase resulted in a significant reduction of sorption capacity as compared...

  9. On the low SNR capacity of maximum ratio combining over rician fading channels with full channel state information

    Benkhelifa, Fatma


    In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Eigenstructures of MIMO Fading Channel Correlation Matrices and Optimum Linear Precoding Designs for Maximum Ergodic Capacity

    Bahrami Hamid Reza


    Full Text Available The ergodic capacity of MIMO frequency-flat and -selective channels depends greatly on the eigenvalue distribution of spatial correlation matrices. Knowing the eigenstructure of correlation matrices at the transmitter is very important to enhance the capacity of the system. This fact becomes of great importance in MIMO wireless systems where because of the fast changing nature of the underlying channel, full channel knowledge is difficult to obtain at the transmitter. In this paper, we first investigate the effect of eigenvalues distribution of spatial correlation matrices on the capacity of frequency-flat and -selective channels. Next, we introduce a practical scheme known as linear precoding that can enhance the ergodic capacity of the channel by changing the eigenstructure of the channel by applying a linear transformation. We derive the structures of precoders using eigenvalue decomposition and linear algebra techniques in both cases and show their similarities from an algebraic point of view. Simulations show the ability of this technique to change the eigenstructure of the channel, and hence enhance the ergodic capacity considerably.

  11. Comparison of Blood Cholesterol Profiles Before and After The Measurements of Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2max

    Ar Rasyid Shadiqin


    Full Text Available This study is aimed to compare the blood cholesterol profile, before and after the measurement of maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max in the students of Jurusan Pendidikan Olahraga dan Kesehatan (JPOK pada Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (FKIP Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarmasin.Variables in this study consist of lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG and Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2max. The concept of VO2max according to Kent(1994:268: “maximum oxygen volume consumed per minute to show total work capacity, or volume per minute relative to body weight (ml/kg.min”. Operationally, VO2max referred in this study is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be consumed per minute, as measured at progressive run (Bleep Test.The method used in this study is pre-experimental with one group pretest-posttest design. This design implies that a group of subjects are treated for a specific period and the measurements are taken both pre and post.The results: There are changes in blood cholesterol profile after the measurement of maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max, shown by significant decrease of total cholesterol variable, increased HDL, and decreased LDL. Changes in triglyceride variable showed no significant decrease despite the statistic differences. Specific HDL sub-class increasing after exercise is a constructive lipoprotein sub-class whereas LDL is destructive lipoproteins sub-class that might damage the body. Therefore, an increase in HDL and decrease in LDL found in this study appears to be advantageous and consequently might alter the risk of coronary heart disease.

  12. Sorption of cesium ions by nanostructured calcium aluminosilicates

    Gordienko, P. S.; Shabalin, I. A.; Yarusova, S. B.; Suponina, A. P.; Zhevtun, I. G.


    Data on the sorption properties of synthetic calcium aluminosilicates (CASes) with Al: Si ratios of 2: 2, 2: 6, and 2: 10, fabricated within the multicomponent system CaCl2-AlCl3-KOM-SiO2-H2O, are presented. Isotherms of the sorption of Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions with Cs+ concentrations of 0.2 to 6.0 mmol L-1 are analyzed. The CAS maximum sorption capacity and the Langmuir constants are determined. Kinetic data are obtained, and the energy of cation-exchange activation upon the sorption of Cs+ ions is determined. The effect of a salt background (1% KCl + 6% NaCl) has on the values of distribution coefficient ( K d) and the degree of Cs+ ion removal is established.

  13. Evaluation of Lagergren Kinetics Equation by Using Novel Kinetics Expression of Sorption of Zn2+ onto Horse Dung Humic Acid (HD-HA

    Bambang Rusdiarso


    Full Text Available Extraction and purification of humic acid from dry horse dung powder (HD-HA was performed successfully and the purified HD-HA was then applied as sorbent to adsorb Zn2+. Extraction and purification were performed based on procedure of Stevenson (1994 under atmospheric air. Parameters investigated in this work consist of effect of medium sorption acidity, sorption rate (ka and desorption rate constant (kd, Langmuir (monolayer and Freundlich (multilayer sorption capacities, and energy (E of sorption. The ka and kd were determined according to the kinetic model of second order sorption reaching equilibrium, monolayer sorption capacity (b and energy (E were determined according to Langmuir isotherm model, and multilayer sorption capacity (B was determined based on Freundlich isotherm model. Sorption of Zn2+ on purified HD-HA was maximum at pH 5.0. The novel kinetic expression resulted from proposed kinetic model has been shown to be more applicable than the commonly known Lagergren equation obtained from the pseudo-first order sorption model. The application of the equation revealed that the intercept of Lagergren equation, ln qe was more complex function of initial concentration of Zn2+ (a, Langmuir sorption capacity (b, and sorbed Zn2+ at equilibrium (xe.

  14. Sorption of actinides onto nanodiamonds

    Buchatskaya, Yulia; Romanchuk, Anna; Yakovlev, Ruslan; Kulakova, Inna [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Shiryaev, Andrei [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry; Kalmykov, Stepan [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry


    Detonation nanodiamonds (ND) present a significant part of nanocarbons group, which could be produced on commercial scale by detonation of explosives in a closed chamber. Their unique properties of high surface area, low weight and radiation resistance make ND a prospective candidate for applications in sorption processes in radiochemistry. To study the influence of surface chemistry on sorption properties, apristine sample of ND was treated with acids and hydrogen. The surface chemistry of the samples was characterised by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The sorption properties of ND were tested fordifferent radionuclides. The sorption capacity of ND was shown to be higher than those of commonly used radionuclide sorbents like activated carbon and compariable to other members of nanocarbon group like graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The sorption properties were shown to be influenced by the presence of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of ND. This represents an opportunity to increase the sorption capacity of ND.

  15. BV-capacities on Wiener Spaces and Regularity of the Maximum of the Wiener Process

    Trevisan, Dario


    We define a capacity C on abstract Wiener spaces and prove that, for any u with bounded variation, the total variation measure |Du| is absolutely continuous with respect to C: this enables us to extend the usual rules of calculus in many cases dealing with BV functions. As an application, we show that, on the classical Wiener space, the random variable sup_{0\\leqt\\leqT} W_t admits a measure as second derivative, whose total variation measure is singular w.r.t. the Wiener measure.

  16. Sorption properties of wool

    Radetić Maja M.


    Full Text Available Strict ecological legislation, especially in highly developed countries, imposed requirements for the purification of industrial effluents and the need for efficient oil clean up after sea and inland water spills. Although numerous processes have been developed, the application of sorbents is still one of the most efficient methods to remove heavy metal ions, dyes and crude oil from water. Recently, special attention was paid to sorbents based on natural fibres. A review of studies concerning the sorption properties of wool is presented in this paper. The presence of various functional groups on the wool fibre surface contributes to the efficient sorption of heavy metal ions and dyes. A hydrophobic, scaly surface and fibre crimp strongly influence the high sorption capacity of wool for oil. Wool has great sorption potential even as a recycled material. Accordingly, it can be used as a viable substitute to commercially available synthetic sorbents that show poor biodegradab ility.

  17. Assessment of Maximum Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Threshold of Elite Ballet Dancers.

    Wyon, Matthew A; Allen, Nick; Cloak, Ross; Beck, Sarah; Davies, Paul; Clarke, Frances


    An athlete's cardiorespiratory profile, maximal aerobic capacity, and anaerobic threshold is affected by training regimen and competition demands. The present study aimed to ascertain whether there are company rank differences in maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold in elite classical ballet dancers. Seventy-four volunteers (M 34, F 40) were recruited from two full-time professional classical ballet companies. All participants completed a continuous incremental treadmill protocol with a 1-km/hr speed increase at the end of each 1-min stage until termination criteria had been achieved (e.g., voluntary cessation, respiratory exchange ratio <1.15, HR ±5 bpm of estimated HRmax). Peak VO2 (5-breathe smooth) was recorded and anaerobic threshold calculated using ventilatory curve and ventilatory equivalents methods. Statistical analysis reported between-subject effects for gender (F1,67=35.18, p<0.001) and rank (F1,67=8.67, p<0.001); post hoc tests reported soloists (39.5±5.15 mL/kg/min) as having significantly lower VO2 peak than artists (45.9±5.75 mL/kg/min, p<0.001) and principal dancers (48.07±3.24 mL/kg/min, p<0.001). Significant differences in anaerobic threshold were reported for age (F1,67=7.68, p=0.008) and rank (F1,67=3.56, p=0.034); post hoc tests reported artists (75.8±5.45%) having significantly lower anaerobic threshold than soloists (80.9±5.71, p<0.01) and principals (84.1±4.84%, p<0.001). The observed differences in VO2 peak and anaerobic threshold between the ranks in ballet companies are probably due to the different rehearsal and performance demands.

  18. Kinetics and thermodynamics of basic dye sorption on phosphoric acid esterifying soybean hull with solid phase preparation technique.

    Gong, Renmin; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Demin; Zhong, Keding; Zhu, Guoping


    In this paper, the solid phase preparation method of a cationic sorbent, which bears hydroxyl groups of phosphoric acid derived from esterified soybean hull (ESH), was reported. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamics of two basic dyes, acridine orange (AO) and malachite green (MG), from aqueous solution onto ESH were investigated with a batch system. The isothermal data of dye sorptions followed the Langmuir model better than the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity (Q(m)) of ESH for AO and MG was 238.1 mg/g and 178.57 mg/g, respectively. The dye sorption processes could be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the dye sorptions were spontaneous and exothermic. Lower temperatures were favorable for the sorption processes.

  19. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul


    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  20. Effect of dissolved organic matter on ammonium sorption kinetics and equilibrium to Chinese clinoptilolite.

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Erping


    In the in-situ remediation of ammonium (NH4+) in groundwater by a sequential reactive barrier filled with zeolite, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms of NH4+ sorption to zeolite. In this study, the effect of dissolved natural organic matter on NH4+ sorption to natural Chinese clinoptilolite was studied by batch experiments taking humic acid (HA) as a model substance. The surface of clinoptilolite was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A needle cluster of sorbed HA could be observed on the surface of the clinoptilolite. The negative effect of HA on NH4+ sorption is thought to be their competition for sorption sites, the surface coverage and blockage of the pores of clinoptilolite by HA. The fitting results of kinetic sorption data indicated that the rate-controlling step for NH4+ sorption by clinoptilolite in both NH4+ and NH4+ + HA systems is the heterogeneous chemisorption. The existence of HA (10 mg/L) significantly reduced the initial sorption rate of NH4+, but the effect of a further concentration increase of HA was slight. The effect of HA on maximum sorption capacity was found to be insignificant in the experiments. A high aqueous Ca2+ concentration can decrease the negative effect of HA on NH4+ sorption by precipitation of calcium humate.

  1. Biofilm growth mode promotes maximum carrying capacity and community stability during product inhibition syntrophy.

    Brileya, Kristen A; Camilleri, Laura B; Zane, Grant M; Wall, Judy D; Fields, Matthew W


    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation (ΔpilA). M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose) as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (∼300 × 50 μm) and models predicted lactate limitation at ∼50 μm biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism) when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative populations.

  2. Biofilm growth mode promotes maximum carrying capacity and community stability during product inhibition syntrophy

    Kristen Annis Brileya


    Full Text Available Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation ( delta pilA. M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (~300 x 50 um and models predicted lactate limitation at approximately 50 um biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative

  3. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.


    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  4. Phosphate sorption-desorption characteristics in two Inceptisols and an Alfisol of Chattisgarh, India

    A. K. DOLUI; S. S. ROY


    Two Inceptisols and an Alfisol of the Indravati Catchment area in Chattisgarh, India, comprising several gradients in physical and chemical properties were studied to relate phosphate sorption and desorption to soil properties. From the P isotherm curve, the standard P requirement (SPR) of the soils was determined. Phosphate sorption data were also fitted both to the Langmuir and Freundlich Equations. The mean sorption maximum values for three different soil series were: Bastar > Geedam > Mosodi. The fraction of added phosphate sorbed for the 3 series followed this same trend as did SPR; the phosphate sorption maximum and the maximum phosphate buffering capacity, which were estimated by the Langmuir isotherm; and the Freundlich constant 1/n. However, phosphate desorption, as well as the maximum recovery percent did not follow this order. The phosphate affinity constant (K) was also different following the same progression for the 3 soil series as the Freundlich constant K′, which measured sorption strength. Meanwhile, an inverse order existed for K and K′ versus the percent desorbed relative to the sorbed as well as the maximum recovery percent. In addition,significant correlation coefficients among sorption parameters of P and soil factors were found.

  5. Fixed Ammonium Content and Maximum Capacity of Ammonium Fixation in Major Types of Tillage Soils in Hunan Province, China

    ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin


    In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in <0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in < 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with

  6. Influence of zirconium hydrophosphate nanoparticles on porous structure and sorption capacity of the composites based on ion exchange resin

    Dzyazko, Yuliya; Ponomarova, Ludmila; Volfkovich, Yurii; Tsirina, Valentina; Sosenkin, Valentin; Nikolska, Nadiya; Belyakov, Volodimir


    Evolution of swelling of gel-like strongly acidic resin and organic-inorganic composites based on this ionexchanger was investigated. Non-aggregated nanoparticles of zirconium hydrophosphate were found to provide size invariability of the polymer pores, which contain functional groups (up to 20 nm), the nanoparticle aggregates squeeze these pores (down to 3 nm). Owing to this, the nanocomposite shows higher break-through capacity during removal of Ni2+ from water, than the sample modified onl...

  7. Dimensionless Model of a Thermoelectric Cooling Device Operating at Real Heat Transfer Conditions: Maximum Cooling Capacity Mode

    Melnikov, A. A.; Kostishin, V. G.; Alenkov, V. V.


    Real operating conditions of a thermoelectric cooling device are in the presence of thermal resistances between thermoelectric material and a heat medium or cooling object. They limit performance of a device and should be considered when modeling. Here we propose a dimensionless mathematical steady state model, which takes them into account. Analytical equations for dimensionless cooling capacity, voltage, and coefficient of performance (COP) depending on dimensionless current are given. For improved accuracy a device can be modeled with use of numerical or combined analytical-numerical methods. The results of modeling are in acceptable accordance with experimental results. The case of zero temperature difference between hot and cold heat mediums at which the maximum cooling capacity mode appears is considered in detail. Optimal device parameters for maximal cooling capacity, such as fraction of thermal conductance on the cold side y, fraction of current relative to maximal j' are estimated in range of 0.38-0.44 and 0.48-0.95, respectively, for dimensionless conductance K' = 5-100. Also, a method for determination of thermal resistances of a thermoelectric cooling system is proposed.

  8. Soil Components Affecting Phosphate Sorption Parameters of Acid Paddy Soils in Guangdong Province


    Soil components affecting phosphate sorption parameters were studied using acid paddy soils derived from basalt, granite, sand-shale and the Pearl River Delta sediments, respectively, in Guangdong Province.For each soil, seven 2.50 g subsamples were equilibrated with 50 mL 0.02 mol L-1 (pH=7.0) of KCl containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 ng P kg-1, respectively, in order to derive P sorption parameters (P sorption maximum, P sorption intensity factor and maximum buffer capacity) by Langmuir isotherm equation. It was shown that the main soil components influencing phosphate sorption maximum (Xm) included soil clay, pH,amorphous iron oxide (Feo) and amorphous aluminum oxide (Alo), with their effects in the order of Alo >Feo > pH > clay. Among these components, pH had a negative effect, and the others had a positive effect.Organic matter (OM) was the only soil component influencing P sorption intensity factor (K). The main components influencing maximum phosphate buffer capacity (MBC) consisted of soil clay, OM, pH, Feo and Alo, with their effects in the order of Alo > OM > pH > Feo > clay. Path analysis indicated that among the components with positive effects on maximum phosphate buffer capacity (MBC), the effect was in the order of Alo > Feo > Clay, while among the components with negative effects, OM > pH. OM played an important role in mobilizing phosphate in acid paddy soils mainly through decreasing the sorption intensity of phosphate by soil particles.

  9. Oil spill sorption using raw and acetylated sugarcane bagasse

    Reza Behnood; Bagher Anvaripour; Nematollah Jaafarzadeh; Masoome Farasati


    In the recent decades oil spills in the aquatic environments are one of the major sources of environmental pollutions, which are steadily growing with the increase in oil consumption. Adsorption is a rapid and cost effective processto minimize the environmental impacts of oil spills andcleanup these pollutants. In this work, the crude oil sorption capacity was examined with raw sugarcane bagasse and acetylated sugarcane bagasse. Results show that the acetylated bagasse was significantly more oleophilic than the raw bagasse and acetylation reaction can increase bagasse oil sorption ability by about 90%. The maximum sorption capacities of acetylated bagasse were obtained about 11.3 g and 9.1 g in dry system (crude oil sorption) and oil layer sorption, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the sorbents such as composition, water solubility, moisture content and density were measured according to ASTM standard methods. Also Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of raw and acetylated bagasse was performed to investigate the effect of acetylation on sugarcane bagasse structure.

  10. Selective Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon Compounds by Temperate Soils

    Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL


    Physico-chemical sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on soil minerals is one of the major processes of organic carbon (OC) stabilization in soils, especially in deeper layers. The attachment of C on soil solids is related to the reactivity of the soil minerals and the chemistry of the sorbate functional groups, but the sorption studies conducted without controlling microbial activity may overestimate the sorption potential of soil. This study was conducted to examine the sorptive characteristics of a diverse functional groups of simple OC compounds (D-glucose, L-alanine, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and sinapyl alcohol) on temperate climate soil orders (Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols) with and without biological degradative processes. Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted using 0-100 mg C L-1 at a solid-solution ratio of 1:60 for 48 hrs and the sorption parameters were calculated by Langmuir model fitting. The amount of added compounds that remained in the solution phase was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic C (TOC) analysis. Soil sterilization was performed by -irradiation technique and experiments were repeated to determine the contribution of microbial degradation to apparent sorption. Overall, Ultisols did not show a marked preference for apparent sorption of any of the model compounds, as indicated by a narrower range of maximum sorption capacity (Smax) of 173-527 mg kg soil-1 across compounds. Mollisols exhibited a strong preference for apparent sorption of oxalic acid (Smax of 5290 mg kg soil-1) and sinapyl alcohol (Smax of 2031 mg kg soil-1) over the other compounds. The propensity for sorption of oxalic acid is mainly attributed to the precipitation of insoluble Ca-oxalate due to the calcareous nature of most Mollisol subsoils and its preference for sinapyl alcohol could be linked to the polymerization of this lignin monomer on 2:2 mineral dominated soils. The reactivity of Alfisols to DOC was in

  11. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.


    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  12. Predation intensity does not cause microevolutionary change in maximum speed or aerobic capacity in trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters).

    Chappell, Mark; Odell, Jason


    We measured maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and burst speed in populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from contrasting high- and low-predation habitats but reared in "common garden" conditions. We tested two hypothesis: first, that predation, which causes rapid life-history evolution in guppies, also impacts locomotor physiology, and second, that trade-offs would occur between burst and aerobic performance. VO(2max) was higher than predicted from allometry, and resting VO(2) was lower than predicted. There were small interdrainage differences in male VO(2max), but predation did not affect VO(2max) in either sex. Maximum burst speed was correlated with size; absolute burst speed was higher in females, but size-adjusted speed was greater in males. For both sexes, burst speed conformed to allometric predictions. There were differences in burst speed between drainages in females, but predation regime did not affect burst speed in either sex. We did not find a significant correlation between burst speed and VO(2max), suggesting no trade-off between these traits. These results indicate that predation-mediated evolution of guppy life history does not produce concomitant evolution in aerobic capacity and maximum burst speed. However, other aspects of swimming performance (response latencies or acceleration) might show adaptive divergence in contrasting predation regimes.

  13. Characteristics of Lead Sorption on Clay Minerals in Relation to Metal Oxides


    Difference of montmorillonite (Mt), illite (It) and kaolinite (Kt) in lead sorption characteristics and the effects of amorphous Fe and Al oxide coatings on the haracteristics were experimentally studied with logistic model. The sorption curves had sigmoid feature due to use of acetate-type buffer solution. With the modelthe sorption process could be divided into four stages and the sorption characteristics at the stages were discussed. The results showed that, after Mt, It and Kt were coated by amorphous Fe oxide, their maximum sorption capacity (MSC) and percentage of high-SSC concentration scope (HCS) of Pb2+ increased markedly but the specific sorption capacity (SSC) decreased. With regard to effects of amorphous Al oxide coating,except for It+Al, the SSC of other samples showed a downtrend, despite that their MSC remained unchanged.Eventually, the gray correlation degrees to Pb2+ sorption for different physicochemical characteristics of the clay minerals were indicated to be higher for hydronium, zero point of surface charge and hydroxy, but lower for specific surface area, density of surface charge and amount of surface charges.

  14. Sorption of vanadium (V) onto natural soil colloids under various solution pH and ionic strength conditions.

    Luo, Xiuhua; Yu, Lin; Wang, Changzhao; Yin, Xianqiang; Mosa, Ahmed; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Huimin


    Batch sorption kinetics and isothermal characteristics of V(V) were investigated on three natural soil colloids (manual loessial soil colloid (MSC), aeolian sandy soil colloid (ASC), and cultivated loessial soil colloid (CSC)) under various solution pH and ionic strength (IS) conditions. Colloids were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AFM micrographs showed CSC with an aggregated shape with larger particle diameter as compared with ASC and MSC. XRD spectra revealed the presence of different minerals in natural soil colloids including biotite, kaolinite, calcite and quartz, which might contribute to sorption process. The sorption ability decreased with increase of colloidal particle size. The sorption was mainly attributed to complexation by active carboxylate and alcohol groups of colloidal components. Sorption kinetics and isotherms of V(V) onto natural soil colloids were best fitted with Pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Langmuir model indicated that sorption capacity of MSC and ASC was comparable (285.7 and 238.1 mg g(-1)); however, CSC exhibited the lowest sorption capacity (41.5 mg g(-1)) due to its larger particle diameter and aggregated shape. The maximum V(V) sorption capacity reached plateau values at a solution pH ranged between 5.0 and 9.0 for MSC and ASC, and 6.0-8.0 for CSC. Sorption capacity of V(V) onto natural soil colloids decreased with increasing IS. Based on result of this study we can conclude that sorption of V(V) onto natural soil colloids is pH- and IS-dependent. These findings provide insights on the remediation of vanadium-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphorus sorption-desorption and effects of temperature, pH and salinity on phosphorus sorption in marsh soils from coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions.

    Bai, Junhong; Ye, Xiaofei; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui


    Wetland soils act as a sink or source of phosphorus (P) to the overlaying water due to phosphorus sorption-desorption processes. Litter information is available on sorption and desorption behaviors of phosphorus in coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate phosphorus sorption-desorption processes, fractions of adsorbed phosphorus, and the effects of salinity, pH and temperature on phosphorus sorption on soils in tidal-flooding wetlands (TW), freshwater-flooding wetlands (FW) and seasonal-flooding wetlands (SW) in the Yellow River Delta. Our results showed that the freshly adsorbed phosphorus dominantly exists in Occluded-P and Fe/AlP and their percentages increased with increasing phosphorus adsorbed. Phosphorus sorption isotherms could be better described by the modified Langmuir model than by the modified Freundlich model. A binomial equation could be properly used to describe the effects of salinity, pH, and temperature on phosphorus sorption. Phosphorus sorption generally increased with increasing salinity, pH, and temperature at lower ranges, while decreased in excess of some threshold values. The maximum phosphorus sorption capacity (Qmax) was larger for FW soils (256 mg/kg) compared with TW (218 mg/kg) and SW soils (235 mg/kg) (p < 0.05). The percentage of phosphorus desorption (Pdes) in the FW soils (7.5-63.5%) was much lower than those in TW (27.7-124.9%) and SW soils (19.2-108.5%). The initial soil organic matter, pH and the exchangeable Al, Fe and Cd contents were important factors influencing P sorption and desorption. The findings of this study indicate that freshwater restoration can contribute to controlling the eutrophication status of water bodies through increasing P sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Common Ions on Zn Sorption in Some Calcareous Soils of Western Iran



    Zinc (Zn) is essential to plant growth and relatively mobile in soils.This study was conducted to assess the effect of common ions (Ca2+,K+,Na+,NH4+,Cl-,NO3-,and H2PO4-) on sorption of Zn in surface samples of ten calcareous soils from western Iran using 10 mmol L-1 KCl,KNO3,KH2PO4,Ca(NO3)2,NaNO3,and NH4NO3 solutions as background electrolytes.The results indicated that both NH4+,K+,and Ca2+ equally decreased Zn sorption as compared to Na+.Zinc sorption was decreased by H2PO4- as compared to NO3- and Cl-.The Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted closely to the sorption data of all ions.The Langmuir maximum,bonding energy constant,and Freundlich distribution coefficient for Zn sorption differed among the various ionic background electrolytes.Langmuir sorption parameters showed that the presence of H2PO4- decreased the maximum Zn adsorbed,but increased the bonding energy.Although K+ and NH4+ equally influenced maximum Zn adsorbed,they differed in their effect on the distribution coefficient of Zn in soils.Values of saturation index calculated using Visual MINTEQ indicated that at the low Zn concentration,Zn solubility was controlled by sorption reactions and at the high Zn concentration,it was mainly controlled by sorption and mineral precipitation reactions,such as precipitation of Zn3 (PO4)2·4H2O,Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2,and ZnCO3.For most ionic background electrolytes,soil pH,CaCO3,and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly correlated with sorption parameters.

  17. Removal of basic (Methylene Blue) and acid (Egacid Orange) dyes from waters by sorption on chemically treated wood shavings.

    Janos, Pavel; Coskun, Sezen; Pilarová, Vera; Rejnek, Jaroslav


    Spruce wood shavings from Picea abies were used for an adsorptive removal of both basic as well as acid dyes from waters. The sorption properties of the sorbents were modified with HCl, Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)HPO(4). The treatment of the wood sorbents with alkaline carbonate solution as well as with phosphate solution increased the sorption ability for the basic dye (Methylene Blue), whereas the treatment with mineral acid decreased the sorption ability for Methylene Blue to some extent. The opposite is true for the sorption of the acid dye--Egacid Orange. The maximum sorption capacities estimated from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms ranged from 0.060 to 0.165 mmol g(-1) for Methylene Blue, and from 0.045 to 0.513 mmol g(-1) for Egacid Orange. The basic dye sorption decreased at low pH values in accordance with a presupposed ion-exchange mechanism of the sorption. The sorption of acid dye, on the other hand, decreased with increasing pH. The presence of inorganic salts as well as surfactants exhibited only minor effects on the dye sorption.

  18. Peculiarities of sorption isotherm and sorption chemisms of caesium by mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on hydrated titanium dioxide

    Voronina, A. V.; Semenishchev, V. S.; Nogovitsyna, E. V.; Betenekov, N. D.


    Sorption isotherm of caesium from tap water by mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on hydrated titanium dioxide is obtained for a wide range of concentrations of caesium. It is shown that there are three types of specificity to caesium sorption sites in this sorbent. Sorption chemisms of caesium are studied, factors conditioned high sorption capacity of the sorbent are revealed. It is shown that occupation of sorption sites I and II is well approximated by Langmuir equilibrium and this ...

  19. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl sorption isotherms for soot and coal

    Jantunen, A.P.K.; Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O. [University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Sorption isotherms (pg-ng/L) were measured for 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of varying molecular planarity from aqueous solution to two carbonaceous geosorbents, anthracite coal and traffic soot. All isotherms were reasonably log-log-linear, but smooth for traffic soot and staircase-shaped for coal, to which sorption was stronger and more nonlinear. The isotherms were modeled using seven sorption models, including Freundlich, (dual) Langmuir, and Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes (PDM). PDM provided the best combination of reliability and mechanistically-interpretable parameters. The PDM normalizing factor Z appeared to correlate negatively with sorbate molecular volume, dependent on the degree of molecular planarity. The modeling results supported the hypothesis that maximum adsorption capacities (Q{sub max}) correlate positively with the sorbent's specific surface area. Q{sub max} did not decrease with increasing sorbate molecular size, and adsorption affinities clearly differed between the sorbents. Sorption was consistently stronger but not less linear for planar than for nonplanar PCBs, suggesting surface rather than pore sorption.

  20. Oil sorption by lignocellulosic fibers

    Beom-Goo. Lee; James S. Han; Roger M. Rowell


    The oil sorption capacities of cotton fiber, kenaf bast fiber, kenaf core fiber, and moss fiber were compared after refining, extraction, and reduction in particle sizes. The tests were conducted on diesel oil in a pure form. Cotton fiber showed the highest capacity, followed by kenaf core and bast fibers. Wetting, extraction, and reduction in particle size all...

  1. Interaction of L-alanyl-L-valine and L-valyl-L-alanine with organic vapors: thermal stability of clathrates, sorption capacity and the change in the morphology of dipeptide films.

    Ziganshin, Marat A; Gubina, Nadezhda S; Gerasimov, Alexander V; Gorbatchuk, Valery V; Ziganshina, Sufia A; Chuklanov, Anton P; Bukharaev, Anastas A


    The strong effect of the amino acid sequence in L-alanyl-L-valine and L-valyl-L-alanine on their sorption properties toward organic compounds and water, and the thermal stability of the inclusion compounds of these dipeptides have been found. Generally, L-valyl-L-alanine has a greater sorption capacity for the studied compounds, but the thermal stability of the L-alanyl-L-valine clathrates is higher. Unusual selectivity of L-valyl-L-alanine for vapors of few chloroalkanes was observed. The correlation between the change in the surface morphology of thin film of dipeptides and stoichiometry of their clathrates with organic compounds was found. This discovery may be used to predict the influence of vapors on the morphology of films of short-chain oligopeptides.

  2. Sorption of basic and acid dyes from aqueous solutions onto oxihumolite.

    Janos, Pavel; Sedivý, Pavel; Rýznarová, Milena; Grötschelová, Sylvie


    Naturally occurring kind of weathered and oxidised young brown coal called oxihumolite was used for an adsorptive removal of basic (Methylene Blue, Malachite Green) as well as acid (Egacid Orange, Midlon Black) dyes from waters. It was shown that both kinds of dyes can be sorbed onto oxihumolite. The maximum sorption capacities determined from the parameters of Langmuir isotherms ranged from 0.070 mmol g-1 (for Midlon Black) to 0.278 mmol g-1 (for Malachite Green) and did not differ significantly for basic and acid dyes. The dye sorption (except of Midlon Black) increased in the presence of inorganic salt. Non-ionic surfactants, and surfactants bearing the same charge as the dye exhibited only a minor effect on the dye sorption, whereas oppositely charged surfactants enhanced the dye sorption to a certain extent. The pH value of the aqueous phase exhibited rather pronounced effect on the sorption of acid dyes causing a suppression of the sorption with increasing pH. The sorption of basic dyes, on the other hand, remained almost unchanged in the examined pH range. Oxihumolite is recommended for the treatment of acid wastewaters because of its limited stability in alkaline aqueous solutions.

  3. Alginate and Algal-Based Beads for the Sorption of Metal Cations: Cu(II) and Pb(II)

    Wang, Shengye; Vincent, Thierry; Faur, Catherine; Guibal, Eric


    Alginate and algal-biomass (Laminaria digitata) beads were prepared by homogeneous Ca ionotropic gelation. In addition, glutaraldehyde-crosslinked poly (ethyleneimine) (PEI) was incorporated into algal beads. The three sorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX): the sorption occurs in the whole mass of the sorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of pH, sorption isotherms, and uptake kinetics. A special attention was paid to the effect of drying (air-drying vs. freeze-drying) on the mass transfer properties. For alginate, freeze drying is required for maintaining the porosity of the hydrogel, while for algal-based sorbents the swelling of the material minimizes the impact of the drying procedure. The maximum sorption capacities observed from experiments were 415, 296 and 218 mg Pb g−1 and 112, 77 and 67 mg Cu g−1 for alginate, algal and algal/PEI beads respectively. Though the sorption capacities of algal-beads decreased slightly (compared to alginate beads), the greener and cheaper one-pot synthesis of algal beads makes this sorbent more competitive for environmental applications. PEI in algal beads decreases the sorption properties in the case of the sorption of metal cations under selected experimental conditions. PMID:27598128


    James D. McSweeny


    Full Text Available Milled southern pine wood was modified with sequential treatments of sodium periodate and sodium hypobromite for the purpose of improving copper ion (Cu2+ sorption capacity of the wood when tested in 24-h equilibrium batch tests. The modified wood provided additional carboxyl groups to those in the native wood and substantially increased Cu2+ uptake over that of unmodified wood. Sorption capacity (qe measured with an unbuffered standard solution increased to a maximum of 7.8 mg Cu2+ ion per gram of wood (treated from 3.1 mg Cu2+ ion/g wood (untreated. Samples tested were first sodium ion exchanged to keep the pH of the standard solution from declining during the sorption test. The treatment necessary for maximum qe was 3% (w/v periodate for 24 h and 0.8% (w/v bromine (as hypobromite for 24 h; both treatments were at room temperature. These conditions corresponded to the maximum periodate concentration and treatment times tested. To further evaluate the efficacy of modification treatments, weight change after each treatment was determined. Weight loss after the periodate stage for any concentration and time used was minor, indicating the selective nature of this reaction. However, most of the weight loss was incurred after hypobromite treatment. Weight loss corresponding to the greatest increase in sorption capacity was 12.6% total from the combined periodate and hypobromite stages. The increase of carboxylate functional groups in the wood was monitored using FTIR/ATR spectroscopy.


    Matthew D. Beekley


    Full Text Available Sumo wrestling is unique in combat sport, and in all of sport. We examined the maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers and compared them to untrained controls. We also compared "aerobic muscle quality", meaning VO2max normalized to predicted skeletal muscle mass (SMM (VO2max /SMM, between sumo wrestlers and controls and among previously published data for male athletes from combat, aerobic, and power sports. Sumo wrestlers, compared to untrained controls, had greater (p < 0.05 body mass (mean ± SD; 117.0 ± 4.9 vs. 56.1 ± 9.8 kg, percent fat (24.0 ± 1.4 vs. 13.3 ± 4.5, fat-free mass (88.9 ± 4.2 vs. 48.4 �� 6.8 kg, predicted SMM (48.2 ± 2.9 vs. 20.6 ± 4.7 kg and absolute VO2max (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.7 L·min-1. Mean VO2max /SMM (ml·kg SMM-1·min-1 was significantly different (p < 0.05 among aerobic athletes (164.8 ± 18.3, combat athletes (which was not different from untrained controls; 131.4 ± 9.3 and 128.6 ± 13.6, respectively, power athletes (96.5 ± 5.3, and sumo wrestlers (71.4 ± 5.3. There was a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.75 between percent body fat and VO2max /SMM (p < 0.05. We conclude that sumo wrestlers have some of the largest percent body fat and fat-free mass and the lowest "aerobic muscle quality" (VO2max /SMM, both in combat sport and compared to aerobic and power sport athletes. Additionally, it appears from analysis of the relationship between SMM and absolute VO2max for all sports that there is a "ceiling" at which increases in SMM do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max

  6. Sorption and desorption studies of a reactive azo dye on effective disposal of redundant material.

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Bozkurt, Hüseyin


    The effective disposal of redundant elephant dung (ED) is important for environmental protection and utilization of resource. The aim of this study was to remove a toxic-azo dye, Reactive Red (RR) 120, using this relatively cheap material as a new adsorbent. The FTIR-ATR spectra of ED powders before and after the sorption of RR 120 and zero point charge (pHzpc) of ED were determined. The sorption capacity of ED for removing of RR 120 were carried out as functions of particle size, adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, ionic strength, initial dye concentration, and contact time. Sorption isotherm, kinetic, activation energy, thermodynamic, and desorption parameters of RR 120 on ED were studied. The sorption process was found to be dependent on particle size, adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, ionic strength, initial dye concentration, and contact time. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy indicated that amine and amide groups have significant role on the sorption of RR 120 on ED. The pHzpc of ED was found to be 7.3. Sorption kinetic of RR 120 on ED was well described by sigmoidal Logistic model. The Langmuir isotherm was well fitted to the equilibrium data. The maximum sorption capacity was 95.71 mg g(-1). The sorption of RR 120 on ED was mainly physical and exothermic according to results of D-R isotherm, Arrhenius equation, thermodynamic, and desorption studies. The thermodynamic parameters showed that this process was feasible and spontaneous. This study showed that ED as a low-cost adsorbent had a great potential for the removal of RR 120 as an alternative eco-friendly process.

  7. The Survey of Sorption Ion-Exchange Properties of Paleozoic Natural Minerals in the Static Conditions

    Germanova, T. V.; Nefedov, V. A.; Valieva, I. R.


    An experimental and exploring process’ results of iron’s ion, manganese and ammonium sodium extraction from aqueous solution by some Ural’s natural minerals in a static regime at certain physicochemical conditions: by the zeolite, montmorillonite and vermiculite in the static conditions. Values of maximum sorption capacity are estimated on a gram of natural sorbents for the present conditions. Comparison of the survey’s results shows that effective sorptions from exploring natural minerals can be used as a clinoptilolite and zeolite-mineral montmorillonite type.

  8. Sorption isotherms and isosteric heats of sorption of Malaysian paddy.

    Mousa, Wael; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Jinap, S; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Radu, Son


    Understanding the water sorption characteristics of cereal is extremely essential for optimizing the drying process and ensuring storage stability. Water relation of rough rice was studied at 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C over relative humidity (RH.) between 0.113 and 0.976 using the gravimetric technique. The isotherms displayed the general sigmoid, Type II pattern and exhibited the phenomenon of hysteresis where it was more pronounced at lower temperatures. The sorption characteristics were temperature dependence where the sorption capacity of the paddy increased as the temperature was decreased at fixed (RH). Among the models assessed for their ability to fit the sorption data, Oswin equation was the best followed by the third order polynomial, GAB, Smith, Chung-Pfost, and Henderson models. The monolayer moisture content was higher for desorption than adsorption and tend to decrease with the increase in temperature. Given the temperature dependence of the sorption isotherms the isosteric heats of sorption were calculated using Claussius-Clapeyron equation. The net isosteric heats decreased as the moisture content was increased and heats of desorption were greater than that of adsorption.

  9. Nitrate Sorption in an Agricultural Soil Profile

    Wissem Hamdi


    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of in surface water and groundwater can cause ecological and public health effects and has come under increased scrutiny by both environmental scientists and regulatory agencies. For many regions though, including the Sahel of Tunisia, little is known about the sorption capacity of soils. In this project we measured sorption by a profile of an iso-humic soil from Chott Meriem, Tunisia. Soil samples were collected from four soil depths (0–25, 25–60, 60–90, and 90–120 cm on 1 June 2011, and their sorption capacity was determined using batch experiments under laboratory conditions. The effects of contact time, the initial concentration, and the soil-solution ratio on sorption were investigated. In general, the results suggested that was weakly retained by the Chott Meriem soil profile. The quantity of sorption increased with depth, contact time, initial concentration, and soil-solution ratios. To evaluate the sorption capacities of the soil samples at concentrations ranging between 25 and 150 mg L−1 experimental data were fitted to both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm sorption models. The results indicated that Freundlich model was better for describing sorption in this soil profile.

  10. Characterization of sorption compressor for mixed refrigerant J-T cryocooler

    Mehta, Rohitkumar; Bapat, Shridhar; Atrey, Milind


    The requirement of a cryocooler with minimum vibrations for space borne system and highly sophisticated electronic devices for ground application, has led to the development of sorption compressor type J-T cryocooler. The adsorption capacity of any adsorbent material increases with an increase in pressure and decreases with an increase in temperature. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed in a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed which results in increase in pressure of gas. A uniform temperature across the sorption bed ensures maximum discharge from the compressor amounting to higher flow rates and longer cycle time on account of reduced residual loading. In addition, it is also very important to determine the adsorption capacity of any material with respect to the gas or gases to be adsorbed as this varies with source of the adsorbent. The present work reports the characterization of a fully operational two-cell sorption compressor developed. The sorption compressor is characterized for discharge pressure variation with cycle time; this is essentially a function of a) the amount of adsorbent, b) the adsorption capacity for respective gas or gases, c) desorption temperature and its uniformity, and d) system dead volume. The present paper analyses these aspects theoretically and the results are compared with the experimental data obtained for individual gases as well as for gas mixtures. The effect of gas distribution on temperature uniformity across the bed and of heater power on high pressure generated is also studied. The paper also discusses the pressure profile obtained for a given amount of adsorbent for different gas or gas mixture. The work, based on the results obtained so far is being further extended for a four cell sorption compressor.

  11. Sorption and desorption of silver ions by bentonite clays.

    Constantino, Leonel Vinicius; Quirino, Juliana Nunes; Monteiro, Alessandra Maffei; Abrão, Taufik; Parreira, Paulo Sérgio; Urbano, Alexandre; Santos, Maria Josefa


    Anthropogenic activities have increased the concentration of metal species in the environment. The toxicity of silver ions to aquatic and terrestrial organisms has required monitoring by analytical methods, besides actions to promote its control as pollutant. Sorption and desorption processes are directly related to the mobility and availability of metal ions in the environment. In this context, clay minerals can be used for pre-concentration, removal and recovery of silver ions from aqueous solution. Herein, two bentonite clays (BaVC-1 and SWy-2) were characterised and applied to investigate the sorption and desorption of silver ions. Isotherms were fitted to the dual-mode Langmuir-Freundlich model to qualify and quantify sorption sites and evaluate the mobilisation process. The maximum sorption capacity was 743 and 849 meq kg(-1) for BaVC-1 and SWy-2, respectively. Hysteresis index (HI) and mobilisation factor (MF) suggest that the desorption of silver ions in BaVC-1 is about four times more conducive compared to that in SWy-2, although both materials have demonstrated a great potential for Ag(+) pre-concentration from aqueous solutions.

  12. Sorption of triclosan on electrospun fibrous membranes: Effects of pH and dissolved organic matter

    Jiangjie Xu


    Full Text Available Three hydrophobic and polyporous electrospun fibrous membranes (EFMs were prepared by electrospinning methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(lactide-co-glycolide (MPEG-PLGA, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and poly(d,l-lactide (PDLLA. The effects of pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM on triclosan (TCS sorption by EFMs in aqueous solution were investigated. The results indicated that hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and π–π bonding interactions led to fast adsorption, which governed the adsorption rates of TCS onto EFMs. The maximum sorption capacities of MPEG-PLGA, PLGA and PDLLA reached 130, 93 and 99 mg g−1, respectively, which were in positive correlation with their pore volumes and influenced by pore filling processes. The solution pH could significantly influence the TCS sorption by EFMs. In acid condition, protonated TCS facilitated their sorption onto EFMs. No obvious sorption was observed in alkaline condition due to repulsive forces between negatively charged EFMs and deprotonated TCS (pKa = 7.9. The presence of DOM inhibited TCS sorption onto EFMs due to competitive adsorption. The results could be due to the occupation of the adsorption sites and the blockage of the pore entrance by DOM.

  13. Thermodynamics of cationic surfactant sorption onto natural clinoptilolite

    Sullivan, E.J.; Bowman, R.S. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Carey, J.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Sorption enthalpies of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) as monomers and micelles and tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA) were used with surfactant, counterion, and co-ion sorption isotherms to infer the conformation, sorption mechanism, and relative stability of the sorbed surfactants on natural clinoptilolite. The average value of the sorption enthalpy was {minus}10.38 kJ/mol for monomers, {minus}11.98 kJ/mol for micelles, and +3.03 kJ/mol for TEA. Sorption of monomers produced a lower sorption plateau than equivalent micelle sorption (maxima 145 mmol/kg, 225 mmol/kg). Analysis of the sorption data demonstrated a change in the sorption mechanism at the external cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of clinoptilolite. Sorption data from below and above the ECEC were fit to a simple polynomial model and the Gibbs free energy of sorption ({Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0}) and sorption entropies were calculated. Resultant values of {Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0} were {minus}9.27 and {minus}14.38 kJ/mol for HDTMA monomers and micelles, respectively, for sorption below the ECEC, and {minus}16.11 and {minus}23.10 kJ/mol, respectively, for sorption above the ECEC. The value for TEA was {minus}1.04 kJ/mol, indicating weaker sorption than for HDTMA. Monomer sorption to clinoptilolite exceeded the ECEC, even when the solution concentration was below the critical micelle concentration. Hydrophobic (tail-tail) components of {Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0} were the driving force for sorption of HDTMA, both below and above the ECEC. A significant kinetic effect was observed in the sorption isotherms with a period of rapid sorption followed by slow equilibration requiring 7 days to achieve steady state for HDTMA; TEA equilibration occurred within 24 h.

  14. Impacts of soil organic matter, pH and exogenous copper on sorption behavior of norfloxacin in three soils

    ZHANG Jie; LI Zhaojun; GE Gaofei; SUN Wanchun; LIANG Yongchao; WU Laosheng


    Norfloxacin (Nor) sorption and the factors (soil organic matter (SOM), pH, and exogenous copper (Cu) influencing the sorption were investigated in a black soil (soil B), a fluvo-aquic soil (soil F), and a red soil (soil R). With increasing of Nor concentrations, sorption amount of norfloxacin increased in both the bulk soils and their SOM-removed soils, but the sorption capacity in SOM-removed soils was higher than that of their corresponding bulk soils, indicating that the process of norfloxacin sorption in soil was influenced by the soil properties including SOM. The sorption data in all bulk soils and SOM-removed soils were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir models. The correlation coefficients suggested that the experimental data fitted better to Freundlich equation than to Langmuir equation. Furthermore, the data from soil F and SOM-removed F could not be described by Langmuir equation. The norfloxacin sorption amount decreased in soil B and soil F, whereas it increased in soil R as solution pH increased. The maximum KD and KOC were achieved in soil R when the equilibrium solution pH was 6. And the norfloxacin sorption was also influenced by the exogenous Cu2+ ions, which depended on the soil types and Cu2+ concentrations. With increasing of Cu2+ concentrations in solution, generally, sorption amount, KD and KOC for norfloxacin in soils increased and were up to a peak at 100 mg/L Cu2+, and then the sorption amount decreased regardless of norfloxacin levels.

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for sorption of Ni (II from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves

    Jasmin Shah


    Full Text Available The sorption characteristic of Ni (II from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves as a low cost sorbent has been studied. The effect of pH, contact time, sorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. The equilibrium data were fitted into four most common isotherm models; Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R. The Langmuir model described the sorption isotherm best with maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 120.50 mg g−1. Four kinetic models, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich were employed to explain the sorption mechanism. The kinetics of sorption data showed that the pseudo-second-order model is the best with correlation coefficient of 0.9946. The spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption process was revealed from thermodynamic investigations. The effect of some common alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were also studied which showed that the presence of these ions have no effect on the sorption of Ni (II. The results showed that waste tea leaves have the potential to be used as a low cost sorbent for the removal of Ni (II from aqueous solutions.

  16. Functionalized macroporous copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate: The type of ligand and porosity parameters influence on Cu(II ion sorption from aqueous solutions

    Sandić Zvjezdana P.


    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metals from hydro-metallurgical and other industries' wastewaters, their safe storage and possible recovery from waste- water streams is one of the greater ecological problems of modern society. Conventional methods, like precipitation, adsorption and biosorption, electrowinning, membrane separation, solvent extraction and ion exchange are often ineffective, expensive and can generate secondary pollution. On the other hand, chelating polymers, consisting of crosslinked copolymers as a solid support and functional group (ligand, are capable of selectively loading different metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the relatively simple process, the chelating copolymer is contacted with the contaminated solution, loaded with metal ions, and stripped with the appropriate eluent. Important properties of chelating polymers are high capacity, high selectivity and fast kinetics combined with mechanical stability and chemical inertness. Macroporous hydrophilic copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified by different amines show outstanding efficiency and selectivity for the sorption of precious and heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this study poly(GMA-co-EGDMA copolymers were synthesized with different porosity parameters and functionalized in reactions with ethylene diamine (EDA, diethylene triamine (DETA and triethylene tetramine (TETA. Under non-competitive conditions, in batch experiments at room temperature, the rate of sorption of Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions and the influence of pH on it was determined for four samples of amino-functionalized poly(GMA-co-EGDMA. The sorption of Cu(II for both amino-functionalized samples was found to be very rapid. The sorption half time, t1/2, defined as the time required to reach 50% of the total sorption capacity, was between 1 and 2 min. The maximum sorption capacity for copper (2.80 mmol/g was obtained on SGE-10/12-deta sample. The sorption

  17. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: important role of micropore-filling.

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong


    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (Vo,d) initially increase and then decrease. The Vo,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The Vo,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23-46% and 36-65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling.

  18. Synthesis of Nano-sized Boehmites for Optimum Phosphate Sorption

    Watanabe, Yujiro; Kasama, Takeshi; Fukushi, Keisuke;


    Nano-sized boehmites with different crystallinity were synthesized at the temperature range of 25 to 200°C in order to produce phosphate absorbents with high capacity. The physicochemical property of boehmites was depended on the synthesis temperature: the particle size was increased and the surf......Nano-sized boehmites with different crystallinity were synthesized at the temperature range of 25 to 200°C in order to produce phosphate absorbents with high capacity. The physicochemical property of boehmites was depended on the synthesis temperature: the particle size was increased...... and the surface area showed the maximum for the boehmite at 50°C. The phosphate sorptions into boehmites were analyzed at room temperature in the phosphoric acid solutions as a model of wastewater at the concentration of 0.1 to 3.0 mmol l-1 and the pH of 3 to 7. The boehmite synthesized at 50°C exhibited...... the highest amount of phosphate sorption (1.73 mmol g-1 at pH 3.3) compared with Al-bearing materials. The reaction mechanism during phosphate sorption was described by the anion exchange reaction between phosphate ions in sodium phosphate solution and hydroxide ions on boehmite surfaces. Therefore...

  19. Kinetics, mechanistic and thermodynamics of Zn(II) ion sorption: a modeling approach

    Mishra, Vishal; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Agarwal, Vijay Kumar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)


    Biosorption potential of Cedrus deodara sawdust (CDS) in terms of sorption of Zn(II) ion across liquid phase has been evaluated in the present investigation. The surface of the CDS biomass before the sorption of Zn(II) ions seemed to be more porous, non-crystalline and heterogeneous. The maximum uptake capacity of CDS was 97.39 mg g{sup -1}. Sorption of Zn(II) ion on the surface of CDS sawdust was maximum at pH 5, temperature 45 C, initial concentration of Zn(II) ion 100 mg L{sup -1}, biomass dose 1 g L{sup -1}, contact time 150 min, and agitation rate 160 rpm. Pseudo second-order kinetics with the highest linear regression coefficient (R{sup 2} = 0.99), and lowest values of error functions, i.e., chi ({chi}{sup 2}) and sum of square errors (SSE) against pseudo first-order rate kinetics showed that the sorption of Zn(II) ion on the surface of CDS was mediated by chemosorptive forces of attraction rather than physical adsorption. Mechanistically, relatively higher proportion of sorption of Zn(II) ion in early phase of contact time was profoundly explained by Bangham's equation and film diffusivity (D{sup f}). Intraparticle or pore diffusion (D{sub p}) of Zn(II) ion inside the pores of CDS was rate limiting step at the later stage of contact time. Furthermore, the thermodynamic study on sorption of metal ion delineated the fact that the Zn(II) sorption on the surface of CDS was spontaneous, endothermic together with increased entropy at solid liquid interface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Tungstate and Carbonate Ions Sorption Using Anion Exchangers AV-17-8 and Purolite A400

    Chegrintsev S.


    Full Text Available The current paper shows the results of tungstate and carbonate ion sorption using strongly basic anion exchangers AV-17-8 and Purolite A400. It has been established that anion exchanger AV-17-8 in the chloride form with parameters of 168 g of tungstate ion and 157 g of carbonate ion per 1 kg of anion exchanger has the maximum capacity for the tungstate and carbonate ions.

  1. A bottom-up approach to identifying the maximum operational adaptive capacity of water resource systems to a changing climate

    Culley, S.; Noble, S.; Yates, A.; Timbs, M.; Westra, S.; Maier, H. R.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.


    Many water resource systems have been designed assuming that the statistical characteristics of future inflows are similar to those of the historical record. This assumption is no longer valid due to large-scale changes in the global climate, potentially causing declines in water resource system performance, or even complete system failure. Upgrading system infrastructure to cope with climate change can require substantial financial outlay, so it might be preferable to optimize existing system performance when possible. This paper builds on decision scaling theory by proposing a bottom-up approach to designing optimal feedback control policies for a water system exposed to a changing climate. This approach not only describes optimal operational policies for a range of potential climatic changes but also enables an assessment of a system's upper limit of its operational adaptive capacity, beyond which upgrades to infrastructure become unavoidable. The approach is illustrated using the Lake Como system in Northern Italy—a regulated system with a complex relationship between climate and system performance. By optimizing system operation under different hydrometeorological states, it is shown that the system can continue to meet its minimum performance requirements for more than three times as many states as it can under current operations. Importantly, a single management policy, no matter how robust, cannot fully utilize existing infrastructure as effectively as an ensemble of flexible management policies that are updated as the climate changes.

  2. Sorption behavior of U(VI), 234U(VI) and 238U(VI) onto fracture-filling clays in Beishan granite, Gansu: Application to selecting the site of high-level radwaste repository in China

    MIN; Maozhong; LUO; Xingzhang; WANG; Ju; JIN; Yuanxin; WAN


    The first results of sorption experiments of U(VI), 234U(VI) and 238U(VI) onto original (unpurified) fracture-filling clays from No.1 monzonitic granite intrusion, Beishan area, Gansu Province, China are reported. The monzonitic granite intrusion is a potential location for a high-level radwaste (HLW) repository in China. The present experimental results show that the maximum U(VI) sorption reached 92% at near-neutral Ph and the distribution coefficient (Kd) was 1226 Ml/g. A high sorption capacity of the fracture-filling clays in host rock on radioactive elements is necessary for HLW deep geological disposal repository. No preferential sorption of 234U onto the clays was found. Finally, the sorption of U(VI) onto the clays was also modeled using a surface complexation model.

  3. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)


    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.


    王湘明; 高杨; 刘丽钧


    In recent years, with the increasing development and application of wind power technology, the proportion of the wind power in power system has grown up, consequently the connecting wind power had impacted much on power system. In this paper, it studies of variable speed constant frequency doubly fed wind turbine, separately join 3-kind-turbine wind farms to IEEE-14. A method combined of steady and transient state has been used to analyse the maximum capacity of power systems, and ensure the wind farm capacity maintained the system stability. Simulation results show that the number of the turbines connecting to the system will be proportional to the its power, thus determine the maximum capacity of the wind farm. The method is used to determine the largest wind farm connecting to power system capacity, thus can guarantee its own wind farm and the system stability.%以变速恒频双馈风电机组为研究对象,对IEEE-14系统分别加入3种不同功率的风力发电机组成的风电场,采用稳态和暂态相结合的方法对最大装机容量进行分析,确定能使系统保持稳定的风电场容量.仿真计算结果表明,不同功率的风机并入系统中的台数与其功率有一定的比例关系,从而确定了风电场的最大容量.利用该方法确定的风电场接入电力系统最大容量,可保证风电场自身及系统运行的稳定性.

  5. Liposomal solubilization of new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity: a screening method to identify maximum incorporation capacity

    Di Cagno, Massimiliano; Styskala, Jakub; Hlaváč, Jan


    Four new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity could be solubilized using liposomes as vehicle to an extent that allows their in vitro and in vivo testing without use of toxic solvent(s). A screening method to identify the maximum incorporation capacity of hydrophobic...... drugs within liposomes was successfully applied. The compounds and lipid(s) were dissolved in methanol, and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation. The film was resuspended with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the dispersion was sonicated to reduce vesicle size. Ultracentrifugation was used...

  6. Competitive sorption of CO2 and CH4 on coals as a function of maturity and moisture content

    Merkel, Alexej; Gensterblum, Yves; Kroos, Bernhard; Littke, Ralf


    The competitive sorption of CH4 and CO2 from a two-component gas mixture on coals of different rank and moisture content has been studied at pressures up to 10 MPa. The aim of this study was to assess, the maximum sorption capacity as well as the selectivity of dry and moisturised coals of different rank with respect to sorption of CH4and CO2. The research addresses possible implications on Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) recovery projects, where CO2is to be injected into coal seams to increase CH4production rates. The measurements were conducted using a manometric setup with continuous pressure and temperature recording and periodic analysis of gas compositions in the reference cell and the measuring cell throughout the duration of the experiment. Isotherms were determined with a gas mixture containing 70-80% CH4. Three isotherms were measured at three different moisture states for each of the three coal samples of different rank. A significant decrease of total excess sorption capacity was observed with increasing moisture content from the dry sample to the sample moisturised at 53% relative humidity (RH). The initial reduction of sorption capacity decreases with rank. Only a small further decrease occurred from 53% to the 97% RH moisturised coals. The effect of moisture on sorption capacity and selectivity is highly rank-dependent. In all cases the results show a preferential sorption of CO2from a binary CH4/CO2gas mixture at all three moisture states. Sorption capacity increases with rank for all but the dry state and in all cases the sample with the highest maturity shows the highest sorption capacity by far. Selectivity for CO2 decreases with increasing rank of the coal. The results of this study support that from the thermodynamic point of view coals have a tendency to selectively take up CO2under the conditions of ECBM recovery. The selectivity coefficients are important parameters for ECBM modelling and the design of production strategies.

  7. Sorption of Acid Dyes onto Silica Modified with Cetrltrimethylammonium Cations

    TahirImranQureshi; Dong-IkSong; 等


    The sorption behavior of acid dyes onto cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified silica as a function of pH in the aqueous medium was studied. Single-and multi-solute sorption equilibria of orange Ⅱ(OR), phenol red (PR) and Eriochrome Black T (EBT) were studied at pH 3, unbuffered water pH and pH 11. Sorption behavior of EBT could not be conducted at pH3 due to its aggregation in acidic medium. All the reaction conditions, experimental protocols and techniques remained the same throughout the sorption process. Sorption isotherms for single-solute system were fitted by the Langmuir model, while Langmuir competitive model (LCM) and the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) coupled with Langmuir model (IAST/Langmuir) were used for the prediction of multisolute competitive sorption. Sorption affinities influenced by the factors like physical interactive forces between the molecules of CTA on silica and sorbate, structural limitations of the dyes based on their geometrical arrangement were investigated. Sorption affinity of OR was found to be higher than that of EBT and PR at all the pH values investigated. Magnitude of the sorption capacities was observed to be higher in acidic medium but lower in alkaline medium. Trends of the sorption affinities in multisolute system were simlar to those in single-solute system but magnitude of the sorption capacities was significantly reduced due to the prevailing competition among the sorbates.

  8. Optimization of isotherm models for pesticide sorption on biopolymer-nanoclay composite by error analysis.

    Narayanan, Neethu; Gupta, Suman; Gajbhiye, V T; Manjaiah, K M


    A carboxy methyl cellulose-nano organoclay (nano montmorillonite modified with 35-45 wt % dimethyl dialkyl (C14-C18) amine (DMDA)) composite was prepared by solution intercalation method. The prepared composite was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composite was utilized for its pesticide sorption efficiency for atrazine, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. The sorption data was fitted into Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms using linear and non linear methods. The linear regression method suggested best fitting of sorption data into Type II Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. In order to avoid the bias resulting from linearization, seven different error parameters were also analyzed by non linear regression method. The non linear error analysis suggested that the sorption data fitted well into Langmuir model rather than in Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity, Q0 (μg/g) was given by imidacloprid (2000) followed by thiamethoxam (1667) and atrazine (1429). The study suggests that the degree of determination of linear regression alone cannot be used for comparing the best fitting of Langmuir and Freundlich models and non-linear error analysis needs to be done to avoid inaccurate results.

  9. Modification of granular activated carbon surface by chitosan coating for geosmin removal: sorption performances.

    Vinitnantharat, S; Rattanasirisophon, W; Ishibashi, Y


    This study presents the results of the sorption performances for geosmin removal by sorption onto granular activated carbons (GAC) manufactured from different raw materials of coconut shell and bituminous coal. The surface of GAC was modified by chitosan coating. The 90% deacetylated chitosan flakes were used for coating on GAC with the GAC: chitosan ratio of 5:1. The surface of GAC was characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and measurement of the pH solution of GAC samples. The sorption of geosmin onto the chitosan for both uncoated and coated GACs could be described by the Freundlich adsorption model. Data revealed that the sequence of Freundlich constant (K(F)) was chitosan coated bitominous coal (CB) > uncoated bituminous coal (UB) > chitos approximately equal to an coated coconut shell (CC) approximately equal to uncoated coconut shell (UC). The bituminous coal based GAC with chitosan coating had a maximum capacity of 23.57 microg/g which was approximately two-fold of uncoated bituminous coal based GAC. Two simplified kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order, were tested to investigate the sorption mechanisms. It was found that the intraparticle diffusion was a rate controlling step for the sorption and followed the pseudo-second order equation.

  10. Sorption of Pyrene by Clay Minerals Coated with Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM from Landfill Leachate

    Pingxiao Wu


    Full Text Available Interactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM from landfill leachate with clays could affect significantly the fate of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs in soils. The complexes of montmorillonite (MT and kaolinite (KL with DOM extracted from landfill leachate were prepared under controlled conditions, termed CMT and CKL, respectively. The bare clays and their complexes were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetry (TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Batch experiments were designed to investigate the sorption behavior of pyrene onto the clays in the presence of DOM. The maximum sorption capacities of pyrene on MT, CMT, KL, and CKL were 22.18, 38.96, 42.00, and 44.99 μg·g−1, respectively, at the initial concentration of 1000 ± 150 μg·L−1. The sorption isotherms of pyrene by the bare clays followed the Henry model well, whereas the Freundlich sorption isotherm provided a better fit to the equilibrium data of the sorption by the complexes. The role of montmorillonite and kaolinite complexes with DOM in the retention of pyrene in soils was different. This may be due to the different crystal structures between montmorillonite and kaolinite.

  11. Maximum acceptable weight of lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a functional capacity evaluation test using free style, stoop and squat lifting.

    Kuijer, P P F M; van Oostrom, S H; Duijzer, K; van Dieën, J H


    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques--free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level--using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic parameters increased with the load mass lifted, and whether the magnitudes of the kinetic parameters were consistent across techniques when lifting MAWL. MAWL was significantly different between techniques (p = 0.03). The peak lumbosacral extension moment met both criteria: it had the highest association with the load masses lifted (r > 0.9) and was most consistent between the three techniques when lifting MAWL (ICC = 0.87). In conclusion, MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. Tests of maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) from knee to waist height are used to assess work capacity of individuals with low-back disorders. This article shows that the MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. This suggests that standardisation of lifting technique used in tests of the MAWL would be indicated if the aim is to assess the capacity of the low back.


    Md Jelas Haron


    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation of chemically modified oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB with hydroxamic acid functional group and its use for the sorption of Cu(II from aqueous solution. OPEFB was grafted with poly(methylacrylate (PMA, using H2O2/Fe2+ as initiator. The PMA grafted OPEFB (PMA-OPEFB was treated with hydroxylammonium chloride in alkaline medium to produce hydroxamic acid grafted fiber (PHA-OPEFB. The FTIR spectrum of OPEFB grafted with PMA showed an intense absorption band at 1734 cm-1 which is attributed to C=O vibration in the grafted ester. After hydroxylamine treatment, the intensity of absorption band at 1734 cm-1 decreased and new bands appeared at the 1640 cm-1 related to C=O vibration in hydroxamic acid and at the 1568 cm-1 related to the N-H amide. Sorption of Cu(II by PHA-OPEFB was effective over a pH range of 4 to 6. The sorption followed the Langmuir model with maximum capacities of 74.1 mg g-1 at 25 °C. The sorption process was exothermic, as shown by the negative value of enthalpy change, H. The free energy change (G for the sorption was negative, showing that the sorption process was spontaneous. A kinetic study showed that the Cu(II sorption followed a second order kinetic model.

  13. Enhanced fluoride sorption by mechanochemically activated kaolinites.

    Meenakshi, S; Sundaram, C Sairam; Sukumar, Rugmini


    Kaolinite clay obtained from the mines was processed and studied for its fluoride sorption capacity. The surface area of the clay mineral was increased from 15.11 m(2)/g (raw) to 32.43 m(2)/g (activated) by mechanochemical activation. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to optimize various equilibrating conditions like the effect of contact time, dosage, pH for both raw and micronized kaolinites (RK and MK). The effect of other interfering anions on the defluoridation capacity (DC) of the sorbents was studied. Sorption of fluoride by the sorbents was observed over a wide pH range of 3-11. The studies revealed there is an enhanced fluoride sorption on MK. FTIR and XRD were used for the characterization of the sorbent. The surface morphology of the clay material was observed using SEM. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at three different temperatures, viz., 303, 313 and 323 K. The sorption data obtained at optimized conditions were subjected to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Sorption intensity (1/n) (0.770-0.810) has been evaluated using Freundlich isotherm, whereas the values of sorption capacity Q(0) (0.609, 0.714 and 0.782 mg/g) and binding energy b (0.158, 0.145 and 0.133 L/mg) at three different temperatures have been estimated using Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption process was found to be controlled by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption of fluoride on MK is endothermic and a spontaneous process. The kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of fluoride on MK follows pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion models.

  14. Enhanced fluoride sorption by mechanochemically activated kaolinites

    Meenakshi, S. [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail:; Sundaram, C. Sairam [Department of Science and Humanities, Karaikal Polytechnic College, Karaikal 609609, Puducherry (India); Sukumar, Rugmini [Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Regional Research Laboratory, Trivandrum 695019, Kerala (India)


    Kaolinite clay obtained from the mines was processed and studied for its fluoride sorption capacity. The surface area of the clay mineral was increased from 15.11 m{sup 2}/g (raw) to 32.43 m{sup 2}/g (activated) by mechanochemical activation. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to optimize various equilibrating conditions like the effect of contact time, dosage, pH for both raw and micronized kaolinites (RK and MK). The effect of other interfering anions on the defluoridation capacity (DC) of the sorbents was studied. Sorption of fluoride by the sorbents was observed over a wide pH range of 3-11. The studies revealed there is an enhanced fluoride sorption on MK. FTIR and XRD were used for the characterization of the sorbent. The surface morphology of the clay material was observed using SEM. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at three different temperatures, viz., 303, 313 and 323 K. The sorption data obtained at optimized conditions were subjected to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Sorption intensity (1/n) (0.770-0.810) has been evaluated using Freundlich isotherm, whereas the values of sorption capacity Q{sup 0} (0.609, 0.714 and 0.782 mg/g) and binding energy b (0.158, 0.145 and 0.133 L/mg) at three different temperatures have been estimated using Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption process was found to be controlled by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption of fluoride on MK is endothermic and a spontaneous process. The kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of fluoride on MK follows pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion models.

  15. Removal of dissolved organic carbon by aquifer material: Correlations between column parameters, sorption isotherms and octanol-water partition coefficient.

    Pradhan, Snigdhendubala; Boernick, Hilmar; Kumar, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Indu


    The correlation between octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and the transport of aqueous samples containing single organic compound is well documented. The concept of the KOW of river water containing the mixture of organics was evolved by Pradhan et al. (2015). The present study aims at determining the KOW and sorption parameters of synthetic aqueous samples and river water to finding out the correlation, if any. The laboratory scale columns packed with aquifer materials were fed with synthetic and river water samples. Under the operating conditions, the compounds in the samples did not separate, and all the samples that contain more than one organic compound yielded a single breakthrough curve. Breakthrough curves simulated from sorption isotherms were compared with those from the column runs. The sorption parameters such as retardation factor (Rf), height of mass transfer zone (HMTZ), rate of mass transfer zone (RMTZ), breakpoint column capacity (qb) and maximum column capacity (qx) estimated from column runs, sorption isotherms and models developed by Yoon-Nelson, Bohart-Adam and Thomas were in agreement. The empirical correlations were found between the KOW and sorption parameters. The transport of the organics measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through the aquifer can be predicted from the KOW of the river water and other water samples. The novelty of the study is to measure KOW and to envisage the fate of the DOC of the river water, particularly during riverbank filtration. Statistical analysis of the results revealed a fair agreement between the observed and computed values.

  16. Efficient sorption and reduction of U(VI) on zero-valent iron-polyaniline-graphene aerogel ternary composite.

    Chen, Lili; Feng, Shaojie; Zhao, Donglin; Chen, Shaohua; Li, Feifei; Chen, Changlun


    In this work, zero-valent iron-polyaniline-graphene aerogel composite (Fe-PANI-GA) was prepared and applied in the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solutions by batch sorption experiments. The experimental results showed that the Fe-PANI-GA composite had an excellent removal capacity for the removal of U(VI) in acidic solutions. The results also showed that the maximum removal capacity of the Fe-PANI-GA toward U(VI) was 350.47mg/g at pH 5.5. The sorption kinetics data were well-described by pseudo-second-order. The sorption isotherms of U(VI) fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and exhibited better removal efficiency with the increase of temperature. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔS, ΔH) indicated that the sorption of U(VI) on the Fe-PANI-GA was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Moreover, removal mechanisms were studied based on the results of XRD, FTIR and XPS. Both U(VI) sorption and partially reductive precipitation of U(VI) to U(IV) contributed to the removal of U(VI) on Fe-PANI-GA. Therefore, Fe-PANI-GA was an economic and effective material for the removal of uranium from nuclear waste in practical application.

  17. Water sorption properties of HM-pectin and liposomes intended to alleviate dry mouth.

    Adamczak, Małgorzata I; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne


    Pharmaceutical formulations intended for treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth) should be able to keep the oral mucosa hydrated for a prolonged period of time. The products already existing on the market contain water-soluble polymers, however their ability to moisturize the oral mucosa for a longer period of time seems limited. In this paper the sorption properties of water vapor of high-methoxylated pectin (HM-pectin, a hydrophilic biopolymer) and phosphatidylcholine-based (Soya-PC) liposomes have been studied and compared using a gravimetric method. The kinetics of water desorption and sorption have been recorded over the relative humidity range RH=95-0-95%, at 35°C. The obtained isotherms were found to be well described by the n-layer Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption model. The water isotherms on HM-pectin were Type II (IUPAC), while water isotherms on liposomes were Type III. The maximum water sorption capacity of liposomes (1.2mg water per mg of adsorbent at 95% RH) was found to be twice as high as for pectin. Due to the slower water release from the liposomes, as well as their high water sorption capacity, they seem to have great potential in relieving the symptoms of dry mouth syndrome.

  18. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  19. Teor e capacidade máxima de adsorção de arsênio em Latossolos brasileiros Content and maximum capacity of arsenic adsorption in Brazilian Oxisols

    Mari Lucia Campos


    Full Text Available A alta toxicidade do As aos animais e humanos e a possibilidade de existência de grande número de áreas contaminadas tornam imprescindível o conhecimento do teor semitotal em solos ditos não-contaminados e dos processos de adsorção do As em solos de carga variável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor e a capacidade máxima de adsorção de As (CMADS AS em Latossolos. O teor total foi determinado pelo método USEPA 3051A, e a CMADS As, com auxílio de isotermas de Langmuir com base nos valores de adsorção obtidos em dose de As (0, 90, 190, 380, 760 e 1.150 µmol L-1 (relação solo:solução final = 1:100, a pH 5,5 e força iônica de 15 mmol L-1. Os 17 Latossolos apresentaram teor médio total de As de 5,92 mg kg-1 e CMADS As média de 2.013 mg kg-1. O teor de argila e os óxidos de Fe e Al apresentaram influência positiva na CMADS As.In view of the toxicity of As for man and animals and the possibility of existence of a great number of contaminated areas it is imperative to know the total As content in soils considered uncontaminated and about As sorption processes in soils of variable charge. The objective of this work was to determine the total content and maximum capacity of As adsorption (CMADS As in Oxisols. The total content was determined by the USEPA 3051A method. The cmADS As was determined by the Langmuir Isotherms using six solution concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.76, 1.15 mmol L-1 (1:100 soil: solution ratio, pH values 5.5 and ionic strength 15 mmol L-1. In the 17 Oxisols the average total As content was 5.92 mg kg-1 and mean cmADS As was 2.013 mg kg-1. Clay, and Fe and Al oxides content influenced cmADSs positively.

  20. Determination of lead(II) sorption capacity of hazelnut shell and activated carbon obtained from hazelnut shell activated with ZnCl2.

    Şencan, Aziz; Karaboyacı, Mustafa; Kılıç, Mehmet


    This study aimed to determine the Pb(+2) adsorption capacities of hazelnut shell and activated carbon obtained from hazelnut shell. It also aimed to determine the effect of ZnCl2 in the activation process. The hazelnut was pyrolyzed at 250 and 700 °C. For determining the capture speed of the adsorbents, the pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic studies were performed. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to determine adsorption equilibrium. The surface characterization of hazelnut shell and activated carbon was determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and FTIR spectrum. Pb(+2) adsorption capacity of obtaining activated carbon was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The raw hazelnut shell's BET surface area is 5.92 m(2)/g and the surface area of activated carbons which is pyrolyzed at 250 and 700 °C were determined (270.2 and 686.7 m(2)/g, respectively. The surface area of hazelnut shell, which pyrolyzed at 700 °C after being activated with ZnCl2, was determined to be 736.49 m(2)/g. Results show that physical adsorption process is dominant for the activated carbon pyrolysis at 700 °C but the chemical adsorption is dominant for the activated carbon pyrolysis at lower degrees and for raw hazelnut shell.

  1. Effects of Citrate and Arginine on Sorption of Nickel to Yazd Sepiolite and Calcite

    Ahmadreza Sheikhhosseini


    , and W was the mass (g of the sorbent. The Langmuir, Freundlich and linear isotherm models were fitted to sorption data using Graphpad prism 5.0. For kinetic study,30 mL of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution, with or without 0.1 mM citrate or arginine, containing Ni at a concentration corresponding to the maximum sorption capacity of each mineral (estimated from sorption isotherms were transferred into 50-ml polyethylene centrifuge tubes containing 0.3 g of sepiolite or calcite. The suspensions were shaken (180±2 rpm, 25 °C continuously and after 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours, corresponding tubes were centrifuged (4000×g for 10 min and supernatants were analyzed for Ni concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Using Graphpad prism 5.0, kinetic data were fitted to Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and power function kinetic models. Results: With or without ligands, the Langmuir model was the best description of Ni sorption to sepiolite while the linear model was the best fit of calcite data showing the physical nature of Ni sorption by this mineral. Kinetics of Ni sorption to sepiolite and calcite were best described by power function model. In the presence of citrate, both capacity and rate of sorption of Ni to sepiolite decreased. There was no considerable change in sorption of Ni to calcite. In the presence of arginine, however, sorption capacity of minerals for Ni increased. Arginine enhanced the rate of Ni sorption on all three minerals. Citrate showed opposing effects on Ni sorption kinetics depending on the studied minerals. Totally, citrate and arginine had opposite effects on sorption of Ni to sepiolite and calcite. Conclusion: Organic ligands can change sorption characteristics of the minerals. It seems that citrate decreases sorption of Ni to sepiolite but its effect on Ni sorption to calcite is negligible, while arginine increases Ni sorption to both minerals. Our results suggested that presence of citrate and arginine in soil influence Ni


    XiongChunhua; ChenYiyong; 等


    The influences of Medium pH,sorption temperature,sorption time,etc.on the sorption capacity of macroporous phosphonic acid resin for La3+ were determined.The sorption rate constant was k298=7.64×10-5 s-1. The complex ratio of phosphonic groups of the resin to La3+ was 3:1.The basic sorption parameters were determined. The sorption mechanism of macroporous phosphonic acid resin for La3+ was examined by chemical analysis and IR-spectrometry.

  3. Surface Engineering of PAMAM-SDB Chelating Resin with Diglycolamic Acid (DGA) Functional Group for Efficient Sorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) from Aqueous Medium

    Ilaiyaraja, P.; Venkatraman, B., E-mail: [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Deb, A.K. Singha [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ponraju, D. [Safety Engineering Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Ali, Sk. Musharaf [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Highlights: • A new DGA-PAMAM-SDB chelating resin has been synthesized for actinide sorption. • Maximum sorption capacities of resin are 682 and 544.2 mg g{sup −1}for U(VI) and Th(IV). • DGA-PAMAM-SDB chelating resin could be regenerated and reused. • DFT calculation of actinides interaction with resin corroborates the experimental. • Resin is effective for sorption of actinides from both aqueous and HNO{sub 3} medium. - Abstract: A novel chelating resin obtained via growth of PAMAM dendron on surface of styrene divinyl benzene resin beads, followed by diglycolamic acid functionalization of the dendrimer terminal. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, nitric acid concentration, amount of adsorbent, shaking time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption efficiency. Diglycolamic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimer functionalized styrene divinylbenzene chelating resin (DGA-PAMAM-SDB) is found to be an efficient candidate for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions from aqueous (pH > 4) and nitric acid media (> 3 M). The sorption equilibrium could be reached within 60 min, and the experimental data fits with pseudo-second-order model. Langmuir sorption isotherm model correlates well with sorption equilibrium data. The maximum U(VI) and Th(IV) sorption capacity onto DGA-PAMAMG{sub 5}-SDB was estimated to be about 682 and 544.2 mg g{sup −1} respectively at 25 °C. The interaction of actinides and chelating resin is reversible and hence, the resin can be regenerated and reused. DFT calculation on the interaction of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions with chelating resin validates the experimental findings.

  4. Sorption of Uranium(VI and Thorium(IV by Jordanian Bentonite

    Fawwaz I. Khalili


    Full Text Available Purification of raw bentonite was done to remove quartz. This includes mixing the raw bentonite with water and then centrifuge it at 750 rpm; this process is repeated until white purified bentonite is obtained. XRD, XRF, FTIR, and SEM techniques will be used for the characterization of purified bentonite. The sorption behavior of purified Jordanian bentonite towards and Th4+ metal ions in aqueous solutions was studied by batch experiment as a function of pH, contact time, temperature, and column techniques at 25.0∘C and . The highest rate of metal ions uptake was observed after 18 h of shaking, and the uptake has increased with increasing pH and reached a maximum at . Bentonite has shown high metal ion uptake capacity toward uranium(VI than thorium(IV. Sorption data were evaluated according to the pseudo- second-order reaction kinetic. Sorption isotherms were studied at temperatures 25.0∘C, 35.0∘C, and 45.0∘C. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R sorption models equations were applied and the proper constants were derived. It was found that the sorption process is enthalpy driven for uranium(VI and thorium(IV. Recovery of uranium(VI and thorium(IV ions after sorption was carried out by treatment of the loaded bentonite with different concentrations of HNO3 1.0 M, 0.5 M, 0.1 M, and 0.01 M. The best percent recovery for uranium(VI and thorium(IV was obtained when 1.0 M HNO3 was used.

  5. Sorption of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution by Lewatit cation-exchange resin.

    Dizge, Nadir; Keskinler, Bülent; Barlas, Hulusi


    Ion-exchange is an alternative process for uptake of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In the present study, the sorption of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated by using Lewatit MonoPlus SP 112 (strongly acidic, macroporous cation-exchange resin) in a batch adsorption system as a function of pH (2.0-8.0), initial nickel concentration (50-200 mg/L), resin dosage (0.5-2.0 g/L), contact time (0.5-3h), and temperatures (298-318K). The data were analyzed on the basis of Lagergren pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order (Types 1-5), Elovich and external, Weber-Morris intraparticle, pore-surface mass diffusion models. The experimental data showed that the maximum pH for efficient sorption of nickel(II) was 6.0. At the optimal conditions, nickel(II) ions sorption on the resin was decreased when the initial metal concentration increased. The results indicated that the resin dosage strongly affected the amount of nickel(II) ions removed from aqueous solution. The adsorption process was very fast due to 80% of nickel(II) sorption was occurred within 30 min and equilibrium was reached at about 90 min. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models were used for sorption equilibrium data and the maximum adsorption capacity (171 mg/g) of Lewatit MonoPlus SP 112 was obtained from Langmuir isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (DeltaG degrees, free energy change; DeltaS degrees, enthalpy change; and DeltaH degrees, entropy change) for sorption of nickel(II) ions were evaluated. The rise in temperature caused a partly increase in the value of the equilibrium constant (K(c)) for the sorption of nickel(II) ions. Moreover, column flow adsorption study was also studied. Breakthrough curves were obtained from column flow studies by using both synthetic solution and rinsing bath water of filter industry. The column regeneration was carried out for two sorption-desorption cycles. The eluant used for regeneration of the cation-exchange resin was 7% (w/w) HCl. The

  6. Sorption of dyes from aqueous solutions onto fly ash.

    Janos, Pavel; Buchtová, Hana; Rýznarová, Milena


    Brown coal fly ashes were tested as potentially low-cost sorbents for the removal of synthetic dyes from waters. It was shown that both basic (cationic) as well as acid (anionic) dyes can be sorbed onto the fly ash. The adsorption can be described by the multi-site Langmuir isotherm. The sorption capacities were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-3)mmol/g and did not differ significantly for basic and acid dyes. The dye sorption decreased in the presence of organic solvents (methanol, acetone). The presence of oppositely charged surfactants exhibited a pronounced effect on the dye sorption-low concentrations of the surfactant enhanced sorption, whereas high concentrations solubilized the dyes and kept them in solution. Inorganic salts exhibited only a minor effect on the dye sorption. The sorption of basic dyes increased at high pH values, whereas the opposite was true for acid dyes.

  7. Sorption of fibronectin to human root surfaces in vitro

    Mendieta, C.; Caravana, C.; Fine, D.H. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))


    The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions that favor the sorption and retention of human plasma fibronectin to cementum. Rectangular root segments prepared from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were mounted on a capillary pipette and immersed in solutions of {sup 125}I fibronectin for assay of cementum sorption under various conditions. Kinetic studies showed sorption to be rapid, with 77% of the maximum fibronectin sorption occurring within 1 minute. Fibronectin sorption was reduced when added in conjunction with serum and was inhibited by monovalent ions (such as sodium), but enhanced in the presence of divalent cations (such as calcium). Exposure of cementum to serum partially blocked subsequent sorption of fibronectin, while cementum bound fibronectin was eluted by subsequent exposure to serum. Treatment of cementum with citric acid pH 1.1 (4 minutes) followed by 5% sodium hypochlorite (5 minutes) caused a significant increase in fibronectin sorption with maximum retention upon subsequent exposure to serum (P less than 0.05). Fibronectin sorption to cementum was: rapid, electrostatic in nature, competitive, reversible, Ca+(+)-facilitated, and maximized by prior treatment of the root with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite. It is concluded that sorption of fibronectin to cementum can be achieved for clinical gain; however, conditions of application can significantly influence both accumulation and subsequent release of root sorbed material.

  8. Systematic approach to determination of maximum achievable capture capacity via leaching and carbonation processes for alkaline steelmaking wastes in a rotating packed bed.

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chang, E-E


    Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB.


    L. V. Antipova


    Full Text Available Process of sorption of iodine on the collagenic carrier is studied. Duration of binding and optimum amount of iodide of potassium, sorption capacity of the preparation PROMIL C95 respect of Iis determined.

  10. New insights into the sorption mechanism of cadmium on red mud.

    Luo, Lei; Ma, Chenyan; Ma, Yibing; Zhang, Shuzhen; Lv, Jitao; Cui, Mingqi


    Effectiveness and mechanism of cadmium (Cd) sorption on original, acidified and ball milling nano-particle red muds were investigated using batch sorption experiments, sequential extraction analysis and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd was 0.16, 0.19, and 0.21 mol/kg for the original, acidified, and nano-particle red muds at pH 6.5, respectively. Both acidification and ball-milling treatments significantly enhanced Cd sorption and facilitated transformation of Cd into less extractable fractions. The Cd LIII-edge XANES analysis indicated the formation of inner-sphere complexes of Cd similar to XCdOH (X represents surface groups on red mud) on the red mud surfaces although outer-sphere complexes of Cd were the primary species. This work shed light on the potential application of red mud to remediate Cd-contaminated soils and illustrated the promising tool of XANES spectroscopy for speciation of multicomponent systems of environmental relevance.

  11. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid.

    Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob


    In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions.


    L. E. Glagoleva


    Full Text Available The article presents information on the laws of the sorption of water to grow-negative polysaccharide complexes of the pumpkin and briar, deter-mined the rate constant of swelling as a function of temperature and pH, the maximum degree of swelling and limit the time to achieve it.

  13. Sorption separation of Eu and As from single-component systems by Fe-modified biochar. Kinetic and equilibrium study

    Fristak, Vladimir; Soja, Gerhard [Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Tulln (Austria). Energy Dept. Environmental Resources and Technologies; Michalekova-Richveisova, Barbora; Pipiska, Martin [Trnava Univ. (Slovakia). Dept. of Chemistry; Viglasova, Eva; Galambos, Michal [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Duriska, Libor [Slovak Univ. of Technology in Bratislava, Trnava (Slovakia). Faculty of Materials Science and Technology; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Agricola y Bromatologia


    The utilization of carbonaceous materials in separation processes of radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids represents a burning issue in environmental and waste management. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effect of chemical modification of corncob-derived biochar by Fe-impregnations on sorption efficiency of Eu and As as a model compounds of cationic lanthanides and anionic metalloids. The biochar sample produced in slow pyrolysis process at 500 C before (BC) and after (IBC) impregnation process was characterized by elemental, FTIR, SEM-EDX analysis to confirm the effectiveness of Fe-impregnation process. The basic physico-chemical properties showed differences in surface area and pH values of BC- and IBC-derived sorbents. Sorption processes of Eu and As by BC and IBC were characterized as a time- and initial concentration of sorbate-dependent processes. The sorption equilibrium was reached for both sorbates in 24 h of contact time. Batch equilibrium experiments revealed the increased maximum sorption capacities (Q{sub max}) of IBC for As about more than 20 times (Q{sub max} BC 0.11 and Q{sub max} IBC 2.26 mg g{sup -1}). Our study confirmed negligible effect of Fe-impregnation on sorption capacity of biochar for Eu (Q{sub max} BC 0.89 and Q{sub max} IBC 0.98 mg g{sup -1}). The iron-impregnation of biochar-derived sorbents can be utilized as a valuable treatment method to produce stable and more effective sorption materials for various xenobiotics separation from liquid wastes and aqueous solutions.

  14. Sorption of radionuclides by cement-based barrier materials

    Li, Kefei, E-mail:; Pang, Xiaoyun


    This paper investigates the sorption of radionuclide ions, {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+}, by cement-based barrier materials for radioactive waste disposal. A mortar with ternary binder is prepared and powder samples are ground from the hardened material following a predetermined granulometry. After pre-equilibrium with an artificial pore solution, the sorption behaviors of powder samples are investigated through single sorption and blended sorption. The results show that: (1) no systematic difference is observed for single and blended sorptions thus the interaction between {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+} sorptions must be weak; (2) the sorption kinetics is rapid and all characteristic times are less than 1d; (3) the sorption capacity is enhanced by C–A–S–H hydrates and the measured K{sub d} values can be predicted from C–S–H sorption data with Ca/Si ratio equal to Ca/(Si + Al) ratio.

  15. Continuous cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by seaweed in a packed-bed column under consecutive sorption-desorption cycles

    Jafari, Seyed Ali; Jamali, Abbas [Persian Gulf Research Institute, Persian Gulf University, 75169, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Packed-bed column process efficiency for cadmium adsorption from aqueous solution was investigated under different bed heights (2.6 to 7.5 cm) and feed flow rates (15 to 30 ml min{sup -1}). The column was filled with brown seaweed, Sargassum angustifolium. Three simplified models, including Bed Depth Service Time, Thomas, and Yoon- Nelson were employed for describing the experimental breakthrough curves as well as achieving design parameters. Bed lifetime was also evaluated in several consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. Cadmium concentration of 0.005mg l−1, as a standard limit for potable water, was considered as the breakthrough concentration. The maximum column performance was achieved 81% at 7.5 cm bed length and flow rate of 15 ml min{sup -1}. Indeed, increasing the bed height increased the sorption performance and service time, while increasing the feed flow rate had a negative effect. Maximum sorption capacity value remained almost constant by the bed height changes; however, increase in the feed flow rate slightly decreased it. The modeling results revealed that the Yoon-Nelson model was more accurate than Thomas for describing the experimental breakthrough data, especially at low flow rates. Column service time predictions were surprisingly achieved using the Bed Depth Service Time model even at extrapolations. 20% reduction in column adsorption efficiency was observed at the end of four consecutive sorption-desorption cycles; however, desorption efficiencies were achieved more than 99% in each cycle.

  16. A comparative study for the sorption of Cd(II) by K-feldspar and sepiolite as soil components, and the recovery of Cd(II) using rhamnolipid biosurfactant.

    Aşçi, Y; Nurbaş, M; Açikel, Y Sağ


    This study investigated the sorption characteristics and recovery of selected heavy metal Cd(II) from K-feldspar and sepiolite, representative soil components, using rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Although the proposed technique was classified as a soil bioremediation process, it can also be applied to treatment of waste waters containing Cd(II) ions with minor modifications. The effect of initial Cd(II) concentration on sorption capacity was characterized by determining the sorption isotherms. Of the four models examined, the Freundlich model showed the best fit for the sorption of Cd(II) on K-feldspar, whereas the Langmuir-model was used successfully to characterize the sorption of Cd(II) on sepiolite. Although a high Cd(II) uptake of 7.49 mmol/kg by K-feldspar was obtained, sepiolite was a superior Cd(II) accumulater, with a maximum Cd(II) uptake of 24.66 mmol Cd(II)/kg. The presence of Cd(II) in the sepiolite or K-feldspar prior to addition of the rhamnolipid generally resulted in less rhamnolipid sorption to sepiolite or K-feldspar. The maximum Cd(II) desorption efficiency by rhamnolipid from K-feldspar was substantially higher than that of sepiolite and determined to be 96% of the sorbed Cd(II), whereas only 10.1% of the sorbed Cd(II) from sepiolite was recovered by rhamnolipid solution.

  17. Pharmaceuticals' sorptions relative to properties of thirteen different soils.

    Kodešová, Radka; Grabic, Roman; Kočárek, Martin; Klement, Aleš; Golovko, Oksana; Fér, Miroslav; Nikodem, Antonín; Jakšík, Ondřej


    Transport of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in soils and consequent ground-water contamination are influenced by many factors, including compound sorption on soil particles. Here we evaluate the sorption isotherms for 7 pharmaceuticals on 13 soils, described by Freundlich equations, and assess the impact of soil properties on various pharmaceuticals' sorption on soils. Sorption of ionizable pharmaceuticals was, in many cases, highly affected by soil pH. The sorption coefficient of sulfamethoxazole was negatively correlated to soil pH, and thus positively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity. Sorption coefficients for clindamycin and clarithromycin were positively related to soil pH and thus negatively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity, and positively related to base cation saturation. The sorption coefficients for the remaining pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine) were also positively correlated with the base cation saturation and cation exchange capacity. Positive correlations between sorption coefficients and clay content were found for clindamycin, clarithromycin, atenolol, and metoprolol. Positive correlations between sorption coefficients and organic carbon content were obtained for trimethoprim and carbamazepine. Pedotransfer rules for predicting sorption coefficients of various pharmaceuticals included hydrolytic acidity (sulfamethoxazole), organic carbon content (trimethoprimand carbamazepine), base cation saturation (atenolol and metoprolol), exchangeable acidity and clay content (clindamycin), and soil active pH and clay content (clarithromycin). Pedotransfer rules, predicting the Freundlich sorption coefficients, could be applied for prediction of pharmaceutical mobility in soils with similar soil properties. Predicted sorption coefficients together with pharmaceutical half-lives and other imputes (e.g., soil-hydraulic, geological, hydro-geological, climatic) may be used for

  18. Sorption of inorganic salts on carbon nanomaterials and magnetite

    Lyu, Sh. T.; Troshkina, I. D.; Rakov, E. G.


    Magnetic composites based on graphene oxides and functionalized carbon nanotubes containing magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized. The dispersing ability of these composites in water at different pH values is studied. It is shown that the solubility of Fe3O4 composites is constant in the pH range of 3.5-10, though these composites are unstable at both lower and higher pH values. Magnetic sorbents for extracting Ce(NO3)3 and La(NO3)3 from solutions are tested. Dependences of the volume on the sorbent's composition, pH value, and salt concentration in the solution are found. Maximum sorption capacity in relation to Ce3+ and La3+ at pH 7.5 and 8.5 are found to be 1040 and 920 mg/g respectively.

  19. [Phosphate sorption characteristics onto sediments in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River].

    Wang, Xiao-li; Pan, Gang; Bao, Hua-ying; Zhang, Xian-wei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Bo-shu


    The equilibrium phosphate concentration (EPC0) of the Yellow River bed sediments has been measured, which was used to predict whether bed sediments are acting as a source or sink of soluble reactive phosphate (SRP). The modified Langmuir isotherm equation was used to describe phosphate (P) sorption on the Yellow River sediments. The maximum P sorption capacity (PAC) and P-binding energy constant (k) were obtained by the modified Langmuir isotherm model. Native adsorbed exchangeable phosphorus (NAP), the EPC0, and partitioning coefficients (Kp) were subsequently calculated by the corresponding formulae. The influence of pH values and ion strength were evaluated. All the EPC0 s are higher than the P concentration in the overlying water, indicating a potential source of phosphate from the sediments. PAC is linearly related to the contents of TOC of the sediment. The sorption capacity of P increased rapidly with pH below 6.0, and then reached a plateau between pH 6.0 to 9.7, and finally maintained at a slightly higher level from pH 9.7 to 12.0.The adsorption of P by the sediment decreased with the increase in Ca2+ ionic strength.

  20. Investigation of sorption and migration of {sup 90}Sr on clinoptilolite and mordenite

    Minglu Ye; Lu shi jun; Chenkou Quin; Lihong Xu; Adi He; Zhihua Tang [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Nuclear Science; Guoqing Xu; Xuanlin Fan; Jifang Gu; Zhichao Du [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology (BRIUG), BJ (China)


    In this work the behaviors of sorption and migration of radioactive strontium on clinoptilolite and mordenite in simulated groundwater has been investigated by both batch technique and column experiment. The sorption ratios (Rd) and the sorption equilibrium time were determined. The effects of particle size of samples, water-to-rock ratios, pH values of simulated groundwater and concentration of strontium in the simulated groundwater on the sorption ratios of Sr were studied. The sorption capacity and sorption isotherm of Sr were determined. The behaviors of sorption and migration of Sr in clinoptilolite column were studied. The migration velocity of Sr was calculated. The results show that sorption abilities of clinoptilolite and mordenite for Sr were very strong. (orig.)

  1. Sorption of Pb(ll) by poly(hydroxamic acid) grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    Haron, M J; Tiansin, M; Ibrahim, N A; Kassim, A; Wan Yunus, W M Z; Talebi, S M


    This paper describes the sorption of Pb(ll) from aqueous solution. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber was first grafted with poly(methylacrylate) and then treated with hydroxylammonium chloride in alkaline medium to produce hydroxamic acid (PHA) grafted OPEFB. Sorption of Pb(ll) by PHA-OPEFB was maximum at pH 5. The sorption followed the Langmuir model with maximum capacityof 125.0 mg g-1 at 25 degrees C. The sorption process was exothermic, as shown by the negative value of enthalpy change, Delta H0. The free energy change (DeltaG0) for the sorption was negative, showing that the sorption process was spontaneous. A kinetic study showed that the Pb(ll) sorption followed a second order kinetic model.

  2. Sorption of chlorophenols onto fruit cuticles and potato periderm

    Yungui Li; Yingqing Deng; Baoliang Chen


    To better understand the interaction mechanisms of plant surfaces with polar organic compounds,sorption of 4-chlorophenol,2,4-dichlorophenol,and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by fruit cuticles (i.e.,tomato,apple,and pepper),and potato tuber periderm were investigated.The roles of cuticular components (waxes,cutin,cutan and sugar) on sorption of chlorophenols are quantitatively compared.Cutin and waxes govern the sorption capacity of bulk apple cuticle by hydrophobic interactions.Potato periderm with highest sugar content exhibits the lowest sorption capability for the chlorophenols.With the increase of hydrophobicity (i.e.,Kow ) of sorbate,the relative contribution of lipophilic components (wax,cutin and cutan) on total sorption increases,however,the ratios of Koc to Kow decreases due to increasing ionization degree of sorbates.

  3. Effect of the modification of a natural mexican zeolite in the sorption of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol; Efecto de la modificacion de una zeolita natural mexicana en la sorcion de cadmio y 4-clorofenol

    Cortes M, R. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    was implicated. Basic design parameters for the sorption of cadmium on natural and modified zeolites were calculated from breakthrough curves obtained from column experiments, by using simplified models. Column adsorption capacities for these two systems were good compared with other adsorbents and column efficiencies achieved were acceptable according to maximum adsorption capacities obtained for batch systems. For 4-chloro phenol, the same models were applied to calculate design parameters and column adsorption capacity and reasonable results were obtained. In this work was demonstrated that the field for application of natural zeolites as adsorbents can be amplified for the removal or organic pollutants from wastewaters, by the modification of their external surfaces with cationic surfactants, without having a significant effect on their ion exchange properties used for the uptake of heavy metals from polluted waters. (Author)

  4. Efficient sorption of Cu(2+) by composite chelating sorbents based on potato starch-graft-polyamidoxime embedded in chitosan beads.

    Dragan, Ecaterina Stela; Apopei Loghin, Diana Felicia; Cocarta, Ana Irina


    Ionic composites based on cross-linked chitosan (CS) as matrix and poly(amidoxime) grafted on potato starch (AOX) as entrapped chelating resin were prepared as beads, for the first time in this work, by two strategies: (1) thorough mixing of previously prepared AOX in the CS solution followed by the bead formation and (2) thorough mixing of the potato starch-g-poly(acrylonitrile) (PS-g-PAN) copolymer in the initial CS solution, followed by bead formation, the amidoximation of the nitrile groups taking place inside the beads. Ionotropic gelation in tripolyphosphate was used to obtain the composite beads, and in situ covalent cross-linking by epichlorohydrin was carried out to stabilize the beads in the acidic pH range. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the swelling ratio values in the acidic pH range confirmed the influence of the synthesis strategy on the structure of the CS/AOX composites. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to reveal the morphology of the novel composites, both before and after their loading with Cu(2+). The binding capacity of Cu(2+) ions as a function of sorbent composition, synthesis strategy, pH, sorbent dose, contact time, initial concentration of Cu(2+), and temperature was examined in batch mode. The main difference between the composites prepared with the two strategies consisted of the higher sorption capacity and the much faster settlement of the equilibrium sorption for the composite prepared by the in situ amidoximation of PS-g-PAN. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Sips isotherms were applied to fit the sorption equilibrium data. The maximum equilibrium sorption capacity, qm, evaluated by the Langmuir model at 25 °C was 133.15 mg Cu(2+)/g for the CS/AOX composite beads prepared with the first strategy and 238.14 mg Cu(2+)/g for the CS/AOX composite beads prepared with the second strategy, at the same AOX content. The pseudo-second order kinetic model well fitted the sorption kinetics data

  5. Phosphorus Changes and Sorption Characteristics in a Calcareous Soil Under Long-Term Fertilization

    GUO Sheng-Li; DANG Ting-Hui; HAO Ming-De


    Knowledge of phosphorus (P) behavior in long-term fertilized soils is essential for programming fertilization practices and for sustaining environmental quality.The long-term (1984-1997) effects of various fertilization treatments on P changes and sorption isotherms as well as the relationship of soil properties to P sorption and P forms were evaluated in an Ustic Isohumisol,a calcareous soil,on the Loess Plateau,China.Compared to 1984,after 13 years of crop production,total soil P in the no-P treatments (control and N treatment) decreased by 5%-7%,but in the phosphorus fertilizer alone (P),nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in combination (NP),manure alone (M),and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and manure in combination (NPM) treatments,it increased by 22%,19%,28%,and 58%,respectively.Residual fertilizer P was found mainly in NH4Ac-soluble P (Cas-P),followed by NaHCO3-sohible P (NaHCO3-P),and NH4F-soluble P (Al-P).Phosphorus sorption in the soils with different fertilization practices fit the Langmuir equations.Phosphorus sorption capacity in the no-P treatments increased,whereas it decreased in the P-included treatments (P,NP,and NPM treatments).Phosphorus sorption maximum (Qm) was significantly and negatively correlated to inorganic P including Na4CO3-P,Cas-P,NaOH-Na2CO3-soluble P (Fe-P),and AI-P (P ≤ 0.01).Moreover,long-term fertilization increased soil organic carbon in the NP,M,and NPM treatments and decreased pH in the NP and NPM treatments.Thus,the ability of the soil to release sorbed P to the environment increased under long-term P fertilization.

  6. Dialysis experiments for assessing the pH-dependent sorption of sulfonamides to soil clay fractions.

    Anskjær, G G; Krogh, K A; Halling-Sørensen, B


    Equilibrium dialysis experiments, a novel approach for conducting soil/water distribution experiments in environmental samples, were found to be applicable for assessing pH-dependent partitioning and to quantify the sorption of three sulfonamides, sulfadiazine, sulfadoxine, and sulfacetamide. Clay fractions from two agricultural soils including both particulate and dissolved soil matter were used in the experiments to achieve a high sorption capacity when varying pH in a relevant environmental range. Stabilizing and controlling pH was done by using organic buffers. In two clay fractions, Kd for sulfadiazine was determined to be 43 and 129 L kg(-1), and 1.3 and 4.6 L kg(-1) at pH 4.0 and pH 9.0, respectively. This corresponded to Kd for the neutral and ionized form of sulfadiazine, respectively. The difference in sulfadiazine sorption between the two clay fractions could to some extent be related to the difference in the amount of organic carbon. Sorption experiments with sulfacetamide and sulfadoxine also exhibited decreasing sorption when increasing pH. At low pH, maximum Kd for sulfacetamide and sulfadoxine was determined to be 83 and 211 L kg(-1), respectively, while at high pH minimum Kd was 4.8 and 1.2 L kg(-1), respectively. Hence, compound speciation was important for the quantity of sorbed sulfonamide, which was confirmed by a correlation (R(2)) close to unity, when using the experimentally obtained Kd values with a simple model weighing the contribution from the neutral and the ionized compound, respectively.

  7. Sorption of metals by Chlorobium spp.

    Garcia-Gil, J; Borrego, C


    The capacity of two species of green phototrophic sulfur bacteria, Chlorobium limicola and C. phaeobacteroides, to sorb several metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+) has been tested in laboratory batch cultures at increasing concentrations up to 2,000 mumol/l. Except for nickel--which was not sorbed to bacterial cells--the rest of metals tested were bound in a fast and passive process, which was mathematically described by means of Freundlich isotherms models. The sorption capacity of the two species studied were found to be dependent on the metal involved, whereas no differences were observed in the sorption intensity, suggesting that in all cases the sorption process proceeds in a similar way. Further, the comparison of the sorption intensity values as well as the metal recovery index (Ri), for both species, revealed that C. phaeobacteroides was more efficient that C. limicola to attach metal ions. The ecological significance of this ability in the water column of some stratified lakes, where coinciding maxima of ferrous iron and green photosynthetic sulfur bacteria are frequently found, is discussed.

  8. Sorption of Lincomycin by Manure-Derived Biochars from Water.

    Liu, Cheng-Hua; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A; Gonzalez, Javier M; Johnston, Cliff T; Lehmann, Johannes; Zhang, Wei


    The presence of antibiotics in agroecosystems raises concerns about the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and adverse effects to human health. Soil amendment with biochars pyrolized from manures may be a win-win strategy for novel manure management and antibiotics abatement. In this study, lincomycin sorption by manure-derived biochars was examined using batch sorption experiments. Lincomycin sorption was characterized by two-stage kinetics with fast sorption reaching quasi-equilibrium in the first 2 d, followed by slow sorption over 180 d. The fast sorption was primarily attributed to surface adsorption, whereas the long-term slow sorption was controlled by slow diffusion of lincomycin into biochar pore structures. Two-day sorption experiments were performed to explore effects of biochar particle size, solid/water ratio, solution pH, and ionic strength. Lincomycin sorption to biochars was greater at solution pH 6.0 to 7.5 below the dissociation constant of lincomycin (7.6) than at pH 9.9 to 10.4 above its dissociation constant. The enhanced lincomycin sorption at lower pH likely resulted from electrostatic attraction between the positively charged lincomycin and the negatively charged biochar surfaces. This was corroborated by the observation that lincomycin sorption decreased with increasing ionic strength at lower pH (6.7) but remained constant at higher pH (10). The long-term lincomycin sequestration by biochars was largely due to pore diffusion plausibly independent of solution pH and ionic composition. Therefore, manure-derived biochars had lasting lincomycin sequestration capacity, implying that biochar soil amendment could significantly affect the distribution, transport, and bioavailability of lincomycin in agroecosystems.

  9. Effect of the gamma irradiation on the bio-sorption of Cr (Vi) by orange peel;Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la biosorcion de Cr(VI) por cascara de naranja

    Lugo L, V.; Barrera D, C. E.; Sanchez M, V. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Paseo Tollocan esquina Paseo Colon s/n, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Urena N, F., E-mail: violelugol@yahoo.e [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The orange peel (Citrus sp.) is a bioadsorbent that contains functional groups able to remove Cr (Vi). To study the effect of gamma irradiation in the sorption capacity, the Nn materials were irradiated with gamma rays using a Co{sup 60} source to dose from 10 to 3500 KGy (Nlgamma). The biomass irradiation with gamma rays was successful since it increased the hexavalent chromium removal obtaining a maximum removal percentage of 100%. Sorption isotherms were realized to determine the concentration effect of initial Cr (Vi), the ph effect of the solution and the relationship m/v. (Author)

  10. Study on sorption of D155 resin for gadolinium

    XIONG Chunhua


    The sorption behavior and mechanism of a Macroporous weak acid resin,(D155 resin,)for Gd(III) were investigated. The statically saturated sorption capacity is 283 mg/g resin at 298 K in HAc-NaAc medium. The Gd(III) adsorbed on macroporous weak acid resin,(D155 resin,)could be reductively eluted with the mixed solution of HCl and NaCl, and the elution percentage was as high as 100%. The resin could be regenerated and reused without remarkable decrease in sorption capacity. The apparent sorption rate constant was k298=1.98×10-5 s-1. The apparent activation energy was Ea=2.78 kJ/mol. The sorption behavior of D155 resin for Gd(III) obeyed the Langmuir isotherm. The thermodynamic sorption parameters were (H=33.0 kJ/mol, (S=192 J/mol/K, and (G298=-24.3 kJ/mol. The sorption mechanism of D155 resin for Gd(III) was examined by using chemical method and IR spectrometry. The coordination compound was formed between oxygen atoms in the functional group of D155 resin and Gd (III).

  11. Sorption of lanthanum ions by natural clinoptilolite tuff

    Dampilova, B. V.; Zonkhoeva, E. L.


    The equilibrium and kinetics of sorption of lanthanum ions on natural clinoptilolite tuff are studied. It is demonstrated that sorption of lanthanum ions from diluted solutions occurs in micropores of clinoptilolite, and from concentrated solutions in the mesoporous structure of tuff. The main capacity of zeolite tuff is found in the secondary porous structure. The sorption of lanthanum ions is limited by diffusion in tuff grains. Lanthanum ions are regularly distributed in the tuff phase and interact with the Brønsted centers of large clinoptilolite cavities.

  12. Kinetics of phosphorus sorption in soils in the state of Paraíba¹

    Hemmannuella Costa Santos


    Full Text Available The soil P sorption capacity has been studied for many years, but little attention has been paid to the rate of this process, which is relevant in the planning of phosphate fertilization. The purpose of this experiment was to assess kinetics of P sorption in 12 representative soil profiles of the State of Paraíba (Brazil, select the best data fitting among four equations and relate these coefficients to the soil properties. Samples of 12 soils with wide diversity of physical, chemical and mineralogical properties were agitated in a horizontal shaker, with 10 mmo L-1 CaCl2 solution containing 6 and 60 mg L-1 P, for periods of 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 420, 720, 1,020, and 1,440 min. After each shaking period, the P concentration in the equilibrium solution was measured and three equations were fitted based on the Freundlich equation and one based on the Elovich equation, to determine which soil had the highest sorption rate (kinetics and which soil properties correlated to this rate. The kinetics of P sorption in soils with high maximum P adsorption capacity (MPAC was fast for 30 min at the lower initial P concentration (6 mg L-1. No difference was observed between soils at the higher initial P concentration (60 mg L-1. The P adsorption kinetics were positively correlated with clay content, MPAC and the amount of Al extracted with dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate. The data fitted well to Freundlich-based equations equation, whose coefficients can be used to predict P adsorption rates in soils.

  13. Sorption of V and VI group metalloids (As, Sb, Te on modified peat sorbents

    Ansone-Bertina Linda


    Full Text Available The present work investigates arsenic, antimony and tellurium sorption using iron modified peat. The results were obtained using batch tests and the sorption was studied as a function of initial metalloid concentration, pH and sorption time, as well as the presence of competing substances. The obtained results indicate that modification of peat with Fe compounds significantly enhances the sorption capacity of the sorbents used for sorption of arsenic, antimony and tellurium. The optimal pH interval for the sorption of Sb(III is 6.5–9 and for As(V and Sb(V – 3–6, while As(III and tellurium sorption using Fe-modified peat is favourable in a wider interval of 3–9. The presence of competing ions as well as HA affect sorption of metalloids on Fe-modified peat. A minor impact on the reduction of metalloid sorption was detected in the presence of nitrate, sulphate, carbonate and tartrate ions, while in the presence of phosphate and HA the sorption ability of metalloids can be considerably reduced. The obtained results of kinetic experiments indicate that sorption of metalloids on Fe-modified peat mainly occurs relying on mechanisms of physical sorption processes.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of poly(maleic acid)-grafted crosslinked chitosan nanomaterial with high uptake and selectivity for Hg(II) sorption.

    Ge, Huacai; Hua, Tingting


    Chitosan-poly(maleic acid) nanomaterial (PMACS) with the size of 400-900nm was synthesized by grafting poly(maleic acid) onto chitosan and then crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The synthesis conditions were optimized. The structure and morphology of PMACS were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA. PMACS was used to adsorb some heavy metal ions such as Hg(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), and Zn(II). The results indicated that PMACS had selectivity for Hg(II) sorption. The effects of various variables for sorption of Hg(II) were further explored. The maximum capacity for Hg(II) sorption was found to be 1044mgg(-1) at pH 6.0, which could compare with the maximal value of the recently reported other sorbents. The sorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models. The rising of temperature benefited the uptake and the sorption was a spontaneous chemical process. The sorbent could be reused with EDTA. Hence, the nanomaterial would be used as a selective and high uptake sorbent in the removal of Hg(II) from effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Equilibrium modeling of mono and binary sorption of Cu(II and Zn(II onto chitosan gel beads

    Nastaj Józef


    Full Text Available The objective of the work are in-depth experimental studies of Cu(II and Zn(II ion removal on chitosan gel beads from both one- and two-component water solutions at the temperature of 303 K. The optimal process conditions such as: pH value, dose of sorbent and contact time were determined. Based on the optimal process conditions, equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out. The maximum sorption capacities equaled: 191.25 mg/g and 142.88 mg/g for Cu(II and Zn(II ions respectively, when the sorbent dose was 10 g/L and the pH of a solution was 5.0 for both heavy metal ions. One-component sorption equilibrium data were successfully presented for six of the most useful three-parameter equilibrium models: Langmuir-Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Koble-Corrigan, Hill and Toth. Extended forms of Langmuir-Freundlich, Koble-Corrigan and Sips models were also well fitted to the two-component equilibrium data obtained for different ratios of concentrations of Cu(II and Zn(II ions (1:1, 1:2, 2:1. Experimental sorption data were described by two kinetic models of the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order. Furthermore, an attempt to explain the mechanisms of the divalent metal ion sorption process on chitosan gel beads was undertaken.

  16. Sorption of strontium on clinoptilolite and heulandite

    Chernyavskaya, N.B.


    The author investigates the sorption of strontium on the isostructural zeolites clinoptilolite and heulandite. In the Sr/Na/zeolite/H/sub 2/O system, clinoptilolite manifests selectivity for strontium, and heulandite for sodium. The role of the nature of the exchange ions is discussed. Modification of the clinoptilolite with acid, subsequently obtaining the Na, NH/sub 4/, or N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ form, increases the capacity for strontium by a factor of 2-4.

  17. Sorption of Th(IV) onto ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite. Kinetics, mechanism and activation parameters

    Yusan, Sabriye; Aslani, Mahmut A.A.; Aytas, Sule [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Bampaiti, Anastasia; Noli, Fotini [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry; Erenturk, Sema [Istanbul Technical Univ., Ayazaga Campus, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey). Energy Inst.


    In this study, for the first time ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite have been utilized as adsorbent for the removal of Th(IV) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data. The sorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm with maximum sorption capacities values was found to be 1.105 mmol/g and 0.320 mmol/g for ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite supported ZnO nanocomposite, respectively. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second order equations, Intraparticle diffusion and Bangham's models were considered to evaluate the rate parameters and sorption mechanism. Sorption kinetics were better reproduced by the pseudo-second order model (R{sup 2} > 0.999), with an activation energy (E{sub a}) of +99.74 kJ/mol and +62.95 kJ/mol for ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite, respectively. In order to specify the type of sorption reaction, thermodynamic parameters were also determined. The evaluated ΔG* and ΔH* indicate the non-spontaneous and endothermic nature of the reactions. The results of this work suggest that both of the used materials are fast and effective adsorbents for removing Th(IV) from aqueous solutions and chemical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  18. Ammonium sorption from aqueous solutions by the natural zeolite Transcarpathian clinoptilolite studied under dynamic conditions.

    Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Lebedynets, Mariya; Terzyk, Artur P; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek; Buszewski, Bogusław


    The scope of this study is ammonium-ion uptake from synthetic aqueous solutions onto raw and pretreated forms of the natural zeolite Transcarpathian clinoptilolite under dynamic conditions. Hydrogen ions displaced exchangeable cations on the clinoptilolite in distilled water (sodium ions) and hydrochloric acid (sodium, potassium, and calcium ions) and destroyed the zeolite framework structure in the last case. Ammonium uptake onto the zeolite occurs by exchange with Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) ions. Although Na(+) ions were observed to be more easily exchanged for both hydrogen and ammonium ions, the role of Ca(2+) ions increased with zeolite saturation by NH(+)(4) ions. The maximum sorption capacity of the clinoptilolite toward NH(+)(4) ions, estimated under dynamic conditions, is significantly higher than that measured under static conditions; proximity of the values of a distribution coefficient and a retardation factor for different conditions (215-265 dm(3)/kg and 979-1107, respectively) allows us to use these parameters to model ammonium uptake onto the clinoptilolite. Slowing down or interruption in filtration resulted in the improvement of ammonium sorption properties of the zeolite. The ammonium removal improves with use of the finer fractions of the clinoptilolite up to 0.35 mm. A recycling study results confirmed the importance of external diffusion for ammonium sorption by the clinoptilolite. Preliminary treatment of the sorbent confirmed the predominant importance of the ion-exchange mechanism. The advantage of prior NaCl treatment of the clinoptilolite in improvement of ammonium removal over the other techniques was shown.

  19. Sorption of organic compounds to activated carbons. Evaluation of isotherm models

    Pikaar, I.; Koelmans, A.A.; van Noort, P.C.M. [RIZA, Lelystad (Netherlands). Inst. of Inland Water Management & Wastewater Treatment


    Sorption to 'hard carbon' (black carbon, coal, kerogen) in soils and sediments is of major importance for risk assessment of organic pollutants. We argue that activated carbon (AC) may be considered a model sorbent for hard carbon. Here, we evaluate six sorption models on a literature dataset for sorption of 12 compounds onto 12 ACs and one charcoal, at different temperatures (79 isotherms in total). A statistical analysis, accounting for differences in the number of fitting parameters, demonstrates that the dual Langmuir equation is in general superior and/or preferable to the single and triple Langmuir equation, the Freundlich equation, a Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes equation, and the Toth equation. Consequently, the analysis suggests the presence of two types of adsorption sites: a high-energy (HE) type of site and a low-energy (LE) type of site. Maximum adsorption capacities for the HE domain decreased with temperature while those for the LE domain increased. Average Gibbs free energies for adsorption from the hypothetical pure liquid state at 298 K were fairly constant at - 15 {+-} 4 and -5 {+-} 4 kJ mol{sup -1} for the HE and LE domain, respectively.

  20. The kinetics of fluoride sorption by zeolite: Effects of cadmium, barium and manganese

    Cai, Qianqian; Turner, Brett D.; Sheng, Daichao; Sloan, Scott


    Industrial wastewaters often consist of a complex chemical cocktail with treatment of target contaminants complicated by adverse chemical reactions. The impact of metal ions (Cd2 +, Ba2 + and Mn2 +) on the kinetics of fluoride removal from solution by natural zeolite was investigated. In order to better understand the kinetics, the pseudo-second order (PSO), Hill (Hill 4 and Hill 5) and intra-particle diffusion (IPD) models were applied. Model fitting was compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The Hill models (Hill 4 and Hill 5) were found to be superior in describing the fluoride removal processes due to the sigmoidal nature of the kinetics. Results indicate that the presence of Mn (100 mg L- 1) and Cd (100 mg L- 1) respectively increases the rate of fluoride sorption by a factor of 28.3 and 10.9, the maximum sorption capacity is increased by 2.2 and 1.7. The presence of Ba (100 mg L- 1) initially inhibited fluoride removal and very poor fits were obtained for all models. Fitting was best described with a biphasic sigmoidal model with the degree of inhibition decreasing with increasing temperature suggesting that at least two processes are involved with fluoride sorption onto natural zeolite in the presence of Ba.

  1. Optimization, equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and desorption studies on the sorption of Cu(II) from an aqueous solution using marine green algae: Halimeda gracilis.

    Jayakumar, R; Rajasimman, M; Karthikeyan, C


    The aptitude of marine green algae Helimeda gracilis for sorption of Cu(II) ions from an aqueous solution was studied in batch experiments. The effect of relevant parameters such as function of pH, sorbent dosage, agitation speed and contact time was evaluated by using Response surface methodology (RSM). A maximum percentage removal of Cu (II) by Halimeda gracilis occurs at pH-4.49, sorbent dosage-1.98g/L, agitation speed-119.43rpm and contact time-60.21min. Further, the sorbent was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion, power function and elovich kinetic models. The results showed that the sorption process of Cu(II) ions followed well pseudo-second order kinetics. The sorption data of Cu(II) ions at 308.15K are fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, Sips and Toth isotherms. Sorption of Cu(II) onto marine green algae Helimeda gracilis followed the Langmuir and Toth isotherm models (R(2)=0.998 and R(2)=0.999) with the maximum sorption capacity of 38.46 and 38.07mg/g. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° showed that the sorption of Cu(II) ions onto Helimeda gracilis biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Desorption study shows that the sorbent could be regenerated using 0.2M HCl solution, with up to 89% recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Norfloxacin sorption and its thermodynamics on surface-modified carbon nanotubes.

    Wang, Zhenyu; Yu, Xiaodong; Pan, Bo; Xing, Baoshan


    Adsorption on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may affect the environmental behavior of organic contaminants including antibiotics. In this study, sorption of norfloxacin (NOR) onto graphitized multiwall CNTs (G-CNTs), carboxylated multiwall CNTs (C-CNTs), hydroxylated multiwall CNTs (H-CNTs), and activated carbon (AC) was investigated. All sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear and were fitted well by Freundlich and Polanyi-Manes models. AC showed the highest NOR sorption capacity because of its highest surface area. H-CNTs had much higher NOR sorption than C-CNTs, and the pi-pi electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions could explain the distinction between the two types of CNTs. Comparison of sorption coefficients at different pHs indicates that hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction also played major roles in sorption of NOR on CNTs. Furthermore, high sorption capacity and hysteresis of NOR on CNTs were demonstrated in this study, which needs to be considered for predicting environmental risks of CNTs and NOR. The results from thermodynamic analysis show that sorption of NOR on AC and CNTs was thermodynamically favorable and generally endothermic. Sorption site energy analysis illustrates a distribution of sorption energy, consistent with nonlinear isotherms, which indicates the heterogeneous sites on CNTs for NOR adsorption.

  3. Cadmium sorption in solution by a chitin: effect of pH; Sorption du cadmium en solution par une chitine: effet du pH

    Benguella, B.; Benaissa, H. [Universtie de Tlemcen, Lab. de Materiaux Sorbants et Traitement des Eaux, Dept. de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Tlemcen (Algeria)


    The pH is an essential factor to take into consideration in the sorption mechanisms of metals: it acts both on the metal speciation in solution and on the chemical behaviour of the surface of the sorbing material, and thus indirectly on the sorption mechanism. The effect of the initial pH of the solution on the cadmium sorption by raw state chitin has been studied in static conditions. The approach used is the determination of the sorption kinetics and equilibria for different values of initial pH (pH < 7-7.5). An increase of the initial pH value of the solution leads to an increase of the cadmium sorption capacity by chitin at the equilibrium. The Langmuir model has revealed to be convenient for a mathematical description of the sorption isotherms obtained. (J.S.)

  4. Heavy metal sorption by marine algae and algal by-products

    Sandau, E. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Sandau, P. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Pulz, O. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Zimmermann, M. [Technische Hochschule Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie und Biotechnik


    All the oceans are plentiful with marine algae. Non-viable marine macroalgae are able to adsorb heavy metal ions. Compared with other biosorbents, such as fungi, bacteria, yeasts and microalgae, they have the advantage of being easily available, cheap and having high heavy metal sorption capacities. The by-products of marine phaeophyceae are even more cost-effective heavy metal biosorbers. Experiments of heavy metal sorption using non-viable Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum and algal by-products were carried out to investigate the factors influencing and optimizing the heavy metal biosorption. The pH value, biomass concentration, heavy metal concentration, heavy metal species, competing ions, algal varieties and time were the most decisive parameters. The sorption isotherms showed increasing sorption capacities and decreasing sorption efficiencies with an increase in the initial heavy metal concentration. Sorption kinetics of different metals were established. Biomass concentration influenced the sorption efficiencies very much, but reduced the sorption capacity per g biomass. The pH value controlled the sorption (pH 3-7) and desorption (pH 1-2) decisively. Beside heavy metal contaminated model waters, actual industrial effluents were treated successfully by algal sorbents in batch experiments and continuous column tests. Transmission electron micrographs of different contaminated and untreated algal specimens are available. (orig.)

  5. Sorption isotherm studies of Cd(II) ions using living cells of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin) Butch.

    Pérez-Rama, M; Torres, E; Suárez, C; Herrero, C; Abalde, J


    The present work reports the use of living cells of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica for the biosorption of cadmium ions. For a better understanding of the biosorption characteristics, three fractions of removed cadmium (total, bioadsorbed and intracellular) were measured in the cells after 24 and 72 h of exposure to different initial cadmium concentrations (0.6-45 mg L(-1)). Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models were suitable for describing the sorption of cadmium ions by this microalga. The maximum sorption capacity was estimated to be 40.22 mg Cd g(-1) after 72 h using the Langmuir sorption model. In the lower cadmium concentrations, metal removed intracellularly was higher than that removed on the microalgal cell surface. Therefore, the intracellular fraction contributed more to the total removed cadmium than the fraction bioadsorbed to the cellular surface. The results showed that the cadmium removal capacity using living biomass could be much more effective than with non-living biomass due to the intracellular bioaccumulation. According to the microorganism selected and its tolerance to the toxic effect of the metal, the cadmium content in the intracellular fraction can become very significant, just like it happened with Tetraselmis.

  6. Enhancement of CO2 sorption uptake on hydrotalcite by impregnation with K2CO3.

    Lee, Jung Moo; Min, Yoon Jae; Lee, Ki Bong; Jeon, Sang Goo; Na, Jeong Geol; Ryu, Ho Jung


    The awareness of symptoms of global warming and its seriousness urges the development of technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is a representative greenhouse gas, and numerous methods to capture and storage CO(2) have been considered. Recently, the technology to remove high-temperature CO(2) by sorption has received lots of attention. In this study, hydrotalcite, which has been known to have CO(2) sorption capability at high temperature, was impregnated with K(2)CO(3) to enhance CO(2) sorption uptake, and the mechanism of CO(2) sorption enhancement on K(2)CO(3)-promoted hydrotalcite was investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to measure equilibrium CO(2) sorption uptake and to estimate CO(2) sorption kinetics. The analyses based on N(2) gas physisorption, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Raman spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to elucidate the characteristics of sorbents and the mechanism of enhanced CO(2) sorption. The equilibrium CO(2) sorption uptake on hydrotalcite could be increased up to 10 times by impregnation with K(2)CO(3), and there was an optimal amount of K(2)CO(3) for a maximum equilibrium CO(2) sorption uptake. In the K(2)CO(3)-promoted hydrotalcite, K(2)CO(3) was incorporated without changing the structure of hydrotalcite and it was thermally stabilized, resulting in the enhanced equilibrium CO(2) sorption uptake and fast CO(2) sorption kinetics.

  7. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie


    New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  8. Lead sorption-desorption from organic residues.

    Duarte Zaragoza, Victor M; Carrillo, Rogelio; Gutierrez Castorena, Carmen M


    Sorption and desorption are mechanisms involved in the reduction of metal mobility and bioavailability in organic materials. Metal release from substrates is controlled by desorption. The capacity of coffee husk and pulp residues, vermicompost and cow manure to adsorb Pb2+ was evaluated. The mechanisms involved in the sorption process were also studied. Organic materials retained high concentrations of lead (up to 36,000 mg L(-1)); however, the mechanisms of sorption varied according to the characteristics of each material: degree of decomposition, pH, cation exchange capacity and percentage of organic matter. Vermicompost and manure removed 98% of the Pb from solution. Lead precipitated in manure and vermicompost, forming lead oxide (PbO) and lead ferrite (PbFe4O7). Adsorption isotherms did not fit to the typical Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Not only specific and non-specific adsorption was observed, but also precipitation and coprecipitation. Lead desorption from vermicompost and cow manure was less than 2%. For remediation of Pb-polluted sites, the application of vermicompost and manure is recommended in places with alkaline soils because Pb precipitation can be induced, whereas coffee pulp residue is recommended for acidic soils where Pb is adsorbed.

  9. Sorption of organic carbon compounds to the fine fraction of surface and Subsurface Soils

    Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Zinn, Yuri [Federal University of Lavras, Brazil; Gisladottir, Gudrun [University of Iceland; Ann, Russell [Iowa State University


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transported from the soil surface is stabilized in deeper soil profiles by physicochemical sorption processes. However, it is unclear how different forms of organic carbon (OC) compounds common in soil organic matter interact with soil minerals in the surface (A) and subsurface (B) horizons. We added four compounds (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) to the silt- and clay-sized fraction (fine fraction) of A and B horizons of eight soils from varying climates (3 temperate, 3 tropical, 1 arctic and 1 sub-arctic). Equilibriumbatch experiments were conducted using 0 to 100 mg C L 1 of 14C-labeled compounds for 8 h. Sorption parameters (maximum sorption capacity, Qmax and binding coefficient, k) calculated by fitting sorption data to the Langmuir equation showed that Qmax of A and B horizons was very similar for all compounds. Both Qmax and k values were related to sorbate properties, with Qmax being lowest for glucose (20 500 mg kg 1), highest for stearic acid (20,000 200,000 mg kg 1), and intermediate for both cinnamic acid (200 4000 mg kg 1) and starch (400 6000 mg kg 1). Simple linear regression analysis revealed that physicochemical properties of the sorbents influenced the Qmax of cinnamic acid and stearic acid, but not glucose and starch. The sorbent properties did not show predictive ability for binding coefficient k. By using the fine fraction as sorbent, we found that the mineral fractions of A horizons are equally reactive as the B horizons irrespective of soil organic carbon content.

  10. 影响内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的因素研究%Study on Influence Factors of Domestic Coal Ship Maximum Cargo Capacity



    Under the influence of domestic coal ship navigation area, seasonal, oil-water reserves, con-stant, ship ballast water storage and other factors, the change of large cargo capacity, the paper gives the cal-culation method of domestic coal ship maximum cargo capacity, analysis of the factors affecting the domestic coal ship maximum cargo capacity and determination method, is of guiding significance in practical work.%内贸煤炭船受航区、季节、油水储备量、船舶常数、压载水存量等因素的影响,其载货能力变化较大。文章给出了计算内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的方法,分析了影响内贸煤炭船最大载货能力的各项因素及确定方法,对实际工作有指导意义。

  11. 北京电网风电发展与消纳能力%Development and Maximum Accommodating Capacity of Wind Power in Beijing Power Grid

    余潇潇; 张璞; 刘兆燕; 左向红; 张凯; 田子婵


    结合北京地区风力资源分布情况及风力发电的并网现状,对北京地区风力发电的发展情况进行了预测。预测内容包括规划风力发电的输出特性,以及“十三五”期间北京地区风力发电的发展情况。提出了一种以电网的负荷特性、常规电源调峰能力、新能源处理特性及外受电力交换情况作为边界条件的风电消纳计算方法。运用该方法对北京电网“十二五”末及“十三五”末对风电的消纳能力进行了计算,并提出了促进北京电网风电发展的相关技术措施。%According to the distribution of wind energy resource and the present situation of wind power integration in Beijing, the forecast of wind power generation development in Beijing power grid was provided, which focused on the output characteristics of the planned wind power projects and the development of wind power generation in Beijing during the 13th national five ̄year plan. A calculation method of the maximum proliferation ratio of wind power in Beijing power grid was proposed, whose boundary condition included the load characteristics of grid, the peak shift capability of local power generation plants, the new energy processing features and the power flow exchange limit with the outside grid. The method was used to calculate the maximum penetration ratio of wind power in Beijing power grid during the end of the 12th, 13th national five ̄year plan. Finally, this paper suggested some related technical measures to promote the development of wind power in Beijing power grid.

  12. Siderophore sorption to clays.

    Maurice, Patricia A; Haack, Elizabeth A; Mishra, Bhoopesh


    Siderophores are low molecular weight organic ligands exuded by some aerobic organisms and plants to acquire Fe under Fe-limited conditions. The hydroxamate siderophores may sorb to aluminosilicate clays through a variety of mechanisms depending upon the nature of the clay and of the siderophore along with solution conditions such as pH, ionic strength, and presence of metal cations. They may also affect metal binding to clays. Here, we review previous studies of siderophore sorption to aluminosilicate clays; briefly discuss how the techniques of X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy may be applied to such studies; review effects of siderophores on metal sorption to clays; and highlight some areas for future research.




    This report presents information and references to aid in the selection of 99Tc sorption media for feasibility studies regarding the removal of 99Tc from Hanford's low activity waste. The report contains literature search material for sorption media (including ion exchange media) for the most tested media to date, including SuperLig 639, Reillex HPQ, TAM (Kruion), Purolite A520E and A530E, and Dowex 1X8. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities in a safe, environmentally compliant, cost-effective and energy-effective manner.

  14. [Optimization for MSW logistics of new Xicheng and new Dongcheng districts in Beijing based on the maximum capacity of transfer stations].

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Guo-xue; Zhang, Hong-yu; Luo, Yi-ming


    It is necessary to achieve the optimization for MSW logistics based on the new Xicheng (combining the former Xicheng and the former Xuanwu districts) and the new Dongcheng (combining the former Dongcheng and the former Chongwen districts) districts of Beijing. Based on the analysis of current MSW logistics system, transfer station's processing capacity and the terminal treatment facilities' conditions of the four former districts and other districts, a MSW logistics system was built by GIS methods considering transregional treatment. This article analyzes the MSW material balance of current and new logistics systems. Results show that the optimization scheme could reduce the MSW collection distance of the new Xicheng and the new Dongcheng by 9.3 x 10(5) km x a(-1), reduced by 10% compared with current logistics. Under the new logistics solution, considering transregional treatment, can reduce landfill treatment of untreated MSW about 28.3%. If the construction of three incineration plants finished based on the new logistics, the system's optimal ratio of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill can reach 3.8 : 4.5 : 1.7 compared with 1 : 4.8 : 4.2, which is the ratio of current MSW logistics. The ratio of the amount of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill approximately reach 4 : 3 : 3 which is the target for 2015. The research results are benefit in increasing MSW utilization and reduction rate of the new Dongcheng and Xicheng districts and nearby districts.

  15. A test of the 'one-point method' for estimating maximum carboxylation capacity from field-measured, light-saturated photosynthesis.

    De Kauwe, Martin G; Lin, Yan-Shih; Wright, Ian J; Medlyn, Belinda E; Crous, Kristine Y; Ellsworth, David S; Maire, Vincent; Prentice, I Colin; Atkin, Owen K; Rogers, Alistair; Niinemets, Ülo; Serbin, Shawn P; Meir, Patrick; Uddling, Johan; Togashi, Henrique F; Tarvainen, Lasse; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Evans, Bradley J; Ishida, F Yoko; Domingues, Tomas F


    Simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ). Estimating this parameter using A-Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci ) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat ) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a 'one-point method'. We used a global dataset of A-Ci curves (564 species from 46 field sites, covering a range of plant functional types) to test the validity of an alternative approach to estimate Vcmax from Asat via this 'one-point method'. If leaf respiration during the day (Rday ) is known exactly, Vcmax can be estimated with an r(2) value of 0.98 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 8.19 μmol m(-2) s(-1) . However, Rday typically must be estimated. Estimating Rday as 1.5% of Vcmax, we found that Vcmax could be estimated with an r(2) of 0.95 and an RMSE of 17.1 μmol m(-2) s(-1) . The one-point method provides a robust means to expand current databases of field-measured Vcmax , giving new potential to improve vegetation models and quantify the environmental drivers of Vcmax variation.

  16. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo


    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Features of the sorption of phenylalanine by profiled ion-exchange membranes

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Goleva, E. A.; Selemenev, V. F.


    Features of the equilibrium sorption of phenylalanine from neutral media by profiled ion-exchange membranes in a wide range of concentrations is studied under static conditions. The mechanism of phenylalanine sorption by ion-exchange membranes with profiled and smooth surfaces is discussed. It is shown that phenylalanine sorption is accompanied by the formation of spatial associative structures of the aminoacid in an external equilibrium solution, and in a solution of the membrane's pore spaces or on its surface. The increased sorption capacity of the profiled membranes is explained by features of the microstructure of their surface and volume.

  18. Description of the phosphorus sorption and desorption processes in lowland peaty clay soils

    Schoumans, O.F.


    To determine phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface water, information is needed about the behavior of P in soils. In this study, the sorption and desorption characteristics of lowland peaty clay soils are described based on experimental laboratory studies. The maximum P sorption ca

  19. Effects of a short-term differently dosed aerobic exercise on maximum aerobic capacity in breast cancer survivors: A pilot study

    Brdareski Zorica


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Regular physical activity and exercise improves quality of life and possibly reduces risk of disease relapse and prolongs survival in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training, on aerobic capacity (VO2max in breast cancer survivors. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical study included 18 female breast cancer survivors in stage I-IIIA, in which the primary treatment was accomplished at least 3 months before the study inclusion. In all the patients VO2max was estimated using the Astrand’s protocol on a bicycle-ergometer (before and after 3 weeks of training, while subjective assessment of exertion during training were estimated by the Category-Ratio RPE Scale. Each workout lasted 21 minutes: 3 minutes for warmup and cool-down each and 15 min of full training, 2 times a week. The workload in the group E1 was predefined at the level of 45% to 65% of individual VO2max, and in the group E2 it was based on subjective evaluation of exertion, at the level marked 4-6. Data on the subjective feeling of exertion were collected after each training course in both groups. Results. We recorded a statistically significant improvement in VO2max in both groups (E1 - 11.86%; E2 - 17.72%, with no significant differences between the groups. The workload level, determined by the percent of VO2max, was different between the groups E1 and E2 (50.47 ± 7.02% vs 55.58 ± 9.58%, as well as subjective perception of exertion (in the groups E1 and E2, 11.6% and 41.6% of training, respectively, was graded in the mark 6. Conclusion. In our group of breast cancer survivors, a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training significantly improved the level of VO2max.

  20. The effect of 40-m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint speed endurance, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players.

    Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested

  1. The Response of Artificial Aging to Sorption Properties of Biochar for Potentially Toxic Heavy Metals

    Frišták Vladimír


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of simulated conditions of artificial aging on sorption capacity of two types of biochar. These were produced by slow pyrolysis from different feedstock - beech wood chips (BC A and garden green waste residues (BC B. Cadmium served as a model for potentially toxic metals. Twenty freeze-thaw cycles were used to simulate physical aging. The determination of biochar physicochemical properties showed main changes in CEC and SA values of aged sorbents. The maximum sorption capacities of aged BC A sorbent were higher by about 26 % and aged BC B sorbent by about 20% compared to Qmax of non-aged biochar. Qmax of aged BC B peaked at 9.4 mg g-1 whereas BC A sorbed significantly less Cd. FT-IR analyses confirmed the changes in structural composition and content of functional groups on biochar surfaces. The artificial physical aging model was assessed as an efficient tool for investigation of natural weathering conditions.

  2. Long-term tillage effects on soil metolachlor sorption and desorption behavior.

    Ding, Guangwei; Novak, Jeffrey M; Herbert, Stephen; Xing, Baoshan


    Sorption and desorption are two important processes that influence the amount of pesticides retained by soils. However, the detailed sorption mechanisms as influenced by soil tillage management are unclear. This study examined the sorption and desorption characteristics of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)-acetamide] using the soil samples collected from the long-term conservation tillage (CnT) and conventional tillage (CT) research plots established in 1979 in Darlinton, SC. Humic acid (HA) and humin were extracted from the soils and used in the sorption experiments along with the whole soil samples. The sorption experiments were conducted using a batch-equilibration method. Three sequential desorption rinses were carried out following the sorption experiments. By comparing metolachlor sorption and desorption results we observed hysteresis for all soil samples and their organic matter fractions. Sorption nonlinearity (N) and hysteresis were dependent on the structure and composition of soil organic matter (SOM), e.g., Freundlich isotherm exponents (N) of HA and humin from CnT were higher than those of CT treatment, which may be related to high aromaticity of SOM fractions in CT treatment. Sorption capacity (K'f) was positively correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. These results show that long-term tillage management can greatly affect metolachlor sorption and desorption behavior probably by qualitative differences in the structural characteristics of the humic substances.


    ZHANG Lei; SONG Feng-bin


    Four soils, phaeozem (PM), saline-alkali soil (SA), meadow albic bleached soil (MA) and dark brown forest soil (DB) from Northeast China were used to examine the sorption and desorption characteristics of Cd and pH influence on it. According to sorption experiment without pH control, the order of amount of absorbed Cd by soils was:SA>PM>DB>MA. The results from non-linear fitting method showed that Langmuir and Freundrich models were more adaptable than Temkin model in describing the sorption data. The maximum sorption amounts from Langmuir model were: PM>SA>MA>DB. Exponential equation for PM and SA and quadratic equation for MA and DB were suitable to fit the desorption data. The order of average desorption percentage was: MA>DB>PM>SA. The amounts of sorption by PM, DB and MA reached the maximum in pH 9.0, while sorption by SA was linearly increased in the experimental range of pH 3.3-11.4. In uniform pH, however, Cd sorption by SA was the minimum among four soils, which indicated that the more amounts of Cd absorbed by SA in isotherm sorption were ascribed to the higher soil pH. The higher sorption of Cd in PM resulted from the higher percentage of organic matter and clay components.

  4. Sorption properties of greenwaste biochar for two triazine pesticides.

    Zheng, Wei; Guo, Mingxin; Chow, Teresa; Bennett, Douglas N; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore


    Biochar is a carbon-rich product generated from biomass through pyrolysis. This study evaluated the ability of an unmodified biochar to sorb two triazine pesticides - atrazine and simazine, and thereby explored potential environmental values of biochar on mitigating pesticide pollution in agricultural production and removing contaminants from wastewater. A greenwaste biochar was produced by heating waste biomass under the oxygen-limited condition at 450 degrees C. The effects of several experimental parameters, including biochar particle size, contact time, solid/solution ratio, and solution pH on the sorption of atrazine and simazine were comprehensively investigated. The biochar with small particle size needed less time to reach sorption equilibrium. The sorption affinity of the biochar for the two pesticides increased with decreasing solid/solution ratio. The sorbed amounts (C(s)) of atrazine and simazine increased from 451 to 1158 mg/kg and 243 to 1066 mg/kg, respectively, when the solid/solution ratio decreased from 1:50 to 1:1000 (g/mL). The sorption of the biochar for both pesticides was favored by low pH. The sorption isotherms of atrazine and simazine on the biochar are nonlinear and follow a Freundlich model. When atrazine and simazine co-existed, a competitive sorption occurred between these two pesticides on the biochar, reflecting a decrease in sorption capacity (K(f)) from 435 to 286 for atrazine and from 514 to 212 for simazine. Combined adsorption and partition mechanisms well depicted sorption of atrazine and simazine on carbonized and noncarbonized fractions of the biochar in the single-solute and co-solute systems.

  5. Reversible Second Order Kinetics of Sorption-Desorption of Cr(VI Ion on Activated Carbon from Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Iip Izul Falah


    Full Text Available Activated carbon (AC from palm empty fruit bunches has been prepared, and this material was then used to adsorb Cr(VI from a solution. Characterization of the AC was conducted by detection of its functional groups, determination of total volatile compounds (VC content and its iodine number. Study on sorption-desorption kinetics was conducted by comparing results of evaluations of several models with proposed reversible second order model using the data produced in this work. Results of the works showed that the AC had similar characters compared with the AC produced by previous researchers. Application of the kinetics models on sorption Cr(VI onto the AC showed that nearly all of the models gave a good linearity. However, only the proposed model had a good relation with Langmuir isotherm, with respectively sorption (ks and desorption (kd constants were 5.75 x 10-4‑1.min-1 and 2.20 x 10-3 min-1; maximum sorption capacity, qm = 20.00 mg.g-1; and equilibrium constant, K from kinetics experiment (0.261 was comparable with the result from the isotherm experiment (0.269 Hence, using this model, kinetics and Langmuir parameters can probably be determined from a single kinetics data experiment.

  6. Sorption product heat pump

    Antonini, G.; Francois, O.; Gendarme, J.P.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.


    A continuous operating, and thus with enhanced performance, heat pump is presented. In this heat pump, the heat transfer between the hot source and the output system or network is realized through a solid adsorbent-refrigerant couple having endothermal desorption properties and exothermal adsorption or absorption properties. The sorption products are carried in a closed cycle movement between the two parts of the reactor. Each side of the reactor is assuming always the same function and the thermal inertia have to be overcome only when starting the reactor.

  7. A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels

    Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia, E-mail:


    Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing–thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10{sup −5} mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

  8. Effects of biochar and clay amendment on nutrient sorption of an Arenosol in semi-arid NE-Brazil

    Beusch, Christine; Kaupenjohann, Martin


    In the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil nutrient-poor Arenosol with a low capacity to retain water and nutrients is the predominant soil type. Our aim is to provide a long-term melioration of the soils with locally available and inexpensive materials. We hypothesize an increase in nutrient sorption by the addition of biochar and clay. We conducted adsorption experiments according to OECD 106 batch equilibrium method in order to test this hypothesis. Sandy Arenosol, locally produced pyrolized biochar made of Prosopis juliflora, and a clayey Vertisol with a clay content of 69.8 %, all from our project area in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil, were used. The percentage of biochar and Vertisol added were 0 % (pure Arenosol), 1 %, 2.5 %, 5 %, 10 %, 100 % (pure biochar respectively Vertisol). Samples were shaken for 24 hours in a 1:5 solid-solution ratio in six different concentrations of Ammonium-N, Nitrate-N (0 - 25 mg L-1 each), Phosphorus (0 - 19.8 mg L-1) and Potassium (0 - 50 mg L-1). These concentrations were chosen to represent a common range of nutrients in a prevalent quaternary fertilization scheme of N:P:K of 1:0.4:1, with half NH4-N and NO3-N each. Then, where possible, sorption isotherms according to Langmuir were derived. Addition of biochar and Vertisol only showed marginal effects on Ammonium sorption. We detected a high loss of Ammonium with pure biochar, we assume loss of gaseous NH3. High rates of biochar addition caused Nitrate retention. Biochar increased P sorption with a maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of 27.35 mg kg-1 for the 5 % amendment, although some P was leached out (up to 1.58 mg kg-1 for the 10 % addition). Phosphate sorption on Vertisol was even higher with a qmax for the 5 % addition of 60.77 mg kg-1. Potassium did not sorb to biochar, but was strongly leached out (84.19 mg kg-1 out of the 5 % addition). For Vertisol we observed a strong Potassium sorption that is linear within the concentration range we tested. A possible enhancement of nutrient

  9. CO2 Sorption to Subsingle Hydration Layer Montmorillonite Clay Studied by Excess Sorption and Neutron Diffraction Measurements

    Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene S.; Wallacher, Dirk; Hauβ, Thomas; Schaef, Herbert T.; Qafoku, Odeta; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Krukowski, Elizabeth G.; Stack, Andrew G.; Grimm, Nico; Bodnar, Robert J.


    Geologic storage of CO2 requires that the caprock sealing the storage rock is highly impermeable to CO2. Swelling clays, which are important components of caprocks, may interact with CO2 leading to volume change and potentially impacting the seal quality. The interactions of supercritical (sc) CO2 with Na saturated montmorillonite clay containing a subsingle layer of water in the interlayer region have been studied by sorption and neutron diffraction techniques. The excess sorption isotherms show maxima at bulk CO2 densities of ≈0.15 g/cm3, followed by an approximately linear decrease of excess sorption to zero and negative values with increasing CO2 bulk density. Neutron diffraction experiments on the same clay sample measured interlayer spacing and composition. The results show that limited amounts of CO2 are sorbed into the interlayer region, leading to depression of the interlayer peak intensity and an increase of the d(001) spacing by ca. 0.5 Å. The density of CO2 in the clay pores is relatively stable over a wide range of CO2 pressures at a given temperature, indicating the formation of a clay-CO2 phase. Finally, at the excess sorption maximum, increasing CO2 sorption with decreasing temperature is observed while the high-pressure sorption properties exhibit weak temperature dependence.

  10. Understanding mechanisms to predict and optimize biochar for agrochemical sorption

    Hall, Kathleen; Gámiz, Beatriz; Cox, Lucia; Spokas, Kurt; Koskinen, William


    The ability of biochars to bind various organic compounds has been widely studied due to the potential effects on pesticide fate in soil and interest in the adoption of biochar as a "low-cost" filter material. However, the sorptive behaviors of biochars are extremely variable and much of the reported data is limited to specific biochar-chemical interactions. The lack of knowledge regarding biochar sorption mechanisms limits our current ability to predict and optimize biochar's use. This work unveils mechanistic drivers of organic pesticide sorption on biochars through targeted alteration of biochar surface chemistry. Changes in the quantity and type of functional groups on biochars and other black carbon materials were achieved through treatments with H2O2, and CO2, and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDX). The sorption capacities of these treated biochars were subsequently measured to evaluate the effects of different surface moieties on the binding of target herbicides cyhalofop acid ((R)-2-[4-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy]propionic acid) and clomazone (2-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one). Sorption of both herbicides on the studied biochars increased following H2O2 activation; however, the influence of the H2O2 activation on sorption was more pronounced for cyhalofop acid (pKa = 3.9) than clomazone, which is non-ionizable. Increased cyhalofop acid sorption on H2O2 treated biochars can be attributed to the increase in oxygen containing functional groups as well as the decrease in biochar pH. In contrast, CO2 activation reduced the sorption of cyhalofop acid compared to untreated biochar. FTIR data suggest the reduced sorption on CO2 -treated biochar was due to the removal of surface carboxyl groups, further supporting the role of specific functionality in the sorption of ionizable herbicides. Results from this work offer insight into the mechanisms of sorption and

  11. Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das


    Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media.

  12. Sorption behavior of Eu(III) from an aqueous solution onto modified hydroxyapatite: kinetics, modeling and thermodynamics.

    Gad, H M H; Youssef, M A


    Nano-pore hydroxyapatite (HAP) was prepared using physical activation of raw and chemically modified [using Acid; HNO3 (HAPA) or Base; NaOH (HAPB)] bone char (BC) by heating at 900°C for 1 hr to obtain HAP9, HAPA9 and HAPB9, respectively. Investigation the effects of thermal and chemical treatment of prepared nano-hydroxyapatite on elemental analysis, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy, surface area and consequently, the sorption behavior of Eu (III) ions onto the prepared nano-pore hydroxyapatite. Batch adsorption technique was used and the obtained results revealed that the optimum pH = 5.0. The % removal of europium (III) using HAPA9 and HAPB9 reach to 100% within 15 min, while HAP9 after 180 min and the pseudo-second-order was found to be fit to the experimental data. According to Langmuir model, the maximum sorption capacities (qm) were 123.8, 384.9 and 74.2 mg g(-1) for HAP9, HAPA9 and HAPB9, respectively. The reaction is spontaneous according to ΔG° value. HCl (0.5 M) was the most efficient desorbing agent for recovery of Eu(III) and regeneration of adsorbents. Finally, nano-pore hydroxyapatite (HAP) was low cost and very effective adsorbent for sorption or recovery of Eu(III) from aqueous solutions and remediation of environmental pollution.

  13. 动态约束下的风电场最大可接入容量研究%Research on maximum access capacity of wind farm based on dynamic constraints

    张俊; 晁勤; 段晓田; 袁铁江


    基于DIgSILENT/Power Factory仿真平台建立了新疆某地区含风电场的电力系统仿真模型,以电压和频率两个电气量作为动态约束条件,通过对风电场的穿透功率极限的计算和仿真,确定了该地区电网的风电场最大可接入容量.研究结果表明:采用频率约束法计算和时域仿真分析相结合确定的风电场最大可接入容量,能保证风电系统的稳定运行;并且优化影响风电系统稳定运行的因素和不同约束条件,对确定系统的风电场最大可接入容量和风电场的设计、运行和规划都有重要意义.%In this paper, a simulation model of power system with wind farm in some area of Xinjiang is established based on the DIgSILENT/Power Factory simulation platform. The wind power penetration limit is calculated and simulated with voltage and frequency being considered as dynamic constraints, and then the maximum access capacity of wind power plant of Xinjiang is determined. Research results show that the maximum access capacity of wind farm that determined by the combination of the frequency restriction and the time simulation can ensure the stability of wind power system. Besides, the optimization of some factors and other security constraints play a significant role in determining the maximum access capacity of wind farm and its designing,operating and planning.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50667002).

  14. Hydrogen peroxide modified sodium titanates with improved sorption capabilities

    Nyman, May D.; Hobbs, David T.


    The sorption capabilities (e.g., kinetics, selectivity, capacity) of the baseline monosodium titanate (MST) sorbent material currently being used to sequester Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radioisotopes at the Savannah River Site are significantly improved when treated with hydrogen peroxide; either during the original synthesis of MST, or, as a post-treatment step after the MST has been synthesized. It is expected that these peroxide-modified MST sorbent materials will have significantly improved sorption capabilities for non-radioactive cations found in industrial processes and waste streams.

  15. Maximum Fidelity

    Kinkhabwala, Ali


    The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...

  16. Comparative sorption and desorption behaviors of PFHxS and PFOS on sequentially extracted humic substances

    Lixia Zhao; Yifeng Zhang; Shuhong Fang; Lingyan Zhu; Zhengtao Liu


    The sorption and desorption behaviors of two perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs),including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on two humic acids (HAs) and humin (HM),which were extracted from a peat soil,were investigated.The sorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the sorption of PFOS on the humic substances (HSs) was much higher than PFHxS.For the same PFSA compound,the sorption on HSs followed the order of HM > HA2 > HA1.These suggest that hydrophobic interaction plays a key role in the sorption of PFSAs on HSs.The sorption capacities of PFSAs on HSs were significantly related to their aliphaticity,but negatively correlated to aromatic carbons,indicating the importance of aliphatic groups in the sorption of PFSAs.Compared to PFOS,PFHxS displayed distinct desorption hysteresis,probably due to irreversible pore deformation after sorption of PFHxS.The sorption of the two PFSAs on HSs decreased with an increase in pH in the solution.This is ascribed to the electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding at lower pH.Hydrophobic interaction might also be stronger at lower pH due to the aggregation of HSs.

  17. Energy Aspects of CO2 Sorption in the Context of Sequestration in Coal Deposits

    PawełBaran; Katarzyna Zarębska; Adam Nodzeński


    This paper summarises the results of experimental testing of carbon dioxide sorption on five coal samples. Sorption tests were done at the temperature 288, 298, 313 and 323 K, in the pressure range 0-5 MPa. The analysis of sorption isotherms and the effects of temperature on sorp-tion capacity reveal that in the case of samples NR1, Pn, Tu, Be the temperature increase from 298 to 323 K led to 1.3-fold decrease of the sorption value. In the case of coal Th the decrease of sorption capacity was 3-fold. It appears that the analysis of maceral content plays a major role. In the case of coals, porosity is associated with the petrographic composition. The values of the isosteric heat of sorption and the work of expansion and desorption were derived for the investigated sorption sys-tems. Test data reveal that for hard coals the isosteric heat is inversely proportional to the“reserve”of volumetric work-a major parameter triggering the sudden release of gas from the coalbed, thus enabling us to assess the potential risk involved in rapid unsealing of the coalbed.

  18. Aminosilane-Functionalized Cellulosic Polymer for Increased Carbon Dioxide Sorption

    Pacheco, Diana M.


    Improvement in the efficiency of CO 2 separation from flue gases is a high-priority research area to reduce the total energy cost of carbon capture and sequestration technologies in coal-fired power plants. Efficient CO 2 removal from flue gases by adsorption systems requires the design of novel sorbents capable of capturing, concentrating, and recovering CO 2 on a cost-effective basis. This paper describes the preparation of an aminosilane-functionalized cellulosic polymer sorbent with enhanced CO 2 sorption capacity and promising performance for use in postcombustion carbon capture via rapid temperature-swing adsorption systems. The introduction of aminosilane functionalities onto the backbone of cellulose acetate was achieved by the anhydrous grafting of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3- aminoisobutyldimethylmethoxysilane. The dry sorption capacity of the modified cellulosic polymer reached 27 cc (STP) CO 2/cc sorbent (1.01 mmol/g sorbent) at 1 atm and 39 cc (STP) CO 2/cc sorbent (1.46 mmol/g sorbent) at 5 atm and 308 K. The amine loading achieved was 5.18 mmol amine(nitrogen)/g sorbent. Exposure to water vapor after the first dry sorption cycle increased the dry sorption capacity of the sorbent by 12% at 1 atm, suggesting its potential for rapid cyclic adsorption processes under humid feed conditions. The CO 2 sorbent was characterized in terms of chemical composition, density changes, molecular structure, thermal stability, and surface morphology. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Template polymerization synthesis of hydrogel and silica composite for sorption of some rare earth elements.

    Borai, E H; Hamed, M G; El-kamash, A M; Siyam, T; El-Sayed, G O


    New sorbents containing 2-acrylamido 2-methyl propane sulphonic acid monomer onto poly(vinyl pyrilidone) P(VP-AMPS) hydrogel and P(VP-AMPS-SiO2) composite have been synthesized by radiation template polymerization. The effect of absorbed dose rate (kGy), crosslinker concentration and polymer/monomer ratio on the degree of template polymerization of P(VP-AMPS) hydrogel was studied. The degree of polymerization was evaluated by the calculated percent conversion and swelling degree. The maximum capacity of P(VP-AMPS) hydrogel toward Cu(+2) metal ion found to be 91 mg/gm. The polymeric composite P(VP-AMPS-SiO2) has been successfully synthesized. The structure of the prepared hydrogel and composite were confirmed by FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) and SEM micrograph. Batch adsorption studies for La(3+), Ce(3+), Nd(3+), Eu(3+) and Pb(+2) metal ions on the prepared hydrogel and composite were investigated as a function of shaking time, pH and metal ion concentration. The sorption efficiency of the prepared hydrogel and composite toward light rare earth elements (LREEs) are arranged in the order La(3+)>Ce(3+)>Nd(3+)>Eu(3+). The obtained results demonstrated the superior adsorption capacity of the composite over the polymeric hydrogel. The maximum capacity of the polymeric composite was found to be 116, 103, 92, 76, 74 mg/gm for La(3+), Ce(3+), Nd(3+), Eu(3+) and Pb(2+) metal ions respectively.

  20. Experimental studies of Cs, Sr, Ni, and Eu sorption on Na-illite and the modelling of Cs sorption

    Poinssot, C.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.


    A natural illite (illite du Puy) was purified and converted to the homo-ionic Na-form. The conditioned Na-illite was characterised in terms of its mineralogy, chemical inventory and physico-chemical properties. The structural formula was determined from energy dispersive spectroscopic analyses (SEM/TEM-EDS) and bulk chemistry measurements. A cation exchange capacity of 127 meq kg{sup -1} was determined by the {sup 22}Na isotope dilution method at neutral pH. The Na-CEC was also measured as a function of pH. The stability of Na-illite as a function of pH in the range between 3 and 6 was investigated. At low pH values partial dissolution of the illite occurs releasing the structural elements Al, Si, Mg, and K into solution. The presence of Ca and Sr in solution was interpreted as being due to desorption from cation exchange sites. All of these elements are also present at neutral pH but at considerably lower levels. Such effects cannot be avoided and must be considered in the interpretation of the sorption measurements. The main focus of the experimental work presented here is on the sorption behaviour of Cs, Sr, Ni and Eu on conditioned Na-illite as a function of NaClO{sub 4} background electrolyte concentration (0.1 and 0.01 M), nuclide concentration and pH in the range between 3 and 11. Sorption edge data (R{sub d} versus pH) and sorption isotherms (quantity of nuclide sorbed versus equilibrium nuclide concentration) are presented for these four elements. Prior to beginning these experiments, sorption kinetics were measured. The broad based pool of sorption measurements generated from this work will provide the source data sets for subsequent modelling. So far only the Cs sorption measurements have been modelled. A two site cation exchange model was developed to describe the sorption of Cs over the whole range of experimental conditions. The two site types were termed 'frayed edge sites' (FES, high affinity/low capacity) and 'type II sites

  1. Sorption Behaviours of Exfoliated Graphite

    戴光泽; 伍川辉


    Exfoliated graphite (EG) is selected as a new kind of sorbent to sorb heavy oil spilled. In order to make use of EG more effectively, some basic experiments are performed to investigate its sorption properties,i.e., specific sorption, height of saturation layer, sorption time constant. In the present experiments, A-grade heavy oil is employed as a standard sorbate. It is concluded that 1) under the condition that the area of solid (filter bottom)-liquid (heavy oil) interface is a constant, specific sorption usually decreases when the amount of EG filled or the apparent bulk density increase; however, the specific sorption initially increases when the apparent bulk density is too low and the amount of EG filled is too much; 2) under the condition that the apparent bulk density of EG filled is a constant, the sorption time constant tends to increase when the amount of EG filled increases; however, for a constant amount of EG filled, the sorption time constant will decrease when the apparent bulk density increases.

  2. Sorption of sulphamethoxazole by the biochars derived from rice straw and alligator flag.

    Li, Tingqiang; Han, Xuan; Liang, Chengfeng; Shohag, M J I; Yang, Xiaoe


    The sorption ability of sulphamethoxazole (SMX) by biochar derived from rice straw (RS) and alligator flag (AF) at 600°C was studied to assess the ability of biochar as adsorbent to remove SMX from aqueous solution. The results indicated that sorption of SMX by biochars was well described using the Langmuir equation (R2>0.94), and the maximum sorption parameter (Q) of RS (3650 mg kg(-1)) was much higher than that of AF (1963 mg kg(-1)). Temperature had no effect on SMX sorption by biochars, while thermodynamics analysis indicated that the sorption of SMX on both biochars was a spontaneous physical process. The d 250 RS (diameter of RS sieved through 250 µm) and d 150 AF (diameter of AF sieved through 150 µm) showed excellent sorption ability for SMX. The sorption amount of RS was larger than that of AF when pH<7, whereas, the sorption amount of AF surpassed RS when pH≥7. The presence of Cu2+ and/or Cd2+ ion at low concentrations (20 mg L(-1)) significantly (P<0.05) increased the sorption of SMX on both RS and AF. Our study confirms that biochar derived from the wetland plants could be used as effective adsorbents to remove SMX from aqueous solution.

  3. Characterization of natural zeolite clinoptilolite for sorption of contaminants

    Xingu-Contreras, E., E-mail:; García-Rosales, G., E-mail: [Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca (Mexico); García-Sosa, I., E-mail:; Cabral-Prieto, A., E-mail:; Solache-Ríos, M., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Química (Mexico)


    The nanoparticles technology has received considerable attention for its potential applications in groundwater treatment for the removal of various pollutants as Cadmium. In this work, iron boride nanoparticles were synthesized in pure form and in presence of homo-ionized zeolite clinoptilolite, as support material. These materials were used for removing Cd (II) from aqueous solutions containing 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 mg/L. The characterization of these materials was made by using X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Pure iron boride particles show a broad X-ray diffraction peak centered at 45{sup ∘} (2θ), inferring the presence of nanocrystals of Fe{sub 2}B as identified from Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The size of these Fe{sub 2}B particles was within the range of 50 and 120 nm. The maximum sorption capacities for Cd (II) of iron boride particles and supported iron boride particles in homo-ionized zeolitic material were nearly 100 %. For homo-ionized zeolite and homo-ionized zeolite plus sodium borohydride was ≥ 95 %.

  4. Characterization of natural zeolite clinoptilolite for sorption of contaminants

    Xingu-Contreras, E.; García-Rosales, G.; García-Sosa, I.; Cabral-Prieto, A.; Solache-Ríos, M.


    The nanoparticles technology has received considerable attention for its potential applications in groundwater treatment for the removal of various pollutants as Cadmium. In this work, iron boride nanoparticles were synthesized in pure form and in presence of homo-ionized zeolite clinoptilolite, as support material. These materials were used for removing Cd (II) from aqueous solutions containing 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 mg/L. The characterization of these materials was made by using X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Pure iron boride particles show a broad X-ray diffraction peak centered at 45∘ (2 𝜃), inferring the presence of nanocrystals of Fe2B as identified from Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The size of these Fe2B particles was within the range of 50 and 120 nm. The maximum sorption capacities for Cd (II) of iron boride particles and supported iron boride particles in homo-ionized zeolitic material were nearly 100 %. For homo-ionized zeolite and homo-ionized zeolite plus sodium borohydride was ≥ 95 %.

  5. Sorption characteristics of pesticides on matrix substrates used in biopurification systems.

    De Wilde, Tineke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Springael, Dirk


    On-farm biopurification systems were developed to remove pesticides from contaminated water generated at the farmyard. An important process in the system's efficiency is the sorption of pesticides to the substrates used in the biopurification systems. The composition and type of material present in the biobed are crucial for retention of chemicals. This study investigated the sorption of linuron, isoproturon, metalaxyl, isoxaben, bentazon and lenacil on substrates commonly used in a biopurification system, i.e. cow manure, straw, willow chopping, soil, coconut chips, garden waste compost, and peat mix. Linear, Freundlich, and Langmuir sorption isotherms were fitted to the obtained data. The best fit was obtained with the Freundlich model. More immobile pesticides (i.e. linuron and isoxaben) tended to associate with the organic substrate, while more mobile pesticides partition in the water (i.e. bentazon). According to sorption capacity, the substrates could be classified as peat mix > compost, coco chips, straw > cow manure, willow chopping > sandy loam soil. Sorption capacity was positively correlated with the organic carbon content, CaO and the cation exchange capacity. Furthermore, no significant differences in sorption could be found between technical and formulated isoproturon and bentazon. Moreover, the individual sorption coefficient K(d) was additive, which means that individual sorption coefficients can be used to calculate the sorption coefficients of a mixture of substrates. What concerns the mutual interaction of pesticides it could be observed that the sorption of linuron and metalaxyl was significantly lower in combination with isoproturon and bentazon, while the latter pesticides were not influenced by the presence of linuron and metalaxyl. As guidelines, firstly, it could be stated that using the most sorbing materials such as peat mix, might significantly increase the biopurification systems efficiency. Secondly, the treatment of very mobile

  6. Development and evaluation of a new sorption model for organic cations in soil: contributions from organic matter and clay minerals.

    Droge, Steven T J; Goss, Kai-Uwe


    This study evaluates a newly proposed cation-exchange model that defines the sorption of organic cations to soil as a summed contribution of sorption to organic matter (OM) and sorption to phyllosilicate clay minerals. Sorption to OM is normalized to the fraction organic carbon (fOC), and sorption to clay is normalized to the estimated cation-exchange capacity attributed to clay minerals (CECCLAY). Sorption affinity is specified to a fixed medium composition, with correction factors for other electrolyte concentrations. The model applies measured sorption coefficients to one reference OM material and one clay mineral. If measured values are absent, then empirical relationships are available on the basis of molecular volume and amine type in combination with corrective increments for specific polar moieties. The model is tested using new sorption data generated at pH 6 for two Eurosoils, one enriched in clay and the other, OM, using 29 strong bases (pKa > 8). Using experimental data on reference materials for all tested compounds, model predictions for the two soils differed on average by only -0.1 ± 0.4 log units from measured sorption affinities. Within the chemical applicability domain, the model can also be applied successfully to various reported soil sorption data for organic cations. Particularly for clayish soils, the model shows that sorption of organic cations to clay minerals accounts for more than 90% of the overall affinity.

  7. Sorption of Uranium Ions from Their Aqueous Solution by Resins Containing Nanomagnetite Particles

    Mahmoud O. Abd El-Magied


    Full Text Available Magnetic amine resins composed of nanomagnetite (Fe3O4 core and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA/N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA shell were prepared by suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate with N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of nanomagnetite particles and immobilized with different amine ligands. These resins showed good magnetic properties and could be easily retrieved from their suspensions using an external magnetic field. Adsorption behaviors of uranium ions on the prepared resins were studied. Maximum sorption capacities of uranium ions on R-1 and R-2 were found to be 92 and 158 mg/g. Uranium was extracted successfully from three granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar pluton, North Eastern Desert, Egypt. The studied resins showed good durability and regeneration using HNO3.

  8. Arsenate uptake and arsenite simultaneous sorption and oxidation by Fe-Mn binary oxides: influence of Mn/Fe ratio, pH, Ca2+, and humic acid.

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Jefferson, William


    Arsenate retention, arsenite sorption and oxidation on the surfaces of Fe-Mn binary oxides may play an important role in the mobilization and transformation of arsenic, due to the common occurrence of these oxides in the environment. However, no sufficient information on the sorption behaviors of arsenic on Fe-Mn binary oxides is available. This study investigated the influences of Mn/Fe molar ratio, solution pH, coexisting calcium ions, and humic acids have on arsenic sorption by Fe-Mn binary oxides. To create Fe-Mn binary oxides, simultaneous oxidation and co-precipitation methods were employed. The Fe-Mn binary oxides exhibited a porous crystalline structure similar to 2-line ferrihydrite at Mn/Fe ratios 1:3 and below, whereas exhibited similar structures to δ-MnO(2) at higher ratios. The As(V) sorption maximum was observed at a Mn/Fe ratio of 1:6, but As(III) uptake maximum was at Mn/Fe ratio 1:3. However, As(III) adsorption capacity was much higher than that of As(V) at each Mn/Fe ratio. As(V) sorption was found to decrease with increasing pH, while As(III) sorption edge was different, depending on the content of MnO(2) in the binary oxides. The presence of Ca(2+) enhanced the As(V) uptake under alkaline pH, but did not significantly influence the As(III) sorption by 1:9 Fe-Mn binary oxide; whereas the presence of humic acid slightly reduced both As(V) and As(III) uptake. These results indicate that As(III) is more easily immobilized than As(V) in the environment, where Fe-Mn binary oxides are available as sorbents and they represent attractive adsorbents for both As(V) and As(III) removal from water and groundwater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the form and deacetylation degree of chitosan sorbents on sorption effectiveness of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions.

    Jóźwiak, Tomasz; Filipkowska, Urszula; Szymczyk, Paula; Zyśk, Michał


    The article presents the impact of a chitosan sorbent form (flakes/hydrogel granules) and the degree of its deacetylation (DD=75%/DD=85%/DD=90%) on the effectiveness of sorption of a popular textile dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The effect of pH on dye sorption effectiveness was examined as well as RB5 sorption kinetics and RB5 sorption capacity of the chitosan sorbent were tested. The highest sorption capacity (1559.7mg/g) was obtained for the chitosan hydrogel in the form of granules (DD=90%). Due to a loose structure and an easy access to sorption centers, chitosan hydrogel granules may ensure up to 224% higher sorption capacity (QDD75%=1307.5mg/g) than chitosan in the form of flakes (QDD75%=403.4mg/g). The sorption effectiveness of the tested dye was observed to increase in the range of DD=75%chitosan had a particularly large impact on RB5 sorption effectiveness by chitosan in the form of flakes. The effectiveness of adsorption on the flakes with a deacetylation degree DD=90% was 1049.6mg/g and was by 160% higher than on the flakes with DD=75%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalytic gasification of biomass (Miscanthus) enhanced by CO2 sorption.

    Zamboni, I; Debal, M; Matt, M; Girods, P; Kiennemann, A; Rogaume, Y; Courson, C


    The main objective of this work concerns the coupling of biomass gasification reaction and CO2 sorption. The study shows the feasibility to promote biomass steam gasification in a dense fluidized bed reactor with CO2 sorption to enhance tar removal and hydrogen production. It also proves the efficiency of CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine bi-functional materials to reduce heavy tar production. Experiments have been carried out in a fluidized bed gasifier using steam as the fluidizing medium to improve hydrogen production. Bed materials consisting of CaO-based oxide for CO2 sorption (CaO-Ca12Al14O33) deposited on olivine for tar reduction were synthesized, their structural and textural properties were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) methods, and the determination of their sorption capacity and stability analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It appears that this CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine sorbent/catalyst presents a good CO2 sorption stability (for seven cycles of carbonation/decarbonation). Compared to olivine and Fe/olivine in a fixed bed reactor for steam reforming of toluene chosen as tar model compound, it shows a better hydrogen production rate and a lower CO2 selectivity due to its sorption on the CaO phase. In the biomass steam gasification, the use of CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine as bed material at 700 °C leads to a higher H2 production than olivine at 800 °C thanks to CO2 sorption. Similar tar concentration and lighter tar production (analyzed by HPLC/UV) are observed. At 700 °C, sorbent addition allows to halve tar content and to eliminate the heaviest tars.

  11. Competitive sorption and desorption of trace elements by Tunisian Aridisols Calcorthids.

    Sahraoui, Hamdi; Andrade, María Luisa; Hachicha, Mohamed; Vega, Flora Alonso


    The sorption and retention processes play an important role in determining the bioavaibility and fate of trace elements in soils. Sorption and desorption of Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Co(2+) in three Tunisian Aridisols Calcorthids (AR1, AR2, and AR3) were studied using batch experiments. Sorption and retention capacities were determined by means of K r parameter and they were related to soil properties. The results showed that in all studied soils, K r values for Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) were higher than those of Zn(2+), Ni(2+), and Co(2+) indicating that soils have higher affinity for the first ones. The high sorption and retention capacity of the three studied soils is ascribed to their alkaline pH and their high carbonates contents favoring the precipitation of these elements. Moreover, bivariate correlation analysis showed that sorption and retention of the studied cations was also strongly correlated with clay fraction and Fe oxides contents. All soils show high sorption irreversibility of Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Co(2+). The soils with highest sorption capacity show also the highest irreversibility.

  12. Enhancement of acidic dye biosorption capacity on poly(ethylenimine) grafted anaerobic granular sludge

    Sun, Xue-Fei, E-mail: [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Shu-Guang, E-mail: [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng, Wen [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan, Maohong [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Tian, Bing-Hui [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Bao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)


    Developing a novel biosorbent with high capacity is crucial to remove dyes from waters in an efficient way. This study demonstrated that porous anaerobic granular sludge could be grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI), which definitely improved the sorption capacity towards Acid Red 18 (AR18) removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed that the PEI modification introduced a large number of amino groups on the surface of sludge, and the amino groups played an important role in the adsorption of dye molecule. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms the film diffusion was the rate-limiting step. The equilibrium data were well fitted Langmuir model, with a maximum AR18 uptake of 520.52 mg/g. Removal of AR18 decreased with the increasing pH and the maximum color removal was observed at pH 2.0. The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was found to be less than 8 for the biosorption of AR 18, which suggested that the biosorption processes of dye molecule onto modified anaerobic granules could be taken place by physical adsorption. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as {Delta}G{sup 0}, {Delta}H{sup 0} and {Delta}S{sup 0}, were also calculated, which indicated that the present system was spontaneous and endothermic process.

  13. Energetic features of copper and lead sorption by innovative aminoalcohol-functionalized cobalt phyllosilicates.

    Melo, Maurício Alves; Airoldi, Claudio


    Inorganic-organic cobalt phyllosilicate hybrids were synthesized by the sol-gel procedure under mild non-hydrothermal conditions with a silicon precursor, formed through individual reactions between the silane 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane and the aminoalcohols ethanol- or diethanolamine. These procedures generated talc-like phyllosilicates containing pendant organic chains with nitrogen and oxygen basic centres located in the interlamellar region. For organofunctionalized phyllosilicates the lamellar structure obtained through the sol-gel method was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction, while elemental analysis indicated that the densities of the organic groups attached to the new matrices were 3.31 ± 0.05 and 3.08 ± 0.07 mmol g(-1) for hybrids functionalized with ethanol- and diethanolamines, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state for (13)C and (29)Si showed that the organic groups are indeed covalently bonded to the inorganic structures and the process of functionalization did not affect the original structures of the silylating agents employed. The thermally stable hybrids presented well-formed particles with a homogeneous distribution of cobalt and nitrogen atoms. Their abilities for copper removal from aqueous solutions gave maximum capacities of sorption of 2.01 ± 0.11 and 2.55 ± 0.15 mmol g(-1) for phyllosilicates containing ethanol- and diethanolamine groups, respectively. For lead sorption the values of 2.59 ± 0.11 and 2.43 ± 0.12 mmol g(-1) were found for this same sequence. These sorption data were adjusted to the non-linear regression of the Langmuir equation. Energetic features related to the interactions between the cations and the pendant basic centres were determined through calorimetric titrations. The acid-basic interactions reflect the spontaneity of the reactions, which are also enthalpically and entropically favourable for these chelating processes at the solid-liquid interface.

  14. Sorption of methylene blue on treated agricultural adsorbents: equilibrium and kinetic studies

    Tiwari, D. P.; Singh, S. K.; Sharma, Neetu


    Agricultural adsorbents are reported to have a remarkable performance for adsorption of dyes. In the present study, formaldehyde and sulphuric acid treated two agricultural adsorbents; potato peel and neem bark are used to adsorb methylene blue. On the whole, the acid-treated adsorbents are investigated to have high sorption efficiency compared to HCHO treated adsorbents. The percentage removal efficiency of H2SO4 treated potato peel (APP) increases considerably high from 75 to 100 % with increase in adsorbent dose, whereas the removal efficiency of H2SO4 treated neem bark (ANB) is found to be 98 % after adding the first dose only. The monolayer sorption behaviour of HCHO treated potato peel (PP) and APP is well defined by Langmuir, whereas the chemisorptions behaviour of HCHO treated neem bark (NB) and ANB is suggested by Temkin's isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity measured is highest in ANB followed by NB, PP and APP with the values of 1000, 90, 47.62 and 40.0 mg/g, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the observed data of all the four adsorbents. The results obtained reveal that NB and ANB both are good adsorbents compared to PP and APP.

  15. Sorption of pure N2O to biochars and other organic and inorganic materials under anhydrous conditions

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Rutherford, David W.; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Dorsch, Peter; Kelly, Charlene N.; Rostad, Colleen E.


    Suppression of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is commonly observed after amendment with biochar. The mechanisms accounting for this suppression are not yet understood. One possible contributing mechanism is N2O sorption to biochar. The sorption of N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) to four biochars was measured in an anhydrous system with pure N2O. The biochar data were compared to those for two activated carbons and other components potentially present in soils—uncharred pine wood and peat—and five inorganic metal oxides with variable surface areas. Langmuir maximum sorption capacities (Qmax) for N2O on the pine wood biochars (generated between 250 and 500 °C) and activated carbons were 17–73 cm3 g–1 at 20 °C (median 51 cm3 g–1), with Langmuir affinities (b) of 2–5 atm–1 (median 3.4 atm–1). Both Qmaxand b of the charred materials were substantially higher than those for peat, uncharred wood, and metal oxides [Qmax 1–34 cm3 g–1 (median 7 cm3 g–1); b 0.4–1.7 atm–1 (median 0.7 atm–1)]. This indicates that biochar can bind N2O more strongly than both mineral and organic soil materials. Qmax and b for CO2 were comparable to those for N2O. Modeled sorption coefficients obtained with an independent polyparameter—linear free-energy relationship matched measured data within a factor 2 for mineral surfaces but underestimated by a factor of 5–24 for biochar and carbonaceous surfaces. Isosteric enthalpies of sorption of N2O were mostly between −20 and −30 kJ mol–1, slightly more exothermic than enthalpies of condensation (−16.1 kJ mol–1). Qmax of N2O on biochar (50000–130000 μg g–1 biochar at 20 °C) exceeded the N2O emission suppressions observed in the literature (range 0.5–960 μg g–1 biochar; median 16 μg g–1) by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the hypothesis could not be falsified that sorption of N2O to biochar is a mechanism of N2O emission suppression.

  16. Kinetics study of aqueous sorption of phenanthrene to humic acids and sediments

    LIU Rui-xia; TANG Hong-xiao


    The sorption behavior was determined for a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH), i.e., phenanthrene(PHN), from water to three humic acids(HAs) and three sediments in different reacting time. The chemical compositions of HA samples were measured using cross polarization magic angle spinning carbon-13(CPMAS 13C) NMR along with elemental analysis. The dissolved humic substances dissociating from solid HAs and sediments were characterized by 1H NMR. The experiments indicated that the sorption modes and mechanisms of natural sorbents for PHN varied significantly between short(<7 d) and long contact time and the reaction time should be taken into consideration in studying the overall sorption process. The sorption capacity() and exponent() might be relative to the properties of dissolved humic materials in initial stage but the solid aromatic organic matter after long time reaction. According to the experiments performed in this investigation and the previous researches, a conceptive sorption model was established.

  17. Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the sorption of tetrabromobisphenol A on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Fasfous, Ismail I., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Hashemite University, Zarka, Jordan, P.O. Box 330001, Zarka 13133 (Jordan); Radwan, Enas S.; Dawoud, Jamal N. [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Hashemite University, Zarka, Jordan, P.O. Box 330001, Zarka 13133 (Jordan)


    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is widely used as a flame retardant and is relatively persistent in the environment. This study reports the sorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of TBBPA on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The equilibrium sorption capacity has been significantly improved by increasing the initial TBBPA concentration and contact time. In alkaline conditions and at high temperatures, a large reduction of TBBPA uptake was observed. The equilibrium between TBBPA and MWCNTs was achieved in approximately 60 min with removal of 96% of the TBBPA. The sorption kinetics were well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model, while both Langmuir and Freundlich models described the sorption isotherms well at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the sorption of TBBPA is exothermic and spontaneous at the temperatures studied.

  18. Physicochemical characterization and sorption behavior of Mg-Ca-Al (NO3) hydrotalcite-like compounds toward removal of fluoride from protein solutions.

    Lv, Tengfei; Ma, Wei; Xin, Gang; Wang, Ren; Xu, Jun; Liu, Dongmei; Liu, Fujun; Pan, Decong


    The present study explores the potential of Mg-Ca-Al (NO(3)) hydrotalcite-like compounds (MgCaAlNO(3)-HTlcs) for the removal of fluoride from protein solutions. In this study, the Mg(3-x)Ca(x)AlNO(3)-HTlcs (x=0-3, x is the mol.% of Ca) were synthesized and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, BET, ICP-AES and pHzpc analysis. The sorption experiments were conducted in protein systems of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ). The batch experiment results showed that the NO(3)-HTlc with Mg/Ca/Al molar ratio of 2.5/0.5/1 had remarkable fluoride sorption ability with maximum sorption capacities of 82.35 mg/g and 72.69 mg/g at pH 5.0 and 40°C in BSA and LSZ system, respectively. Moreover, the loss of BSA of 0.71% was low and there was no loss of LSZ. It was evident that the Mg(2.5)Ca(0.5)AlNO(3)-HTlc could selectively adsorb fluoride from protein solutions. The equilibrium sorption data fitted well to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) were evaluated and revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the results from Antarctic krill processing wastewater study confirmed the feasibility and practicality of the Mg(2.5)Ca(0.5)AlNO(3)-HTlc for fluoride removal in fluoride bearing protein system.

  19. Sorption properties of modified potato starch

    Teresa Witczak


    greater reduction of the amount of adsorbed water vapour in comparison to oxidation. Oxidation had a slight effect on sorption properties. The lowest hygroscopicity was recorded for co-modified starch, which resulted from the overlapping effect of oxidation and acetylation, reducing the capacity to adsorb water vapour. Four of the applied mathematical models (Pelega, Lewicki, GAB and Blahovec-Yanniotis adequately reflected the course of isotherms and were characterized by comparable accuracy. Water contents in the monolayer ranged from 0.0738 to 0.0801 (the BET model and from 0.0960 to 0.1010 (the GAB model. Based on the model proposed by Blahovec and Yanniotis it was found that modifications led to a decrease in the share of adsorbed water and an increase in the share of free water available for soluble components. Conclusions. Sorption isotherms for all tested starch forms (native and modified had a sigmoid shape. Analyzed modifications led to a decrease in starch hygroscopicity, with acetylation causing a markedly greater reduction of water vapour adsorbability in comparison to oxidation. Among the eight mathematical models used to describe sorption properties the Pelega model proved to be the best, although three other (the Lewicki, GAB and Blahovec-Yanniotis models described experimental data with comparable accuracy. In most cases chemical modification of starch resulted in a reduced monolayer absorbability. An exception in this respect was connected with the value established based on the GAB model for oxidized starch. The results may be used to optimize storage conditions and to design products containing starch and its derivatives.


    王艳玲; 章永辉; 何园球


    Soil samples were collected form the 7 treatments (NPK, NP, NK, PK, CK, CK + BM, and CK + SR) of a long-term upland fertilization field experiment, which started in 1988, for determination of phosphate sorption index (PSI) with soil maximum P sorption capacity (Xm) , and hence discussions on effects of the soil matrix component, like soil pH, organic matter (OM) , clay, iron-aluminum oxides and inorganic phosphates on PSI. Results show that long-term application of phosphorus fertilizer or combined application of organic and chemical fertilizer could significantly reduce PSI. With rising soil pH and organic matter and iron phosphate (Fe-P) content, PSI decreased markedly. But the higher the contents of free iron-aluminum oxides and clay in the red soil, the higher the soil PSI. Soil phosphate sorption index (PSI) showed a significant linear correlation with soil maximum P sorption capacity (Xm), (Xm =0.5PSI + 412.8, r = 0.967" , p<0.01). Therefore, the former could used to replace soil maximum P sorption capacity (Xm) to characterize soil phosphorus sorption capacity and soil phosphorus supply capacity as well.%在红壤早地肥料长期定位试验(始于1988年)中,选取了无机肥试验区的NPK、NP、NK、PK,有机无机配施试验区的CK、CK+猪厩肥(BM)及CK+花生秸秆(SR)等7个施肥处理土壤,测定了土壤磷吸持指数(Phosphate sorption index,PSI),分析了PSI与红壤最大吸磷量(Xm)的相关关系,讨论了土壤pH、有机质、黏粒、铁铝氧化物及无机磷酸盐等基质组分对PSI的影响.结果表明:长期施磷或配施有机肥均可显著降低红壤PSI值,随着土壤pH的升高、有机质及铁结合态磷酸盐(Fe-P)含量的增加,红壤PSI显著降低;土壤游离铁铝氧化物及黏粒含量越高,PSI也越大.PSI与Xm呈显著线性相关关系(Xm=0.5PSI+412.8,n=15,r =0.967**,p<0.01),因此,可以用PSI替代Xm来表征土壤固磷能力,亦可由PSI的大小来推断土壤磷的供磷能力.

  1. The influences of pH and ionic strength on the sorption of tylosin on goethite.

    Guo, Xuetao; Yang, Chen; Wu, Yinai; Dang, Zhi


    As one of the widely used antibiotics in the world, the environmental risks of tylosin (TYL) received more and more attention. In order to assess its environmental fate and ecological effects accurately, it is necessary to understand the sorption properties of TYL on the soils/sediments. The sorption of TYL on goethite at different pH and ionic strength conditions were measured through a series of batch experiments and the sorption data of TYL were fitted by Freundlich and dual-mode sorption models. It was obvious that sorption was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. Sorption capacity of TYL increased as the pH increased and ionic strength decreased. The pH and ionic strength-dependent trends might be related with complexation between cationic/neutral TYL species and goethite. The sorption affinity of TYL on goethite decreased as ionic strength increased, which only occurred at higher TYL concentrations, suggested that inner complex might have dominated process at low concentrations and outer complex might occur at higher concentrations of TYL. Spectroscopic evidence indicated that tricarbonylamide and hydroxyl functional groups of TYL might be accounted for the sorption on mineral surfaces. The experimental data of TYL sorption could be fitted by surface complexation model (FITEQL), indicating that ≡FeOH with TYL interaction could be reasonably represented as a complex formation of a monoacid with discrete sites on goethite. The sorption mechanism of TYL might be related with surface complexation, electrostatic repulsion, and H-bounding on goethite. It should be noticed that the heterogeneous of sorption affinity of TYL on goethite at various environment to assess its environment risk.

  2. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M


    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method.

  3. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Meng, Li


    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  4. Fluoride ions sorption of the water using natural and modified hematite with aluminium hydroxide; Sorcion de iones fluoruro del agua utilizando hematita natural y hematita acondicionada con hidroxido de aluminio

    Teutli S, E. A.


    Fluorine is a mineral known for its dental benefits, but fluoride ions can cause fluoro sis in excessive quantities. There are many epidemiological studies on possible adverse effects resulting from prolonged ingestion of fluoride through drinking water. These studies demonstrate that fluoride mainly affects the bone tissue (bones and teeth), may produce an adverse effect on tooth enamel and can cause mild dental fluoro sis at concentrations from 0.9 to 1.2 mg/L in drinking water. In several states of Mexico, water contaminated with fluoride ions can be found, such as Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Sonora, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and Jalisco, where the fluoride ions levels are higher than 1.5 mg/L, established by the Mexican Official Standard (NOM-127-Ssa-2000) which sets the permissible limits of water for human use and consumption. Currently, several technologies have been proposed to remove fluoride ions from water such as precipitation methods which are based on the addition of chemicals to water and sorption methods to removed fluoride ions by sorption or ion exchange reactions by some suitable substrate capable of regenerate and reuse. In this work, the sorption of fluoride ions using unmodified and modified hematite with aluminum hydroxide to remove fluoride ions from water by bath experiments was studied. The hematite was modified by treating it with aluminum hydroxide, NaOH and Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solutions. The characterization of hematite before and after modification with aluminum hydroxide was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS and Bet. The effect of ph, contact time, concentration of fluoride ions, and the dose of sorbent on the sorption of fluoride ions by the modified hematite were studied. Equilibrium was reached within 48 hours of contact time and the maximum sorption of fluoride ions were in the range pH{sub eq} between 2.3 and 6.2. Sorption capacities of fluoride ions as a

  5. Sorption of his-tagged Protein G and Protein G onto chitosan/divalent metal ion sorbent used for detection of microcystin-LR.

    Demey, Hary; Tria, Scherrine A; Soleri, Romain; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; Bazin, Ingrid


    A highly sensitive, specific, simple, and rapid chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the determination of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) by using strategies for oriented immobilization of functionally intact polyclonal antibodies on chitosan surface. Several physicochemical parameters such as metal ion adsorption, hexahistidine-tagged Protein G sorption, the dilution ratio polyclonal antibody concentration, and peroxidase-labeled MC-LR concentration were studied and optimized. The sorption in batch system of G-histidine and G-proteins was studied on a novel sorbent consisting of chitosan/divalent metal ions. Transition metals as Ni(++) and Zn(++) were immobilized through interaction with -NH2 groups of chitosan in order to supply a material capable to efficiently remove the proteins from aqueous solutions. The maximum uptake of divalent metals onto the chitosan material was found to be 230 mg g(-1) for Zn(++) and 62 mg g(-1) for Ni(++). Experimental data were evaluated using the Langmuir and Freundlich models; the results were well fitted with the Langmuir model; chitosan/Ni(++) foam was found to be the best sorbent for G-protein, maximum sorption capacity obtained was 17 mg g(-1), and chitosan/Zn(++) was found to be the best for G-histidine with a maximum sorption capacity of 44 mg g(-1). Kinetic data was evaluated with pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models; the sorption kinetics were in all cases better represented by a pseudo-second-order model. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve obtained for MC-LR gave detection limits of 0.5 ± 0.06 μg L(-1), the 50 % inhibition concentration (IC50) was 2.75 ± 0.03 μg L(-1), and the quantitative detection range was 0.5-25 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) attained from the calibration curves and the results obtained demonstrate the potential use of CLEIA with chitosan support as a screening tool for the analysis of pollutants in environmental samples.

  6. Sorption of Arsenite onto Mackinawite Coated Sand

    Gallegos, T. J.; Hayes, K. F.; Abriola, L. M.


    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a widespread problem affecting aquifers in the United States as well as abroad. Recent strengthening of the US EPA MCL for arsenic has prompted the need for technology capable of removing both arsenite and arsenate from solution. Arsenite, the more toxic form of arsenic, is more difficult to remove from anoxic zones in the subsurface. Studies by others have demonstrated the affinity of some types of iron sulfides for arsenite, such as troilite, pyrite, amorphous iron sulfide and mackinawite. However, these studies have not provided a comprehensive investigation of the macroscopic behavior of arsenite in the presence of crystalline mackinawite in a form that can be readily applied to real-world treatment technologies. This study examines the behavior of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sand. PH edge results demonstrate that arsenite sorption onto mackinawite coated sand increases with increasing pH, reaching maximum removal at pH 10. Arsenite removal, albeit slight, occurring below pH 5 is independent of pH indicative of a different removal mechanism. Isotherm studies show that at low concentrations, removal is Langmuirian in nature. Arsenite sorption abruptly converts to linear behavior at high concentrations, possibly attributed to the saturation of the monolayer. Ionic strength effects were assessed by comparing pH edge data developed for three different concentrations of NaCl background electrolyte solution. Increases in ionic strength enhance the removal of arsenite from solution, suggesting possible inner-sphere surface complexation removal mechanisms. Information gathered in this study can be used to further develop surface complexation models to describe and predict reactivity of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sands in anoxic regions. Mackinawite coated sands investigated here may provide a feasible reactive medium for implementation in above-ground sorption reactors or subsurface

  7. The sorption of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc ions from aqueous solutions on a raw diatomite from Algeria.

    Safa, Messaouda; Larouci, Mohammed; Meddah, Boumediene; Valemens, Pierre


    The adsorption of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions from aqueous solution by Algerian raw diatomite was studied. The influences of different sorption parameters such as contact pH solution, contact time and initial metal ions concentration were studied to optimize the reaction conditions. The metals ions adsorption was strictly pH dependent. The maximum adsorption capacities towards Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) were 0.319, 0.311, 0.18 and 0.096 mmol g(-1), respectively. The kinetic data were modelled using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. Among the kinetic models studied, the pseudo-second-order equation was the best applicable model to describe the sorption process. Equilibrium isotherm data were analysed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms; the results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was well described by both model isotherms. The negative value of free energy change ΔG indicates feasible and spontaneous adsorption of four metal ions on raw diatomite. According to these results, the high exchange capacities of different metal ions at high and low concentration levels, and given the low cost of the investigated adsorbent in this work, Algerian diatomite was considered to be an excellent adsorbent.

  8. Steady-state equation of water vapor sorption for CaCl2-based chemical sorbents and its application

    Zhang, Haiquan; Yuan, Yanping; Sun, Qingrong; Cao, Xiaoling; Sun, Liangliang


    Green CaCl2-based chemical sorbent has been widely used in sorption refrigeration, air purification and air desiccation. Methods to improve the sorption rate have been extensively investigated, but the corresponding theoretical formulations have not been reported. In this paper, a sorption system of solid-liquid coexistence is established based on the hypothesis of steady-state sorption. The combination of theoretical analysis and experimental results indicates that the system can be described by steady-state sorption process. The steady-state sorption equation, μ = (η - γT) , was obtained in consideration of humidity, temperature and the surface area. Based on engineering applications and this equation, two methods including an increase of specific surface area and adjustment of the critical relative humidity (γ) for chemical sorbents, have been proposed to increase the sorption rate. The results indicate that the CaCl2/CNTs composite with a large specific surface area can be obtained by coating CaCl2 powder on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The composite reached sorption equilibrium within only 4 h, and the sorption capacity was improved by 75% compared with pure CaCl2 powder. Furthermore, the addition of NaCl powder to saturated CaCl2 solution could significantly lower the solution’s γ. The sorption rate was improved by 30% under the same environment.

  9. Steady-state equation of water vapor sorption for CaCl2-based chemical sorbents and its application

    Zhang, Haiquan; Yuan, Yanping; Sun, Qingrong; Cao, Xiaoling; Sun, Liangliang


    Green CaCl2-based chemical sorbent has been widely used in sorption refrigeration, air purification and air desiccation. Methods to improve the sorption rate have been extensively investigated, but the corresponding theoretical formulations have not been reported. In this paper, a sorption system of solid-liquid coexistence is established based on the hypothesis of steady-state sorption. The combination of theoretical analysis and experimental results indicates that the system can be described by steady-state sorption process. The steady-state sorption equation, μ = (η − γT) , was obtained in consideration of humidity, temperature and the surface area. Based on engineering applications and this equation, two methods including an increase of specific surface area and adjustment of the critical relative humidity (γ) for chemical sorbents, have been proposed to increase the sorption rate. The results indicate that the CaCl2/CNTs composite with a large specific surface area can be obtained by coating CaCl2 powder on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The composite reached sorption equilibrium within only 4 h, and the sorption capacity was improved by 75% compared with pure CaCl2 powder. Furthermore, the addition of NaCl powder to saturated CaCl2 solution could significantly lower the solution’s γ. The sorption rate was improved by 30% under the same environment. PMID:27682811

  10. Sorption of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol by suberin from cork.

    Gallardo-Chacón, Joan-Josep; Karbowiak, Thomas


    Cork shows an active role in the sorption of volatile phenols from wine. The sorption properties of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol phenols in hydro-alcoholic medium placed in contact with suberin extracted from cork were especially investigated. To that purpose, suberin was immersed in model wine solutions containing several concentrations of each phenol and the amount of the compound remaining in the liquid phase was determined by SPME-GC-MS. Sorption isotherms of 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol by suberin followed the Henry's model. The solid/liquid partition coefficients (KSL) between the suberin and the model wine were also determined for several other volatile phenols. Suberin displayed rather high sorption capacity, which was positively correlated to the hydrophobicity of the volatile. Finally, the capacity of suberin to decrease the concentration of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol was also tested in real wines affected by a Brettanomyces character. It also lead to a significant reduction of their concentration in wine.

  11. Comparative equilibrium studies of sorption of Pb(II) ions by sodium and calcium alginate



    The absorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by different alginate compounds was studied in a batch sorption system. Water soluble sodium alginate and insoluble calcium alginate beads were investigated. The lead-binding capacity of both alginate compounds was highest within the pH range 6-8. The binding capacities and rates of Pb(II) ions by alginate compounds were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Bruneaur, Emmet and Teller (BET) sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Sorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model. The results obtained through the study suggest that alginate compounds are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Pb(II) ions were bound by sodium alginate although the difference between two compounds was slight. Therefore, alginate substances may be considered as alternative for sorption and removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewaters.

  12. [Sorption-desorption of phosphate in wastewater by hydrous iron oxide].

    Xiang, Xue-Min; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Wang, Ren


    FeCl3 was used t o prepare hydrous iron oxide (HIO) as a n absorbent for phosphate (P) sorption and desorption study. The results showed that as pH decreased, the sorption capacity of HIO increased, and the sorption kinetics followed the second-order model, and the sorption isotherm could be fitted by the Langmuir equation. A 50 g/L NaOH solution was used for desorption of P from HIO, and the desorption rate could be reached over 98% . No relation was found between desorption rate and adsorption capacity. Based on above results, HIO was applied to adsorption of P from supernatant of sludge thickener, and after desorption, more than 90% of P was recovered. According to the results obtained, an effective system for P removal and recovery from municipal wastewater was suggested, which includes the following processes: adsorption, desorption, regeneration of HIO, and of recovery of P from P-rich desorption solution.

  13. Competitive sorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from a binary aqueous solution by poly (methyl methacrylate)-grafted montmorillonite clay nanocomposite

    Bunhu, Tavengwa; Tichagwa, Lilian; Chaukura, Nhamo


    Poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted montmorillonite (PMMAgMMT) clay and sodium-exchanged montmorillonite (NaMMT) clay were prepared through in situ graft polymerisation and used to remove Cd2+ and Pb2+ from synthetic wastewater. The modification of adsorbent materials was confirmed by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques. BET surface area measurements showed NaMMT had a higher surface area than PMMAgMMT. Batch experiments were used to assess the simultaneous uptake of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from a synthetic binary solution. Pb2+ was preferentially sorbed, exhibiting greater affinity for the sorbents compared to Cd2+ as shown by its relatively higher uptake onto the sorbents than Cd2+. The maximum sorption capacities for NaMMT and PMMAgMMT were 18.73 and 19.27 mg/g for Cd2+, and 30.03 and 34.25 mg/g for Pb2+, respectively. The sorption data obeyed the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model with R 2 of at least 0.9800 for both models. The sorbents could also be regenerated up to three cycles without a significant loss in the sorption capacity. FTIR measurements showed the presence of metal-oxygen bonds after sorption, confirming the occurrence of adsorption as one of the heavy metal removal processes. The work demonstrated the potential of using low-cost nanoscale composite material for the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution.

  14. Competitive sorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from a binary aqueous solution by poly (methyl methacrylate)-grafted montmorillonite clay nanocomposite

    Bunhu, Tavengwa; Tichagwa, Lilian; Chaukura, Nhamo


    Poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted montmorillonite (PMMAgMMT) clay and sodium-exchanged montmorillonite (NaMMT) clay were prepared through in situ graft polymerisation and used to remove Cd2+ and Pb2+ from synthetic wastewater. The modification of adsorbent materials was confirmed by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques. BET surface area measurements showed NaMMT had a higher surface area than PMMAgMMT. Batch experiments were used to assess the simultaneous uptake of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from a synthetic binary solution. Pb2+ was preferentially sorbed, exhibiting greater affinity for the sorbents compared to Cd2+ as shown by its relatively higher uptake onto the sorbents than Cd2+. The maximum sorption capacities for NaMMT and PMMAgMMT were 18.73 and 19.27 mg/g for Cd2+, and 30.03 and 34.25 mg/g for Pb2+, respectively. The sorption data obeyed the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model with R 2 of at least 0.9800 for both models. The sorbents could also be regenerated up to three cycles without a significant loss in the sorption capacity. FTIR measurements showed the presence of metal-oxygen bonds after sorption, confirming the occurrence of adsorption as one of the heavy metal removal processes. The work demonstrated the potential of using low-cost nanoscale composite material for the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution.

  15. Sorption of selenate on soils and pure phases: kinetic parameters and stabilisation

    Loffredo, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Mounier, S. [Laboratoire PROTEE, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, BP 20132, La Garde 83957 (France); Thiry, Y. [Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (Andra), Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Coppin, F., E-mail: [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)


    This study was conducted to identify the principle selenate carrier phases for two selected soils, by comparing their reactivity with selenate to that of pure phases of the solids. Silica, calcium carbonate, aluminium hydroxide, goethite, bentonite and humic acid were selected as the main soil carrier phases. Comparisons were made first on the parameter values obtained with the best fit of a kinetic sorption model which can discriminate instantaneous sorption from kinetically limited sorption. Then comparisons were made of the ability for each solid to stabilise selenate by measuring the ratio of the partition coefficient for sorption (Kd{sub sorption}) over that of the desorption (Kd{sub desorption}). Kinetics and stabilisation were used to help elucidate the nature of interactions with the test solid phases for a large range of selenate concentrations. The experiments were conducted over 165 h in batch reactors, the solid being isolated from the solution by dialysis tubing, at two pH (5.4 and 8) and three selenate concentrations (1 x 10{sup -3}, 1 x 10{sup -6} and 1 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}). The results obtained showed that only aluminium hydroxide can sorb selenate throughout the studied pH range (pH 5.4 to 8.0). The sorption capacity on this mineral was high (Kd{sub sorption} > 100 to 1 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1}) and the selenate was mainly stabilized by the formation of inner sphere complexes. The sorption on goethite occurred at pH 5.4 (Kd{sub sorption} 52 L kg{sup -1}), mainly as outer sphere complexes, and was null at pH 8. On silica, a weak sorption was observed only at pH 5.4 and at 165 h (Kd{sub sorption} 4 L kg{sup -1}). On bentonite, calcium carbonate and humic acid no significant sorption was observed. Concerning the two soils studied, different behaviours were observed for selenate. For soil Ro (pH 5.4), Kd{sub sorption} was low (8 L kg{sup -1}) compared to soil Bu (pH 8) (70 L kg{sup -1}). The sorption behaviour of selenate on soil Ro was mainly

  16. Thermodynamics of imidacloprid sorption in Croatian soils

    Milin, Čedomila; Broznic, Dalibor


    Neonicotinoids are increasingly replacing the organophosphate and methylcarbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors which are losing their effectiveness because of selection for resistant pest populations. Imidacloprid is the most important neonicotinoid with low soil persistence, high insecticidal potency and relatively low mammalian toxicity. In Croatia, imidacloprid is most commonly used in olive growing areas, including Istria and Kvarner islands, as an effective means of olive fruit fly infestation control. Sorption-desorption behavior of imidacloprid in six soils collected from five coastal regions in Croatia at 20, 30 and 40°C was investigated using batch equilibrium technique. Isothermal data were applied to Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equation, and the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔG°, ΔS° were calculated. The sorption isotherm curves were of non-linear and may be classified as L-type suggesting a relatively high sorption capacity for imidacloprid. Our results showed that the KFsor values decreased for all the tested soils as the temperature increases, indicating that the temperature strongly influence the sorption. Values of ΔG° were negative (-4.65 to -2.00 kJ/mol) indicating that at all experimental temperatures the interactions of imidacloprid with soils were spontaneous process. The negative and small ΔH° values (-19.79 to -8.89 kJ/mol) were in the range of weak forces, such as H-bonds, consistent with interactions and par¬titioning of the imidacloprid molecules into soil organic matter. The ΔS° values followed the range of -57.12 to -14.51 J/molK, suggesting that imidacloprid molecules lose entropy during transition from the solution phase to soil surface. It was found that imidacloprid desorption from soil was concentration and temperature dependent, i.e. at lower imidacloprid concentrations and temperature, lower desorption percentage occurred. Desorption studies revealed that hysteretic behavior under different temperature

  17. Hydrothermal treatment of sorption materials. Implications on adsorption heat pumps

    Henninger, S.K.; Mueller, S.; Ratzsch, K.F.; Schossig, P.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Dept. of Thermal Systems and Buildings; Munz, G. [PSE AG, Freiburg (Germany)


    Material stability of adsorbents for thermally driven systems like heat storage and heat transformation plays a key role. In particular high power-density applications like adsorption heat pumps and chillers in combination with recently developed adsorption materials lead to a significant increased number of cycles over the lifetime (<100'000) making cycle stability crucial. With regard to current developments on composite structures improving the heat and mass transfer, additional stability analysis like thermo-mechanical properties are now getting into focus. This contribution gives a broad overview on the stability of current available sorption materials like silica gels and zeolites, recently developed (silica-) aluminophosphates (AIPO/SAPO) and most novel synthesized metal organic framework (MOF) materials under hydrothermal treatment. The results give a first indication on the suitability of these materials for the use in heat storage, thermally driven sorption heat pumps and cooling machines. Pure powders as well as composites have been analysed under continuous cycling conditions. Whereas the stability of powders and granules have been analysed in-situ by thermogravimetric cycle measurements, a cycling-test rig has been developed in order to realise a lifetime stress of composites consisting of active sorption material and a support structure. The need for a first stage short-cycle analysis is demonstrated impressively by the dramatic loss of more than 50% in sorption capacity of a SAPO-34 sample within the first 10 cycles. Several composite samples have passed a treatment of 30'000 cycles or more and show continuous degradation effects leading to a reduction in sorption capacity of 20% compared to the initial value. (orig.)

  18. Sorption phenomena of PCBs in environment


    The relationship between the properties of PCBs and the behavior of soil and sediment is reviewed. The sorption phenomena of PCBs in the environment are described with different models. The research progress on the sorption mechanisms is also discussed.

  19. Significance of anion exchange in pentachlorophenol sorption by variable-charge soils.

    Hyun, Seunghun; Lee, Linda S; Rao, P Suresh C


    Sorption data and subsequent predictive models for evaluating acidic pesticide behavior on variable-charge soils are needed to improve pesticide management and environmental stewardship. Previous work demonstrated that sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP), a model organic acid, was adequately modeled by accounting for pH-and pKa-dependent chemical speciation and using two organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients; one each for the neutral and anionic species. Such models do not account for organic anion interaction to positively charged surface sites, which can be significant for variable-charge minerals present in weathered soils typical of tropical and subtropical regions. The role of anion exchange in sorption of ionizable chemicals by variable-charge soils was assessed by measuring sorption of PCP by several variable-charge soils from aqueous solutions of CaCl2, CaSO4, Ca(H2PO4)2 as a function of pH. Differences in sorption from phosphate and chloride electrolyte solutions were attributed to pentachlorophenolate interactions with anion exchange sites. Suppression of PCP sorption by phosphate ranged from negligible in a soil with essentially no positively charge sites, as measured by negligible anion exchange capacity, to as much as 69% for variable-charge soils. Pentachlorophenolate exchange correlated well with the ratio of pH-dependent anion exchange capacity to net surface charge. Sorption reversibility of PCP by both CaCl2 and Ca(H2PO4)2 solutions was also demonstrated. Results for PCP clearly demonstrate that sorption to anion exchange sites in variable-charge soils should be considered in assessing pesticide mobility and that phosphate fertilizer application may increase the mobility of acidic pesticides.

  20. Sorption and desorption studies of chromium(VI) from nonviable cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum biomass

    Gupta, V.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail:; Rastogi, A. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)


    This communication presents results pertaining to the sorptive and desorptive studies carried out on chromium(VI) removal onto nonviable freshwater cyanobacterium (Nostoc muscorum) biomass. Influence of varying the conditions for removal of chromium(VI), such as the pH of aqueous solution, the dosage of biosorbent, the contact time with the biosorbent, the temperature for the removal of chromium, the effect of light metal ions and the adsorption-desorption studies were investigated. Sorption interaction of chromium on to cyanobacterial species obeyed both the first and the second-order rate equation and the experimental data showed good fit with both the Langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was 22.92 mg/g at 25 {sup o}C and pH 3.0. The adsorption process was endothermic and the values of thermodynamic parameters of the process were calculated. Various properties of the cyanobacterium, as adsorbent, explored in the characterization part were chemical composition of the adsorbent, surface area calculation by BET method and surface functionality by FTIR. Sorption-desorption of chromium into inorganic solutions and distilled water were observed and this indicated the biosorbent could be regenerated using 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} and EDTA with upto 80% recovery. The biosorbents were reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without a significant loss in biosorption capacity. Thus, this study demonstrated that the cyanobacterial biomass N. muscorum could be used as an efficient biosorbent for the treatment of chromium(VI) bearing wastewater.

  1. New approach in modeling Cr(VI) sorption onto biomass from metal binary mixtures solutions

    Liu, Chang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Anhui Normal University, South Jiuhua Road, 189, 241002 Wuhu (China); Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Fiol, Núria [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Villaescusa, Isabel, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Poch, Jordi [Applied Mathematics Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain)


    In the last decades Cr(VI) sorption equilibrium and kinetic studies have been carried out using several types of biomasses. However there are few researchers that consider all the simultaneous processes that take place during Cr(VI) sorption (i.e., sorption/reduction of Cr(VI) and simultaneous formation and binding of reduced Cr(III)) when formulating a model that describes the overall sorption process. On the other hand Cr(VI) scarcely exists alone in wastewaters, it is usually found in mixtures with divalent metals. Therefore, the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and divalent metals in binary mixtures and the interactive mechanism governing Cr(VI) elimination have gained more and more attention. In the present work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto exhausted coffee from Cr(VI)–Cu(II) binary mixtures has been studied in a stirred batch reactor. A model including Cr(VI) sorption and reduction, Cr(III) sorption and the effect of the presence of Cu(II) in these processes has been developed and validated. This study constitutes an important advance in modeling Cr(VI) sorption kinetics especially when chromium sorption is in part based on the sorbent capacity of reducing hexavalent chromium and a metal cation is present in the binary mixture. - Highlights: • A kinetic model including Cr(VI) reduction, Cr(VI) and Cr(III) sorption/desorption • Synergistic effect of Cu(II) on Cr(VI) elimination included in the model • Model validation by checking it against independent sets of data.

  2. 砂土中吸力式沉箱基础的最大承载力计算方法%Calculation method for maximum bearing capacity of suction caisson foundation in sand

    黎冰; 高玉峰; 沙成明; 童小东


    To accurately determine the maximum pull-out loading capacity of suction caisson foundation in sand, the limit equilibrium method is applied. Based on the mechanical characteristics of suction caisson foundation with horizontal translation, a method for three-dimensional limit equilibrium analysis of maximum pull-out loading capacity of suction caisson foundation in sand is proposed. In the proposed method, the development process of earth pressure and shear resistance with displacement, and the characteristics of different earth pressure and side shear resistance over the caisson cross-section are considered. The earth pressure acting on the caisson is assumed to obey the Winkler model and is not in excess of the limiting earth pressure. The shear resistance between caisson and soil is assumed to be linearly proportional to the relative displacement between them before reaching its ultimate value. Fifteen model tests of suction caisson foundation under horizontal loading in sand are conducted to investigate its pull-out behaviors, and the load-displacement curves are obtained. The calculation results by the proposed method agree well with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed method is accurate and effective. Key w%为了准确确定砂土中吸力式沉箱基础的最大承载力,应用极限平衡法对其进行分析.基于吸力式沉箱基础平动时的受力特点,充分考虑土压力和摩擦力的发挥过程以及沉箱横截面上各点土压力大小的不同,提出了一种计算砂土中吸力式沉箱基础最大承载力的三维极限平衡方法.方法中假定沉箱侧壁土压力满足Winkler模型,但其值不超过水平极限土压力值;假定沉箱侧壁与地基土之间的摩擦力在达到最大值之前与两者之间的相对位移成线性正比关系.开展了15组水平荷载作用下吸力式沉箱基础的模型试验,得到了吸力式沉箱基础的荷载-位移曲线.利用所提方法得到的计

  3. Comparative evaluation of natural and acid-modified layered mineral materials as rimifon-carriers using UV/VIS, FTIR, and equilibrium sorption study

    Nedyalka Georgieva


    Full Text Available The encapsulation of rimifon on natural (NZ and acid-modified (AMZ zeolites was investigated by UV/VIS, FTIR, and equilibrium sorption studies in aqueous medium. The UV/VIS and FTIR spectral investigations provided data on the nature and characteristics of the drug–zeolite complexes. The probable host–guest interactions during rimifon encapsulation in AMZ include van der Waals interactions, as well as H-bonds established between the O-atom from the carbonyl (>C=O group and N-pyridine/N-hydrazine atoms in rimifon and zeolite OH-groups. The maximum experimental equilibrium sorption capacity of AMZ (qmax = 7.17 mg/g was approximately 24 times higher than that of NZ. Baudu and Fritz–Schlunder isotherms almost overlapped and seemed to be the best-fitting models with regard to the experimental equilibrium data of rimifon sorption on AMZ. The unique properties of AMZ and the established high extend of rimifon encapsulation proved the possibility of its successful application as rimifon-carrier for environmental and medical purposes.

  4. Sorption of Cs, Eu and U(VI) onto rock samples from Nizhnekansky massive

    Petrov, V.; Vlasova, I.; Kalmykov, S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation); Petrov, V.; Poluektov, V. [Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences - IGEM RAS (Russian Federation)


    The accepted in Russia concept for high level wastes (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal is based on their isolation into the deep underground crystalline rock formations. The 'Eniseysky' area (Nizhnekansky massive) is supposed as the most perspective location for the future HLW and SNF repository. Core materials from different areas of Nizhnekasnsky massive have been studied in terms of petrographic and mineralogical characterization; definition of filtration, elastic, petro-physical and strength properties; estimation of hydrothermal-metasomatic transformation of rocks. We used both undisturbed sliced cores and crushed material for the sorption experiments. Preliminary results of uranium sorption show some significant differences between used rock samples from different depth in sorption rate and pH-dependence. In all cases maximum sorption (more than 90%) is reached in 2-3 weeks. The pH-dependence of sorbed uranium fraction has typical hump-shape: increase of sorption percentage with increasing pH values to 6, plateau (90-98 % of uranium sorbed), decrease of sorption percentage with increasing pH values from 8 due to U(VI) hydrolysis. In the case of cesium the sorption maximum is reached within 10-12 days and in the case of europium - about 5 days. All radionuclides sorbed preferentially onto dark minerals. Local distribution and preferential sorption of cesium, europium and uranium (VI) onto different minerals within the sample were studied by radiography, SEM-EDX, etc. These data accompanying with rock sample composition will allow the development of quantitative model for Cs, Eu and U(VI) sorption onto investigated rocks. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by sorption: A review.

    Lamichhane, Shanti; Bal Krishna, K C; Sarukkalige, Ranjan


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic micro pollutants which are persistent compounds in the environment due to their hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse effects in human health and environment have resulted in extensive studies on various types of PAHs removal methods. Sorption is one of the widely used methods as PAHs possess a great sorptive ability into the solid media and their low aqueous solubility property. Several adsorbent media such as activated carbon, biochar, modified clay minerals have been largely used to remove PAHs from aqueous solution and to immobilise PAHs in the contaminated soils. According to the past studies, very high removal efficiency could be achieved using the adsorbents such as removal efficiency of activated carbon, biochar and modified clay mineral were 100%, 98.6% and >99%, respectively. PAHs removal efficiency or adsorption/absorption capacity largely depends on several parameters such as particle size of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, solubility, salinity including the production process of adsorbents. Although many studies have been carried out to remove PAHs using the sorption process, the findings have not been consolidated which potentially hinder to get the correct information for future study and to design the sorption method to remove PAHs. Therefore, this paper summarized the adsorbent media which have been used to remove PAHs especially from aqueous solutions including the factor affecting the sorption process reported in 142 literature published between 1934 and 2015.

  6. Sorption equilibrium of mercury onto ground-up tree fern

    Ho, Y.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Section 1, Hsueh-Cheng Road, Ta-Hsu Hsiang, Kaohsiung County 840, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:; Wang, C.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Section 1, Hsueh-Cheng Road, Ta-Hsu Hsiang, Kaohsiung County 840, Taiwan (China)


    The sorption behavior of mercury at different temperatures onto ground-up tree fern was investigated. The experimental results were fitted to two two-parameter isotherms, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, as well as to two three-parameter isotherms, the Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. A comparison of best-fitting was performed using the coefficient of determination and Chi-square test. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were found to well represent the measured sorption data. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the saturated monolayer sorption capacity of mercury ions onto ground-up tree fern was 26.5 mg/g at 298 K. It was noted that an increase in temperature resulted in a higher mercury ion loading per unit weight of the tree fern. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}, and {delta}S{sup o}, were calculated and compared with the sorption of mercury by other sorbents.

  7. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    Abstract: Information on pore geometry is very important in any study of the mechanical and physical behavior of porous materials. Unfortunately pores are not very accessible for direct measurements. Indirect methods have to be used which involve impregnation (sorption) experiments from which...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  8. Sorption of water by biochar: Closer look at micropores

    Spokas, Kurt; Hall, Kathleen; Joseph, Stephan; Kammann, Claudia; Novak, Jeffrey; Gámiz, Beatriz; Cox, Lucia


    Typically, biochar has been assumed to increase total water content of the soil system and thereby positively influence plant-soil moisture hydraulics. In this work, we focused on water's interaction with micro-pores (biochar pores. The temporal scale of liquid water entry into biochar's pore network is very complex, with observed bubbling occurring days, weeks, and even months after a piece of biochar is immersed under water at ambient conditions. Elevated temperature biochar typically has a positive heat of immersion measured calorimetrically, whereas the calculated BET energy of sorption from a water sorption isotherm typically decrease with production temperatures. To further complicate matters, different pieces of biochar interact differently with water even though the entire batch was created in the same reactor at the same time and after liquid water exposure the physical structure of biochar is irreversibly altered, sometimes negligible other times catastrophically. Nevertheless, based on the estimations of diffusion coefficients in biochar from drying curve analyses, pore surface moieties do reduce the effective diffusivity of water vapor in biochar. Contrary to the rule of thumb in soil physics, where higher gas filled porosity correlates with higher soil moisture holding capacities, our results indicate that biochar's water sorption rate and capacity is actually reduced at ambient conditions by an increase in microporous volume. Thereby, biochar's hydrophobic behavior is partly due to the entrapment of gas within the air-filled porosity which prevents liquid water's entry, even though these biochars possess elevated gas phase sorption capacities (e.g., BET N2/CO2 surface areas).

  9. Effect of aqueous Fe(II) on Sb(V) sorption on soil and goethite.

    Fan, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Ting-Ting; Dang, Fei; Zhou, Dong-Mei


    The effects of Fe(II) on the sorption and precipitation of Sb(V) on soils and goethite were investigated using batch experiments and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in this study. The sorption capacity of Sb(V) were much higher in anoxic soil than oxic soil. Typically, dissolved Fe(II) concentration in anoxic soils decreased significantly with increasing Sb(V), which may be suggestive of Fe-Sb precipitation. The elevated concentrations of Fe(II) (1 mM) enhanced the sorption capacity of Sb(V) on goethite significantly. However, synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction showed no new characteristic peak, indicating that this Fe-Sb precipitate might be poor crystallinity or amorphous. Moreover, Sb(III) was detected in anoxic soil, and the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb (III) improved the sorption capacity of Sb in anoxic soil because of the low solubility and migration of Sb(III). Nevertheless, Fe-Sb co-precipitation and Sb(V) reduction to Sb(III) might contribute simultaneously to the increased sorption capacity of Sb(V) on anoxic soils. This research could improve our current understanding of soil Sb chemistry in paddy and wetland soils.

  10. Freeze-thaw Effects on Sorption/Desorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Wetland Soils

    YU Xiaofei; ZHANG Yuxia; ZHAO Hongmei; LU Xianguo; WANG Guoping


    The effects of freeze-thaw cycles on sorption/desorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in two wetland soils and one reclaimed wetland soil were investigated. DOC concentrations added were 0-600 mg/L. Laboratory in-cubations of sorption/desorption of DOC had been carried out at -15℃ for 10 h, and then at +5℃ for 13 h. Soil sam-ples were refrozen and thawed subsequently for 5 cycles. Initial Mass model was used to describe sorption behavior of DOC. The results indicate that freeze-thaw cycles can significantly increase the sorption capacity of DOC and reduce the desorption capacity of DOC in the three soils. The freeze-thaw effects on desorption of DOC in soils increase with the increasing freeze-thaw cycles. The conversion of natural wetlands to soybean farmland can decrease the sorption capacity and increase the desorption capacity of DOC in soils. Global wanning and reclamation may increase DOC re-lease, and subsequently increase the loss of carbon and the emission of greenhouse gas.

  11. Streptococcus suis sorption on agricultural soils: role of soil physico-chemical properties.

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Liu, Xing; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng


    Understanding pathogen sorption on natural soil particles is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. Sorption of pathogen Streptococcus suis on 10 agricultural soils was examined, and its correlations with soil physico-chemical properties were also elucidated. S. suis sorption isotherms conformed to the linear equation, with partition coefficients (Ks) ranging from 12.7 mL g(-1) to 100.1 mL g(-1). Bacteria were observed to sorb on the external surfaces of soil aggregates by scanning electron microscopy. Using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis, solution pH was found to have significant negative correlations with Ks. Stepwise multiple regression and path analysis revealed that pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main factors influencing sorption behaviors. The obtained overall model (Ks=389.6-45.9×pH-1.3×CEC, R(2)=0.943, PKs values. However, the variability in Ks was less dependent on soil organic matter, specific surface area, soil texture and zeta potential, probably due to the internal-surface shielding phenomenon of soil aggregates. Additionally, the sorption trends cannot be interpreted by interaction energy barriers calculated using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, suggesting the limits of DLVO theory in describing pathogen sorption on natural soils. Our results also indicated soil pH and CEC should be preferentially considered when modeling S. suis sorption process.

  12. Effects of radiation and temperature on iodide sorption by surfactant-modified bentonite.

    Choung, Sungwook; Kim, Minkyung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gyu; Um, Wooyong


    Bentonite, which is used as an engineered barrier in geological repositories, is ineffective for sorbing anionic radionuclides because of its negatively charged surface. This study modified raw bentonite using a cationic surfactant (i.e., hexadecyltrimethylammonium [HDTMA]-Br) to improve its sorption capability for radioactive iodide. The effects of temperature and radiation on the iodide sorption of surfactant-modified bentonite (SMB) were also evaluated under alkaline pH condition similar to that found in repository environments. Different amounts of surfactant, equivalent to the 50, 100, and 200% cation-exchange capacity of the bentonite, were used to produce the HDTMA-SMB for iodide sorption. The sorption reaction of the SMB with iodide reached equilibrium rapidly within 10 min regardless of temperature and radiation conditions. The rate of iodide sorption increased as the amount of the added surfactant was increased and nonlinear sorption behavior was exhibited. However, high temperature and γ-irradiation ((60)Co) resulted in significantly (∼2-10 times) lower iodide Kd values for the SMB. The results of FTIR, NMR, and XANES spectroscopy analysis suggested that the decrease in iodide sorption may be caused by weakened physical electrostatic force between the HDTMA and iodide, and by the surfactant becoming detached from the SMB during the heating and irradiation processes.

  13. Effect of different wood pretreatments on the sorption-desorption of linuron and metalaxyl by woods.

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Parada, A María; Sánchez-Martín, M Jesús


    The sorption-desorption of two different pesticides, linuron and metalaxyl, by woods was studied. Sorbent/solution ratio and sorption kinetics were also determined. Untreated wood and water, NaOH, HCl, and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA) treated pine (softwood) and oak (hardwood) were used as sorbents. Linuron and metalaxyl were sorbed by untreated woods up to 80 and 40%, respectively, in a short time when the sorbent/solution ratio of 1:10 was used. Sorption of pesticides was significantly higher by pine, having higher lignin content, than by oak. Freundlich sorption constants (K(f)) were 96.2 and 74.4 (linuron) and 8.28 and 4.95 (metalaxyl) for untreated pine and oak woods and increased 1.04-2.35-fold (linuron) and 1.33-2.17-fold (metalaxyl) when woods were treated. The sorption was higher by HCl- and ODTMA-treated woods. Additionally, Freundlich desorption constants also indicated greater sorption irreversibility of both pesticides for treated woods than for untreated woods. The results revealed wood residues as a promising, low-cost, and environmentally friendly material to immobilize pesticides in soils, preventing water contamination. Wood treatments aimed at removing soluble wood extracts or at modifying wood chemical structure could increase their sorption capacity.

  14. Nitrate sorption on activated carbon modified with CaCl2: Equilibrium, isotherms and kinetics

    Zanella Odivan


    Full Text Available In this study, nitrate (NO3- removal from aqueous solutions was investigated using granular activated carbon (GAC modified with CaCl2. Batch sorption studies were performed as a function of sorbent dose, initial nitrate concentration and pH. Sorption was maximized between pH 3 and 9. Studies on the effect of pH showed that the ion exchange mechanism might be involved in the sorption process. The percentage of nitrate removed increased with increasing sorbent concentration, and the ideal sorbent dose was found to be 20 g•L-1. Four isotherm models-Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips-were used to fit the experimental data. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model explained the sorption process well and showed the best coefficient of determination (0.9979 and Chi-square test statistic (0.0079. Using the Sips isotherm model, the sorption capacity (qe was found to be 1.93 mg nitrate per g of sorbent. Kinetic experiments indicated that sorption was a fast process, reaching equilibrium within 120 min. The nitrate sorption kinetic data were successfully fitted to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The overall results demonstrated potential applications of modified GAC for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions.

  15. Effect of Dissolved Organic Matter on Chlorotoluron Sorption and Desorption in Soils

    YANG Hong; WU Xin; ZHOU Li-Xiang; YANG Zhi-Min


    A batch equilibrium techniques was used to examine the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from both non-treated sludge (NTS) and heat-expanded sludge (HES) on the sorption and desorption of chlorotoluron (3-(3-chloro-p-tolyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) in two types of soils, a yellow fluvo-aquic and a red soil from China. Without DOM,sorption of chlorotoluron was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the red soil than in the yellow fluvo-aquic soil. However,with DOM the effect was dependent on the soil type and nature of DOM. Chlorotoluron sorption was lower in the yellow fluvo-aquic soil than in the red soil, suggesting that with the same DOM levels the yellow fluvo-aquic soil had a lower sorption capacity for this herbicide. Application of DOM from both NTS and HES led to a general decrease in sorption to the soils and an increase in desorption from the soils. Desorption of chlorotoluron also significantly increased (P < 0.05)with an increase in the DOM concentration. Additionally, for sorption and desorption, at each DOM treatment level the NTS treatments were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the HES treatments. This implied that non-treated sludge had a greater effect on the sorption and desorption of chlorotoluron than heat-expanded sludge.

  16. Effect of Selected Organic Acids on Cadmium Sorption by Variable-and Permanent-Charge Soils

    HU Hong-Qing; LIU Hua-Liang; HE Ji-Zheng; HUANG Qiao-Yun


    Batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to investigate cadmium (Cd) sorption by two permanent-charge soils, a yellow-cinnamon soil and a yellow-brown soil, and two variable-charge soils, a red soil and a latosol, with addition of selected organic acids (acetate, tartrate, and citrate). Results showed that with an increase in acetate concentrations from 0 to 3.0 mmol L-1, Cd sorption percentage by the yellow-cinnamon soil, the yellow-brown soil, and the latosol decreased. The sorption percentage of Cd by the yellow-cinnamon soil and generally the yellow-brown soil (permanent-charge soils)decreased with an increase in tartrate concentration, but increased at low tartrate concentrations for the red soil and the latosol. Curves of percentage of Cd sorption for citrate were similar to those for tartrate. For the variable-charge soils with tartrate and citrate, there were obvious peaks in Cd sorption percentage. These peaks, where organic acids had maximum influence, changed with soil type, and were at a higher organic acid concentration for the variable-charge soils than for the permanent charge soils. Addition of cadmium after tartrate adsorption resulted in higher sorption increase for the variable-charge soils than permanent-charge soils. When tartrate and Cd solution were added together, sorption of Cd decreased with tartrate concentration for the yellow-brown soil, but increased at low tartrate concentrations and then decreased with tartrate concentration for the red soil and the latosol.

  17. [Sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by organo-mineral complexes with different bridge cations].

    Ni, Jin-zhi; Luo, Yong-ming; Wei, Ran; Li, Xiu-hua; Qian, Wei


    Sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by organo-mineral complexes with Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ as bridge cations were studied according to the association type between organic matter and minerals in natural soils. The results showed that the data of phenanthrene sorption and desorption by different cation saturated montmorillonite and their corresponding humic acid and mineral complexes could be fitted with Freundlich model, and the order of the sorption capacities (Kf) were Ca-Mont (0.184) > Fe-Mont (0.028) > Al-Mont (0.015) and Fe-Mont-HA (2.341) > Ca-Mont-HA (1.557) > Al-Mont-HA (1.136), respectively. The Kf values of humic acid and mineral complexes were far greater than those of minerals, which demonstrated that humic acid made great contributions to the sorption of phenanthrene in the organo-mineral complexes. However, the Kf values of the organo-mineral complexes with different bridge cations were not consistent with their organic carbon content, which indicated that both the organic carbon content and the combined types between organic matter and mineral could affect the sorption capacity of phenanthrene by the organo-mineral complexes. The desorption hysteresis of phenanthrene was significant for Ca2+ and Al3+ bridged organo-mineral complexes. Desorption hysteresis of phenanthrene was mainly from the sorption of phenanthrene by organic matter, and the contributions of mineral to the desorption hysteresis were not significant.

  18. Sorption of organic water pollutants on dead vegetable biomass; Sorption organischer Wasserschadstoffe an abgestorbene pflanzliche Biomasse

    Kraeuter, A.


    Hemp-derived biological sorption agents were produced, and their physical, chemical and sorptive characteristics were tested in batch and filter tests. The experiments were accompanied by model calculations. In the natural state, the sorption agents had a kation exchange capacity of 0.1-0.3 mmol/g, modified sorption agents had about 2 mmol/g. Kationized hemp had values of 0.34 mmol/g and thermally modified hemp absorption agents absorbed more than 1.2 mmol/g of dichlorophenol. In the case of a liquid effluent from a textile dyeing plant, only a discoloration effect was achieved. The absorption agents can be regenerated, combusted or composted after use. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden naturbelassene und modifizierte Billig-Biosorbentien aus Hanfschaeben zur Entfernung organischer Schadstoffe aus Waessern hergestellt und ihre physikalischen, chemischen und sorptiven Eigenschaften in Batch- und Filterversuchen untersucht. Wegen der Komplexheit des Systems ''Biosorption organischer Wasserschadstoffe'' wurden die ermittelten Sorptionsisothermen mit den Ansaetzen nach Langmuir und Freundlich beschrieben. Die Sorptionskinetik und das Durchbruchsverhalten wurde ebenfalls mit einfachen Ansaetzen modelliert. Naturbelassene Hanfschaeben erreichten Kationenaustauschkapazitaeten von 0,1-0,3 mmol/g, entsprechend modifizierte Hanfschaeben ca. 2 mmol/g. Kationisierte Hanfschaeben dagegen erreichten Anionenaustauschkapazitaeten von 0,34 mmol/g und thermisch modifizierte Hanfschaeben sorbierten bis ueber 1,2 mmol/g Dichlorphenol. Bei der Behandlung eines Abwassers aus einer Textilfaerberei beschraenkte sich die Reinigungsleistung der hergestellten Biosorbentien auf eine Entfaerbung. Nach Schadstoffbeladung koennen die Hanfschaeben regeneriert, thermisch verwertet oder kompostiert werden. (orig.)




    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the investigation of basin peat sorption capacity in Tomsk field. Experimental results showed the thermal treatment efficiency of sorbent production for oil spill response.



    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS ) was adopted to elucidate sorption mechanism of phenol and p-nitrophenol onto a weakly anion exchanger D301. The distribution of specific forms of tertiary amino group on D301 was obtained and effect of free tertiary amino group on phenol sorption onto D301 was discussed. The result indicated that the percent of the protonated tertiary amine group on polymeric matrix was much lower than the reference compound N,N-dimethylbenzylamine at an identical pH value in solution due to the much lower activity degree of hydrogen ion in inner resin phase than in the external solution. Less free amino group on D301 results in less sorption capacity of phenol and p-nitrophenol in an acidic solution. Under the experimental conditions both phenol sorption onto D301 can be explained as solid extraction and the distribution coefficient varies linearly with the content of free amino group on D301.

  1. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with distinct phosphorus levels

    Prata, Fabio [BIOAGRI Labs., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Div. de Quimica. Lab. de Radioquimica; Cardinali, Vanessa Camponez do Brasil; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas; Lavorenti, Arquimedes [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Toxicologia


    The sorption of glyphosate by soils occurs due to the inner sphere complex formation with metals of soil oxides, which are related to the soil phosphate adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing rates of phosphorus on sorption and desorption of glyphosate in three soils with different mineralogical attributes. Soils were a Rhodic Kandiudalf, an Anionic Acrudox and a Typic Humaquept. Soil samples were amended with Kh{sub 2}PO{sub 4} at equivalent rates of 0; 1,000; 5,000; 20,000 and 50,000 kg ha{sup -1} of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which are high from the agricultural point of view, but necessary in order to perform sorption and desorption studies. The experimental design consisted of a completely randomized factorial: 2 soils x 5 phosphorus rates and 3 replicates. For the sorption experiments, five glyphosate solutions were employed (0.42; 0.84; 1.68; 3.36 and 6.72 mg L{sup -1}), with a {sup 14}C radioactivity of 0.233 kBq mL{sup -1}. Four steps of the desorption procedures withCaCl{sub 2} 0.01 mol L{sup -1} and one extraction with Mehlich 3 were performed only at one concentration (0.84 mol L{sup -1}). Soil samples were afterwards biologically oxidized to establish the radioactive balance. Glyphosate competes with phosphorus for specific sorption sites, but this competition becomes important when phosphorus is present at rates higher than 1,000 mg dm{sup -3}. Moreover, a small amount of applied glyphosate was extracted (<10%), and the extraction increased with increasing soil phosphorus content. (author)

  2. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with distinct phosphorus levels

    Prata Fábio


    Full Text Available The sorption of glyphosate by soils occurs due to the inner sphere complex formation with metals of soil oxides, which are related to the soil phosphate adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing rates of phosphorus on sorption and desorption of glyphosate in three soils with different mineralogical attributes. Soils were a Rhodic Kandiudalf, an Anionic Acrudox and a Typic Humaquept. Soil samples were amended with KH2PO4 at equivalent rates of 0; 1,000; 5,000; 20,000 and 50,000 kg ha-1 of P2O5, which are high from the agricultural point of view, but necessary in order to perform sorption and desorption studies. The experimental design consisted of a completely randomized factorial: 2 soils x 5 phosphorus rates and 3 replicates. For the sorption experiments, five glyphosate solutions were employed (0.42; 0.84; 1.68; 3.36 and 6.72 mg L-1, with a 14C radioactivity of 0.233 kBq mL-1. Four steps of the desorption procedure with CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 and one extraction with Mehlich 3 were performed only at one concentration (0.84 mol L-1. Soil samples were afterwards biologically oxidized to establish the radioactive balance. Glyphosate competes with phosphorus for specific sorption sites, but this competition becomes important when phosphorus is present at rates higher than 1,000 mg dm-3. Moreover, a small amount of applied glyphosate was extracted (<10%, and the extraction increased with increasing soil phosphorus content.

  3. Hollow fiber adsorbents for CO2 capture: Kinetic sorption performance

    Lively, Ryan P.


    We describe a CO 2 capture platform based on hollow polymeric fibers with sorbent particles embedded in the porous fiber wall for post-combustion CO 2 capture. These fibers are intended for use in a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) process. The RTSA system utilizes the hollow fiber morphology by flowing cooling water on the bore-side of the fibers during sorption to prevent temperature rise associated with the sorption enthalpy. Steam or hot water is flowed through the bores during desorption to desorb CO 2 rapidly. To minimize material transfer between the bore and the fiber wall, a dense Neoprene ® lumen layer is cast on the bore-side of the fiber wall. In this paper, the key sorption step and associated kinetic resistances for the uncooled fibers are examined and evaluated for this portion of the RTSA process. Chopped fibers in a packed bed, as well as fibers assembled into a parallel flow module, have been tested in a simulated flue gas stream. Kinetic limitations in the hollow fiber modules are largely overcome by increasing the superficial gas velocity and the fiber packing in the module-indicating that film diffusion is the controlling mass transfer limitation in the fiber system. The un-cooled fiber modules lose apparent capacity as superficial velocities are increased, likely indicating non-isothermal operation, whereas the actively-cooled fibers in the packed bed maintain apparent capacity at all flowrates studied. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sorption of chromium (VI) by Mg/Fe hydrotalcite type compunds

    García-Sosa, I.; Cabral-Prieto, A.; Nava, N.; Navarrete, J.; Olguín, M. T.; Escobar, Luis; López-Castañares, R.; Olea-Cardoso, O.


    The synthesis by co-precipitation and characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopies of Mg-Fe-hydrotalcite compounds, and their sorption capacities for Cr(VI) in aqueous media were carried out. The average sorption capacity of Cr(VI) for the non-thermal treated samples was of 6.2 mg/g. The ferrihydrite was omnipresent in all prepared hydrotalcite samples. A brief discussion is made on the role of both the hydrotalcite and ferrihydrite for removing such amount of Cr(VI).

  5. Sorption of chromium (VI) by Mg/Fe hydrotalcite type compunds

    García-Sosa, I., E-mail:; Cabral-Prieto, A., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Química (Mexico); Nava, N., E-mail:; Navarrete, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (Mexico); Olguín, M. T., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Química (Mexico); Escobar, Luis, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Física (Mexico); López-Castañares, R., E-mail:; Olea-Cardoso, O., E-mail: [Universidad Autónoma del Edo. de México, Facultad de Química (Mexico)


    The synthesis by co-precipitation and characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopies of Mg-Fe-hydrotalcite compounds, and their sorption capacities for Cr(VI) in aqueous media were carried out. The average sorption capacity of Cr(VI) for the non-thermal treated samples was of 6.2 mg/g. The ferrihydrite was omnipresent in all prepared hydrotalcite samples. A brief discussion is made on the role of both the hydrotalcite and ferrihydrite for removing such amount of Cr(VI)

  6. Effects of Mo on the Microstructure and Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Ti-Mo Getters

    ZHOU Hong-guo; WEI Xiu-ying; MAO Chang-hui; XIONG Yu-hua; QIN Guang-rong


    The effects of Mo on the microstructure evolution, porosity and hydrogen sorption properties of Ti-Mo getters are investigated in this work. The results show that the addition of Mo prolongs the densification process of Ti-Mo getters and results in a significant amount of sintered pores. With the Mo content increasing, the porosity of getters firstly increases reaching the maximum value as it attains about 7.5wt.%, and then drops. At the room temperature, the hydrogen sorption property of getters increases progressively with the Mo content increasing, but the tendency is not very clear before its content lies below 2.5wt.%. When the Mo content achieves about7.5wt.%, the hydrogen sorption property proves to be the best. The discussion is made about the above mentioned phenomena inclusive of hydrogen sorption properties of getters under different activation conditions (from 500-750 ℃).

  7. Deviations from sorption linearity on soils of polar and nonpolar organic compounds at low relative concentrations

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.


    A series of single-solute and binary-solute sorption data have been obtained on representative samples of polar compounds (substituted ureas and phenolic compounds) and of nonpolar compounds (e.g., EDB and TCE) on a peat soil and a mineral (Woodburn) soil; the data extend to low relative solute concentrations (C(e)/S(w)). At relatively low C(e)/S(w), both the nonpolar and the polar solutes exhibit nonlinear sorption. The sorption nonlinearity approaches apparent saturation at about C(e)/S(w) = 0.010-0.015 for the nonpolar solutes and at about C(e)/S(w) = 0.10-0.13 for the polar solutes; above these C(e)/S(w) regions, the isotherms are practically linear. The nonlinear sorption capacities are greater for polar solutes than for nonpolar solutes and the peat soil shows a greater effect than the Woodburn soil. The small nonlinear sorption capacity for a nonpolar solute is suppressed indiscriminately by either a nonpolar or a polar cosolute at relatively low C(e)/S(w) of the cosolute. By contrast, the abilities of different cosolutes to suppress the nonlinear capacity of a nominal polar solute differ drastically. For polar solutes, a nonpolar cosolute exhibits a limited suppression even at high cosolute C(e)/S(w); effective suppression occurs when the cosolute is relatively polar and at various C(e)/S(w). These differences suggest that more than a single mechanism is required to account for the nonlinear sorption of both nonpolar and polar compounds at low C(e)/S(w). Mechanistic processes consistent with these observations and with soil surface areas are discussed along with other suggested models. Some important consequences of the nonlinear competitive sorption to the behavior of contaminants in natural systems are discussed.A number of conceptual models was postulated to account for the nonlinear solute sorption on soils of significant soil organic matter. A series of single-solute and binary-route sorption data was obtained representing samples of polar compounds of

  8. Sorption of cesium in young till soils

    Lusa, Merja; Lempinen, Janne; Ahola, Hanna; Soederlund, Mervi; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Laboratory of Radiochemistry; Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland)


    Soil samples from three forest soil pits were examined down to a depth of approximately three metres using 1 M ammonium acetate extraction and microwave-assisted extraction with concentrated nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), to study the binding of cesium (Cs) at Olkiluoto Island, southern Finland. Ammonium acetate was used to extract the readily exchangeable Cs fractions roughly representing the Cs fraction in soil which is available for plants. Microwave-assisted HNO{sub 3} extraction dissolves various minerals, e.g. carbonates, most sulphides, arsenides, selenides, phosphates, molybdates, sulphates, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides and some silicates (olivine, biotite, zeolite), and reflects the total Cs concentrations. Cs was mostly found in the strongly bound fraction obtained through HNO{sub 3} extraction. The average Cs concentrations found in this fraction were 3.53 ± 0.30 mg/kg (d.w.), 3.06 ± 1.86 mg/kg (d.w.) and 1.83 ± 0.42 mg/kg (d.w.) in the three soil pits, respectively. The average exchangeable Cs found in the ammonium acetate extraction in all three sampling pits was 0.015 ± 0.008 mg/kg (d.w.). In addition, Cs concentrations in the soil solution were determined and in situ distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Cs were calculated. Furthermore, the in situ K{sub d} data was compared with the Cs K{sub d} data obtained using the model batch experiments. The in situ K{sub d} values were observed to fairly well follow the trend of batch sorption data with respect to soil depth, but on average the batch distribution coefficients were almost an order of magnitude higher than the in situ K{sub d} data. In situ Cs sorption data could be satisfactory fitted with the Langmuir sorption isotherm, but the Freundlich isotherm failed to fit the data. Finally, distribution coefficients were calculated by an ion exchange approach using soil solution data, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) as well as Cs to sodium (Na) and Cs to potassium (K) ion exchange selectivity

  9. Sorption and degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in representative soils of the Czech Republic

    Kodesova, Radka; Kocarek, Martin; Klement, Ales; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Fer, Miroslav; Nikodem, Antonin; Jaksik, Ondrej


    Knowledge of contaminant behavior (e.g. its sorption onto soil particle, degradation etc.) is essential when assessing contaminant migration in soil and groundwater environment. This study was focused on evaluating sorption isotherms and half-lives for 7 pharmaceuticals (clarithromycin, trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, clindamycin, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole) on 13 soils of different soil properties. Sorption of ionizable compounds was highly affected by soil pH. The sorption coefficient of sulfamethoxazole was negatively correlated to soil pH and thus positively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity. Sorption coefficients for clindamycin and clarithromycin were positively related to soil pH and thus negatively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity and positively related to base cation saturation. Sorption coefficients for the remaining pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine) were also positively correlated with the base cation saturation and cation exchange capacity. Degradation rates in some degree reflected sorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles and increased with decreasing sorption. The highest mobility in studied soils was observed for sulfamethoxazole, but this pharmaceutical was relatively quickly degraded. The second highest mobility was found for carbamazepine, which mostly did not noticeably degrade during our experiments. Thus this pharmaceutical has the highest potential to migrate in water environment. The lowest mobility was observed for clarithromycin. However, this pharmaceutical due to its stability may be retained in an environment for a long time. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Czech Science Foundation (Project No. 13-12477S, Transport of pharmaceuticals in soils). References: Kodesova, R., Grabic, R., Kocarek, M., Klement, A., Golovko, O., Fer, M., Nikodem, A., Jaksik, O., Pharmaceuticals' sorptions relative to

  10. TEM-EDS study of metals' partition at particle level after their sorption in soil

    Sipos, Peter; Kovács Kis, Viktória; Németh, Tibor; Balázs, Réka


    Association of soil mineral particles could significantly modify the sorption capacity of the individual soil components. We studied this phenomena using single element and competitive batch Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn sorption experiments on six soil samples with contrasting characteristics. Their sorption properties were characterized by XRD and FTIRS analyses, as well as sorption curve evaluation. TEM-EDS analyses were used to characterize the soil mineral particle associations and their metal sorption capacities. Submicron sized smectite particles were found to be associated to tiny ferryhidrite and goethite patches in the acidic forest soil samples, whereas the alkaline meadow soils could be characterized by goethite and smectite particles attached to large carbonate grains. Point chemical analyses carried out on such associations showed that significant metal separation may occur at particle level within the mineral associations observed. This is primarily obvious for Cu and Pb, which are preferentially sorbed by iron oxides over clay mineral particles. This phenomenon is more pronounced in competitive situation. Highest affinity to clay minerals was found for Zn and it may be also characteristic for Cd in acid conditions. However, decrease in available sorption sites and increase in pH may result in enhanced precipitation for the studied metals. Our results suggest that estimation of the role of soil components in metals' sorption can not be adequate enough when the sorption properties of a set of bulk soils are studied exclusively. Direct observation of metals' partition at particle level may result in a deeper insight into soil-metal interaction. This study was financially supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K105009).

  11. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per;


    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content......, cation exchange capacity) and engineering properties (e.g., swelling potential). Our objectives for this work were to: (i) evaluate the potential of several theoretical and empirical isotherm models to accurately describe measured moisture adsorption/desorption isotherms (aw range of 0.03 to 0.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...

  12. Carbon dioxide sorption in a nanoporous octahedral molecular sieve

    Williamson, Izaak; Nelson, Eric B.; Li, Lan


    We have performed first-principles density functional theory calculations, incorporated with van der Waals interactions, to study CO2 adsorption and diffusion in nanoporous solid—OMS-2 (Octahedral Molecular Sieve). We found the charge, type, and mobility of a cation, accommodated in a porous OMS-2 material for structural stability, can affect not only the OMS-2 structural features but also CO2 sorption performance. This paper targets K+, Na+, and Ba2+ cations. First-principles energetics and electronic structure calculations indicate that Ba2+ has the strongest interaction with the OMS-2 porous surface due to valence electrons donation to the OMS-2 and molecular orbital hybridization. However, the Ba-doped OMS-2 has the worst CO2 uptake capacity. We also found evidence of sorption hysteresis in the K- and Na-doped OMS-2 materials.

  13. On the zinc sorption by the Serbian natural clinoptilolite and the disinfecting ability and phosphate affinity of the exhausted sorbent.

    Stojakovic, Djordje; Hrenovic, Jasna; Mazaj, Matjaz; Rajic, Nevenka


    The Serbian natural zeolite is moderately effective in removing the zinc(II) ions from aqueous solutions. At 298 K the sorption capacity varies from 13 to 26% for the initial Zn(II) solution concentration of 100 and 600 mg Zndm(-3), respectively. The sorption isotherm at 298-338 K is best represented by the Langmuir model and the sorption kinetics by the pseudo-second-order model. The sorption involves a combination of film diffusion, intra-particle diffusion, and a chemical cation-exchange between the Na(+) ions of clinoptilolite and Zn(2+) ions. The sorption was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in the 298-338 K range. The exhausted sorbent can remove phosphate ions and it exhibits an excellent antibacterial activity towards Acinetobacter junii. By dehydration at about 500 °C it transforms to a ZnO-containing product featuring nano-sized wurtzite ZnO particles widespread over the clinoptilolite surface.

  14. Kinetic study of the sorption process with Cu(II ions on clinoptilolite and analcime. Effects of temperature and particle size



    Full Text Available The sorption process of the Cu(II ions on the clinoptilolite and analcime containing volcanic tuff was studied at different temperatures like 40, 60 and 80 °C. The effects of temperature and a particle size on the sorption capacity of the used zeolites were analysed.

  15. Effects of dissolved organic matter from sewage sludge on the atrazine sorption by soils

    LING Wanting; XU Jianming; GAO Yanzheng


    The effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM), water soluble organic matter derived from sewage sludge, on the sorption of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-trazine) by soils were studied using a batch equilibrium technique. Six paddy soils, chosen so as to have different organic carbon contents, were experimented in this investigation. Atrazine sorption isotherms on soils were described by the linear equation, and the distribution coefficients without DOM (Kd) or with DOM (Kd*) were obtained. Generally, the values of Kd*/Kd initially insoil-solution system form. Critical concentrations of DOM (DOMnp) were obtained where the value of Kd* was equal to Kd. The presence of DOM with concentrations lower than DOMnp promoted atrazine sorption on soils (Kd* > Kd), whereas the presence of DOM with concentrations higher than DOMnp tended to inhibit atrazine sorption (Kd* < Kd). Interestingly, DOMnp for tested soils was negatively correlated to the soil organic carbon content, and the maximum of Kd*/Kd (i.e.Kmax) correlated positively with the maximum of DOM sorption on soil (Xmax). Further investigations showed that the presence of hydrophobic fraction of DOM evidently promoted the atrazine sorption on soils, whereas the presence of hydrophilic DOM fraction obviously tended to inhibit the atrazine sorption. Interactions of soil surfaces with DOM and its fractions were suggested to be the major processes determining atrazine sorption on soils. The results of this work provide a reference to the agricultural use of organic amendment such as sewage sludge for improving the availability of atrazine in soils.

  16. Sorption performance of cysteine-modified bentonite in heavy metals uptake



    Full Text Available local clay, bentonite (N-Ben, was modified by the biologically-based ligand, cysteine (Cys, through a simple sorption technique. The modified sorbent (Cys–Ben demonstrated affinity for soft and moderately soft heavy metal ions (HMI, such as Cd(II and Pb(II, probably as a result of the soft basic character of the thiol ligand side chains. The resulting modified system was effective for metal binding with capacities of 0.503 and 0.525 mmol g-1, for Pb(II and Cd(II, respectively. Comparative batch experiments were performed for removing lead and cadmium from aqueous solutions. The sorption parameters were derived from a Langmuir fit to the sorption isotherms of the studied ions. The study showed that the sorption capacity of Cys–Ben was higher than that of N-Ben for these ions. The effect of pH was examined over the range 2.0–6.0. The sorption capacities of Cys–Ben showed that this modified clay is a good sorbent for the examined heavy metal ions.

  17. Sorption of polar herbicides and herbicide metabolites by biochar-amended soil.

    Dechene, Annika; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Laabs, Volker; Amelung, Wulf


    Biochar-amended soil has been proven to possess superior sorption capacities for several environmental pollutants compared with pure soil. However, the role of biochar in the immobilization of polar pesticides and their metabolites has hardly been tested. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of a soil amendment with biochar on the sorption of selected polar herbicides and herbicide metabolites (log Kow 0.3-chloridazon, metazachlor oxalic acid, metazachlor sulfonic acid) were tested, i.e. three anionic and one neutral polar compound. The results showed that the presence of biochar increased the sorption capacity of the soil only in the case of the uncharged compound methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon, for which the average distribution coefficients in biochar-amended soils were higher than in pure soil by a factor of 2.1-2.5. However, this effect rather seemed to reflect the increased soil organic carbon content after the addition of biochar than a preferred sorption of methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon to biochar. In the case of the three anionic compounds imazamox, metazachlor oxalic acid and metazachlor sulfonic acid, biochar amendment did not increase the sorption capacity of the soil for these compounds, presumably as a result of its negative net charge. Similarly, desorption experiments did not show any significant effect of the biochar amendment on desorption. This suggests that the potential of using biochar to mitigate the leaching of the tested polar pesticides or metabolites is limited.

  18. Sorption of dissolved organic matter and its effects on the atrazine sorption on soils

    LING Wan-ting; WANG Hai-zhen; XU Jian-ming; GAO Yan-zheng


    The dissolved organic matter(DOM), water soluble organic matter derived from sewage sludge was separated into hydrophobic fraction(Ho) and hydrophilic fraction(Hi). The sorption of DOM and its fractions on soils and the effects of DOM sorption on a nonionic pesticide(atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-trazine)) distribution between soil and water were investigated using a batch equilibrium technique. The total DOM sorption on soils described by the Langmuir equation reached saturation as the DOMconcentration increased. The sorption of Ho fit the Freundlich model. In contrast, a negative retention evidently occurred as adding Hi at higher level in tested soils. The sorption of Ho dominated the total DOM sorption and the release of soil organic matter(SOM). Effects of DOM on the atrazine sorption by soils were DOM-concentration dependent and dominated by the interaction of atrazine, DOM, and soil solids. Generally, the presence of DOM with lower concentration promoted atrazine sorption on soils, namely the apparent partitioning constant( K; ) for atrazine sorption in the presence of DOM was larger than the distribution constant ( Kd ) without DOM; whereas the presence of DOM with higher concentration inhibited atrazine sorption(i. e., K; < Kd ) . The overall effects of DOM on atrazine sorption in soils might be related to the DOM sorption and the release of soil intrinsic organic matter into aqueous solution. The sorption of Ho on soils promoted the atrazine sorption on soil, while the release of SOM by Hi and the competitive sorption between Hi and atrazine on soil surface led to a decrease of atrazine sorption. Information provided in this work may contribute to a better understanding of the DOM sorption and its impacts on the contaminant soil-water distribution.

  19. Indium Sorption to Iron Oxides

    White, S. J.; Sacco, S. A.; Hemond, H.; Hussain, F. A.; Runkel, R. L.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Shine, J. P.


    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics, and its use is growing rapidly as a semiconductive coating (as indium tin oxide) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and flat panel displays. It also has uses in important energy technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic cells. Despite its rapid increase in use, very little is known about the environmental behavior of indium, and concerns are being raised over the potential health effects of this emerging metal contaminant. One source of indium to the environment is acid mine drainage from the mining of lead, zinc, and copper sulfides. In our previous studies of a stream in Colorado influenced by acid mine drainage from lead and zinc mining activities, indium concentrations were found to be 10,000 times those found in uncontaminated rivers. However, the speciation and mobility of indium could not be reliably modeled because sorption constants to environmental sorbents have not been determined. In this study, we generate sorption constants for indium to ferrihydrite in the laboratory over a range of pHs, sorbent to sorbate ratios, and ionic strengths. Ferrihydrite is one of the most important sorbents in natural systems, and sorption to amorphous iron oxides such as ferrihydrite is thought to be one of the main removal mechanisms of metals from the dissolved phase in aqueous environments. Because of its relatively low solubility, we also find that indium hydroxide precipitation can dominate indium's partitioning at micromolar concentrations of indium. This precipitation may be important in describing indium's behavior in our study stream in Colorado, where modeling sorption to iron-oxides does not explain the complete removal of indium from the dissolved phase when the pH of the system is artificially raised to above 8. This study contributes much-needed data about indium's aqueous behavior, in order to better understand its fate, transport, and impacts in the

  20. comparison of sorption capacity and surface area of activated ...

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    plant, but information about the use of Jatropha seed husk, which is about 39% of ... to carbon was carried out by burning in a limited air supply in a burning ... activated carbon prepared from samples of coconut shell, maize cob, orange peels, ...

  1. The importance of nano-porosity in the stalk-derived biochar to the sorption of 17β-estradiol and retention of it in the greenhouse soil.

    Zhang, Fengsong; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Guixiang; Li, Wei; Yang, Lingsheng


    Natural estrogens in greenhouse soils with long-term manure application are becoming a potential threat to adjacent aquatic environment. Porous stalk biochar as a cost-effective adsorbent of estrogen has a strong potential to reduce their transportation from soil to waters. But the dominant adsorption mechanism of estrogen to stalk biochars and retention of estrogen by greenhouse soils amended with biochar are less well known. Element, function groups, total surface area (SAtotal), nano-pores of stalk biochars, and chemical structure of 17β-estradiol (E2, length 1.20 nm, width 0.56 nm, thickness 0.48 nm) are integrated in research on E2 sorption behavior in three stalk-derived biochars produced from wheat straw (WS), rice straw (RS), and corn straw (CS), and greenhouse soils amended with optimal biochar. The three biochars had comparable H/C and (O + N)/C, while their aromatic carbon contents and total surface areas (SAtotal) both varied as CS > WS > RS. However, WS had the highest sorption capacity (logK oc), sorption affinity (K f ), and strongest nonlinearity (n). Additionally, the variation of Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity (Q (0)) was consistent with the trend for SA1.2-20 (WS > RS > CS) but contrary to the trend for SAtotal and SA WS > RS). These results indicate that pore-filling dominates the sorption of E2 by biochars and exhibits "sieving effect" and length-directionality-specific via H-bonding between -OH groups on the both ends of E2 in the length direction and polar groups on the inner surface of pores. After the addition of wheat straw biochar, the extent of increase in the sorption affinity for E2 in the soil with low OC content was higher than those in the soil with high OC content. Therefore, the effectiveness for the wheat straw biochar mitigating the risk of E2 in greenhouse soil depended on the compositions of soil, especially organic matter.

  2. Effect of biosurfactant[0] on the sorption of phenanthrene onto original and H2O2-treated soils

    PEI Xiaohong; ZHAN Xinhua; ZHOU Lixiang


    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biosurfactant on sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) onto the original or H2O2-treated black loamy soil (typic isohumisols) and red sandy soil (typic ferralisols). The sorption isotherms were performed with the original and "soft" carbon-removed soils in the presence and absence of biosurfactant (200 mg/L). The sorption and degradation of biosurfactant were investigated. The result showed that organic matter played an important role in PHE sorption onto the black loamy and red sandy soils, and the PHE sorption isotherms on the "soft" carbon-removed soils exhibited more nonlinearity than those on the original soils. The values of partition coefficient (Kd) on the original black loamy soil with or without 200 mg/L biosurfactant were 181.6 and 494.5 mL/g, respectively. Correspondingly, in the red sandy soil, Kd was 246.4 and 212.8 mL/g in the presence or absence of biosurfactant, respectively. The changes of Kd suggested that biosurfactant inhibited PHE sorption onto the black loamy soil, but facilitated PHE sorption onto the red sandy soil. The nonlinearity of PHE sorption isotherm was decreased in the presence of biosurfactant. Site specific sorption might occur during PHE sorption onto both the original and the "soft" carbon-removed soils in the presence of biosurfactant. It was noted that biosurfactant could also be sorbed onto soils. The maximal sorption capacity of the red sandy soil for biosurfactant was (76.9 ± 0.007) μg/g, which was 1.31 times that of black loamy soil. Biosurfactant was degraded quickly in the two selected soils, and 92% of biosurfactant were mineralized throughout the incubation experiment for 7 d. It implied that biosurfactant should be added frequently when the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils was conducted through PAH desorption approach facilitated by biosurfactant.

  3. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James


    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation.

  4. Afecções laríngeas, tempos máximos de fonação e capacidade vital em mulheres com disfonia organofuncional Laryngeal disorders, maximum phonation times and vital capacity in women with organofunctional dysphonia

    Carla Aparecida Cielo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar e correlacionar os tempos máximos de fonação (TMF de vogais, a capacidade vital (CV e os tipos de afecções laríngeas (AL de mulheres com disfonia organofuncional (DOF. MÉTODO: pesquisa retrospectiva, transversal, exploratória, não experimental, quantitativa, com banco de dados de medidas de TMF [a, i, u], de CV e de AL de mulheres com DOF; e os testes estatísticos Qui- quadrado e exato de Fisher, para verificar as diferenças entre as variáveis e suas relações e o teste binomial, a fim de verificar a significância de proporção ou percentual da análise descritiva, com pPURPOSE: to determine and to correlate the maximum phonation times (MPT of vowels, vital capacity (VC and laryngeal disorders (LD for women with benign organic lesions resulting from vocal misuse or abuse (BOL. METHOD: retrospective, transverse, exploratory, non-experimental, quantitative study, with measurement database of MPT [a, i, u], VC and LD of women with BOL, and Chi-Square statistic and exact tests of Fisher in order to investigate the differences between the variables and their relationships and a binomial test in order to check the significance of proportion or percentage of descriptive analysis, with p<0.05. RESULTS: the majority (22; 75.86% showed MPT significantly reduced (p = 0.0053 and seven (24.14% normal MPT. The normal VC was statistically significant (p = 0.0001 (26; 89.66%, but three women (10.34% showed it to be reduced. There was significant dominance of vocal nodules (p = 0.0016 (22; 75.86%, followed by Reinke's edema (6, 20.69% and vocal polyp (1; 3.45%. Among the 22 woman (75.86% which showed reduced MPT, there was a predominance with normal VC (19; 86.36%, although no statistical significance (p = 0,558. All the individuals with normal MPT showed VC normal (7; 100%. The majority with BOL showed normal VC, although not statistically significant (p=0,199. There was a predominance of vocal nodules and reduced MPT (16; 72

  5. Sorption Characteristic of Phenanthrene on Biochar-Amended Soils: Effect of feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and aging duration

    Hyun, S.; Kim, C.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, J.


    The high sorption capacity of biochar is widely known in environmental studies. Especially, biochar is effective for removal of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) due to high surface area and porosity. In this study, the sorption characteristic of biochar-amended soil was evaluated by sorption kinetic experiment of phenanthrene (PHE). For PHE sorption test, the effect of biochar feedstock (sludge waste char (SWC), municipal waste char (MWC) and wood char (WC), Giant Miscanthus (GM)), pyrolysis temperature (400°C, 500°C and 700°C,), and duration of amending period (0, 3, 6, and 12 months) was assessed. Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques were used to detect pore structure and the surface functional group of biochar amended soils. For all kinetic tests, apparent sorption equilibrium was attained in 24 hr. The result showed that sorption capacity of biochar amended soils was greatly influenced by biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. For all samples, the sorption capacity of PHE by biochar amended soils decreased with aging period. This observation is due to the fact that the aromatic characters of biochar are different by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and the amount of O-containing hydrophilic functional groups increased surfaces of biochar by natural oxidation (e.g. carboxyl groups) as confirmed by the result of FT-IR and FE-SEM. In addition, biochar pore blockage by inorganic minerals, which tended to increase with aging period, might attenuate the sorption capacity of samples. In conclusion, biochar derived from various feed stocks are all effective for PHE sorption. But the sorption capacity of biochar amended soils decreased with increasing aging duration most likely due to increasing hydrophilic functional groups of biochar surfaces and pore blockage by inorganic minerals in the weathering processes. Therefore, for the design of biochar amendment to attenuate

  6. Manganese Nitride Sorption Joule-Thomson Refrigerator

    Jones, Jack A.; Phillips, Wayne M.


    Proposed sorption refrigeration system of increased power efficiency combines MnxNy sorption refrigeration stage with systems described in "Regenerative Sorption Refrigerator" (NPO-17630). Measured pressure-vs-composition isotherms for reversible chemisorption of N2 in MnxNy suggest feasibility to incorporate MnxNy chemisorption stage in Joule-Thomson cryogenic system. Discovery represents first known reversible nitrogen chemisorption compression system. Has potential in nitrogen-isotope separation, nitrogen purification, or contamination-free nitrogen compression.

  7. Preparation of Polysulfone-supported Phosphoramidic Acid Type Chelate Membrane and Its Sorption Properties for Ag+

    WANG Bing; CUI Yong-fang; DU Qi-yun; PEI Guang-ling


    A blending chelate filter membrane with high chelate capacity for Ag+ has been prepared by blending of phosphoramidic acid resin and polysulfone. The major parameters influencing structure of the chelate filter membranes such as the blending ratio, phosphoramidic acid resin grain size and temperature of casting solution have been studied. The relationship among the chelate amount of Ag+, pH value, Ag+ concentration and phosphoramidic acid resin grain diameter were examined. The chelate filter membrane had a capacity of1438μg/cm2 for Ag+ under appropriate conditions.Sorption isotherm of Ag + could be expressed with the Freundlich sorption model. The dynamic chelate experiments proved that the sorption and desorption of membranes could be realized simultaneously for Ag+.

  8. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: column sorption-elution studies.

    Köse, T Ennil; Oztürk, Neşe


    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well.

  9. Sorption of organic cations to phyllosilicate clay minerals: CEC-normalization, salt dependency, and the role of electrostatic and hydrophobic effects.

    Droge, Steven T J; Goss, Kai-Uwe


    Sorption to the phyllosilicate clay minerals Illite, kaolinite, and bentonite has been studied for a wide variety of organic cations using a flow-through method with fully aqueous medium as the eluent. Linear isotherms were observed at concentrations below 10% of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) for Illite and kaolinite and below 1 mmol/kg (<1% CEC) for bentonite. Sorption to clays was strongly influenced by the electrolyte composition of the eluent but with a consistent trend for a diverse set of compounds on all clays, thus allowing for empirical correction factors. When sorption affinities for a given compound to a given clay are normalized to the CEC of the clay, the differences in sorption affinities between clays are reduced to less than 0.5 log units for most compounds. Although CEC-normalized sorption of quaternary ammonium compounds to clay was up to 10-fold higher than CEC-normalized sorption to soil organic matter, CEC-normalized sorption for most compounds was comparable between clays and soil organic matter. The clay fraction is thus a potentially relevant sorption phase for organic cations in many soils. The sorption data for organic cations to clay showed several regular trends with molecular structure but also showed quite a few systematic effects that we cannot explain. A model on the basis of the molecular size and charge density at the ionized nitrogen is used here as a tool to obtain benchmark values that elucidate the effect of specific polar moieties on the sorption affinity.

  10. Sorption of indigo carmine by a Fe-zeolitic tuff and carbonaceous material from pyrolyzed sewage sludge

    Gutierrez-Segura, E. [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon y Tollocan s/n., C.P. 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Colin-Cruz, A. [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon y Tollocan s/n., C.P. 50000 Toluca (Mexico)


    Indigo carmine removal from aqueous solution has been evaluated using Fe-zeolitic tuff and carbonaceous material from pyrolyzed sewage sludge treated with HCl (CM). The adsorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area and X-ray diffraction. Sorption kinetics and isotherms were determined and the adsorption behaviors analyzed. Kinetic pseudo-second order and Langmuir-Freundlich models were successfully applied to the experimental results obtained with the Fe-zeolitic material, while kinetic first order and Langmuir-Freundlich models were applied to the results from the carbonaceous materials. This indicates mechanisms of chemisorption and physic sorption, respectively, on the heterogeneous materials. The results indicate that the carbonaceous material from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge (sorption capacity 92.83 mg/g) is a better adsorbent of indigo carmine than the zeolitic material (sorption capacity 32.83 mg/g).

  11. 十六烷基三甲基季铵阳离子改良二氧化硅对酸性染料的吸着%Sorption of Acid Dyes onto Silica Modified with Cetyltrimethylammonium Cations


    The sorption behavior of acid dyes onto cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)- modified silica as a function of pH in the aqueous medium was studied. Single- and multi-solute sorption equilibria of orange Ⅱ(OR),phenol red (PR) and Eriochrome Black T (EBT) were studied at pH 3, unbuffered water pH and pH 11. Sorption behavior of EBT could not be conducted at pH 3 due to its aggregation in acidic medium. All the reaction conditions,experimental protocols and techniques remained the same throughout the sorption process. Sorption isotherms for single-solute system were fitted by the Langmuir model, while Langmuir competitive model (LCM) and the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) coupled with Langmuir model (IAST/Langmuir) were used for the prediction of multisolute competitive sorption. Sorption affinities influenced by the factors like physical interactive forces between the molecules of CTA on silica and sorbate, structural limitations of the dyes based on their geometrical arrangement were investigated. Sorption affinity of OR was found to be higher than that of EBT and PR at all the pH values investigated. Magnitude of the sorption capacities was observed to be higher in acidic medium but lower in alkaline medium. Trends of the sorption affinities in multisolute system were similar to those in single-solute system but magnitude of the sorption capacities was significantly reduced due to the prevailing competition among the sorbates.

  12. Degradation and sorption of fipronil and atrazine in Latossols with organic residues from sugarcane crop

    Raquel de Oliveira Silva


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Organic residues from sugarcane crop and processing (vinasse, boiler ash, cake filter, and straw are commonly applied or left on the soil to enhance its fertility. However, they can influence pesticide degradation and sorption. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of adding these organic residues on the degradation and sorption of fipronil and atrazine in two soils of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, MS, Brazil. The degradation experiment was carried out with laboratory-incubated (40 days; 28°C; 70% field capacity soils (0-10cm. The batch equilibration method was used to determine sorption. Fipronil (half-life values of 15-105 days showed to be more persistent than atrazine (7-17 days. Vinasse application to the soil favored fipronil and atrazine degradation, whereas cake filter application decreased the degradation rates for both pesticides. Values for sorption coefficients (Kd were determined for fipronil (5.1-13.2mL g-1 and atrazine (0.5-1.5mL g-1. Only straw and cake filter residues enhanced fipronil sorption when added to the soil, whereas all sugarcane residues increased atrazine sorption.

  13. Mathematical Model of Sorption Kinetics of Crude Oil by Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres

    Felix A. AISIEN


    Full Text Available This paper present an insight into how rubber particles from scrap tyres can be utilized to clean up oil spillages as well as how the process of sorption of crude oil by rubber particles can be stimulated based on sorption kinetics. Crude oil sorption tests using recycled rubber particles (a model absorbent were designed for investigating crude oil concentration profiles. The model based on a linear driving force (LDF was developed using a set of experimental data and multiple regression analysis. The crude oil sorption performance tests were conducted under various operating conditions by varying parameters such as rubber particle size and absorption temperature. The predictive capacity of the kinetic model was evaluated under conditions significantly different from those that have already been measured. The experimental results obtained previously were correlated with the first order sorption kinetics model developed. The results showed that the first order kinetics model accurately correlate the experimental data generated. Also, satisfactory results were obtained from simulation of other operating conditions; hence the crude oil sorption kinetics is first order.


    Gómez Ortiz, Ana Maria; Okada, Elena; Bedmar, Francisco; Costa, José Luis


    In Argentina, glyphosate use has increased exponentially in the past years due to the widespread adoption of no-till management combined with genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. This massive use of glyphosate has created concern about its potential environmental impact. Sorption-desorption of glyphosate was studied in three Argentinean soils with contrasting characteristics. Glyphosate sorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich equation to estimate the sorption coefficient (Kf ). Glyphosate sorption was high and the Kf varied from 115.6 to 1612 mg (1-1/n) L(1/n) /Kg. Cerro Azul soil had the highest glyphosate sorption capacity due to a combination of factors such as higher clay content, CEC, total Fe, Al oxides and lower available phosphorous and pH. Desorption isotherms were also modeled using the Freundlich equation. In general, desorption was very low (glyphosate strongly sorbs to the soils and that it is almost an irreversible process. Anguil soil had a significant higher desorption coefficient (Kfd ) than the other soils, associated with its lower clay content and higher pH and phosphorous. Glyphosate high sorption and low desorption to the studied soils may prevent groundwater contamination. However, it may also affect its bioavailability increasing its persistence and favoring its accumulation in environment. Results of this study contribute to the knowledge and characterization of glyphosate retention in different soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment.

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C


    Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4'-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  16. Competitive sorption of intermixed heavy metals in water repellent soil in Southern Australia

    Li, P. J.; Stagnitti, F.; Xiong, X.; Li, P.


    In water repellent soil, Cr, Pb and Cu showed higher adsorption intensities than Zn, Cd and Ni did. Soil water repellency is much more widespread than formerly thought. In order to promote fertility and productivity, the irrigation of recycled water onto water repellent soil may be an applied technology to be used in some areas of Southern Australia. Therefore, heavy metals in recycled water potentially enter into the soil. The competitive sorption and retention capacity of heavy metals in soil are important to be determined, especially considering the special geochemical origin of water repellent soil that was caused by waxes on or between the soil particles. Batch equilibrium sorption experiments on Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in their typical proportion in recycled water were conducted in water repellent soil. The sorption intensity, sorption isotherm in the experiments together showed that Cr, Pb and Cu have higher sorption intensity than those of Zn, Ni and Cd in the competitive system. The risk assessment for the application of recycled water onto water repellent soil is definitely necessary, especially for the metal cations with relatively weak sorption.

  17. Capturing hormones and bisphenol A from water via sustained hydrogen bond driven sorption in polyamide microfiltration membranes.

    Han, Jie; Meng, Suwan; Dong, Yue; Hu, Jiangyong; Gao, Wei


    This work investigates the distinct sorption properties of polyamide 66 (PA) microfiltration membranes for estrogenic compounds in water. Four representative estrogenic endocrine disruptors, namely estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA), were readily captured from water via sustained sorption in PA microfiltration membranes during crossflow filtration. Such significant sorption was only observed on PA membranes among seven polymeric membrane materials tested, including polyethersulfone (PES), cellulose acetate (CA), mixed nitrocellulose (MCE), polyester (PETE), regenerated cellulose (RC), polycarbonate (PC), and PA. The strong binding affinity originates from the hydrogen bonding interactions between PA amide groups and the proton-donating moieties of the target compound molecules. For hormone compounds, a correlation was further identified between their proton-donating moieties and sorption capacities in PA membranes. Using 0.2 μM (46-59 μg L(-1)) compound spiked solutions, the 0.2-μm PA membrane exhibited a sorption capacity of 81 L m(-2) (0.44 μg cm(-2)) for E1, 150 L m(-2) (0.82 μg cm(-2)) for E2, 208 L m(-2) (1.23 μg cm(-2)) for EE2, and 69 L m(-2) (0.32 μg cm(-2)) for BPA. The sorption capacity of PA membrane was largely unaffected by membrane flux or the co-presence of multiple target compounds or humic acid, but showed strong dependence on the membrane surface area and the compound concentration. The hydrogen bond driven sorption is a reversible process and desorption was effected by contacting exhausted PA membranes with 0.4 wt.% caustic solution at room temperature. The PA membrane exhibited consistent sorption capacities for the four target compounds in water through three cycles of reuse.

  18. Can assessing for potential contribution of soil organic and inorganic components for butachlor sorption be improved?

    He, Yan; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Haizhen; Shi, Jiachun; Xu, Jianming


    Sorption of butachlor to various types of common soil components was investigated. Six pure minerals (montmorillonite [Mont], kaolinite [Kaol], Ca homoionic montmorillonite [Ca-Mont] and kaolinite [Ca-Kaol], amorphous hydrated Al and Fe oxides [AHOs-Al, AHOs-Fe]), four soil alkali-extractable pure humic acids (HAs), and the four corresponding HAs originated real unmodified and HO-treated soils were selected as the representative sorbents. Results showed that the HAs played a crucial role, and clay minerals (especially Mont) also showed an important effect in butachlor sorption. The AHOs may likely influence only in a mediator way by enhancing the availability of sorption domains of HAs. By removing 78% (on average) of the total organic carbon (TOC) from the soils with HO, the content ratio of clay to TOC (RCO) increased by an average of 367% and became >60. This change simultaneously decreased the sorption capacity of soils (40%, on average). Considering that the surface sorption domain on clay minerals may be highly exposed and more competitive after the partial removal of soil organic matter (SOM), this reaffirmed the potential contribution from clay minerals. It can thus be inferred that in the real soil where SOM and clay minerals are associated, the coating of clay minerals may have weakened the partition function of SOM or blocked some sorption domain within SOM, resulting in a decreased sorption of butachlor. Therefore, clay minerals, especially 2:1 type expanding minerals, may play a dual function vs. SOM content for the sorption of butachlor in soil.

  19. Characteristics and influencing factors of tetrachloroethylene sorption-desorption on soil and its components.

    Qiu, Zhaofu; Yang, Weiwei; He, Long; Zhao, Zhexuan; Lu, Shuguang; Sui, Qian


    To investigate the effects of soil structure, soil organic carbon (SOC), minerals, initial tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentration (C0), and ionic strength (Ci) on PCE sorption-desorption, six types of soil were adopted as adsorbents, including two types of natural soil and four types of soil with most of the "soft carbon" pre-treated by H2O2 or with all SOC removed from the original soil by 600 °C ignition. The results showed that all of the sorption-desorption isotherms of PCE were non-linear within the experimental range, and the H2O2-treated samples exhibited higher non-linear sorption isotherms than those of the original soils. The hysteresis index of PCE sorption to original soil is less pronounced than that of the H2O2-treated and 600 °C-heated samples due to the entrapment of sorbate molecules in the "hard carbon" domain, together with the meso- and microporous structures within the 600 °C-heated samples. Both SOC and minerals have impacts on the sorption-desorption of PCE, and the sorption-desorption contribution rate of minerals increased with decreasing SOC content. C0 has almost no influence on the sorption to minerals of the soils, but the contribution rate of minerals decreased with increasing C0 in the desorption stage. As a result of the salting-out effect, PCE sorption capacity was increased by increasing Ci, especially when Ci ≥ 0.1 M. Moreover, desorption increased and hysteresis weakened with increasing Ci, except for the 600 °C-heated samples. In addition, no significant effect of Ci on desorption of PCE and no hysteresis was observed in this experimental range for the 600 °C-heated samples.

  20. Spectroscopic study of heavy metals sorption on clinoptilolite

    Mozgawa, W.; Bajda, T.

    Sorption of heavy metal cations (Pb(II), Cr(III), Cd(II), Ni(II)) from aqueous solutions on natural Na-clinoptilolite was studied using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. It was found that the sorption capacity of clinoptilolite decreases in the following order: Pb(II) (22,600 mg/kg), Cr(III) (21,200 mg/kg), Cd(II) (10,400 mg/kg) and Ni(II) (6,200 mg/kg). In the FT-IR spectra of the samples, in the region of pseudolattice vibrations (500 800 cm-1), systematic changes connected with the type of cation and its concentration in the initial solution were observed. The proportions of ion exchange and chemisorption in the whole process of sorption were also estimated. It was found that the amount of cations sorbed on clinoptilolite depended on the concentrations and pH of the solutions used as well as on the contact time of zeolite-solution system. After 120 min of the reaction, despite the metal type, 90 100% of the total amount of cations were immobilized.


    Ayoob Sulaiman


    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  2. Plutonium sorption and desorption behavior on bentonite.

    Begg, James D; Zavarin, Mavrik; Tumey, Scott J; Kersting, Annie B


    Understanding plutonium (Pu) sorption to, and desorption from, mineral phases is key to understanding its subsurface transport. In this work we study Pu(IV) sorption to industrial grade FEBEX bentonite over the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-16) M to determine if sorption at typical environmental concentrations (≤10(-12) M) is the same as sorption at Pu concentrations used in most laboratory experiments (10(-7)-10(-11) M). Pu(IV) sorption was broadly linear over the 10(-7)-10(-16) M concentration range during the 120 d experimental period; however, it took up to 100 d to reach sorption equilibrium. At concentrations ≥10(-8) M, sorption was likely affected by additional Pu(IV) precipitation/polymerization reactions. The extent of sorption was similar to that previously reported for Pu(IV) sorption to SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite over a narrower range of Pu concentrations (10(-11)-10(-7) M). Sorption experiments with FEBEX bentonite and Pu(V) were also performed across a concentration range of 10(-11)-10(-7) M and over a 10 month period which allowed us to estimate the slow apparent rates of Pu(V) reduction on a smectite-rich clay. Finally, a flow cell experiment with Pu(IV) loaded on FEBEX bentonite demonstrated continued desorption of Pu over a 12 day flow period. Comparison with a desorption experiment performed with SWy-1 montmorillonite showed a strong similarity and suggested the importance of montorillonite phases in controlling Pu sorption/desorption reactions on FEBEX bentonite.

  3. Sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP) on sewage-irrigated soil: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Liao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Caixiang, E-mail:; Yao, Linlin; Li, Jiale; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang; Evalde, Mulindankaka


    The reuse of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land is a well established resources management practice but has the disadvantage of inputting various forms of contaminants into the terrestrial environment including nonylphenol (NP), a well known endocrine disrupting substance. To elucidate the environmental fate and transport of NP, the sorption behavior on sewage-irrigated soil was studied by batch experiment. It was found that sorption processes of NP on different sorbents (soil, humic acid (HA) and silica) could be expressed well using two compartment pseudo first-order model, where both surface and intra-particle diffusion were probable rate-controlling processes. Linear model could better express the sorption of NP on soil, black carbon (BC) and mineral (e.g., SiO{sub 2}) except HA than Freundlich model. The large value of distribution coefficients of normalized organic carbon (K{sub oc}) on soils indicated that NP was limited to migrate to deep soil. The higher desorption partition coefficient of NP on soil showed enhanced hysteresis. According to the experimental data, the calculated thermodynamic parameters implied that the sorption reaction on sewage-irrigation was spontaneous, exothermic and entropy decreasing process. The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) dominated the sorption capacity, whereas the sorption behavior of NP on soil showed no significant correlation with ionic strength. - Highlights: • Both surface and intra-particle diffusion were rate-controlling processes. • Soil composition influences the partition activity of NP. • Soil organic matter has dominated the sorption capacity of NP on soil. • NP molecule was limited to migrate to deep soil in sewage-irrigated area.

  4. Fator capacidade de fósforo em solos de pernambuco mineralogicamente diferentes e influência do pH na capacidade máxima de adsorção Phosphate capacity factor in mineralogically different soils in Pernambuco and the influence of pH on the maximum capacity of adsorption

    Fábio Broggi


    Full Text Available O Fator Capacidade de Fósforo (FCP é definido pela razão de equilíbrio entre o fator quantidade de P (Q e o fator intensidade (I e representa uma medida da capacidade do solo em manter um determinado nível de P em solução. As características e o teor dos constituintes minerais da fração argila são responsáveis por uma maior ou menor FCP, interferindo nas relações solo-planta. Por outro lado, o pH do solo tem, em alguns casos, mostrado-se com efeito na adsorção e, em outros, com pequena e não consistente alteração na Capacidade Máxima de Adsorção de P (CMAP. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o FCP de solos mineralogicamente diferentes em Pernambuco; correlacionar características físicas e químicas dos solos com o FCP; e avaliar o efeito do pH na CMAP. Amostras subsuperficiais de quatro solos, mineralogicamente diferentes, foram caracterizadas química e fisicamente e determinado o FCP. Essas amostras foram corrigidas com CaCO3 e MgCO3 na proporção 4:1 e incubadas por 30 dias, com exceção do Vertissolo. Determinou-se a CMAP antes e após a correção dos solos. O experimento consistiu de um fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro solos com e sem correção, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. As características dos solos que melhor refletiram o FCP foram o P remanescente (P-rem e a CMAP. Independentemente dos constituintes mineralógicos da fração argila, solos com elevados teores de alumínio apresentaram aumento da CMAP com a correção. A energia de adsorção (EA nos solos corrigidos foi, em média, significativamente menor, independentemente do solo.Phosphate Maximum Capacity (FCP is defined by the ratio of equilibrium between the amount of factor P (Q and factor intensity (I and represents a measure of the soil ability to maintain a certain level of P in solution. The characteristics and content of the constituents of clay minerals are responsible for a greater or lesser FCP, interfering in soil

  5. Sorption of cobalt and nickel on anaerobic granular sludges: isotherms and sequential extraction

    Hullebusch, van E.D.; Peerbolte, A.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the sorption capacity and the fractionation of sorbed nickel and cobalt onto anaerobic granular sludges. Two different anaerobic granular sludges (non-fed, pH = 7) were loaded with nickel and cobalt in. adsorption experiments (monometal and competitive

  6. Exceptionally strong sorption of infochemicals to activated carbon reduces their bioavailability to fish

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van Mourik, Louise


    The addition of activated carbon (AC) to sediments is a relatively new approach to remediate contaminated sites. Activated carbon strongly sorbs hydrophobic organic contaminants, thereby reducing their bioavailability and uptake in organisms. Because of its high sorption capacity, AC might, however,

  7. Sorption of pollutant gases by soils. Progress report, December 1, 1976--November 30, 1977

    Bremner, J. M.


    Studies of factors affecting sorption of nitrous oxide by soils showed that nitrate inhibits reduction of N/sub 2/O to N/sub 2/ by soil microorganisms and that the inhibitory effect of nitrate on N/sub 2/O reduction increases markedly with decrease in soil pH. Emission of nitrous oxide was observed during incubation of soils under aerobic conditions. Research to account for this observation showed that N/sub 2/O is produced during nitrification of ammonium in well-aerated soils and indicated that N/sub 2/O production during nitrification of fertilizer nitrogen in soils may be significant in regard to the potential threat of fertilizer-derived N/sub 2/O to the ozone layer. A gas chromatographic procedure was developed for determination of N/sub 2/O in air. It is rapid, sensitive, specific and precise, and it permits use of the xenon in air as an internal standard. Techniques were developed for research on sorption of NO and NO/sub 2/ by soils, and studies of factors affecting NO/sub 2/ sorption by soils were initiated. The capacity of diverse soils for sorption of SO/sub 2/ was found to be very significantly correlated with their surface area, CaCO/sub 3/ equivalent and acid-titratable basicity. Their capacity for sorption of H/sub 2/S was found to be very significantly correlated with their clay and extractable Mn contents.

  8. Influence of temperature and macromolecular mobility on sorption of TCE on humic acid coated mineral surfaces.

    Bell, Katherine Young; LeBoeuf, Eugene J


    This study demonstrates differences in sorptive capacity of volatile organic compound (VOC) trichloroethylene (TCE) onto natural organic matter (NOM) coated and uncoated mineral surfaces above and below the NOM glass transition temperature. TCE sorption isotherms for dry NOM-mineral systems below the NOM glass transition temperature (T(g)) demonstrated sorption behavior characteristic of micropore filling, with sorption capacities reduced relative to uncoated mineral matrices. Such differences were not entirely associated with differences in surface areas of the coated and uncoated mineral matrices, but were likely associated with either a blockage of pore space available to the VOC or a kinetic limitation that does not allow the VOC access to the internal porosity of the model soil within the time periods of the experiment. TCE sorption in dry NOM-mineral matrices above the T(g), however, was described in terms of sorption within a more fluid, macromolecular dissolution medium that does not hinder access to mineral surfaces. Such observations have potential important implications for modeling the fate and transport of VOCs in soils and sediment systems.

  9. Continuous sorption of copper and cobalt by crab shell particles in a packed column.

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Thilakavathi, M; Palanivelu, K; Velan, M


    The ability of crab shell to remove copper and cobalt from aqueous solutions was examined in an up-flow packed column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as bed height and flow rate. At a bed height of 25 cm, metal uptake capacity of crab shell for copper and cobalt was 52.07 and 20.47 mg g(-1) respectively. In addition, the results obtained at different flow rates indicated that an increase in flow rate decreased the sorption performance of the crab shell. The Bed Depth Service Time model and the Thomas model were used to analyze the experimental data and the model parameters were evaluated for copper and cobalt sorption. The column regeneration studies were carried out for five sorption-desorption cycles. Loss of sorption performance was observed as the cycles progressed, indicated by a shortened breakthrough time and a broadened mass transfer zone. However, crab shell maintained a good metal sorption capacity for all the five cycles. The elutant used for the regeneration of the crab shell, 0.01 M EDTA at pH 3.5 adjusted using HCI, exhibited elution efficiencies greater than 98%.

  10. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for sorption of Ni (II) from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves


    The sorption characteristic of Ni (II) from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves as a low cost sorbent has been studied. The effect of pH, contact time, sorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. The equilibrium data were fitted into four most common isotherm models; Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R). The Langmuir model described the sorption isotherm best with maximum monolayer sorpt...

  11. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [and others


    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  12. Pollution and pollution tolerance as regards the sorption of organic chemicals in urban soils; Sorption organischer Chemikalien

    Blume, H.P.; Wu Qinglan; Strehl, M. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung und Bodenkunde; Abend, S. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie; Rexilius, L. [Pflanzenschutzamt des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Schleuss, U. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Oekologie-Zentrum]|[Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung Muencheberg (Germany)


    The behaviour of pollutants in soils concerning, for example, their immobilisation, transport, biodegradation, or uptake by useful plants is to large degree determined by the sorption properties of the soil in question. The degree of sorption is an all-important parameter in any model description of the behaviour of pollutants in soils. The aim of the present part-project was to estimate by means of simple field methods the binding capacity of anthropogenic urban soils for environmentally consequential organic chemicals and to assess the results with regard to soil and water protection. [Deutsch] Das Verhalten von Schadstoffen in Boeden, wie z.B. Immobilisierung, Transport, biologischer Abbau, Aufnahme durch Kulturpflanzen, wird von den Sorptionseigenschaften im Boden wesentlich beeinflusst. Bei allen Modellbeschreibungen ueber das Verhalten von Schadstoffen in Boeden ist die Staerke der Sorption ein unersetzbarer Parameter. Ziel dieses Teilprojektes war es, das Bindungsvermoegen der anthropogenen Stadtboeden fuer umweltrelevante organische Chemikalien mittels einfacher Feldmethoden abzuschaetzen und im Hinblick auf Boden- und Gewaesserschutz zu bewerten. (orig./SR)

  13. Relative metal ion sorption on natural and engineered sorbents: Batch and column studies

    Tillman, F.D.; Bartelt-Hunt, S.L.; Craver, V.A.; Smith, J.A.; Alther, G.R. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). School of Engineering & Applied Science


    The sorptive capacity of four sorbent materials (hydroxy-apatite, clinoptilolite, an organoclay, and an organoclay/anthracite blend) was determined for five metals: Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn, by performing column and batch sorption isotherm tests. Hydroxy-apatite exhibited the largest sorption capacity for all materials tested, followed by clinoptilolite, the organoclay, and the organoclay/anthracite blend. In general, the increase in sorptive capacity for all materials was related to an increase in measured surface area. Although the organoclay and organoclay/anthracite blend had a lower sorptive capacity than the other materials tested, they show promise as sorbents for mixed effluent streams consisting of both organic contaminants and low levels of heavy metals.

  14. Linkage between land use patterns and sediment phosphorus sorption behaviors along shoreline of a Chinese large shallow lake (Lake Chaohu

    Zhou C.


    Full Text Available To test the relationship between phosphorus buffering capacity in sediments of littoral zone and land use, seasonal samples were taken from the soils representing different patterns of land use, together with the littoral zone sediments, along shoreline in Lake Chaohu. There existed significantly positive relationships between equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0 and degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS defined as ratios of Olsen-P, algae available phosphorus (AAP and inorganic phosphorus (IP to maximum sorption capacity (Qmax. So, some easily accessible P parameters especially DPS were indicative of EPC0 in the sediments. Furthermore, the contents of IP, total phosphorus (TP and organic matter (OM in the sediments were significantly related to those in the soils. Therefore, the soils could provide the littoral zone with IP either directly or indirectly through TP input; it also provided the Olsen-P through the OM input, as evidenced by the relationship between Olsen-P and OM. It meant that the enhanced OM would enlarge the DPS. On the other hand, the increase in OM paralleled with the increases in Qmax, which lower the DPS simultaneously. Thus, the OM modified sediment phosphorus sorption behaviors in complicated manners. Finally, the soil covered by Fleabane was coupled with the sediment whose EPC0 values were lower and further decreased with strong diffusion from the soils after heavy rains. Hence, shoreline soil may input TP including IP and OM into the lake and alter the DPS together with EPC0 thereby regulating the sediment functions to act as sink or source of phosphorus.

  15. Sorption-desorption of imidacloprid onto a lacustrine Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid fractions.

    Kandil, Mahrous M; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Koskinen, William C


    Sorption-desorption of the insecticide imidacloprid 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine onto a lacustrine sandy clay loam Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid (HA) fractions was investigated in 24-h batch equilibrium experiments. Imidacloprid (IMDA) sorption-desorption isotherms onto the three sorbents were found to belong to a non-linear L-type and were best described by the Freundlich model. The value of the IMDA adsorption distribution coefficient, Kd(ads), varied according to its initial concentration and was ranged 40-84 for HA, 14-58 for clay and 1.85-4.15 for bulk soil. Freundlich sorption coefficient, Kf(ads), values were 63.0, 39.7 and 4.0 for HA, clay and bulk soil, respectively. The normalized soil Koc value for imidacloprid sorption was ∼800 indicating its slight mobility in soils. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were indicated by 1/n(ads) values imidacloprid sorption process with all tested sorbents. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) values indicated a spontaneous and physicosorption process for IMDA and a more favorable sorption to HA than clay and soil. In conclusion, although the humic acid fraction showed the highest capacity and affinity for imidacloprid sorption, the clay fraction contributed to approximately 95% of soil-sorbed insecticide. Clay and humic acid fractions were found to be the major two factors controlling IMDA sorption in soils. The slight mobility of IMDA in soils and the hysteresis phenomenon associated with the irreversibility of its sorption onto, mainly, clay and organic matter of soils make its leachability unlikely to occur.

  16. Surface complexation model of uranyl sorption on Georgia kaolinite

    Payne, T.E.; Davis, J.A.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Chisari, R.; Waite, T.D.


    The adsorption of uranyl on standard Georgia kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-1B) was studied as a function of pH (3-10), total U (1 and 10 ??mol/l), and mass loading of clay (4 and 40 g/l). The uptake of uranyl in air-equilibrated systems increased with pH and reached a maximum in the near-neutral pH range. At higher pH values, the sorption decreased due to the presence of aqueous uranyl carbonate complexes. One kaolinite sample was examined after the uranyl uptake experiments by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to determine the U content. It was found that uranium was preferentially adsorbed by Ti-rich impurity phases (predominantly anatase), which are present in the kaolinite samples. Uranyl sorption on the Georgia kaolinites was simulated with U sorption reactions on both titanol and aluminol sites, using a simple non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM). The relative amounts of U-binding >TiOH and >AlOH sites were estimated from the TEM/EDS results. A ternary uranyl carbonate complex on the titanol site improved the fit to the experimental data in the higher pH range. The final model contained only three optimised log K values, and was able to simulate adsorption data across a wide range of experimental conditions. The >TiOH (anatase) sites appear to play an important role in retaining U at low uranyl concentrations. As kaolinite often contains trace TiO2, its presence may need to be taken into account when modelling the results of sorption experiments with radionuclides or trace metals on kaolinite. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenanthrene Sorption on Biochar-Amended Soils

    Kumari, K. G I D; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos


    on their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants. In a field-based study at two experimental sites in Denmark, we investigated the effect of birch wood-derived biochar (Skogans kol) on the sorption of phenanthrene in soils with different properties. The soil sorption coefficient, Kd (L kg-1......), of phenanthrene was measured on sandy loam and loamy sand soils which have received from zero up to 100 t ha-1 of biochar. Results show that birch wood biochar had a higher Kd compared to soils. Furthermore, the application of birch wood biochar enhanced the sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils...... carbon, while it negatively correlated with clay content. The results also revealed that biochar-mineral interactions play an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene in biochar-amended soil....

  18. Characteristics of cesium ion sorption from aqueous solution on bentonite- and carbon nanotube-based composites

    Yang, Shubin [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Cho [Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Wang, Xiangke [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)


    Highlights: • The effects of cation and hydroxyl exchanges on Cs{sup +} sorption are investigated. • The CS-g-CNTs and the CS-g-bentonite composites are designed. • The effect of different cations on Cs{sup +} adsorption is detected. • The cation-exchange is much more effective in Cs{sup +} sorption than the hydroxyl group. • We give the future directions of new and selective adsorbents for Cs{sup +} ions. - Abstract: The technology development of Cs{sup +} capture from aqueous solution is crucial for the disposal of nuclear waste and still remains a significant challenge. Previous researches have been proven that ion exchanges with the cations and hydroxyl exchange are the main sorption mechanisms for Cs{sup +}. Therefore, how important are the cation exchange and the hydroxyl exchange mechanisms to Cs{sup +} sorption? And whether can we improve the sorption capacity of the material by increasing the amount of hydroxyl groups? With these in mind, we herein designed the chitosan-grafted carbon nanotubes (CS-g-CNTs) and the chitosan-grafted bentonite (CS-g-bentonite) by plasma-induced grafting method. The interactions of Cs{sup +} with CNTs, bentonite, CS-g-CNTs and CS-g-bentonite composites were investigated. The sorption of Cs{sup +} is mainly dominated by strong cation exchange in monovalent Group I and divalent Group II. And the cation-exchange mechanism is much more effective than the hydroxyl group exchange. The effect of hydroxyl groups is dependent on the property of the matrix. We cannot improve the Cs adsorption capacity of material for Cs{sup +} only by increasing the amount of hydroxyl groups in any case. The spatial structure and the cation-exchange capacity of the material are important factors for choosing the sorbent for Cs{sup +} removal from radioactive waste water.

  19. Sorption kinetics of ofloxacin in soils and mineral particles.

    Pan, Bo; Wang, Peng; Wu, Min; Li, Jing; Zhang, Di; Xiao, Di


    The environmental behavior of antibiotics is not well known and the precise environmental risk assessment is not practical. This study investigated the sorption kinetics of ofloxacin, a widely used antibiotics, on soil particles with different organic carbon contents as well as soil components (a humic acid, ferric oxide and kaolinite). Two-compartment sorption kinetics were mathematically recognized (except ferric oxide because of its very fast sorption). The apparent sorption rate and the contribution of fast sorption compartment decreased with the increased organic carbon content with the exception of humic acid, suggesting that the slow sorption sites were partially located in organo-mineral complex. The OFL concentration-dependent sorption kinetics suggested that the slow sorption compartment was not controlled by diffusion process as indicated by slower sorption at higher OFL loading. The difference between OFL sorption kinetics and those of hydrophobic organic contaminants was discussed and possible mechanism of OFL two-compartment sorption was proposed.

  20. Targeted manipulation of metal-organic frameworks to direct sorption properties.

    Schneemann, Andreas; Henke, Sebastian; Schwedler, Inke; Fischer, Roland A


    Metal-organic frameworks are promising materials for manifold applications. This Minireview highlights approaches for the fine-tuning of specific sorption properties (e.g. capacity, selectivity, and breathing behavior) of this interesting class of materials. Central aspects covered are the control over the crystal morphology, the targeted tuning of sorption properties by judicious choice of metal centers and linkers, and the preparation of host-guest systems. We want to introduce the reader to these topics on the basis of the manipulation of a handful of outstanding prototypical metal-organic frameworks.

  1. Physicochemical characterization and sorption behavior of Mg-Ca-Al (NO{sub 3}) hydrotalcite-like compounds toward removal of fluoride from protein solutions

    Lv, Tengfei, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Ma, Wei, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Xin, Gang; Wang, Ren; Xu, Jun [Department of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Liu, Dongmei; Liu, Fujun; Pan, Decong [Dalian Ocean Fishery Group of Corporations, Dalian 116023 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesize MgCaAlNO{sub 3} hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) with different Ca content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein systems were evaluated for the removal of fluoride by the HTlcs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg{sub 2.5}Ca{sub 0.5}Al-HTlc performs the best fluoride binding ability in protein solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extremely low losses of proteins were observed during adsorption process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antarctic krill wastewater study confirmed the practicality of the adsorbent. - Abstract: The present study explores the potential of Mg-Ca-Al (NO{sub 3}) hydrotalcite-like compounds (MgCaAlNO{sub 3}-HTlcs) for the removal of fluoride from protein solutions. In this study, the Mg{sub 3-x}Ca{sub x}AlNO{sub 3}-HTlcs (x = 0-3, x is the mol.% of Ca) were synthesized and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, BET, ICP-AES and pHzpc analysis. The sorption experiments were conducted in protein systems of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ). The batch experiment results showed that the NO{sub 3}-HTlc with Mg/Ca/Al molar ratio of 2.5/0.5/1 had remarkable fluoride sorption ability with maximum sorption capacities of 82.35 mg/g and 72.69 mg/g at pH 5.0 and 40 Degree-Sign C in BSA and LSZ system, respectively. Moreover, the loss of BSA of 0.71% was low and there was no loss of LSZ. It was evident that the Mg{sub 2.5}Ca{sub 0.5}AlNO{sub 3}-HTlc could selectively adsorb fluoride from protein solutions. The equilibrium sorption data fitted well to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}G Degree-Sign , {Delta}H Degree-Sign and {Delta}S Degree-Sign ) were evaluated and revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the results from Antarctic krill processing wastewater study confirmed the feasibility and practicality of the Mg{sub 2.5}Ca{sub 0.5}AlNO{sub 3}-HTlc for fluoride

  2. Study of oil sorption behavior of filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers.

    Rengasamy, R S; Das, Dipayan; Karan, C Praba


    This article reports on oil sorption behavior of fiber assemblies made up of single natural and synthetic fibers as well as blend of natural and synthetic fibers when tested with high density oil and diesel oil. A series of filled fiber assemblies were prepared from 100% polypropylene, kapok, and milkweed fibers and another series of bonded structured fiber assemblies were prepared from a 70/30 blend of kapok and polypropylene fibers and a 70/30 blend of milkweed and polypropylene fibers. It was observed that the porosity of the fiber assemblies played a very important role in determining its oil sorption capacity. The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited the highest sorption capacity (g/g) followed by the kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at porosity milkweed fibers have intra fiber porosities of 0.81 and 0.83, respectively. All the fiber assemblies showed higher oil sorption capacity with the high density oil as compared to the diesel oil. As the kapok and milkweed fiber have low cellulose content, hence their slow degradation is an advantage in fresh and marine water applications. The good sorption capacity of kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies along with their bio-degradable nature offer great scope for structuring them into fiber assemblies with large porosity and uniform pores to have efficient oil sorbents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto pine needle cuticular fractions

    Li Yungui [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Chen Baoliang, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)


    To better understand interaction mechanisms of pine needles with persistent organic pollutants, single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto isolated cuticular fractions of pine needle were investigated. The structures of cuticular fractions were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state {sup 13}C NMR. Polymeric lipids (cutin and cutan) exhibited notably higher sorption capabilities than the soluble lipids (waxes), while cellulose showed little affinity with sorbates. With the coexistence of the amorphous cellulose, the sorption of cutan (aromatic core) was completely inhibited, so the cutin components (nonpolar aliphatic moieties) dominated the sorption of bulk needle cuticle. By the consumption of the amorphous cellulose under acid hydrolysis, sorption capacities of the de-sugared fractions were dramatically enhanced, which controlled by the exposed aromatic cores and the aliphatic moieties. Furthermore, the de-sugared fractions demonstrated nonlinear and competitive sorption due to the specific interaction between aromatic cores and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. - Cellulose components play a regulating role in the relative contribution of aromatic cores and aliphatic moieties to sorption of pine needle cuticular fractions.

  4. Fabrication of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sites on Polypropylene Nonwoven for Oil Spill Cleanup: Two Dilemmas Affecting Oil Sorption.

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wang, Feifei; Ji, Yali; Chen, Weiting; Wei, Junfu


    This article mainly deals with the following dilemmas, which affect oil sorption and sorbent preparation: (1) hydrophobization could facilitate oil sorption but has adverse impacts on emulsion sorption; (2) micropores of conventional oil sorbent do not exhibit effective emulsion sorption. To solve the above contradictions, hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites were fabricated onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven through electron beam radiation and subsequent ring-opening reaction. Further, a similar structure without a hydrophilic site was constructed as comparison to verify the dilemmas. An oil sorption and emulsion adsorption experiment revealed that the PP nonwoven with specific hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites is more suitable for oil cleanup. The hydrophobic site preserved its hydrophobicity and sorption capacity, and the hydrophilic site on PP surface effectively increased the affinity between the hydrophilic interface of emulsion and sorbent. The overlapped and intertwined structures could provide spaces large enough to accommodate oil and emulsion. In addition, the oil and emulsion sorption behaviors were systematically analyzed. The PP nonwoven fabricated in this study may find practical application in the cleanup of oil spills and the removal of organic pollutants from water surfaces.


    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Click, D.


    Inorganic, titanate-based sorbents are tested with respect to adsorption of a variety of sorbates under weakly acidic conditions (pH 3). Specifically, monosodium titanate (MST) and amorphous peroxotitanate (APT) sorption characteristics are initially probed through a screening process consisting of a pair of mixed metal solutions containing a total of 29 sorbates including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, metalloids and nonmetals. MST and APT sorption characteristics are further analyzed individually with chromium(III) and cadmium(II) using a batch method at ambient laboratory temperature, varying concentrations of the sorbents and sorbates and contact times. Maximum sorbate loadings are obtained from the respective adsorption isotherms.

  6. Sorption of chrysoidine by row cork and cork entrapped in calcium alginate beads

    Valeria M. Nurchi


    The influence on the sorption of pH, initial dye concentration, and particle size, as well as the efficiency of the entrapment, have been investigated. The maximum sorption was found for cork samples of fine particle size (FC, in both row and entrapped forms, at pH 7; conversely, at pH 4 the difference is significant (0.12 mmol/g for row cork and 0.20 mmol/g for entrapped cork, evoking a cooperation of alginate in binding the positively charged chrysoidine molecule.

  7. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre


    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  8. Sorption of melanoidin onto surfactant modified zeolite

    Onyango Maurice S.


    Full Text Available Melanoidin is responsible for the dark brown colour of distillery wastewater. Discharge of coloured wastewater has a major environmental impact on the biota of the receiving water body. Consequently, this study explores the removal of melanodin from aqueous solution. The equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of melanoidin sorption are studied by varying initial solution pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature. Kinetically, the melanoidin removal from solution by a surfactant modified zeolite is rapid and the amount adsorbed is dependent on pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature. The equilibrium sorption data are fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir models while the sorption, kinetics is described by the Ho pseudo-second order and Elovich models. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the sorption is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The FTIR spectra analyses show no new peaks or shift in peaks after sorption indicating that the melanoidin sorption may have occurred by a physical process. The results from desorption studies showed that melanoidin eluted back easily to the solution using distilled water which corroborates the physical sorption mechanism.

  9. Sorption Efficiency of a New Sorbent towards Cadmium(II: Methylphosphonic Acid Grafted Polystyrene Resin

    Nacer Ferrah


    Full Text Available A new chelating polymeric sorbent has been developed using polystyrene resin grafted with phosphonic acid. After characterization by FTIR and elementary analysis, the new resin has been investigated in liquid-solid extraction of cadmium(II. The results indicated that phosphonic resin could adsorb Cd(II ion effectively from aqueous solution. The adsorption was strongly dependent on the pH of the medium and the optimum pH value level for better sorption was between 3.2 and 5.2. The influence of other analytical parameters including contact time, amount of resin, metal ion concentration, and the presence of some electrolytes was investigated. The maximum uptake capacity of Cd(II ions was 37,9 mg·g−1 grafted resin at ambient temperature, at an initial pH value of 5.0. The overall adsorption process was best described by pseudo second-order kinetic. When Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were tested, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. Furthermore, more than 92% of Cd(II could be eluted by using 1.0 mol·L−1 HCl in one cycle.

  10. [Removal of metal ions Cu2+, Cd+ and Pb+ from solutions by sorption on slag].

    Chen, Xiao; Hou, Wen-hua; Wang, Qun-hui


    Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic characteristics of heavy metal ions Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ on the electric are furnace (EAF) slag from Baoshan Steel Factory. Several kinds of techniques including XRD analysis, BET specific surface analysis and SEM/EDS analysis were employed to determine the physico-chemical and surface characteristics of slag. Results indicated that the adsorption rate of heavy metal ions on the EAF slag was relatively high, and the sorption rate followed the order Cd2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+. The adsorption kinetics obeyed first-order kinetics model (R2 > 0.99). Adsorption isotherm experiment showed that adsorption isotherm of heavy metal ions on slag fitted Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ was 0.101, 0.058 and 0.120 mmol x g(-1), respectively. The adsorption of heavy metal ions on slag was a spontaneous reaction (deltaG0 0). The effect of enthopy was the main driving force of the spontaneous adsorption reaction. The analysis results of SEM/EDS revealed the changes of surface morphology and chemical proportion before and after adsorption. Due to low-cost and high-efficiency, electric are furnace slag showed great potential for the treatment of heavy metal polluted wastewaters.

  11. Arsenic sorption by red mud-modified biochar produced from rice straw.

    Wu, Chuan; Huang, Liu; Xue, Sheng-Guo; Huang, Yu-Ying; Hartley, William; Cui, Meng-Qian; Wong, Ming-Hung


    Red mud-modified biochar (RM-BC) has been produced to be utilized as a novel adsorbent to remove As because it can effectively combine the beneficial features of red mud (rich metal oxide composition and porous structure) and biochar (large surface area and porous structure properties). SEM-EDS and XRD analyses demonstrated that red mud had loaded successfully on the surface of biochar. With the increasing of pH in solution, arsenate (As(V)) adsorption on RM-BC decreased while arsenite (As(III)) increased. Arsenate adsorption kinetics process on RM-BC fitted the pseudo-second-order model, while that of As(III) favored the Elovich model. All sorption isotherms produced superior fits with the Langmuir model. RM-BC exhibited improved As removal capabilities, with a maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) for As(V) of 5923 μg g(-1), approximately ten times greater than that of the untreated BC (552.0 μg g(-1)). Furthermore, it has been indicated that the adsorption of As(V) on RM-BC may be strongly associated with iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) and aluminum oxides (gibbsite) by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), which was possibly because of surface complexation and electrostatic interactions. RM-BC may be used as a valuable adsorbent for removing As in the environment due to the waste materials being relatively abundant.

  12. Sorption interactions of heavy metals with biochar in soil remediation studies

    Fristak, Vladimir; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Wawra, Anna; Soja, Gerhard


    The search for new materials in soil remediation applications has led to new conversion technologies such as carbonization and pyrolysis. Biochar represents the pyrolytic product of different biomass input materials processed at 350-1000°C and anoxic conditions. The pyrolysis temperature and feedstock have a considerable influence on the quality of the charred product and also its main physico-chemical properties. Biochar as porous material with large specific surface and C-stability is utilized in various environmental and agricultural technologies. Carbon sequestration, increase of soil water-holding capacity and pH as well as sorption of different xenobiotics present only a fraction of the multitude of biochar application possibilities. Heavy metals as potential sources of ecotoxicological risks are characterized by their non-degradability and the potential transfer into the food chain. Carbonaceous materials have been used for a long time as sorbents for heavy metals and organic contaminants in soil and water technologies. The similarity of biochar with activated carbon predetermines this material as remediation tool which plays an important role in heavy metal immobilization and retention with a parallel reduction in the risk of ground water and food crop contamination. In all this processes the element-specific sorption behaviour of biochar creates new conditions for pollutant binding. Sorption interaction and separation of contaminants from soil solution or waste effluent can be affected by wide-ranging parameters. In detail, our study was based on batch-sorption comparisons of two biochars produced from wood chips and green waste residues. We observed that sorption efficiency of biochar for model bivalent heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu) can be influenced by equilibrium parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of metal in reaction solutions, presence of surfactants and chemical modification by acid hydrolysis, esterification and methylation. The

  13. The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties

    Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Jiřina


    The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange

  14. Sorption Kinetic Analysis for the Removal of Copper(Ⅱ) by Using Biofilm

    张敬; 姜斌; 李鑫钢; 刘瑞轩; 孙永利


    The biosorption of copper(R) ions onto biofilm was studied in a batch system with respect to the temperature, initial pH value and biofilm sorbent mass. The biomass exhibited the highest copper(R) sorption capacity under the conditions of room temperature, initial pH value of 6.0 and the sorbent mass 8 g. The experimental data were analyzed using four sorption kinetic models, the pseudo-first order, the Ritchie second order, the modified second order and the Elovich equations to determine the best-fit equation for the sorption of metal ions onto biofilm.Comparing with the sum of squared-errors, the results show that both the Ritchie second order and modified second order equations can fit the experimental data very well.

  15. Investigation of acetylated kapok fibers on the sorption of oil in water

    Jintao Wang; Yian Zheng; Aiqin Wang


    Kapok fibers have been acetylated for oil spill cleanup in the aqueous environment.The structures of raw and acetylated kapok fiber were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Without severe damage to the lumen structures,the kapok fibers were successfully acetylated and the resulting fibers exhibited a better oil sorption capacity than raw fibers for diesel and soybean oil.Compared with high viscosity soybean oil,low viscosity diesel shows a better affinity to the surface of acetylated fibers.Sorption kinetics is fitted well by the pseudo second-order model,and the equilibrium data can be described by the Freundlich isotherm model.The results implied that acetylated kapok fiber can be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials.

  16. Influence of phosphorus on Cu sorption kinetics: Stirred flow chamber experiments

    Perez-Novo, C. [Area de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Universidade de Vigo, Facultade de Ciencias, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Fernandez-Calvino, D., E-mail: [Area de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Universidade de Vigo, Facultade de Ciencias, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Bermudez-Couso, A.; Lopez-Periago, J.E.; Arias-Estevez, M. [Area de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Universidade de Vigo, Facultade de Ciencias, 32004 Ourense (Spain)


    A stirred flow reactor was used to study the influence of phosphorus on the adsorption and desorption kinetics of copper in two acid soils on granite and amphibolite. The presence of P was found to significantly increase Cu adsorption in both soils, albeit at different types of sites (mainly in slow adsorption sites in the soil on granite, and both in fast and slow adsorption sites in that on amphibolite). The increased Cu sorption at fast sites in the amphibolite soil was due to its high content in Fe oxyhydroxides, which bound P and released OH{sup -} as a result, thereby raising the pH and leading to a higher sorption capacity during fast reactions. On the other hand, the increased Cu sorption at slow adsorption sites was due to Cu{sup 2+} acting as a bridging element between P and organic matter.

  17. Sorption of methylxanthines by different sorbents

    Dmitrienko, S. G.; Andreeva, E. Yu.; Tolmacheva, V. V.; Terent'eva, E. A.


    Sorption of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, diprophylline, and pentoxyphylline on different sorbents (supercross-linked polystyrene, surface-modified copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene Strata-X, and carbon nanomaterials Taunit and Diasorb-100-C16T) was studied in a static mode in an effort to find new sorbents suitable for sorption isolation and concentration of methylxanthines. The peculiarities of sorption of methylxanthines were explained in relation to the solution acidity, the nature of the sorbates and their concentration, the nature of the solvent, and the structural characteristics of the sorbents.

  18. Sorption interactions of biochars and pyrogenic carbonaceous materials with anionic contaminants

    Fristak, Vladimir; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Micháleková-Richveisová, Barbora; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Bucheli, Thomas; Soja, Gerhard


    Biochar as a highly porous and carbon-rich material with a large surface area is a new player in the system of environmental remediation techniques. A wide range of valuable sorption properties of this carbonaceous pyrolysis product provides new options to solve contaminant problems in soil and water and thus may reduce the number of contaminated sites. The sorption capacity of agricultural wastes and wood processing-derived biochars has been found to be excellent due to high surface area, pore volume, and surface functional groups. However, sorption interactions and separation of xenobiotics from waste water, soil solutions or polluted surface water is very often affected by the concentration of contaminant, contact time, effects of competitive substances and mainly by the chemical form of the respective contaminant. The negative surface charge of biochar-based sorption materials supports significant sorption in particular for cationic forms of pollutants. On the other hand many environmentally critical substances occur in anionic forms (e.g. As, P, Mo, Tc). Therefore their retention and immobilization by biochar is frequently considered as problematic or limited. Besides, details about the mechanism of biochar interactions with anionic compounds and the options for surface modification are largely unexplored. This contribution presents a comparative study about production and characterization of unmodified, chemically pre-treated and post-treated biochars with respect to sorption processes of model anionic compounds (PO43-, AsO43-). The obtained results confirmed the crucial role of altering biochar properties (pH) and of surface modification for improving biochar sorption efficiency for anionic contaminants.

  19. Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error

    Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun


    We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.

  20. Examination of competitive lanthanide sorption onto smectites and its significance in the management of radioactive waste

    Galunin, Evgeny [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Alba, Maria D. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Santos, Maria J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR 86051-990 (Brazil); Abrao, Taufik [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Vidal, Miquel, E-mail: [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The competitive effect of La and Lu (analogues of radionuclides appearing in radioactive waste) in the sorption in four smectites was examined. Sorption and desorption distribution coefficients (K{sub d}; K{sub d,des}), and desorption rates (R{sub des}) were determined from batch tests in two media: deionized water and, to consider the influence of cement leachates, 0.02 mol L{sup -1} Ca. The competitive effect was lower when high-affinity sites were available, as in the water medium at the lowest range of initial lanthanide concentration, with high K{sub d} for La and for Lu (5-63 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1}). Lower K{sub d} was measured at higher initial concentrations and in the Ca medium, where Lu showed a stronger competitive effect. This was confirmed by fitting the sorption data to a two-solute Langmuir isotherm. The desorption data indicated that sorption was virtually irreversible for the scenarios with high sorption, with an excellent correlation between K{sub d} and K{sub d,des} (R{sup 2} around 0.9 for the two lanthanides). Assuming that radioactive waste is a mixture of radionuclides, and that Ca ions will be provided by the cement leachates, this would reduce the retention capacity of clay engineered barriers.

  1. Sorption of tylosin A, D, and A-aldol and degradation of tylosin A in soils.

    Sassman, Stephen A; Sarmah, Ajit K; Lee, Linda S


    Heightened concerns regarding the potential impact on soil and water quality of veterinary antibiotics warrant a better understanding of the environmental fate of antibiotics in soil. Sorption of the macrolides tylosin A (TA), tylosin D, and TA-aldol was measured in several soils and evaluated with respect to soil pH, organic matter content, percentage clay, and cation-exchange capacity (CEC). Tylosin and related compounds exhibit similar sorption characteristics and generally are strongly sorbed, with sorption being well and positively correlated to surface area, clay content, and CEC. Sorption coefficients normalized by CEC were within a narrow range (10(4.1+/-0.21 L/molc) for all but one soil; however, good extraction recoveries with only methanol for most soils suggested that hydrophobic processes also contribute to sorption. Aerobic degradation of TA over a three-month period in two freshly collected agricultural soils and 60Co-irradiated soils indicated that both abiotic and microbial processes contribute to TA transformation. The abiotic process was much slower and dominated in the first two weeks, followed by rapid microbial degradation within 3 d. Three primary degradation products were identified using liquid chromatography with full-scan mass spectrometry, with unconfirmed identifications of TA having the aldehyde group oxidized to an acid (m/z = 932) in both soils and tyslosin B (m/z = 772) as well as tylosin B having the aldehyde group oxidized to an acid (m/z = 788) in the sandy soil.

  2. Influence of clay minerals on sorption and bioreduction of arsenic under anoxic conditions.

    Ghorbanzadeh, Nasrin; Lakzian, Amir; Halajnia, Akram; Kabra, Akhil N; Kurade, Mayur B; Lee, Dae S; Jeon, Byong-Hun


    Adsorption of As(V) on various clay minerals including kaolinite (KGa-1), montmorillonite (SWy-1) and nontronites (NAU-1 and NAU-2), and subsequent bioreduction of sorbed As(V) to As(III) by bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 were investigated. Nontronites showed relatively higher sorption capacity for As(V) primarily due to higher iron oxide content. Freundlich equation well described the sorption of As(V) on NAU-1, NAU-2 and SWy-1, while As(V) sorption isotherm with KGa-1 fitted well in the Langmuir model. The bacterium rapidly reduced 50% of dissolved As(V) to As(III) in 2 h, followed by its complete reduction (>ca. 98%) within 12 h. In contrast, sorption of As(V) to the mineral surfaces interferes with the activity of bacterium, resulting in low bioreduction of As(V) by 27% for 5 days of incubation. S. putrefaciens also promoted the reduction of Fe(III) present in the clay mineral to Fe(II). This study indicates that the sorption and subsequent bioreduction of As(V) on clay minerals can significantly influence the mobility of As(V) in subsurface environment.

  3. Simultaneous bio-sorption of heavy metals by marine sea-weeds

    Massacci, P.; Ferrini, M.; Migliavacca, E.


    The aim of this work is to investigate the heavy-metals uptake properties of a dried biomass coming from plant (green algae and leaves of marine macro-phytes) pick up on the shore of a polluted wetland Bio-sorption has been carried out taking into consideration a solution containing metal nitrates (10 mg/l of Cd, Zr, Pb, Cu and Ni + 1 mg/l of Hg in distilled water) with initial pH values between 5 and 9. Experimental results has shown that, in a batch system (solution/biomass = 1/1 in weight) fast metal sorption occurs. Total metal-uptake capacity of the biomass was of 0.54 mMol/g dry weight. Hg has been used as indicator of total metal uptake. After contact for 15 minutes (pH = 5div7) about 70% of initial Hg bas been extracted. Regeneration of the biomass after sorption has been considered for refuse: a HCI solution has been adopted starting from different initial pH. It has been pointed out that regeneration by HCI leaching occurs in a proper and effective way at a pH value at least two points lower than that the sorption pH. Regenerating with HCI solution at pH = 2 allows de-sorption of more than 30% of sorbed metals.

  4. A study of laboratory testing and calculation methods for coal sorption isotherms

    Lei ZHANG; Ting-Xiang REN; Naj AZIZ


    Measurement of the volume of gas adsorbed per unit mass of coal with increasing pressure at a constant temperature produces an isotherm that describes the gas storage capacity of this type of coal.The accurate testing and interpretation of coal sorption isotherm plays an important role in the areas of coal mine methane drainage,coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir resource assessment,enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery,as well as the carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep coal seams or similar geological formations.Different coal sorption isotherm testing apparatus and associated calculation methods are critically reviewed and presented in this paper.These include both volumetric and gravimetric based methods,as well as experimental sorption tests with confining stress and direction sorption methods.The volumetric techniques utilise experimental apparatus with sample cell and injection pump and that with both sample cell and reference cell.Whilst the gravimetric approachesinclude methods with sample cell and suspension magnetic balance and that with both sample cell and reference cell.Different testing methods are compared and discussed in this study.A unique in-house-built coal sorption isotherm testing apparatus at the University of Wollongong was presented together with the calculation method,procedures and experimental results.The isotherm results can be calculated by both Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation and calibration cure methods which can be used directly to convert the volume of adsorbed gas in different test conditions to standard condition (NTP).

  5. The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem

    BAGHERIAN; Mehri


    We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.

  6. Characterisation of agricultural waste-derived biochars and their sorption potential for sulfamethoxazole in pasture soil: A spectroscopic investigation

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail:


    We investigated the effects of feedstock type and pyrolysis temperatures on the sorptive potential of a model pastoral soil amended with biochars for sulfamethoxazole (SMO), using laboratory batch sorption studies. The results indicated that high temperature chars exhibited enhanced adsorptive potential, compared to low temperature chars. Pine sawdust (PSD) biochar produced at 700 °C using the steam gasification process exhibited the highest sorptive capacity (2-fold greater than the control treatment) for SMO among the three biochars used. Soils amended with green waste (GW) biochars produced at three different pyrolysis temperatures showed a small increase in SMO sorption with the increases in temperature. The NMR spectra, the elemental molar ratios (H/C, O/C) and polarity index (O + N)/C of the biochars revealed that PSD biochar possessed the highest degree of aromatic condensation compared to CC and GW chars. These results correlated well with the sorption affinity of each biochar, with effective distribution coefficient (K{sub d}{sup eff}) being highest for PSD and lowest for GW biochars. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results for the biochars showed a relatively large difference in oxygen containing surface functional groups amongst the GW biochars. However, they exhibited nearly identical sorption affinity to SMO, indicating negligible role of oxygen containing surface functional groups on SMO sorption. These observations provide important information on the use of biochars as engineered sorbents for environmental applications, such as reducing the bioavailability of antibiotics and/or predicting the fate of sulfonamides in biochar-amended soils. - Highlights: • High temperature chars showed enhanced adsorptive potential, compared to low temperature chars. • Oxygen containing acidic functional groups of biochar play negligible role in sorption. • Biochar properties like specific surface area and aromaticity enhanced its sorption capacity.

  7. Computer simulation of molecular sorption in zeolites

    Calmiano, M D


    The work presented in this thesis encompasses the computer simulation of molecular sorption. In Chapter 1 we outline the aims and objectives of this work. Chapter 2 follows in which an introduction to sorption in zeolites is presented, with discussion of structure and properties of the main zeolites studied. Chapter 2 concludes with a description of the principles and theories of adsorption. In Chapter 3 we describe the methodology behind the work carried out in this thesis. In Chapter 4 we present our first computational study, that of the sorption of krypton in silicalite. We describe work carried out to investigate low energy sorption sites of krypton in silicalite where we observe krypton to preferentially sorb into straight and sinusoidal channels over channel intersections. We simulate single step type I adsorption isotherms and use molecular dynamics to study the diffusion of krypton and obtain division coefficients and the activation energy. We compare our results to previous experimental and computat...

  8. The maximum Sustainable Population Carrying Capacity of Water Resources Evaluation%基于最大可支撑人口水资源承载能力评价分析

    罗铭; 刚傲


    In the modernization process of social transformation and development ,one of the important factors which influ-ence and restrict the Beijing -Tianjin - Hebei(BTH)wing area one of reality for the sustainable development is water short-age .This research is quantitative research by the method of carrying population in BTH region water can carry the size of population and economic development .Model validation results show that in the short term ,water quantity of the BTH re-gion population carrying capacity of rich ,can alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of water resources ;But since the 2025 years ,because the population of the region water resources carrying capacity is insufficient ,the BTH region again go into a period of scarcity .After the implementation of south - to - north water diversion project ,BTH region ob-tained a certain degree of increase ,the water resources carrying capacity in population growth ,however ,under the situation of water resources carrying population are almost limited .Based on this ,the problem of water shortages in exploring the BTH resolution strategy ,not just focus on water saving and water diversion engineering problems ,also need to include for the population growth factors ,avoid excessive increase in population .Otherwise ,the results obtained with water ,is likely to be excessive increase of the population consume ,not really solve the problem of water shortage .%应用“承载人口数”方法定量研究了京、津、冀地区总的水资源所能承载的人口数量与经济发展规模。模型验证结果表明:在短期内,京、津、冀地区的水资源量人口承载能力富足,能缓解水资源供需矛盾;但从2025年后,由于该地区水资源量人口承载能力不足,则京、津、冀地区又重新陷入水资源匮乏时期。南水北调实施以后,京、津、冀地区水资源承载力获得了一定程度的增加,然而在人口增长的态势下,水资

  9. Identifiability of sorption parameters in stirred flow-through reactor experiments and their identification with a Bayesian approach.

    Nicoulaud-Gouin, V; Garcia-Sanchez, L; Giacalone, M; Attard, J C; Martin-Garin, A; Bois, F Y


    This paper addresses the methodological conditions -particularly experimental design and statistical inference- ensuring the identifiability of sorption parameters from breakthrough curves measured during stirred flow-through reactor experiments also known as continuous flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) experiments. The equilibrium-kinetic (EK) sorption model was selected as nonequilibrium parameterization embedding the Kd approach. Parameter identifiability was studied formally on the equations governing outlet concentrations. It was also studied numerically on 6 simulated CSTR experiments on a soil with known equilibrium-kinetic sorption parameters. EK sorption parameters can not be identified from a single breakthrough curve of a CSTR experiment, because Kd,1 and k(-) were diagnosed collinear. For pairs of CSTR experiments, Bayesian inference allowed to select the correct models of sorption and error among sorption alternatives. Bayesian inference was conducted with SAMCAT software (Sensitivity Analysis and Markov Chain simulations Applied to Transfer models) which launched the simulations through the embedded simulation engine GNU-MCSim, and automated their configuration and post-processing. Experimental designs consisting in varying flow rates between experiments reaching equilibrium at contamination stage were found optimal, because they simultaneously gave accurate sorption parameters and predictions. Bayesian results were comparable to maximum likehood method but they avoided convergence problems, the marginal likelihood allowed to compare all models, and credible interval gave directly the uncertainty of sorption parameters θ. Although these findings are limited to the specific conditions studied here, in particular the considered sorption model, the chosen parameter values and error structure, they help in the conception and analysis of future CSTR experiments with radionuclides whose kinetic behaviour is suspected.

  10. Cobalt sorption in silica-pillared clays.

    Sampieri, A; Fetter, G; Bosch, P; Bulbulian, S


    Silicon pillared samples were prepared following conventional and microwave irradiation methods. The samples were characterized and tested in cobalt sorption. Ethylenediammine was added before cobalt addition to improve the amount of cobalt retained. The amount of cobalt introduced in the original clay in the presence of ethylenediammine was the highest. In calcined pillared clays the cobalt retention with ethylenediammine was lower (ca. 40%). In all cases the presence of ethylenediammine increased twice the amount of cobalt sorption measured for aqueous solutions.

  11. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)


    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.


    Tanja Nikolić


    Full Text Available The effect of periodate oxidation on the chemical and sorption properties of cotton yarn was investigated by determining aldehyde group content, moisture sorption, water retention and iodine sorption. Oxidation of cotton yarn was performed by varying concentration of sodium periodate solution and reaction time. To measure the aldehyde content present in the oxidized cotton, the aldehyde groups were selectively oxidized to carboxyl groups with sodium chlorite at pH 4-5, at room temperature for 48 h, and carboxyl group content was determined by modified calcium-acetate method. Differences in the sorption properties of untreated and oxidized cotton samples were obtained using conventional methods. The aldehyde groups were introduced into the oxidized cotton up to 99.2 µmol/g. Compared to the untreated fibers, oxidized cotton samples exhibited higher moisture sorption (up to 9% and lower water retention values (up to 19% and iodine sorption values (up to 31%. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the crystalline structure of cellulose is not significantly changed by periodate oxidation, which is of great importance for textile material production.

  13. Sorption of Cu(II Ions on Chitosan-Zeolite X Composites: Impact of Gelling and Drying Conditions

    Amal Djelad


    Full Text Available Chitosan-zeolite Na-X composite beads with open porosity and different zeolite contents were prepared by an encapsulation method. Preparation conditions had to be optimised in order to stabilize the zeolite network during the polysaccharide gelling process. Composites and pure reference components were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD; scanning electron microscopy (SEM; N2 adsorption–desorption; and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. Cu(II sorption was investigated at pH 6. The choice of drying method used for the storage of the adsorbent severely affects the textural properties of the composite and the copper sorption effectiveness. The copper sorption capacity of chitosan hydrogel is about 190 mg·g−1. More than 70% of this capacity is retained when the polysaccharide is stored as an aerogel after supercrititcal CO2 drying, but nearly 90% of the capacity is lost after evaporative drying to a xerogel. Textural data and Cu(II sorption data indicate that the properties of the zeolite-polysaccharide composites are not just the sum of the properties of the individual components. Whereas a chitosan coating impairs the accessibility of the microporosity of the zeolite; the presence of the zeolite improves the stability of the dispersion of chitosan upon supercritical drying and increases the affinity of the composites for Cu(II cations. Chitosan-zeolite aerogels present Cu(II sorption properties.

  14. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.


    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...

  15. Comparison of the characteristics and mechanisms of Hg(II) sorption by biochars and activated carbon.

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Schierz, Ariette; Xu, Nan; Cao, Xinde


    Two biochars were produced from bagasse and hickory chips (referred to as BB and HCB, respectively) and evaluated for their sorption ability of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. A commercial activated carbon (AC) which is commonly used for Hg(II) removal was included for comparison. Both biochars showed higher sorption capacities than AC, following the trend of BB>HCB>AC. The sorption of Hg(II) by BB and AC was mainly attributed to the formation of (COO)2Hg(II) and (O)2Hg(II). As a result, the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) by BB decreased 17.6% and 37.6% after COOH and OH were blocked, respectively and that of Hg(II) by AC decreased 6.63% and 62.2% for COOH and OH hindered, respectively. However, blocking the function groups had little effect on the Hg removal by HCB since sorption of Hg(II) by HCB was mainly resulted from the π electrons of CC and CO induced Hg-π binding. Further X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated the possibility of reduction of the Hg(II) to Hg(I) by phenol groups or π electrons during the removal of Hg(II) by both biochars. In conclusion, biochar is more effective than activated carbon in removing Hg(II) and there exists a high potential that biochar can be a substitute of activated carbon for removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  16. Dysprosium sorption by polymeric composite bead: robust parametric optimization using Taguchi method.

    Yadav, Kartikey K; Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Singh, Dhruva K; Varshney, Lalit; Singh, Harvinderpal


    Polyethersulfone-based beads encapsulating di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid have been synthesized and evaluated for the recovery of rare earth values from the aqueous media. Percentage recovery and the sorption behavior of Dy(III) have been investigated under wide range of experimental parameters using these beads. Taguchi method utilizing L-18 orthogonal array has been adopted to identify the most influential process parameters responsible for higher degree of recovery with enhanced sorption of Dy(III) from chloride medium. Analysis of variance indicated that the feed concentration of Dy(III) is the most influential factor for equilibrium sorption capacity, whereas aqueous phase acidity influences the percentage recovery most. The presence of polyvinyl alcohol and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified the internal structure of the composite beads and resulted in uniform distribution of organic extractant inside polymeric matrix. The experiment performed under optimum process conditions as predicted by Taguchi method resulted in enhanced Dy(III) recovery and sorption capacity by polymeric beads with minimum standard deviation.

  17. The impact of solution chemistry of electrolyte on the sorption of pentachlorophenol and phenanthrene by natural hematite nanoparticles

    Zeng, Fanfeng; He, Yan, E-mail:; Lian, Zhenghua; Xu, Jianming, E-mail:


    Hematite nanoparticles (NPs) were studied as a sorbent for hydrophobic organic contaminants (OCs) under natural ambient conditions through specially designed contrasting solution chemistry of electrolyte. Ionizable pentachlorophenol (PCP) and non-ionizable phenanthrene (PHE) were selected as representative OCs. The sorption capacities of PCP and PHE were pH-dependent, and a larger amount of PCP was sorbed at pH values below its pK{sub a} (4.75). However, the PHE sorption capacity was higher at relatively high or low pHs (e.g. below 4.0 and above 10.0), possibly due to the larger available surface area of the hematite NPs, caused by the higher values of net charges and charge density. Changes in pH might thus affect the sorption of OCs by hematite NPs, through modification of the surface characteristics of the sorbent and the electronic properties of the sorbate molecules. The influence of different ionic strengths indicated that the amounts of PCP and PHE sorbed by hematite NPs decreased as a concentration function of different types of ions (e.g. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2 +} and Ca{sup 2 +}), with the underlying mechanism possibly being due to four interactions i.e. hydrogen-bonding, competitive sorption by ions in the ambient solution, screening effects and aggregation effects. The results confirmed that the surface chemistry of hematite NPs, the chemical properties of PCP and PHE, and solution chemistry (e.g. pH and ionic strength) of the electrolyte all played an important role in PCP and PHE sorption by hematite NPs. By comparison of both sorption capacity and ecologic advantages, our results suggested that natural hematite NPs would be more competitive and efficient for PCP and PHE sorption than engineered NPs. This finding increases our knowledge regarding the environmental function of natural NPs (such as hematite NPs) for OC remediation through manipulating their interfacial behavior. - Highlights: •Hematite NPs was tested for PCP/PHE sorption under

  18. Competitive sorption and desorption behavior for three fluoroquinolone antibiotics in a wastewater treatment wetland soil.

    Conkle, Jeremy L; Lattao, Charisma; White, John R; Cook, Robert L


    Significant amounts of pharmaceuticals are discharged into the environment through wastewater effluent. Sorption has been shown to be a significant aqueous removal pathway for many of these compounds. Competition between ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) and their sorption to, and desorption from, a surrogate Louisiana wastewater treatment wetland soil were investigated to gain insight into the fate and transport of the pollutants within wastewater treatment wetlands. This study was undertaken in the context of a treatment wetland that continuously receives pharmaceuticals. Therefore it is important to understand the total capacity of this soil to sorb these compounds. Sorption to this treatment wetland soil was found to provide a major and potentially long-term removal pathway for these antibiotics from wastewater. LogK(F) values for all three compounds were between 4.09 and 3.90 for sorption and 4.24 and 4.05 microg(1-1/)(n)(cm(3))(1/)(n)g(-1) for desorption. The compounds were sorbed in amounts ranging from 60% to 90% for high and low loading, respectively. The majority of the compounds were sorbed to the soil within the first 20h, indicating that treatment wetland may not need long retention times (weeks to months) in order to remove these compounds. Sorption K(D) values for competition (20 ppm of each compound for 60 ppm of total fluoroquinolones) ranged from 2300 to 3800 cm(3)g(-1) which is between both the 20 (4300-5800 cm(3)g(-1)) and 60 (1300-3000 cm(3)g(-1)) ppm single compound K(D) values, indicating that there is competition between these three compound for sorption sites. Sorption and desorption data (single component and mixture) collectively provide the following evidence: (1) NOR and, to a lesser extent, CIP outcompete OFL for sorption sites, (2) OFL sorbes to its share of "quality" sorption sites, and (3) competition only occurs for lesser "quality" binding sites. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of particle size of drinking-water treatment residuals on the sorption of arsenic in the presence of competing ions.

    Caporale, Antonio G; Punamiya, Pravin; Pigna, Massimo; Violante, Antonio; Sarkar, Dibyendu


    Arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] sorption by Fe- and Al-based drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) was studied as a function of particle size at different pHs, and in the presence of competing ligands, namely, phosphate, citrate, and oxalate. Both WTRs showed high affinity for As oxyanions. However, Al-WTR showed higher As(III) and As(V) sorption capacity than Fe-WTR because of their greater surface area. The effect of particle size on As sorption was pronounced on Fe-WTR, where the smaller fraction sorbed more As(III) and As(V) than the larger fractions, whereas relatively minor effects of particle size on As sorption was observed for Al-WTR. Arsenite sorption on both WTRs increased with increasing pH up to circum-neutral pHs and then decreased at higher pHs, whereas As(V) sorption decreased steadily with increasing pH. The capacity of competing ligands to inhibit sorption was greater for As(III) than As(V) on both WTRs (particularly on Al-WTR) following the sequence: oxalate

  20. [Sorption isotherms and sorption thermodynamics of faecal sterols on offshore sediment].

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Xue, Wen-Ping; Xu, Heng-Zhen; Ma, Xin-Dong


    Experiments of faecal sterols adsorption from aqueous solutions onto Dalian offshore sediment were done by a batch equilibrium method,and the sorption of 12 kinds of faecal sterols in sediment were investigated in this paper. It was shown that the adsorption equilibrium time was 24 h, and after 24 h the variation tendency of 5 kinds of fingerprint values was stable. It indicated that adsorption isothermal data was interpreted by the Henry, Freundlich, Langmuir, Duhinin-Radushkevich(D-R) and Temkin equations, and demonstrated that the other 4 isotherms provided stronger data fitting than the Langumir isotherm. It inferred that from D-R model the mean free energy of adsorption process of 12 kinds of faecal sterols was from 7 071.1 J x mol(-1) to 9 128.7 J x mol(-1), and concluded that it was mainly physical adsorption of the sorptive process of 12 kinds of faecal sterols in sediment. It discovered that from the Temkin model the value of K(f) of cholestanone was the maximum, and extrapolated that cholestanone was adsorbed most easily on sediment. It stated that the enthalpy and entropy change of the adsorption were both less than zero, and inferred that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous.

  1. Sorption of Organic Compounds in Soil Organic Matter


    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the predominant component for sorption of hydrophobic organic compouds in soil and sorption by SOM ultimately affects chemical fate and availability in soil ,and the degree of remedia tion success of contaminated soils. This paper summarizes the latest development on sorption of organic com pounds in soil (natural) organic matter, addresses four sorption mechanisms: surface adsorption, solid - phase partitioning,dual-mode sorption,and fixed-pore sorption model ,and presents future research directions as well.

  2. Impacts of the physiochemical properties of chlorinated solvents on the sorption of trichloroethylene to the roots of Typha latifolia

    Ma Xingmao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1230 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)], E-mail:; Wang Chen [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1230 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)


    Sorption to plant roots is the first step for organic contaminants to enter plant tissues. Mounting evidence is showing that sorption to plant roots is nonlinear and competitive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of physiochemical properties of homologous chlorinated ethenes and ethanes on the competitive sorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) to the roots of Typha latifolia (cattail). The results showed that chlorinated ethenes exerted significantly stronger competition on the sorption of TCE than chlorinated ethanes. Individual physiochemical properties of organic compounds could be related to the competitive capacity of chlorinated ethenes, but the roles appeared secondary, with molecular structures showing primary effects. Based on these observations, a two-step sorption mechanism was proposed, consisting of the interactions between organic compounds and functional groups on the root surface and subsequent pore filling and absorption to the hydrophobic domains in the composition of roots. - Molecular structures and physiochemical properties of homologous chlorinated aliphatics are important factors affecting competitive sorption of TCE to plant roots.

  3. Sorption of small molecules in polymeric media

    Camboni, Federico; Sokolov, Igor M.


    We discuss the sorption of penetrant molecules from the gas phase by a polymeric medium within a model which is very close in spirit to the dual sorption mode model: the penetrant molecules are partly dissolved within the polymeric matrix, partly fill the preexisting voids. The only difference with the initial dual sorption mode situation is the assumption that the two populations of molecules are in equilibrium with each other. Applying basic thermodynamics principles we obtain the dependence of the penetrant concentration on the pressure in the gas phase and find that this is expressed via the Lambert W-function, a different functional form than the one proposed by dual sorption mode model. The Lambert-like isotherms appear universally at low and moderate pressures and originate from the assumption that the internal energy in a polymer-penetrant-void ternary mixture is (in the lowest order) a bilinear form in the concentrations of the three components. Fitting the existing data shows that in the domain of parameters where the dual sorption mode model is typically applied, the Lambert function, which describes the same behavior as the one proposed by the gas-polymer matrix model, fits the data equally well.

  4. Sorption of tylosin on clay minerals.

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Chen; Huang, Weilin; Dang, Zhi; Shu, Xiaohua


    The equilibrium sorption of tylosin (TYL) on kaolinite and montmorillonite was measured at different solution pH using batch reactor systems. The results showed that all the sorption isotherms were nonlinear and that the nonlinearity decreased as the solution pH increased for a given clay. At a specific aqueous concentration, the single-point sorption distribution coefficient (KD) of TYL decreased rapidly as the solution pH increased. A speciation-dependent sorption model that accounted for the contributions of the cationic and neutral forms of TYL fit the data well, suggesting that the sorption may be dominated by both ion exchange and hydrophobic interactions. The isotherm data also fit well to a dual mode model that quantifies the contributions of a site-limiting Langmuir component (ion exchange) and a non-specific linear partitioning component (hydrophobic interactions). X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the interlayers of montmorillonite were expanded due to the uptake of TYL. TYL molecules likely form a monolayer surface coverage.

  5. Influence of Calcite Solids and Dissolved Calcium on U(VI) Sorption and Desorption in Hanford Subsurface Sediments

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.; Stone, Alan T.; Bai, Jing; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming


    We have investigated U(VI) sorption and desorption with batch experiments conducted on core samples from the Hanford, WA, site as well as on sub-fractions of these materials and laboratory-grade calcite. In these studies, [U(VI)] was varied between 10- 7 and 10-5 and pH between 7.2 to 10, at constant I (=0.05) and constant PCO2 (10-3.5 atm), using water that was saturated with respect to calcite. A carbonate-free (acetic acid- treated) fraction of silt/clay material showed higher sorption than untreated material, suggesting that carbonates block access to higher affinity sites. Of particular interest was that U(VI) sorption on untreated material was maximum at pH=8.4, with substantially less sorption at lower and higher pH and in contrast to results from calcite free studies, which show strong sorption at pH {approx} 5 to 8. U(VI) speciation results suggest that aqueous-phase Ca2UO2(CO3)3 was the source of the otherwise unexpectedly low sorption at pH <8.4.

  6. Sorption of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion on chars with long-term natural oxidation in soils

    Cheng, C.; Lin, T.; Lai, C.


    Biochar has been proposed as a measure to sequestrate carbon (C) and to increase soil fertility in sustainable agriculture. However, its sorption characteristics to herbicides, such as lowing herbicides efficacy, may constrain its agricultural application. This assertion may be arguable because most studies so far were conducted with the newly produced char and barely considered the "ageing effect" of old char since it could be oxidized over long time. In this study, historical char samples were collected and compared with the newly produced char. Batch sorption studies of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion onto chars was performed. Greater sorption of Cu was observed on the historical char samples and reached a saturated sorption at 30 mg g-1 for Cu, much higher adsorption value than newly produced char at 4 mg g-1. In contrast, sorption of diuron and atrazine on newly produced char had the highest sorption capacity than the historical char samples. The historical chars also had much higher negative charge than the newly produced char, but its surface area were lower than the new char. The results indicated that change in surface functional groups through natural oxidation rather than the change of surface area may have more pronounced influences on sorption characteristics, in which the negative charge on the historical chars' surface could hinder the adsorption of diuron and atrazine while enhance the sorption to copper ion. Biological assay to test the toxicity of diuron and copper ion for both historical and new chars on rye seed were conducted and will be presented in our poster.

  7. Novel compact sorption generators for car air conditioning

    Tamainot-Telto, Z.; Metcalf, S.J.; Critoph, R.E. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Gibet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    A prototype compact generator using the activated carbon-ammonia pair based on the plate heat exchanger concept has been designed and built at Warwick University. The novel generator has low thermal mass and good heat transfer. The heat exchanger uses nickel-brazed shims and spacers to create adsorbent layers only 4 mm thick between pairs of liquid flow channels of very low thermal mass. The prototype sorption generator manufactured was evaluated under EU car air conditioning test conditions. The prototype sorption generator is described and its experimental performance reported. While driven with waste heat from the engine coolant water (at 90 C), a pair of the current prototype generators (loaded with about 1 kg of activated carbon) operating out of phase has produced an average cooling power 1.6 kW with about 2 kW peaks. The typical average COP obtained is 0.22. (author) [French] Un prototype du generateur compact, base sur le concept des echangeurs de chaleur a plaques et utilisant la paire charbon actif-ammoniac, a ete concu et construit a l'Universite de Warwick. Le nouveau generateur a une faible inertie thermique et un excellent transfert de chaleur. L' echangeur utilise des plaques ayant des micro-canaux et des intercalaires brases au Nickel pour creer des couches d'adsorbant de 4 mm d'epaisseur entre les paires de plaques a l'interieur desquelles circule le fluide liquide. Le prototype du generateur a sorption ainsi fabrique a ete teste suivant des conditions prescrites par la Norme Europeenne de la Climatisation Automobile. Le prototype du generateur a sorption est decrit et ses performances experimentales presentees. Une paire dudit prototype (contenant chacun 1 kg the charbon actif), operant avec dephasage et ulisant des pertes thermiques en provenance de l'eau de refroidissement de moteur (a 90 C), a produit une puissance frigorifique moyenne de 1.6 kW avec une valeur maximum de 2 kW. La valeur typique du COP moyen est de

  8. Potential phosphorus eutrophication mitigation strategy: Biochar carbon composition, thermal stability and pH influence phosphorus sorption

    L.W. Ngatia; Y.P. Hsieh; D. Nemours; R. Fu; R.W. Taylor


    Phosphorus (P) eutrophication is a major pollution problem globally, with unprecedented amount of P emanating from agricultural sources. But little is known about the optimization of soil-biochar P sorption capacity. The study objective was to determine how biochar feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions influences carbon (C) thermal stability, C composition and pH and in...

  9. Sorption of U(VI) in surfaces of SrTiO{sub 3}; Sorcion de U(VI) en superficies de SrTiO{sub 3}

    Ortiz O, H.B.; Ordonez R, E.; Fernandez V, S.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this work is presented the physico chemical characterization and evaluation of those surface properties and of sorption of U on the SrTiO{sub 3} like possible candidate for contention barrier in the deep geological confinement. The made studies showed that the SrTiO{sub 3} presents maximum levels of sorption of positive nature species (mainly UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}NO{sub 3}{sup +}). (Author)

  10. Effect of the nature of exogenous organic matter on pesticide sorption by the soil.

    Iglesias-Jiménez, E; Poveda, E; Sánchez-Martín, M J; Sánchez-Camazano, M


    A study was carried out on the sorption of two sparingly water-soluble pesticides (diazinon and linuron) by a sandy loam soil modified with different exogenous organic materials (EOMs) containing humic-like substances: city refuse compost (CRC), peat (P), commercial "humic" acid (HA), liquid "humic" acid (LHA), and two (nonhumic) model compounds (surfactants), tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), before and after 2- and 8-month incubation periods with the soil. In all cases, the isotherms fitted the Freundlich sorption equation (x/m = KCen), generally with r2 values greater than 0.99. The value of the sorption constant K for the natural soil was 8.81 for diazinon and 2.29 for linuron. These values increased significantly for EOM modified soils with respect to natural soil, with the exception of the samples modified with SDS and LHA, in which cases they decreased, possibly due to the micellar properties of these compounds. Incubation of EOMs with soil increased their sorption capacity: the Koc values were increased proportionally to the incubation time for both pesticides and for all treatments carried out. Accordingly, the sorption capacity of hydrophobic pesticides increases with the degree of evolution in the soil of EOMs with "humic"-type compounds, possibly due, among other causes, to the increase in the EOMs' colloidal properties and the modifications occurring in the hydrophobic-hydrophilic characteristics of the soil surfaces. The main conclusion is that application to the soil of carbon-rich wastes, especially those with a high degree of maturity, may offer an important strategy for reducing pesticide leaching and for eliminating pesticide residues from soil with the use of anionic surfactants.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of secondary sorption behavior of montmorillonite modified by single chain quaternary ammonium cations.

    Zhao, Qian; Burns, Susan E


    Organoclays synthesized from single chain quaternary ammonium cations (QAC) ((CH(3))(3)NR(+)) exhibit different mechanisms for the sorption of nonpolar organic compounds as the length of the carbon chain is increased. The interaction between a nonpolar sorbate and an organoclay intercalated with small QACs has been demonstrated to be surface adsorption, while partitioning is the dominant mechanism in clays intercalated with long chain surfactants. This study presents the results of a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation performed to examine the sorption mechanisms of benzene in the interlayer of three organoclays with chain lengths ranging from 1 to 16 carbons: tetramethylammonium (TMA) clay; decyltrimethylammonium (DTMA) clay; and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) clay. The basis of the overall simulation was a combined force field of ClayFF and CVFF. In the simulations, organic cations were intercalated and benzene molecules were introduced to the interlayer, followed by whole system NPT and NVT time integration. Trajectories of all the species were recorded after the system reached equilibrium and subsequently analyzed. Simulation results confirmed that the arrangement of the surfactants controlled the sorption mechanism of organoclays. Benzene molecules were observed to interact directly with the clay surface in the presence of TMA cations, but tended to interact with the aliphatic chain of the HDTMA cation in the interlayer. The simulation provided insight into the nature of the adsorption/partitioning mechanisms in organoclays, and explained experimental observations of decreased versus increased uptake capacities as a function of increasing total organic carbon (TOC) for TMA clay and HDTMA clay, respectively. The transition of sorption mechanisms was also quantified with simulation of DTMA clay, with a chain length between that of TMA and HDTMA. Furthermore, this study suggested that at the molecular level, the controlling factor for the ultimate sorption

  12. Station Capacity

    Landex, Alex


    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  13. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic modelling of the sorption of ...

    Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic modelling of the sorption of metals ... Batch sorption studies were conducted to assess the potential of a ... negative Ea values, indicating their preference to bind to low-energy sites. ... Article Metrics.

  14. Removal of fluoride from aqueous phase by biosorption onto algal biosorbent Spirogyra sp.-IO2: Sorption mechanism elucidation

    Venkata Mohan, S. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India)]. E-mail:; Ramanaiah, S.V. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Rajkumar, B. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Sarma, P.N. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India)]. E-mail:


    This communication presents results pertaining to the adsorptive studies carried out on fluoride removal onto algal biosorbent (Spirogyra IO2). Batch sorption studies were performed and the results revealed that biosorbent demonstrated ability to adsorb the fluoride. Influence of varying the conditions for removal of fluoride, such as the fluoride concentration, the pH of aqueous solution, the dosage of adsorbent, the temperature on removal of fluoride, and the adsorption-desorption studies were investigated. Sorption interaction of fluoride on to algal species obeyed the pseudo first order rate equation. Experimental data showed good fit with the Langmuir's adsorption isotherm model. Fluoride sorption was found to be dependent on the aqueous phase pH and the uptake was observed to be greater at lower pH. Maximum fluoride sorption was observed at operating 30 deg. C operating temperature. Adsorption-desorption of fluoride into inorganic solutions and distilled water was observed and this indicated the combined effect of ion exchange and physical sorption phenomena. Significant changes in the FT-IR spectra was observed after fluoride sorption which is indicative of the participation of surface function groups associated with hydrogen atoms in the carboxylic groups in sorption interaction. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis a marginal increase in the area for the binding energy peak at 287.4 eV was observed which could be due to the formation of -C-F- bonds. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis of the fluoride loaded sorbent showed that the biosorbent underwent three steps decomposition process when heated from 25 to 100 deg. C. The maximum weight loss was observed to be between 200 and 400 deg. C and 700 and 800 deg. C.

  15. Predicting Organic Cation Sorption Coefficients: Accounting for Competition from Sorbed Inorganic Cations Using a Simple Probe Molecule.

    Jolin, William C; Goyetche, Reaha; Carter, Katherine; Medina, John; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A


    With the increasing number of emerging contaminants that are cationic at environmentally relevant pH values, there is a need for robust predictive models of organic cation sorption coefficients (Kd). Current predictive models fail to account for the differences in the identity, abundance, and affinity of surface-associated inorganic exchange ions naturally present at negatively charged receptor sites on environmental solids. To better understand how organic cation sorption is influenced by surface-associated inorganic exchange ions, sorption coefficients of 10 organic cations (including eight pharmaceuticals and two simple probe organic amines) were determined for six homoionic forms of the aluminosilicate mineral, montmorillonite. Organic cation sorption coefficients exhibited consistent trends for all compounds across the various homoionic clays with sorption coefficients (Kd) decreasing as follows: Kd(Na(+)) > Kd(NH4(+)) ≥ Kd(K(+)) > Kd(Ca(2+)) ≥ Kd(Mg(2+)) > Kd(Al(3+)). This trend for competition between organic cations and exchangeable inorganic cations is consistent with the inorganic cation selectivity sequence, determined for exchange between inorganic ions. Such consistent trends in competition between organic and inorganic cations suggested that a simple probe cation, such as phenyltrimethylammonium or benzylamine, could capture soil-to-soil variations in native inorganic cation identity and abundance for the prediction of organic cation sorption to soils and soil minerals. Indeed, sorption of two pharmaceutical compounds to 30 soils was better described by phenyltrimethylammonium sorption than by measures of benzylamine sorption, effective cation exchange capacity alone, or a model from the literature (Droge, S., and Goss, K. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 14224). A hybrid approach integrating structural scaling factors derived from this literature model of organic cation sorption, along with phenyltrimethylammonium Kd values, allowed for

  16. Sorption Properties of Some Romanian Gingerbread

    Tulbure Anca


    Full Text Available Water activity of gingerbread is very important for keeping the product freshness and shelf life. Water activity is influenced by composition, water content and temperature. The water content of gingerbread could vary according with storage condition. i.e. rH. 11 gingerbread samples were analysed. The water content and water activity lies between 7.0 and 12.6% and respectively 0.590 and 0.715. The sorption isotherms were determined at 30°C by gravimetric method. The moisture sorption is influenced by composition, especially sweeteners and humectants. Honey and invert sugar have the same impact on gingerbread higroscopicity.

  17. A Sorption Hysteresis Model For Cellulosic Materials

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Damkilde, Lars


    The equilibrium concentration of adsorbed water in cellulosic materials is dependent on the history of the variations of vapor pressure in the ambient air, i.e. sorption hysteresis. Existing models to describe this phenomenon such as the independent domain theory have numerical drawbacks and....../or imply accounting for the entire history variations of every material point. This paper presents a sorption hysteresis model based on a state formulation and expressed in closed-form solutions, which makes it suitable for implementation into a numerical method....

  18. Gas Sorption and Storage Properties of Calixarenes

    Patil, Rahul S.; Banerjee, Debasis; Atwood, Jerry L.; Thallapally, Praveen K.


    Calixarenes, a class of organic macrocyclic molecules have shown interesting gas sorption properties towards industrially important gases such as carbon di-oxide, hydrogen, methane and acetylene. These macrocycles are involved in weak van der Waals interaction to form multidimensional supramolecular frameworks. The gas-diffusion and subsequent sorption occurs due to a cooperative behavior between neighboring macrocycles. Furthermore, the flexibility at the upper rim functional group also plays a key role in the overall gas uptake of calixarene. In this book chapter, we give a brief account of interaction and diffusion of gases in calixarene and selected derivatives.

  19. Natural attenuation of arsenic by sediment sorption and oxidation.

    Choi, Sunkyung; O'Day, Peggy A; Hering, Janet G


    Arsenic sorption onto aquifer sediments was investigated in anaerobic laboratory batch and column uptake experiments and characterized by As, Fe, and Mn X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to estimate the extent and mechanism of abiotic sorption and oxidation of As(III). Batch experiments at pH 6 showed that the amount of As(III) or As(V) sorption from synthetic background porewaterto sediments was similar as a function of total As concentration, but slightly more As(V) was sorbed than As(III) with increasing As concentrations. Column experiments with As(III) solutions in the absence and presence of dissolved Fe2+ showed more As uptake in the presence of Fe but also more Fe desorption during flushout with As-free solutions such that net As uptake was similar to, or less than that of, the Fe-free experiment. Fits to bulk Fe X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra showed no change between unreacted and reacted sediments. Manganese XANES revealed small increases in absorption in the spectral region associated with Mn(II) after reaction, indicating sediment Mn reduction. However, XANES spectra showed that Mn is not present as Mn(IV)O2(s) but is probably substituted into other sediment minerals as a mixture of Mn(II,III). Quantitative analyses of As XANES spectra, which indicated mixtures of As(III) and As(V) after reaction with As(III) solutions, were used to estimate a fraction of As(V) in excess of native As(V) in the sediment (0.2 mmol kg(-1)) that corresponds to sorbed As(III) oxidized to As(V). The spectroscopic and solution data indicate that the aquifer sediments have a limited abiotic capacity to oxidize As(III), which did not exceed 30% of the total amount of As sorbed and was estimated in the range of 0.025-0.4 mmol kg-(-1) sediment. In the presence of dissolved Fe2+, the precipitation of Fe(III) hydrous oxide phases will be an effective mechanism for As scavenging only if there exists sufficient dissolved oxygen in groundwater to oxidize Fe

  20. A kinetic approach to model sorption dynamics of radionuclides in soils: from desire to operational application?

    Martin-Garin, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Coppin, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France (France)


    those resulting from a laboratory sorption tests which are usually lower. Although there is a strong need to have information on the reversibility of sorption and how it may change with time, this approach is now severely limited because sorption and desorption rate constants are rare for RN. Our studies were specifically designed in order to determine the parameters of such a three-box model, as an alternative to K{sub d} approach. The so-called E-K model, based on Van Genuchten and Wagenet (1989), distinguishes instantaneous fractionation and first-order kinetics of sorption and desorption processes, each having potentially limited sorption capacities. Our experimental approaches to determine sorption dynamics are based on the construction of sorption and desorption isotherms as a function of time, in order to assess the impact of mechanisms involved in sorption reversibility. The work presented here is focused in a database collection for E-K model parameters, obtained by reinterpreting the literature, or by producing new and dedicated experimental data at the laboratory scale. The last specifically concern Cs, Sr, Co and Ni sorption and desorption properties in different soils. For these RN, specific E-K parameters were determined by adjusting the model to experimental data obtained from stirred flow-through reactors experiments. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. An improved experimental and regression methodology for sorption isotherms

    Quirijns, E.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Straten, van G.


    Sorption isotherms of corn and starch cylinders with immobilised catalase are experimentally determined at different temperatures for use in drying models in optimal control studies. This application of the sorption isotherm requires an accurate prediction of the sorption data at different temperatu

  2. Sorption induced relaxations during water diffusion in S-PEEK

    Potreck, Jens; Uyar, Fuat; Sijbesma, Hylke; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Stamatialis, Dimitris; Wessling, Matthias


    This paper presents an analysis of the sorption kinetics of water vapor and liquid water in the glassy polymer sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (S-PEEK). Sorption isotherms are determined experimentally using a gravimetric sorption balance, and the relative contributions of Fickian diffusion and

  3. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II sorption by Lagenaria vulgaris shell

    Mitić-Stojanović Dragana-Linda


    Full Text Available The sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions from aqueous solution by Lagenaria vulgaris shell biosorbent (LVB in batch system was investigated. The effect of relevant parameters such as contact time, biosorbent dosage and initial metal ions concentration was evaluated. The Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II sorption equilibrium (when 98% of initial metal ions were sorbed was attained within 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively. The pseudo first, pseudo-second order, Chrastil’s and intra-particle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data fitted the pseudo-second order kinetic model and intra-particle diffusion model. Removal efficiency of lead(II, cadmium(II and zinc(II ions rapidly increased with increasing biosorbent dose from 0.5 to 8.0 g dm-3. Optimal biosorbent dose was set to 4.0 g dm-3. An increase in the initial metal concentration increases the sorption capacity. The sorption data of investigated metal ions are fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir model best fitted the equilibrium data (r2 > 0.99. Maximal sorption capacities of LVB for Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II at 25.0±0.5°C were 0.130, 0.103 and 0.098 mM g-1, respectively. The desorption experiments showed that the LVB could be reused for six cycles with a minimum loss of the initial sorption capacity.

  4. Evaluation of Compressive Strength and Sorption/Solubility of Four Luting Cements

    Tavangar MS


    Full Text Available Abstract: Statement of Problem: Compressive strength (CS and sorption/solubility of the luting cements are two associated factors. Searching a correlation between sorption/solubility and compressive strength of various luting cements is required. Objectives: To measure the water sorption/solubility, and compressive strength of three resin-based and one conventional glass ionomer (CGI luting cement after 1 and 24 h of immersion in distilled water and to determine if there is any correlation between those properties found. Materials and Methods: Four luting cements were investigated. For each material, 10 disc shaped specimens were prepared for measuring the sorption/solubility. The specimens were cured according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and the sorption/solubility were measured in accordance with the ISO 4049’s. For testing the compression strength, for each material 16 cylindrical specimens were prepared by insertion of cements into a stainless steel split mould. The specimens were cured, divided into groups of 8, and then stored in distilled water at (37 ± 1°C for 1 and 24 h. The test was performed using the universal testing machine, the maximum load was recorded and CS was calculated. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 18. One-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey’s test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were performed. Results: G-CEM had the highest mean CS (153.60± 25.15 and CGI luting had the lowest CS (21.36±5.37 (p 0.05. The lowest mean sorption/solubility value was for RelyXTM U200 and Panavia F, and the highest for CGI luting (all p < 0.001. Conclusions: The compressive strength of all cements did not necessarily increase after 24 h and varied depending on the materials. There was a strong reverse correlation between sorption and CS values after both 1 and 24 h immersion. It may be practical for clinician to use those cements with the less sorption / solubility and more stable compression strength over

  5. Sorption of prioritized elements on montmorillonite colloids and their potential to transport radionuclides

    Wold, Susanna (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry)


    Due to colloids potential to bind radionuclides (RN) and even mobilise sorbed RN, colloid transport of RN should be taken into account when modeling radionuclide transport in the scenario of a leaking canister in a deep bedrock repository of spent nuclear fuel. Colloids are always present in natural waters and the concentrations are controlled by the groundwater chemistry where specifically the ionic strength is of major importance. In many deep bedrock groundwaters, the ionic strength is fairly high (above the Critical Coagulation Concentration) and therefore colloids are not likely to be stable. In these types of groundwaters colloid concentrations up to 100 mug/l could be expected, and clay colloids organic degradation products and bacteria and viruses represent can be found. In a long time perspective cycles of glaciations can be expected in Sweden as in other Nordic countries. It can not be excluded that glacial melt water can intrude to repository depth with high flows. In this scenario the groundwater conditions may drastically change. In contact with dilute groundwater the bentonite barrier can start to propagate a bentonite gel and further release montmorillonite colloids into water bearing fractures. The concentration of colloids in vicinity of the bentonite barrier can then increase drastically. In contact with Grimsel groundwater types with [Na] and [Ca] of 0.001 and 0.0001 M respectively a montmorillonite concentration of a maximum of 20 mg/l is expected. Further, the groundwater chemistry of Grimsel seems to be representative for glacial meltwater when comparing with the water chemistry data on meltwaters from existing glaciers. A key to be able to model colloid transport of radionuclides is the sorption strength and the sorption reversibility. To facilitate this, a compilation of literature K{sub d}-values and an inventory of available sorption kinetic data has been composed for the prioritized elements Pu, Th, Am, Pb, Pa, Ra, Np, Cm, Ac, Tc, Cs, Nb

  6. Station Capacity

    Landex, Alex


    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  7. Sorption of strontium on uranyl peroxide: implications for a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    Sureda, Rosa; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan; Casas, Ignasi; Giménez, Javier


    Strontium-90 is considered the most important radioactive isotope in the environment and one of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in groundwaters at nuclear facilities. The uranyl peroxide studtite (UO2O2 . 4H2O) has been observed to be formed in spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments and seems to have a relatively high sorption capacity for some radionuclides. In this work, the sorption of strontium onto studtite is studied as a function of time, strontium concentration in solution and pH. The main results obtained are (a) sorption is relatively fast although slower than for cesium; (b) strontium seems to be sorbed via a monolayer coverage of the studtite surface, (c) sorption has a strong dependence on ionic strength, is negligible at acidic pH, and increases at neutral to alkaline pH (almost 100% of the strontium in solution is sorbed above pH 10). These results point to uranium secondary solid phase formation on the spent nuclear fuel as an important mechanism for strontium retention in a high-level nuclear waste repository (HLNW).

  8. Synthesis of assorted metal ions anchored alginate bentonite biocomposites for Cr(VI) sorption.

    Gopalakannan, Venkatrajan; Periyasamy, Soodamani; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy


    Biocomposites were synthesized by dispersing bentonite (Bent) clay in a biopolymer namely alginate (Alg) and cross-linked with bi (Ca(2+)), tri (Ce(3+)) and tetravalent (Zr(4+)) metal ions viz., Ca@AlgBent, Ce@AlgBent and Zr@AlgBent composites respectively. The synthesized biocomposites were characterized by various instrumental techniques like FTIR, SEM and EDAX. Cr(VI) sorption capacities (SCs) of the biocomposites Ca@AlgBent, Ce@AlgBent and Zr@AlgBent were examined by batch process. Various adsorption influencing factors viz., contact time, dosage of the sorbent, pH of the medium, temperature, presence of common co-ions and initial Cr(VI) concentration were studied. Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models were adopted to examine the adsorption equilibrium. Kinetics of the sorption process was carried out by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The nature of the sorption process was explained using thermodynamic parameters like ΔS°, ΔG° and ΔH° and a possible mechanism for the sorption of Cr(VI) onto the biocomposites was given. The application of the biocomposites at field conditions was also examined by testing it with industrial water. The regeneration studies were carried to know about the reusability of the biocomposites.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of mobility and sorption for the veterinary antibiotic, tylosin, in agricultural soils.

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R


    Veterinary medicines, including antibiotics, are utilized in large quantities in intensive livestock farming. It is evidenced that tylosin, one of the most frequently used antibiotics, is only partially metabolized in animals and not completely degraded in the manure storage stage before application to the farmland. In order to assess the mobility of tylosin in soil, a soil-column leaching study and a simple batch sorption experiment were conducted in the laboratory. Tylosin had strong sorption to various soils, with sorption distribution coefficients ranging from 42 to 65 ml/g. The range of concentrations in leachate was detected from non-detectable to 0.27 ng/mL after four simulated rainfall events in one month, and leachability of tylosin is dependent on soil properties and manure amendment. Percentage of clay, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and manure amendment were positively correlated with sorption, and negatively correlated with mobility of tylosin in soil. The majority of tylosin was not recovered in the testing system, indicating that tylosin was most likely mineralized, or irreversibly bound to solid particles since no major degradation products were detected. Some trace level tylosin residues from manure-applied farmlands may be the major source to surface water systems through soil erosion and preferential flow processes.

  10. Tuning hydrogen sorption properties of metal-organic frameworks by postsynthetic covalent modification.

    Wang, Zhenqiang; Tanabe, Kristine K; Cohen, Seth M


    Postsynthetic modification is presented as a means to tune the hydrogen adsorption properties of a series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). IRMOF-3 (isoreticular metal-organic framework), UMCM-1-NH(2) (University of Michigan crystalline material), and DMOF-1-NH(2) (DABCO metal-organic framework) have been covalently modified with a series of anhydrides or isocyanates and the hydrogen sorption properties have been studied. Both the storage capacities and isosteric heats of adsorption clearly show that covalent postsynthetic modification can significantly enhance the sorption affinity of MOFs with hydrogen and in some cases increase both gravimetric and volumetric uptake of the gas as much as 40 %. The significance of the present study is illustrated by: 1) the nature of the substituents introduced by postsynthetic modification result in different effects on the binding of hydrogen; 2) the covalent postsynthetic modification approach allows for systematic modulation of hydrogen sorption properties; and 3) the ease of postsynthetic modification of MOFs allows a direct evaluation of the interplay between MOF structure, hydrogen uptake, and heat of adsorption. The findings presented herein show that postsynthetic modification is a powerful method to manipulate and better understand the gas sorption properties of MOFs.

  11. Characterization and Phenanthrene Sorption of Natural and Pyrogenic Organic Matter Fractions.

    Jin, Jie; Sun, Ke; Wang, Ziying; Yang, Yan; Han, Lanfang; Xing, Baoshan


    Pyrogenic humic acid (HA) is released into the environment during the large-scale application of biochar. However, the biogeochemistry of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) fractions and their sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) are poorly understood in comparison with natural organic matter (NOM) fractions. HA and humin (HM) fractions isolated from soils and the oxidized biochars were characterized. Sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) by these fractions was also examined. The characterization results demonstrate that pyrogenic HAs are different from natural HAs, with the former having lower atomic H/C ratios, more abundant aromatic C, and higher concentrations of surface carboxylic groups. Compared with the fresh biochars, the Koc of PHE on their oxidized biochars, pyrogenic HA, and HM fractions were undiminished, which is encouraging for the use of biochar in soil remediation. The PyOM fractions exhibited stronger nonlinear sorption than the NOM fractions. In addition, the PyOM fractions had higher sorption capacity than the NOM fractions due to their low polar C content and high aryl C content. The results obtained from this work will shed new light on the impact of the addition of biochar on the biogeochemistry of soil organic matter and on the fate of HOCs in biochar-amended soil.

  12. Hydration and sorption characteristics of a polyfunctional weak-base anion exchanger after the sorption of vanillin and ethylvanillin

    Rodionova, D. O.; Voronyuk, I. V.; Eliseeva, T. V.


    Features of the sorption of substituted aromatic aldehydes by a weak-base anion exchanger under equilibrium conditions are investigated using vanillin and ethylvanillin as examples. Analysis of the sorption isotherms of carbonyl compounds at different temperatures allows us to calculate the equilibrium characteristics of their sorption and assess the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the energy of the process. Hydration characteristics of the macroporous weak-base anion exchanger before and after the sorption of aromatic aldehydes are compared.

  13. Sorption Kinetics Of Selected Heavy Metals Adsorption To Natural And Fe(III Modified Zeolite Tuff Containing Clinoptilolite Mineral

    Sirotiak Maroš


    Full Text Available In the research described in this paper, studied was sorption capacity of natural and ferric modification of zeolite tuff containing mineral clinoptilolite from the Nižný Hrabovec deposit to remove potentially toxic metals (ionic forms of chromium, nickel, copper and aluminium from their water solutions. We reported that the Fe (III zeolite has an enhanced ability to sorption of Cu (II, and a slight improvement occurs in the case of Cr (VI and Ni (II. On the other hand, the deterioration was observed in the case of Al (III adsorption.

  14. Sorption Kinetics Of Selected Heavy Metals Adsorption To Natural And Fe(III) Modified Zeolite Tuff Containing Clinoptilolite Mineral

    Sirotiak, Maroš; Lipovský, Marek; Bartošová, Alica


    In the research described in this paper, studied was sorption capacity of natural and ferric modification of zeolite tuff containing mineral clinoptilolite from the Nižný Hrabovec deposit to remove potentially toxic metals (ionic forms of chromium, nickel, copper and aluminium) from their water solutions. We reported that the Fe (III) zeolite has an enhanced ability to sorption of Cu (II), and a slight improvement occurs in the case of Cr (VI) and Ni (II). On the other hand, the deterioration was observed in the case of Al (III) adsorption.

  15. Measurement of solubility and water sorption of dental nanocomposites light cured by argon laser.

    Mirsasaani, Seyed Shahabeddin; Ghomi, Farhad; Hemati, Mehran; Tavasoli, Tina


    Different parameters used for photoactivation process and also composition provide changes in the properties of dental composites. In the present work the effect of different power density of argon laser and filler loading on solubility (SL) and water sorption (WS) of light-cure dental nanocomposites was studied. The resin of nanocomposites was prepared by mixing bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with a mass ratio of 65/35. 20 wt.% and 25 wt.% of nanosilica fillers with a primary particle size of 10 nm were added to the resin. Camphorquinone (CQ) and DMAEMA were added as photoinitiator system. The nanocomposites were cured by applying the laser beam at the wavelength of 472 nm and power densities of 260 and 340 mW/cm(2) for 40 sec. Solubility and water sorption were then measured according to ISO 4049, which in our case, the maximums were 2.2% and 4.3% at 260 mW/cm(2) and 20% filler, respectively. The minimum solubility (1.2%) and water sorption (3.8%) were achieved for the composite containing 25% filler cured at 340 mW/cm(2). The results confirmed that higher power density and filler loading decreased solubility of unreacted monomers and water sorption and improved physico-mechanical properties of nanocomposites.

  16. Pentachlorophenol sorption in nylon fiber and removal by immobilized Rhizopus oryzae ENHE.

    León-Santiestebán, Hugo; Meraz, Mónica; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Tomasini, Araceli


    This study describes pentachlophenol (PCP) sorption in nylon fiber in which Rhizopus oryzae ENHE was immobilized to remove the chemical compound. The experimental sorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models using non-linear error functions to fit the experimental data to the three models. Results showed that the isotherm obtained from the data fitted the three models used. However, the g parameter from Redlich-Peterson model showed that the isotherm obtained approaches the Freundlich model. This support reached the sorption equilibrium concentration at 3mg PCPg(-1)nylon. To study PCP removal capability by R. oryzae ENHE and to eliminate the error caused by PCP sorbed by the nylon fiber during its quantification, nylon fiber at PCP equilibrium sorption concentration was used to immobilize R. oryzae ENHE. It was found that this fungus grew within nylon fiber cubes in presence or not of PCP, even when PCP caused growth inhibition. Maximum biomass accumulated into nylon cubes without PCP was of 32 mg biomass g(-1)nylon and into nylon cubes at PCP equilibrium concentration was of 18 mg g(-1)nylon. The results showed that R. oryzae ENHE immobilized into nylon fiber removed 88.6% and 92% of PCP in cultures with 12.5 and 25 mg PCPL(-1), as initial concentration, respectively. This is the first work to report that a zygomycete, such as R. oryzae ENHE, immobilized into nylon fiber kept its potential to remove PCP.

  17. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete


    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  18. Sorption Recovery of Gold Thiosulphate Complexes

    A.G.Kholmogorov; O.N.Kononova; 等


    The gold sorption from thiosulphate solutions on carbon sorbents and on anion exchangers was studied. It was shown that the anion exchangers AV-17-10P and AP-100 are the most effective and selective at pH=5-8. These anion exchangers can be recommended for the gold recovery from the industrial solutions.

  19. A Sorption Hysteresis Model For Cellulosic Materials

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Damkilde, Lars


    The equilibrium concentration of adsorbed water in cellulosic materials is dependent on the history of the variations of vapor pressure in the ambient air, i.e. sorption hysteresis. Existing models to describe this phenomenon such as the independent domain theory have numerical drawbacks and/or i...

  20. Enhancement of the bentonite sorption properties.

    Mockovciaková, Annamária; Orolínová, Zuzana; Skvarla, Jirí


    The almost monomineral fraction of bentonite rock-montmorillonite was modified by magnetic particles to enhance its sorption properties. The method of clay modification consists in the precipitation of magnetic nanoparticles, often used in preparing of ferrofluids, on the surface of clay. The influence of the synthesis temperature (20 and 85 degrees C) and the weight ratio of bentonite/iron oxides (1:1 and 5:1) on the composite materials properties were investigated. The obtained materials were characterized by the X-ray diffraction method and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Changes in the surface and pore properties of the magnetic composites were studied by the low nitrogen adsorption method and the electrokinetic measurements. The natural bentonite and magnetic composites were used in sorption experiments. The sorption of toxic metals (zinc, cadmium and nickel) from the model solutions was well described by the linearized Langmuir and Freundlich sorption model. The results show that the magnetic bentonite is better sorbent than the unmodified bentonite if the initial concentration of studied metals is very low. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goet...

  2. Screening and identification of efficient strain in selenium oxyanions sorption in order to biological wastewater treatment

    fatemeh yaghoobizadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an element with antioxidant activities that plays roles in thyroid hormone homeostasis, immunity and also fertility. Nevertheless, selenium toxicity (selenosis causes problems for humans such as abnormalities of the nervous system, gastrointestinal problems and hair loss. Thus, this study was performed with the aim of bacterial biosorbent isolation in order to remove selenium contaminant from wastewater. Materials and methods: In this research, at first using modified Luria- Bertani agar (mLBA medium with certain concentration of sodium selenate salt, isolation of bacterial isolates was done from three collected wastewater and sludge samples from Khouzestan industrial factories. After determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, the sorption capacity and the percentage of metal removal efficiency (%RE were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using metabolically active and inactive samples belonging to an efficient isolate. Identification was performed by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. Results: Among 73 attained bacterial isolates at the first stage, 8 selenate oxyanion resistant isolates were gathered. Among these, AMS1-S8 isolate with MIC= 600­mM and MBC= 1200­mM were selected for more studies. Attained results in sorption mechanism determination stage showed that the sorption capacity in metabolically active sample is more than the inactive samples. Based on the identification results, it is revealed that this isolate belongs to the Enterobacter genus. This isolate is deposited as accession JQ965667 in the GeneBank database. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that active biomass of selected isolate, have most sorption capacity and %RE and among the other isolates, have high partial resistance against selenate. Therefore, it can be a relatively ideal option for the bioremediation of polluted environments.

  3. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part II: Sorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solutions

    Lazarević Slavica S.


    Full Text Available sorption of Ni2+ on the sepiolite functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt, MSEAS, was studied in batch experiments as a function of the initial metal concentration, the equilibration time, pH value, and temperature. The modification of sepiolite resulted in an enhanced Ni2+ retention with a capacity of 0.261 mmol/g at 298 K. The retention of Ni2+ ions occurred dominantly by specific sorption and exchange of Mg2+ ions from the sepiolite structure. The sorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The sorption equilibrium results were best described by the non-linear form of the Langmuir Sorption Equation. The values of the thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy, free energy and entropy were calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms and these values showed that the sorption of Ni2+ onto modified sepiolite was endothermic. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  4. Sorption behavior of o-nitrophenol on marine sediment

    YANG Guipeng; WU Ping; KONG Dexin


    Systematic study on sorption behavior of o-nitrophenol on marine sediments was conducted.Isotherms of sorption of o-nitrophenol on marine sediments could be described by Freundlich model; and the isotherm of sorption of o-nitrophenol on HCl-treated sediment could be described by Langmuir model. The sorption behavior was affected by various factors including organic carbon content, aqueous solution salinity,temperature, and acidity. The sorption amount of o-nitrophenol increased when salinity and acidity of the aqueous solution increase, but decreased with increasing temperature. Organic carbon content in sediments had apparent effect on the behavior except for HCl-treated sediments.

  5. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan


    represent this behavior. The multi-Fickian model describes the combined transport of bound water and vapor and their interaction through sorption. The bound-water concentration is also influenced by sorption hysteresis. In the worst case, sorption hysteresis may result in deviations of up to 30......-35% in moisture content. Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate...

  6. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan


    this behavior. The multi-Fickian model describes the combined transport of bound water and vapor and their interaction through sorption. The bound-water concentration is also influenced by sorption hysteresis. In the worst case, sorption hysteresis may result in deviations of up to 30-35% in moisture content....... Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate the effects, a finite...

  7. Determination of {sup 60}Co sorption in natural clinoptilolite; Determinacion de la sorcion de {sup 60}Co en clinoptilolita natural

    Hernandez B, E.; Granados C, F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    It was studied the clinoptilolite behavior coming from a deposit in Taxco, Guerrero in hydration and stabilization conditions with sodium for determining its sorption properties. The ion exchange process was carried out through gamma spectrometry using a CoCl{sub 2} solution marked with {sup 60} Co at p H 6.5 in different contact times. It was observed a maximum sorption of 0.408 m eq Co{sup +2}/g mineral, from 0.314 m eq Co{sup +2}/g mineral correspond at ion exchange. (Author)

  8. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  9. Sorption of niobium on boreal forest soil

    Soederlund, Mervi; Hakanen, Martti; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry


    The sorption of niobium (Nb) was investigated on humus and mineral soil samples taken from various depths of a four-metre deep forest soil pit on Olkiluoto Island, southwestern Finland. Mass distribution coefficients, K{sub d}, were determined in batch sorption tests. The steady state of Nb sorption was observed in the mineral soil samples already after one week of equilibration, and sorption decreased with depth from a very high value of 185000 mL/g at 0.7 m to 54000 mL/g at 3.4 m. The reason behind this decrease is probably the tenfold reduction in the specific surface area of the soil at the same depth range. Distribution coefficients were clearly lower in the humus layer (1000 mL/g). The K{sub d} values determined in pure water at a pH range of 4.7-6.5 were at a high level (above 55000 mL/g), but decreased dramatically above pH 6.5, corresponding to the change in the major Nb species from the neutral Nb(OH){sub 5} to the low-sorbing anionic Nb(OH){sub 6}{sup -} and Nb(OH){sub 7}{sup 2-}. However, the K{sub d} values in the model soil solution were in the slightly alkaline range an order of magnitude higher than in pure water, which is probably caused by the formation of calcium niobate surface precipitate or electrostatic interaction between surface-sorbed calcium and solute Nb. Among nine soil constituent minerals kaolinite performed best in retaining Nb in both pure water and model soil solution at pH 8, whereas potassium feldspar showed the poorest sorption. The K{sub d} value for kaolinite was above 500000 mL/g in both solutions, while the respective potassium feldspar values were in the range of 120-220 mL/g.

  10. 33 CFR 183.53 - Horsepower capacity.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horsepower capacity. 183.53...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Powering § 183.53 Horsepower capacity. The maximum horsepower capacity marked on a boat must not exceed the horsepower capacity determined by the...

  11. A Comparative Study on the Sorption Characteristics of Pb(II and Hg(II onto Activated Carbon

    N. Muthulakshmi Andal


    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium and kinetics of Pb(II and Hg(II on coconut shell carbon (CSC were investigated by batch equilibration method. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of Pb(II and Hg(II on the activated carbon of coconut shell wastes were studied. Maximum adsorption of Pb(II occurred at pH 4.5 and Hg(II at pH 6. The sorptive mechanism followed the pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibration data fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity for Pb(II was greater than Hg(II. The mean free energy of adsorption calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm model indicated that the adsorption of metal ions was found to be by chemical ion exchange. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Pb(II onto SDC was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. A comparison was evaluated for the two metals.

  12. Sorption kinetics and equilibrium for the removal of nickel ions from aqueous phase on calcined Bofe bentonite clay.

    Vieira, M G A; Neto, A F Almeida; Gimenes, M L; da Silva, M G C


    In this paper the kinetics and dynamics of nickel adsorption on calcined Bofe bentonite clay were studied. The clay was characterized through EDX, surface area (BET) and XRD analysis. The influence of parameters (pH, amount of adsorbent, adsorbate concentration and temperature) was investigated. Kinetic models were evaluated in order to identify potential adsorption process mechanisms. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were utilized for the analysis of adsorption equilibrium. Thermodynamic parameters were assessed as a function of the process temperature. The kinetics data were better represented by the second-order model. The process was found to be strongly influenced by the factors studied. The Bofe clay removed nickel with maximum adsorption capacity of 1.91 mg metal/g of clay (20 degrees C; pH 5.3) and that the thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption reaction is spontaneous and of an exothermal nature. The Langmuir model provided the best fit for sorption isotherms. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sorption of triazoles to soil and iron minerals.

    Jia, Yu; Aagaard, Per; Breedveld, Gijs D


    Triazoles, additives in runway de-icers, are found in soil and groundwater at airport sites. To better understand the fate and transport of benzotriazole (BTA) and methylbenzotriazole (MeBTA) and to assess possible remediation options of contaminated groundwater, sorption to various soils and ferrous sorbents has been studied. In batch experiments, limited non-linear sorption of BTA to mineral subsoil from the Oslo International Airport, Gardermoen was observed. The sorption to soil could be described using a Freundlich isotherm. pH affected sorption of BTA to subsoil, although the effect was not strong. Increased sorption was observed to zerovalent iron (Fe(0)). MeBTA showed similar sorption behaviour as BTA although the sorption coefficient was generally higher. Sorption to Fe(0) seems to be controlled by multi-layer coverage. Our data suggest that sorption of triazoles to Fe(2)O(3) is negligible. However BTA sorption to 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrites showed strong sorption. The results demonstrate that triazoles are highly mobile in the subsurface environment, however zerovalent iron can be an effective medium for groundwater remediation. Without remediation, wide distribution of triazoles in the environment can be expected due to its extensive application and limited degradability.

  14. Sorption of aspartic and glutamic aminoacids on calcined hydrotalcite.

    Silvério, Fabiano; Dos Reis, Márcio José; Tronto, Jairo; Valim, João Barros


    Sorption of aspartic and glutamic aminoacids by regeneration of calcined hydrotalcite is reported. Hydrotalcite was synthesized by coprecipitation and calcined at 773 K. Sorption experiments were performed at 298 K and 310 K, and the results reveal that at low aminoacids equilibrium concentrations, intercalation of hydroxyl anions takes place while at high equilibrium concentrations, the sorption process occur by means re-hydration and aminoacids intercalation of hydrotalcite. The results also suggested that Asp and Glu sorption is a temperature dependent process. The amount of sorbed amino acid decreases as the temperature increase. The effect is more pronounced for Glu sorption probably due to its higher hydrophobic character, which makes the sorption more difficult in comparison with sorption of Asp at higher temperature.

  15. Diagnóstico do oligoâmnio pela ultra-sonografia: uso de diferentes medidas do maior bolsão comparadas ao ILA Diagnostic capacity of oligohydramnios by ultrasound using different measures of the maximum pool depth of amniotic fluid in comparison to AFI

    Maria Regina Machado Perrotti


    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar a capacidade de diagnosticar oligoâmnio pela ultra-sonografia por meio de diferentes valores do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico, em comparação ao índice de líquido amniótico (ILA, em gestantes normais, de 36 a 42 semanas de gestação. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo descritivo de validação de método diagnóstico, incluindo 875 gestantes normais. Mediante um exame ultra-sonográfico obstétrico de rotina, foi feita a medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico para o diagnóstico de oligoâmnio, utilizando como padrão-ouro o índice de líquido amniótico. Os dados foram analisados por meio do cálculo da sensibilidade e da especificidade da medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico, utilizando os diferentes pontos de corte de 10, 20 e 30 mm, em comparação aos valores normais do índice de líquido amniótico determinados pelos percentis 2,5 e 10 nas respectivas idades gestacionais. Resultados: a medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico apresenta baixa sensibilidade para diagnosticar oligoâmnio quando se adotam os pontos de corte 10 e 20 mm, e boa sensibilidade e especificidade quando se adota 30 mm, quando comparadas às medidas do índice de líquido amniótico nos percentis 2,5 e 10 da curva normal. A sensibilidade e especificidade da medida do maior bolsão são melhores, quando se adota o ponto de corte de 30 mm para diagnosticar oligoâmnio em comparação ao percentil 2,5. Conclusões: a capacidade de diagnosticar oligoâmnio pela medida do maior bolsão é satisfatória apenas com o ponto de corte em 30 mm.Purpose: to compare the capacity of diagnosing oligohy-dramnios by ultrasound using different measures of the maximum pool depth of amniotic fluid in comparison to the amniotic fluid index among normal pregnant women from the 36th to the 42nd week of gestation. Methods: a descriptive study of diagnostic validity was perfomed, on 875 normal pregnant women who were studied through

  16. Sorption, desorption, and degradation of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid in representative soils of the Danubian Lowland, Slovakia.

    Hiller, Edgar; Tatarková, Veronika; Šimonovičová, Alexandra; Bartal', Mikuláš


    Herbicide leaching through soil into groundwater greatly depends upon sorption-desorption and degradation phenomena. Batch adsorption, desorption and degradation experiments were performed with acidic herbicide MCPA and three soil types collected from their respective soil horizons. MCPA was found to be weakly sorbed by the soils with Freundlich coefficient values ranging from 0.37 to 1.03 mg(1-1/)(n) kg(-1) L(1/)(n). It was shown that MCPA sorption positively correlated with soil organic carbon content, humic and fulvic acid carbon contents, and negatively with soil pH. The importance of soil organic matter in MCPA sorption by soils was also confirmed by performing sorption experiments after soil organic matter removal. MCPA sorption in these treated soils decreased by 37-100% compared to the original soils. A relatively large part of the sorbed MCPA was released from soils into aqueous solution after four successive desorption steps, although some hysteresis occurred during desorption of MCPA from all soils. Both sorption and desorption were depth-dependent, the A soil horizons exhibited higher retention capacity of the herbicide than B or C soil horizons. Generally, MCPA sorption decreased in the presence of phosphate and low molecular weight organic acids. Degradation of MCPA was faster in the A soil horizons than the corresponding B or C soil horizons with half-life values ranging from 4.9 to 9.6 d in topsoils and from 11.6 to 23.4 d in subsoils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sorption and Desorption of Phenanthrene to Black Carbon on Crop Soil from the South-North Water Diversion Project in China

    Rong Hao


    Full Text Available The water quality of South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP has attracted more and more attention. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils strongly sorb to black carbon. In this study, adsorption and desorption characteristics and isotherm of phenanthrene to black carbon in SNWDP crop soils were studied extensively. The results showed that the sorption and desorption of phenanthrene to black carbon were nonlinear. Freundlich model could fit the sorption and desorption data of BC well. Meantime, desorption process exhibited varied apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis. It can be inferred that BC of crop soils in SNWDP plays a significant role in reducing the bioavailability and toxicity of phenanthrene through sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis.

  18. The kinetic and thermodynamic sorption and stabilization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in natural organic matter surrogate solutions: the effect of surrogate molecular weight.

    Li, Tingting; Lin, Daohui; Li, Lu; Wang, Zhengyu; Wu, Fengchang


    Styrene sulfonate (SS) and polystyrene sulfonates (PSSs) were used as surrogates of natural organic matter to study the effect of molecular weight (from 206.2 to 70,000 Da) on their sorption by a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and an activated carbon (AC) and on their stabilization of MWCNT suspension. Results indicate that surface-diffusion through the liquid-sorbent boundary was the rate-controlling step of the kinetic sorption of both MWCNTs and AC, and surface-occupying and pore-filling mechanisms respectively dominated the thermodynamic sorption of MWCNTs and AC. Sorption rates and capacities of MWCNTs and AC in molecular concentration of SS and PSS decreased with increasing molecular weight. The PSSs but not SS facilitated the stabilization of MWCNT suspension because of the increased electrosteric repulsion. The PSSs with more monomers had greater capabilities to stabilize the MWCNT suspension, but the capabilities were comparable after being normalized by the total monomer number.

  19. Influence of surfactants on the sorption of two chloroacetanilide in an Romanian chernozem soil.

    Coroi, I G; De Wilde, T; Cara, M S; Jitareanu, G; Steurbaut, W


    Pesticides have been extensively used in modern agriculture. Due to the prevalent use, there have been serious problems generated by pesticides wastes which could eventually endanger water resources and human health. The development of technologies for the decontamination of soils and waters polluted by hydrophobic organic compounds has encouraged research into the use of non-ionic surfactants as potential agents for the enhanced solubilization and removal of contaminants from soils and sediments. Sorption of two chloroacetanilide herbicides, acetochlor and metolachlor was studied on a representative chernozem soil of the Main Agricultural Research Station Ezareni belonging to the "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine lasi, Romania, in the presence and absence of surfactants. Three different non-ionic surfactants were selected: Tween-20, Synperonic 91/5 and Silwet L-77, to verify the influence of their presence on herbicide sorption at different concentrations. Our results showed that the sorption of the studied herbicides within the soil-water-non-ionic surfactant system was influenced by the presence of non-ionic surfactants. The n values obtained were lower than 1 for all pesticide-surfactant combinations, which indicates that the amount of acetochor and metolachlor sorbed decreased with an increase in pesticide concentration. The sorption of acetochlor increased in the following order: Acetochlor+Synperonic 91/5 < Acetochlor < Acetochlor+Tween-20 < Acetochlor+Silwet L-77. In the case of metolachlor+Synperonic and metolachlor+Silwet L-77, the Kf values were significantly higher than the Kf value of metolachlor+Tween-20 on soil, where a lower Kf value could be observed with however a higher n value which indicate a higher sorption capacity at higher concentrations.

  20. Synthesis and applications of eco-magnetic nano-hydroxyapatite chitosan composite for enhanced fluoride sorption.

    Pandi, Kalimuthu; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy


    Adsorption is a significant reaction occurs between adsorbent/water interface for controlling the pollutants in the aqueous environment. In this regard, an eco-magnetic biosorbent was prepared by uniform deposition of magnetic Fe3O4 particles on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp)/chitosan (CS) nanocomposite namely Fe3O4@n-HApCS composite as versatile sorbent for fluoride sorption. The resulting Fe3O4@n-HApCS nanocomposite was characterized by FTIR and SEM with EDAX techniques. The defluoridation capacity (DC) was found to depend on the contact time, pH, co-existing anions, initial fluoride concentration and temperature. The sorption isotherm was investigated by Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models using the batch method. The thermodynamic parameters revealed the feasibility, spontaneity and endothermic nature of fluoride sorption. The results of this research work designated that Fe3O4@n-HApCS composite having the excellent defluoridation capacity than the individual components and interesting to note that the easy magnetic separation of Fe3O4@n-HApCS composite from aqueous medium.

  1. Mycoextraction of radiolabeled cesium and strontium by Pleurotus eryngii mycelia in the presence of alumina nanoparticles: Sorption and accumulation studies.

    Asztemborska, Monika; Jakubiak, Małgorzata; Rykaczewska, Magdalena; Bembenek, Marcin; Stęborowski, Romuald; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grażyna


    Widespread use of products based on nanomaterials results in the release of nanoparticles into the environment. Nanoparticles can be taken up by organisms, but they can also coexist with other substances such as radionuclides, thus affecting their uptake or toxicity. In contrast, the sorption capacity of nanoparticles is exploited in water purification. The aim of the study was to investigate: (i) bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium by Pleurotus eryngii mycelia in the presence of alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs); and (ii) sorption of radionuclides on the surface of nanoparticles. For the experiments, living and dried mycelia were used to permit distinguishing between active uptake and passive sorption of the NPs by P. eryngii. The results are discussed from the perspective of the use of P. eryngii in the mycoextraction of radionuclides. The sorption capacity of Al2O3 NPs and the accumulation by P. eryngii mycelia differ for the applied radioisotopes. The efficiency of Cs and Sr sorption by alumina nanoparticles is 20% and 40%, respectively. Mycelia of P. eryngii have the ability to accumulate 30% of both radioisotopes from the medium. More than 60% of strontium can be removed accumulated from water by P. eryngii mycelia in coexistence with Al2O3 NPs, while the efficiency of cesium removal accumulation is negligible. It was found that alumina nanoparticles do not enhance uptake of radionuclides by P. eryngii mycelia; mycoextraction of radionuclides by mycelia and sorption by Al2O3 NPs are concurrent processes. There was no difference between live or dried mycelia uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carrying Capacity

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente


    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  3. Sorption of oil in the polyurethane from oil or castor oil; Sorcao de oleo no poliuretano derivado do petroleo ou do oleo de mamona

    Florentino, Wagner M.; Goulart, Shane A.S.; Mulinari, Daniella R. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:


    The oil outpouring has caused serious environmental problems. To minimize this damage polyurethane foams have been used. In this work, the use of polyurethane from oil and castor oil, in different polyol/diisocyanate mass ratios, to absorb oil was evaluated. Results revealed that the proportion of polyol and diisocyanate influenced in the sorption capacity and the polyurethane from castor oil presented greater sorption capacity. Of this way, can say that the polyurethane from oil can be replaced by castor oil, contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  4. Analysis of the influence of fusion synthesis parameters on the SO2 sorption properties of zeolites produced out of fly ash

    Czuma Natalia


    Full Text Available Fly ash zeolites are interesting alternative for zeolies produced out of pure chemicals as well as for natural zeolites. It can be applied as SO2 sorbents out of flue gases. In the work the experiments were aimed at investigation of SO2 sorption capacity of samples produced out of fly ash in fusion process. The influence of fusion reaction parameters on the type of obtained zeolites and on the efficiency of synthesis was investigated. The samples containing the same types of zeolites, but with different production yield were testes on SO2 sorption capacity.

  5. Glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochars - interactions of physical and chemical processes.

    Hall, Kathleen E; Spokas, Kurt A; Gamiz, Beatriz; Cox, Lucia; Papiernik, Sharon K; Koskinen, William C


    Biochar, a carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis, could limit glyphosate transport in soil and remediate contaminated water. The present study investigates the sorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on biochars prepared from different hardwoods at temperatures ranging from 350 to 900 °C to elucidate fundamental mechanisms. Glyphosate (1 mg L(-1) ) sorption on biochars increased with pyrolysis temperature and was highest on 900 °C biochars; however, total sorption was low on a mass basis (glyphosate in soils, did not alter biochar sorption capacities. Glyphosate did not desorb from biochar with CaCl2 solution; however, up to 86% of the bound glyphosate was released with a K2 HPO4 solution. Results from this study suggest a combined impact of surface chemistry and physical constraints on glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochar. Based on the observed phosphate-induced desorption of glyphosate, the addition of P-fertilizer to biochar-amended soils can remobilize the herbicide and damage non-target plants; therefore, improved understanding of this risk is necessary. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Porous nano-cerium oxide wood chip biochar composites for aqueous levofloxacin removal and sorption mechanism insights.

    Yi, Shengze; Sun, Yuanyuan; Hu, Xin; Xu, Hongxia; Gao, Bin; Wu, Jichun


    The adsorption removal of levofloxacin (LEV), a widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by using the biochars derived from the pyrolysis of pine wood chip pretreated with cerium trichloride was investigated through batch sorption experiments and multiple characterization techniques. The differences in the basic physicochemical properties between Ce-impregnated biochars and the pristine biochars were confirmed by the analysis of elemental compositions, specific surface areas, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and thermo-gravimetry. FT-IR spectra of the pre- and post-sorption biochars confirmed the chemical adsorption for LEV sorption onto the biochars. Large shifts in the binding energy of Ce3d, O1s, C1s, and N1s regions on the pre- and post-sorption biochars indicated the surface complexation of LEV molecule onto the biochars. The binding species of Ce(4+) and Ce(3+) identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reflect the role of Ce oxides during sorption. Batch adsorption showed the significant enhancement of adsorption capacity for LEV after the Ce modification. Batch adsorption kinetic data fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. Both the Langmuir and the Freundlich models reproduced the isotherm data well. Findings from this work indicated that Ce-impregnated biochars can be effective for the removal of aqueous LEV.

  7. Sorption of cadmium to bacterial extracellular polymeric sediment coatings under estuarine conditions

    Schlekat, C.E.; Decho, A.W.; Chandler, G.T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences


    Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are ubiquitous features in aquatic environments. Produced by surface-adherent bacteria and microalgae, EPS are often present as coatings on surfaces of sediment particles and exhibit high affinities for divalent cationic metals. Thus, EPS sediment coatings may participate in the fate of potentially toxic metals. The authors coated particulate silica with EPS produced by NISC1, a bacterium isolated from estuarine sediments, in order to measure the metal binding characteristics of these coatings. They used the radioisotope {sup 109}Cd to measure effects of salinity, Cd concentration, and pH on Cd sorption to EPS-coated (EPS-silica) silica and to noncoated silica (NC-silica). Also, Cd sorption by NISC1 EPS coatings was compared to coatings of polymers formed by the bacterium, Alteromonas atlantica and the alga, Macrocystis porifera. Under all circumstances, EPS coatings increased the affinity of silica for Cd. Extracellular polymeric substance-particulate aggregates rapidly sorbed up to 90% of Cd from aqueous solution. Extracellular polymeric substance sediment coatings exhibited a maximum log distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of 6.5 at 2.5%. Sorption of Cd to NC-silica was affected by salinity and metal concentration, whereas sorption of Cd to EPS-silica was only affected by salinity under high metal concentrations. Changes in pH had a dramatic effect on Cd sorption, with the proportion of free Cd to sorbed Cd changing from approximately 90% at pH 5 to 5% at pH 9. Desorption of Cd from EPS-silica was enhanced with increasing salinity. These experiments suggest that EPS coatings actively participate in binding dissolved overlying and pore-water metals in estuarine sediments.

  8. Defluoridation by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides: Sorption Studies

    Evans, K.; Ferris, F.


    At concentrations above 1 mg/L, fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis, a disease that causes mottling of the teeth, calcification of ligaments, crippling bone deformities and many other physiological disorders that can, ultimately, lead to death. Conservative estimates are that fluorosis afflicts tens of millions of people worldwide. As there is no treatment for fluorosis, prevention is the only means of controlling the disease. While numerous defluoridation techniques have been explored, no single method has been found to be both effective and inexpensive enough to implement widely. Our research began in India, with a large-scale geochemical study of the groundwater in a fluoride-contaminated region of Orissa. Having developed a better understanding of the geochemical relationships that exist between fluoride and other parameters present in an affected area, as well as the complex relationships that arise among those parameters that can impact the presence of fluoride, we began investigating certain remediation scenarios involving iron oxides. A common approach to remediation involves the partitioning of fluoride from groundwater by sorption onto a variety of materials, one of the most effective of which is iron oxide whose surface area acts as a scavenger for fluoride. In the presence of iron oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation rate of iron has been shown to be ˜6 times greater than in their absence; fluoride should, therefore, be removed from an aqueous environment by bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) much more quickly than by abiotic iron oxides. Most recently, sorption studies have been conducted using both BIOS and synthetic hydrous ferric oxides in order to compare the behavior between biotic and abiotic sorbents. These studies have provided sorption isotherms that allow comparison of fluoride removed by sorption to BIOS versus synthetic iron oxides. Sorption affinity constants have also been determined, which allow for the

  9. Maximum likely scale estimation

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  10. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and hardwood species on resulting biochar properties and their effect on azimsulfuron sorption as compared to other sorbents

    Trigo, Carmen, E-mail: [Department of Soil, Water & Climate, University of Minnesota, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Cox, Lucia, E-mail: [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNASE-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Spokas, Kurt, E-mail: [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Rm. 439, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)


    Azimsulfuron is an acidic herbicide with a high water solubility which makes risk of groundwater contamination a concern. Various wood based biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures were characterized along with their sorption capacity for the herbicide azimsulfuron. In addition, we compared sorption on biochars with sorption on mineral sorbents such as clay minerals and iron oxides. In biochar formed at high temperatures (500 °C and 700 °C), FT-IR studies confirmed the increase in aromaticity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the biochars showed differences in the macroporous structure and lower size pores at higher temperatures. SSA (Specific Surface Area) of the biochars increased with pyrolysis temperature and, for all different biochars, this resulted in higher sorption of azimsulfuron. In the case of mineral sorbents, sorption is not related to SSA. Higher sorption is observed in a montmorillonite, of lower SSA, than in mixture of clay minerals with 30% smectite (w/w). On the contrary as with the clays, sorption on the two iron oxyhydroxides increased with SSA. Desorption studies showed hysteresis. Leaching studies showed no effect on azimsulfuron retention on soil column amended with apple wood biochar, while a reduction of azimsulfuron in leachates in soil columns amended with the modified montmorillonite and alder wood biochar (500 °C). Total retention was shown for alder wood biochar. - Highlights: • Use of biochars and mineral sorbents to mitigate azimsulfuron water contamination • Sorption relates with SSA for biochar and iron oxyhydroxide but not for clays. • Higher sorption values for biochar pyrolysis at 700 °C than mineral sorbents • Different effects on leaching for apple wood biochar, SW-Fe and alder wood biochar.

  11. Sorption behaviour of radiocaesium in soils from various regions of Libya and Sweden

    Shenber, Mohamed Ahmed


    In the last years the interest of zeolite minerals has increased. Some of them have been tested as caesium binding agents in both animals and in soil-plant systems. The sorption capacity of zeolites was high, and the experimental results showed that the zeolite materials have a considerable potential as a caesium binding agent. A significant reduction reduction in the plant uptake of {sup 134}Cs, maximally by a factor of 8, was obtained in the experiments. The sorption characteristics of {sup 134}Cs on soils from various regions of Libya and Sweden were studied, using batch techniques. The influence of soil parameters, contact time, and various concentrations of Cs{sup +}, K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the solution on the sorption ratio (R{sub s}-value) for {sup 134}Cs were determined by using {sup 134}Cs as a tracer. Important parameters influencing the sorption were clay content, pH, and the concentration of cations, in particular that of K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}, which compete with Cs{sup +} for the sorption sites. The conditions influencing the exchangeability of {sup 134}Cs sorbed in different soil types were studied in desorption experiments. The exchangeability of caesium was determined by extraction with 1 N Ba Cl{sub 2} and 1 N NH{sub 4}Cl. The results showed that divalent Ba{sup 2+} was much less effective than the monovalent NH{sub 4}{sup +} in exchanging {sup 134}Cs from the sorption sites in the soils. Increasing the equilibration time and drying the soils reduced the exchangeability of {sup 134}Cs in most of the soils, especially the fraction exchangeable with NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Correlations were found between the radiocaesium transfer factor for plant uptake, clay content, and sorption ratio. Simple mathematical models were used to estimate the transfer factors for radiocaesium to wheat on soils of interest, for which no uptake data are available. 31 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs.

  12. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.


    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (<5 mol%) of CO2. A stable montmorillonite structure dominates during exposure to pure CH4 (90 bar), but expands upon titration of small fractions (1-3 mol%) of CO2. Density functional theory was used to quantify the difference in sorption behavior between CO2 and CH4 and indicates complex interactions occurring between hydrated cations, CH4, and CO2. The authors will discuss potential impacts of these experimental results on CO2-based hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  13. Sorption and desorption of remazol yellow by a Fe-zeolitic tuff

    Solache R, M. J. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Villalva C, R.; Diaz N, M. C., E-mail: marcos.solache@inin.gob.m [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios del Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The adsorption of remazol yellow from aqueous solution was evaluated using a Fe-zeolitic tuff. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Sorption kinetic and isotherms were determined and the adsorption behavior was analyzed. Kinetic pseudo-second order and Langmuir-Freundlich models were successfully applied to the experimental results, indicating chemisorption on a heterogeneous material. The regeneration of the material was best accomplished by using a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. The sorption capacity of the Fe-zeolitic tuff increased when the saturated samples were treated with a H{sub 2O2} or FeCl{sub 3} solution. (Author)

  14. Sorption of oil pollution by organoclays and a coal/mineral complex

    Vianna M.M.G. Ramos


    Full Text Available Recently, increasing concern about pollution of groundwater by organic chemicals has led to research on the use of various adsorbents. This study addressed the sorption of phenol and organic compounds by two organoclays and a coal/mineral complex (ARO. The organoclays used were a bentonite from Brazil (SVC and Wyoming bentonite (SWy with quaternary ammonium salt (ABDMA. Swelling capacity of the sorbents in toluene, diesel, gas, Varsol and kerosene were measured. Absorption of organic compounds served as an ASTM D 281-95 base, which resulted in the following order for ABDMA-SVC: gas > toluene > kerosene > diesel > Varsol. ABDMA-SWy absorbed in the following order: gas > toluene > Varsol > diesel > kerosene. ARO absorbed: gas > toluene >diesel > Varsol > kerosene. Sorption of phenol followed the order of ABDMA-SVC > ABDMA-SWy > ARO. The adsorption data show that the materials prepared were effective in sorbing phenol, and that the Brazilian clay was the most efficient of the three materials.

  15. Selective sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents

    Shubo DENG; Danmeng SHUAI; Qiang YU; Jun HUANG; Gang YU


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), as a potential persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in water environments, and has become a great concern in recent years. PFOS is very stable and difficult to decompose using conventional techniques. Sorption may be an attractive method to remove it from water. In this study, the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents were prepared through the polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine under different preparation conditions in order to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water. The MIP adsorbents using perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the template had good imprinting effects and could selectively remove PFOS from aqueous solution. The sorption behaviors including sorption kinetics,isotherms, and effect of pH, salt, and competitive anions were investigated. Experimental results showed that the sorption of PFOS On the MIP adsorbents was very fast, pH-dependent, and highly selective. The achieved fast sorption equilibrium within 1 h was attributed to the surface sorption on the fine adsorbents. The sorption isotherms showed that the sorption selectivity of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents decreased at high PFOS concentrations, which may be due to the double-layer sorption and the formation of PFOS micelles on the sorbent surface. The sorption of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents was mainly dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the protonated vinylpyridine on the adsorbent surface and the anionic PFOS. The prepared MIP adsorbents can potentially be applied in water and wastewater treatment for selective removal of PFOS.

  16. Sorption kinetics and its effects on retention and leaching.

    de Wilde, Tineke; Mertens, Jan; Spanoghe, Pieter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Springael, Dirk


    Sorption of pesticides to substrates used in biopurification systems is important as it controls the system's efficiency. Ideally, pesticide sorption should occur fast so that leaching of the pesticide in the biopurification system is minimized. Although modeling of pesticide transport commonly assumes equilibrium, this may not always be true in practice. Sorption kinetics have to be taken into account. This study investigated the batch sorption kinetics of linuron, isoproturon, metalaxyl, isoxaben and lenacil on substrates commonly used in a biopurification system, i.e. cow manure, straw, willow chopping, sandy loam soil, coconut chips, garden waste compost and peat mix. The first-order sorption kinetics model was fitted to the observed pesticide concentrations versus time resulting in an estimated kinetic rate constant alpha. Sorption appeared to be fast for the pesticides linuron and isoxaben, pesticides which were classified as immobile, while less mobile pesticides displayed an overall slower sorption. However, the substrate does not seem to be the main parameter influencing the sorption kinetics. Coconut chips, which is a substrate with a high organic matter content showed slow sorption for most of the pesticides. The effect of different estimated alpha values on the breakthrough of pesticides through a biopurification system was evaluated using the HYDRUS 1D model. Significant differences in leaching behavior were observed as a result of the obtained differences in sorption kinetics.

  17. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic study of ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments.

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Grčić, Ivana; Šimić, Iva; Župan, Josip


    In this study, equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of ciprofloxacin on seven sediments in a batch sorption process were examined. The effects of contact time, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature and ionic strength on the sorption process were studied. The K d parameter from linear sorption model was determined by linear regression analysis, while the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms by linear and nonlinear methods. The estimated K d values varied from 171 to 37,347 mL/g. The obtained values of E (free energy estimated from D-R isotherm model) were between 3.51 and 8.64 kJ/mol, which indicated a physical nature of ciprofloxacin sorption on studied sediments. According to obtained n values as measure of intensity of sorption estimate from Freundlich isotherm model (from 0.69 to 1.442), ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments can be categorized from poor to moderately difficult sorption characteristics. Kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model (R (2) > 0.999). Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) were calculated to estimate the nature of ciprofloxacin sorption. Results suggested that sorption on sediments was a spontaneous exothermic process.




    Full Text Available Bentonites are used as barriers in landfills, or in areas of old mining activities to prevent contamination of environment by leachates containing heavy metals. Batch experiments were performed under static conditions to study sorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solutions via adsorption on industrial products made from Slovak bentonites Lieskovec and Jelšový Potok. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and by specific surface area and cation exchange capacities measurements. Effects of pH, concentration of metal cations and contact time were analysed. The adsorption was strongly dependent on pH of the medium, and the uptake of adsorbed metal increased from pH 2.0 to 6.5, while the solubility of Cu at higher pH values decreased. The uptake of Cu2+ was rapid and it increased with increasing metal concentration, while the relative amount of adsorbed Cu2+ decreased. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the adsorbents used for Cu2+ was extrapolated using the linear Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to fit better the experimental data measured for both bentonites.

  19. Sorption of Phenanthrene on Agricultural Soils

    Soares, Antonio Alves; Møldrup, Per; Minh, Luong Nhat


    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption to soil is a key process deciding the transport and fate of PAH, and potential toxic impacts in the soil and groundwater ecosystems, for example in connection with atmospheric PAH deposition on soils. There are numerous studies on PAH sorption in relatively...... low organic porous media such as urban soils and groundwater sediments, but less attention has been given to cultivated soils. In this study, the phenanthrene partition coefficient, KD (liter per kilogram), was measured on 143 cultivated Danish soils (115 topsoils, 0–0.25-m soil depth and 28 subsoils...... (COC and NCOC, grams per gram). Multiple regression analyses showed that the NCOC-based phenanthrene partition coefficient (KNCOC) could be markedly higher than the COC-based partition coefficient (KCOC) for soils with a clay/OC ratio

  20. [Sorption characteristics of tea waste modified by hydrated ferric oxide toward Pb(II) in water].

    Wan, Shun-Li; Xue, Yao; Ma, Zhao-Zhao; Liu, Guo-Bin; Yu, Yan-Xia; Ma, Ming-Hai


    Hydrated ferric oxide was successfully impregnated onto tea waste by precipitation to obtain a new sorbent named HFO-TW, the adsorption characteristics of which toward Pb(II) in aqueous solution was investigated by evaluating the effects of pH value, contact time, coexisting ion, temperature, and initial concentration of Pb(II). The Pb(II) sorption onto HFO-TW was pH- dependent, and the higher pH value was more helpful for Pb(II) adsorption onto HFO-TW in the pH range of 2.5-7. Lead sorption speed was quick and could reach equilibrium within 100 min, and the kinetics curve could be fitted well by both pseudo-first and pseudo-second models. The related coefficient was 98.8%. HFO-TW exhibited highly selective lead retention and the adsorption capacity of Pb(II) onto HFO-TW was declined by only 12.1 mg · g(-1) and 8.1 mg · g(-1) in the presence of competing Ca(II), Mg(II) at 50 times of the target ion. In addition, Pb(II) sorption onto HFO-TW could be described satisfactorily by Langmuir model, and the maximal sorption capacity calculated by Langmuir equation was 89.43 mg · g(-1), which was much higher than the unmodified tea waste and other bio-sorbents. All the results validated that HFO-TW was a promising sorbent for removal of lead from waters.


    C.L. Cavalcante Jr.


    Full Text Available The sorption kinetics of some aromatics (toluene, p-xylene, o-xylene and p-diethylbenzene was studied experimentally with a high sensitivity microbalance (± 1µg at temperatures between 150 and 210oC and concentrations in the adsorbed phase of a maximum of 1 mmol/g. In general, the sorption rates decreased in the following order: toluene > p-xylene > o-xylene > p-diethylbenzene. Two diffusion models were tested against the experimental results. One model considers the mass transfer inside the zeolitic micropores as the controlling diffusion step. The other model supposes that resistance to mass transfer in the macropores (formed during pelletization of the crystals with the amorphous ligand is the limiting step. The results observed for both models are presented and analyzed

  2. Sorption dehumidification of natural gas exhaust

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)


    The calorific value of natural gas can be fully utilized only if the water vapour in the exhaust gases is condensed. This can be achieved in condensing boilers. Another possibility is to dry the exhaust before discharge by sorption dehumidification. The sorbent can be regenerated directly by the boiler. The vapour developed in the regenerator can be condensed in a condenser with useful effect. Simulations given an efficiency higher than 97% with respect to the Gross Calorific value. (author).

  3. Electrospinning synthesis of porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers by pluronic P123 triblock copolymer surfactant and properties of uranium (VI)-sorption

    Ren, Bo [The Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Applied Chemistry Engineering, Jilin Vocational College of Industry and Technology, Jilin 132013 (China); Institute of Petrochemistry Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Fan, Meiqing [The Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Applied Chemistry Engineering, Jilin Vocational College of Industry and Technology, Jilin 132013 (China); Tan, Lichao [The Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Rumin, E-mail: [The Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Song, Dalei; Liu, Qi [The Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: [The Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Bin [Institute of Petrochemistry Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Jing, Xiaoyan [The Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China)


    Porous Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning process using pluronic P123 triblock copolymer surfactant as template. The characterizations of the adsorbent were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption. The obtained nanofibers were used as adsorbents for the removal of Uranium (VI). The maximum adsorption occurred at pH 5, the equilibrium adsorption amount was about 87 mg/g, and the equilibrium time was 6.0 h. A pseudo-second order model could best describe adsorption kinetics. The adsorption equilibrium data fit Freundlich adsorption isotherm equation well. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (ΔH{sup 0}), standard entropy (ΔS{sup 0}), standard free energy (ΔG{sup 0}) and activation energy (E{sub a}) were calculated. The results predict an endothermic nature of adsorption and a spontaneous process. - Highlights: • The porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers were used for U(VI)-sorption for the first time. • The adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. • The maximum adsorption capacity was 87 mg g{sup −1} at 25 °C.

  4. Hydrogen sorption by porous materials composed of one to three elements selected from boron, carbon and nitrogen and metal modification to enhance the sorption

    Nishimiya, Nobuyuki, E-mail: [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Date, Yusuke [Yonago National College of Technology, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Toyama, Takeshi [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)


    Highlights: •Nanocarbons, BN’s and CN’s were successfully prepared through wet processes. •Their hydrogen capacity at 77 K and 0.8 MPa exceeded 2.34 mass% per 1,000 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. •While Pd-modification did not enhance hydrogen sorption, Pt-modification substantially did. •Ni increased hydrogen capacity of nanocarbons originated from electrospun polyacrylonitrile. -- Abstract: In order to develop novel hydrogen storage materials with high hydrogen capacity, layered compounds with high specific surface areas and large pore volumes, referred to as BN’s, CN’s and C’s, were synthesized from B-, C- and/or N-containing substances through specified wet processing and optimized calcinations. Hydrogen contents at 77 K under 0.8 MPa of hydrogen increased as specific surface areas increased independently of the formulations of the samples, and almost all of them exceeded the predicted values for two dimensional condensation of hydrogen, that is, 2.34 mass% per 1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. While modification with Pd did not increase the hydrogen capacity, Pt-modification brought about substantially higher hydrogen capacity at 77 K. Ni-modification also imparted higher hydrogen capacity to C’s prepared by calcination of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers, but formation of mesopores on destroying micropores through excessive modification would reduce the hydrogen capacity.

  5. Maximum information photoelectron metrology

    Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T


    Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...

  6. Sorption-desorption and transport of trimethoprim and sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soil: effect of soil type, dissolved organic matter, and pH.

    Zhang, Ya-Lei; Lin, Shuang-Shuang; Dai, Chao-Meng; Shi, Lu; Zhou, Xue-Fei


    Use of animal manure is a main source of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) in soil and groundwater through a series of migration processes. The sorption-desorption and transport of four commonly used VPs including trimethoprim (TMP), sulfapyridine, sulfameter, and sulfadimethoxine were investigated in three soil layers taken from an agricultural field in Chongming Island China and two types of aqueous solution (0.01 M CaCl2 solution and wastewater treatment plant effluent). Results from sorption-desorption experiments showed that the sorption behavior of selected VPs conformed to the Freundlich isotherm equation. TMP exhibited higher distribution coefficients (K d = 6.73-9.21) than other sulfonamides (K d = 0.03-0.47), indicating a much stronger adsorption capacity of TMP. The percentage of desorption for TMP in a range of 8-12 % is not so high to be considered significant. Low pH (soil organic matter (e.g., 0-20 cm soil sample) had a positive impact on sorption of VPs. Slightly lower distribution coefficients were obtained for VPs in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, which suggested that dissolved organic matter might affect their sorption behavior. Column studies indicated that the transport of VPs in the soil column was mainly influenced by sorption capacity. The weakly adsorbed sulfonamides had a high recovery rate (63.6-98.0 %) in the leachate, while the recovery rate of TMP was only 4.2-10.4 %. The sulfonamides and TMP exhibited stronger retaining capacity in 20-80 cm and 0-20 cm soil samples, respectively. The transport of VPs was slightly higher in the columns leached by WWTP effluent than by CaCl2 solution (0.01 M) due to their sorption interactions.

  7. Carrying Capacity

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente


    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  8. Sorption of BTEX mixtures to organobenonites

    SHEN Xue-you; LU Ying-ying; ZHU Li-zhong; LU Shu-yu


    Organobentonites synthesized by replacing the metal ions in bentonite with cetyltrimethylammonium(CTMA) or tetramethylammonium cation(TMA) were investigated for their behaviors to sorb benzene, toluene, p-xylene from water. The results served to distinguish the sorption mechanisms (adsorption or partition) of the twotypes of organobentonites. Bentonites modified with short-chain alkyl functional groups(e. g., TMA) sorb organiccontaminants primarily by an adsorption process, in which the sorbed amount decreases with increasing sterichindrance of the organic compound and the process exhibits a competitive effect because of steric hindrance in multi-solute systems. In contrast, the sorption of contaminants to organobentonites modified with long-chain alkyl groups(e. g., CTMA) occurs by partition process without exhibiting a competitive effect, and the additional organiccompounds may induce a cosorptive effect. In the latter case, the measured distribution coefficients of organiccompounds between organobentonites and water( log Kd ) are positively correlated with the octanol-water partitioncoefficients of the compounds (logKow) and the sorption process exhibits no competitive effect in multi-solutesystems.

  9. Sorption of sulfuryl fluoride by food commodities.

    Sriranjini, Venkata-rao; Rajendran, Somiahnadar


    The use of sulfuryl fluoride, a structural fumigant for termite and woodborer control, has recently been expanded to treating stored food commodities and food facilities. There is, however, a lack of data on the sorption of sulfuryl fluoride by food commodities. Knowledge about sorption is important in the context of effective treatment and residues. When sulfuryl fluoride was applied at a dose of 50 g m(-3) to various food commodities (total 68) with 300 g per replicate in 0.75 L gas wash bottles (fumigation chambers) at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, in most cases (81%) the gas concentrations in the free space of the commodities exceeded 50 g m(-3) (range 51-80 g m(-3)) at the end of 24 h exposure. In chambers without the substrate, an average concentration of 49.7 g m(-3) was recorded. About 54% of the commodities showed low-level ( 50%). The latter include white oats (terminal gas concentration 17.8 g m(-3)), some of the decorticated split pulses (24.0-29.3 g m(-3)), chickpea flour (26.3 g m(-3)), dried ginger (29.0 g m(-3)), refined wheat flour (30.3 g m(-3)) and coriander powder (40.5 g m(-3)). In unfumigated control commodities, owing to interfering volatiles, Fumiscope readings in the range 0-13 were noted. Sulfuryl fluoride has the advantage of a low or moderate level of sorption with the majority of the food commodities.

  10. Inorganic–organic hybrids presenting high basic center content: SBA-15 incorporation, toxic metals sorption and energetic behavior

    Oliveira, Fernando J.V.E. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58059-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Melo, Maurício A. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)


    Highlights: ► Mesoporous SBA-15 silicas were organofunctionalized with new silylant agents. ► Thiocarbamate was used to enhance the silylating agent chains and basic centers. ► The synthesized pendant chains contain nitrogen and sulfur basic centers. ► The new hybrids sorb toxic cations from aqueous solutions with high efficiency. ► The thermodynamic data demonstrated favorable cation/basic center interactions. - Abstract: Mesoporous SBA-15 samples were organofunctionalized with mono, di- and tri-aminosilanes that previously reacted with thiocarbamide to enhance the organic chains and attach nitrogen and sulfur basic centers to the surface of the solids. These new organosilanes were synthesized through a non-solvent approach to reduce both cost and hazardous wastes. The high affinities for both hard and soft Lewis acids due to the combination of nitrogen and sulfur atoms attached to the same pendant chain enabled favorable sorption capacities for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} cations, with maximum capacities of 1.90, 3.48 and 5.30 mmol g{sup −1}, respectively, for the most efficient mesoporous silica. Microcalorimetric investigations allowed the calculation of the thermodynamic data at the solid/liquid interface. All Gibbs energy are negative as expected for spontaneous cation/basic center interactions and the positive entropic values from 49 ± 3 to 108 ± 5 J K{sup −1} mol{sup −1}, also reinforced this favorable interactive process in heterogeneous system. The designed organosilanes covalently bonded to the inorganic siliceous skeleton can be suggested as new materials for toxic metal removal from a wastewater with high efficiency.

  11. The influence of clay surface modification with berberine on the sorption of anthocyanins

    Chulkov, A. N.; Deineka, V. I.; Tikhova, A. A.; Vesentzev, A. I.; Deineka, L. A.


    The influence of preliminary sorption of berberine on the sorption of anthocyanins by bentonite clay was studied. The cation exchange sorption mechanism was found to be replaced by hydrophobic sorption of these compounds after clay modification with berberine. The enthalpy of sorption along the initial isotherm part changed from endothermic to exothermic.

  12. A statistical case against the use of the Langmuir model for describing P sorption data

    Sorption of P to soils is often investigated through batch experiments where sorption models are fit to the resultant sorption curve by least-squares regression. One of the most commonly used sorption models is the Langmuir model, a model which was originally developed for the study of gas sorption ...

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Determination of Isosteric Heats of Sorption of Ziziphus Leaves

    Amel Saad


    Full Text Available Desorption and adsorption equilibrium moisture isotherms of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were determined using the gravimetric-static method at 30, 40, and 50°C for water activity (aw ranging from 0.057 to 0.898. At a given aw, the results show that the moisture content decreases with increasing temperature. A hysteresis effect was observed. The experimental data of sorption were fitted by eight models (GAB, BET, Henderson-Thompson, modified-Chung Pfost, Halsey, Oswin, Peleg, and Adam and Shove. After evaluating the models according to several criteria, the Peleg and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were calculated by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the sorption isotherms and an expression for predicting these thermodynamic properties was given.

  14. Phosphorus seasonal sorption-desorption kinetics in suspended sediment in response to land use and management in the Guaporé catchment, Southern Brazil.

    Zafar, Mohsin; Tiecher, Tales; de Castro Lima, José Augusto Monteiro; Schaefer, Gilmar Luiz; Santanna, Maria Alice; Dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer


    Phosphate sorption-desorption parameters like maximum phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity (P max), equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC), water desorbable P (α), potentially bioavailable P (β), and mobility index (α/β ratio) were determined in order to understand the sediment source-sink nature in Guaporé catchment in southern Brazil during summer and winter 2013 and 2014. The result showed a significant (p = 0.05) variation across sediment site or seasons and revealed the most sorption-desorption parameters (P max, α, β) with the increments following the order urban sediments > intensive agriculture under CT > intensive agriculture under NT > low agriculture sub-catchments (sub1 and sub2) > native forest. In the main river points, these parameters decreased along the river (P1 to P5). The results were more obvious in winter than the summer season. In contrast, the low values of λ and α/β ratio in the sediment from native forest and relatively less polluted catchment (sub1) during summer season show the quick P desorption when compared to specific Fe and Al oxides bound to stable P in intensive agriculture sediments. These findings clearly indicated that agricultural practices, sediment characteristics, and hydrological factors have a major impact on seasonal sediment P bioavailability and mobility. The urban untreated discharges may be a single major P source and, if it is not wisely managed, proves a major threat to water quality. These results have serious implications for the river ecosystem and will be of great importance to improve the environmental and economic performance of agricultural practices aiming to reduce soil-based P legacy to surface waters.

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation and sorption measurements of Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, Th, Sn and Se on Opalinus clay from Mont Terri

    Lauber, Matthias; Baeyens, Bart; Bradbury, Michael H


    Opalinus Clay is currently under investigation as a potential host rock for the disposal of high level and long-lived intermediate radioactive waste. A throughout physico-chemical characterisation was carried out on a bore core sample from the underground rock laboratory Mont Terri (Canton Jura). The results of these investigations indicate that the major characteristics (mineralogy, cation exchange capacity, cation occupancies, selectivity coefficients, chloride and sulphate inventories) were very similar to a different core sample, previously used for pore water modelling studies. It was concluded that the pore water compositions derived in the earlier studies were reliable and could be used in this work. The organic matter which dissolved from the Opalinus Clay rock was not humic or fulvic acids and the concentration remaining in the liquid phase in the sorption experiments was < 0.5 ppm C. The organic matter is therefore considered to have little or no influence on the sorption behaviour of the studied radionuclides. Redox potential measurements of the Opalinus Clay/synthetic pore water system inside the glove boxes indicated anoxic conditions. The main focus of the experimental work presented here is on the sorption behaviour of Cs (I), Sr (II), Ni (II), Eu (III), Th (IV), Sn (IV) and Se (IV) on Opalinus Clay equilibrated with synthetic pore waters at pH 6.3 and 8. Sorption isotherms were measured for Cs, Ni, Eu, Th and Se. Single point data were measured for Sr and Sn. For all radionuclides studied the sorption kinetics were measured first. The times required to complete the sorption on the Opalinus Clay varied between one day for Th and one month for Ni and Se. Within the concentration ranges under study the uptake of Cs, Ni, Eu and Se on Opalinus Clay was non-linear, whereas for Th a linear sorption behaviour was observed. For Ni, Eu and Th the sorption increased with increasing pH. For Cs a pH independent sorption behaviour was observed. The concentration

  16. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Wolfe, Robert W.


    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  17. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    It is well known that sorption characteristics of building materials exhibit hysteresis in the way the equilibrium curves develop between adsorption and desorption, and that the sorption curves are also somewhat temperature dependent. However, these two facts are most often neglected in models...... measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...

  18. Mn-Ce oxide as a high-capacity adsorbent for fluoride removal from water.

    Deng, Shubo; Liu, Han; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang


    A novel Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent with high sorption capacity for fluoride was prepared via co-precipitation method in this study, and the granular adsorbent was successfully prepared by calcining the mixture of the Mn-Ce powder and pseudo-boehmite. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that the Mn-Ce adsorbent consisted of about 4.5 nm crystals, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the formation of solid solution by Mn species entering CeO(2) lattices. The surface hydroxyl group density on the Mn-Ce adsorbent was determined to be as high as 15.3 mmol g(-1), mainly responsible for its high sorption capacity for fluoride. Sorption isotherms showed that the sorption capacities of fluoride on the powdered and granular adsorbent were 79.5 and 45.5 mg g(-1) respectively at the equilibrium fluoride concentration of 1 mg L(-1), much higher than all reported adsorbents. Additionally, the adsorption was fast within the initial 1 h. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface were involved in the sorption of fluoride. Both anion exchange and electrostatic interaction were involved in the sorption of fluoride on the Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories

    Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael


    Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...

  20. Maximum likely scale estimation

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....

  1. Dicyandiamide Sorption-Desorption Behavior on Soils and Peat Humus

    ZHANG Hai-Jun; WU Zhi-Jie; ZHOU Qi-Xing


    The sorption-desorption behavior of dicyandiamide (DCD) is an important chemical process that affects DCD fate and mobility in soils. Therefore, this study quantified DCD sorption-desorption on a phaeozem (Mollisol), a burozem (Alfisol), a soil with organic matter-removed and peat humus using the batch-equilibration procedure, and identified soil properties that influenced DCD sorption. The sorption on peat humus was higher than that on the phaeozem and the burozem, with much lower sorption observed on the soil with organic matter-removed, indicating that soil organic matter was the main carrier of DCD sorption. Due to its amphipathic property the DCD molecule sorption on the phaeozem and the burozem decreased as pH increased from about 2 to 5, but a further increase in pH led to a rise in DCD sorption.The DCD desorption hysteretic effect for peat humus was greater than that for the phaeozem and the burozem using 0.01 mol L-1 CaC12 as the background electrolyte, suggesting that the hydrophobic domains of organic matter may play an important role in DCD sorption.

  2. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daqing [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry


    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs.

  3. Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    Hörsing, Maritha; Ledin, Anna; Grabic, Roman


    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentr......Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption