WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximum security prison

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Surgical practice in a maximum security prison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prison Clinic, Mangaung Maximum Security Prison, Bloemfontein. F Kleinhans, BA (Cur) .... HIV positivity rate and the use of the rectum to store foreign objects. ... fruit in sunlight. Other positive health-promoting factors may also play a role,.

  2. The Emotional Climate of the Interpersonal Classroom in a Maximum Security Prison for Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meussling, Vonne

    1984-01-01

    Examines the nature, the task, and the impact of teaching in a maximum security prison for males. Data are presented concerning the curriculum design used in order to create a nonevaluative atmosphere. Inmates' reactions to self-disclosure and open communication in a prison setting are evaluated. (CT)

  3. The Nature, Function, and Impact of Inmate Communication Patterns in a Maximum Security Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Patricia

    To determine the areas in which communication affects prison environments and prison inmates, interviews were conducted with 21 adult male inmates shortly after their admission into a federal maximum security institution. The interviews were semistructured, addressing such issues as (1) perceptions of fellow inmates and staff; (2) additional…

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Inmates of a Maximum Security Prison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    that prison inmates who are allowed to engage in sports on available playgrounds .... Differences in performance on 1 mile walk by gender. Variables. Mean. SD .... In many prisons in Nigeria, inmates sleep two to a bed or on the floor in filthy ...

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness of inmates of a maximum security prison in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prisoners are a special population group who have limited freedom and are subjected to restrictions. They may not be able to enjoy health enhancing leisure and recreational activities or exercise of their choice or at a time they desire. The aim of this study is to determine the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of inmates ...

  6. Surgical practice in a maximum security prison – unique and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of general surgery in a prison population differs considerably from that in a general surgical practice. We audited surgical consultations at the Mangaung Correctional Centre from December 2003 to April 2009. We found a high incidence of foreign object ingestion and anal pathology. Understanding the medical ...

  7. Perspectives on Inmate Communication and Interpersonal Relations in the Maximum Security Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Patricia; Meussling, Vonne

    In recent years, scholarly and applied inquiry has addressed the importance of interpersonal communication patterns and problems in maximum security institutions for males. As a result of this research, the number of programs designed to improve the interpersonal effectiveness of prison inmates has increased dramatically. Research suggests that…

  8. Prevalence of mental illness among inmates at Mukobeko maximum security prison in Zambia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mweene T Mweene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates for mental illness among inmates at Mukobeko Maximum Security Prison, Zambia. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to assess psychiatric disturbance using a Self-Reported Questionnaire (SRQ20. A cut off point of 7/8 was used. The Chi-square test and Fishers′ exact test were used to determine associations at the 5% significance level, and magnitude of association was estimated using the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results: Of the 394 inmates in prison, 29.2% had a current mental illness. Gender status was significantly associated with mental illness. Male participants were 35% (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [0.51, 0.82] less likely to have mental illness compared to female participants. Conclusions: The prevalence of mental illness is high in Mukobeko Maximum Security Prison in Zambia. Gender-specific interventions should be designed to reduce the level of mental illness in this prison.

  9. When security and medicine missions conflict: confidentiality in prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Aburabi, Raed

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - It is a simple fact that prisons cannot exist - practically, legally, ethically or morally - without the support of physicians and other health professionals. Access to adequate healthcare is one of the fundamental measures of the legitimacy of a jail or prison. At the same time, there is a fundamental tension in the missions of the prison and doctor. The primary mission of the prison is security and often punishment. Reform and rehabilitation have intermittently been stated goals of prisons in the last century, but in practice those humane goals have rarely governed prison administrative culture. The primary mission of the physician is to promote the health and welfare of his or her patient. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - At times, what is required to serve the patient's best interest is at odds with the interests of security. Much of the work of the prison physician does not conflict with the operation of security. Indeed, much of the work of the prison physician is allowed to proceed without much interference from the security regime. But given the fundamental discord in the legitimate missions of security vs medicine, conflict between the doctor and the warden is inevitable. Findings - In this paper, the authors consider the example of patient confidentiality to illustrate this conflict, using case examples inspired by real cases from the experience of the authors. Originality/value - The authors provide an ethical and practical framework for health professionals to employ when confronting these inevitable conflicts in correctional settings.

  10. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes.

  11. What do prisoners eat? Nutrient intakes and food practices in a high-secure prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.

  12. When and why should mentally ill prisoners be transferred to secure hospitals: a proposed algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Lanquillon, Stefan; Graf, Marc

    2013-01-01

    For reasons well known and researched in detail, worldwide prevalence rates for mental disorders are much higher in prison populations than in general, not only for sentenced prisoners but also for prisoners on remand, asylum seekers on warrant for deportation and others. Moreover, the proportion of imprisoned individuals is rising in most countries. Therefore forensic psychiatry must deal not only with the typically young criminal population, vulnerable to mental illness due to social stress and at an age when rates of schizophrenia, suicide, drug abuse and most personality disorders are highest, but also with an increasingly older population with age-related diseases such as dementia. While treatment standards for these mental disorders are largely published and accepted, and scientific evidence as to screening prisoners for mental illness is growing, where to treat them is dependent on considerations for public safety and local conditions such as national legislation, special regulations and the availability of treatment facilities (e.g., in prisons, in special medical wards within prisons or in secure hospitals). While from a medical point of view a mentally ill prisoner should be treated in a hospital, the ultimate decision must consider these different issues. In this article the authors propose an algorithm comprising screening procedures for mental health and a treatment chain for mentally ill prisoners based on treatment facilities in prison, medical safety, human rights, ethics, and the availability of services at this interface between prison and medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Discharges to prison from medium secure psychiatric units in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael; Coid, Jeremy; Archer-Power, Laura; Dewa, Lindsay; Hunter-Didrichsen, Alice; Stevenson, Rachel; Wainwright, Verity; Kallis, Costas; Ullrich, Simone; Shaw, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Early findings from a national study of discharges from 32 National Health Service medium secure units revealed that nearly twice as many patients than expected were discharged back to prison. To compare the characteristics of those discharged back to prison with those discharged to the community, and consider the implications for ongoing care and risk. Prospective cohort follow-up design. All forensic patients discharged from 32 medium secure units across England and Wales over a 12-month period were identified. Those discharged to prison were compared with those who were discharged to the community. Nearly half of the individuals discharged to prison were diagnosed with a serious mental illness and over a third with schizophrenia. They were a higher risk, more likely to have a personality disorder, more symptomatic and less motivated than those discharged to the community. Findings suggest that alternative models of prison mental healthcare should be considered to reduce risks to the patient and the public. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  14. Prison Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The prisons polygon dataset is composed of selected facilities that fall under the following NAICS descriptions* Jails (Except Private Operation of) * Correctional...

  15. [Disintegration of the prison system, public security and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixo, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    The defense of human rights, namely one of the most important duties of the legislature, is a considerable challenge in the day-to-day business of parliament. The opinions and practices of elected representatives reflect the security concerns and fears of society that engender a vast process of social exclusion. In this context, the defense of the right to health of persons deprived of liberty seems an especially difficult task, as shown in the interview of State Congressman Marcelo Freixo, the Coordinator of the Human Rights Commission of the Legislative Assembly in Rio de Janeiro and creator of the State Mechanism for Preventing and Combating Torture.

  16. Private prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.

  17. The Transcendental Meditation Program and Rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Allan I.; Siegel, Larry M.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program in a maximum security prison were studied via cross-validation design. Meditation and control groups indicated reduction in anxiety, neuroticism, hostility, and insomnia as a function of the treatment. (Author)

  18. Wardens' Views on the Wisdom of Supermax Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Castro, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Super-maximum security prisons have proliferated nationally, reflecting a belief among policy makers and corrections officials that such high-cost housing is effective. Yet little is known about the precise goals of "supermax" prisons, whether these goals are achieved, what unintended effects supermaxes may have, and, more generally, whether they…

  19. Pastoral Group Counselling at a High Security Prison in Israel: Integrating Pierre Janet's Psychological Analysis with Fritz Perls' Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul; Brown, Marta

    2015-03-01

    This is a report of a short-term, pastoral counselling group conducted with Jewish internees in a high security prison in Israel. It was held as an adjunct to daily secular individual and group counselling and rehabilitation run by the Department of Social Work. Pastoral counselling employed spiritual and psychosocial methodologies to reduce anger, improve prisoner frustration tolerance, and develop a sense of self-efficacy and communal identity. It combined semi-didactic scriptural input with Pierre Janet's personality model, Fritz Perls' gestalt therapy, and analysis of the group process. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Geothermal heating retrofit at the Utah State Prison Minimum Security Facility. Final report, March 1979-January 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This report is a summary of progress and results of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project. Initiated in 1978 by the Utah State Energy Office and developed with assistance from DOE's Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies PON program, final construction was completed in 1984. The completed system provides space and water heating for the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. It consists of an artesian flowing geothermal well, plate heat exchangers, and underground distribution pipeline that connects to the existing hydronic heating system in the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. Geothermal water disposal consists of a gravity drain line carrying spent geothermal water to a cooling pond which discharges into the Jordan River, approximately one mile from the well site. The system has been in operation for two years with mixed results. Continuing operation and maintenance problems have reduced the expected seasonal operation from 9 months per year to 3 months. Problems with the Minimum Security heating system have reduced the expected energy contribution by approximately 60%. To date the system has saved the prison approximately $18,060. The total expenditure including resource assessment and development, design, construction, performance verification, and reporting is approximately $827,558.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection among employees of a high security prison in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Tan, Cynthia; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-06-01

    Although prison employees share the same tuberculosis (TB) risk environment with prisoners, the magnitude of TB problems among prison employees is unknown in most resource-limited prisons. This survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence and correlates of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among employees in Malaysia's largest prison. Consented, full-time prison employees were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, history of working in the correctional system and TB-related risk. TST was placed intradermally and read after 48-72 h. Induration size of ≥10 mm was considered positive. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations with TST positivity. Of the 445 recruited prison employees, 420 (94.4%) had complete data. Most were young (median=30.0 years) men (88.8%) who had only worked at this prison (76.4%) for a median total employment period of 60 months (IQR 34.5-132.0). The majority were correctional officers, while civilian employees represented only 7.6% of the sample. Only 26 (6.2%) reported having ever been screened for TB since employment. Prevalence of TST positivity was 81% and was independently associated with longer (≥12 months) prison employment (AOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 15.9) and current tobacco smoking (AOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). Latent TB prevalence was high in this sample, approximating that of prisoners in this setting, perhaps suggesting within prison TB transmission in this facility. Formal TB control programmes for personnel and prisoners alike are urgently needed within the Malaysian correctional system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Prison staff and the health promoting prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixey, Rachael; Woodall, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss some of the obstacles to implementing policy and strategy related to health promoting prisons. It focuses on the role of prison officers and raises issues concerning their conditions of service, training and organisational culture in a situation where the prison system faces security issues, overcrowding and high levels of ill health among prisoners. This paper emerged as a result of significant overlapping themes between two separate studies conducted by the authors. The paper draws on the authors' qualitative data from these studies. The findings demonstrate the ambiguities and tensions in changing organisational cultures and among prison staff. Alongside the qualitative data, the paper draws on theory regarding policy implementation at the micro-level to show how staff can block or speed up that implementation. Prison officers are an essential part of health promoting prisons, but have been relatively ignored in the discussion of how to create healthier prisons. The contribution that prison staff make to creating health promoting prisons has been under-explored, yet pertinent theory can show how they can be more effectively involved in making changes in organisational culture.

  3. National Security and new territorialities: the case of the fight against Islamization strategies in prison world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck BULINGE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to question of the relationship between the phenomenon of "Islamic radicalization" supposed to be a breeding ground for terrorism and the concept of territoriality that suggests the occupation of spaces like prisons by the actors suspected to be associated with these phenomena.

  4. The vitamin D status of prison inmates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Udoka Nwosu

    Full Text Available There is no comprehensive, systematic analysis of the vitamin D status of prisoners in the scientific literature.To investigate the vitamin D status and its determinants in US prison inmates.Given the uniformity of dietary intake amongst inmates, vitamin D status will be determined by non-dietary factors such as skin pigmentation, security level-, and the duration of incarceration.A retrospective study of 526 inmates (males, n=502, age 48.6 ± 12.5 years; females, n=24, age 44.1 ± 12.2 in Massachusetts prisons. Vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency, and deficiency were respectively defined as a 25(OHD concentration 75 nmol/L; 50 to 75 nmol/L; and <50 nmol/L. The Massachusetts Department of Correction Statement of Nutritional Adequacy stated that each inmate received the recommended daily allowance of vitamin D daily. Security level of incarceration was designated as minimum, medium, and maximum. Racial groups were categorized as Black, white, Asian, and Others.Serum 25(OHD levels peaked in summer and autumn, and decreased in winter and spring. Vitamin D deficiency occurred in 50.5% of blacks, 29.3% of whites, and 14.3% of Asian inmates (p=0.007. Black inmates had significantly lower serum 25(OHD level than white inmates at the maximum security level (p=0.015, medium security level (p=0.001, but not at the minimum security level (p=0.40. After adjusting for covariates black inmates at a maximum security level had a four-fold higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than white inmates at the same security level (OR 3.9 [95% CI 1.3-11.7].The vitamin D status of prison inmates is determined by skin pigmentation, seasons, and the security level of incarceration.

  5. Study of coercive measures in prisons and secure psychiatric hospitals: the views of inmates and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Runte-Geidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to ascertain the opinions of both inmates and staff of prison establishments about the use of coercive measures justified for clinical reasons for people with mental health problems and about the need to create protocols to regulate the application of these measures. Method: These opinions were gathered in a Qualitative Study with Focus Groups (prison inmates and prison staff from the Granada Penitentiary Centre and the Alicante Penitentiary Psychiatric Hospital, both in Spain. Results: The results showed that forced medication is the most commonly used coercive measure in these institutions. The inmates did not understand and rejected the use of this measure, above all because they were poorly informed about their illness and the medication required to treat it. The staff however defended the benefits of psychiatric medicine, even when administered without the patient's consent. Conclusions: Both inmates and staff agreed that it would be useful to have a protocol regulating the use of coercive measures. The study has also identified a number of important factors that could help to reduce the need for coercive measures or make their use unnecessary.

  6. 7 CFR 4290.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.845 Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities. The...

  7. Dual Loyalty in Prison Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöver, Heino; Wolff, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Despite the dissemination of principles of medical ethics in prisons, formulated and advocated by numerous international organizations, health care professionals in prisons all over the world continue to infringe these principles because of perceived or real dual loyalty to patients and prison authorities. Health care professionals and nonmedical prison staff need greater awareness of and training in medical ethics and prisoner human rights. All parties should accept integration of prison health services with public health services. Health care workers in prison should act exclusively as caregivers, and medical tasks required by the prosecution, court, or security system should be carried out by medical professionals not involved in the care of prisoners. PMID:22390510

  8. Unverified Prisoners System (UPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — UPS is an internal SSA system used by the Office of Earnings Operations (OEO) to track and resolve unverified prisoner and deportee records in an effort to find a...

  9. Analysis to determine the maximum dimensions of flexible apertures in sensored security netting products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert P; Ross, Michael P.

    2013-08-01

    Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inchestypically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.

  10. Prisoners' views about the drugs problem in prisons, and the new Prison Service drug strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Cassidy, J

    1999-09-01

    Three hundred and seventy-five out of 575 prisoners (222/299 drug users and 153/267 non-users) who responded to a self-completion health care questionnaire at two prisons in 1997 commented on drugs in prisons. One hundred and forty-eight out of 176 responses expressed negative opinions about mandatory drugs testing (MDT), and 107 said that MDT promoted switching to or increased use of heroin/hard drugs'. Sixty-two prisoners suggested that more help/counselling was needed for drug users, 52 segregation of drug users/drug-free wings, and 50 more security on visits/in corridors after medication. The new Prison Service drug strategy has revised random MDT. It targets those who supply drugs, and supports those who want to stop using drugs, and accords with prisoners' views about the heroin problem in prisons.

  11. Sex in prisons--a management guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi; Naoum, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    Prisons are invariably unisex institutions where, besides many deprivations, heterosexual expression in its normal sense is absent. It is this characteristic that make prisons settings potentially fertile grounds for sexual aberrations. Since definite and accurate data concerning sexual activities among prison inmates are difficult to obtain, the phenomenon of sexual practices in prisons has traditionally been a topic of much speculation. However, the descriptions and explanations of most authors on the subject are often contradictory, and some of the best information are from unpublished sources. This article is an attempt to subsume many fragmented explanations about seven main types of sexual issues in prisons (i.e. consensual homosexuality, masturbation, transsexualism, prostitution, conjugal visits, sex between prisoners and prison staff, and rape among prison inmates) under more general criminological and management concepts. Suggestions for prison administrators on how to manage these complex issues in the best interests of security and inmates' health are also provided.

  12. Detection of maximum loadability limits and weak buses using Chaotic PSO considering security constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharjee, P.; Mallick, S.; Thakur, S.S.; Ghoshal, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The unique cost function is derived considering practical Security Constraints. → New innovative formulae of PSO parameters are developed for better performance. → The inclusion and implementation of chaos in PSO technique is original and unique. → Weak buses are identified where FACTS devices can be implemented. → The CPSO technique gives the best performance for all the IEEE standard test systems. - Abstract: In the current research chaotic search is used with the optimization technique for solving non-linear complicated power system problems because Chaos can overcome the local optima problem of optimization technique. Power system problem, more specifically voltage stability, is one of the practical examples of non-linear, complex, convex problems. Smart grid, restructured energy system and socio-economic development fetch various uncertain events in power systems and the level of uncertainty increases to a great extent day by day. In this context, analysis of voltage stability is essential. The efficient method to assess the voltage stability is maximum loadability limit (MLL). MLL problem is formulated as a maximization problem considering practical security constraints (SCs). Detection of weak buses is also important for the analysis of power system stability. Both MLL and weak buses are identified by PSO methods and FACTS devices can be applied to the detected weak buses for the improvement of stability. Three particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques namely General PSO (GPSO), Adaptive PSO (APSO) and Chaotic PSO (CPSO) are presented for the comparative study with obtaining MLL and weak buses under different SCs. In APSO method, PSO-parameters are made adaptive with the problem and chaos is incorporated in CPSO method to obtain reliable convergence and better performances. All three methods are applied on standard IEEE 14 bus, 30 bus, 57 bus and 118 bus test systems to show their comparative computing effectiveness and

  13. A Study of Prisonization among Danish Prisoners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that imprisonment implies socialization to prison culture. This particular kind of socialization to prison culture is defined as prisonization. This article shed lights on how this process of prisonization occur and in which way does it affect the prisoner and if anything...... could be done to avoid prisonization....

  14. 13 CFR 107.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.845 Maximum... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rate of amortization on...

  15. Rethink, Reform, Reenter: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Prison Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, Linda; Simmons, Chris

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a description and first-stage evaluation of the impact of the Ice House Entrepreneurship Program on the learning experience of participating prerelease inmates at a Mississippi maximum-security prison and their perception of the transfer of skills learned in program into securing employment upon reentry. The Ice House Entrepreneurship Program is a 12-week program facilitated by volunteer university professors to inmates in a prerelease unit of a maximum-security prison in Mississippi. Participants' perspectives were examined through content analysis of inmates' answers to program Reflection and Response Assignments and interviews. The analyses were conducted according to the constant comparative method. Findings reveal the emergent of eight life-lessons and suggest that this is a promising approach to prison programming for prerelease inmates. This study discusses three approaches to better prepare inmates for a mindset change. The rethink, reform, and reenter approaches help break the traditional cycle of release, reoffend, and return. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Prison Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovich, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    In American prisons, two of the worst pathologies—hypermasculine performance and gang activity—are best understood as strategies of self-help engaged in by people who cannot trust the prison authorities to keep them safe. Given the choice, the overwhelming majority of people in prison would prefer to drop the mask and be themselves. But letting down one’s guard is a luxury enjoyed only by people who feel safe. If we want the people we incarcerate to grow and change, we need to design and oper...

  17. (Insecurity in prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanić Goran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to determine the level of security deprivation in convicted persons in different types of correctional institutions, and to determine the relation between deprivation and demographic, socio-psychological, criminal and penal characteristics. Another goal of this research was to obtain scientific information about the quality and intensity of security deprivation, as one of the consequences of imprisonment and perception differences of different categories of convicted persons. The sample consisted of 183 male convicts serving their sentence in Correctional institution for juvenile delinquents and young adults in Valjevo, Correctional institution Padinska Skela, Correctional Institution Požarevac, and County prison in Pančevo. The examinees were questioned by means of a general questionnaire for collecting data on the variables related to basic criminal, penal, and socio-psychological information, and by the Scale for testing security deprivation - SIG (Radovanović, 1992, consisting of 34 questions following the principle of the Likert scale (Cronbach's α=0,952. Research results indicate that about 15% of the examinees express low level of deprivation, about 56% increased level, and about 28% high level of deprivation. Security deprivation is significantly related to age (r=0,163; p=0,028, in a way that the level of deprivation increases with age. There is no correlation with other tested independent variables. Such situation raises questions about respecting the rules related to categorization of prisons, placing convicts in prisons, special protection of old people in prison, separating aggressive and dangerous convicts, monitoring their behavior, controlling informal groups of convicts, and similar problems related to imprisonment.

  18. Prison Conditions in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Dores, António Pedro; Loureiro, Ricardo; Pontes, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PORTUGUESE PENITENTIARY SYSTEM Portugal has 51 prisons of different types: 15 penitentiaries (“central prisons”, normally larger ones) for inmates condemned to serve more than 6 months; 31 penitentiaries (“regional prisons”) for inmates condemned to serve less than 6 months; and five penitentiaries (“special prisons”) for inmates who need special attention, such as women, youths, policeman, and the sick (hospital). The first type of penitentiary has security...

  19. Medical devices made into weapons by prisoners: an unrecognized risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, J W; Laney, C; Kellermann, A L

    1995-12-01

    The alteration of a knee immobilizer into a sharp weapon by a prisoner prompted us to survey neighboring penal institutions to determine the frequency of such events. We mailed a nine-item survey to all detention facilities in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi. A second survey was sent to nonresponding institutions 6 weeks after the initial mailing. The Regional Medical Center at Memphis, the designated facility for evaluation and treatment of prisoners from the county jail and state penitentiary. Survey respondents included 25 state penitentiaries, 31 county jails, 1 state minimum-security facility, 1 state maximum-security facility, 1 work-release center, 1 county detention center for drunken-driving offenders, and 1 federal penitentiary. Of the 81 institutions surveyed, 77% responded to one of the two mailings. Forty percent responded in the affirmative when asked whether stolen or unauthorized medical equipment from outside their institutions had been discovered among inmates. When respondents were questioned as to whether medical equipment, prescribed or not, had been used or altered in a criminal manner, 34% responded "yes." Medications and medical appliances were listed in the responses. A survey of 81 local and neighboring penal institutions in a three-state area revealed that the illicit use of medicine and medical devices by prisoners is a legitimate safety concern of prison personnel and health care workers when medical care for inmates must be sought outside the security of their institutions. The modification of medical equipment into weapons by incarcerated patients, although clearly recognized as a security and safety problem by police authorities, appears to be unappreciated by health care workers providing episodic care to inmates.

  20. Released from Prison in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette; Storgaard, Anette

    2016-01-01

    In 2010 a cross-sectorial reentry framework was launched as the ‘Schedule of the Good Release’. The ambition was to implement the actions outlined in the Schedule to all prisons and municipalities in Denmark to strengthen the cross-sectorial collaboration concerning parole and to support the paro......In 2010 a cross-sectorial reentry framework was launched as the ‘Schedule of the Good Release’. The ambition was to implement the actions outlined in the Schedule to all prisons and municipalities in Denmark to strengthen the cross-sectorial collaboration concerning parole and to support...... the parolees. The primary purpose of the Schedule was to prevent crime and secure parolees’ rights to social security and support. This chapter focuses on parolees in Denmark; their experiences of transitioning from prison back into society and life after prison; and whether the Danish state’s reentry...... ambitions can be mirrored in the parolees’ first-hand experiences. Our findings suggest that parolees experienced their reentry as chaotic; that their supervision lacked vision; and ‘informal’ punishment was severe and permeated their lives post-prison....

  1. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Oodo, S O; He, H; Qiu, G Y

    2013-01-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  2. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  3. The Latent Structure of Psychopathy: A Taxometric Investigation of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in a Heterogeneous Sample of Male Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Duncan, Scott A.; Mitchell-Perez, Kari

    2007-01-01

    A taxometric analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is conducted on a group of 409 male maximum-, medium-, and minimum-security federal prison inmates using the four PCL-R facet scores (interpersonal, affective, impulsive lifestyle, and antisocial behavior) as indicators. Results obtained from three quasi-independent taxometric…

  4. Prison officers' views about hepatitis C testing and treatment: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Kathryn; Islip, Natalie; Linsley, Paul; Thomson, Brian; Patterson, Anne

    2017-07-01

    To explore the views of prison officers in an English category B male prison about people in prison being tested and treated for hepatitis C. Hepatitis C testing and treatment in English prisons remain low with the reasons being poorly understood. Prison officers are in continuous contact with prisoners so might observe factors that may influence people in prisons' choice in whether to accept hepatitis C testing and treatment. A qualitative design within an interpretative framework was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 prison officers at an English male category B prison. The interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed at the prison. Four themes emerged Safeguarding, Stigma, Confidentiality and Education. Hepatitis C testing and treatment were supported in principle but if a person in prison poses a threat to the overall security of a prison, any health issues that are not immediately life threatening will be overridden, irrespective of the financial or health consequences. The prison officers respected people in prisons' confidentiality regarding health matters, but this could be compromised during violent incidents. All of the prison officers displayed limited knowledge about hepatitis C. This qualitative enquiry illustrates that prison security transcends health. This suggests that health providers may need to offer greater flexibility and collaboration across the network of National Health Service hospitals to maintain continuity in treatment if a prisoner is moved to a different establishment or liberated. This study introduces the notion that prison security staff may have a potential role in promoting or discouraging hepatitis C testing and treatment by the ways in which their knowledge impacts on their interactions with people in prison. Engaging this staff group in educational opportunities should be a component of commissioned hepatitis service delivery in prisons. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  6. The vitamin D status of prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka; Maranda, Louise; Berry, Rosalie; Colocino, Barbara; Flores, Carlos D; Folkman, Kerry; Groblewski, Thomas; Ruze, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    There is no comprehensive, systematic analysis of the vitamin D status of prisoners in the scientific literature. To investigate the vitamin D status and its determinants in US prison inmates. Given the uniformity of dietary intake amongst inmates, vitamin D status will be determined by non-dietary factors such as skin pigmentation, security level-, and the duration of incarceration. A retrospective study of 526 inmates (males, n=502, age 48.6 ± 12.5 years; females, n=24, age 44.1 ± 12.2) in Massachusetts prisons. Vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency, and deficiency were respectively defined as a 25(OH)D concentration 75 nmol/L; 50 to 75 nmol/L; and prison inmates is determined by skin pigmentation, seasons, and the security level of incarceration.

  7. Job Stress among Iranian Prison Employees

    OpenAIRE

    J Akbari; R Akbari; F Farasati; B Mahaki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. Objective: To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for asse...

  8. Prisoners' Perception of Legitimacy of the Prison Staff: A Qualitative Study in Slovene Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacin, Rok; Meško, Gorazd

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore prisoners' perception of legitimacy of prison staff and examine the compliance of prisoners with the authority of prison staff to highlight the differences between instrumental and normative compliance of prisoners. This study draws on data collected from a random sample of 193 prisoners in all Slovene prisons. Using a qualitative approach based on structured interviews, our findings suggest that distributive justice, procedural justice, the quality of relations with prison staff, and the effectiveness of prison staff influence prisoners' perception of legitimacy in a prison environment. Several prisoners comply with prison rules because they fear sanctions, which indicates their instrumental compliance, while normative compliance was reported by prisoners who perceived the legitimacy of prison staff in a more positive manner. Overall findings indicate that both instrumental and normative compliance of prisoners can be observed in Slovene prisons.

  9. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  10. A social building? Prison architecture and staff-prisoner relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K. A.; Dirkzwager, A. J. E.; van der Laan, P. H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners' well-being. Research on factors influencing staff-prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association

  11. HIV and STD testing in prisons: perspectives of in-prison service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga; Seal, David W; Wolitski, Richard; Flanigan, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Christine; Nealey-Moore, Jill; Askew, John

    2003-12-01

    Because individuals at risk for HIV and STDs are concentrated in prisons and jails, incarceration is an opportunity to provide HIV and STD testing. We interviewed 72 service providers working in U.S. prisons in four states about their experiences with and perceptions regarding HIV and STD testing in prison. Providers' job duties represented administration, education, security, counseling, and medical care. Providers' knowledge of prison procedures and programs related to HIV and STD testing was narrowly limited to their specific job duties, resulting in many missed opportunities for prevention counseling and referral. Suggestions include increasing health care and counseling staff so posttest counseling can be provided for those with negative as well as positive test results, providing additional prevention programs for incarcerated persons, improving staff training about HIV and STD testing, and improving communication among in-prison providers as well as between corrections and public health staff.

  12. [Addiction problems behind prison walls--view of the prison administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusker, H

    2000-04-01

    As Head of the Prison Administration of Saxony, the author describes the difficulties and problems that exist in the care and treatment of prisoners who are addicted to drugs or alcohol. Up to now, these problems have been dealt with in a manner that was too much concentrated on ideas and aspects of security by using systems of control and restrictions. Social contacts inside and outside of the prison and a sense of freedom are, however, the requirements of the legal concept of resettling prisoners. There is a great need for more counselling and therapy. It should also be attempted to improve the conditions for the individual prisoners, e.g. by setting up drug-free units and, thus, provide a environment to the addicts that enables them to live their lives without the daily struggle for drugs and alcohol.

  13. The human prison?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Mathiassen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we analyze a learning and culture development project in Danish prisons. The ambition of the project is to create change in a complex world. The prison officers are invited to make experiments in order to create a more ‘human’ prison. We see the project as an intervention in the prof......In the paper we analyze a learning and culture development project in Danish prisons. The ambition of the project is to create change in a complex world. The prison officers are invited to make experiments in order to create a more ‘human’ prison. We see the project as an intervention...

  14. Assisted suicide for prisoners? Stakeholder and prisoner perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-09-01

    For a wider project on aging in prison, the authors interviewed 35 older prisoners and 24 stakeholders (prison staff, prison healthcare professionals, and policy makers) about healthcare for prisoners. In all, 6 prisoners and 3 stakeholders spontaneously expressed their attitudes concerning assisted suicide. Some prisoners seek assisted suicide for medical reasons and others because they regard spending the rest of their lives in prison as undignified. However, stakeholders identified several ethical and practical challenges in providing assisted suicide to prisoners. This article presents these perspectives on assisted suicide in prison and provides an ethical analysis of the issues raised.

  15. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  16. Growing health in UK prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baybutt, Michelle; Dooris, Mark; Farrier, Alan

    2018-05-29

    Globally, prisoners tend to come from marginalized and socially disadvantaged sections of the society and exhibit a high incidence of ill health, linked to social exclusion and multiple complex needs. Prisons therefore offer an important opportunity to tackle inequality and injustice, through promoting health, reducing reoffending and facilitating community reintegration.This paper reports on and critically discusses findings from an evaluative research study, which aimed to identify and explore impacts of prisoners' participation in an innovative social and therapeutic horticultural programme, 'Greener on the Outside for Prisons' (GOOP), delivered in prisons in North West England. Focus groups with 16 prisoners and semi-structured interviews with six prison staff were conducted at five sites. Presented under three overarching themes (health and well-being; skills development, employability, and work preparedness; and relationships), findings suggest that engagement with and participation in GOOP were important in improving positive mental well-being, increasing physical activity and knowledge about healthier eating; developing skills and work readiness; and building relationships and catalysing and strengthening prosocial behaviours, important for good citizenship and effective resettlement. The paper concludes that - in the context of the current UK prison reform agenda and concern about the high incidence of violence, substance misuse, self-harm and suicide - prison-based horticulture can offer multiple benefits and make a significant contribution to the creation of safe, secure, supportive and health-enhancing environments. Furthermore, it contends that by joining up health and justice agendas, programmes such as GOOP have the potential to serve as powerful catalysts for wider systemic change, thereby helping tackle inequalities and social exclusion within societies across the globe.

  17. A BRIEF STUDY ABOUT THE LEGAL NATURE OF PRECAUTIONA RY PRISONS (? IN BRAZILIAN CRIMINAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paula Cruz de Siqueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, even if soon, the legal nature of prison said as precautionary, that occur during the police investigation or criminal process. Over this study, prison in the act, preventive prison, according to each of its assumptions and, lastly, temporary prison will bel analyzed. At the end, will be presented the measures, which are effectively considered precautionary, serving to the utility of the final provision, like security measures

  18. HIV counselling in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, L; McHugh, M; Nooney, K

    1989-01-01

    HIV presents particular problem in penal establishments: the nature of the population; conditions in prison; media attention and misinformation; the possibility of transmission within and beyond the prison population; the extra issues that apply to female prisoners. These are discussed in the context of prison policy regarding HIV and the broad strategic approach which is being adopted to manage the problem of HIV within penal institutions. Counselling has a key role in the overall strategy. Pre- and post-test counselling with prisoners is described and the particular problems presented by inmates are discussed and illustrated by reference to case histories. Developments in counselling provision for inmates are outlined.

  19. A Social Building? Prison Architecture and Staff–Prisoner Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, Karin A.; Dirkzwager, Anja J.E.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners’ well-being. Research on factors influencing staff–prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association

  20. Variations in prison mental health services in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Andrew; Exworthy, Tim; Olumoroti, Olumuyiwa; Sessay, Mohammed; Parrott, Janet; Spencer, Sarah-Jane; Whyte, Sean

    2013-01-01

    In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mental health care, prison mental health in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mental health in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mental health team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mental health in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radical Pedagogy, Prison, and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dierdre

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…

  2. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Daria, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prisoners are having high percentage of psychiatric disorders. Majority of studies done so far on prisoners are from Western countries and very limited studies from India. Aim: Study socio-demographic profile of prisoners of a central jail and to find out current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in them. Materials and Methods: 118 prisoners were selected by random sampling and interviewed to obtain socio-demographic data and assessed on Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS) with additional required questions to diagnose psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Results: Mean age of prisoners was 33.7 years with 97.5% males, 57.6% from rural areas and 65.3% were married. Average education in studied years was 6.6 years and 50.8% were unskilled workers. 47.4% were murderers while 20.3% of drugs related crimes. 47.5% were convicted and history of criminal behavior in family was in 32.2% prisoners. Current prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 33%. Psychotic, depressive, and anxiety disorders were seen in 6.7%, 16.1%, and 8.5% prisoners respectively. 58.8% had history of drug abuse/dependence prior to imprisonment. Conclusion: One prison of Hadoti region of Rajasthan is full of people with mental-health problems who collectively generate significant levels of unmet psychiatric treatment need. Prisons are detrimental to mental-health. Beginning of reforms is the immediate need. PMID:24459308

  3. Should we use a direct regulation to implement the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England? A qualitative study among prison key policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N; de Viggiani, N

    2017-08-31

    The Healthy Prisons Agenda seeks to reduce prisoners' health risks, balance prisoners' rights with a security regime, ensure equivalent prison health service provisions to community health services, and facilitate the whole-prison approach. There is an established assumption that legislation will ensure better implementation of health promotion programmes. This study aimed to examine whether a legislative framework, via a direct regulation, could lead to enhanced implementation of the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England. A qualitative study design was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 30 key prison policy makers in England. Our findings contradict the established assumption that legislation improves the implementation of health promotion programmes. A direct regulation was perceived as restrictive, manifesting excessive compliance and encouraging a risk-averse culture, whilst preoccupation with security, order and discipline amongst prison governors and custody staff was deemed an internal institutional barrier to implementing the Healthy Prisons Agenda. External barriers included diminishing resources, lengthier or delayed sentencing, and an unsympathetic public and political stance towards prisoner rehabilitation. A direct regulation should not be used to operationalize the Healthy Prisons Agenda. Rather, self-regulation, along with proactive solutions for the identified barriers to implementing the Agenda, is the most appropriate path forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. On humour in prison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molding, Malene

    2011-01-01

    This paper unravels the presence of humour in prison as an institutionalized aspect of prison life. The analysis shows how officers use humour to manage their relationships with prisoners and other staff, and how they make use of humour to establish a collective understanding of the officer job......, but the implications are real. The officer–prisoner joking relationship fosters conflict avoidance, smooth daily interactions, service provision for prisoners and transgression of officer norms for camaraderie. In contrast, the staff–staff joking relationship grants officers a sense of power vis-à-vis other staff...... and an opportunity to articulate hostility where staff solidarity is required. As a communication device with ambiguous qualities, humour unites the real and the unreal, shapes social structure, interaction and positioning and is suitable for identity work in prison....

  5. [Psychotropic drugs in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Thomas; Amad, Ali; Adins, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Respect for guidelines and recommendations is the rule for prescribing psychotropic drugs in prison. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and suicide in prison is higher than in general population. In France, 50 % of prisoners are treated with a psychotropic medication. Insomnia is a common complaint. It should not be trivialized and clinical psychiatric examination should be complete particularly in search of an underlying depressive syndrome. The lifestyle and dietary rules should not be neglected despite the difficulties associated with living conditions in prison and expectations of immediate results from both patients and sometimes the prison administration or justice. Given the prevalence of addictions in the prison population, vigilance is required in preventing withdrawal, especially at the beginning of incarceration. Indications for initiation and the prescription of opioid substitution treatment are the same as free environment. Individualization of delivery and confidentiality must be applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Job stress among Iranian prison employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, J; Akbari, R; Farasati, F; Mahaki, B

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Job stress was highest among employees of "correction and rehabilitation center" of Ilam province followed by "Dalab vocational training center." There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.

  7. Job Stress among Iranian Prison Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Akbari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. Objective: To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Results: Job stress was highest among employees of “correction and rehabilitation center” of Ilam province followed by “Dalab vocational training center.” There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Conclusion: Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.

  8. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  9. Reforming Prison Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the current widespread acceptance of the public library model for prison libraries, in which preferences of the inmates are the chief consideration in programing and collection development. It is argued that this model results in recreational programs and collections that fail to fulfill the prison library's role in education and…

  10. Fear of rape from behind prison walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  11. Involuntary inter-prison transfer of prisoners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    Involuntary inter prison transfer are for most prisoners very intrusive. In Denmark official record shows in average 669 incidences of involuntary inter prison transfers for disciplinary reasons in the period 2006-2013. Involuntary transfers because of prison capacity are not registered statistic....... A rule in Danish administrative law states that prisoners can be involuntary transferred from one prison to the other without prior notice, statement of reasons or hearing. In a legal protective perspective it is problematic that prisoners can be transferred without apparent reasons....

  12. AIDS in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsbury, R

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence of HIV inside prisons in Senegal, Africa. There is a general presumption that HIV rates are higher in prisons than in the surrounding population. Organizations have conducted an inquiry on the statistics of HIV infection among prisoners and results revealed that there are existing projects done outside Western Europe and the US. It was observed that prison conditions in Africa do not meet the international norms nor the standards of human rights organizations in their treatment of detainees. One problem that had risen during the Dakar conference was the inaccessibility of condoms among detainees. Furthermore, despite the customs and morale of Zimbabwe regarding same sex activities, there are still reported cases of sodomy without the use of condom. The question presented in this article focuses on the so-called rights of prisoners in practicing safe sex through use of condoms and provision of medical treatment among those infected.

  13. Measuring group climate in prison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer van der Helm PhD; P.H. van der Laan; G.J.J.M. Stams

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the construct validity and reliability of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) in a sample of 77 adolescents placed in a Dutch youth prison and 49 adult prisoners living in a Dutch psychiatric prison with a therapeutic living group structure. Confirmatory factor

  14. HIV-related knowledge and attitudes among Indonesian prison officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Suherman, Harry; Pinxten, W J Lucas; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hospers, Harm J

    2013-01-01

    Prison officers have a vital role in running a secure and healthy living environment for the inmates. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude towards inmates living with HIV among the officers in an Indonesian narcotics prison. A total of 93 officers from a narcotics prison in Bandung, Indonesia voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study by completing a self-reported questionnaire. A Prior focus group discussion was also held among selected participants. Statistical data analyses indicate that all domains of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, i.e. knowledge of HIV-transmission, general HIV/AIDS knowledge and knowledge of HIV-prevention, have substantial positive correlations with the prison officers' attitude towards inmates living with HIV. These results show that the more knowledgeable the officers are, the less likely they are to respond in an unfavourable manner to inmates living with HIV and vice versa. Despite the limited participants involved in this study, the knowledge gaps that are identified in this study should be the starting point for the development of educational interventions for prison officers. Sufficient educational programs and the latest materials need to be made available within the prison. Commitment from prison authorities as well as a proper policy are also needed. This study helped prison authorities to identify areas for knowledge development of the officers. Hopefully the positive attitude towards inmates living with HIV will be developed.

  15. Social characteristics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, preventive practices and risk factors elicitation among prisoners in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odujinrin, M T; Adebajo, S B

    2001-01-01

    Although many behavioral research studies and public enlightenment campaigns have been undertaken by both government and non-governmental organizations in the general public, no such study has been documented on prison inmates in Nigeria. This study aimed at documenting the social characteristics, HIV/AIDS knowledge and preventive practices of selected prisoners in Nigeria. It also elicited risk factors HIV/AIDS transmission in Nigeria prisons. A cross-sectional study of prison inmates using an anonymous risk-factors identification questionnaire was undertaken in January 1997. The Kiri-kiri (maximum, medium and female) prisons were selected by balloting. Thereafter, two hundred and fifty two inmates were selected by systematic random sampling method using the full listing of all inmates as at the time of the survey. The study comprised of an interview session using a well structured questionnaire to seek information about their social data, their knowledge about HIV/AIDS including its transmission and preventive social data, and their indulgence in HIV/AIDS risky behaviour. The majority (53.6%) of the respondents were in the age group 20-29 years, 18 (7.1%) were less than 20 years old one of whom was in the maximum-security prison and three were females (table 1). The majority (52%) had secondary education while 9.9% had tertiary education and 7.1% had no formal education. About 97.2% of the study population had heard about AIDS although only 20.6% had known or seen someone with AIDS before and about 34.1% knew the causative agent of AIDS. 60.3% knew the correct mode of transmission of AIDS. 15.5% claimed fidelity and 12.7 % claimed use of condom for casual sexual contact, were measures that could help prevent AIDS but 7.9% did not know any preventive measure. Since hearing about AIDS, 59.5% claimed to have taken steps to protect themselves. 42.7% of the 89 who had not taken any protective steps against AIDS had no knowledge of how to protect themselves. About 56

  16. Maths in Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Patricia Byrne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.

  17. Assessment of prison life of persons with disability in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbe, Joslin; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Edusei, Anthony; Plange-Rhule, Gyikua; Addofoh, Nicholas; Baffour-Awuah, Sandra; Sarfo-Kantanka, Osei; Hammond, Charles; Owusu, Michael

    2016-08-08

    Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) are a unique group that are often overlooked in many developing countries due to systemic weaknesses, lack of political commitment and inadequate support from government and non-governmental agencies. The population of these individuals is however steadily on the increase and currently corresponds to 15 % of the world population. Although much data exist on lifestyle and conditions of prisoners with disabilities in the western world, scanty information is available in Africa. In Ghana, there is insufficient data on the occurrence and social characteristics of prisoners with disabilities. The purpose of this current study was therefore to identify the occurrence, types and causes of disabilities among prisoners serving sentences in Ghanaian prisons. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted in the Male and Female Regional Prisons in Kumasi, Sunyani and the Nsawam Medium Security Prison, from November to December 2011. PWDs were selected by prisons officers and interviewed using structured questionnaires on variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, causes of disabilities and accessibility to recreational facilities. Ethical approval was obtained from the security services and the Committee of Human Research Publications and Ethics (CHRPE) of the School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). We screened 6114 records of prisoners of which 1852 (30.3 %) were from the Kumasi Central Prisons, 3483 (57 %) from the Nsawam Medium Security and 779 (12.8 %) from the Sunyani Central Prisons. A total of 99 PWDs were identified with the commonest disability being physical, followed by visual, hearing, speech, mental and albinism. Most of the disabilities were caused by trauma (68.8 %) followed by infection (16.7 %), and drug related mental disabilities (6.3 %). Fifty (50.5 %) out of the 99 PWDs were not provided with assistive devices although they admitted the need

  18. Opportunità rieducative e sicurezza nella rappresentazione degli operatori carcerari Risultati e riflessioni da un’indagine condotta in 7 istituti del Nord-Italia / Re-educative opportunities and security in the representation of professionals working in prisons Results and remarks from a research conducted in 7 northern Italian prisons / Opportunités de rééeducation et sécurité dans la représentation des travailleurs pénitentiaires Résultats et réflexions à partir d’une étude menée dans 7 prisons du nord de l’Italie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelli Bruno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this essay attention is drawn to the type of response that the institutional apparatus of prison provides to the principle of rehabilitation of the convicted, as stated in Article 27 of the Italian Constitution. Particular importance is given to the representation that it is provided by professionals working in the prison, where the needs of rehabilitation often clash with those of security. The research is based on semi-structured interviews, whose content was analyzed with the technique of grounded theory. The concepts expressed by the operators were coded and placed in relation to each other, in order to obtain a coherent conceptual framework. This allowed the identification of three different categories of operators, which we called the negotiators, innovators and traditionalists, corresponding to specific cognitive maps. The results show the rehabilitation paths of the offender in prisons, according to the operators, are the result of the combination of different variables: personal resources, relationships and employment available to the inmate; the type of penitentiary, the opportunity to serve their sentences outside, and the content and quality of the relationship between the offender and institutional operators encountered whilst serving the sentence.Dans cet essai on attire l'attention sur le type de réponse que l’institution de la prison donne à la question du principe de réinsertion sociale du condamné, comme prévu par l'article n° 27 de la Constitution italienne. On accorde une importance particulière à la représentation que les travailleurs pénitentiaires ont du sujet, car en prison les exigences de rééducation sont souvent en contradiction avec celles de sécurité. Cette recherche est basée sur des entretiens semi-structurés dont le contenu a été analysé par la technique de la grounded theory. Les idées exprimées par ces professionnels ont été codifiées et mises en relation les unes avec les autres

  19. (Un)healthy prison masculinities: Theorising men's health in prison

    OpenAIRE

    De Viggiani, N.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the interconnections between masculinity, health and prison. It contests reductionist, individualist and biomedical approaches to health care management in prisons and challenges gender-blindness within criminology and social science where masculinities have been overlooked as key factors of prison culture and organisation. The research set out to explore how masculinities manifest at institutional, social and cultural levels in prison as key determinants of health.\\ud \\u...

  20. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict, Forced, Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any apparent...

  1. Hate Speech in a Juvenile Male Prison School and in US Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2012-01-01

    This article theoretically examines the meaning and function of hate speech in a high-security juvenile male prison school. Specifically, the article draws on data from an ethnographic study of this prison school site in order to map the institutional mechanisms of hate speech. Additionally, the article suggests these mechanisms are not anomalous…

  2. Prison-Based Relationship Counselling: Service User Perceptions and Implications for Resettlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a brief evaluation carried out on behalf of the relationship counselling service, Relate, regarding the delivery of a pilot specialist counselling service for adult male prisoners at HMP Ford, a low security "category D" prison in the South East of England. At the heart of the research lies a focus on the…

  3. Care control and collaborative working in a prison hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Bell, Linda; Jayasinghe, Neil

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports findings from a qualitative research project, using interviews, focus groups and participant observations, which sought to investigate "good practice" in a nurse-led prison hospital wing for male prisoners. The study raised issues about tensions between "caring" and "control" of prisoners from the perspectives of professionals working or visiting the wing. This paper discusses collaborative working between professionals from different backgrounds, including nurses and healthcare (prison) officers who were based on the wing and others who visited such as probation, medical, Inreach team or Counselling Advice, Referral, Assessment and Through Care team staff (CARAT). The key finding was that there is a balance between therapy and security/risk. In order to maintain this, the two main groups based on the hospital wing--nurses and prison officers--moved between at times cooperating, coordinating and collaborating with each other to maintain this balance. Other themes were care and control, team working, individual and professional responsibilities and communication issues. Enhancing the role of nurses should be encouraged so that therapy remains paramount, and we conclude with some recommendations to encourage collaborative working in prison healthcare settings to ensure that therapy continues to be paramount while security and safety are maintained.

  4. [The actions of the Public Prosecution Service in the field of health in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppim, Érika Bastos Targino

    2016-06-01

    In the violent, insalubrious and overpopulated prison environment in which the concerns of penitentiary managers are predominantly focused on security, several actors of the legal world work incessantly to ensure that prisoners enjoy living conditions and access to health care in accordance with their constitutional rights. However, their discourses only appear infrequently in academic research and studies on health in prisons. We decided to ask for the opinion of a District Attorney of the State Public Prosecution Office, Dr. Érika Puppim to share with readers her view and the difficulties in her role in the protection of prisoners.

  5. Social Innovation within Prison Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Brandt, Eva

    2012-01-01

    of trust and confidence in the prison, and 2) to learn how to engage inmates better in their everyday life inside prison, e.g. through engaging them in collective matters. The process of co-inquiry and co-creation provided a new social infrastructure, which allowed inmates and prison officers to access new...... roles and social positions....

  6. Research and Experimentation in Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, L. Alex

    1979-01-01

    The author argues that the prison system is inherently coercive, and that social and behavioral scientists have been used by state agents to facilitate control of prisoners. He urges that the major objective of research in prisons be to promote the principle of human liberation. (Author/RLV)

  7. An ecological analysis of prison overcrowding and suicide rates in England and Wales, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Esther F J C; Sutherland, Alex; Molleman, Toon

    Prisoners are at a greatly increased risk of suicides compared to the general population. Differences in suicide risk can be partly explained by individual risk factors, but the contribution of prison characteristics remains unclear. Overcrowded prisons have higher suicide rates, but this may be related to prison function, security level, population size and turnover. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of each of these prison characteristics to suicide rates, using data from the Ministry of Justice for adult prisons in England and Wales from 2000 to 2014. Negative binomial regression analysis showed that larger population size, higher turnover, higher security and public management were associated with higher suicide rates. When controlling for these factors, overcrowding was not found to be related to suicide rates. Questions remain about the causal mechanisms underlying variation in prison suicides and the impact of the lived experience of overcrowding. Further research is needed to examine the relative contribution of prison and prisoner characteristics to suicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prison staff and prisoner views on a prison smoking ban: evidence from the Tobacco in Prisons Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ashley; Sweeting, Helen; Logan, Greig; Demou, Evangelia; Hunt, Kate

    2018-05-15

    In jurisdictions permitting prisoner smoking, rates are high (c75%), with smoking embedded in prison culture, leading to secondhand smoke exposures among staff and prisoners and challenges for smoking cessation. Momentum is building to ban smoking in prisons, but research on staff and prisoner views is lacking. We address this gap, providing evidence on staff and prisoner views throughout all Scottish prisons. Data were collected prior to announcement of a (November 2018) prison smoking ban throughout Scotland. Mixed methods were used: surveys of staff (online, N=1,271, ~27%) and prisoners (questionnaire, N=2,512, ~34%); 17 focus groups and two paired interviews with staff in 14 prisons. Staff were more positive than prisoners about bans and increased smoking restrictions, although prisoner views were more favourable should e-cigarettes be permitted. Non-smokers were more positive than smokers. Whilst 74% staff and 22% prisoners agreed bans were a good idea, both groups acknowledged implementation and enforcement challenges. Staff views were influenced by beliefs about: acceptability of the policy in principle; and whether/how bans could be achieved. Although some voiced doubts about smoke-free policies, staff likened a ban to other operational challenges. Staff raised concerns around needs for appropriate measures, resources and support, adequate lead-in time, and effective communication prior to a ban. We recommend that regular and open opportunities for dialogue within and between different stakeholder groups are created when preparing for prison smoking bans, and that specific measures to address staff and prisoner concerns are incorporated into plans to create and maintain smoke-free environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first to research staff and prisoner views across a whole prison system prior to implementation of smoke-free policies. The results highlight potential challenges and suggest measures which might help to maximise the success of

  9. Insomnia management in prisons in England and Wales: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Lindsay H; Hassan, Lamiece; Shaw, Jenny J; Senior, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Insomnia in prison is common; however, research is limited regarding the management strategies that prison establishments employ. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a survey to identify how insomnia is detected, diagnosed and treated in adult prisons in England and Wales. Telephone interviews with a purposive sample of health-care managers were then conducted. The survey was sent to all establishments holding adult prisoners, covering screening and assessment methods to detect insomnia; treatment options, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological; the importance of insomnia as a treatable condition; and staff training available. Eighty-four (73%) prisons completed the survey. Few had a stepped approach to insomnia management, as recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. The most common treatments available were sleep hygiene education and medication, offered by 94 and 88% of respondents, respectively. Analysis of telephone interviews revealed four main themes: insomnia as a normal occurrence in prison; the problem of medication in prison; the negative impact of the prison environment; and effective management of insomnia in prison. The current findings suggest that logistical, ethical and security barriers and a lack of staff knowledge and training impact negatively on the management of insomnia in prison. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. An overview of prisons, prisoners and international human rights standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coyle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the principal international human rights standards that exist for the treatment of prisoners. Given the increase in the use of  imprisonment in many countries, the administration of prisons poses certain challenges. The author addresses this issue by first examining the purposes of imprisonment, which is the only way to evaluate if the penitentiary system is achieving the goals that have been set for it. The author then analyzes five elements that must be taken into account when complying with international standards regarding the treatment of prisoners: living conditions for prisoners; the contact that prisoners have with their families and other persons; special conditions that apply to incarcerated persons according to specific situations (gender, nationality, age, illness, etc.; prison personnel and independent oversight of prisons. In the end, what all of these  standards have in common is the importance of upholding human dignity when dealing with incarcerated persons.

  11. Maths in Prison

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Patricia Byrne

    2015-01-01

    I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a ...

  12. Maths in Prison

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Catherine; Carr, Michael

    2015-01-01

    I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a p...

  13. HUMAN RIGHTS AND NIGERIAN PRISONERS--ARE PRISONERS NOT HUMANS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century.

  14. Ethics in research involving prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  15. On Prison Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lucien, Ed.

    This book, consisting of 19 essays, deals with the meaning and objectives of prison education. Included in the volume are the following works: "Inmate Right to Education," by Lucien Morin; "Penitentiary Education in Canada," by J. W. Cosman; "Rehabilitation through Education: A Canadian Model," by Stephen Duguid;…

  16. Parlaying the Prison Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    At the close of almost 25 years of winding through New York state's prisons, former Black Panther Eddie Ellis walked away in 1994 with four college degrees he earned while incarcerated and kept treading his singular path as an activist on the issues of police, courts, crime and punishment. He then established the Center for NuLeadership on Urban…

  17. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  18. Women, Families, and Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Marian B.; And Others

    Services to imprisoned women under the age of 21 and the effects of incarceration on inmate mothers and their children are the two major subjects discussed in this report of a study conducted at the two state prison facilities for women in North Carolina. Information on these topics was obtained through site visits, interviews with staff and…

  19. HIV/AIDS prisoners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the American University of Beirut, her MSc in Kinesiology from Sam Houston State ... In turn, individuals are usually rejected and ... HIV-infected patients being treated and around 3 000 others that ... knowledge, no questionnaire has been tailored specifically to .... Share activities with other prisoners Not allowed.

  20. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II and anxiety (BAI. Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.

  1. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Danny J; O'Sullivan, Maura E; O'Connell, Brendan D; O'Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.

  2. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Danny J.; O’Sullivan, Maura E.; O’Connell, Brendan D.; O’Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of ‘uncontrollability’, accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:29444084

  3. Recidivism after release from a prison nursery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshin, Lorie S; Byrne, Mary W; Henninger, Alana M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze 3-year recidivism after release from a prison nursery, a secure unit that allows imprisoned women to care for their infants. Descriptive study of 139 women who co-resided with their infants between 2001 and 2007 in a New York State prison nursery. Administrative criminal justice data were analyzed along with prospective study data on demographic, mental health, and prison nursery policy-related factors. Results reflect a sample of young women of color with histories of clinically significant depressive symptoms and substance dependence, who were convicted of nonviolent crimes and had multiple prior arrests. Three years after release 86.3% remained in the community. Only 4% of women returned to prison for new crimes. Survival modeling indicated that women who had previously violated parole had a significantly shorter mean return to prison time than those who were in the nursery for a new crime. Women released from a prison nursery have a low likelihood of recidivism. Innovative interventions are needed to address incarceration's public health effects. Nurses can partner with criminal justice organizations to develop, implement, and evaluate programs to ensure the health needs of criminal justice involved people and their families are met. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Hospital pharmaceutical practice in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcouët, L

    2010-09-01

    Since 1994, hospital pharmaceutical teams have been in charge of pharmaceutical tasks in "unités de consultation et de soins ambulatoires" (UCSA), which are hospital consulting care units in French prisons. In 2008, pharmaceutical team in Parisian prisons received 6500 prescriptions and prepared 85,000 nominative bags containing drugs. Prisoners were 1.3% to receive treatments against HIV, 8.2% cardiovascular drugs, 7.2% opioid substitution treatments, and 52.9% psychoactive drugs, including 39.3% hypnotics, 40.5% anxiolytics, 11.3% antidepressants and 12.2% neuroleptics. In prison, the dichotomy between somatic and mental care is marked, attitudes of prisoners about their medicines are complex (important claims, embezzlement, etc.) and it is difficult for law defendants to maintain treatment confidentiality and to prepare prison outing in terms of health. To attenuate the heterogeneity of drug distribution systems in French prisons, we propose pharmaceutical analysis of prescriptions and nominative dispensation, computerization in UCSA in coordination with hospitals, a better contribution of prison medical and pharmaceutical staff in hospital "drug committees" and the redaction of pharmaceutical guidelines. Acting in concert with multidisciplinary medical staff in UCSA, pharmaceutical teams have to develop epidemiological studies to improve knowledge in prisoner's health and also prevention and health care in prison. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Most Restrictive Alternative: The Origins, Functions, Control, and Ethical Implications of the Supermax Prison, 1976 - 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Keramet A.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete, steel, artificial light, complete technological automation, near-complete sensory deprivation, and total isolation - these are the basic conditions of supermaximum security prisons in the United States. "Supermax" prisoners remain alone twenty-three to twenty-four hours a day, under fluorescent lights that are never turned off. Meals arrive through a small slot in an automated cell door. Prisoners have little to no human contact for months, years, or even decades at a time, save bri...

  6. Balancing Structure and Learning in an Open Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leira Prison is a branch of Trondheim Prison, functioning as a relatively small,open prison with a maximum capacity of only 29 inmates. Leira Prison appliesthe method ‘consequence pedagogy.’ This article aims to pinpoint howconsequence pedagogy is executed at Leira. 50% of the Leira inmates arereleased back into society, while new ones enter the prison. It is thereforeinteresting to see how they balance structure and at the same time adjust tochanges, enabling Leira Prison to continue as a learning organization. This articleidentifies three items, consequence pedagogy and the view of humans,maintenance of the philosophy and coherence in the community, and selfregulationof justice through interaction. The use of consequence pedagogyis deeply aligned to their positive view of humans and has generated a constructiveorganization based on empowerment and involvement of both staffand inmates. Consequently, management, staff and inmates maintain thephilosophy of consequence pedagogy through interaction and self-regulation.However, questions regarding the fundamentals of the consequence pedagogyare not raised.

  7. Quantum prisoner dilemma under decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.K.; Ang, Huiling; Kiang, D.; Kwek, L.C.; Lo, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    It has recently been established that quantum strategies are superior to classical ones for games such as the prisoner's dilemma. However, quantum states are subject to decoherence. In this Letter, we investigate the effects of decoherence on a quantum game, namely the prisoner dilemma, through three prototype decoherence channels. We show that in the case of prisoner dilemma, the Nash equilibria are not changed by the effects of decoherence for maximally entangled states

  8. TUBERCULOSIS IN A NIGERIAN MEDIUM SECURITY PRISON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    TB is one of the few diseases for which specific control targets have been set in the. Millennium Development Goals9. It directly causes an annual decline in workers productivity to the tune of. US$13 billion. TB is contagious and spreads through the air. If untreated, each person with active TB infects on average of 10 to 15 ...

  9. The Prison Education Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Renford

    2017-12-01

    This article briefly compares the prison system in the United States with progressive correctional systems in the world, before pivoting to discuss the lessons learned from the author's development of the Prison Education Project (PEP). PEP has expanded educational opportunities for inmates in 12 Californian correctional facilities. With the assistance of 800 university student and faculty volunteers, PEP has serviced approximately 5,000 inmates in these facilities since 2011. By providing academic, life skills and career development programming, PEP aims to educate, empower and transform the lives of incarcerated individuals. This article is a summary of the development of PEP, examining programme outcomes and highlighting implementation, fundraising and branding strategies. The robust spirit of volunteerism is also a central component of the discussion, with the phenomenon of "reciprocal reflex" at the heart of the PEP volunteer experience. This reflex ignites the passion and gratitude of both volunteers and inmates. The volunteers learn just as much as they teach, and the inmates teach just as much as they learn. The fact that each group shows deep gratitude to the other for the learning experience creates an exciting symbiotic loop and an esprit de corps which inspires and empowers all involved. The "reciprocal reflex" leads to lifelong learning. This article captures the intricate dynamics of how PEP has evolved into the largest volunteer-based prison education programme of its kind in the United States.

  10. Ethical issues of prison nursing: A qualitative study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Loredana; Delogu, Barbara; Carrozzino, Roberto; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria

    2018-05-01

    Prisons are contexts where nurses are required to have specific skills to ensure that, in a setting designed for the expiation of crime, prisoners receive the same type of care as anyone else. But this is not always the case, giving rise to ethical issues. 'How do correctional nurses describe their working experience in prisons? What issues emerged?' This is a qualitative descriptive study. Following purposive sampling, we conducted five focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Participants and research context: Our sample included 31 correctional nurses in seven prisons in Northern Italy. Ethical considerations: The scientific merit of this study was recognized by the Academic Board of the University of Genoa. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Liguria Regional Government that funded this study and from the Local Health Authority that was the prison nurses' employer. Formal consent was obtained from all the nurses who volunteered to participate in this study. Five themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) prisoners' healthcare needs, (2) negotiation between custody and care, (3) satisfaction of working in prisons, (4) obstacles to quality care and (5) safety. 'Manipulation' was a transversal theme that emerged from all the focus groups. The problems generated by the clash between prison security and nursing care priorities did not enable nurses to practice autonomously and provide the best possible to care prisoners, giving rise to ethical issues and moral distress. This in turn causes high nursing turnover rates that negatively impact continuum of care. In Italy, correctional nurses urgently require specific education interventions with the participation of all those who work in prisons. Interventions based on the post-modern concept of restorative nursing could offer prison nurses the opportunity to both resolve ethical issues and reduce moral distress.

  11. Group Music Therapy for Prisoners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xi Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Xu, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of psychological problems is high in prisons. Many prisoners have unmet needs for appropriate treatments. Although previous studies have suggested music therapy to be a successful treatment modality for prisoners, more rigorous evidence is needed. This parallel randomised controlled...... study aims to investigate the effectiveness of group music therapy to reduce anxiety and depression, and raise self-esteem in prisoners. One hundred and ninety two inmates from a Chinese prison will be allocated to two groups through randomisation. The experimental group will participate in biweekly...... group music therapy for 10 weeks (20 sessions) while the control group will be placed on a waitlist. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem will be measured by self-report scales three times: before, at the middle, and at the end of the intervention. Logs by the participants and their daily routine...

  12. A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship Between Cell Sharing, Staff-Prisoner Relationships, and Prisoners' Perceptions of Prison Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Toon; van Ginneken, Esther F J C

    2015-09-01

    Prisons worldwide operate under crowded conditions, in which prisoners are forced to share a cell. Few studies have looked at the relationship between cell sharing and the quality of prison life in Europe. This study aims to fill this gap with a multilevel analysis on the link between cell sharing and quality of prison life, using results from a Dutch prisoner survey. Findings show that cell sharing is associated with lower perceived prison quality, which is partially mediated by reduced quality of staff-prisoner relationships. Cell sharing thus undermines the Dutch penological philosophy, which considers staff-prisoner relationships to be at the heart of prisoner treatment and rehabilitation. It is recommended that prisoners are held in single rather than double cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Anxiety and styles of coping with occupational stress resulting from work with 'dangerous' prisoners in prison service officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Pęczkowski, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    Prisoners categorised as 'dangerous' are a category of prisoners that require and/or force into using special measures of caution, protection and security. The aim of the study was to examine the intensity of anxiety (as a state and as a trait) experienced by officers working with 'dangerous' prisoners and styles of coping with stress they adopt. A total of 40 officers working with 'dangerous' prisoners (the study group, SG) and 60 officers of the security department not working with 'dangerous' prisoners (the reference group, RG) were studied. The intensity of anxiety was assessed applying the Polish version of 'State-Trait Anxiety Inventory' (STAI); styles of coping with stress were explored employing the Polish version of 'Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations' (CISS) and the author's own questionnaire. Data were analysed using the mean, standard deviation, difference testing (the Mann-Whitney U test), correlation-regression procedure (Kendall's tau, τ correlation coefficient and forward stepwise multiple regression). Officers in the SG faced verbal and physical aggression; nevertheless, scores of officers in both the groups were within the interval of mean scores for all the studied STAI and CISS variables. Officers in the SG achieved significantly higher scores on the state-anxiety scale and the Emotion-Oriented Style (EOS), and lower scores on the Task-Oriented Style (TOS) and Social Diversion (SD). The correlation-regression procedure indicated that there were relationships between anxiety and styles of coping with stress but they differed slightly between the groups. Officers in the SG feel state anxiety stronger and display a stronger preference for the EOS than officers in the RG. Officers in the RG more strongly prefer the TOS and SD. State anxiety is a variable negatively explaining the TOS in the SG, whereas anxiety as a trait is a variable explaining the EOS in both the groups. The coping styles of warders dealing with dangerous prisoners are

  14. Masculinity, sex and survival in Zambian prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Anne Egelund

    2014-01-01

    Sexual relations between men in prisons occur all over the world, also in African prisons. Sex between men is considered deviant in Zambian society, yet for some prisoners it is a way to cope with the stress of incarceration. Prisoners have to cope with extreme challenges in terms of insufficient...

  15. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  16. [Health situation of prisoners at a prison compliance centre, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osses-Paredes, C; Riquelme-Pereira, N

    2013-02-01

    There are population groups nowadays that are regarded as vulnerable, one of which is the prison population, considered to have major health needs. Nonetheless, people deprived of liberty maintain inherent human rights such as that of health care, which in some situations may take second place. Cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out at El Manzano Prison compliance centre, Concepción, from October 2011 to February 2012 with the implementation of a preventive health exam and a socio-demographic and health questionnaire, for 18+, female and male prisoners in a closed system, on reception of written informed consent. in the study, the population was 85% men, the average age was 34 years, 91.2% receive visits, average term of imprisonment 38 months. At least 45% have a diagnosed disease, prioritizing mental disorders, and respiratory and circulatory system diseases. 56% of prisoners have requested health care infrequently, 33% of which were very satisfied and 32% satisfied with prison health services. The health of the prison population is more impaired than that of the general population, with a larger number of needs that are also different, but there is a positive perception of health by prisoners and a high degree of satisfaction with health services.

  17. Federally-Assisted Healthcare Coverage among Male State Prisoners with Chronic Health Problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Rosen

    Full Text Available Prisoners have higher rates of chronic diseases such as substance dependence, mental health conditions and infectious disease, as compared to the general population. We projected the number of male state prisoners with a chronic health condition who at release would be eligible or ineligible for healthcare coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA. We used ACA income guidelines in conjunction with reported pre-arrest social security benefits and income from a nationally representative sample of prisoners to estimate the number eligible for healthcare coverage at release. There were 643,290 US male prisoners aged 18-64 with a chronic health condition. At release, 73% in Medicaid-expansion states would qualify for Medicaid or tax credits. In non-expansion states, 54% would qualify for tax credits, but 22% (n = 69,827 had incomes of ≤ 100% the federal poverty limit and thus would be ineligible for ACA-mediated healthcare coverage. These prisoners comprise 11% of all male prisoners with a chronic condition. The ACA was projected to provide coverage to most male state prisoners with a chronic health condition; however, roughly 70,000 fall in the "coverage gap" and may require non-routine care at emergency departments. Mechanisms are needed to secure coverage for this at risk group and address barriers to routine utilization of health services.

  18. Federally-Assisted Healthcare Coverage among Male State Prisoners with Chronic Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Grodensky, Catherine A; Holley, Tara K

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners have higher rates of chronic diseases such as substance dependence, mental health conditions and infectious disease, as compared to the general population. We projected the number of male state prisoners with a chronic health condition who at release would be eligible or ineligible for healthcare coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We used ACA income guidelines in conjunction with reported pre-arrest social security benefits and income from a nationally representative sample of prisoners to estimate the number eligible for healthcare coverage at release. There were 643,290 US male prisoners aged 18-64 with a chronic health condition. At release, 73% in Medicaid-expansion states would qualify for Medicaid or tax credits. In non-expansion states, 54% would qualify for tax credits, but 22% (n = 69,827) had incomes of ≤ 100% the federal poverty limit and thus would be ineligible for ACA-mediated healthcare coverage. These prisoners comprise 11% of all male prisoners with a chronic condition. The ACA was projected to provide coverage to most male state prisoners with a chronic health condition; however, roughly 70,000 fall in the "coverage gap" and may require non-routine care at emergency departments. Mechanisms are needed to secure coverage for this at risk group and address barriers to routine utilization of health services.

  19. Self-harm and overcrowding among prisoners in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans; Casillas, Alejandra; Perneger, Thomas; Heller, Patrick; Golay, Diane; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bodenmann, Patrick; Getaz, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Prison institutional conditions affect risk for self-harm among detainees. In particular, prison overcrowding may increase the likelihood of self-harm by creating competition for resources, space, and enhancing a "deprivation state." The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between overcrowding and prisoner acts of self-harm. This cross-sectional study took place at Geneva's pre-trial prison (capacity:376) between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes were acts of self-harm that required medical attention, and self-strangulation/hanging events (combined into one group, as these are difficult to differentiate). Dichotomous predictors were overcrowding index- annual mean daily population divided by capacity ( > 200 percent vs prison change in gender, area of origin, foreign residency, religion, or psychiatric treatment. The present study is limited by the definition and identification of self-harm. The distinction between self-strangulation and self-hanging, and the precise classification of an intent to die is difficult to make in practice, especially with limited prison data records available. The relevant literature addresses the complexity of the association between non-suicidal and suicidal behavior. Despite this, the combined category self-strangulations/hangings gives some indication of severe self-harm events, especially since the methodology of categorization employed was consistent throughout the entire period of the study. Other limitations include the small sample size and the lack of individual patient data and prison data to help control for confounding factors. Despite these drawbacks, pertinent data (socio-demographics and number of prisoners treated for mental health and drug abuse) remained stable over the years. Thus, there are no apparent changes in the inmate population that could be linked to an increase in self-harm. High-security placements and mean prisoner stay have increased over time, with a decrease in staff to prisoner ratio - and these

  20. Federally-Assisted Healthcare Coverage among Male State Prisoners with Chronic Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, David L.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Holley, Tara K.

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners have higher rates of chronic diseases such as substance dependence, mental health conditions and infectious disease, as compared to the general population. We projected the number of male state prisoners with a chronic health condition who at release would be eligible or ineligible for healthcare coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We used ACA income guidelines in conjunction with reported pre-arrest social security benefits and income from a nationally representative samp...

  1. Prison mediation as alternative dispute resolution between domestic prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pastor Seller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a method penitentiary peaceful resolution of internal conflicts based on dialogue and respect, allowing those involved to take responsibility for their behavior, the role in the process and the peaceful resolution of the conflict itself. The research center aims to demonstrate the viability of mediation in prisons for the alternative resolution of interpersonal conflicts among inmates. To do so, first, we analyze the institutional and legal mechanisms for resolving interpersonal conflicts in Spanish prisons. It then proceeds to characterize the prison population from a comparative analysis, identifying, likewise, services and / or existing mediation projects and, finally, discusses, from its participants, conflicts and feasibility of using mediation in Specifically a Penitentiary. For the realization of the research have been used primary and secondary sources, with both quantitative and qualitative. The results of the investigation confirm that mediation is feasible and effective in the prison setting. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE: implications for public health and drug policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Jerôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons and psychiatric (26 French prisons units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST, HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence to 10 (maximum adherence and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66% of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5] but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions.

  3. De-Radicalising Prisoners in Nigeria: developing a basic prison based de-radicalisation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Barkindo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Counter Terrorism Strategy recognised that force alone was not enough to combat violent extremist elements in Nigeria and that a multi-faceted approach was required to counter the threat of violent extremism. The Office of the National Security Advisor (ONSA was tasked with developing an ambitious countering violent extremism (CVE programme consisting of three elements: community-based counter radicalisation; strategic communications; and de-radicalisation. The de-radicalisation element of the CVE programme included establishing a prison based de-radicalisation programme for sentenced and pre-trial prisoners. The challenge facing ONSA and the Nigerian Prisons Service (NPS in setting up the de-radicalisation programme was considerable. Prison conditions were basic; there were no existing offending behaviour programmes on which to build; risk assessment was rudimentary and focussed on escape risk; awareness among staff at all levels of de-radicalisation programmes, their content and how they should be managed, was minimal; specialist staff were in short supply and had no training in running interventions; and resources, both physical and financial, were limited. This paper sets out how ONSA and NPS went about establishing the de-radicalisation programme and describes key elements of that programme, including: creating a supportive operating environment; risk and needs assessment; types of intervention; and programme management and staffing. It highlights the challenges and lessons that can be drawn from the operation of the programme during its first 18 months, which will be of particular interest to low resource, post-conflict and fragile states that are seeking to establish their own basic de-radicalisation programmes.

  4. Closely approaching advanced age in a supermax prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Staughton

    2014-01-01

    When a Social Security recipient reaches the age of 50 years, he or she is classified as "closely approaching advanced age." Todd Ashker is passing this tipping point at Pelican Bay State Prison in California, a supermaximum security facility. My wife and I have corresponded with Mr. Ashker for more than half a dozen years. Although I cannot verify the details of his account, we believe that his representation of facts is generally reliable. He is one of the spokespersons for prisoners who conducted two hunger strikes in 2011 protesting conditions of their confinement. Another, sixty-day hunger strike took place in 2013. Thus, what follows is a story of resilience as well as victimization.

  5. Developing quantitative tools for measuring aspects of prisonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The article describes and discusses the preparation and completion of a quantitative study among prison officers and prisoners.......The article describes and discusses the preparation and completion of a quantitative study among prison officers and prisoners....

  6. Developing a Prison Education Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskew, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This chapter calls for educators to specifically engage the needs of African-American men, who often comprise the largest demographic in prison, in what the author calls the Humiliation-to-Humility Perspective.

  7. Banques, tribunaux et prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Charpin, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Nous avons vu au précédent chapitre de quelle façon les temples de la déesse Gula, dont la santé était la spécialité au sein du panthéon mésopotamien, fonctionnaient comme centres de cure : les plaies des patients y étaient léchées par des chiens élevés dans des chenils, on les pansait avec des onguents préparés dans l’herboristerie, les gens à bout de force venaient s’y reposer. Le présent chapitre s’intéresse aux banques, aux tribunaux et aux prisons. D’une façon qui peut nous paraître éton...

  8. Economic Impacts of Prison Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    implications, not just for the criminal justice system, but for the larger economy. About 770,000 people worked in the corrections sector in 2008. The U.S...Many incarcerated parents previously were main breadwinners , and the instability and increased poverty resulting from their imprisonment is leading...for rehabilitation and reform, not just retribution.30 The first U.S. state prison was established in Philadelphia in 1790. Other prisons followed

  9. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbord, Silvio

    2010-03-01

    To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. Challenges to two central goals of TB control--early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy--were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as 'peers' in health services. The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.

  10. Altered memory and affective instability in prisoners assessed for dangerous and severe personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Tim; Joyce, Eileen; Milton, John; Duggan, Conor; Tyrer, Peter; Rogers, Robert D

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies of borderline personality disorder report neuropsychological impairments in several domains, including memory. No studies have compared memory functioning in high-risk prisoners with borderline personality disorder with similar prisoners with other personality disorders. To explore mnemonic impairments in prisoners undergoing personality assessment as part of the dangerous and severe personality disorder initiative or detained in a medium secure facility. We investigated memory function in 18 prisoners with borderline personality disorder and 18 prisoners with other personality disorders. Prisoners with borderline personality disorder exhibited a pattern of multi-modal impairments in the immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visual information, with some association with affective instability. These deficits were not associated with the severity of personality disturbance. These data suggest that memory deficits have some specificity in relation to the constituent traits of borderline personality disorder and indicate that neuropsychological assessment may be a source of useful adjunctive information for distinguishing between the cognitive and psychological difficulties of individual prisoners.

  11. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf; Nowak, Manfred; Day, Marcus

    2011-05-19

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners.The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  12. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...

  13. "Up yours": smuggling illicit drugs into prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues "on the inside". Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get "on the outside", this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison.

  14. PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN THE CENTRAL PRISON OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... J. Noeske, MD, German Technical Cooperation, BP 4400 (gtz), Douala, Cameroon, ... Conclusion: The study results confirm the high prevalence rates of PTB in prison .... Since prison is a potentially high risk environment for.

  15. QUALITATIVE EDUCATION FOR PRISONERS: A PANACEA TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    attention they deserve in terms of education and counselling, rehabilitation and ... society. This introductory part will discuss the following terms more explicitly. The Prison: A prison is .... The instrument was divided into two sections. Section A ...

  16. Prison and young convicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Linowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penalty, including imprisonment comprises one of the basic forms of reaction to crime. It differs from other possible penalties in the degree of discomfort and in the legal consequences. There are also different goals in case of criminal penalty as a legal and social consequence of a crime or misconduct. Imprisonment aims at taking different actions which consequently, should lead to the situation where the criminal does not return to committing crimes. It is so called penitentiary rehabilitation which is a multidimensional phenomenon and it should be considered from the modern society point of view. Its range includes correction of inadequate individual’s behavior and his or her adaptation of norms and values shared by the general public, as well as taking and being persistent in the process of designing oneself, own personality and consistent implementation of the self- vision in the future, organized hierarchically for the given time periods. Therefore, different means and action are taken under the implementation of imprisonment. Moreover, convicted prisoners are divided into different groups in penitentiaries. One of the groups is the group of young convicts. The goal of this article is to examine and describe the opinion of the young convicts on the penitentiary as a penal and rehabilitation institution. To perform the study, sixty young convicts were selected. In the test method, the diagnostic survey was applied. The original authoring questionnaire was used in the study. The study was performed in the Penitentiary in Radom, in December 2012.

  17. The influence of prison climate on the mental health of adult prisoners: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomany, A; Dickinson, T

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how the prison environment may impact upon the mental health of adult prisoners. This paper highlights that prisoners perceive that the prison environment has a negative influence upon their mental health. However, a small number regarded prison as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is a need for more research in this area specifically relating to the impact the prison climate may have upon those from black and minority ethic groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Little is known regarding how the prison environment may affect the mental health of adult prisoners. Consequently, there is a need to investigate how this setting may exacerbate mental distress among this community. This literature review explores how the prison climate influences the mental health of adult prisoners. A thematic synthesis approach was used to elicit data relating to the aspects of the prison climate, which influence the mental health of prisoners. Four primary themes emerged from the synthesis: social, emotional, organizational and physical aspects. Prisoners perceive the prison climate to have a negative influence upon their mental health. However, perceived positively, prison was regarded as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is limited research available specifically exploring the potential impact of the prison climate upon those from black and ethnic minorities groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Additionally nurses need to take an active role in influencing and structuring the political agenda, which governs the

  18. Psychotherapy and despair in the prison setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Joanna; Loewenthal, Del; Cayne, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline research which aimed to explore psychotherapists' experience of working with despair, in the UK prison setting, through a qualitative phenomenological approach. Within the forensic psychological literature, despair is considered a pathology, associated with suicide and self-harm, resulting from the prisoners histories and the coercive prison setting. In turn, therapeutic writings outline the importance of therapy in the prison setting with despair in providing coping skills, containment and learning opportunities for the prisoners involved. Within the study, ten psychotherapists were interviewed as to their experience of working with clients in despair in the prison setting. The data were analysed via the phenomenological research method Empirical Phenomenological Analysis (EPA), and a secondary analysis through reverie. Through the analysis by EPA, despair emerged in the prison setting as a destabilising phenomenon to which there was no protocol for working with it. Participants also described the prisoners' despair and the despairing prison setting, touching on their own sense of vulnerability and despair. However, drawing on the secondary analysis by reverie, the researcher also became aware of how the phenomenon of despair emerged not simply through the said, but also through the intersubjective. It was therefore through the secondary analysis by reverie that the importance of the attendance to aspects of intersubjectivity in prison research emerged. This paper contributes to the therapeutic writings on despair in the prison setting, alongside holding implications for qualitative research in the prison setting.

  19. Rehabilitation in Justice: The Prisoner's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Edna

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed 348 prison inmates about their needs or interests in rehabilitation programs, reasons for their needs, whether they deserved treatment, and why. Results suggest that prisoners view rehabilitation and reform as the major purpose of punishment or prison sentence. Need was endorsed most often as fairest criterion for program participation.…

  20. Social innovation in the prison service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Brandt, Eva

    of trust and confidence in the prison, and 2) to learn how to engage inmates better in their everyday life inside prison, e.g. through engaging them in collective matters. The process of co-inquiry and co-creation provided a new social infrastructure, which allowed inmates and prison officers to access new...... roles and social positions....

  1. PRISONERS' RIGHTS UNDER THE NIGERIAN LAW: LEGAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    have total assurance of enjoyment of the freedom of personal liberty under the law .... 11 National Human Rights Commission Nigeria Report of Prison Audit, 2009, p. 129. ..... Prisons Act also provides that the Director of the Nigerian Prison Service ..... punishment under any circumstances.95 This principle should, therefore,.

  2. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  3. Borderland Stories about Teaching College in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    Going inside the prison to teach is similar to traveling to a foreign country and encountering a new culture. When educators enter the prison, they experience a physical and social distance from other groups such as teachers on the outside, prison system employees, community members, and even family. Although educators who teach college in prison…

  4. Project-Based Learning in Scottish Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the development of a project-based approach to learning in seven Scottish prisons. It argues that the project-based approach is ideally suited to prison education due to its flexibility and ability to enrich the relatively narrow prison curriculum and create meaningful links with wider society, reducing the isolation of…

  5. Prison hospice: an unlikely success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, E L; Craig, R E

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to introduce hospice and palliative care into American prisons have become fairly widespread, in response to the sharp increase in inmate deaths. The primary impetus originally came from the alarming number of AIDS deaths among prisoners. The new combination therapies have proved very successful in treating AIDS, but are very costly, and many problems must be overcome to ensure their effectiveness in correctional settings. Although the AIDS epidemic seems to be in decline, prisons are experiencing a rise in the number of deaths due to "natural causes." In this article we present a review of the prison hospice scene--the response to this crisis in correctional health care. First, we discuss the challenges facing the introduction of hospice into the correctional setting. Then, we present a brief overview of recent developments and a discussion of some ways hospice components have been adapted for life behind bars. Finally, we indicate some of the prospects for the future. Hospice professionals, armed with thorough professional training and years of experience, often fear that correctional health care providers will only parody superficial aspects of the hospice approach. Continual nudging and nurturing by local and state hospice professionals is required in order to bring about this change in the first place and to sustain it through time. Prison hospice workers need not only initial training, but also ongoing education and personal contact with experienced hospice professionals. While the interest of the big national organizations is necessary, the real action happens when local hospices work with nearby prisons to attend to the needs of dying inmates.

  6. Prison life: television, sports, work, stress and insomnia in a remand prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Bernice S

    2009-01-01

    To compare how prisoners complaining of insomnia and prisoners without sleep problems describe their daily activities, stress factors and the perceived reasons for their sleep quality in prison. 102 randomly chosen remanded prisoners complaining of insomnia and 61 randomly chosen prisoners who did not complain of insomnia. Prisoners complaining of insomnia and those reporting good sleep differed significantly in their lifestyle in prison. A significantly higher percentage of the former than of the latter reported writing letters, diaries or a book in prison, as well as doing "arts-related" activities such as painting and listening to music. A significantly higher percentage of non insomniac prisoners than of prisoners complaining of insomnia practiced sports in prison, watched television, and spent their day discussing and meeting other detainees. PSQI and GHQ scores were significantly different between insomniac and non insomniac prisoners. Insomniac prisoners complained significantly more often than non-insomniac prisoners about sleep disturbances, in the first place by roommates, but also by guards. Activities in prison and stressful events were significant factors associated with the variable "insomnia versus no insomnia" Worries about medical problems (odds ratio: 12.9), being separated or divorced (odds ratio: 8.8), having experienced stressful events during the past week (odds ratio: 8.7), "art" activity (odds ratio: 8.6), and having a GHQ score>10 (odds ratio: 7.7) had the highest odds ratios among the tested covariates. No sports in prison and some activities were also predictors of insomnia when entered separately or conditionally. Our study provides arguments on how to alleviate insomnia in prison: changing conditions of imprisonment is of public health benefit. Increased opportunities to practice sports in prison as well as adequate care for medical problems and psychological support to reduce context related stress should be routinely offered to

  7. Pains and possibilities in prison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molding, Malene

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the complexity of researching staff—prisoner relationships ethnographically, and scrutinizes how the complexity linked to the research process may inform an analysis of relationships in prison. I argue that ethnographic research comes with uncertainty and insecurity, because...... the participation of the researcher, as an informed and involved outsider, requires shifting social engagements in relation to which the researcher constantly has to guard and disguise information and positioning to observe confidentiality and build trust. I demonstrate how the experience of the researcher mirrors...

  8. Health Promotion in a Prison Setting: Experience in Villabona Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Pilar; Enjuanes, Jordi; Morata, Txus; Palasí, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse experiences of a health promotion intervention implemented by the Therapeutic and Educational Unit at Villabona prison in Spain, which aimed to create drug-free spaces as part of a model of social rehabilitation. Design: As part of a larger participatory evaluation study concerning the efficacy of…

  9. Expert perspectives on Western European prison health services: do ageing prisoners receive equivalent care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-09-01

    Health care in prison and particularly the health care of older prisoners are increasingly important topics due to the growth of the ageing prisoner population. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the approaches used in the provision of equivalent health care to ageing prisoners and to confront the intuitive definition of equivalent care and the practical and ethical challenges that have been experienced by individuals working in this field. Forty interviews took place with experts working in the prison setting from three Western European countries to discover their views on prison health care. Experts indicated that the provision of equivalent care in prison is difficult mostly due to four factors: variability of care in different prisons, gatekeeper systems, lack of personnel, and delays in providing access. This lack of equivalence can be fixed by allocating adequate budgets and developing standards for health care in prison.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on Remand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...

  11. The Franco regime: prisons and prisoners | Franquismo: prisiones y prisioneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Chaves Palacios

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The prison policy implemented by the Franco regime brought about a major reverse vis-à-vis the important humanitarian advances that the Second Republic had managed to achieve through its programme of prison legislation. From the very beginning, the Nationalist side passed coercive legislation, which would apply not only during the war period, but would remain in place for decades to come. Republican prisoners were subjected to acts of humiliation in unhealthy and overcrowded jails, where they fought to survive in precarious circumstances, particularly during the war years and the post-war period which are the focus of this article. Such was the fate of the prison population of Extremadura, who would first be locked away in overcrowded provincial prisons and municipal cells, later in improvised concentration camps, and finally, in the post-war period, in penal colonies. | La política carcelaria franquista significó un notable retroceso al importante avance humanitario que logró impulsar la Segunda República en cuanto a legislación penitenciaria. Desde un principio, el bando sublevado aprobó una legislación coercitiva cuya aplicación, lejos de circunscribirse al período bélico, se extendió a décadas posteriores. Los prisioneros republicanos fueron víctimas de vejaciones en cárceles insalubres y hacinadas de reclusos donde trataron de sobrevivir, especialmente en los años de guerra y posguerra a que está referido este artículo, en una situación muy precaria. La población reclusa extremeña sufrió esas consecuencias, primero en las saturadas prisiones provinciales y depósitos municipales, después en los improvisados campos de concentración y con posterioridad, ya en plena posguerra, con las Colonias Penitenciarias.

  12. [Guidelines for substitution treatments in prison populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Maguet, O

    2005-01-01

    Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of

  13. Prison nursing and its training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sánchez-Roig

    Full Text Available The main task of nurses is to take care of sick and healthy people and evaluate changes in their health conditions. The goal is to take the appropriate measures to help their recovery or guarantee a dignified death, and if possible, help them regain autonomy and independence. Nursing is present in different areas: primary health, mental health, accident and emergencies, intensive and coronary care, surgical care, paediatrics, geriatrics, public health, occupational health, teaching, etc. In our case, prison nursing, one of the least known branches of the profession, we wanted to investigate more deeply the work of nurses in prisons, which aspect of health care they are responsible for and to what type of population they are geared towards, as well as the necessary training to be able to work in such a particular environment. To conclude, we have seen that university degrees in general nursing do not include knowledge in this area, and that authors from different countries support the specialization of prison nursing and the need for nurses to be trained according to the health conditions of inmates and the characteristics of prisons.

  14. Prison nursing and its training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Roig, M; Coll-Cámara, A

    2016-12-01

    The main task of nurses is to take care of sick and healthy people and evaluate changes in their health conditions. The goal is to take the appropriate measures to help their recovery or guarantee a dignified death, and if possible, help them regain autonomy and independence. Nursing is present in different areas: primary health, mental health, accident and emergencies, intensive and coronary care, surgical care, paediatrics, geriatrics, public health, occupational health, teaching, etc. In our case, prison nursing, one of the least known branches of the profession, we wanted to investigate more deeply the work of nurses in prisons, which aspect of health care they are responsible for and to what type of population they are geared towards, as well as the necessary training to be able to work in such a particular environment. To conclude, we have seen that university degrees in general nursing do not include knowledge in this area, and that authors from different countries support the specialization of prison nursing and the need for nurses to be trained according to the health conditions of inmates and the characteristics of prisons.

  15. The cultural construction of mental illness in prison: a perfect storm of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanek, Joseph D

    2013-03-01

    Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals' responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs' illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons.

  16. The Cultural Construction of Mental Illness in Prison: A Perfect Storm of Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals’ responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs’ illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545

  17. Is gender a factor in perceived prison officer competence? Male prisoners' perceptions in an English dispersal prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Elizabeth; Grant, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of women officers into HM Prison Service raised questions regarding women's ability to perform what had traditionally been a male role. Existing research is inconclusive as to whether female prison officers are as competent as male prison officers, and whether there are gender differences in job performance. This study examined prisoners' perceptions of male and female prison officers' performance. The hypotheses were that overall competence and professionalism ratings would not differ for men and women officers, but that there would be differences in how men and women were perceived to perform their roles. Women were expected to be rated as more communicative, more empathic and less disciplining. The Prison Officer Competency Rating Scale (PORS) was designed for this study. Ratings on the PORS for male and female officers were given by 57 adult male prisoners. There was no significant difference in prisoners' ratings of overall competence of men and women officers. Of the PORS subscales, there were no gender differences in Discipline and Control, Communication or Empathy, but there was a significant difference in Professionalism, where prisoners rated women as more professional. The failure to find any differences between men and women in overall job competence, or on communication, empathy and discipline, as perceived by prisoners, suggests that men and women may be performing their jobs similarly in many respects. Women were rated as more professional, and items contributing to this scale related to respecting privacy and keeping calm in difficult situations, where there may be inherent gender biases.

  18. Users' views of prison health services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Louise; Hek, Gill; Harris, Francesca; Powell, Jane; Kemple, Terry; Price, Sally

    2007-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the views of prisoners about health services provided in prisons. Prison provides an opportunity for a 'hard to reach' group to access health services, primarily those provided by nurses. Prisoners typically have high health and social needs, but the views and experiences of prisoners about health services in prison have not been widely researched. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 111 prisoners in purposively selected 12 prisons in England in 2005. Interviews covered both prisoners' views of health services and their own ways of caring for their health in prison. Interviews were analysed to develop a conceptual framework and identify dominant themes. Prisoners considered health services part of a personal prison journey, which began at imprisonment and ended on release. For those who did not access health services outside prison, imprisonment improved access to both mental and physical health services. Prisoners identified accessing services, including those provided by nurses, confidentiality, being seen as a 'legitimate' patient and living with a chronic condition as problems within the prison healthcare system. At all points along the prison healthcare journey, the prison regime could conflict with optimal health care. Lack of autonomy is a major obstacle to ensuring that prisoners' health needs are fully met. Their views should be considered when planning, organizing and delivering prison health services. Further research is needed to examine how nurses can ensure a smooth journey through health care for prisoners.

  19. Procedural Justice in prison: The importance of staff characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Molleman, T.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    A humane and fair treatment of prisoners is of intrinsic value in itself, and is generally acclaimed to reduce prisoners' psychological distress and misconduct in prison, and their criminal behavior after release from prison. To create a more just prison climate, scholars have emphasized the

  20. 28 CFR 16.97 - Exemption of Bureau of Prisons Systems-limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the health care of the inmates and the safety and security of the prisons and the public. (p) The... Mental Health Record System (JUSTICE/BOP-007). (7) Inmate Safety and Accident Compensation Record System... Mental Health Records System, (Justice/BOP-007). (o) These exemptions apply only to the extent that...

  1. Housing for the "Worst of the Worst" Inmates: Public Support for Supermax Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Beaver, Kevin M.; Gertz, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Despite concerns whether supermaximum security prisons violate human rights or prove effective, these facilities have proliferated in America over the past 25 years. This punishment--aimed at the "worst of the worst" inmates and involving 23-hr-per-day single-cell confinement with few privileges or services--has emerged despite little…

  2. Primary medical care in Irish prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane P A; O'Dowd, Tom

    2010-03-22

    An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT) inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.

  3. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwright Shane PA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.

  4. Peer social support training in UK prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Warren; Lovely, Rachel

    2017-10-11

    To undertake a service evaluation to assess the effect of peer social support training using two separate learning programmes, which were designed to assist prisoners to support older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities. The service evaluation used an action research approach to support planning, delivery and data collection. Eleven interviews with nine prisoners who had undertaken the peer social support training programmes and two members of prison staff (one nurse manager and one prison officer) were recorded and transcribed by the researchers. This data was coded and thematically analysed to evaluate the findings. Recommendations were made regarding the format and content of the training. The training was well received by the peer social support worker trainees and had several positive outcomes, including increased peer social support, improved relationships between peer social support workers and older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities, increased self-esteem, measured as 'social capital', among peer social support workers, and effective teamworking. The peer social support training programmes were considered to be a positive intervention and were effective in supporting peer social support roles. Recommendations for future training of prisoner peer support workers include involving existing peer social support workers in training and recruitment, and enhancing the role of peer social support workers in prisons by providing them with job descriptions. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  5. [Tobacco reduction in a prison of France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcouët, L; Balanger, S; Meunier, N; Mourgues, A; Grabar, S; Haouili, B; Guillevin, L

    2008-05-01

    Little is known about free nicotine transdermal patch efficacy on tobacco reduction in prisoners. The objective is to study this efficacy in prison as well as motivations to reduce and influence of socioeconomic conditions and other addictions in prisoners' aspiration to stop smoking. A prospective study was proposed to prisoners candidate to tobacco cessation. Assessment was made by questionnaires and visits to physicians working at the prison. Nicotinic patches were systematically proposed to patients with a starting 15 mg/16 h dose (or 10 mg/16 h if the dependence was low), followed by a 10 and 5 mg/16 h dose reduction. Prisoners motivated to smoking cessation (N=73) generally had multiaddictive behaviours and precarious socioeconomic profile. Thirty percent of prisoners self-reported a reduction of 50% of their cigarettes consumption until they left prison. Median duration of this successful treatment was 45 days. Median duration of treatment response for patients who relapsed in prison (15 %) was 75 days. No predictive factor of success was found. Tobacco reduction is possible in prison even if living conditions are not favourable.

  6. Tuberculosis incidence in prisons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Williams, Brian G; Nunn, Paul; Beggiato, Marta; Fedeli, Ugo; Scano, Fabio

    2010-12-21

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF%) to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0-61.8) and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7-36.1), respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF%) of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%-17.9%) and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%-17.2%) in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety disorder in a sample of inmates in a Nigerian prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osasona, Samuel O; Koleoso, Olaide N

    2015-01-01

    Prisoners tend to be marginalized and deprived of the rights and privileges that other citizens in the community enjoy. Their separation from families, adverse effects on health of prison environment, and the uncertainty about the future place a great psychological burden on them which can lead to the development of mental illness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (depression and anxiety) and the associated factors among a sample of the prison inmates. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in design; it was conducted in a medium security prison in Benin City, Nigeria. Participants were interviewed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty-two prisoners who were selected by systematic sampling techniques participated in the study and the data were analyzed using the 16th version of the SPSS with the statistical level of significance set at p anxiety symptoms respectively on the HADS. Overall, 84.5% of the respondents had at least one type of psychiatric morbidity. Age, marital status, self-reported physical and mental health, previous mental illness, imprisonment status, prison accommodation, prison meal, and health care services were found to be significantly associated with depression, anxiety or general psychiatric morbidity. Self-reported poor current mental health was the only variable that predicted all the three types of psychiatric morbidity. Prisoners in this study, and as in previous reports, had high prevalence rates of psychiatric morbidity. Thus, prisoners have a need for regular psychiatric screening and treatment. The consequences of untreated psychiatric morbidity and the need for improved health care services and infrastructure in the prison were discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Inmates perception of the living conditions in a medium security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inmates perception of the living conditions in a medium security prison in North ... and adopted a number of International legal instruments to protect and guarantee ... Data analysis was done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version ...

  9. Programming and Process in Prisoner Rehabilitation: A Prison Mental Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A., III; Faubert, Marie

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning men in prisons. Describes specific program at a prison mental health center which prepares men for reentry into society. Closes with reflections on one man's struggle to grow and prepare for the outside. (CM)

  10. A randomized controlled trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine: prison outcomes and community treatment entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Schwartz, Robert P; Fitzgerald, Terrence T; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vocci, Frank J

    2014-09-01

    Buprenorphine is a promising treatment for heroin addiction. However, little is known regarding its provision to pre-release prisoners with heroin dependence histories who were not opioid-tolerant, the relative effectiveness of the post-release setting in which it is provided, and gender differences in treatment outcome in this population. This is the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine provided to male and female inmates in the US who were previously heroin-dependent prior to incarceration. A total of 211 participants with 3-9 months remaining in prison were randomized to one of four conditions formed by crossing In-Prison Treatment Condition (received buprenorphine vs. counseling only) and Post-release Service Setting (at an opioid treatment center vs. a community health center). Outcome measures were: entered prison treatment; completed prison treatment; and entered community treatment 10 days post-release. There was a significant main effect (p=.006) for entering prison treatment favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (99.0% vs. 80.4%). Regarding completing prison treatment, the only significant effect was Gender, with women significantly (pPrison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (47.5% vs. 33.7%). Buprenorphine appears feasible and acceptable to prisoners who were not opioid-tolerant and can facilitate community treatment entry. However, concerns remain with in-prison treatment termination due to attempted diversion of medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane PA; O'Dowd, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT)...

  12. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    ALLWRIGHT, SHANE PATRICIA ANN; DARKER, CATHERINE; BARRY, JOSEPH; O'DOWD, THOMAS

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods: This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of ...

  13. HIV treatment in US prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Rich, Josiah D

    2010-09-03

    Arguably one of the most marginalized populations in our society, prisoners bear a disproportionate burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV. In addition, groups known to be at an inordinately higher risk of HIV, including minorities, the addicted, the mentally ill and the impoverished are overrepresented among incarcerated populations. This concentration of HIV among groups that have been historically difficult to reach, with limited intersections with healthcare, provides an opportunity for testing, diagnosis, treatment, linkage to care and prevention. Providing HIV care within correctional facilities poses unique challenges. Barriers to confidentiality, access to medication and prior records, and lack of comprehensive discharge planning can serve as obstacles to providing optimal care. This article discusses the public health implications and importance of providing HIV care to prisoners, and also discusses the practicalities of working within an environment that poses particular barriers to care.

  14. One hundred prisoners and a light bulb

    CERN Document Server

    van Ditmarsch, Hans

    2015-01-01

    A group of 100 prisoners, all together in the prison dining area, are told that they will be all put in isolation cells and then will be interrogated one by one in a room containing a light with an on/off switch. The prisoners may communicate with one another by toggling the light switch (and that is the only way in which they can communicate). The light is initially switched off. There is no fixed order of interrogation, or interval between interrogations, and the same prisoner may be interrogated again at any stage. When interrogated, a prisoner can either do nothing, or toggle the light switch, or announce that all prisoners have been interrogated. If that announcement is true, the prisoners will (all) be set free, but if it is false, they will all be executed. While still in the dining room, and before the prisoners go to their isolation cells (forever), can the prisoners agree on a protocol that will set them free? At first glance, this riddle may seem impossible to solve: how can all of the necessary in...

  15. Prevention of Suicidal Behavior in Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Background: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. Aims: To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. Method: We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000–2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. Results: We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Conclusion: Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:27278569

  16. Prisoner research - looking back or looking forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David L

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about prisoner research and the controversies surrounding prisoners as human subjects. The Institute of Medicine recently released a report addressing some of these issues. This report, which generated further controversy, needs to be fully discussed in the literature and certain aspects are examined in this work. Further, in the body of literature there has been little acknowledgement of the concept of the right of prisoners to be involved in research. This needs to be pursued from an ethical perspective and eventually a legal one. This paper explores that concept and documents some facilities in which a prisoner's right to research has occurred.

  17. Field study of the indoor environment in a Danish prison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogbeh, Audrey; Jomaas, Grunde; Bjarløv, Søren Peter

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment in a Danish prison was evaluated based on measurements made during the summer season of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide, as well as through carefully conducted surveys among the inmates. The temperatures in the cells were high and well beyond common levels...... a compromise must be found to ensure that the building can comply with minimum health and comfort standards. The findings of this study can be used as background for recommendations for renovation of prison buildings.......The indoor environment in a Danish prison was evaluated based on measurements made during the summer season of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide, as well as through carefully conducted surveys among the inmates. The temperatures in the cells were high and well beyond common levels...... in Danish buildings. The mean CO2 concentrations were generally low, but reached high maximum levels up to 5000 ppm. Thirty-one inmates responded to the questionnaire. They spent on average 19 h in the cell per day (range 12–23 h). Sixty-nine percent of the inmates expressed dissatisfaction...

  18. Cognitive function is associated with prison behaviour among women in prison but not with subjective perception of adjustment to prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Nuno B F; Fonseca, Duarte A; Marques, Alina B; Rocha, Susana A; Hoaken, Peter N S

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable evidence that aspects of cognitive function, especially executive function, are associated with antisocial behaviour and violence, but most research to date has measured current cognition and previous criminal behaviour. Furthermore, this research has been conducted almost exclusively with male offenders. The aim of this study is to examine relationships between a wide range of cognitive functions and behaviours among women in prison. Our hypotheses were that cognitive functioning would be associated with both more-or-less contemporaneously observed behaviour problems and self-rated adjustment to the environment. Forty-five drug-free imprisoned female offenders were individually assessed on a battery of cognitive measures. Prison staff rated their behaviour on the Prison Behaviour Rating Scale and the women rated their own sense of adjustment to the environment on the Prison Adjustment Questionnaire. Stepwise hierarchical regressions indicated that attention was independently associated with behaviours reflecting tension, depression, isolation, fear, victimisation and worry, whereas processing speed was independently associated with behaviours reflecting lack of energy, mental slowness and lack of awareness of the surrounding environment and total Prison Adjustment Questionnaire score. There was no relationship between cognitive functioning and subjective perception of adjustment to prison. Results indicate that cognition contributes to some of the behavioural problems displayed by inmates in the prison context. Future studies should evaluate the role of programmes to improve cognitive processes in also improving prison behaviour and also test for continuities and discontinuities with post-release integrative success. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A method for analyzing changing prison populations: explaining the growth of the elderly in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luallen, Jeremy; Kling, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. prison system has witnessed a steady and persistent increase in the ages of prison populations. Given the additional costs and burdens placed on prisons as they house older inmates, this aging trend has generated intense interest among policy makers and academics who seek to understand why prison populations are getting older. This article presents a method for evaluating drivers influencing the change in age distributions among prisoners. We define a methodological approach and demonstrate its application using prison data from four states reporting to the Bureau of Justice Statistics' National Corrections Reporting Program. We find that since 2000, the primary driver of overall growth in the elderly populations in prison (defined as inmates over 50) is the increasing admission age of offenders entering prison. Moreover, changes in offense mix and sentence length/time served over the last decade have had significantly less influence on the age composition of prison populations. We also find that the impact of explanatory factors varies across states and offense types. For example, prison admission and exit rates explain much of the change in elderly drug offenders in New York, but not elderly violent offenders, where admission age plays a much stronger explanatory role. Our analysis offers an effective demonstration that supports the use of this method as an important and informative first step toward understanding components of change that affect the problem of prison aging. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Identifying health promotion needs among prison staff in three English prisons: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2013-03-01

    Prisons are seen as a (temporary) home and community for offenders, yet they also have a dual role as a workplace for prison staff. This article explores how the "healthy settings" philosophy, commonly used in schools, applies in the prison environment. The article explores the concept of the health-promoting prison from the perspective of prison staff using semistructured interviews in three English prisons. Data were analyzed using Attride-Stirling's thematic network approach. The findings indicate that working in a prison can be highly stressful and can have a negative impact on physical and mental health. Staff perceived that the focus of health promotion efforts was in many cases exclusively focused on prisoners, and many suggested that prison staff needs were being overlooked. The article argues that the theory and practice of a health-promoting prison have developed rapidly in recent years but still lag behind developments in other organizations. The article suggests that health promotion policy and practice in prison settings may need to be reconfigured to ensure that the needs of all those who live and work there are recognized.

  1. The impact of prison staff responses on self-harming behaviours: prisoners' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Ciclitira, Karen; Adler, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    To further understanding of how health and correctional staff responses to self-harming behaviours influence prisoners and their subsequent actions. Participant-centred, qualitative methods were used to explore the complex and under-researched perspectives of self-harming male prisoners. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 adult male prisoners who had engaged in repetitive, non-suicidal self-harm during their current prison sentence, or considered doing so. The interviews were analyzed drawing on principles of thematic analysis and discourse analysis. With some exceptions, prison officers, nurses, and doctors are portrayed by prisoners as being ill-prepared to deal with repetitive self-harm, often displaying actively hostile attitudes and behaviours. These findings underscore the need for appropriate training, support and supervision for staff working with self-harming prisoners. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Ageing prisoners' health care: analysing the legal settings in Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the current health care situation and the legal rights of ageing prisoners worldwide. To date, only a few studies have investigated their rights to health care. However, elderly prisoners need special attention. The aim of this article is to critically review the health care situation of older prisoners by analysing the relevant national and international legal frameworks with a particular focus on Switzerland, England and Wales, and the United States (U.S.). Publications on legal frameworks were searched using Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, HeinOnline, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Searches utilizing combinations of keywords relating to ageing prisoners were performed. Relevant reports and policy documents were obtained in order to understand the legal settings in Switzerland, England and Wales, and the U.S. All articles, reports, and policy documents published in English and German between 1774 to June 2012 were included for analysis. Using a comparative approach, an outline was completed to distinguish positive policies in this area. Regulatory approaches were investigated through evaluations of soft laws applicable in Europe and U.S. Supreme Court judgements. Even though several documents could be interpreted as guaranteeing adequate health care for ageing prisoners, there is no specific regulation that addresses this issue completely. The Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing contributes the most by providing an in-depth analysis of the health care needs of older persons. Still, critical analysis of retrieved documents reveals the lack of specific legislation regarding the health care for ageing prisoners. No consistent regulation delineates the provision of health care for ageing prisoners. Neither national nor international institutions have enforceable laws that secure the precarious situation of older adults in prisons. To initiate a change, this work presents critical issues that must be

  3. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  4. Women Prisoners: Reintegration into Family and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Martha E.; Ackerman, Rosalie J.

    Little research exists that addresses the issue of rehabilitation of women prisoners. To examine the effectiveness of a group psychotherapy program in assisting women prisoners to make the transition to the community and their families, 16 institutionalized women participated in a workshop. The program involved both individual and group…

  5. Shakespeare in Prison: affecting health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Heard, Emma; Mutch, Allyson; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Pensalfini, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the impacts of the Queensland Shakespeare Ensemble Prison Project (QSEPP) on the health and wellbeing of participants, specifically with regard to social support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with prisoners participating in the project to gain insight into perceived sense of support within the QSEPP and across the prison context more broadly. The QSEPP encouraged participants to foster a range of support networks through the development of relationships built on trust, respect and shared experiences. Participants also developed communication skills which may assist with establishing and maintaining supportive relationships inside and outside of prison. This research highlights the inevitable challenges for researchers working within the prison context, including: correctional services' limitations, time and space restrictions and small sample sizes. This research offers some potentially innovative ways to combat such challenges. The study highlights the potential of theatre-based interventions in the prison context and their role in fostering social support and enhancing wellbeing. The research explores the potential role theatre may play in improving the health and wellbeing of a disadvantaged and marginalised group, providing skills to enhance access to supportive networks inside and outside prison. To the best of our knowledge this is the first research of its kind and provides valuable insights into the role that theatre may play in fostering social support in the prison context.

  6. The Prisoner's Dilemma: Introducing Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Doug J.; Miller, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1950, the Prisoner's Dilemma has intrigued economists and amused fans of mathematics. It presents a situation in which two players acting to their own advantage do not do as well together as two players whose actions oppose their individual interests--hence, the dilemma. Variations of the Prisoner's Dilemma have appeared in diverse…

  7. Anna's Story of Life in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodle, Anna; Ellem, Kathy; Chenoweth, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability in prison can be at increased risk of victimisation, segregation and isolation (Mullen ). Prison systems usually have very few resources to cater to this group's particular needs, and many people may re-enter the community with little or no rehabilitation, poor social connections, poor mental health and…

  8. Corruption of Prison Staff in Inmate Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Daniel; Fry, Lincoln J.

    1987-01-01

    Qualitative study of New Jersey State Prison (Sykes, 1956) concluded that authority of guards was corrupted by inmates. This study analyzed quantitative and qualitative research from three California prisons which supports Sykes' conclusion and agrees that reciprocity and default are factors in the corruption. (Author/NB)

  9. Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

  10. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  11. Parenting from Prison: Staying Connected while Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Angela; Pickholtz, Naomi; Green, Allison; Rumble, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The United States has more people in prison than any other country, and more than half of those incarcerated are parents. This article reviews the challenges to parenting while in prison and considers how parental attachment experiences and difficult life trajectories have an impact on parent-child relationships. The authors provide examples of…

  12. Prison Education across Europe: Policy, Practice, Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Anne; Warner, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the education offered in prisons varies greatly. Provision can be focused narrowly on limited objectives, such as training for employment or seeking to "address offending behaviour." On the other hand, where prison education follows the policies of the Council of Europe or the European Union, which are drawn from the…

  13. Testing the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily G.

    2017-01-01

    The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a social phenomenon where students become formally involved with the criminal justice system as a result of school policies that use law enforcement, rather than discipline, to address behavioral problems. A potentially important part of the School-to-Prison Pipeline is the use of sworn School Resource Officers…

  14. Page | 159 UNIVERSALITY OF PRISONERS' RIGHT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Abstract. This paper examines the concept of human right as well as the universality in the application of the concept to the prisoners' welfare in most countries of the world. To determine the level of conformity of this concept in Nigeria, the paper discusses the post-conviction problems prisoners face in Nigeria as against ...

  15. Concerns About Lung Cancer Among Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Luc; Perrot, Emmanuel; Pradat, Eric; Bartoli, Christophe; Greillier, Laurent; Remacle-Bonnet, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Mazières, Julien; Molinier, Laurent; Couraud, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have looked at lung cancer in prisoners, despite this population is possibly at increased risk of malignancy. In a previous study, we found an early onset of lung cancer in prisoners. Thus, the present CARCAN study was aimed at assessing the epidemiological characteristics, management, prognosis, and incidence of lung cancer in prisoners compared to a sample of non-prisoner patients. We performed a multi-center observational case-control study. Cases were prisoners diagnosed with lung cancer from 2005 to 2013. Controls were non-prisoner lung cancer patients selected from hospital databases and randomly matched to cases (targeted case-control ratio: 1:3). Incidence rates in both groups were calculated using national statistics. Seventy-two cases and 170 controls met inclusion criteria. Cases were mainly men (99%). Mean age at diagnosis was 52.9 (± 11.0) in cases and 64.3 (± 10.1) in controls (p < 0.0001). More case patients were current smokers compared to control patients (83% vs 53%; p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences between the two groups as concerns histologic types, TNM stages at diagnosis, initially-employed treatments, times to management or survival. Incidence rates (2008-2012) in male prisoners were higher than those in the general population in all concerned age groups. There is a shift of lung cancer toward young people in prisons. However, the presentation, management, and prognosis of lung cancer are similar between prisoners and non-prisoners. These finding could justify a specific screening policy for the incarcerated populations.

  16. Prisoner Transfer to South Africa: Some of the Likely Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Official and unofficial reports indicate that the South African government is in the process of entering into prisoner transfer agreements or making prisoner transfer arrangements. This comes after many years of reluctance on the part of the government to sign a prisoner transfer agreement or enter into any prisoner transfer ...

  17. Nigeria Prisons and the Dispensation of Justice | Ajayi | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria prison system was modeled by colonial prison administration with emphasis on punishment and deterrence. This contradicts the fundamental objective of prison establishment as a corrective institution, for reformation, rehabilitation and re-integration of inmates. The position of prison in criminal justice administration ...

  18. Apartheid's Alcatraz: the Barberton prison complex during the early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this two-part article is to examine in detail the public discourse surrounding the Barberton Prison Complex during the early 1980s, at the height of the apartheid era. The prisons within the Barberton Prison Complex were notorious as being among the most punitive of the many prisons within apartheid South ...

  19. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.

  20. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  1. Hepatitis C viral infection among prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Velimir; Radović, Jelena; Djordjević, Jovana; Vujić, Stevan

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important sociomedical problem worldwide because the chronification of the disease is frequent and the occurance of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma can be expected. The aim of this study was to determine the way of infection, pathohistological changes of the liver, virus genotype presence and sustained virological response after pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in prison inmates. The study included 52 patients with chronic HCV infection classified in two groups managed during 2008-2010. The first group consisted of prisoners (n = 22) and the second one of "non-prisoners" (n = 30). The patients from both groups underwent diagnostic preparation (biochemical analyses, liver biopsy, hepatitis virus detection and genotypisation using polymerase chain reaction issue). The treatment lasted for 24 weeks for virus genotypes 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotypes 1 and 4. All the patients were males, approximately the same age (35 +/- 4.1 and 31 +/- 7.6 years). Virus genotype 1 was significantly more frequent in the prisoners (p < 0.05), that demanded longer treatment (48 weeks). At the same time, statistically significant higher number of patients, "non-prisoners", achieved a sustained virological response (p < 0.01). Intravenous drug abuse and tattoos, separately or together, are the most frequent way of infection in prisoners. The dominant presence of virus genotype 1 resulted in lower number of patients with sustained virological response, probably regardless prison environment and regime.

  2. Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J

    2014-10-01

    Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Tuberculosis and HIV control in sub-Saharan African prisons: "thinking outside the prison cell".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stewart E; Topp, Stephanie M; Turnbull, Eleanor R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Maggard, Katie R; Roberts, Sarah T; Krüüner, Annika; Morse, Jill C; Kapata, Nathan; Chisela, Chileshe; Henostroza, German

    2012-05-15

    Tuberculosis is one of the fastest-growing epidemics in prison populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a threat to both inmates and the wider community. Various factors have contributed to the breakdown of tuberculosis control in prison facilities in SSA, including slow and insensitive diagnostics, failing prison infrastructure, inadequate funding, and weak prevention and treatment interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this article, we describe the challenges inherent in current approaches to tuberculosis control in prisons and consider the alternatives. We argue that although improved implementation of conventional tuberculosis control activities is necessary, considerable investment in a broader range of public health interventions, including infrastructure and staffing upgrades, cutting-edge tuberculosis diagnostics, and combination prevention for HIV, will be equally critical. This combination response to tuberculosis in prisons will be essential for tackling existing and nascent prison tuberculosis epidemics and will require high-level political support and financing.

  4. Intellectual disability and the prison setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tort

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.

  5. Revision and Implementation of "Clinical Guideline for Tuberculosis and HIV in Prisons", Great Tehran Prison, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoudi, Behnam; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Tabarsi, Payam; Mohraz, Minoo; Golrokhy, Raheleh; Farnia, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Alasvand, Ramin; Ebrahimi, Bahman; Esfehani, Jafar; Tashakoriyan, Mehrzad

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of the revised "Clinical Guideline for HIV and TB" in the Great Tehran Prison during October 2013 to June 2014. The guideline includes all aspects of HIV/TB diagnosis based on active case finding (ACF), treatment and care services. Before the implementation, a focus group discussion was conducted, and attended by experts on prison health. The objective was to identify defects and limitations of the guideline. After the discussion, the guideline was revised. The Great Tehran Prison contains three separate units; all prisoners are taken first to "reception and identification unit (quarantine)" and then send to two housing units according to their legal status. An HIV ACF strategy was employed in the quarantine, and two units through a voluntary provider-initiated HIV testing. Three staff of the triangular clinic trained the prisoners about common routes of HIV transmission and the symptoms of TB in the units. In the quarantine, all prisoners were examined for all HIV-risk factors, HIV testing and symptoms of TB. In unit one, healthcare staff continued the ACF process, while in unit two, the peers of prisoners were assigned as the healthcare communicators to proceed with the strategy. At this caring process, when the test result was positive, then the process of care, treatment and follow ups was initiated. Moreover, the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and TB was applied to the sick prisoners. There was also a follow-up caring for released prisoner to refer them to care and treatment services outside the prison. The guideline was implemented in the prison successfully. Regarding feasibility of the guideline, the investigators of this study suggest that the guideline should be implemented in other prisons across the country. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Honour and respect in Danish prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Julie; Laws, Ben

    2017-01-01

    to create accountable and rational actors, who ‘self-manage’, the therapeutic ethos neglects participants’ life experiences and subcultural capital. Open expressions of moral values by prisoners (such as displays of honour and respect) are considered to be cognitive distortions which are dismissed......Using empirical data from prison-based cognitive-behavioural programmes, this article considers how prisoners’ subcultural capital shapes their responses to demands for ‘cognitive self-change’. We argue that accounts of ‘respect’ in the prior literature fail to capture how prisoners react...

  7. A working theology of prison ministry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stephen T

    2004-01-01

    Drawing upon experiences as a prison chaplain and a state director of prison chaplaincy services, the author proposes a working theology of prison ministry. Such a theology begins with an understanding of the inherent worth of humankind as created by God in God's own image, addresses the question of hope, embodies the incarnate presence of God by being present with people in their alienation, enables the giving and receiving of forgiveness, deals with issues of power and control, and respects the diverse paths that humans take in their walk toward and with God.

  8. The Diet of Prisoners in England

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, John; Hartwell, Heather; Reeve, William G.; Schafheitle, Joachim M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to establish whether the meals provided by the prison service enable prisoners to follow government guidelines on nutrition and healthy eating, and the extent to which they do so.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A total of eight prisons, four male (category A, B and C), two female and two young offenders’ institutes were randomly identified and visited. Data collection involved taking three days of cyclical menus, the institution’s recipes and me...

  9. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. The Issue of Prisoners of War (POWS, 1971 and Recognition of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available After the surrender of Pakistan army, near about 93,000 Pakistani military personnel and civilians were taken to India as Prisoners of war (POWs. The UNO Security Council passed a resolution on December 21, 1971 calling upon the parties to observe the Geneva Convention and not to attach any conditions to the repatriation of the POWs. Article 118 of the Geneva Convention (1949 puts it as a condition that Prisoners of War must be repatriated immediately after the cessation of active hostilities. It also stipulates that detaining power is obliged to work out a plan for their repatriation. India declared as an afterthought that Pakistan Army had surrendered to joint command of India and Bangladesh and therefore it was not within the jurisdiction of India to repatriate the prisoners of war at her own. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman, on the other hand, had declared that he would not take part in any meeting, bi-lateral or tri-lateral, unless Bangladesh was recognized by Pakistan. On August 28, 1973 India and Pakistan signed an agreement in Delhi to repatriate 93000 civil and military prisoners of war to Pakistan. Bengalis in Pakistan were to be returned to Bangladesh. Mujib Ur Rahman clung to his demand of trial of 195 war criminals. Bhutto insisted that Pakistan would not recognize Bangladesh until all prisoners of war were released. Recognition of Bangladesh by Pakistan in February 1974 led to rapprochement between the two countries. A tripartite agreement between India-Pakistan-Bangladesh signed in April 1974 resolved all contentious issues related to 1971 war and paved the way for return of 195 war criminals as well. The last batch of prisoners of war reached Lahore in April 1974.

  11. Health at work and coping with stress of prison officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit–Kowalkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to assess the state of mental and physical health and the expressed strategies for coping with stress of prison officers which are a group that is relatively unknown and seldom subjected to the tests. Among the coping strategies, the authors also identified those that were predictors of mental and physical well-being at work men working professionally in penitentiary institutions. Material and Methods The sample consisted of 90 prison officers working in the security department who are in direct contact with inmates. The control group consisted of 85 men working in services and trade in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship (Poland, chosen by the authors as a result of intentional selection. The study used the following tools: "Psychosocial Working Conditions" Questionnaire by R. Cieślak, M. Widerszal – Bazyl, Mini-COPE Questionnaire by C.S. Carver, adapted to Poland by Z. Juczyński and N. Ogińska-Bulik. Socio-demographic data were also collected. The results were compared with a group of men working outside the uniformed services. Results In the group of prison officers, longer seniority was associated with a statistically significant deterioration of mental and physical well-being. Based on higher level of seeking support in stressful situations as well as a lower level of helplessness, one could predict a higher general level of physical and mental well-being. Conclusions Due to the character of the work and the risk of negative phenomena is important broad-based health promotion in this occupational group.

  12. Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates, California, USA, 2011

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Dr. Charlotte Wheeler discusses Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates in California.  Created: 2/26/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  13. Prison Radicalization: The New Extremist Training Grounds?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coffin, Jr., McKinley D

    2007-01-01

    As a nation with the largest prison population in the world, the United States has all the ingredients for criminals, extremists, and religious radicals to collaborate in producing a new breed of homegrown terrorist...

  14. Health-promoting prisons: theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baybutt, Michelle; Chemlal, Khadoudja

    2016-03-01

    As a setting, prisons offer a unique opportunity to invest in the health of disadvantaged and marginalised populations and address health inequalities and social exclusion - thereby achieving sustainable improvements in well-being for offenders and their families and in turn, helping to reduce rates of re-offending. This article draws on English and French experiences and doctoral research to advocate a shift from a pathogenic model towards a salutogenic model of health as a helpful way to address inequalities and thus, by promoting joined-up working across justice and wider systems, impact positively beyond 'health' for the effective resettlement of prisoners. The paper utilises examples from horticulture to further argue the powerful role of nature in the prison setting in mediating aspects of culture particularly relating to processes of socialisation. Critical success lies in bridging across systems and a commitment to joined-up working at all levels across and beyond prison. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Reach and Relevance of Prison Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Tubex

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I reflect on the changes in the penal landscape and how they impact on prison research. I do this from my experiences as a prison researcher in a variety of roles, in both Europe and Australia. The growing dominance of managerialism has impacted on both corrective services and universities, in ways that have changed the relationship between current prison practices and academically oriented research. Therefore, academics have to question how their contemporary prison research can bridge the emerging gap: how they can not only produce research that adheres to the roots of criminology and provides a base for a rational penal policy, but also how they can develop strategies to get recognition of and funding for this broader contextual work which, although it might not produce results that are immediately identifiable, can be of relevance in indirect ways and in the longer term.

  16. Burnout among Danish prison personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Raaby; Andersen, Lars Peter; Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this follow-up study was to investigate associations between individual, occupational and work environment factors and burnout among both uniformed and non-uniformed personnel working in the Danish Prison and Probation Service. Methods The participants (N = 4808......) with client contact received a questionnaire in 2010 and again in 2011. In 2010, 2843 participants responded to the questionnaire (59.1%), and in 2011, 1741 responded to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 61.2% of the baseline population, and 36.2% of the invited population. Burnout and work...... characteristics were measured with validated scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, and data was analysed by logistic regression. Results Risk factors with the highest impact on burnout were work environmental factors: quantitative demands, emotional demands, involvement in and meaning of work...

  17. Environmental Report Utah State Prison Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This environmental report assesses the potential impact of developing a geothermal resource for space heating at the Utah State Prison. Wells will be drilled on prison property for production and for injection to minimize reservoir depletion and provide for convenient disposal of cooled fluid. The most significant environmental concerns are the proper handling of drilling muds during well drilling and the disposal of produced water during well testing. These problems will be handled by following currently accepted practices to reduce the potential risks.

  18. Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1982-01-01

    Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nu...

  19. Australian Correctional Management Practices for Terrorist Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Tompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.

  20. Prison nursing: legal framework and care reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carrasco-Baún

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penitentiary Nursing has experienced during the last decades a deep transformation similar to that experienced by the rest of the Nursing. However, there is a great distance from the protective legislation. Objective: To analyze the main legal documents which regulate the functions of Penitentiary Nursing and to compare it with the health care reality of nurses in Spanish prisons. Methodology: Narrative bibliographic review based on various sources such as Medline, Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, etc. Results: Is selected 43 documents, due to its relevance with the theme object of study. Is rejected 4 articles for lack of the same. Analyzed documents regarding legal framework and functions of nursing in prisons in its different sections (health care, teaching, research and management. Conclusion: The functions currently carried out in prisons are the ones provided for by health care legislation outside the prison context, along with the internal administrative regulations established by prisons. The possibility should be reconsidered of integrating Prison Healthcare into the Public Healthcare System so as to guarantee equality of healthcare for persons deprived of liberty and to provide the same rights and obligations to health professionals working in this sector.

  1. Skin infections and infestations in prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, Olumayowa A; Onayemi, Olaniyi

    2012-02-01

    Skin infections and infestations are common in a prison environment. The prison is in dynamic equilibrium with the larger society. Hence, it serves as a reservoir of infections which can spread to the larger society. The study sets out to find out how rampant these infections might be in the prison and the factors responsible. Inmates at a Nigerian prison in Ilesha, Osun State, were examined for skin infections. Personal hygiene and living conditions were critically examined. The overall prevalent rate of infectious dermatoses was 49.2% (150/305). There were 178 infections. Dermatophytes accounted for 64%, pityriasis versicolor 27%, bacterial infections 3.4%, and others 5.6%. Only frequency of soap use and accommodation arrangement significantly contributed to the overall prevalence. However, infectious dermatoses were significantly affected by prison status (PP = 0.04), frequency of bath (PP = 0.025), changing of clothing (PP = 0.05), accommodation arrangement (P = 0.0001), frequency of soap usage (P = 0.005), and toilet facility (P = 0.001). The HIV status of the inmates was unknown. Hence, effect of HIV infection cannot be ascertained. Skin infections and infestations are common in prison. A change in living conditions and personal hygiene will definitely help in reducing these infections. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Old and dangerous: Prison and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Di Fiorino, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in many countries. The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenon of detention of persons suffering from dementia. Medline searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters and books published until August 2016. Search terms included dementia, elderly, prison and criminal. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. As results, there is a lack of data about elderly with dementia in prisons. Given the rise in the average age, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the number of older prisoners is growing. Moreover, some elderly are imprisoned with a concomitant cognitive impairment or psychiatric disorder while others will develop such diseases once incarcerated. At the present time, legal and social systems seem unprepared to handle the phenomenon of dementia in prison. As proposal, health assessments for older first time offenders should become a practice inside the correctional facilities and include an evaluation for specific health issues, such as psychiatric comorbidity and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Should condoms be available in prisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Worldwide, it is increasingly recognized that sex occurs in prisons and this condition promotes HIV transmission among men. It is noted that in prisons, men usually engage in consensual or forced anal sex for lust, comfort, privileges or domination. This sexual behavior is one of the riskiest sexual practices in transmitting HIV infection because of the frequent tearing of sensitive anal membranes. In view of such a serious problem, that will also impact widely on the community when prisoners are released, a multi-pronged strategy is needed. Several initiatives addressing the issue are being reviewed or implemented in various countries. In Zimbabwe, among the listed options under consideration in the draft National Policy on HIV/AIDS, the most debated policy issue is the dissemination of condoms in prison. Much public dissent has been noted, in which the fear is that this would be seen as condoning homosexuality. However, it is emphasized that the issue in prisons is not one of homosexuality, but of recognizing that many heterosexual men in prison will take the only sexual outlet available to them (in addition to masturbation). In doing so, they are at great risk of HIV infection, hence encouraging mutual or self masturbation and actively promoting condom use must be part of the response to the epidemic issue.

  4. Prison nursing: legal framework and care reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Baún, H

    2017-06-01

    Penitentiary Nursing has experienced during the last decades a deep transformation similar to that experienced by the rest of the Nursing. However, there is a great distance from the protective legislation. To analyze the main legal documents which regulate the functions of Penitentiary Nursing and to compare it with the health care reality of nurses in Spanish prisons. Narrative bibliographic review based on various sources such as Medline, Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, etc. Is selected 43 documents, due to its relevance with the theme object of study. Is rejected 4 articles for lack of the same. Analyzed documents regarding legal framework and functions of nursing in prisons in its different sections (health care, teaching, research and management). The functions currently carried out in prisons are the ones provided for by health care legislation outside the prison context, along with the internal administrative regulations established by prisons. The possibility should be reconsidered of integrating Prison Healthcare into the Public Healthcare System so as to guarantee equality of healthcare for persons deprived of liberty and to provide the same rights and obligations to health professionals working in this sector.

  5. PRIVATIZATION OF BRAZILIAN PRISONS: THE TWO SIDES OF THE CURRENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilderline Câmara de Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1990s, in Brazil, privatization has proved to be an emergency exit to crisis of services that the State cannot offer efficiently, such as Education, Health, Transportation, and more recently Social Security. The agenda in question is now Public Safety. Failing to meet the demand for lawsuits that pass through the Judiciary, Brazilian prisons are becoming increasingly overcrowded; the services lagged; Constant rebellions, high crime rate, denial of human rights and structural violence, glaring. Thus, this article aims to reflect on both sides of the 'currency' of prisons privatizations in the Brazilian scenario. He used the research with a qualitative approach and bibliographical character with the support of theoretical references from the specialized literature in the area, besides the technical documents, official reports from the Government and NGOs that carry out social control works. The research has shown that privatization seems to be the best way out in the short term and can solve a number of social problems, but how can one think of the profitable return that all privatization requires if its main objective is to reduce the target population? So either this alternative will create a market that, if it turns out, will end itself, or we will end up creating an even more perverse logic of incarceration.

  6. Bayesian analysis of deterministic and stochastic prisoner's dilemma games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Kunreuther

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the behavior of individuals playing a classic two-person deterministic prisoner's dilemma (PD game with choice data obtained from repeated interdependent security prisoner's dilemma games with varying probabilities of loss and the ability to learn (or not learn about the actions of one's counterpart, an area of recent interest in experimental economics. This novel data set, from a series of controlled laboratory experiments, is analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical methods, the first application of such methods in this research domain. We find that individuals are much more likely to be cooperative when payoffs are deterministic than when the outcomes are probabilistic. A key factor explaining this difference is that subjects in a stochastic PD game respond not just to what their counterparts did but also to whether or not they suffered a loss. These findings are interpreted in the context of behavioral theories of commitment, altruism and reciprocity. The work provides a linkage between Bayesian statistics, experimental economics, and consumer psychology.

  7. Oral health of female prisoners in HMP Holloway: implications for oral health promotion in UK prisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouxel, P.; Duijster, D.; Tsakos, G.; Watt, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study describes the oral health status and associated risk factors in a sample of female prisoners and compares their oral health to that of the female population from the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Method A random sample of prisoners was selected from HMP Holloway, London.

  8. The Prison Is Another Country: Incarcerated Students and (Im)Mobility in Australian Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Helen; Hopkins, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Space, time and movement have particular meanings and significance for Australian prisoners attempting higher education while incarcerated. In a sense, the prison is another "world" or "country" with its own spatial and temporal arrangements and constraints for incarcerated university students. The contemporary digital…

  9. Prisoners signify: a political discourse analysis of mental illness in a prison control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2007-09-01

    Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process.

  10. HIV in Indian prisons: risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided.

  11. Attitude to rehabilitative counselling in southwestern Nigerian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and χ2 statistics. The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling.

  12. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help.

  13. Tuberculosis incidence and treatment completion among Ugandan prison inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitters, A.; Kaggwa, M.; Omiel, P.; Nagadya, G.; Kisa, N.; Dalal, S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African prisons. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of Ugandan prisoners diagnosed with TB from June 2011 to November 2012. We analyzed TB diagnosis, TB-HIV comorbidity and treatment completion from national registers and tracked prison transfers and releases. RESULTS A total of 469 prisoners were diagnosed with TB over the 1.5-year period (incidence 955/100 000 person-years). Of 466 prisoners starting treatment, 48% completed treatment, 43% defaulted, 5% died and 4% were currently on treatment. During treatment, 12% of prisoners remaining in the same prison defaulted, 53% of transfers defaulted and 81% of those released were lost to follow-up. The odds of defaulting were 8.36 times greater among prisoners who were transferred during treatment. CONCLUSIONS TB incidence and treatment default are high among Ugandan prisoners. Strategies to improve treatment completion and prevent multidrug resistance could include avoiding transfer of TB patients, improving communications between prisons to ensure treatment follow-up after transfer and facilitating transfer to community clinics for released prisoners. PMID:24902552

  14. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  15. Where "Old Heads" Prevail: Inmate Hierarchy in a Men's Prison Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Young, Jacob T N; Haynie, Dana L; Bouchard, Martin; Schaefer, David R; Zajac, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Research of inmate social order is a once-vibrant area that receded just as American incarceration rates climbed and the country's carceral contexts dramatically changed. This study reengages inmate society with an abductive mixed methods investigation of informal status within a contemporary men's prison unit. The authors collect narrative and social network data from 133 male inmates housed in a unit of a Pennsylvania medium-security prison. Analyses of inmate narratives suggest that unit "old heads" provide collective goods in the form of mentoring and role modeling that foster a positive and stable peer environment. This hypothesis is then tested with Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) of peer nomination data. The ERGM results complement the qualitative analysis and suggest that older inmates and those who have been on the unit longer are perceived by their peers as powerful and influential. Both analytical strategies point to the maturity of aging and the acquisition of local knowledge as important for attaining informal status in the unit. In sum, this mixed methods case study extends theoretical insights of classic prison ethnographies, adds quantifiable results capable of future replication, and points to a growing population of older inmates as important for contemporary prison social organization.

  16. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in North Gondar Zone Prison, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Asfaw, Fanaye; Tesfaye, Wogahta; Tiruneh, Moges; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-15

    People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone. An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through fluorescence microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for those having significant lymphadenopathy. Pre and post HIV test counseling was provided after written consent. Binary logistic and multivariable analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. A total of 250 prisoners were included in the survey. Among these, 26 (10.4%) prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 1482.3 per 100,000 populations of smear positive TB among the TB suspects. All the inmates who participated in the study volunteered for HIV testing and a total of 19(7.6%) inmates were found to be reactive for the HIV antibody test amongst of which 9(47.4%) had TB co-infection. The prevalence of HIV infection in the TB infected inmates was found to be 34.6% (9/26). From the 26 TB cases identified 12 (46.2%) were having under nutrition (BMI Prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. There was a high prevalence of HIV among the TB suspects. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission. The determinants for poor nutrition in the prison need also further investigation.

  17. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  18. Masculinities, Attachment Theory and Transformative Learning: A Discussion of Some Theoretical Considerations for Developing an Emotionally Secure Teaching Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Damien

    2017-01-01

    This paper situates education as an integral component of the overall prison rehabilitation process. The article discusses how an educational practitioner's knowledge of attachment theory and masculinities can be utilized to develop a secure methodological teaching environment in the classroom of a prison education unit and create a space where…

  19. Prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic medication prescribing in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of male and female prisoners in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiece Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons. Methods We studied 6052 men and 785 women in 11 prisons throughout England. This represented 7.9 % of male and 20.5 % of female prisoners nationally. Using a cross-sectional design, demographic and prescription data were collected from clinical records of all prisoners prescribed psychotropic medicines, including hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-manic, antidepressant and Central Nervous System stimulant medications. Percentages and 95 % CIs were used to estimate the prevalence of prescribing. The Prescribing Appropriate Indicators tool was used to determine appropriateness. Prevalence Ratios (PR were generated to make age-adjusted comparisons between prisoners and the general population using a dataset supplied by the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Results Overall, 47.9 % (CI 44.4–51.4 of women and 16.9 % (CI 16.0–17.9 of men in prison were prescribed one or more psychotropic medicines. Compared with the general population, age-adjusted prescribing prevalence was six times higher among women (PR 5.95 CI 5.36–6.61 and four times higher among men (PR 4.02 CI 3.75–4.30. Undocumented or unapproved indications for prescriptions, not listed in the British National Formulary, were recorded in a third (34.7 %, CI 32.5–37.0 of cases, most commonly low mood and personality disorder. Conclusions Psychotropic medicines were prescribed frequently in

  20. “Up yours”: smuggling illicit drugs into prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues “on the inside”. Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get “on the outside”, this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison. PMID:21954402

  1. The evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma on a cycle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We finally determine analytically (i.e. without using simulation) the probability ... Having insufficient evidence for convicting the prisoners on a major charge, the ...... tionary prisoner's dilemma on a path, Discrete Applied Mathematics, 160, pp.

  2. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesset Merete

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.

  3. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  4. HIV in Indian prisons: Risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background & Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Methods: Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered...

  5. A Psycholinguistic Approach to Inmate Argot in Romanian Prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Nădrag, Lavinia; Stroescu, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The lexis and structure of prison argot reflect the personalities of inmates who employ them, as well as the conflicts and tensions inherent in prison settings. It is shown in this article that the distinctiveness of prison argot is largely a product of the character of penal context. Its extent of use varies with the extent of penal discipline. Appreciation of this complex relationship might facilitate improved communication between prisoners and custodial authorities. In addition, knowledge...

  6. Exploring barriers to and enablers of adequate healthcare for Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer: a scoping review drawing on evidence from Australia, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Jessica; Reilly, Rachel; Yerrell, Paul; Stajic, Janet; Micklem, Jasmine; Morey, Kim; Brown, Alex

    International frameworks supported by national principles in Australia stipulate that prisoners should be provided with health services equivalent to those provided in the general community. However, a number of barriers unique to the prison system may hinder the provision of equitable healthcare for this population. In Australia, Indigenous people carry a greater burden of cancer mortality, which the Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD) project is seeking to address. During the course of recruiting participants to the CanDAD study, Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer emerged as an important, under-researched but difficult to access sub-group. This scoping review sought to identify barriers and facilitators of access to adequate and equitable healthcare for Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer in Australia. This review demonstrated a lack of research and, as such, the scoping review was extended to prisoners with cancer in Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Canada. This approach was taken in order to summarise the existing body of evidence regarding the barriers and facilitators of access to adequate and equitable healthcare for those who are incarcerated and suffering from cancer, and highlight areas that may require further investigation. Eight studies or commentaries were found to meet the inclusion criteria. This limited set of findings pointed to a range of possible barriers faced by prisoners with cancer, including a tension between the prisons' concern with security versus the need for timely access to medical care. Findings identified here offer potential starting points for research and policy development. Further research is needed to better elucidate how barriers to adequate cancer care for prisoners may be identified and overcome, in Australia and internationally. Furthermore, given Indigenous Australians' over-burden of cancer mortality and over-representation in the prison system, further research is needed to

  7. Prisoner's dilemma in cancer metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kareva

    Full Text Available As tumors outgrow their blood supply and become oxygen deprived, they switch to less energetically efficient but oxygen-independent anaerobic glucose metabolism. However, cancer cells maintain glycolytic phenotype even in the areas of ample oxygen supply (Warburg effect. It has been hypothesized that the competitive advantage that glycolytic cells get over aerobic cells is achieved through secretion of lactic acid, which is a by-product of glycolysis. It creates acidic microenvironment around the tumor that can be toxic to normal somatic cells. This interaction can be seen as a prisoner's dilemma: from the point of view of metabolic payoffs, it is better for cells to cooperate and become better competitors but neither cell has an incentive to unilaterally change its metabolic strategy. In this paper a novel mathematical technique, which allows reducing an otherwise infinitely dimensional system to low dimensionality, is used to demonstrate that changing the environment can take the cells out of this equilibrium and that it is cooperation that can in fact lead to the cell population committing evolutionary suicide.

  8. Risk of suicide in male prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the risk of suicide in prison is higher than in the general population. This study has two aims. First, to explore the risk of suicide in men sentenced in Andalusian prisons. And second, to study the sociodemographic, criminal and, especially, psychopathological factors associated with this risk. An assessment was made of 472 sentenced inmates in two Andalusian prisons, and included a sociodemographic interview, the IPDE personality disorders questionnaire, the SCID-I diagnostic interview (DSMIV), and the Plutchick suicide risk questionnaire. The interviewers were experienced clinical psychologists with training in prison environments. Adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression. A risk of committing suicide was detected in 33.5% of the sample. The diagnoses (lifetime prevalence) of affective disorder (adjusted OR 3329), substance dependence disorders (adjusted OR 2733), personality disorders (adjusted OR 3115) and anxiety disorder (adjusted OR 1650), as well as a family psychiatric history (adjusted OR 1650), were the predictors that remained as risk factors after the regression analysis. No socio-demographic risk factor was significant in the regression analysis. The psychopathological variables are essential and the most powerful factors to explain suicide risk in prisons. A correct and systematic diagnosis, and an appropriate treatment by mental health professionals during the imprisonment are essential to prevent the risk of suicide. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Declaration of Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Education does not flourish in prisons because of prevailing notions about the punitive and retributive purposes of prisons. The United Nations is considering a Declaration of Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners that is intended to bring education to the forefront of criminal justice policy. (SK)

  10. Transmission of tuberculosis in the prison of Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolofo-Razanamparany, V; Ménard, D; Ratsitorahina, M; Aurégan, G; Gicquel, B; Chanteau, S

    2000-11-01

    The prevalence of tuberculosis in the Antananarivo prison is 16 times higher than that in the general population of Madagascar. We compared the clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains within and outside the prison and studied the transmission of strains in the prison. M. tuberculosis strains isolated in 1994 to 1995 from 146 prisoners and from 260 nonprisoner patients from Antananarivo were typed using the genetic markers IS6110 and direct repeat. We compared the strains isolated from prisoners and nonprisoners and found that the clustering rate was higher within (58.9%) than outside the prison (40%) suggesting that the transmission rate was higher in prison. Of the 146 incarcerated patients, 82 were grouped into 22 clusters. We checked for possible tuberculosis transmission between prisoners with identical strains by epidemiological investigation of the various prison clusters. We found that 9.5% of the incarcerated patients could have been sources of infection and that only 15.1% could have been infected in the prison. One hundred and twenty-seven prison patients were new cases. Epidemiological data suggested that 37% of them resulted from a reactivation of an old infection, due to poor living conditions or recent transmission from an index case outside the prison.

  11. Prevalence of mental disorders in a prison population in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...

  12. Library Services To Prisoners In South East Geopolitical Zones Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prison inmates tend to be side -lined in information provision in Nigeria. Library services to prisoners are critical to their rehabilitation into the larger society on release. The paper is an assessment of Provision of Library services to prison inmates in South East Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria. The questionnaire method was ...

  13. The Horror of Being Deaf and in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay

    2010-01-01

    Being deaf and in prison is a horror. The main fear of prison inmates, whether Deaf or hearing, is that they will be raped, killed, or subjected to other forms of violence. Such fears are based in reality. The recent overcrowding of jails and prisons has increased these problems significantly. A major reason for this situation is the blatant…

  14. Tuberculosis in a South African prison – a transmission modelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Prisons are recognised internationally as institutions with very high tuberculosis (TB) burdens where transmission is predominantly determined by contact between infectious and susceptible prisoners. A recent South African court case described the conditions under which prisoners awaiting trial were kept.

  15. [Monitoring system on prison health: feasibility and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develay, Aude-Emmanuelle; Verdot, Charlotte; Grémy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of two studies designed to define the feasibility and framework of the future prison health monitoring system in France. The objective of the first study was to obtain the points of view of professionals involved in prison health and the second study was designed to assess the feasibility of using prisoner's medical files for epidemiological purposes. The point of view of various professionals was collected by questionnaire sent to 43 randomly selected prison physicians and by 22 semi-directive interviews. The feasibility study was based on analysis of the medical files of 330 randomly selected prisoners in eleven prisons chosen in order to reflect the diversity of correctional settings and prison populations. Additional interviews were conducted with the medical staff of these prison facilities. There is a consensus on the need to monitor prison health, but there are contrasting views on data collection methods (surveys or routinely collected data]. The feasibility study also showed that the implementation of a prison health monitoring system based on routinely collected data from prisoner's medical records was not feasible at the present time in France. In the light of these findings, it is recommended to initially develop a monitoring system based on regular nationwide surveys, while pursuing computerization and standardization of health data in prison.

  16. The Prevalence of Intellectual Disability in a Major UK Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan; Shackell, Phil; Mottram, Pat; Lancaster, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Over-representation of people with learning disability in prisons has been demonstrated in many Western jurisdictions. This was the first comprehensive research in a UK prison. The research used a random 10% sample of a prison population (n = 140). A semi-structured interview, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (UK version) and the Vineland…

  17. Hepatitis C in prisoners and non-prisoners in Colatina, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Falquetto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare hepatitis C prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors between prisoners and non-prisoners in the city of Colatina, Espírito Santo, Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved approximately 1,600 residents and 730 prisoners, all of whom were living in Colatina. The percentage of individuals who tested positive for anti-HCV was 0.1% (2/1,600 in the non-prisoner group and 1.0% (7/730 in the prisoner group, confirming a higher risk of hepatitis C in the latter group. The percentage of subjects who progressed to HCV-RNA negative was 11.1% (1/9, confirming the high probability of evolution to chronicity. Genotype 1 was the most predominant genotype found. Factors associated with increased risk of hepatitis C were being male, being institutionalized, having an income of less than three minimum wages, having low educational attainment, and using injected drugs. Alcohol use, pain in the liver, migraine, and reported history of hepatitis were markedly associated with hepatitis C. The prison population tested positive for anti-HCV at a higher rate than the non-prison population.

  18. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners with intellectual disabilities: analysis of prison survey data for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassiotis, Angela; Gazizova, Dina; Akinlonu, Leah; Bebbington, Paul; Meltzer, Howard; Strydom, Andre

    2011-08-01

    A substantial number of prisoners have intellectual disabilities. We analysed data on a sample drawn from all prisons in England and Wales. Intellectual disability was defined as Quick Test scores equivalent to an IQ of ≤65. We found a significantly higher prevalence of probable psychosis, attempted suicide and cannabis use in prisoners with intellectual disabilities. Presence of intellectual disability was twice as likely to be associated with probable psychosis but the relationship was fully mediated by self-rated health status. It is important to identify this group as early as possible in order to provide timely interventions to cope in adverse environments and manage substance misuse.

  19. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  20. Homophobia, stigma and HIV in Jamaican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2011-02-01

    Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica and is an important issue to address in other low- and middle-income post-colonialist societies.

  1. Health needs of prisoners in England and Wales: the implications for prison healthcare of gender, age and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Francesca; Hek, Gill; Condon, Louise

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence of the healthcare needs of prisoners in relation to gender, age and ethnicity, drawing from a larger systematic overview of the policy and research literature concerning primary care nursing in prisons in England and Wales. The literature overview shaped the initial stages of a research project funded by the Department of Health to examine the views and perspectives of prisoners and nurses working in prisons, and to identify good primary care nursing in the prison environment. At total of 17 databases were searched using search terms related to primary healthcare in prisons (health, nurs*, primary care, healthcare, family medicine, prison*, offender*, inmate*) with terms truncated where possible in the different databases. Following this, a sifting phase was employed using inclusion/exclusion criteria to narrow and focus the literature perceived as relevant to the research questions. All papers were critically appraised for quality using standardised tools. Findings from the literature overview show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered some form of social exclusion compared to the rest of society, and there are significantly greater degrees of mental health problems, substance abuse and worse physical health in prisoners than in the general population. Women, young offenders, older prisoners and those from minority ethnic groups have distinct health needs compared to the prison population taken as a whole, with implications for the delivery of prison healthcare, and how these needs are met effectively and appropriately.

  2. All Aboard the Desistance Line: First Stop, Producing Prosocial Prison Attachments within an HIV Prison-Based Peer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collica-Cox, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the importance of social bonds in facilitating an investment in prosocial behavior amongst female prisoners working as HIV peer educators. Female prisoners can lack strong prosocial attachments to both individuals and institutions prior to incarceration. Absent this bond, little prevents the female prisoner from recidivating.…

  3. Prisoners' dilemma in the presence of collective dephasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    We quantize prisoners' dilemma in the presence of collective dephasing with a dephasing rate γ. It is shown that for a two-parameter set of strategies, Q⊗Q is Nash equilibrium below a cut-off value of time. Beyond this cut-off it bifurcates into two new Nash equilibria Q⊗D and D⊗Q. Furthermore, for the maximum value of decoherence C⊗D and D⊗C also become Nash equilibria. At this stage the game has four Nash equilibria. On the other hand, for a three-parameter set of strategies, there is no pure strategy Nash equilibrium; however, there is a mixed strategy (non-unique) Nash equilibrium that is not affected by collective dephasing. (paper)

  4. [Aspect of the prisoner's psychological universe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxenaire, M; Steinbach, G

    1978-03-01

    This paper deals with an aspect of inmate's psychology. One of us is consultant psychiatrist in a jail. According to his experience, the behaviour of the prisoners appears to be very regressive. Inmates chiefly complain of digestive pains. They put a great emphasis on food, nourishment and drinking. That regression to the oral phase explains an unconscious will of staying in jail: It is rather frequent, for example, to see prisoners, who are about to recover their freedom, attempting a ridiculous and futile escape, with, as only result, one more year in jail. Obviously they want, through this absurd acting out, to keep living their childish and regressive way of life.

  5. Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1982-01-01

    Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369

  6. Prisoners as Living Donors: A Vulnerabilities Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard

    2018-01-01

    Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.

  7. The Origins of and Need to Control Supermax Prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Keramet

    2013-01-01

    Supermaxes are prisons designed to impose long-term solitary confinement. Supermax prisoners spend 23 h or more per day in windowless cells. Technology, like centrally controlled automated cell doors and fluorescent lights that are never turned off, allows prisoners to be under constant surveillance, while minimizing all human contact. California built two of the first and largest supermaxes in 1988 and 1989. Corcoran State Prison and Pelican Bay State Prison, which together house more than 3...

  8. The effect of health and penal harm on aging female prisoners' views of dying in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Dayron; Aday, Ronald H; Wahidin, Azrini

    With tougher sentencing laws, an increasing number of individuals are finding themselves spending their final years of life in prison. Drawing on a sample of 327 women over the age of 50 incarcerated in five Southern states, the present study investigates the relationship between numerous health variables and the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Qualitatively, the article also provides personal accounts from inmates that serve to reinforce death fears when engaging the prison health care system. Participants reported a mean of 6.40 on the TDAS indicating a substantial degree of death anxiety when compared to community samples. Both mental and physical health measures were important indicators of death anxiety. Qualitative information discovered that respondents' concerns about dying in prison were often influenced by the perceived lack of adequate health care and the indifference of prison staff and other instances of penal harm.

  9. Services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems: a survey of U.K. prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurran, M; Baldwin, S

    1989-09-01

    Offenders have been identified as heavy drinkers who admit to a relationship between drinking and offending. Many prisoners express a desire to reduce their alcohol consumption. The extent of alcohol interventions in U.K. prisons was unknown and so a postal survey was conducted to gather basic information about current work. Of all responding establishments, 91% claimed to provide services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems and 58% gave details of these services. Services are provided mainly by probation officers/social workers, prison officers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Group and individual interventions are described. Service development has been haphazard, lacking central co-ordination. A case is made for appointment of a central facilitator responsible for staff training, establishing a communications network, encouraging new interventions to match clients' needs, encouraging closer links with community workers and guiding evaluative research.

  10. Procedural justice in prison: the importance of staff characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Molleman, Toon; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2015-04-01

    A humane and fair treatment of prisoners is of intrinsic value in itself, and is generally acclaimed to reduce prisoners' psychological distress and misconduct in prison, and their criminal behavior after release from prison. To create a more just prison climate, scholars have emphasized the importance of correctional staff. However, there is a lack of empirical research on the relationship between correctional officers' characteristics and prisoners' perceptions of a just treatment in prison. Our study fills this gap in knowledge. Data were used from (a) the Prison Project, a large-scale study in which prisoners held in all Dutch remand centers were surveyed (n = 1,610) and (b) the Dutch Correctional Staff Survey 2011 (n = 690). Multilevel analyses showed that prisoners perceived their treatment in prison as more procedurally just in units where there are more female officers, where officers held more positive attitudes toward rehabilitation, and where there is a higher officer-to-inmate ratio. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Mental health in prisons: A public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A

    2009-01-01

    Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.

  12. Drugs and discretionary power in prisons: The officer's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Drugs play an increasing role in contemporary prison life. Prisoners’ drug use, drug smuggling and drug selling have also had a growing impact on the work routines and practices of prison officers. This has led to critiques that prison staff have become ‘too lenient’ regarding drug use....... Methods Based on observational data, qualitative interviews and survey data, this study examines the role of drugs in the way Danish prison officers exercise power. Results Two forms of power are analysed: institutional power, by which the officers can sanction or reward inmates in everyday prison life......, and personal power, by which the officers’ personal authority and skills can reduce the more intrusive aspects of prison control. These forms of power are applied by officers’ use of discretion in order to maintain what they consider to be adequate levels of peace and order in the prison wings. It is shown...

  13. Clinical work in prison: Which areas of therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Campostrini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Working in prison is a stressful situation for a clinical psychologist, given the contextual constraints. The psychologist is supposed to build caring relationships with psychiatric patients restricted in a iatrogenic context as the prison is. The authoridentifiesthree clustersof constraints at work in the prison context: legislative, institutional and cultural. Within this framework, the prison is faced to a conflict between custody and rehabilitation. The clinical psychologist has to manage this conflict and must build clinical settings similar to those outside the prison. The paper is based on the authors experience with short-time groups, of which a short description is givenKeywords:Prison; Prison and mental health; Custody; Rehabilitation; Clinical practice 

  14. The Virtual Reality of Imprisonment: The Impact of Social Media on Prisoner Agency and Prison Structure in Russian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piacentini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Prison agencies around the world are reporting a rise in the use of illicit communication devices in prison. Nevertheless, there have been no criminological studies examining prisoners’ online behavior. Using Russia as a case study, this paper reports findings from new research on prisoners’ illicit internet use and the effects on prisoner agency and prison structure. Our main finding is that Russian penality sits at the nexus of two processes. First, penality is de-institutionalised whereby the prison, discursively speaking, is no longer fixed to a built form. Second, penality is reflexively re-territorialised by placing prisoner agency onto a third space. The paper presents a new conceptual framework of prisoners as absent, which reveals Russian penality as culturally contingent and politically resilient. The interplay between de-institutionalisation and re-territorialisation has produced a new penal imaginary - a carceral motif for the twenty first century - in the form of a virtual world. Con Rusia como estudio de caso, este artículo informa acerca de los hallazgos de nuevas investigaciones sobre el uso ilícito de Internet por parte de los reclusos, y de los efectos sobre la agencia de los reclusos y sobre la estructura de la prisión. Nuestro principal hallazgo es que las prisiones de Rusia son el punto de encuentro de dos procesos: primero, la vida en prisión se desinstitucionaliza, de modo que la prisión, en sentido discursivo, ya no está vinculada a una edificación; segundo, la existencia carcelaria se reterritorializa de forma reflexiva, a través de la traslación de la agencia del prisionero a un tercer espacio. El artículo presenta un marco conceptual nuevo de prisioneros en ausencia, que revela que la vida carcelaria de Rusia es culturalmente contingente y políticamente resiliente. La interrelación entre desinstitucionalización y reterritorialización ha producido un nuevo imaginario - un motivo carcelario para el

  15. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-08-05

    To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. All state prisons in the United States. Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100,000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100,000 v 128.9/100,000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer

  16. Health promoting prisons – An impossibility for women prisoners in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Dixey, R; Nyambe, S; Foster, S; Woodall, J; Baybutt, M

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of women in sub-Saharan African prisons are both neglected and poorly understood. Outside South Africa, little research exists on African prison health; what is available tends to be gender-blind and concerned with disease prevention rather than with health promotion. While Vetten (2008) has raised this concern previously, a comprehensive overview of women’s health and health promotion in African jails is clearly absent. Available evidence shows that the conditions in African...

  17. Prison mental health: context is crucial: a sociological exploration of male prisoners' mental health and the provision of mental healthcare in a prison setting

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis represents a sociological exploration of Her Majesty’s Prison Service, male prisoners’ mental health, and the provision of National Health Service mental healthcare in a prison setting. This qualitative social science study is conducted in one prison establishment. The work is characterised as a policy and practice orientated exploratory case study. The study implements an inductive approach to the datum–theory relationship, a constructionist ontological position, and an interpret...

  18. Penile implants among prisoners-a cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Yap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We report the prevalence of penile implants among prisoners and determine the independent predictors for having penile implants. Questions on penile implants were included in the Sexual Health and Attitudes of Australian Prisoners (SHAAP survey following concerns raised by prison health staff that increasing numbers of prisoners reported having penile implants while in prison. METHODS: Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI of a random sample of prisoners was carried out in 41 prisons in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia. Men were asked, "Have you ever inserted or implanted an object under the skin of your penis?" If they responded Yes: "Have you ever done so while you were in prison?" Univariate logistic regression and logistic regression were used to determine the factors associated with penile implants. RESULTS: A total of 2,018 male prisoners were surveyed, aged between 18 and 65 years, and 118 (5.8% reported that they had inserted or implanted an object under the skin of their penis. Of these men, 87 (73% had this done while they were in prison. In the multivariate analysis, a younger age, birth in an Asian country, and prior incarceration were all significantly associated with penile implants (p<0.001. Men with penile implants were also more likely to report being paid for sex (p<0.001, to have had body piercings (p<0.001 or tattoos in prison (p<0.001, and to have taken non-prescription drugs while in prison (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Penile implants appear to be fairly common among prisoners and are associated with risky sexual and drug use practices. As most of these penile implants are inserted in prison, these men are at risk of blood borne viruses and wound infection. Harm reduction and infection control strategies need to be developed to address this potential risk.

  19. Violent Victimization in the Prison Context: An Examination of the Gendered Contexts of Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Brent; Daigle, Leah E; Hawk, Shila R; Daquin, Jane C

    2016-07-01

    Currently there are few published, multilevel studies of physical assault victimization of prisoners. This study builds on the extant research by utilizing a nationally representative sample of correctional facilities (n = 326) and inmates (n = 17,640) to examine the impacts of a large set of theoretically and empirically derived individual- and contextual-level variables on prison victimization, including how the gendered context of prison impacts victimization. Results support the lifestyles/routine activities approach. Inmates who were charged with a violent offense, were previously victimized, were smaller in size, were not married, were without a work assignment, misbehaved, did not participate in programs, used alcohol or drugs, and those who had a depression or personality disorder were more likely to be victimized. In addition, the data suggest that 8% of the variance in victimization is due to the prison context. Prisons with high proportions of violent offenders, males, inmates from multiracial backgrounds, and inmates with major infractions had increased odds of victimization. Moreover, the sex-composition of the prison has significant main and interactive effects predicting victimization. Specifically, we find that the effects of being convicted of a drug crime, drug use, military service, major infractions, and diagnosed personality disorders are all gendered in their impacts on victimization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Intergenerational transmission of attachment for infants raised in a prison nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M W; Goshin, L S; Joestl, S S

    2010-07-01

    Within a larger intervention study, attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure for 30 infants who co-resided with their mothers in a prison nursery. Sixty percent of infants were classified secure, 75% who co-resided a year or more and 43% who co-resided less than a year, all within the range of normative community samples. The year-long co-residing group had significantly more secure and fewer disorganized infants than predicted by their mothers' attachment status, measured by the Adult Attachment Interview, and a significantly greater proportion of secure infants than meta-analyzed community samples of mothers with low income, depression, or drug/alcohol abuse. Using intergenerational data collected with rigorous methods, this study provides the first evidence that mothers in a prison nursery setting can raise infants who are securely attached to them at rates comparable to healthy community children, even when the mother's own internal attachment representation has been categorized as insecure.

  1. Forget Me Not: Dementia in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Kwak, Jung; Ko, Eunjeong; Morrissey, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    The number of older adults with dementia in U.S. prisons is rapidly rising. Yet, the vast majority of this marginalized subgroup of the aging population is left neglected behind bars without access to adequate medical and mental health care services. We assert that proactive, interdisciplinary collaborative efforts to improve practice, policy, and…

  2. Some Ruminations about Prison Mental Health Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toch, Hans

    1995-01-01

    Describes incidents involving mental health services in prison facilities that illustrate "Catch-22" situations, in many of which inmates perceive clinicians as people who "come to watch you drown instead of throwing you a rope." Proposes a supplementation of "administrative clinical" thinking with nonbureaucratic,…

  3. Forcible feeding in English prisons. 1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dock, Lavinia L

    2014-11-01

    Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives for more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times. This month's article, from the March 1910 issue, addresses the force-feeding of female political prisoners in Great Britain. It was written by nurse and social activist Lavinia Dock, a cofounder of the Nurses Associated Alumnae (which later became the American Nurses Association) and the International Council of Nurses and a contributing editor to AJN. Dock wrote, "Among the prisoners thus cruelly treated have been several nurses." She shared physicians' outrage that the Home Office ordered the force-feeding but tried to place responsibility for the practice entirely on prison physicians. More than a century later, the force-feeding of political prisoners continues to raise ethical and legal issues within the nursing and medical communities (see "Ethical Issues for Nurses in Force-Feeding Guantánamo Bay Detainees" in this issue).

  4. Accommodating Learning Styles in Prison Writing Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a developmental writing course taught in prison. Describes how the teaching styles took into account the presumed learning preferences of the African Americans in this group of inmates and resulted in a boost of both their self-confidence and the level of their writing. (SR)

  5. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  6. 28 CFR 0.98 - Functions of Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prison Industries. 0.98 Section 0.98 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons § 0.98 Functions of Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons is authorized as ex officio Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries and...

  7. Mental Health Among Jail and Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youngmin; Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. In adjusted logistic regression models, those incarcerated in jails, compared with those not incarcerated, have higher odds of depression (odds ratio [ OR] = 5.06, 90% confidence interval [CI; 1.96, 13.11]), life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.59, 90% CI [1.40, 9.24]), and recent illicit drug use ( OR = 4.03, 90% CI [1.49, 10.58]). Those incarcerated in prisons have higher odds of life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.88, 90% CI [2.16, 6.94]) and lower odds of recent heavy drinking ( OR = 0.32, 90% CI [0.13, 0.81]) compared with those not incarcerated. Furthermore, jail inmates report significantly more depression, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use than prison inmates. These results suggest the association between incarceration and mental health may vary substantially across facilities and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area beyond studies of prisons. The results also indicate that public health professionals in the correctional system should be especially attuned to the disproportionately high levels of poor mental health outcomes among jail inmates.

  8. Mental Health Among Jail and Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youngmin; Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. In adjusted logistic regression models, those incarcerated in jails, compared with those not incarcerated, have higher odds of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 5.06, 90% confidence interval [CI; 1.96, 13.11]), life dissatisfaction (OR = 3.59, 90% CI [1.40, 9.24]), and recent illicit drug use (OR = 4.03, 90% CI [1.49, 10.58]). Those incarcerated in prisons have higher odds of life dissatisfaction (OR = 3.88, 90% CI [2.16, 6.94]) and lower odds of recent heavy drinking (OR = 0.32, 90% CI [0.13, 0.81]) compared with those not incarcerated. Furthermore, jail inmates report significantly more depression, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use than prison inmates. These results suggest the association between incarceration and mental health may vary substantially across facilities and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area beyond studies of prisons. The results also indicate that public health professionals in the correctional system should be especially attuned to the disproportionately high levels of poor mental health outcomes among jail inmates. PMID:27932588

  9. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  10. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  11. Prison Nursing: Formation of a Stable Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Khurshid; Armstrong, David; Dregan, Alexandru

    The aim of this study was to analyze how working within prison environments can influence the self-identity and professional identity of nurses. The prison environment can be a difficult environment for nurses to deliver care within, with nurses having to carry out activities that seem to go against their professional role, while at the same time providing care to prisoners who have greater health needs than the general population. There is a lack of theoretical consideration of how prison nurses carry out their role in the face of such challenges. This study used a review of literature published over the last 11 years exploring nurses' beliefs, thoughts, and feelings toward delivering care within prison environment. With time, nurses working within prison environments develop specific skills to be able to deliver appropriate care to their patients. These skills include adapting to both the prison environment and the prison culture. Ultimately, adaptations lead to a change in identity allowing nurses to work effectively within prison. Providers of prison healthcare should ensure that induction (orientation) processes for new nurses are designed to address specific challenges that nurses face including the potential for cognitive dissonance. They should ensure that nurses receive training to develop and acquire the skills highlighted in this review. Ensuring that this training is in place may increase nurse retention.

  12. Prisons as Panacea or Pariah? The Countervailing Consequences of the Prison Boom on the Political Economy of Rural Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Eason

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nascent literature on prison proliferation in the United States typically reveals negative impacts for communities of color. Given that Southern rural communities were the most likely to build during the prison boom (1970–2010, however, a more nuanced understanding of prison impact is warranted. Using a dataset matching and geocoding all 1663 U.S. prisons with their Census-appointed place, this study explores the countervailing consequences of the prison boom on rural towns across multiple periods. For example, locales that adopted prisons at earlier stages of the prison boom era received a short-term boom compared to those that did not, but these effects were not lasting. Furthermore, later in the boom, prison-building protected towns against additional economic decline. Thus, neither entirely pariah nor panacea, the prison functions as a state-sponsored public works program for disadvantaged rural communities but also supports perverse economic incentives for prison proliferation. Methodological, substantive, theoretical, and policy implications regarding the intersection of race and punishment are explored.

  13. Why do not more prisoners participate in adult education? An analysis of barriers to education in Norwegian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole Johan; Asbjørnsen, Arve

    2018-06-01

    From a lifelong learning perspective, education during incarceration is crucial for prisoners' rehabilitation. This article describes the authors' development of their Perceived Barriers to Prison Education Scale (PBPES) and examines what deters prisoners from participating in education during their incarceration, how their perceptions differ depending on gender, age, educational level, learning difficulties, length of prison sentence, and whether the prisoners express a desire to participate in education or not. Within a larger survey conducted in all Norwegian prisons among all prisoners with Norwegian citizenship, the authors focused on those who did not participate in education (n = 838). To reveal the underlying constructs that comprise perceived barriers, they hypothesised a three-factor model to which they applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The analysis confirmed the model, which comprised institutional barriers (e.g. insufficient practical arrangements; lack of access to computers and to the Internet), situational barriers (e.g. education is not considered to be of help in the current situation) and dispositional barriers (e.g. having difficulties in mathematics, reading, writing and concentrating), with good fit to the data. The authors used mixed-model analyses of variance to examine differences between subgroups of prisoners. Gender, age, educational level, learning difficulties and length of prison sentence were found to influence perceived barriers. The authors also observed that prisoners who wished to participate in education were more likely than others to perceive institutional barriers and less likely to perceive situational barriers.

  14. Acceptance or refusal of convenience food in present-day prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhouche, An-Sofie

    2015-11-01

    Food in prison is an insufficiently researched topic. However, prisoners often highlight problems with and criticism of their prison meals. This article aims to further develop this topic by giving closer insight into the use and attitudes toward ready-made meals in the Tilburg prison. In this prison, prisoners receive ready-made meals. This is in contrast to Belgian prisons, from which they were transferred, where meals were made from scratch. This change in the food system led to commotion and complaints. To understand the situation, interviews with prisoners and staff were conducted and observations in the Tilburg prison were made. The results showed that a food system can have considerable influence on prison experiences. In addition, and contrary to what earlier reports have mentioned, the ready-made meals also have some advantages, especially for the organization of daily prison life. However, most prisoners had negative attitudes toward these meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Transformative Power of Sankofa: Teaching African History inside San Quentin State Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathaniel B. D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the author's experience teaching ethnic studies inside a unique California prison, and calls for college-in-prison educators to engage culturally appropriate curricula to realize the full transformative potential of the prison classroom.

  16. The Craft of Doing Qualitative Research in Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Beyens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the characteristics, challenges and added value of qualitative prison research in a Belgian context. As the many dynamics and challenges of qualitative research are often underreported in academic publications, we pay particular attention to the research processes and the pains and gains of qualitative prison research. Firstly, drawing on experiences from several prison studies, we describe the different steps of gaining access to the field as a constant process of negotiation. Secondly, we discuss some of the dilemmas of prison research based on two ethnographic studies of prison staff. We end with discussion of the value added by a qualitative research approach to facilitate understanding of what is at stake in prisons and how this fits with a critical research position.

  17. "Signs of honor" among Russian inmates in Israel's prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Efrat

    2010-12-01

    The unique nature of Israeli society as an immigrant society has also affected the prison population in Israel. This article focuses on a social and cultural phenomenon that particularly characterizes the prisoners of Russian origin, the phenomenon of tattoos. Using postmodernist theories, the article examines the function of the tattoo among Russian prisoners and the role it plays in constructing the criminal self-identity of these inmates in Israeli prisons. The tattoos observed during 2005-2006 among the Russian prisoners in four major Israeli prisons reflect the values of the Russian criminal subculture from which they evolved and were imported. This subculture is characterized by a hierarchical class structure and manifestations of machismo, domination, defiance, rebellion, and open antagonism against the Establishment and its representatives.

  18. The practice of positive criminology: a Vipassana course in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Frid, Noa; Timor, Uri

    2013-02-01

    Positive criminology is a new term for a perspective associated with theories and models that relate to socially inclusive, positively experienced influences that assist individuals in desisting or refraining from criminal and deviant behavior. A qualitative phenomenological study of prisoners who were in recovery from substance dependency and who participated in a Vipassana course in a rehabilitative prison introduces features of positive criminology. A total of 22 male prisoners participated in a 10-day Vipassana course run by volunteers in prison. Deep interviews were conducted with participants before, immediately after, and 3 to 4 months after the course. The findings describe components of positive criminology that had meaningful impact on the prisoners in rehabilitation: perceived goodness, positive relationship with the prison staff, positive social atmosphere, and overcoming an ordeal. Implications for practice and further research are outlined.

  19. Social Work and Prison Labor: A Restorative Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Shannon M; Samimi, Ceema

    2018-04-01

    The prison industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the United States, fueled largely by prison privatization. UN guidelines and U.S. federal policy outline standards for prison workers, but evidence suggests that protections have been ignored or circumvented. The current prison labor system allows corporations to profit from punishment that is disproportionately allocated to people of color and the poor. This article provides a critical analysis of prison labor policies in the United States and proposes a position for social workers on the ethical and restorative use of inmate labor. This model uses the framework of restorative justice to explore how successful models of social enterprise can benefit inmates and their communities. Meaningful prison enterprises may offer the ability to return resources to communities depleted by crime and incarceration, and to restore inmates to full citizenship.

  20. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Male Prisoners of Qasr Prison in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yahyazadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health of prisoners, as a high risk group, is of considerable importance. Unfortunately limited data is currently available about psychiatric morbidity of this group in Iran. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of axis I disorders in prisoners and their correlation with the type of offense. Methods: Using stratified random sampling 351 prisoners from five offense categories (54 from financial, 71 from violent, 74 from nonviolent, 72 from drug related and 80 from immoral acts subgroup were recruited into the study, and examined by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results: Eighty- eight percent of the prisoners had experienced at least one axis I disorder throughout their lives, and 46.9% met the criteria for current disorders. Substance related (78% and mood disorders (48.7% were the most prevalent of lifetime disorders. However, mood (30.7% and adjustment (12.6% disorders had the highest amounts in current diagnoses. The total number of disorders was lowest in the financial subgroup. The drug related subgroup had lower rate of anxiety and higher rate of substance related disorders. Conclusion: Compared to western studies, the prevalence of axis I disorders in this study is among the highest. The fact that about half of all prisoners at the time of study suffered from at least one axis I disorder shows the emergent need of this group for more mental health care and services.

  1. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  2. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  3. HIV prevention and education in state prison systems: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Thomas; Osunkoya, Emmanuel; Anguh, Ivonne; Adefuye, Adedeji; Balogun, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence rate of HIV infection in jails and prisons is approximately 5 times the rate in the U.S. general population. The authors surveyed state prison officials to assess HIV testing and HIV prevention policies--specifically voluntary testing, group HIV prevention counseling, and peer education--in the 50 states and to determine whether those policies are associated with the characteristics of the state and its prison population.

  4. Outbreak of HIV infection in a Scottish prison.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, A.; Goldberg, D.; Emslie, J.; Wrench, J.; Gruer, L.; Cameron, S.; Black, J.; Davis, B.; McGregor, J.; Follett, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possible spread of HIV infection and its route of transmission among prison inmates. DESIGN--In response to an outbreak of acute clinical hepatitis B and two seroconversions to HIV infection, counselling and testing for HIV were offered to all inmates over a two week period in July 1993. Information was sought about drug injecting, sexual behaviour, and previous HIV testing. SETTING--HM Prison Glenochil in Scotland. SUBJECTS--Adult male prisoners. MAIN OUTCOME ME...

  5. Transgendered Prisoners in the United States: A Progression of Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Rudolph

    2013-01-01

    In 1976, prisoners acquired the right to medical treatment from the U.S. Supreme Court through the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which forbade, in part, cruel and unusual punishment. The following year, a Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that medical treatment included psychiatric or mental health treatment. These rulings applied to general prisoners, but not initially prisoners who suffered from gender identity disorder. Courts ruled then that gender identity disor...

  6. Vivre en prison à l'époque abbasside

    OpenAIRE

    Tillier, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this article, we investigate the conditions of life in jail under the Abbasids. A comparative study of chronicles, biographical dictionaries, adab and legal literature allows a reconstruction of the main features of prison life. We argue that prisoners were supplied with the bare necessities by the prison institution and highly depended on their relatives or on public charity. The degree of promiscuity, hunger and dirtiness was quite similar in the politico-military...

  7. Dental triage Hydebank Wood Prison and young offenders centre, Belfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R; Fawcett, T

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to devise and test a triage protocol to prioritise patients' dental needs in a prison environment. Secondary aims were to include in the triage process oral health promotion and information about accessing prison dental services. Also to work collaboratively with the prison staff to improve referrals to the dental services. The triage system was devised to have three strands: (1) an oral health assessment conducted by the dental nurse during the induction process for each new prisoner; (2) a simple oral health examination conducted in monthly screening clinics; (3) the prioritisation of referrals from prison landing staff using the prisons computer system PRISM. The triage was evaluated by assessing the first 100 patients' records with regard to the prioritisation of the triage category at the time of the clinical dental examination. Of the 100 patients triaged 95% were prioritised into the correct triage category. Seventy-two percent of patients were seen in the appropriate timeframe. Referral patterns from prison landing staff were improved along with interdisciplinary working in the prison. All new prisoners were seen within 72 hours of committal and received oral health advice and information on accessing dental services. This is the first triage system to be introduced into Hydebank Wood Prison, facilitating a targeted approach to dental care. It has improved access to the prison dental services; introduced oral health advice and information into the regular prison healthcare structure; and improved the efficiency of the clinical dental sessions. It is hoped to strategically address problems with waiting times and inequity in service utilisation.

  8. [The long road for psychiatric care in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    From the 19th century to the present day, the history of psychiatry in prisons has evolved considerably. In parallel with successive laws, codes and articles, psychiatry has gained in structure. From the "medical prison", mental health consultations in every detention centre, the regional medico-psychological services, to today's specially equipped hospital units (UHSA), prisoners receive both preventive care as well as curative treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. USP Marion: A Few Prisoners Summon the Courage to Speak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Richards

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available USP Marion is the first supermax federal penitentiary. Marionization refers to the experimental control program used at this prison. The prisoners speaking in this article suffered many years of solitary confinement. This research brief discusses some of what they experienced in their own words. These are the recollections of a few Marion prisoners that have summoned the courage to speak out and share their darkest memories.

  10. USP Marion: A Few Prisoners Summon the Courage to Speak

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen C. Richards

    2015-01-01

    USP Marion is the first supermax federal penitentiary. Marionization refers to the experimental control program used at this prison. The prisoners speaking in this article suffered many years of solitary confinement. This research brief discusses some of what they experienced in their own words. These are the recollections of a few Marion prisoners that have summoned the courage to speak out and share their darkest memories.

  11. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  12. Prison Camp No. 29 for Prisoners of War from the Second World War on the Territory of Kazakhstan between 1943–1949

    OpenAIRE

    Aimar Ventsel; Baurzhan Zhanguttin

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first publication of materials about Pakhta-Aral prison camp No. 29 for prisoners of war. The fate of prisoners of war (both Western and Eastern) remains largely unclear. One reason is because the camps for prisoners of war were subordinated to an extremely closed and classified structure – the GUPVI. To some extent, Pakhta-Aral was an untypical prison camp in the Soviet prison camp system. While most prison camps were established to support industry or resource extraction...

  13. Homelessness and Housing Insecurity Among Former Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire W. Herbert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports.

  14. The Study of Personality Traits and Demographic Characteristics of Prisoners with Psychopathic Personality Disorder in Comparison with Ordinary Prisoners in Sample of Tehran Prisoners, Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ghaderi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Most conducted research about psychopathy has been done among Western countries' prisoners and it has remained unclear whether these findings are applicable in other contexts. The aim of this is to survey personality traits and demographic characteristics of prisoners with psychopathic personality disorder in comparison with ordinary prisoners in sample of Tehran prisoners.

     

    Methods: This study was done based on descriptive method. 202 prisoners were selected among Ray City prisoners in Tehran and the applied method was sample available. All prisoners completed Hare (PCL-SV psychopathic personality disorder checklist and five personality traits Questionnaire, McCare and Costa (Neo-FFI. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, Regression, and T student for independent groups.

     

    Results: The prevalence of psychopathy disorder among prisoners of this group was reported 10.89. Statistical analysis by Pearson correlation test, regression analysis and T student independent groups, represent a significant positive relationship between Psychopaty and extraversion (p=1% and a significant negative relationship between openness and Psychopaty (p=5%, agreeableness and conscientiousness (p=1%, respectively. No relationship was found between psychopathy, and neurosis. Furthermore, results indicated that, in comparison with non-psychopathic prisoners, psychopathic prisoners were more neurosis and extraversion, however, they showed low level of openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

     

    Conclusion: According to the findings, psychopathic disorder and five personality traits are related. Therefore, futher studies in the field of examined variables can provide more information.

  15. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  16. Prison health-care wings: psychiatry's forgotten frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Andrew; Chiu, Katrina; Dove, Samantha; Parrott, Janet

    2010-02-01

    There is worldwide evidence of high rates of mental disorder among prisoners, with significant co-morbidity. In England and Wales, mental health services have been introduced from the National Health Service to meet the need, but prison health-care wings have hardly been evaluated. To conduct a service evaluation of the health-care wing of a busy London remand (pre-trial) prison and examine the prevalence and range of mental health problems, including previously unrecognised psychosis. Service-use data were collected from prison medical records over a 20-week period in 2006-2007, and basic descriptive statistics were generated. Eighty-eight prisoners were admitted (4.4 per week). Most suffered from psychosis, a third of whom were not previously known to services. Eleven men were so ill that they required emergency compulsory treatment in the prison under Common Law before hospital transfer could take place. Over a quarter of the men required hospital transfer. Problem behaviours while on the prison health-care wing were common. Prison health-care wings operate front-line mental illness triaging and recognition functions and also provide care for complex individuals who display behavioural disturbance. Services are not equivalent to those in hospitals, nor the community, but instead reflect the needs of the prison in which they are situated. There is a recognised failure to divert at earlier points in the criminal justice pathway, which may be a consequence of national failure to fund services properly. Hospital treatment is often delayed.

  17. Is mental heal care in women's prisons adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Joyce

    Some individuals and groups, find it difficult to seek healthcare, including prisoners. This group is recognised as needing input but are often difficult to engage, yet failure to meet their needs can be devastating for the health of individuals and have wider implications on society. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of female prisoners who had not yet consulted the mental health team. I aimed to find out what support these women seek out while in prison, what difficulties they encountered in getting psychological help and whether they avoided statutory mental health services. Participants revealed during semistructured interviews that continuing to have a caring role for their families encouraged them to feel more positive and supported. Support from family members, specialist prison officers and the multi-faith centre staff team was also highly regarded. Some of the participants reported experiencing problems self-referring to prison mental health services, for example when transferred to a new prison. They identified the prison application system and inreach administrative failings as weaknesses, alongside other variables. I found that prisoners did not avoid mental health services and often once settled in the prison, they reconsidered their need for statutory support.

  18. Prisoners of War of the Triple Alliance within Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva; Nurzipa K. Alpysbayeva; Shotbek T. Bulgauov

    2015-01-01

    The work studies the problem of the detention of prisoners of war of the Triple Alliance in the camps, located within Kazakhstan. During the first months of war, the Russian authorities treated the prisoners of war in accordance with ‘Convention on the Treatment of the Prisoners of War’, approved by the Emperor of Russia. The content of this document corresponded to the Hague Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The major areas of the detention of prisoners of war w...

  19. What motivates dentists to work in prisons? A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P A; Themessl-Huber, M; Akbar, T; Richards, D; Freeman, R

    2011-08-26

    To explore what motivates dentists to work in prisons using Vroom's theoretical model of motivation as an explanatory framework. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten of the 15 dentists working in Scottish prisons. The focus was to explore their motivations to work in Scottish prisons. The data were analysed using a thematic framework based on the three motivational dimensions of expectancy, instrumentality and valence. The dentists had the skills to help improve their prisoner-patients' oral health but their efforts were often hindered by institutional rationing and the requirement to fit in with prison routines and procedures (expectancy). Despite these institutional difficulties the dentists experienced work rewards associated with the improvement in the prisoners' oral health (instrumentality). Finally, the dentists experienced a feeling of personal worth and a sense of commitment to providing care to Scottish prisoners (valence). The dentists' motivation to work in Scottish prisons may be explained by Vroom's Expectancy Theory. The dentists' motivation is characterised by their beliefs that their work will improve clinical outcomes which will be rewarded by the satisfaction experienced when they overcome environmental obstacles and provide oral health care for their prisoner-patients.

  20. Social Reintegration of Prisoners in Selected European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Maria Nowak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the issn of social readaptation of prisoners sentenced to many years of imprisonment, a comparative analysis of penitentiary systems and reintegration solutions in Denmark, France, Great Britain and Poland has been conducted and presented in the article. In the summary, different directions of systemic changes have been shown, which may increase the effectiveness of actions and may be useful in the effective preparation of prisoners for work in freedom. For it is crucial to significantly decreasing social and financial costs incurred by society for prisoners, ex-prisoners and their dysfunctional families

  1. Narratives of Memory, Identity and Place in Male Prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Medlicott, Diana

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at some aspects of memory and identity in relation to male\\ud prisoners and their sense of place. Prison is, for those entering it, an exemplary\\ud life event, in terms of the jolt it gives to memory and self-image. In prison,\\ud there is all the time in the world to sit and think, and remember. Memory is a\\ud source of joy and of torment.\\ud I begin by offering a brief illustration of this. James (L6), a prisoner in his\\ud late thirties, told me about the house he lived in f...

  2. The United States needs a WHO health in prisons project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, C

    2010-11-01

    Some facts about imprisonment in the USA are used to justify the comment that US is a country that loves prisons. The lack of provision of rehabilitative type services is stressed and the example of Valley Fever in one area of California demonstrates the public health disasters which can occur with the present arrangements. The organisations concerned with prisons seem to support the idea of prisons as a business. The article is a plea for a WHO health in prisons project as the way forward. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health care in small prisons: incorporating high-quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Casillas, Alejandra; Mary, Gérard; Secretan, Anne-Dominique; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the past, health management in Geneva's six post-trial prisons had been variable and inconsistent. In 2008, the unit of penitentiary medicine of the Geneva University Hospitals was mandated to re-organize and provide health care at all six prison facilities. The specific aim of this paper is to outline the example as a practical solution to some of the common challenges in unifying the structure and process of health services across multiple small facilities, while meeting European prison health and local quality standards. Geneva's post-trial prisons are small and close to one another in geographical proximity - ideal conditions for the construction of a health mobile team (HMT). This multidisciplinary mobile team operated like a community ambulatory care model; it was progressively launched in all prison facilities in Geneva. The authors incorporated an implementation strategy where health providers partnered with prison and community stakeholders in the health delivery model's development and adaption process. The model's strategic initiatives are described along the following areas, in light of other international prison health activity and prior care models: access to a health care professional, equivalence of care, patient consent, confidentiality, humanitarian interventions, and professional competence and independence. From the perspective of the HMT members, the authors provide the "lessons learned" through this experience, especially to providers who are working on prison health services reform and coordination improvement. The paper particularly stresses the importance of partnering with community health stakeholders and prison staff, a key component to the approach.

  4. Self-perceived role and function of Christian prison chaplains and Buddhist volunteers in Hong Kong prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Cheng, Kevin Kwok-yin

    2013-02-01

    Although there have been a handful of studies examining the work of chaplains and prison volunteers in a Western setting, few have endeavored to conduct research into the experiences of religious workers in Asian penitentiaries. To fill this gap, this article reports on exploratory research examining the work of a selected group of religious workers in Hong Kong prisons. A total of 17 religious workers were interviewed: 10 prison chaplains and 7 Buddhist volunteers who paid regular prison visits. Qualitative findings generated from in-depth interviews present three themes: the range of religious activities performed, the importance of religion for the rehabilitation of inmates, and the hope of continued religious support to prisoners after discharge. The significance of this research is that it sheds light on the understudied work of prison chaplains and volunteers in Hong Kong and portrays the difference between the works of the Christian ministry and Buddhist volunteers.

  5. The Health of America's Aging Prison Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A; Gross, Alden; Schrack, Jennifer A; Deal, Jennifer A; Eber, Gabriel B

    2018-03-23

    Older incarcerated individuals comprise the fastest growing demographic in the US prison system. Unhealthy lifestyles among incarcerated individuals and inadequate health care lead to earlier onset and more rapid progression of many chronic conditions that are prevalent among community-living older adults. There are limited peer-reviewed epidemiologic data in this area; however, there is growing interest in identifying strategies for housing aging incarcerated individuals, delivering appropriate health care in prisons, and coordinating after-release health care. In this systematic review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence of the health challenges facing the aging US prison population. Our comprehensive literature search focused on health outcomes, including diseases, comorbid conditions, mental health, cognition, and mobility. From 12,486 articles identified from the literature search, we reviewed 21 studies published between 2007 and 2017. All the studies were observational and cross-sectional, and most (n = 17) were based on regional samples. Sample sizes varied widely, ranging from 25 to 14,499 incarcerated people (median, 258). In general, compared with their younger counterparts, older incarcerated individuals reported high rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular conditions, and liver disease. Mental health problems were common, especially anxiety, fear of desire for death or suicide, and depression. Activities of daily living were challenging for up to one-fifth of the population. We found no empirical data on cognition among older incarcerated individuals. The findings of this review reveal few empirical data in this area and highlight the need for new data to drive policy and practice patterns that address critical health issues related to the aging prison population.

  6. Empathy in One-Shot Prisoner Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Giulia; Tcheukam, Alain; Tembine, Hamidou

    2017-01-01

    Strategic decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like reasoning, cognitive and emotional empathy which may be subject to age and gender differences. However, empathy-related changes in strategic decision-making and their relation to age, gender and neuropsychological functions have not been studied widely. In this article, we study a one-shot prisoner dilemma from a psychological game theory viewpoint. Forty seven participants (28 women and 19 men), aged 18 to 42 years, we...

  7. ["I became a mother in prison."].

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    When Jessica, a young female prisoner, discovered she was pregnant, she wanted a termination but the legal time limit had passed. Over the weeks, she felt her baby move and then became aware of all the love she could give it. The pregnancy followed by the birth of her son, transformed her. After seven months spent in a cell with him, came the long-awaited release. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Quantum prisoners' dilemma under enhanced interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopsis, George; Balu, Radhakrishnan; Solmeyer, Neal

    2018-06-01

    In the quantum version of prisoners' dilemma, each prisoner is equipped with a single qubit that the interrogator can entangle. We enlarge the available Hilbert space by introducing a third qubit that the interrogator can entangle with the other two. We discuss an enhanced interrogation technique based on tripartite entanglement and analyze Nash equilibria. We show that for tripartite entanglement approaching a W-state, we calculate the Nash equilibria numerically and show that they coincide with the Pareto-optimal choice where both prisoners cooperate. Upon continuous variation between a W-state and a pure bipartite entangled state, the game is shown to have a surprisingly rich structure. The role of bipartite and tripartite entanglement is explored to explain that structure. As an application, we consider an evolutionary game based on our quantum game with a network of agents on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and show that the strategy corresponding to Nash equilibrium completely dominates without placing any restrictions on the initial set of strategies.

  9. Humour in Prison: Brendan Behan Confesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Terrinoni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the comical aspects of Behan’s autobiographical writings. It focuses on how humour, especially black humour, often flourishes wherever we find conflicts and contrasts. Humour is always born out of oppositions, and it can be argued that it always functions as an act of resistance to outside tragedy. Brendan Behan, a writer of slum and working class background, is one of the leading Irish prison writers. He is in many ways an exponent of an Irish republican tradition based on the idea of prison endurance. Given Behan’s notoriously flamboyant personality and his own talking gifts, it is not hard to imagine that the worst aspect of prison confinement might have been for him compulsory solitude and silence. His exuberant language and larger-than-life personality can be considered perhaps as a reaction to such partial deprivation of interpersonal relationships during his youth. In this context, where fictional and autobiographical truth are kept apart by an unstable divide increased by the abundance of comical interludes and jokes, the core of the essay analyses the second chapter of Confessions of an Irish Rebel in order to discuss the way in which Behan alternates funny accounts and tragedy in his own autobiographical reports.

  10. Prisoners and cigarettes or ‘imprisoned in cigarettes’? What helps prisoners quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Elias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was, despite the special characteristics of prisons, to identify the features which led prisoners who attended the Smoking Cessation Centre at the Kassavetia Detention Centre in Volos (region of Thessaly, in the central part of mainland Greece to quit smoking. Methods Personal interviews with 204 male prisoners irrespective of smoking habitus over the period June 2008 to December 2010 were obtained. Information about medical history, history of tobacco use and addiction to narcotic use was obtained and imprisonment status was recorded. Pharmaceutical treatment (Varenicline and counselling or only counselling were suggested as alternative strategies to them in order to help quit smoking. SPSS v15.0 software was employed, descriptive statistics were used, and a X2 independence test and Student’s t-test were performed. Results Of the sample examined, 75.5% (154 were smokers. They were mainly Greeks (51.5%, single (53.4% and had not gratuated from a high school (secondary education level (70.6%. 59.75% begun smoking early ( ≤14 years of age and 64.9% were highly addicted according to Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. 74% (114 of all smokers at the prison attended the Smoking Cessation Centre. Of them, 30.7% were able to quit smoking at 3 months but 1 year later there were 20.2% ex-smokers. The key characteristics of those who were able to be ex-smokers were a change in smoking habits (decreased compared to when free (p = .001, previous attempts to quit (while incarcerated and in general (p = .001, average dependence levels (p  Conclusions Average dependence, a past free of addictive substance abuse and a better environment of daily living for certain prisoners (as far as the number of cellmates was concerned had a catalytic impact on prisoners finally managed to quit smoking.

  11. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  12. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners: Prediction of Treatment Entry and Completion in Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Couvillion, Kathryn A; Schwartz, Robert P; O'Grady, Kevin

    2012-05-01

    The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: counseling only (counseling in prison; n= 70); counseling plus transfer (counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release; n= 70); and counseling plus methadone (methadone maintenance in prison, continued in a community-based methadone maintenance program upon release; n= 71). Entered prison treatment (p prison treatment (pprison sentences may have better outcomes than younger individuals with shorter sentences, meaning they are more likely to enter and complete prison-based treatment. Furthermore, implications for the treatment of prisoners with prior heroin dependence and for conducting clinical trials may indicate the importance of examining individual characteristics and the possibility of the examination of patient preference.

  13. Security Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    What is a security dilemma? What are the consequences of security dilemmas in international politics?......What is a security dilemma? What are the consequences of security dilemmas in international politics?...

  14. HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services.

  15. PRISON EDUCATION IN POLAND: SPECIFICS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Becker-Pestka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for

  16. Influence of environmental factors on mental health within prisons: focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Jo; Woodcock, Paul; Ormsby, Jim

    2003-08-30

    To increase understanding of how the prison environment influences the mental health of prisoners and prison staff. Qualitative study with focus groups. A local prison in southern England. Prisoners and prison staff. Prisoners reported that long periods of isolation with little mental stimulus contributed to poor mental health and led to intense feelings of anger, frustration, and anxiety. Prisoners said they misused drugs to relieve the long hours of tedium. Most focus groups identified negative relationships between staff and prisoners as an important issue affecting stress levels of staff and prisoners. Staff groups described a "circle of stress," whereby the prison culture, organisation, and staff shortages caused high staff stress levels, resulting in staff sickness, which in turn caused greater stress for remaining staff. Staff shortages also affected prisoners, who would be locked up for longer periods of time, the ensuing frustration would then be released on staff, aggravating the situation still further. Insufficient staff also affected control and monitoring of bullying and reduced the amount of time in which prisoners were able to maintain contact with their families. Greater consideration should be given to understanding the wider environmental and organisational factors that contribute to poor mental health in prisons. This information can be used to inform prison policy makers and managers, and the primary care trusts who are beginning to work in partnership with prisons to improve the mental health of prisoners.

  17. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  18. Pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donors for hepatitis B and C in prisons of punjab pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervaiz, A.; Sipra, F.S.; Rana, T.H.; Qadeer, I.

    2015-01-01

    Prisoners as a high risk group are never recommended for blood donations. In Pakistan, prisoners are legally allowed to donate blood and get thirty days extra remission. Inspectorate of prisons allowed Alizaib Foundation for blood donation camps subject to pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donor against infectious diseases. This study was conducted to identify the potential benefits of pre-donation screening. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in October, 2009 in Punjab. Intending volunteer prisoner blood donors from January, 2007 to September, 2009 from prisons of Punjab were included. Physically fit were tested for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and B Virus (HBV) by Rapid test kit before bleeding. Data was analysed by Epi-Info. Results: A total of 5894 male volunteer prisoner donors were screened and 1038 (17.6%) were rejected. The mean age was 28 years (range: 17-70 years). Of 5894, 857 (14.5%) were HCV positive and 222 (3.8%) were HBV positive. HCV and HBV co-infection was present among 41 (0.7%). Being convicted prisoner blood donor is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HCV (OR 1.35, 95% C.I. 1.17-1.57) and being under trial prisoner is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HBV (OR 1.40, 95% C.I. 1.06-1.85). Conclusion: Hepatitis B and C viruses were responsible for almost 18% prisoner blood donor rejection. Pre-donation screening of blood donors is an effective intervention to improve the safety and limit the cost of blood. Treatment of identified cases may contribute to public health. In the international scenario this study findings necessitate the amendments in the relevant prison rules. (author)

  19. The Returned Prisoner of War: Factors in Family Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubin, Hamilton I.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Longitudinal study on 48 families of returned prisoners of war to identify factors to explain degree of reintegration of returnee into his family system. Four sets of data were considered: (1) background characteristics of husband and wife; (2) indices of family preparedness; (3) returnees' prison experiences and their psychiatric status; (4)…

  20. 20 CFR 404.468 - Nonpayment of benefits to prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits to prisoners. (a) General. No monthly benefits will be paid to any individual for any month any... though the prisoner were receiving benefits. (b) Felonious offenses. An offense will be considered a... substantial gainful activity upon release and within a reasonable time. No benefits will be paid to the...

  1. 28 CFR 501.1 - Bureau of Prisons emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... threatening human life or safety and warranting suspension of the rules continues to exist. If the Warden does... ADMINISTRATION SCOPE OF RULES § 501.1 Bureau of Prisons emergencies. (a) Suspension of rules during an emergency. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) may suspend operation of the rules in this chapter as...

  2. Process Evaluation for a Prison-based Substance Abuse Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Purvis, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from a process evaluation conducted in a prison-based substance abuse program in Kentucky. Discusses key components in the program, including a detailed program description, modifications in planned treatment strategies, program documentation, and perspectives of staff and clients. Findings suggest that prison-based programs have…

  3. In-School Suspension Practices and the Prison Hospital Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, David K.; Rockoff, Edward

    1977-01-01

    Explores the legal implications of in-school suspension practices through consideration of individual versus institutional rights within a special punitive-rehabilitative setting. Argues that the prison hospital model is applicable to in-school suspension programs and discusses a number of legal questions raised by the prison hospital model.…

  4. The prison subsystem culture: its attitudinal effects on operatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the incarceration retrospective negative impacts on individuals and exconvicts lives in the free society. Suggestions were made towards ensuring sanitized prison socio cultural environment and that restorative justice approach should be practiced in Nigeria. Key Words: prison culture attitudinal effect convicts and society ...

  5. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual... Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) was enacted with bipartisan support and established a ``zero...

  6. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  7. Transgendered Prisoners in the United States: A Progression of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Alexander

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1976, prisoners acquired the right to medical treatment from the U.S. Supreme Court through the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which forbade, in part, cruel and unusual punishment. The following year, a Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that medical treatment included psychiatric or mental health treatment. These rulings applied to general prisoners, but not initially prisoners who suffered from gender identity disorder. Courts ruled then that gender identity disorder was not a serious mental disorder—a critical component of the right to medical care and mental health treatment. Later, a few appeals courts ruled that gender identity disorder was a serious mental disorder, triggering a prisoner’s right to medical care and mental health treatment for this disorder. Prisoners with gender identity disorder have litigated for sex realignment surgery as part of their treatment, which prison administrators have balked. The latest ruling unequivocally ordered the Massachusetts Department of Corrections to give a prisoner suffering from gender identity disorder sex reassignment surgery, but the prison system has appealed. This ruling, and previous rulings, has furthered policy towards transsexual prisoners.

  8. What Can College Mean? Lessons from the Bard Prison Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe

    2011-01-01

    The Bard Prison Initiative (BPI), which is a part of the Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, is a prison program that operates a full liberal arts program leading to both AA and BA degrees. The students are convicted felons who are serving relatively long sentences for serious, often violent, crimes. They tend to be in their…

  9. Evaluation of a Family Wellness Course for Persons in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Linda G.; Cornwell, Connie S.

    2015-01-01

    This research supports the value of maintaining the family ties of persons in prison. Family healing work will likely affect multiple relationships within the family, especially for the children of prisoners, and increase the possibility of healthy and productive life choices for all family members. The Family Matters course is grounded in family…

  10. Gualitative education for prisoners: a panacea to effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 24-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 200 subjects randomly drawn from staff of five prisons in Delta State and the staff of College of Education, Agbor. The result showed that the respondents agreed that qualitative and vocational education for prisoners were inadequate. There was no relationship ...

  11. Brave New Worlds. Shakespearean Tempests in Italian Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacristina Cavecchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare is a pivotal and much staged playwright by theatre companies of prisoners in Italy, even though the practice of theatre in prison in Italy has a much shorter tradition than in the Anglo-Saxon world. Among the many Shakespearean plays, "The Tempest" is a favourite, being obviously able to shine a new light on the themes of revenge, freedom and forgiveness that are central issues in a prison context. Undeniably, in Italy, productions of "The Tempest" in prison have deeply instilled new life into the staging of the Elizabethan playwright. The list includes different kinds of experiences ranging from drama therapy, where the process towards rehabilitation and reintegration is more important than the finished aesthetic product, to productions by theatre directors who are primarily concerned with the artistic medium of the theatre and its aesthetic qualities. A survey of Shakespeare theatrical practice in Italian prisons can help investigate and understand not only the aesthetic but also the political, social and economic consequences of the function of prison nowadays, and provides the first step towards an analysis of Shakespeare practice in Italian prisons in a broader context. By comparison with other European countries, we may also discover that some Italian experiences, such as Fabio Cavalli's work in Rome at the Rebibbia prison, or Armando Punzo's with the "Fortress Company" in Volterra are unique and they deserve more attention.

  12. An Assessment of Female Prisoners' Perception of the Accessibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accessibility of quality healthcare across the globe has generated a lot of attention among public health practitioners. Aim: This study explored the background characteristics of female prisoners and how it influences their assessment of the quality of accessible healthcare in the Kumasi Female Prison. Subjects ...

  13. The Possible Selves of Young Fathers in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the social psychological concept of possible selves, this study explores the future self concept of young fathers in prison. In considering life after release from prison, qualitative data relating to hoped-for, feared and expected possible selves was generated by 34 young fathers aged between 18 and 21 years. The most common categories…

  14. Tuberculosis incidence in Cameroonian prisons: A 1-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Rates of tuberculosis (TB) transmission in prisons are reported to be high worldwide. However, a recent systematic review identified only 19 published studies reporting TB incidence in prisons, most of them from the last century and only one from sub- Saharan Africa. Objectives. To assess the persisting risk of ...

  15. “Labyrinth of loneliness”: Breyten Breytenbach's prison poetry (1976 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breytenbach's prison poetry is first contextualized as part of a South African subgenre that flourished under apartheid, and then interrogated for its specificities: the singular prison conditions under which he wrote, the nature of the poetry, specific leitmotifs in each of the five volumes published between 1976 and 1985.

  16. Being a woman in mixed-gender prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, I will examine the penal and mixed gender practices surrounding female prisoners in Denmark and attempt to unfold how these practices both support and constrain the wellbeing and welfare of incarcerated women. I will examine the ways of being the practice of mixed gendered prison...

  17. Natural Recovery from Drug and Alcohol Addiction among Israeli Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gila

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in the sense of coherence, anxiety, depression, hostility, behavior, and meaning in life among Israeli prisoners recovering from drug and alcohol addiction over various time periods (6-24 months), and without therapeutic intervention (natural recovery). Ninety-eight abstinent prisoners were divided into two groups:…

  18. Prisoners' rights under the Nigerian law: legal pathways to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines basic fundamental human rights which should not be forfeited as a result of incarceration. It evaluates how such rights fare in the Nigerian prison system, and itemizes practical measures that must be put in place to ensure the protection and fulfilment of these rights in Nigeria. Keywords: prisoners ...

  19. Incorporating AIDS Education in Prison Adult Education Programs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enuku, Usiwoma Evawoma; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    1999-01-01

    Indicates that there are no acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education programs in Nigerian prisons and that because of total confinement and the absence of conjugal visits, homosexuality may be common. Outlines the objectives of AIDS education in prisons and the benefits as the inmates return to their communities. (JOW)

  20. Computers behind bars : Information technology in Canadian prison libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    of information can have upon Canadian prison libraries. Gathered information is compared with the results of Canadian policy regarding the provision of information to inmates. The analysis of the collected facts can provide insight to help prison librarians deal with the increasing popularity of electronic...

  1. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  2. Symptoms and treatment of mental illness among prisoners: a study of Michigan state prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Brant E; Schmorrow, Angela; Lang, Sylvia W; Margolis, Philip M; Heany, Julia; Brown, Greg P; Barbaree, Howard E; Hirdes, John P

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on a representative sample of prisoners in Michigan correctional facilities to determine the prevalence of psychiatric illness and the delivery of mental health (MH) services. Mental health assessments were conducted with 618 incarcerated subjects using the interRAI Correctional Facilities (interRAI CF). Subjects were randomly sampled based on four strata: males in the general population, males in administrative segregation, males in special units, and females. The interRAI CF assessments were merged with secondary data provided by the Michigan Department of Corrections (MDOC) containing information on MH diagnoses or services that the subjects were receiving within the facilities, demographics, and sentencing. Study results show that 20.1% of men and 24.8% of women in Michigan prisons have a substantial level of MH symptoms and that 16.5% and 28.9%, respectively, are receiving MH services. However, when compared with Michigan Department of Corrections MH care records, 65.0% of prisoners who are experiencing symptoms of mental illness are not currently receiving any psychiatric services. The mis-match between symptoms and service delivery suggests the need for improved procedures for identifying and measuring psychiatric symptoms within Michigan correctional facilities to ensure that appropriate individuals receive needed care. It is recommended that a standardized assessment process be implemented and conducted at regular intervals for targeting and improving psychiatric care in the prison system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Assessment of Prison-Based Drug Treatment; Texas' In-Prison Therapeutic Community Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kevin; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Chatham, Lois R.; Camacho, L. Mabel

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of a comprehensive, prison-based treatment assessment, including a six-month follow-up study. Results show that 80% of the inmates referred to the program graduated. Graduates demonstrated marked reductions in criminal and drug-use activity and had lower relapse and recidivism rates when compared to other parolees. (RJM)

  4. The Impact of In-Prison Therapeutic Community Programs on Prison Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Michael; Farabee, David; Cartier, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Presents findings of a process evaluation of the California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility. Measures from the evaluation suggest that the presence of a therapeutic community within a prison is associated with significant advantages for management of the institution-including lower rates of infractions, reduced absenteeism among correctional…

  5. Does Prison-Based Adult Basic Education Improve Postrelease Outcomes for Male Prisoners in Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Rosa Minhyo; Tyler, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The authors use administrative data from Florida to determine the extent to which prison-based adult basic education (ABE) improves inmate's postrelease labor market outcomes, such as earnings and employment. Using two nonexperimental comparison groups, the authors find evidence that ABE participation is associated with higher postrelease earnings…

  6. A World without Prisons: Teaching Confinement Literature and the Promise of Prison Abolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marc Lamont

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how "confinement literature" serves as a site of possibility for reimagining the role, purpose, and function of prisons in society. Confinement literature refers to any work of fiction or nonfiction that deals with the fundamental issue of human captivity. This article, like all of the authors'…

  7. The prisoner's body: violence, desire and masculinities in a Nicaraguan prison theatre group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weegels, J.; Frerks, G.; Ypeij, A.; König, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It is not violence but rather its supposed absence within incarceration that makes every interaction, verbal or physical, ridden with its intentions. This chapter follows the Nicaraguan prisoner not only in his narrative silences, gaps, and sudden confessions of blood-stained experience but

  8. Staff and prisoner perceptions of physical and social environmental factors thought to be supportive of bullying: the role of bullying and fear of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Matthew D; Ireland, Jane L

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the relationship between social and physical environmental factors supportive of bullying, levels of bullying and fear of bullying. Participants were 261 adult male prisoners. All completed the Direct and Indirect Prisoner Checklist-Scaled Version Revised (DIPC-SCALED-r Ireland, 2007), the Prison Environment Scale (PES Allison, 2007), and a Brief Measure of Fear of Bullying Scale (BMFBS). The PES was explored initially using 100 male prisoners randomly selected from the main sample and 100 prison officers. It was predicted that increased bullying would be associated with increased evidence of environmental factors supportive of bullying; that increased levels of fear of bullying would be associated with increased evidence of environmental factors supportive of bullying; and that actual experience of bullying would represent better predictors of fear levels than the presence of environmental factors supportive of bullying. Those perceiving greater levels of environmental factors reported more fear of bullying and more behaviours indicative of bullying (perpetration and victimisation), with this holding for indirect and direct behaviours indicative of bullying. Bullying behaviours (direct perpetration and indirect victimisation) predicted fear of bullying more than the presence of environmental factors. The environmental factor of rules, regulations and security were found to predict bullying perpetration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in inmates from Kajang Prison, Selangor, Malaysia for improved prison management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Lorainne; Mahmud, Rohela; Samin, Sajideh; Yap, Nan-Jiun; Ngui, Romano; Amir, Amirah; Ithoi, Init; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-10-29

    The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited. Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further

  10. Latent tuberculosis infection in a Malaysian prison: implications for a comprehensive integrated control program in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-01-10

    Prisons continue to fuel tuberculosis (TB) epidemics particularly in settings where access to TB screening and prevention services is limited. Malaysia is a middle-income country with a relatively high incarceration rate of 138 per 100,000 population. Despite national TB incidence rate remaining unchanged over the past ten years, data about TB in prisons and its contribution to the overall national rates does not exist. This survey was conducted to address the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) in Malaysia's largest prison. From July to December 2010, all HIV-infected and a comparative group of HIV-uninfected prisoners housed separately in Kajang prison were asked to participate in the survey after explaining the study protocol. Subjects providing informed consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire followed by the placement of tuberculin skin test (TST) with 2 TU of PPD RT-23 to subjects not being treated for active TB. TST was read after 48-72 hours and indurations of ≥ 5 mm and ≥ 10 mm were considered positive among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects, respectively. Additionally, HIV-infected inmates underwent phlebotomy for CD4 lymphocyte count assessment. A logistic regression model was explored to determine factors associated with TST positivity. Overall, 286 subjects (138 HIV-infected and 148 HIV-uninfected) had complete data and TST results. The majority were men (95.1%), less than 40 years old (median age 36.0, SD 7.87), and Malaysians (93.3%). Most (82.5%) had been previously incarcerated and more than half (53.1%) reported sharing needles just prior to their incarceration. TST was positive in 88.8% (84.7% among HIV-infected and 92.5% among HIV-uninfected subjects) and was independently associated with being HIV-uninfected (AOR = 2.97, p = 0.01) and with frequent previous incarcerations (AOR = 1.22 for every one previous incarceration, p = 0.01) after adjusting for other potential confounding factors

  11. "They Treat Us Like Human Beings"--Experiencing a Therapeutic Sex Offenders Prison: Impact on Prisoners and Staff and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Hames, Charlie

    2016-03-01

    Research evidence demonstrates that sex offender treatment programmes (SOTPs) can reduce the number of sex offenders who are reconvicted. However, there has been much less empirical research exploring the experiences and perspectives of the prison environment within which treatment takes place. This is important, particularly for sexual offenders, as they often face multiple stigmas in prison. This study used a mixed-methods approach to explore the experiences of prisoners and staff at a therapeutically orientated sexual offenders' prison to understand whether the prison environment was conducive to rehabilitation. The quantitative strand of the research sampled prisoners (n = 112) and staff (n = 48) from a therapeutically orientated sex offenders prison. This strand highlighted that both prisoners and staff had positive attitudes toward offenders and high beliefs that offenders could change. Importantly, the climate was rated positively and, in particular, participants had very high ratings of "experienced safety." The qualitative strand of the research consisted of semistructured interviews with prisoners (n = 15) and a range of prison staff (n = 16). The qualitative analysis revealed positive prisoner views toward staff relationships, with most participants articulating that the prison and its staff had contributed to positive change in prisoners. Crucially, the environment was perceived as safe and allowed prisoners "headspace" to work through problems and contemplate change. This research offers some support to the notion that context is important for sex offender rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. [Overcrowding in prisons and its impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J; Marco, A

    2012-02-01

    Overcrowding in prisons is a common problem that affects many countries. It is difficult to define this term because there is no single internationally accepted standard. However, this is a situation that must be counteracted, because people's behaviour can be affected to the extent that it leads to self-harm or violent behaviour to others. But prison overcrowding also has other effects on the health and well being of the people living in these conditions and may also adversely affect public health and the prison system. It can increase the prevalence of diseases, particularly infectious and psychiatric disorders. It may also hinder the work of social rehabilitation and lead to inhuman, cruel or degrading treatment. This paper reviews the scant literature about overcrowding in prisons. Increasing awareness about the issue in the international community and prison administrations and above all, assigning specific economic resources, are key elements in preventing this deficit in social welfare and health care.

  13. Prisoners of War of the Triple Alliance within Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the problem of the detention of prisoners of war of the Triple Alliance in the camps, located within Kazakhstan. During the first months of war, the Russian authorities treated the prisoners of war in accordance with ‘Convention on the Treatment of the Prisoners of War’, approved by the Emperor of Russia. The content of this document corresponded to the Hague Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The major areas of the detention of prisoners of war were Turkestan and Omsk Military Okrug, combining all military institutions of the Steppe Governorate General, including the ones of North-Eastern and Central Kazakhstan. The source base of the research is the materials of Kazakhstan and German archives, the recollections of the former prisoners of war and the published collections of documents and materials.

  14. Cooking in prison – from crook to cook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    thinking about, purchasing, and preparing food. Overall, prisoners reported being very pleased with self-catering systems. Prisoners also stressed the importance of making healthy food although some prisoners felt they lacked cooking skills. In addition, study data describe and explores prisoner food...... groups, which are formed for economic and social reasons. The food-groups are understood as arenas for group solidarity, and opportunities to measure access, or lack thereof, to capital and resources. Self-catering supports prisoners’ responsibility, need for autonomy and improves prisoners’ cooking...... abilities and personal resources. During incarceration few roles are available for prisoner. The self-catering system offers the role as a cook which offers an opportunity for identity realignment from crook to cook....

  15. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  16. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  17. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  19. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  1. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  2. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  3. Mental health consultations in a prison population: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustad Aase-Bente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates. Methods Six medium/large prisons (n = 928 representing 1/3 of the Norwegian prison population and with female and preventive detention inmates over-sampled, were investigated cross-sectionally. All non-pharmacological psychiatric interventions, excluding pure correctional programs, were recorded. Those receiving interventions were investigated further and compared to the remaining prison population. Results A total of 230 of the 928 inmates (25 % had some form of psychiatric intervention: 184 (20 % were in individual psychotherapy, in addition 40 (4 % received ad hoc interventions during the registration week. Group therapy was infrequent (1 %. The psychotherapies were most often of a supportive (62 % or behavioural-cognitive (26 % nature. Dynamic, insight-oriented psychotherapies were infrequent (8 %. Concurrent psychopharmacological treatment was prevalent (52 %. Gender and age did not correlate with psychiatric interventions, whereas prisoner category (remanded, sentenced, or preventive detention did (p Conclusion Our results pertain only to prisons with adequate primary and mental health services and effective diversion from prison of individuals with serious mental disorders. Given these important limitations, we do propose that the service estimates found may serve as a rough guideline to the minimum number of sessions a prison's psychiatric health services should be able to fulfil in order to serve the inmates psychiatric needs. The results rely on the specialist services' own estimates only. Future studies should

  4. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners: Prediction of Treatment Entry and Completion in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O'Grady, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly…

  5. Preventing Suicide in Prisons, Part I Recommendations fromthe International Association for Suicide Prevention Task Force on Suicide in Prisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konrad, N.; Daigle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, L.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000 the Department of Mental Health of the World Health Organization (WHO) published a guide named Preventing Suicide. A Resource for Prison Officers as part of the WHO worldwide initiative for the prevention of suicide. In 2007 there are new epidemiological data on prison suicide, a more

  6. Exploring the relationship between ADHD symptoms and prison breaches of discipline amongst youths in four Scottish prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, V; Williams, D J; Donnelly, P D

    2012-04-01

    To explore the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline in incarcerated male youths aged 18-21 years. A case-control study of 169 male youth offenders incarcerated in Scottish prisons and classified as 'symptomatic' or 'non-symptomatic' of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms were measured using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report: Long Version, and prison breaches of discipline were gathered from the Scottish Prison Service's Prisoner Records System. Youths who were symptomatic of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) ADHD total symptoms had a significantly higher number of prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. Youths who were symptomatic of DSM-IV hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had a significantly higher number of violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. However, no such significant difference was found between youths who were symptomatic and non-symptomatic of DSM-IV inattentive symptoms. Young male offenders who are symptomatic of ADHD have a higher number of prison breaches of discipline. In particular, symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity are associated with breaches of both a violent and non-violent nature. Implications of such symptoms on rehabilitation and recidivism are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing an attitude towards bullying scale for prisoners: structural analyses across adult men, young adults and women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; Power, Christina L; Bramhall, Sarah; Flowers, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying.

  8. Indonesian prisons and HIV: part of the problem, part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Diana, Aly; van Crevel, Reinout; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Pohan, Herdiman T; van der Ven, Andre; Djaya, Ilham

    2009-07-01

    Around the world, HIV-prevalence rates among prisoners are high compared to the general population. This is due to overrepresentation of injecting drug users (IDUs) in prison and possible HIV-transmission inside prison. Limited health services in penitentiary institutes, stigma, policy issues, and budgetary constraints may hamper delivery of appropriate services for HIV in prison. Prisons may, on the other hand, enable the access to a high risk population for HIV-prevention and -care. IDUs are namely hard to reach outside prisons, while in prison targeted interventions for IDUs can be used repeatedly and economically. Also, harm reduction and HIV-treatment can be supervised and monitored carefully. This paper reviews HIV-prevention and care in prison, and describes the experience in one particular prison in West Java, Indonesia. Based on the literature and local experience, one can conclude that effective and widespread HIV-testing and treatment can be established in prisons if there is commitment from prison authorities, endorsement of services by prison staff and inmates, and collaboration with health care providers from outside prison. Essential components of HIV-services in prison include appropriate health care services, a suitable environment for HIV-counseling and -testing and tailored services for injecting drug use. By partner counseling and linking HIV-services in prison with continued care afterwards, prisons may contribute significantly to HIV-control in the general population, especially in settings where HIV is often due to injecting drug use.

  9. Partner choice cooperation in prisoner's dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhaojin; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigated the cooperative behavior in prisoner's dilemma when the individual behaviors and interaction structures could coevolve. Here, we study the model that the individuals can imitate the strategy of their neighbors and rewire their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on a fitness comparison. We find that the cooperation can be achieved if the time scale of network adaptation is large enough, even when the social dilemma strength is very strong. Detailed investigation shows that the presence or absence of the network adaptation has a profound impact on the collective behavior in the system.

  10. Race in California's prison fire camps for men: prison politics, space, and the racialization of everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The vast majority of social scientists agree that race is "socially constructed." Yet many scholars of punishment and prisons still treat race as static, self-evident categories. One result is that not enough is known about the production, meanings, and consequences of race as experienced by prisoners and those who guard and manage them. The author's research on California's prison fire camps uncovers the micro-level ways in which race is performed and imbued with meaning; he reveals how racial understandings color people and settings. One puzzle is that prisoners in California's fire camps will fight natural disasters side by side, sharing water and provisions, but separate into racial groups when in the camp itself. In part to answer this (and in part to develop better understandings of race and prisons more generally), the author unpacks the variegated nature of punishment and the spatialization of race and advocates for research that is faithful to the constructivist framework.

  11. [The effect of prison crowding on prisoners' violence in Japan: testing with cointegration regressions and error correction models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuma, Yoshikazu

    2010-08-01

    This research examined the effect of prison population densities (PPD) on inmate-inmate prison violence rates (PVR) in Japan using one-year-interval time-series data (1972-2006). Cointegration regressions revealed a long-run equilibrium relationship between PPD and PVR. PPD had a significant and increasing effect on PVR in the long-term. Error correction models showed that in the short-term, the effect of PPD was significant and positive on PVR, even after controlling for the effects of the proportions of males, age younger than 30 years, less than one-year incarceration, and prisoner/staff ratio. The results were discussed in regard to (a) differences between Japanese prisons and prisons in the United States, and (b) methodological problems found in previous research.

  12. Security Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  13. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuge, Terefe G; Ayanto, Samuel Y

    2016-04-02

    People concentrated in congregated systems such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for tuberculosis transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. The condition is more serious in Africa particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to its poor living conditions and ineffective health services. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to June 2013 in Hadiya Zone prison. Prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through compound light microscopy. The data obtained was analyzed using statistical software like Epidata and STATA. A total of 164 prisoners were included in the survey using active screening strategy and the point prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the prison was 349.2 per 100,000 populations; about three times higher than its prevalence in the general population. Even though lack of visit from family was the only variable identified as a risk factor for PTB (P = 0.029), almost all of the PTB positive cases were rural residents, farmers, male youngsters and those who shared cell with TB patients and chronically coughing persons as well as those who stayed in a cell that contains >100 inmates. There is high prevalence of TB in Hadiya Zone prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. The study also documented a number of factors which may facilitate exposures to TB though most of them are not significantly associated. Therefore, strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission.

  14. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  15. US: developments in the treatment of HIV-positive prisoners in two states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Katie

    2005-08-01

    Legal actions have been launched in Alabama and Mississippi to address living conditions and medical care of HIV-positive prisoners in state prisons. These were the only two states to allow complete segregation of HIV-positive prisoners in state prisons into the 1990s. The two cases highlight the ways in which the courts have been involved in supervising prison conditions in the United States.

  16. Retention on buprenorphine is associated with high levels of maximal viral suppression among HIV-infected opioid dependent released prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Springer

    Full Text Available HIV-infected prisoners lose viral suppression within the 12 weeks after release to the community. This prospective study evaluates the use of buprenorphine/naloxone (BPN/NLX as a method to reduce relapse to opioid use and sustain viral suppression among released HIV-infected prisoners meeting criteria for opioid dependence (OD.From 2005-2010, 94 subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for OD were recruited from a 24-week prospective trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART for released HIV-infected prisoners; 50 (53% selected BPN/NLX and were eligible to receive it for 6 months; the remaining 44 (47% selected no BPN/NLX therapy. Maximum viral suppression (MVS, defined as HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/mL, was compared for the BPN/NLX and non-BPN/NLX (N = 44 groups.The two groups were similar, except the BPN/NLX group was significantly more likely to be Hispanic (56.0% v 20.4%, from Hartford (74.4% v 47.7% and have higher mean global health quality of life indicator scores (54.18 v 51.40. MVS after 24 weeks of being released was statistically correlated with 24-week retention on BPN/NLX [AOR = 5.37 (1.15, 25.1], having MVS at the time of prison-release [AOR = 10.5 (3.21, 34.1] and negatively with being Black [AOR = 0.13 (0.03, 0.68]. Receiving DAART or methadone did not correlate with MVS.In recognition that OD is a chronic relapsing disease, strategies that initiate and retain HIV-infected prisoners with OD on BPN/NLX is an important strategy for improving HIV treatment outcomes as a community transition strategy.

  17. q-Strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Fan, Hong-Yi; Xu, Wen-Long; Yang, Han-Xin

    2011-01-01

    We generalize the usual two-strategy prisoner's dilemma game to a multi-strategy game, in which the strategy variable s is allowed to take q different fractional values lying between 0 and 1. The fractional-valued strategies signify that individuals are not absolutely cooperative or defective, instead they can adopt intermediate strategies. Simulation results on 1D and 2D lattices show that, compared with the binary strategy game, the multi-strategy game can sustain cooperation in more stringent defective environments. We give a comprehensive analysis of the distributions of the survived strategies and we compare pairwise the relative strength and weakness of different strategies. It turns out that some intermediate strategies survive the pure defection because they can reduce being exploited and at the same time benefit from the spatial reciprocity effect. Our work may shed some light on the intermediate behaviors in human society. -- Highlights: → We propose a q-strategy prisoner's dilemma game with intermediate strategies. → The intermediate strategies characterize the extent of cooperation or defection. → We implement the model in a structured population. → The intermediate strategies can promote cooperation.

  18. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  19. Securing maximum diversity of Non Pollen Palynomorphs in palynological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    2015-01-01

    Palynology is no longer synonymous with analysis of pollen with the addition of a few fern spores. A wide range of Non Pollen Palynomorphs are now described and are potential palaeoenvironmental proxies in the palynological surveys. The contribution of NPP’s has proven important to the interpreta......Palynology is no longer synonymous with analysis of pollen with the addition of a few fern spores. A wide range of Non Pollen Palynomorphs are now described and are potential palaeoenvironmental proxies in the palynological surveys. The contribution of NPP’s has proven important...

  20. Deficiencies in pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham K. Akih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon celebrated fifty years of independence from colonial rule on 20 May 2010. Major problems facing the nation are economic, social and political crises and the appalling condition of its prisons. This article focuses on pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon. Most churches in Cameroon have no pastoral care programme for prisoners. The churches in general are not yet committed to this kind of work. The article argues that changes and reform of the penitential system will be difficult if not impossible without collaboration with other institutions and resources, which include the different faith communities and faith based organisations. The focus should be on the care and well-being of those within its walls if successful rehabilitation is to take place. Spiritual care will contribute to the general well-being of prisoners. The article gives a broad overview of the situation of prisons and prisoners in Cameroon and presents a pastoral care approach that could contribute to the overall improvement of the lives of people in Cameroon prisons.

  1. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts – external and political-organizational dimensions – simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  2. Development of an assessment of functioning scale for prison environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Wakai, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a global assessment of functioning (GAF), modified from the DSM Axis V GAF for the prison environment. Focus groups, which were conducted with 36 correctional officers and clinicians in two prisons, provided descriptions of behavior in prison settings to re-align the GAF scale. Face validity was established. It was found that Habitation/Behavior, Social, and Symptoms emerged as important domains of functioning in prison. Gender differences were noted with regard to cleanliness, relationships and coping strategies. The cut-off score was identified at a score where offenders were unable to participate in a disciplinary process due to their mental illness. The structure of prison alters human functioning, requiring different assessment language and ratings to measure perceived behavioral norms and/or expectations. Front-line staff need the ability to observe and communicate behavioral changes quickly and accurately in a prison environment without undue burden upon their workload. This assessment was modified by front-line staff specifically for the prison environment to document quick and frequent assessments of observed changes over time in the offender population.

  3. Health promotion and young prisoners: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Morag; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Weilandt, Caren

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the health promotion needs of vulnerable young prisoners and the existing health promotion activities in custodial settings in seven European Union (EU) Member States. The research comprised two components: the first involved identifying existing health promotion practices. The second involved mapping out young offenders' health promotion needs by carrying out a needs assessment. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted. The quantitative element comprised surveys among young prisoners and prison staff and focused on the availability and perceived importance of health promotion activities in prison. The qualitative element comprised focus groups with young offenders and individual interviews with prison staff, field experts and NGO members. The findings from the research have identified a number of similar, but also some diverse areas of unmet need for health promotion activities in prison settings across these diverse seven EU countries. There is no consistency of approach within and between countries regarding health promotion policy, guidance, resources and programmes for young prisoners. In order to improve the health of young prisoners and to establish and increase sustainability of existing health promotion programmes, there is a need for the establishment of National and EU standards. Providing health promotion activities for young prisoners while in custodial settings is key to addressing their unmet health and well-being needs and to facilitate their reintegration back into the community. Despite the barriers identified by this research, health promotion is to some extent being delivered in the partner countries and provides a foundation upon which further implementation of health promotion activities can be built especially when the benefits of health promotion activities, like dealing with the common problems of alcohol and drug addiction, mental health and communicable diseases are linked to successful

  4. Hepatitis C in Australian prisons: a national needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael Mokhlis; Herawati, Lilie; Butler, Tony; Lloyd, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) infections are prevalent in custodial settings worldwide, yet provision of antiviral therapies is uncommon. Approximately 30,000 prisoners are held in Australian prisons at any one time, with more than 30 per cent testing positive for HCV antibodies. Prisoners have been identified in the National Hepatitis C Strategy as a priority population for assessment and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the rates of HCV testing and treatment, as well as barriers and opportunities for development of infrastructure for enhanced services. Interviews were conducted with 55 stakeholders from the correctional sector in each state and territory in Australia in two stages: service directors to gather quantitative data regarding rates of testing and treatment; and other stakeholders for qualitative information regarding barriers and opportunities. Of more than 50,000 individuals put in in custody in Australian prisons in 2013, approximately 8,000 individuals were HCV antibody positive, yet only 313 prisoners received antiviral treatment. The barriers identified to assessment and treatment at the prisoner-level included: fear of side effects and the stigma of being identified to custodial authorities as HCV infected and a likely injecting drug user. Prisoners who came forward may be considered unsuitable for treatment because of prevalent mental health problems and ongoing injecting drug use. Provision of specialist hepatitis nurses and consultants were the most frequently recommended approaches to how prison hepatitis services could be improved. Many personal and systems-level barriers relevant to the delivery of HCV treatment services in the custodial setting were identified. Ready access to skilled nursing and medical staff as well as direct acting antiviral therapies will allow the prison-sector to make a major contribution to control of the growing burden of HCV disease.

  5. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  6. Autonomy and exclusion among Danish prisoners in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    2018-01-01

    A prison sentence necessarily means that the person receiving the sentence is in essential ways excluded from the surrounding society. This exclusion means fewer choices and, in the long run, this may affect the person’s ability to actively make choices – therefore, autonomy is an important theme...... choices as well as a high degree of autonomy on the part of the individual inmate. This article focuses on the interplay between exclusion and autonomy in relation to Danish prison inmates who are in education. Alongside this, a more general insight into the educational life of Danish prisoners...

  7. Alienation, segregation and resocialization: meanings of prison labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luísa Oliveira Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we deal with senses which subjects in prison attribute to work realized in prison, trying to identify relations between these senses and the principles which try to legitimate work activities that reintegrate subject to society. To reach this objective, we've made case study based on semi structured interviews in a female unity of a center of social reintegration. Collected data was threaten through discourse analysis. Main conclusions are related to reinforce of problematizations about role of work in prison: if it is productor of accepted sociabilities, or if it is reproductor of social inequalities, as, in last level, criminality itself.

  8. State prisons are covered by ADA, 7th Circuit rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-25

    Prison inmate [name removed] sued the Indiana Department of Corrections, claiming it violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by denying him access to education programs, the library, and the dining hall because he is blind. The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected the district court's decision to dismiss the case based on the grounds that the ADA does not apply to prison inmates. The court held that the Department of Corrections cannot exclude an inmate with a disability from prison programs unless the accommodation caused an undue burden on the system.

  9. Music therapy and the resettlement of women prisoners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leith, Helen

    study investigates whether there is a change in the self-perception of women prisoners attending music therapy, and whether, if this is the case, they show an improved ability to engage with prison resettlement interventions. It also examines the impact of different treatment lengths on outcomes. 10...... that women prisoners attending music therapy experienced a change in self-perception. Engagement in music therapy translated into behavioural change outside the music therapy room. Participants showed an increase in self-confidence, self-esteem, self-efficacy, achievement motivation and a number of other...

  10. Physicians in US Prisons in the Era of Mass Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Wakeman, Sarah E; Cohen, Robert L; Rich, Josiah D

    2010-12-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world's prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve clinical care for prisoners, physicians have an opportunity and an obligation to advocate for reform in the system of corrections when it conflicts with patient well-being.

  11. The challenge of social reintegration of the prisoner: a research in prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Coelho Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey conducted within the framework of a technical cooperation agreement between the National Justice Council (CNJ and the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA, with the purpose of presenting an overview of criminal recidivism based on data collected in some States of the country (Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Paraná, and Rio de Janeiro. It presents the results of a qualitative character investigation focused on the theme of social reintegration, understood as the ac- tual action of the government before the challenge of criminal recidivism. Thus, it outlines the existing initiatives, the implementation strategies, the deve- lopment of actions and the perceptions about social reintegration from the perspective of different actors, considering their respective insertions in the institu- tional world: judges; penal execution operators and agents involved in the implementation of the pro- grams (technical team of professionals from govern- ment agencies, prison staff, teachers, social workers, psychologists; prisoners and internees. 

  12. The impact of prisons on the mental health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Patricia; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the mental health status of inmates and people in custody in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the association between mental health and imprisonment using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults. 1,573 individuals, via stratified sampling with probability proportional to size. more than half have up to 29 years old; 70.6% were black/brown; 77.4% had strong family ties; 42.9% had been incarcerated for under a year; and 22,9% performed work tasks in prison. Stress: 35.8% of men and 57.9% of women. Factors associated with stress among men: length of time in prison and family ties. Male prisoners who had been in prison for between 1 and 9 years are 0.55 times less likely to experience stress symptoms than those who had been in prison for less than a year; those with regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress than those with strong ties. Women with only regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress; work tasks performed in prison was a protective factor. Depression: 7.5% of women and 6.3% of men. Among men, practicing a religion, maintaining strong family ties, and performing prison work tasks are protective factors. Among women, an association was found between depression and family ties.

  13. UK news media representations of smoking, smoking policies and tobacco bans in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amy; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2018-02-19

    Prisoner smoking rates remain high, resulting in secondhand smoke exposures for prison staff and non-smoker prisoners. Several jurisdictions have introduced prison smoking bans with little evidence of resulting disorder. Successful implementation of such bans requires staff support. As news media representations of health and other issues shape public views and as prison smoking bans are being introduced in the UK, we conducted content analysis of UK news media to explore representations of smoking in prisons and smoke-free prisons. We searched 64 national and local newspapers and 5 broadcast media published over 17 months during 2015-2016, and conducted thematic analysis of relevant coverage in 106 articles/broadcasts. Coverage was relatively infrequent and lacked in-depth engagement with the issues. It tended to reinforce a negative view of prisoners, avoid explicit concern for prisoner or prison staff health and largely ignore the health gains of smoke-free policies. Most coverage failed to discuss appropriate responses or support for cessation in the prison context, or factors associated with high prisoner smoking rates. Half the articles/broadcasts included coverage suggesting smoke-free prisons might lead to unrest or instability. Negative news media representations of prisoners and prison smoking bans may impact key stakeholders' views (eg, prison staff, policy-makers) on the introduction of smoke-free prison policies. Policy-makers' communications when engaging in discussion around smoke-free prison policies should draw on the generally smooth transitions to smoke-free prisons to date, and on evidence on health benefits of smoke-free environments and smoking cessation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Psychosocial influences on prisoner suicide: a case-control study of near-lethal self-harm in women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena

    2011-03-01

    We examined the psychosocial influences on female prisoner suicide by carrying out a study of near-lethal self-harm. We interviewed 60 women prisoners who had recently engaged in near-lethal self-harm (cases) and 60 others who had never carried out near-lethal acts in prison (controls) from all closed female prison establishments in England and Wales, using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. We gathered information on socio-demographic and criminological variables, life events and childhood trauma, exposure to suicidal behaviour, contributory and precipitating factors for near-lethal self-harm, social support and psychological characteristics. While socio-demographic factors were only modestly associated with near-lethal self-harm, being on remand, in single cell accommodation, and reporting negative experiences of imprisonment were strong correlates. Recent life events and past trauma, including different forms of childhood abuse, were also significantly associated with near-lethal self-harm, as were a family history of suicide and high scores on measures of depression, aggression, impulsivity and hostility, and low levels of self-esteem and social support. Our findings underline the importance of both individual and prison-related factors for suicide in custody, and hence the need for a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention in women's prisons. Given the multiple needs of female prisoners at-risk of self-harm and suicide, complex psychosocial interventions are likely to be required, including interventions for abused and bereaved women, and initiatives to improve staff-prisoner relationships and reduce bullying. The findings of this research may provide insights into factors leading to suicidal behaviour in other forensic and institutional settings, such as detention centres and psychiatric hospitals, and may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other at-risk populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Women in prison in Serbia: Living conditions for female prisoners in the correctional institution for women in Požarevac

    OpenAIRE

    Ćopić Sanja; Šaćiri Bejan

    2012-01-01

    The Correctional Institution for Women in Požarevac is the only institution in Serbia for serving prison sentence by female persons. In order to find out what the living conditions in this institution are, Victimology Society of Serbia conducted an action research in 2011 and 2012. The data was collected through observation of the conditions in the female prison and through interviews with female prisoners and the prison staff. The data was analyzed by the use of both qualitative and qu...

  16. Reducing the use of seclusion for mental disorder in a prison: implementing a high support unit in a prison using participant action research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Giblin, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerable prisoners and mentally disordered offenders who present with risk of harm to self or others were accommodated in Special Observation Cells (SOCs) isolated from others for considerable periods of time. This practice has been criticised by the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture. The objective of this initiative was to reduce the use of seclusion within the prison and to improve the care of vulnerable and mentally ill prisoners within the prison.

  17. Education and Criminal Justice: The Educational Approach to Prison Administration. The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lucien; Cosman, J. W.

    The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners do not express the basic principle that would support a serious educational approach to prison administration. The crucial missing rationale is the concept of the inherent dignity of the individual human prisoner. This concept has certain basic educational implications,…

  18. Financial security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  19. Cyber security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Cyber Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to cyber security metrics and measure  and related technologies that meet security needs. Specific applications to web services, the banking and the finance sector, and industrial process control systems are discussed.

  20. An Outbreak of Syphilis in Alabama Prisons: Correctional Health Policy and Communicable Disease Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Xu, Fujie; Patel, Priti; O'Cain, Michael; Schillinger, Julia A.; St. Louis, Michael E.; Finelli, Lyn

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. After syphilis outbreaks were reported at 3 Alabama State men's prisons in early 1999, we conducted an investigation to evaluate risk factors for syphilis infection and describe patterns of syphilis transmission. Methods. We reviewed medical, patient interview, and prison transfer records and documented sexual networks. Presumptive source cases were identified. Odds of exposure to unscreened jail populations and transfer from other prisons were calculated for case patients at 1 prison. Results. Thirty-nine case patients with early syphilis were identified from 3 prisons. Recent jail exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 8.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3, 158.7, P = .14) and prison transfer (OR = 32.0, 95% CI = 1.6, 1668.1, P prisons included mixing of prisoners with unscreened jail populations, transfer of infected inmates between prisons, and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships. Reducing sexual transmission of disease in correctional settings is a public health priority and will require innovative prevention strategies. PMID:11499107

  1. Developing the mental health awareness of prison staff in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Elizabeth; Freshwater, Dawn

    2009-10-01

    In 2010, the prison population in England and Wales could reach a high of 91,500, according to a recent population projection. HM Prison Service (U.K.) reports that in 2004 to 2005, there were 33,144 prison officers employed to care for the prisoners in the prison system. This article focuses on the mental health of this prisoner population and the training needs of staff caring for them. It reports the experience of a national project, funded by the Department of Health, in which the project team developed and piloted mental health awareness training for prison officers on the residential units and for staff who work with prisoners and lack a mental health background. Key findings from the posttraining evaluation are highlighted. Participant feedback demonstrates the value placed on this type of training by those working in the prison setting.

  2. Examining relationships between receiving mental health services in the Pennsylvania prison system and time served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metraux, Stephen

    2008-07-01

    This study examined a cohort of 7,046 men who were released from the Pennsylvania State prison system between 1999 and 2002 to Philadelphia County to assess the relationships between receipt of mental health services in prison and prison exit. Administrative data on prison stays for 7,046 men released from Pennsylvania prisons to Philadelphia locations were analyzed. Of the 7,046 men, 8.7% received ongoing or intensive mental health services and 25.9% received mental health services while incarcerated. Multivariate analyses indicate that use of mental health services was positively associated with increased odds of serving the full prison sentence (as opposed to receiving parole), although the relationship between mental health services received and length of prison episode was inconclusive. Dynamics related to prison release warrant further attention in efforts to reduce the prevalence of mental illness in prisons and to facilitate community reentry for persons so diagnosed.

  3. Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie

    2016-06-01

    Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices.

  4. An Analysis of Solar Panel Assembly as a Prison Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizak, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of manufacturing solar collectors by California prison inmates is presented. It was concluded that the concept is feasible and would have little adverse effect on the private sector's solar industry.

  5. Video Links from Prison: Permeability and the Carceral World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn McKay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As audio visual communication technologies are installed in prisons, these spaces of incarceration are networked with courtrooms and other non-contiguous spaces, potentially facilitating a process of permeability. Jurisdictions around the world are embracing video conferencing and the technology is becoming a major interface for prisoners’ interactions with courts and legal advisers. In this paper, I draw on fieldwork interviews with prisoners from two correction centres in New South Wales, Australia, to understand their subjective and sensorial experiences of using video links as a portal to the outside world. These interviews raised many issues including audio permeability: a soundtrack of incarceration sometimes infiltrates into the prison video studio and then the remote courtroom, framing the prisoner in the context of their detention, intruding on legal process, and affecting prisoners’ comprehension and participation.

  6. Character Education Based On Local Wisdom For the Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Sukemi Buchory

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at revealing the existence of character education based on the local wisdom for the prisoners. The subject of this research is the prisoner inhabitant in Wirogunan Prison and Narcotics pakem in Sleman Yogyakarta. The data were gained by interviewing, documenting and demonstrating. The data were analyzed qualitative and quantitative descriptively. The results of this research are: (1 The training of Tembang Maca Pat and Javanese MC are equivalently adapted, (2 The character values being shaped: believe in God, responsibility, respect, fairness, confidence, faithfulness, discipline, careness, spirituality, manners, intelligence, emotion control, character building, the increase of social participants; (3 The competence on Tembang Maca Pat and MC of Javanese can be used as professional earning in society and also can be used as educational model for the prisoners.

  7. Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos

    2011-03-01

    Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. 28 CFR 2.68 - Prisoners transferred pursuant to treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... comparable punishment with a similarly-situated U.S. Code offender. The application of service credits under... Prisons, a condition that the transferee not commit another Federal, state or local crime, and a condition...

  9. Imprisonment length and post-prison employment prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Anke; Apel, Robert; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Dirkzwager, Anja; Van Wilsem, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the relationship between imprisonment length and employment outcomes. The data are a unique prospective, longitudinal study of Dutch pretrial detainees (N = 702). All subjects thus experience prison confinement of varying lengths, although the durations are relatively short

  10. Identifying risk factors for victimization among male prisoners in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun

    2014-02-01

    This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment.

  11. 75 FR 26733 - Preventing Contraband Cell Phone Use in Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/227539.pdf ; Washington Examiner, Drug Dealer Who Planned Murder Gets Life...-who-planned-murder-gets-life-sentence-44327767.html ; Wired Magazine, Prisoners Run Gangs, Plan...

  12. Cognitive Measures of Vietnam-Era Prisoners of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Experience as a prisoner of war (POW) could lead to cognitive impairment because of the injuries, including head trauma, and other stressors endured preceding and during capture, and during incarceration...

  13. The potential of prison-based democratic therapeutic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jamie; Shuker, Richard

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the work of HMP Grendon, the only prison in the UK to operate entirely as a series of democratic therapeutic communities and to summarise the research of its effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach The paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the work of a prison-based therapeutic community, and offers a literature review regarding evidence of effectiveness. Findings The work of HMP Grendon has a wide range of positive benefits including reduced levels of disruption in prison, reduced self-harm, improved well-being, an environment that is experienced as more humane and reduced levels of reoffending. Originality/value The work of HMP Grendon offers a well established and evidenced approach to managing men who have committed serious violent and sexually violent offences. It also promotes and embodies a progressive approach to managing prisons rooted in the welfare tradition.

  14. Community Colleges and Spanish Language Instruction: Peer Pedagogy in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Jenifer D.; Duval, José; Cyr, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Three authors describe a collaboration between a Massachusetts college and a nearby prison, which leveraged the volunteer efforts of a college professor by including incarcerated men who assisted in Spanish language teaching inside and outside the classroom.

  15. Co-design in the prison service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a considerable literature has grown up around the theme of public service innovation, including co-design approaches and how to leverage the knowledge and experiences of various actors. Despite the growing interest in co-design and the effects of engaging citizens (or users), far too...... little attention has been paid to the potential influence and learning dynamics of i) inclusion of user perspectives and ii) of utilising co-design approaches on employees’ practice, learning, and innovation. Through the theoretical lens of ‘boundary encounters’, this article offers a learning...... perspective on the influence of co-design approaches on employee-driven innovation. It reports the findings from an exploratory case study focusing on the role of co-design approaches for enhancing employee-driven innovation in a prison context. The analysis shows that including user perspectives creates...

  16. Parenting from prison: helping children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P J; Harm, N J

    2000-01-01

    Incarceration of a mother disrupts the mother-child relationship and the child's emotional development. The researchers evaluated a 15-week parenting program in a women's prison that was designed to enhance mother-child interactions during imprisonment. Pre- and postmeasures for the 104 women were Hudson's (1982) Index of Self-Esteem, Bavolek's (1984) Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, and semistructured questionnaires. Self-esteem and attitudes about expectations of children, corporal punishment, and family roles improved significantly. Empathy and mother-child interactions through visits and letters improved. Participants identified the most helpful components of the program. Those who had been physically, sexually, and emotionally abused and those who had used drugs and alcohol had positive results. Findings support the value of parent education for self-development of incarcerated mothers and for the welfare of their children.

  17. Professional deontology and medical practice in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J; Vera-Remartínez, E J

    2015-01-01

    To study the knowledge on professional deontology amongst doctors in prisons. Descriptive, transversal and multi-centre study. Labour, collegiate, social, demographic and deontological variables were collected. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. A bivariate analysis was made by binary logistic regression models, attending to the odds ratio, and assuming a 95% confidence interval. Data was processed by SPSS v.20 software. 118 doctors replied. 68 men (57.6%), with an average age of 51 years (50-53). 100 know about the Deontology Committee (84.7%), but just 77 (65.3%) know its functions properly. 42 (35.6%) know about the existence of the Deontological Code, and 37 (31.3%) have read and apply it. Those who made a correct definition of deontology do find more deontological issues in their daily work [23(46.9%) vs. 18(26.1%); OR: 2.506; IC95%: 1.153-5.451; p=0.020] and would denounce a colleague more often to the Medical Association [40(81.6%) vs. 42 (60.9%); OR: 2.857; IC95%: 1.197-6.819; p=0.018]. Older ones know more about the deontology commissions' functions [54(73%) vs. 23(52.3%); OR: 2.465; IC95%: 1.127-5.394; p=0.024] and have already denounced situations to the Medical Association [27(36.5% vs. 5(11.4%); OR: 4.481; IC95%: 1.577-12.733; p=0.005], but think that a different Care Ethics Committee is unnecessary [57(77%) vs. 42(95.5%); OR: 0.160; IC95%: 0.035- 0.729; p=0.018]. Prison doctors know little about what professional deontology really is. This knowledge increases with age in the profession and is associated with an increased perception of deontological issues in daily practice.

  18. Physicians in US Prisons in the Era of Mass Incarceration

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Scott A.; Wakeman, Sarah E.; Cohen, Robert L.; Rich, Josiah D.

    2010-01-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world’s prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve cli...

  19. Evolution of Strategies for "Prisoner's Dilemma" using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the software application "Prisoner's Dilemma". The program creates a population of players of "Prisoner's Dilemma", has them play against each other, and - based on their results - performs an evolution of their strategies by means of a genetic algorithm (selection, mutation, and crossover). The program was written in Microsoft Visual Studio, in the C++ programming language, and its interface makes use of the .NET Framework. The thesis includes examples of strate...

  20. 2008 hunger strikes in Greek Prisons and their aftermath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of imprisonment has known an immense growth in Greece over the last couple of decades. Overcrowding in prison establishments is staggering and living conditions are deplorable, turning unrest and even riots into a commonplace occurrence. In recent years, with international watchdogs and national pressure groups joining prisoners in the chorus of outcry, the Greek state has been promising to effectuate fundamental reforms, including a decisive turn towards decarceration.

  1. Research on drug abuse and addiction treatment in prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Kljajević Srđan

    2017-01-01

    The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by i...

  2. Private Rogers L. Taylor: Prisoner of the Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Therefore American soldiers had to stand guard and try to help the weaker ones from falling into this waste water. Because of unsanitary condition, about...except only in passing and then it was about picking up bodies in the waste water of the latrine. Hearing the stories of other survivors who performed...prisoner reports that the Philippine Red Cross was there handing out several small loaves of bread to each prisoner as they boarded the ship.59

  3. Prisons and women in Galicia during Franco’s regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria MARTINS RODRÍGUEZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, the situation of women in Galicia during the Franco dictatorship is analyzed. I think that that situation was really singular. Secondly, I study the type of women repression in Galicia, focusing on physical repression and prison, so I explain the kind of woman who suffered any of these types of repression. Finally, I describe the women’s prison space and living the conditions.

  4. Conflicting demands in prison education and the need for context-specific, specialist training for prison educators: an account of the work of the Initial Teacher Training project for teachers and instructors in London prisons and offender learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanes, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prison Education is regulated by legislative and institutional requirements as are other kinds of Learning and Skill provision, but it is also fundamentally affected by the custodial requirements of the British Legal system. This, together with the relative isolation that teaching staff face within an organisational culture which is peculiar to each prison, produces a learning culture that is very different from that of general Further Education. This paper discusses initial findings of the LONCETT Prison Education Research Project (2008, which aims to identify the specific professional training needs of prison educators in London. Findings from five of the eight prisons in London highlighted two main pedagogic issues that emerged as key aspects of prison education practice which require both specialist training input and further research: the fragmentation which characterises the learner experience; and the emotional stress produced in this environment, which impacts both upon prisoner-learners and teaching staff.

  5. Security negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović, Miroslav M.; Ivaniš, Željko

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary security challenges, risks and threats represent a resultant of the achieved level of interaction between various entities within the paradigm of global security relations. Asymmetry and nonlinearity are main features of contemporary challenges in the field of global security. Negotiation in the area of security, namely the security negotiation, thus goes beyond just the domain of negotiation in conflicts and takes into consideration particularly asymmetric forms of possible sour...

  6. Injecting drug use in prison: prevalence and implications for needle exchange policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nat M J; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; Farragher, Tracey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore prison drug injecting prevalence, identify any changes in injecting prevalence and practice during imprisonment and explore views on prison needle exchange. An empirical prospective cohort survey conducted between 2006 and 2008. The study involved a random sample of 267 remand and sentenced prisoners from a large male category B prison in England where no prison needle exchange operates. Questionnaires were administered with prisoners on reception and, where possible, at one, three and six months during their sentence. In total, 64 per cent were injecting until admission into prison. The majority intended to stop injecting in prison (93 per cent), almost a quarter due to the lack of needle exchange (23 per cent). Yet when hypothetically asked if they would continue injecting in prison if needle exchange was freely available, a third of participants (33 per cent) believed that they would. Injecting cessation happened on prison entry and appeared to be maintained during the sentence. Not providing sterile needles may increase risks associated with injecting for prisoners who continue to inject. However, providing such equipment may prolong injecting for other prisoners who currently cease injecting on account of needle exchange programmes (NEPs) not being provided in the UK prison setting. Practical implications - Not providing sterile needles may increase risks associated with injecting for prisoners who continue to inject. However, providing such equipment may prolong injecting for other prisoners who currently cease injecting on account of NEPs not being provided in the UK prison setting. This survey is the first to question specifically regarding the timing of injecting cessation amongst male prisoners and explore alongside intention to inject should needle exchange facilities be provided in prison.

  7. Overview of harm reduction in prisons in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Gen; Scandurra, Alessio; Kamenska, Anhelita; MacNamara, Catherine; Kalpaki, Christina; Bessa, Cristina Fernandez; Laso, Gemma Nicolás; Parisi, Grazia; Varley, Lorraine; Wolny, Marcin; Moudatsou, Maria; Pontes, Nuno Henrique; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia; Libianchi, Sandro; Antypas, Tzanetos

    2016-10-07

    While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners. Where harm reduction services have been available and easily accessible in prison settings for some time, better health outcomes have been observed, including significantly reduced rates of HIV and HCV incidence. While the provision of harm reduction in each of these countries' prisons varies considerably, certain key themes and lessons can be distilled, including around features of an enabling environment for harm reduction, resource allocation, collection of disaggregated data, and accessibility of services.

  8. Researching the psychological therapies in prison: considerations and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Joanna; Bertrand-Godfrey, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The psychological therapies are widely considered within the forensic literature as holding a useful role in the prison system, however, despite this, very little research into the psychological therapies has taken place. Further, where research is carried out, it is often associated with the need for evidence-based practice (EBP), involving quantification and randomization. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This paper will initially introduce the importance of research into the psychological therapies in prison, followed by a consideration of EBP which can be thought of as the current movement governing research in the psychological therapies in the UK. However, in providing a focused critique of EBP, particularly within prisons, this paper will attempt to pave the way for a consideration of alternative research methodologies and resultant methods in researching the psychological therapies in prisons in the UK. Through this it is argued that research within the prison setting should act not to promote interventions and create an evidence-based as such, but to provide an accessible body of knowledge for the psychological therapists working in prisons in the UK.

  9. Pathways to psychiatric care in European prison systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Harald; Salize, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe and analyse the concepts of provision of mental health services for prison inmates in 24 countries in the European Union and the EFTA. Data were gathered by means of a structured questionnaire that was completed by national experts in the participating countries. This article stresses the different organizational models of mental health care for inmates, different legal standards for screening their mental health status and different pathways to psychiatric care and aftercare. The study revealed serious shortcomings. Even the most rudimentary health reporting standards for mental health care in prison are lacking almost everywhere in Europe. Psychiatric screening and assessment procedures at prison entry and during imprisonment differ substantially and do not fulfil recognized quality standards. In many countries, the appointment of inadequately trained staff to perform such screenings increases considerably the risk that mental disorders or psychiatric needs of the inmates will remain undetected. Furthermore, the pathways to care in the case of an acute psychotic episode differ significantly, since referral to prison hospitals, medical prison wards, forensic hospitals, or general psychiatric hospital are used in various combinations depending on different national legal regulations and on the availability of services or other regional circumstances. Therefore, the collaborating experts place the quality of European prison mental health care into serious question. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Rational Choice theory and prison chaplaincy: the chaplain's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, J A

    1999-12-01

    Critical responses to the application of Rational Choice theories to the study of religious phenomena tend to be polarized between outright denial that the theories have any relevance to religion and equally outspoken claims that the theories are the only hope for progress in the sociology of religion. This article aims to avoid both of these extreme positions by raising a question, instead, about one of Rational Choice's central propositions about religion. This proposition holds that levels of religious vitality vary positively with the degree to which agencies of the state are prevented from regulating religious activity. The findings of recent research into prison chaplaincy in the UK and the USA will be used to test this claim. The main argument will be that the existence of an established church has facilitated a higher level of religious activity, especially for minority faiths, in prisons in England and Wales than is possible in American prisons. This difference in religious vitality is explained in terms of the Church of England's privileged position as a 'broker' between the state and minority faith communities. There is greater equality of opportunity for religious activity in American prisons, but the level of the activity is necessarily lower. In neither country is there anything truly resembling a 'free' market for religion in prisons, but the established Church of England is able to use its quasi-monopoly powers to broker advantageous conditions for minority faith communities. This brokerage function may be advantageous to all religious organizations in the highly regulated 'economy' of prisons.

  11. Neurocognitive impairment and suicide risk among prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadini, Francesco; Calella, Giulio; Pieri, Alessandro; Ricci, Elena; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; De Risio, Alfredo; Sciacca, Antonina; Santilli, Francesca; Parruti, Giustino

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Reducing the number of suicides in jails and prisons is an international priority. Several risk factors for suicide attempts, such as historical, prison-related, psychosocial and clinical factors, have been found in prisoners. We assessed whether demographic, conviction-related and neuro-behavioral variables might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. On a preliminary sample of 254 detainees within an ongoing project, we assessed whether demographic, conviction-related, psychiatric, cognitive variables and illness comorbidity might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. Psychiatric disorders and suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We also have identified the detainees with clear-cut previous suicide attempts. The cognitive function was assessed with a brief neuropsychological battery including trail making A, trail making B, Digit Span, and Symbol Digit test. Impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Cumulative illness was evaluated with Charlson Comorbidity Index. Impairment in global cognitive function was the strongest predictor of both high suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts (both p impulsivity, and illness comorbidity. Limitation LIMITATION: Cross-sectional study design and relatively small sample size. Cognitive deficits may improve our understanding of the suicidal vulnerability and should be systematically included in the assessment of suicide risk, as potential predictors of suicidal acts and targets of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Second-Generation Prisoners and the Transmission of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Joanna L; Loper, Ann B; Jackson, Shelly L

    2016-01-01

    Adult inmates who experienced the incarceration of a parent, known as "second-generation prisoners," experience unique challenges and are at heightened risk for experiencing other adversities throughout the life span. Our study investigated one specific, and previously unexplored, type of adversity--domestic violence--within a sample of 293 incarcerated adults. We examined the relation between generation status (first- or second-generation prisoners), childhood exposure to domestic violence, and participation in adult relationship violence prior to incarceration. Results indicate that prisoners who had been exposed to domestic violence in childhood were more likely to engage in intimate partner violence resulting in inflicted and received injury. Relative to first-generation prisoners, second-generation prisoners reported more childhood domestic violence exposure and were more likely to have been injured by a relationship partner. However, this relation between second-generation status and injury victimization was mediated by domestic violence exposure. These results support an intergenerational pattern of domestic violence and suggest that second-generation prisoners are a unique population worthy of future investigation and mental health intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Sourds en prison : Difficultés de communication et isolement accru

    OpenAIRE

    Bamberg, Anne

    1998-01-01

    D'abord diffusé le 9 mai 1998 sous forme de note publique Sourds en prison. Justice et droits de l'homme au colloque de l'ANVP (Association nationale des visiteurs de prison) sur le Respect des droits de l'homme en prison, une version de ce texte fut publiée jusqu'en 2011 sur le site Internet de l'IPCA (International Prison Chaplains' Association) http://www.pkala.net/IPCA/. Voir aussi Sourds en prison, in Jéricho. Bulletin de l'ANVP (Association Nationale des Visiteurs de Prison), 175, novem...

  14. Les prisonniers " desconfortés " : les littératures de la prison au bas Moyen Âge

    OpenAIRE

    Claustre , Julie

    2009-01-01

    The writers prisoners and the " prison poetry " are the object of prolific studies with critical, philosophic or historic character. The theme of prison, real or symbolic, lived or imagined, appears as being of a big frequency, even a certain commonness. This literary tropism of the prison seems to date the last centuries of the Middle Ages. The article takes back the file of texts written by prisoners or testifying the prison experience in the XIVth and XVth centuries in the French domain an...

  15. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkui Liu

    Full Text Available Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma.

  16. Security Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    systematic study of security expertise and opens up a productive dialogue between science and technology studies and security studies to investigate the character and consequences of this expertise. In security theory, the study of expertise is crucial to understanding whose knowledge informs security making......This volume brings together scholars from different fields to explore the power, consequences and everyday practices of security expertise. Expertise mediates between different forms of knowledge: scientific and technological, legal, economic and political knowledge. This book offers the first...... and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks...

  17. Interventions at the Transition from Prison to the Community for Prisoners with Mental Illness: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, G; Evans-Lacko, S; Forrester, A; Shaw, J; Thornicroft, G

    2018-01-23

    Prisoners have high rates of mental illness and the transition from prison to the community is a problematic time for the provision of mental health services and a range of negative outcomes have been identified in this period. A systematic review was conducted to identify interventions for prisoners with diagnosed mental health conditions that targeted this transition period. Fourteen papers from 13 research studies were included. The interventions identified in this review were targeted at different stages of release from prison and their content differed, ranging from Medicaid enrolment schemes to assertive community treatment. It was found that insurance coverage, and contact with mental health and other services can be improved by interventions in this period but the impact on reoffending and reincarceration is complex and interventions may lead to increased return to prison. There is a developing evidence base that suggests targeting this period can improve contact with community mental health and other health services but further high quality evidence with comparable outcomes is needed to provide more definitive conclusions. The impact of programmes on return to prison should be evaluated further to establish the effect of interventions on clinical outcomes and to clarify the role of interventions on reincarceration.

  18. Assessment of effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners in India: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sachin; Khanagar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Amit; Ramachandra, Sujith; Vadavadagi, Sunil V; Dhananjaya, Kiran Murthy

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco smoking is an integral part of prison life and an established part of the culture. Little attention has been paid to prevention of smoking in prison. Approximately 70-80% of prisoners have been identified as current smokers. To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. A randomized controlled trial was planned among male prisoners in Central Jail, Bangalore city. There were 1600 convicted prisoners. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the prisoners to assess their smoking behavior by which prevalence of tobacco smoking was found. Exactly 1352 tobacco users were studied. Among them, there were 1252 smokers. Based on inclusion criteria and informed consent given by the prisoners, a sample of 600 was chosen for the study by systematic random sampling. Among the 600 prisoners, 300 were randomly selected for the study group and 300 for the control group. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among the prisoners was 92.60%. In the present study, after smoking cessation intervention, 17% showed no change in smoking, 21.66% reduced smoking, 16% stopped smoking, and 45.33% relapsed (P prison even if the living conditions are not favorable. Relatively high rate of relapse in our study indicates that some policies should be adopted to improve smokers' information on consequences of tobacco on health and motivational intervention should be added to prisoners.

  19. A robust estimate of the number and characteristics of persons released from prison in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Alex; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the number and characteristics of adults released from prison in Australia. We calculated ratios, stratified by age, sex and Indigenous status, by comparing the number of persons released from prison in New South Wales (NSW), with the number in NSW prisons on 30 June of the corresponding year. These stratified ratios were applied to Australia-wide prison data to estimate the number and characteristics of persons released annually. We estimated that in 2013, 38,576 persons were released from prison in Australia - 25.3% more than the daily prison population. Young people, Indigenous people and women were over-represented among those released. We estimated that 3.69 Indigenous women aged 18-24 were released annually for each equivalent person in prison; and 2.75 non-Indigenous women aged 18-24 were released annually for each equivalent person in prison. The annual 'flow' through Australia's prisons is well in excess of the daily number, but information on those moving through prison systems is not yet publicly available. The characteristics of those released from prison differ meaningfully from those of people in prison. Routine, national reporting of prison separations is critical to informing upscaling and targeting of Throughcare services for this profoundly vulnerable population. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Emotional self-control, coping with stress and psycho-physical well-being of prison officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental and physical health status is closely associated with the specific character of work in the structures of the uniformed services. The aim of the study was to examine how self-control, revealed strategies of coping with stress, sociodemographic factors differentiate the level of psychological and physical well-being of prison officers, and what is the predictor of psychological and physical well-being in this occupational group. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 75 prison officers working in the Prison Potulice Security Department. In the study the following tools were used: the questionnaire on “Psychosocial working conditions”, popular questionnaire on emotional intelligence (Popularny Kwestionariusz Inteligencji Emocjonalnej – PKIE, Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE and the questionnaire on sociodemographic variables. Results: A higher level of mental and physical well-being of the subjects was accompanied by a higher level of declared active coping and a lower level in the range of helplessness, avoidance, turn to religion and sense of humor. Regression analysis showed that the levels of emotional control, helplessness strategy and support seeking strategies are important predictors of physical well-being of the dependent variable. As regards the psychological well-being, significant predictors are: the levels of emocjoemotional control, sense of humor and support seeking. The value of the results is limited due to the methodology used to collect questionnaires. In our study a random trial was not used as the questionnaires were completed only by individuals interested in the subject under study. Conclusions: Knowledge about the specificity of the psychophysical characteristics of prison officers should be taken into account when designing the tools of occupational health promotion. Studies show an average low level of perceived well-being with a high level of self

  1. [Emotional self-control, coping with stress and psycho-physical well-being of prison officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Porażyński, Krzysztof; Goch, Aleksander; Kraszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Bułatowicz, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Mental and physical health status is closely associated with the specific character of work in the structures of the uniformed services. The aim of the study was to examine how self-control, revealed strategies of coping with stress, sociodemographic factors differentiate the level of psychological and physical well-being of prison officers, and what is the predictor of psychological and physical well-being in this occupational group. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 75 prison officers working in the Prison Potulice Security Department. In the study the following tools were used: the questionnaire on "Psychosocial working conditions", popular questionnaire on emotional intelligence (Popularny Kwestionariusz Inteligencji Emocjonalnej--PKIE), Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE) and the questionnaire on sociodemographic variables. A higher level of mental and physical well-being of the subjects was accompanied by a higher level of declared active coping and a lower level in the range of helplessness, avoidance, turn to religion and sense of humor. Regression analysis showed that the levels of emotional control, helplessness strategy and support seeking strategies are important predictors of physical well-being of the dependent variable. As regards the psychological well-being, significant predictors are: the levels of emotional control, sense of humor and support seeking. The value of the results is limited due to the methodology used to collect questionnaires. In our study a random trial was not used as the questionnaires were completed only by individuals interested in the subject under study. Knowledge about the specificity of the psychophysical characteristics of prison officers should be taken into account when designing the tools of occupational health promotion. Studies show an average low level of perceived well-being with a high level of self-control. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3

  2. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  3. Professional deontology and medical practice in prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Guerrero

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the knowledge on professional deontology amongst doctors in prisons. Materials and Method: Descriptive, transversal and multi-centre study. Labour, collegiate, social, demographic and deontological variables were collected. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. A bivariate analysis was made by binary logistic regression models, attending to the odds ratio, and assuming a 95% confidence interval. Data was processed by SPSS v.20 software. Results: 118 doctors replied. 68 men (57.6%, with an average age of 51 years (50-53. 100 know about the Deontology Committee (84.7%, but just 77 (65.3% know its functions properly. 42 (35.6% know about the existence of the Deontological Code, and 37 (31.3% have read and apply it. Those who made a correct definition of deontology do find more deontological issues in their daily work [23(46.9% vs. 18(26.1%; OR: 2.506; IC95%: 1.153-5.451; p=0.020] and would denounce a colleague more often to the Medical Association [40(81.6% vs. 42 (60.9%; OR: 2.857; IC95%: 1.197-6.819; p=0.018]. Older ones know more about the deontology commissions' functions [54(73% vs. 23(52.3%; OR: 2.465; IC95%: 1.127-5.394; p=0.024] and have already denounced situations to the Medical Association [27(36.5% vs. 5(11.4%; OR: 4.481; IC95%: 1.577-12.733; p=0.005], but think that a different Care Ethics Committee is unnecessary [57(77% vs. 42(95.5%; OR: 0.160; IC95%: 0.035- 0.729; p=0.018]. Conclusions: Prison doctors know little about what professional deontology really is. This knowledge increases with age in the profession and is associated with an increased perception of deontological issues in daily practice.

  4. Watermarking security

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick; Cayre, François; Doërr, Gwenaël; Mathon, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to measure the security of a watermarking scheme, how to design secure schemes but also how to attack popular watermarking schemes. This book gathers the most recent achievements in the field of watermarking security by considering both parts of this cat and mouse game. This book is useful to industrial practitioners who would like to increase the security of their watermarking applications and for academics to quickly master this fascinating domain.

  5. New Fashion, New Trends – the Modern Aspect of Tattoos in Prison Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Snopek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the phenomenon of prison tattoos. It can be recognized that the modern tattoo outside of prison in Poland is going through its “boom”, which was started in 1989, and since the new millennium has begun to be treated as art at the highest artistic level. As a result of this, also prison tattoo has begun to evolve. According to the concept of transmission, prisoners transfer all patterns from freedom to the prison environment and there they adapt them to the prevailing conditions. Therefore, the broached issues oscillate around both the traditional symbolism of prison tattoos, and their modern aspect. The article also describes the history and importance of the prison tattoo artist, whose position – due to interest among prisoners in the aesthetic tattoo – has increased significantly.

  6. Delivering primary care in prison: the need to improve health information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudy Anaraki

    2003-12-01

    Conclusions To provide 'equivalence of care' for prisoners, primary care trusts need to implement full electronic clinical records in prisons and ensure staff have access to resources on the internet.

  7. Security Locks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  8. United States Security Assistance 1977-1980: Human Rights Issues Affecting Arms Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    police attempted to break up the gathering, the crowd became enraged and proceeded to destroy a number of banks, cinemas , and hotels (Brown:296...According to Carter’s National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, the Peruvian government released over 300 prisoners in April 1977; "disappearances

  9. Legal aspects of administrating antipsychotic medications to jail and prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugacz, Henry; Wimmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The administration of antipsychotic medications to jail and prison inmates involves two related components: conducting the informed consent process in a coercive environment and, where consent is not obtained, forcible administration of medication if needed. In the United States, both involve common law, statutory, and constitutional principles. Obtaining informed consent in correctional institutions is complicated. Patients in correctional institutions lack access to alternate sources of information, and depend on the correctional system completely - a system which they may distrust. This may influence the patient's view of the administering physician. Where consent cannot be obtained, forcible administration may be legally permissible for two primary reasons: to restore a criminal defendant to competency in order to stand trial and to ameliorate severe symptoms of mental disability, particularly when they threaten the safety of self, others, or in some instances, property. The interests at stake for the individual and the government, and the legal standards developed to balance these interests, differ between the two situations. When considering challenges to forcible medication of inmates serving a prison sentence, the United States Supreme Court has treated the interest of the institution in maintaining security as paramount. By contrast, when considering challenges to forcible medication of pretrial detainees, the Court's concern for the fair trial rights guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment has seemingly led it to moderate its emphasis on security. However, this distinction is not stable and may in fact be breaking down, as the recent case of Jared Loughner demonstrates. This article discusses the various federal, state, and international legal standards applicable to both informed consent and forcible medication, and their implementation in the correctional setting, focusing on issues related to the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Medication management and practices in prison for people with mental health problems: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Robert A; Rogers, Anne; Shaw, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Common mental health problems are prevalent in prison and the quality of prison health care provision for prisoners with mental health problems has been a focus of critical scrutiny. Currently, health policy aims to align and integrate prison health services and practices with those of the National Health Service (NHS). Medication management is a key aspect of treatment for patients with a mental health problem. The medication practices of patients and staff are therefore ...

  11. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva; Erke Kartabayeva; Nurzipa Alpysbayeva

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  12. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  13. A model of population dynamics of TB in a prison system and application to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Witbooi, Peter; Vyambwera, Sibaliwe Maku

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) continues to spread in South African prisons in particular, as prisons are over-capacitated and have poor ventilation. The awaiting trial detainees are not screened on admission and are at high risk of getting infected with TB. Results We propose a compartmental model to describe the population dynamics of TB disease in prisons. Our model considers the inflow of susceptible, exposed and TB infectives into the prison population. Removal of individuals out of the pr...

  14. Specific prisoners' rights and their obligations as forms of human rights restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. О. Човган

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines such forms of restrictions on rights of prisoners as an obligation and a specific subjective right. Examples of how these forms of restrictions may appear in legislation are disclosed. It is shown that obligations of prisoners should be always considered as restriction of prisoners' rights. The cases in which a specific right can be recognized as a form of restriction on rights of prisoners are described.

  15. Trajectories of psychological distress after prison release: implications for mental health service need in ex-prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E G; Spittal, M J; Heffernan, E B; Taxman, F S; Alati, R; Kinner, S A

    2016-02-01

    Understanding individual-level changes in mental health status after prison release is crucial to providing targeted and effective mental health care to ex-prisoners. We aimed to describe trajectories of psychological distress following prison discharge and compare these trajectories with mental health service use in the community. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) was administered to 1216 sentenced adult prisoners in Queensland, Australia, before prison release and approximately 1, 3 and 6 months after release. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify K10 trajectories after release. Contact with community mental health services in the year following release was assessed via data linkage. We identified five trajectory groups, representing consistently low (51.1% of the cohort), consistently moderate (29.8%), high increasing (11.6%), high declining (5.5%) and consistently very high (1.9%) psychological distress. Mood disorder, anxiety disorder, history of self-harm and risky drug use were risk factors for the high increasing, very high and high declining trajectory groups. Women were over-represented in the high increasing and high declining groups, but men were at higher risk of very high psychological distress. Within the high increasing and very high groups, 25% of participants accessed community mental health services in the first year post-release, for a median of 4.4 contact hours. For the majority of prisoners with high to very high psychological distress, distress persists after release. However, contact with mental health services in the community appears low. Further research is required to understand barriers to mental health service access among ex-prisoners.

  16. HIV and tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Charalambous, Salome; Topp, Stephanie M; Herce, Michael E; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Barron, Peter; Schouten, Erik J; Jahn, Andreas; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D; Beyrer, Chris; Amon, Joseph J

    2016-09-17

    Given the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa and evidence suggesting a disproportionate burden of these diseases among detainees in the region, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis in prison populations, describe services available and challenges to service delivery, and identify priority areas for programmatically relevant research in sub-Saharan African prisons. To this end, we reviewed literature on HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan African prisons published between 2011 and 2015, and identified data from only 24 of the 49 countries in the region. Where data were available, they were frequently of poor quality and rarely nationally representative. Prevalence of HIV infection ranged from 2·3% to 34·9%, and of tuberculosis from 0·4 to 16·3%; detainees nearly always had a higher prevalence of both diseases than did the non-incarcerated population in the same country. We identified barriers to prevention, treatment, and care services in published work and through five case studies of prison health policies and services in Zambia, South Africa, Malawi, Nigeria, and Benin. These barriers included severe financial and human-resource limitations and fragmented referral systems that prevent continuity of care when detainees cycle into and out of prison, or move between prisons. These challenges are set against the backdrop of weak health and criminal-justice systems, high rates of pre-trial detention, and overcrowding. A few examples of promising practices exist, including routine voluntary testing for HIV and screening for tuberculosis upon entry to South African and the largest Zambian prisons, reforms to pre-trial detention in South Africa, integration of mental health services into a health package in selected Malawian prisons, and task sharing to include detainees in care provision through peer-educator programmes in Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa. However, substantial additional investments are

  17. Global fund financing of tuberculosis services delivery in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donna; Lal, S S; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Zumla, Alimuddin; Atun, Rifat

    2012-05-15

    Despite concerted efforts to scale up tuberculosis control with large amounts of international financing in the last 2 decades, tuberculosis continues to be a social issue affecting the world's most marginalized and disadvantaged communities. This includes prisoners, estimated at about 10 million globally, for whom tuberculosis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has emerged as the single largest international donor for tuberculosis control, including funding support in delivering tuberculosis treatment for the confined population. The Global Fund grants database, with an aggregate approved investment of $21.7 billion in 150 countries by the end of 2010, was reviewed to identify tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis grants and activities that monitored the delivery of tuberculosis treatment and support activities in penitentiary settings. The distribution and trend of number of countries with tuberculosis prison support was mapped by year, geographic region, tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis burden, and prison population rate. We examined the types of grant recipients managing program delivery, their performance, and the nature and range of services provided. Fifty-three of the 105 countries (50%) with Global Fund-supported tuberculosis programs delivered services within prison settings. Thirty-two percent (73 of 228) of tuberculosis grants, representing $558 million of all disbursements of Global Fund tuberculosis support by the end of 2010, included output indicators related to tuberculosis services delivered in prisons. Nearly two-thirds (64%) of these grants were implemented by governments, with the remaining by civil society and other partners. In terms of services, half (36 of 73) of grants provided diagnosis and treatment and an additional 27% provided screening and monitoring of tuberculosis for prisoners. The range of services tracked was limited in scope

  18. Forgiver triumphs in alternating Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Zagorsky

    Full Text Available Cooperative behavior, where one individual incurs a cost to help another, is a wide spread phenomenon. Here we study direct reciprocity in the context of the alternating Prisoner's Dilemma. We consider all strategies that can be implemented by one and two-state automata. We calculate the payoff matrix of all pairwise encounters in the presence of noise. We explore deterministic selection dynamics with and without mutation. Using different error rates and payoff values, we observe convergence to a small number of distinct equilibria. Two of them are uncooperative strict Nash equilibria representing always-defect (ALLD and Grim. The third equilibrium is mixed and represents a cooperative alliance of several strategies, dominated by a strategy which we call Forgiver. Forgiver cooperates whenever the opponent has cooperated; it defects once when the opponent has defected, but subsequently Forgiver attempts to re-establish cooperation even if the opponent has defected again. Forgiver is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, but the alliance, which it rules, is asymptotically stable. For a wide range of parameter values the most commonly observed outcome is convergence to the mixed equilibrium, dominated by Forgiver. Our results show that although forgiving might incur a short-term loss it can lead to a long-term gain. Forgiveness facilitates stable cooperation in the presence of exploitation and noise.

  19. Pregnancy and the 40-Year Prison Sentence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Jose Santos Guardado

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase “abortion is murder” can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related “crimes.” Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged with the crime of abortion were convicted of “aggravated homicide” and sentenced to up to 40 years in prison. Court documents suggest that many of these women had not undergone abortions, but had suffered naturally occurring stillbirths late in their pregnancies. Through analysis of newspaper articles and court cases, this article documents how El Salvador came to prosecute obstetrical emergencies as “murder,” and concludes that activism on behalf of abortion rights is central to protecting poor pregnant women from prosecution for reproduction-related “crimes.” PMID:28630543

  20. The perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.

  1. Methadone treatment, bruxism, and temporomandibular disorders among male prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguelberg-Gabbay, Judith V; Schapir, Lior; Israeli, Yair; Hermesh, Haggai; Weizman, Abraham; Winocur, Ephraim

    2016-06-01

    There is little information on bruxism related to illicit drug use. Prolonged drug use may damage the stomatognathic system via oral motor overactivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of bruxism and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) between prisoners with and without drug-use disorders, to evaluate the association between methadone treatment and bruxism and to assess the possible relationship between bruxism and pain. The sample included 152 male prisoners, 69 of whom were drug users maintained on methadone. All prisoners were examined by an experienced dentist and completed a questionnaire on their oral habits, with the aim of detecting signs or symptoms of TMD and/or bruxism. Additional data were collected from medical files. The prevalence of sleep bruxism and awake bruxism, but not of TMDs, was significantly higher among drug-user than non-drug user prisoners (52.2% vs. 34.9% for sleep bruxism, 59.7% vs. 30.1% for awake bruxism, and 46.3% vs. 25.6% for TMDs, respectively). Participants with awake bruxism were statistically more sensitive to muscle palpation compared with participants with sleep bruxism [rating scores (mean ± SD): 0.32 ± 0.21 vs. 0.19 ± 0.28, respectively]. An association was found between sleep bruxism and awake bruxism. It seems that there is a direct or an indirect association between methadone maintenance treatment and sleep bruxism or awake bruxism in male prisoners. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. Prison tattoos as a reflection of the criminal lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Alicia T Rozycki; Morgan, Robert D; Murray, Danielle D; Varghese, Femina

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prison tattoos and the criminal lifestyle and recidivism. Participants consisted of 81 male inmates with prison tattoos (i.e., prison-themed or prison-made tattoos), 75 inmates with nonprison tattoos (e.g., animal tattoos, tattoos of ethnic origin), 52 male inmates with no tattoos, and 66 college students with tattoos. Results indicated that inmates with prison tattoos differed from inmates with nonprison tattoos, inmates without tattoos, and college students with tattoos with regard to criminal thinking styles, were at increased risk of recidivism, and presented more institutional behavioral problems, resulting in more disciplinary infractions. There were no significant differences between inmate groups with regard to number of convictions; however, additional group comparisons indicated that inmates with visible tattoos and antisocial-themed tattoos were at greater risk for recidivism and received more disciplinary infractions than inmates without visible or antisocial-themed tattoos. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Characteristics of male and female prisoners involved in bullying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; Archer, John; Power, Christina L

    2007-01-01

    This study explores bullying behavior in a larger and more representative sample than previous prison-based research. It has two core aims, first to explore the nature of bullying in relation to indirect and direct aggression and, second, to explore the predictors of bully-category membership with particular reference to behavioral characteristics. Participants were adult men (n=728) and women (n=525) prisoners. All completed a behavioral measure of behavior indicative of bullying (Direct and Indirect Prisoner behavior Checklist, DIPC) that also explored prison-based behavior such as negative acts towards staff or prison rules, positive acts and drug-related behavior. Indirect aggression was, as predicted, reported more frequently than direct aggression, although this only held for perpetration. Bully-victims, as predicted, showed more negative behavior. Pure bullies and pure victims also showed more negative behavior than the other categories. The findings are discussed in relation to the environment in which bullying behavior is being assessed and with attention to the possible motivations underlying both bullying and negative behavior. Directions for future research are suggested. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Psychiatric Morbidity in HIV-infected Male Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Lee, Ming-Been; Morisky, Donald Edward; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Farabee, David; Lan, Yu-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose The seroincidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Taiwan has drastically increased since 2004, particularly among injection drug users and prisoners. The major purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected male prisoners. Methods In 2006, data were collected from all of HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 535) in seven prisons in Taiwan. This collection was performed using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire in group settings directed by our interviewers. Psychiatric morbidity was measured using the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale in 535 participants, which represented an 85% response rate. After excluding incomplete data, 479 participants were included in the analysis. Results Psychiatric morbidity was present in 46% of participants. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that correlates of the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale defined cases included the following: being a recidivist, having poor self-rated health status, and having experienced psychiatric symptoms in one’s lifetime (e.g. significant physical pain or discomfort, depression for 2 weeks or longer, serious anxiety or tension, trouble understanding, concentrating, or remembering, and serious thoughts of suicide), with a Nagelkerke R2 equal to 0.365. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is prevalent among HIV-infected male prisoners. Tailored HIV/AIDS education related to mental health is therefore suggested for inclusion as part of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS training program among incarcerated populations. PMID:20434025

  5. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  6. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  7. 77 FR 45717 - Proposed Information Collection (Former Prisoner of War Medical History); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Former Prisoner of War (FPOW) Medical History, VA... Prisoner of War veteran. VA will use the data collected as a guide and reference for treatment planning for... Prisoner of War Medical History); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of...

  8. 77 FR 40525 - Dependency and Indemnity Compensation (DIC) Benefits for Survivors of Former Prisoners of War...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... (DIC) Benefits for Survivors of Former Prisoners of War Rated Totally Disabled at Time of Death AGENCY... amending its adjudication regulation regarding benefits for survivors of former prisoners of war who were... criteria for dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC) based on the death of a former prisoner of war...

  9. Oral Health Status of a Sample of Prisoners in Enugu: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the oral health status of a sample of prisoners at the Federal Prison in Enugu. The health status of inmates in the prison system needs to be incorporated into data and reports that summarize the state of the nation's health; this will encourage the provision of health care to ...

  10. Perceptions of a Prison-Based Substance Abuse Treatment Program among Some Staff and Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Sarah; Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Webster, J. Matthew; Purvis, Richard T.

    2003-01-01

    Almost 90% of all State and Federal prisons in the U.S. offer some form of substance abuse counseling, and one in eight prisoners have participated in a substance abuse treatment program while incarcerated. Evidence indicates that these programs can be successful in stopping prisoners' substance abuse. While some data are available about the…

  11. Assessing the Therapeutic Environment in Hybrid Models of Treatment: Prisoner Perceptions of Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid treatment models within prisons are staffed by both criminal justice and treatment professionals. Because these models may be indicative of future trends, examining the perceptions of prisoners/participants may provide important information. This study examines the perceptions of male and female inmates in three prisons, comparing those in…

  12. The Effect of Prisonization and Self-Esteem on Inmates' Career Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homant, Robert J.; Dean, Douglas G.

    1988-01-01

    Tested model of offender career maturity by dividing 211 inmates into groups based on self-esteem and prisonization (taking on of prison culture). Compared groups on job planning, job attitudes, and stigmatization. Contrary to model, high self-esteem and low prisonization were both correlated significantly with higher scores on job planning and…

  13. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... characteristics of prisons with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on an anonymous...

  14. Psychosocial characteristics and social networks of suicidal prisoners: towards a model of suicidal behaviour in detention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Rivlin

    Full Text Available Prisoners are at increased risk of suicide. Investigation of both individual and environmental risk factors may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other high-risk populations. We conducted a matched case-control interview study with 60 male prisoners who had made near-lethal suicide attempts in prison (cases and 60 male prisoners who had not (controls. We compared levels of depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, aggression, hostility, childhood abuse, life events (including events occurring in prison, social support, and social networks in univariate and multivariate models. A range of psychosocial factors was associated with near-lethal self-harm in prisoners. Compared with controls, cases reported higher levels of depression, hopelessness, impulsivity, and aggression, and lower levels of self-esteem and social support (all p values <0.001. Adverse life events and criminal history factors were also associated with near-lethal self-harm, especially having a prior prison spell and having been bullied in prison, both of which remained significant in multivariate analyses. The findings support a model of suicidal behaviour in prisoners that incorporates imported vulnerability factors, clinical factors, and prison experiences, and underscores their interaction. Strategies to reduce self-harm and suicide in prisoners should include attention to such factors.

  15. Prayerformance: A Drama Therapy Approach with Female Prisoners Recovering from Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Wesley

    2007-01-01

    Female prisoners in recovery may anticipate defeat when projecting possibilities for their future hopes and dreams. These clients often identify with and attach to the role of prisoner and addict. This article describes a 12-week group treatment program, titled by the author as "Prayerformance." In this work, female prisoners in recovery have an…

  16. 45 CFR 46.305 - Additional duties of the Institutional Review Boards where prisoners are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the prisoner through his or her participation in the research, when compared to the general living conditions, medical care, quality of food, amenities and opportunity for earnings in the prison, are not of... advantages in the limited choice environment of the prison is impaired; (3) The risks involved in the...

  17. Short- and long-term effects of imprisonment on future felony convictions and prison admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J; Morenoff, Jeffrey D; Nguyen, Anh P; Bushway, Shawn D

    2017-10-17

    A substantial contributor to prison admissions is the return of individuals recently released from prison, which has come to be known as prison's "revolving door." However, it is unclear whether being sentenced to prison itself has a causal effect on the probability of a subsequent return to prison or on criminal behavior. To examine the causal effect of being sentenced to prison on subsequent offending and reimprisonment, we leverage a natural experiment using the random assignment of judges with different propensities for sentencing offenders to prison. Drawing on data on all individuals sentenced for a felony in Michigan between 2003 and 2006, we compare individuals sentenced to prison to those sentenced to probation, taking into account sentence lengths and stratifying our analysis by race. Results show that being sentenced to prison rather than probation increases the probability of imprisonment in the first 3 years after release from prison by 18 percentage points among nonwhites and 19 percentage points among whites. Further results show that such effects are driven primarily by imprisonment for technical violations of community supervision rather than new felony convictions. This suggests that more stringent postprison parole supervision (relative to probation supervision) increases imprisonment through the detection and punishment of low-level offending or violation behavior. Such behavior would not otherwise result in imprisonment for someone who had not already been to prison or who was not on parole. These results demonstrate that the revolving door of prison is in part an effect of the nature of postprison supervision.

  18. 78 FR 16479 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: DoD is publishing the annual list of product categories for which the Federal Prison... requirements for purchases from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI) by requiring DoD to publish an annual...

  19. 32 CFR 644.404 - Transfers to Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transfers to Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 644... Interests § 644.404 Transfers to Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 18 U.S.C. 4122 authorizes any department or agency of the Department of Defense to transfer without exchange of funds, to Federal Prison Industries...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a) Purchases by executive agencies of prison-made products carried in GSA supply distribution facilities must...