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Sample records for maximum safe fixation

  1. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  2. 30 CFR 77.902-1 - Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voltage. 77.902-1 Section 77.902-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902-1 Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage. The maximum voltage used for ground check circuits under § 77.902...

  3. 30 CFR 77.803-1 - Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voltage. 77.803-1 Section 77.803-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.803-1 Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage. The maximum voltage used for ground check circuits under § 77.803 shall not...

  4. Radiological landmarks for the safe extra-capsular placement of supra-acetabular half pins for external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Surjit; Heidari, Nima; Gänsslen, Axel; Grechenig, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Low anterior external fixators are constructed by placing half pins in the dense bone tunnel of the supra-acetabular region in an anterior to posterior direction. Although the placement of these pins is extra-articular, they may still breach the hip capsule on the anterior inferior iliac spine and thus be intra-capsular. We aim to provide radiological markers for the most superior fibres of the capsule to allow safe extra-capsular pin placement within the supra-acetabular bone tunnel. Thirteen cadaveric pelves were used for this study. The supra-acetabular bone tunnel was visualised with an image intensifier. The proximal most fibres of the hip joint capsule were marked with a K-wire so that their relation to the bone tunnel could be clearly seen on the images. Once all images were acquired they were calibrated and analysed to estimate the dimensions of the supra-acetabular bone tunnel and the reflection of the hip capsule. The median height of the bone tunnel was 23.6 mm (18.9-33.2) and maximum width was 11.4 mm (7.6-16.3). The inferior margin of the bone tunnel was 6.7 mm (1.1-14.5) superior to the acetabular dome, and the most proximal fibres of the capsule were 9.3 mm (4.7-6.1) superior to the acetabular dome. The inferior portion of the tunnel was 3.7 mm (0.3-8.9) within the joint. Half pins for the construction of a pelvic external fixator should be placed in the upper half of the supra-acetabular bone corridor to minimise the risk of intra-capsular placement.

  5. A different and safe method of split thickness skin graft fixation: medical honey application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2007-09-01

    Honey has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. Its antibacterial effects have been established during the past few decades. Still, modern medical practitioners hesitate to apply honey for local treatment of wounds. This may be because of the expected messiness of such local application. Hence, if honey is to be used for medicinal purposes, it has to meet certain criteria. The authors evaluated its use for the split thickness skin graft fixation because of its adhesive and other beneficial effects in 11 patients. No complications such as graft loss, infection, and graft rejection were seen. Based on these results, the authors advised honey as a new agent for split thickness skin graft fixation. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in honey wound management. There are a range of regulated wound care products that contain honey available on the Drug Tariff. This article addresses key issues associated with the use of honey, outlining how it may be best used, in which methods of split thickness skin graft fixations it may be used, and what clinical outcomes may be anticipated. For this reason, 11 patients who underwent different diagnosis were included in this study. In all the patients same medical honey was used for the fixation of the skin graft. No graft loss was seen during both the first dressing and the last view of the grafted areas. As a result, it has been shown that honey is also a very effective agent for split thickness skin graft fixations. Because it is a natural agent, it can be easily used in all skin graft operation for the fixation of the split thickness skin grafts.

  6. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2017-12-01

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  7. Maximum safe speed estimation using planar quintic Bezier curve with C2 continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamad Fakharuddin; Misro, Md Yushalify; Ramli, Ahmad; Ali, Jamaludin Md

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes an alternative way in estimating design speed or the maximum speed allowed for a vehicle to drive safely on a road using curvature information from Bezier curve fitting on a map. We had tested on some route in Tun Sardon Road, Balik Pulau, Penang, Malaysia. We had proposed to use piecewise planar quintic Bezier curve while satisfying the curvature continuity between joined curves in the process of mapping the road. By finding the derivatives of quintic Bezier curve, the value of curvature was calculated and design speed was derived. In this paper, a higher order of Bezier Curve had been used. A higher degree of curve will give more freedom for users to control the shape of the curve compared to curve in lower degree.

  8. The initial safe range of motion of the ankle joint after three methods of internal fixation of simulated fractures of the medial malleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yoshio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Kume, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Mutsuhiro; Iwase, Hideaki

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the safe passive range of ankle motion for inter-bone stiffness after internal fixation under load but there is a lack of information about the safe range of ankle motion for early rehabilitation in the absence of loading. The present study was designed to assess the effect of ankle movement on inter-bone displacement characteristics of medial malleolus fractures following three types of internal fixation to determine the safe range of motion. Five lower legs obtained during autopsy were used to assess three types of internal fixation (two with Kirschner-wires alone; two with Kirschner-wires plus tension band wiring; and, one with an AO/ASIF malleolar screw alone). Following a simulated fracture by sawing through the medial malleolus the displacement between the fractured bone ends was measured during a passive range of movement with continuous monitoring using omega (Omega) shaped transducers and a biaxial flexible goniometer. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Inter-bone displacement was not proportional to the magnitude of movement throughout the range of ankle motion as, when separation exceeded 25 microm, there was increasingly wide separation as plantar-flexion or dorsal-flexion was increased. There was no statistical significant difference between the small amount of inter-bone displacement observed with three types of fixation within the safe range of dorsal-flexion and plantar-flexion for early rehabilitation. However the inter-bone separation when fixation utilized two Kirschner-wires alone tended to be greater than when using the other two types of fixation during dorsal-flexion and eversion. The present study revealed a reproducible range of ankle motion for early rehabilitation which was estimated to be within the range of 20 degrees of dorsal-flexion and 10 degrees of plantar-flexion without eversion. Also, internal fixation with two Kirschner-wires alone does not seem to

  9. Clinical outcomes from maximum-safe resection of primary and metastatic brain tumors using awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshev, Anastasia; Padalia, Devang; Patel, Sephalie; Garcia-Getting, Rosemarie; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Forsyth, Peter A; Vrionis, Frank D; Etame, Arnold B

    2017-06-01

    To retrospectively analyze outcomes in patients undergoing awake craniotomies for tumor resection at our institution in terms of extent of resection, functional preservation and length of hospital stay. All cases of adults undergoing awake-craniotomy from September 2012-February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed based on an IRB approved protocol. Information regarding patient age, sex, cancer type, procedure type, location, hospital stay, extent of resection, and postoperative complications was extracted. 76 patient charts were analyzed. Resected cancer types included metastasis to the brain (41%), glioblastoma (34%), WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma (18%), WHO grade II glioma (4%), WHO grade I glioma (1%), and meningioma (1%). Over a half of procedures were performed in the frontal lobes, followed by temporal, and occipital locations. The most common indication was for motor cortex and primary somatosensory area lesions followed by speech. Extent of resection was gross total for 59% patients, near-gross total for 34%, and subtotal for 7%. Average hospital stay for the cohort was 1.7days with 75% of patients staying at the hospital for only 24h or less post surgery. In the postoperative period, 67% of patients experienced improvement in neurological status, 21% of patients experienced no change, 7% experienced transient neurological deficits, which resolved within two months post op, 1% experienced transient speech deficit, and 3% experienced permanent weakness. In a consecutive series of 76 patients undergoing maximum-safe resection for primary and metastatic brain tumors, awake-craniotomy was associated with a short hospital stay and low postoperative complications rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Some Questions on the Fixation of Radioisotopes in Connexion with the Problem of their Safe Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimakov, P. V.; Kulichenko, V. V.

    1960-07-01

    For the safe disposal of radioactive wastes it is essential that they be securely fixed in a suitable material for a long period. This is true regardless of the place or medium chosen for disposal. The chief source of danger in any given 'burial ground' is the threat of possible leakage resulting in the buried radioisotopes being dispersed in the environment. In recent times attention has been primarily directed to the question of disposing of the fission-produced radioisotopes which are formed in large quantities in many-countries during the release of energy through the fission of heavy nuclei in various nuclear power units (reactors). The present paper will discuss certain questions connected with the processing and disposal of wastes containing fission-produced isotopes.

  11. Spring-action Apparatus for Fixation of Eyeball (SAFE): a novel, cost-effective yet simple device for ophthalmic wet-lab training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Seema; Baskaran, Prabu; Fazal, Romana; Sulaiman, Syed Mohammad; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2016-10-01

    Achieving a formed and firm eyeball which is stably fixed in a holding device is a major challenge of surgical wet-lab training. Our innovation, the 'Spring-action Apparatus for Fixation of Eyeball (SAFE)' is a robust, simple and economical device to solve this problem. It consists of a hollow iron cylinder to which a spring-action syringe is attached. The spring-action syringe generates vacuum and enables reliable fixation of a human or animal cadaveric eye on the iron cylinder. The rise in intraocular pressure due to vacuum fixation can be varied as per need or nature of surgery being practised. A mask-fixed version of this device is also designed to train surgeons for appropriate hand positioning. An experienced surgeon performed various surgeries including manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS), phacoemulsification, laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), femtosecond LASIK docking, Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, penetrating keratoplasty and trabeculectomy on this device, while a trainee surgeon practised MSICS and wound suturing. Skill-appropriate comfort level was much higher with SAFE than with conventional globe holders for both surgeons. Due to its stability, pressure adjustability, portability, cost-efficiency and simplicity, we recommend SAFE as the basic equipment for every wet lab. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Bilateral humeral lengthening in achondroplasia with unilateral external fixators: is it safe and does it improve daily life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, H I; Kocaoglu, M; Sen, C; Eralp, L; Batibay, S G; Bilsel, K

    2015-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed in 18 patients with achondroplasia, who underwent bilateral humeral lengthening between 2001 and 2013, using monorail external fixators. The mean age was ten years (six to 15) and the mean follow-up was 40 months (12 to 104). The mean disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score fell from 32.3 (20 to 40) pre-operatively to 9.4 (6 to 14) post-operatively (p = 0.037). A mean lengthening of 60% (40% to 95%) was required to reach the goal of independent perineal hygiene. One patient developed early consolidation, and fractures occurred in the regenerate bone of four humeri in three patients. There were three transient radial nerve palsies. Humeral lengthening increases the independence of people with achondroplasia and is not just a cosmetic procedure. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Definition of a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum by 3D technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoreng; Zhang, Sheng; Luo, Qiang; Fang, Jintao; Lin, Chaowen; Leung, Frankie; Chen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to define a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum using a novel 3D technology. Pelvic CT data of 59 human subjects were obtained to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) models. The transparency of 3D models was then downgraded along the axial perspective (the view perpendicular to the cross section of the posterior column axis) to find the largest translucent area. The outline of the largest translucent area was drawn on the iliac fossa. The line segments of OA, AB, OC, CD, the angles of OAB and OCD that delineate the safe zone (ABDC) were precisely measured. The resultant line segments OA, AB, OC, CD, and angles OAB and OCD were 28.46mm(13.15-44.97mm), 45.89mm (34.21-62.85mm), 36.34mm (18.68-55.56mm), 53.08mm (38.72-75.79mm), 37.44° (24.32-54.96°) and 55.78° (43.97-79.35°) respectively. This study demonstrates that computer-assisted 3D modelling techniques can aid in the precise definition of the safe zone for antegrade insertion of posterior column lag screws. A full-length lag screw can be inserted into the zone (ABDC), permitting a larger operational error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pediatric Patient with Incidental Os Odontoideum Safely Treated with Posterior Fixation Using Rod-Hook System and Preoperative Planning Using 3D Printer: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-05-01

    Os odontoideum is often found incidentally. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients with atlantoaxial instability or neurologic deficits. Although various techniques have been used for C1-C2 fusion in adults, the use of these procedures in children is not widely accepted. We present a 12-year-old boy with incidental os odontoideum and obvious C1-C2 instability, in which bony union was achieved safely and successfully by posterior fixation using a rod-hook system and perioperative planning using a three-dimensional printer. At the 2-year follow-up, bone formation around the gap of the dens, which has been generally considered as pseudoarthrosis, was obtained after union of the posterior element of C1-C2. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The Free-Hand Technique for S2-Alar-Iliac Screw Placement: A Safe and Effective Method for Sacropelvic Fixation in Adult Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, Jamal N; Laratta, Joseph L; Tan, Lee A; Sarpong, Nana O; Lin, James D; Fischer, Charla R; Lehman, Ronald A; Kim, Yongjung J; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2018-02-21

    Spinopelvic fixation is an integral part of achieving solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction, especially in deformity procedures requiring substantial correction or long-segment constructs. Traditional S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screw-placement techniques utilize fluoroscopy, increasing operative time and radiation exposure to the patient and surgeon. We describe a novel free-hand technique for S2AI screw placement in patients with adult spinal deformity. We reviewed the records of 45 consecutive patients who underwent spinopelvic fixation performed with use of S2AI screws by the senior surgeon and various fellows or residents over a 12-month period (2015 to 2016). In each case, the S2AI screws were placed utilizing a free-hand technique without fluoroscopic or image guidance. Screw position and accuracy were assessed by intraoperative O-arm imaging and analyzed using 3-dimensional interactive manipulation of computed tomography images. A total of 100 screws were placed, 51 by the senior surgeon and 49 by trainees. The mean patient age was 57.4 ± 12.7 years at the time of surgery; 37 (82.2%) of the patients were female. Preoperative diagnoses included adult idiopathic scoliosis (n = 19), adult degenerative scoliosis (n = 15), flatback syndrome (n = 2), fixed sagittal imbalance (n = 6), and distal junctional kyphosis (n = 3). Five (5%) of the screws were placed with moderate to severe cortical breaches, all of which perforated the pelvis posteriorly, with no clinically notable neurovascular or visceral complications. The breach rate did not differ significantly between the senior surgeon and trainees. The free-hand technique for S2AI screw placement, when performed in a standardized manner, was demonstrated to be safe and reliable in constructs requiring spinopelvic fixation. The accuracy of screw placement relies on visible and palpable anatomic landmarks that obviate the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy or image guidance, potentially reducing operative time

  16. Morphometric Evaluation of Occipital Condyles: Defining Optimal Trajectories and Safe Screw Lengths for Occipital Condyle-Based Occipitocervical Fixation in Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Aju; Venugopal, Prakash; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh

    2018-04-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) morphometric analysis. To assess the feasibility and safety of occipital condyle (OC)-based occipitocervical fixation (OCF) in Indians and to define anatomical zones and screw lengths for safe screw placement. Limitations of occipital squama-based OCF has led to development of two novel OC-based OCF techniques. Morphometric analysis was performed on the OCs of 70 Indian adults. The feasibility of placing a 3.5-mm-diameter screw into OCs was investigated. Safe trajectories and screw lengths for OC screws and C0-C1 transarticular screws without hypoglossal canal or atlantooccipital joint compromise were estimated. The average screw length and safe sagittal and medial angulations for OC screws were 19.9±2.3 mm, ≤6.4°±2.4° cranially, and 31.1°±3° medially, respectively. An OC screw could not be accommodated by 27% of the population. The safe sagittal angles and screw lengths for C0-C1 transarticular screw insertion (48.9°±5.7° cranial, 26.7±2.9 mm for junctional entry technique; 36.7°±4.6° cranial, 31.6±2.7 mm for caudal C1 arch entry technique, respectively) were significantly different than those in other populations. The risk of vertebral artery injury was high for the caudal C1 arch entry technique. Screw placement was uncertain in 48% of Indians due to the presence of aberrant anatomy. There were significant differences in the metrics of OC-based OCF between Indian and other populations. Because of the smaller occipital squama dimensions in Indians, OC-based OCF techniques may have a higher application rate and could be a viable alternative/salvage option in selected cases. Preoperative CT, including three-dimensional-CT-angiography (to delineate vertebral artery course), is imperative to avoid complications resulting from aberrant bony and vascular anatomy. Our data can serve as a valuable reference guide in placing these screws safely under fluoroscopic guidance.

  17. Novel strategies in glioblastoma surgery aim at safe, super-maximum resection in conjunction with local therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Wolbers (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe biggest challenge in neuro-oncology is the treatment of glioblastoma, which exhibits poor prognosis and is increasing in incidence in an increasing aging population. Diverse treatment strategies aim at maximum cytoreduction and ensuring good quality of life. We discuss multimodal

  18. Novel strategies in glioblastoma surgery aim at safe, supra-maximum resection in conjunction with local therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbers, John G

    2014-01-01

    The biggest challenge in neuro-oncology is the treatment of glioblastoma, which exhibits poor prognosis and is increasing in incidence in an increasing aging population. Diverse treatment strategies aim at maximum cytoreduction and ensuring good quality of life. We discuss multimodal neuronavigation, supra-maximum tumor resection, and the postoperative treatment gap. Multimodal neuronavigation allows the integration of preoperative anatomic and functional data with intraoperative information. This approach includes functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging in preplanning and ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), MRI and direct (sub)cortical stimulation during surgery. The practice of awake craniotomy decreases postoperative neurologic deficits, and an extensive supra-maximum resection appears to be feasible, even in eloquent areas of the brain. Intraoperative MRI- and fluorescence-guided surgery assist in achieving this goal of supra-maximum resection and have been the subject of an increasing number of reports. Photodynamic therapy and local chemotherapy are properly positioned to bridge the gap between surgery and chemoradiotherapy. The photosensitizer used in fluorescence-guided surgery persists in the remaining peripheral tumor extensions. Additionally, blinded randomized clinical trials showed firm evidence of extra cytoreduction by local chemotherapy in the tumor cavity. The cutting-edge promise is gene therapy although both the delivery and efficacy of the numerous transgenes remain under investigation. Issues such as the choice of (cell) vector, the choice of therapeutic transgene, the optimal route of administration, and biosafety need to be addressed in a systematic way. In this selective review, we present various evidence and promises to improve survival of glioblastoma patients by supra-maximum cytoreduction via local procedures while minimizing the risk of new neurologic deficit.

  19. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  20. Fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion using suture button technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanter, Nathan J; Davis, Edward W; Baker, Champ L

    2012-09-01

    In the operative treatment of Achilles insertional tendinopathy, no guidelines exist concerning which form of fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion is superior. Transcalcaneal drill pin passage does not place any major plantar structures at risk, and the addition of a Krackow stitch and suture button to the fixation technique provides a significant increase in ultimate load to failure in Achilles tendon insertional repairs. Controlled laboratory study. The Achilles tendon insertions in 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric ankles were detached, and transcalcaneal drill pins were passed. Plantar dissection took place to evaluate the drill pin relationship to the plantar fascia, lateral plantar nerve and artery, flexor digitorum longus tendon, and master knot of Henry. The Achilles tendons were then repaired with a double-row suture anchor construct alone or with a suture button and Krackow stitch added to the double-row suture anchor construct. The repairs were then tested to maximum load to failure at 20 mm/min. The mode of failure was recorded, and the mean maximum load to failure was assessed using the Student t test for distributions with equal variance. Transcalcaneal drill pin passage did not place any selected anatomic structures at risk. The mean maximum load to failure for the suture bridge group was 239.2 N; it was 391.4 N for the group with the suture button (P = .014). The lateral plantar artery was the structure placed at greatest risk from drill pin placement, with a mean distance of 22.7 mm (range, 16.5-29.2 mm) between the pin and artery. In this laboratory study, transcalcaneal drill pin passage appeared to be anatomically safe, and the use of suture button technology with a Krackow stitch for Achilles tendon insertional repair significantly increased repair strength. Achilles tendon insertional repair with suture button fixation and a Krackow stitch may facilitate the earlier institution of postoperative rehabilitation and improve clinical outcomes.

  1. Management of Subcondylar Fracture through Intraoral Approach with Rigid Internal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravi S; Gudi, Santosh S

    2011-09-01

    In Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the majority of the condylar fractures are treated by closed reduction with generally satisfactory long term results. But in such cases of closed reduction, patient will be uncomfortable owing to long term application of inter maxillary fixation (IMF). Where as, Disadvantages of extra oral open reduction and fixation of condylar fracture includes facial nerve damage, facial scars etc. which are surely eliminated by the intraoral reduction and rigid fixation. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of reduction and fixation of low sub-condylar fractures through intra-oral approach. In this study, ten patients with low sub-condylar fracture, reported to department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. P.M.N.M. Dental College and Hospital Bagalkot were included. These patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation through intra-oral approach. All the patients were evaluated postoperatively for mouth opening, occlusion and mandibular deviation with regular radiographic examination for 6 weeks. All operated patients followed for 6 weeks, maximum mouth opening was more than 40 mm in seven patients (range from 40 to 50 mm) and less than 40 mm in three patients. Occlusion was satisfactory in all and none of the patients showed deviation of mandible on mouth opening. Statistical analysis showed that postoperative mouth opening was significant ('t' value = 7.88, 'P' = (0.000) value = 1.96, 'P' value (0.081), 0.05]. For occlusion standard photographs were obtained at sixth week and found minor occlusal corrections in two patients are treated by elastic traction for few days. Open reduction with internal fixation through intraoral approach has proved to be safe for early function and also effective by avoiding the patient discomfort due to long term intermaxillary fixation, psychological effect, facial nerve damage, facial scar and weight loss.

  2. CSF coccidioides complement fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003526.htm CSF coccidioides complement fixation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks ...

  3. Intrascleral IOL Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Soosan

    2017-01-01

    Intrascleral sutureless intraocular lens (IOL) fixation utilizes direct haptic fixation within the sclera in eyes with deficient capsular support. This has advantages of long-term stability, good control of tilt and decentration, and lesser pseudophakodonesis. This review summarizes various techniques for intrascleral haptic fixation, results, complications, adaptations in special situations, modifications of the technique, combination surgeries, and intrascleral capsular bag fixation techniques (glued capsular hook). Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  4. How safe is safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.F.; Flood, M.

    1996-01-01

    60 and 70 degree convexo-concave valve. Nine hundred and one valves were implanted in Australia. Twelve strut fractures were reported. Two other patients have been explanted and have demonstrated 'single leg separation'. This particular problem was only investigated when two patients died of a fractured valve in the same hospital on the same day. A retrospective study of all known patients in Australia has shown poor follow up, lack of knowledge and indeed lack of interest in device failure modes. Consequently, the Australian and New Zealand Heart Valve Registry was established to track all implanted valves and to notify physicians of any new information. This is perhaps the first device-specific register in Australia. The safety of individual devices is often not known by manufacturers, regulators and clinicians alike. No follow up is available and large volume long term studies are yet to be implemented for the majority of devices. Without such studies and without mandatory problem reporting, the relative safety of medical devices will continue to be measured by banner headlines, sensational TV 'grabs' and protracted law suits. At present, only schemes such as the Problem Reporting Scheme can tell us (albeit vaguely) 'how safe is safe'

  5. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, B.; Chanzy, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  6. Guide to radiation fixatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    This report identifies and then characterizes a variety of substances available in the market place for potential effectiveness as a fixative on radiologically contaminated surfaces. The substances include both generic chemicals and proprietary products. In selecting a fixative for a particular application, several attributes of the fixative may be relevant to the choice. These attributes include: toxicity, durability, and cleanliness and removability. In addition to the attributes of the fixative, one should also take into account certain characteristics of the site to be treated. These characteristics relate to climate, nature of the surface, use to which the treated surface will be put, subsequent cleanup operations, and type of neighboring surfaces. Finally, costs and potential environmental effects may influence the decision. A variety of fixatives are evaluated with respect to these various attributes and summarized in a reference table

  7. SAFE Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  8. Noninvasive patient fixation for extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, Frank; Debus, Juergen; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus; Pastyr, Otto; Rhein, Bernhard; Bahner, Malte L.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracy that can be achieved with a novel noninvasive patient fixation technique based on a body cast attached to a recently developed stereotactic body frame during fractionated extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one CT studies (≥ 20 slices, thickness: 3 mm) from 5 patients who were immobilized in a body cast attached to a stereotactic body frame for treatment of para medullary tumors in the thoracic or lumbar spine were evaluated with respect to setup accuracy. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made wrap-around body cast that extended from the neck to the thighs and a separate head mask, both made from Scotchcast. Each CT study was performed immediately before or after every second or third actual treatment fraction without repositioning the patient between CT and treatment. The stereotactic localization system was mounted and the isocenter as initially located stereo tactically was marked with fiducials for each CT study. Deviation of the treated isocenter as compared to the planned position was measured in all three dimensions. Results: The immobilization device can be easily handled, attached to and removed from the stereotactic frame and thus enables treatment of multiple patients with the same stereotactic frame each day. Mean patient movements of 1.6 mm ± 1.2 mm (laterolateral [LL]), 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), 2.3 mm ± 1.3 mm (transversal vectorial error [VE]) and < slice thickness = 3 mm (cranio caudal [CC]) were recorded for the targets in the thoracic spine and 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (LL), 1.2 mm ± 0.7 mm (AP), 1.8 mm ± 1.2 mm (VE), and < 3 mm (CC) for the lumbar spine. The worst case deviation was 3.9 mm for the first patient with the target in the thoracic spine (in the LL direction). Combining those numbers (mean transversal VE for both locations and maximum CC error of 3 mm), the mean three-dimensional vectorial patient movement and thus the mean overall

  9. Comparison of Monolateral External Fixation and Internal Fixation for Skeletal Stabilisation in the Management of Small Tibial Bone Defects following Successful Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yicun; Jiang, Hui; Deng, Zhantao; Jin, Jiewen; Meng, Jia; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianning; Sun, Guojing; Qian, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    To compare the salvage rate and complication between internal fixation and external fixation in patients with small bone defects caused by chronic infectious osteomyelitis debridement. 125 patients with chronic infectious osteomyelitis of tibia fracture who underwent multiple irrigation, debridement procedure, and local/systemic antibiotics were enrolled. Bone defects, which were less than 4 cm, were treated with bone grafting using either internal fixation or monolateral external fixation. 12-month follow-up was conducted with an interval of 3 months to evaluate union of bone defect. Patients who underwent monolateral external fixation had higher body mass index and fasting blood glucose, longer time since injury, and larger bone defect compared with internal fixation. No significant difference was observed in incidence of complications (23.5% versus 19.3%), surgery time (156 ± 23 minutes versus 162 ± 21 minutes), and time to union (11.1 ± 3.0 months versus 10.9 ± 3.1 months) between external fixation and internal fixation. Internal fixation had no significant influence on the occurrence of postoperation complications after multivariate adjustment when compared with external fixation. Furthermore, patients who underwent internal fixation experienced higher level of daily living scales and lower level of anxiety. It was relatively safe to use internal fixation for stabilization in osteomyelitis patients whose bone defects were less than 4 cm and infection was well controlled.

  10. The risk of translaminar screw fixation to the transverse foramen of the lower cervical spine: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ganggang; Ji, Wei; Huang, Zucheng; Liu, Junhao; Chen, Jianting; Zhu, Qingan

    2017-04-21

    Translaminar screw fixation (TSF) of the axis is considered as an efficient, safe and simple surgical procedure, however the study of the potential risk of TSF to the transverse foramen in lower cervical spine is lacked. Head-neck CT images of 60 patients were included in this study. Maximum screw length, laminar thickness, the screw angle and the laminar height were measured. The feasibility of 3.5-mm diameter screw fixation and the potential risk of transverse foramen injury was analyzed. The TSF was safe at C3 and C4, but risky to the transverse foraman at a rate of 8.7% at C5 (0% on the left side and 20% on the right side), 33.3% at C6 (24.4% on the left side and 42.9% on the right side). C7 had the highest 77.8% rate (65.5% on the left side and 89.8% on the right side). The safe screw length was 27.7 mm at C3, 27.4 mm at C4, 28.0 mm at C5, 25.6 mm at C6 and 25.5 mm at C7, respectively. The present study showed that translaminar screw could place the transverse foramen of C5-C7 at risk. Preoperative CT scanning was necessary for safe screw placement.

  11. Some Questions on the Fixation of Radioisotopes in Connexion with the Problem of their Safe Burial; Quelques Aspects de la Fixation des Isotopes Radioactifs en Rapport avec le Probleme de leur Elimination dans le Sol; 041d 0414 ; Algunos Aspectos de la Fijacion de los Isotopos Radiactivos en Relacion con los Problemas de su Evacuacion sin Riesgos en el Suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimakov, P. V.; Kulichenko, V. V.

    1960-07-01

    The results given in this paper are based on the fact that the best way of burying fission products is to incorporate them in vitrified fused blocks containing these fission products. The physico-chemical bases of the transformation of liquid waste into solid blocks are shown. The thermogram of this process is presented and the analysis of its characteristics given. The conditions of fusion of the vitrified mass, in particular those contributing to the fixation of radioactive aerosols, are shown. Some results of studies on the chemical state of radioactive fission products in the solid mass in connexion with the leaching of their radioactivity are given. In conclusion, the results of calculations of the temperatures up to which the radioactive blocks may be heated according to their characteristics are presented. (author) [French] Le present memoire est base sur l'hypothese que le meilleur procede d'elimination des dechets radioactifs dans le sous:sol consiste a les enfouir sous forme de blocs coules dans lesquels ils seraient intimement meles a du verre. Les auteurs decrivent les phenomenes physico-chimiques qui permettent la transformation des dechets radioactifs liquides en blocs solides. Ils donnent le thermogramme de ce processus et examinent certaines de ses particularites. Ils exposent en outre les conditions de coulage de la masse de verre, notamment celles qui facilitent la formation d'aerosols radioactifs. Les auteurs donnent quelques resultats des etudes effectuees sur l'etat chimique des elements radioactifs au sein de la masse solide, dans la mesure ou ces resultats touchent aux problemes que pose la fuite de la radioactivite due au 'lessivage' du bloc par l'eau. En conclusion, les auteurs indiquent les resultats du calcul des temperatures maxima auxquelles on peut porter les blocs radioactifs compte tenu de leurs caracteristiques. (author) [Spanish] Los autores de la memoria parten del supuesto de que la mejor manera de evacuar en el suelo los

  12. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  13. Safe Haven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Discusses school libraries as safe havens for teenagers and considers elements that foster that atmosphere, including the physical environment, lack of judgments, familiarity, leisure, and a welcoming nature. Focuses on the importance of relationships, and taking the time to listen to teens and encourage them. (LRW)

  14. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  15. Flexible fixation and fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , noncomminuted fractures. External fixation uses external bars for stabilization, whereas internal fixation is realized by subcutaneous placement of locking plates. Both of these "biologic" osteosynthesis methods allow a minimally invasive approach and do not compromise fracture hematoma and periosteal blood...

  16. Sacroiliac Screw Fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. van den Bosch

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to evaluate three major aspects of the use of sacroiliac screws in patients with unstable pelvic ring fractures: the optimal technique for sacroiliac screw fixation, the reliability of peroperative fluoroscopy and the late results. We focused on the questions

  17. Intrasacral rod fixation for pediatric lumbopelvic fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports the authors' 19 years experience with pediatric intrasacral rod fixation. After insertion of two cannulated screws in S1 with and an original template guiding them into the anterior third of the endplate, two short fusion rods were inserted into the sacrum according to Jackson's technique distally to S3. In neuromuscular scoliosis, pelvic obliquity was reduced by connecting the proximal and distal constructs, distraction or compression, and in situ rod bending. In children with high-grade spondylolisthesis, lumbosacral kyphosis was reduced by rotation of the sacrum and in situ bending. There were no direct neurological or vascular injuries. The main complication was infection (7%). No pseudarthrosis or significant loss of correction at the lumbosacral junction was observed during follow-up. Intrasacral rod fixation appears to be safe and reliable for lumbopelvic fusion in pediatric patients.

  18. Isotopes in biological dinitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Nineteen papers were presented at the conference. Some topics discussed are as follows: biochemistry and genetics of dinitrogen fixation; genetics of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria; studies on nonsymbiotic dinitrogen fixation in grass-bacteria associations and blue--green algae; use of /sup 15/N and /sup 13/N for the assay of dinitrogen fixation; effects of management practices on dinitrogen fixation; economy of C and N in nitrogen-fixing legumes; and survey of international and national programs on dinitrogen fixation. (HLW)

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  20. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  1. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  2. Fixation distance and fixation duration to vertical road signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marco; Simone, Andrea; Vignali, Valeria; Lantieri, Claudio; Palena, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    The distance of first-fixation to vertical road signs was assessed in 22 participants while driving a route of 8.34 km. Fixations to road signs were recorded by a mobile eye-movement-tracking device synchronized to GPS and kinematic data. The route included 75 road signs. First-fixation distance and fixation duration distributions were positively skewed. Median distance of first-fixation was 51 m. Median fixation duration was 137 ms with a modal value of 66 ms. First-fixation distance was linearly related to speed and fixation duration. Road signs were gazed at a much closer distance than their visibility distance. In a second study a staircase procedure was used to test the presentation-time threshold that lead to a 75% accuracy in road sign identification. The threshold was 35 ms, showing that short fixations to a road signs could lead to a correct identification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...

  4. Emergency department external fixation for provisional treatment of pilon and unstable ankle fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R Lareau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unstable ankle fractures and impacted tibial pilon fractures often benefit from provisional external fixation as a temporizing measure prior to definitive fixation. Benefits of external fixation include improved articular alignment, decreased articular impaction, and soft tissue rest. Uniplanar external fixator placement in the Emergency Department (ED ex-fix is a reliable and safe technique for achieving ankle reduction and stability while awaiting definitive fixation. This procedure involves placing transverse proximal tibial and calcaneal traction pins and connecting the pins with two external fixator rods. This technique is particularly useful in austere environments or when the operating room is not immediately available. Additionally, this bedside intervention prevents the patient from requiring general anesthesia and may be a cost-effective strategy for decreasing valuable operating time. The ED ex-fix is an especially valuable procedure in busy trauma centers and during mass casualty events, in which resources may be limited.

  5. Alternative technique of cervical spinal stabilization employing lateral mass plate and screw and intra-articular spacer fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The author discusses an alternative technique of segmental cervical spinal fixation. Material and Methods: The subtleties of the technique are discussed on the basis of experience with 3 cases with a follow-up of between 30 and 36 months. Technique: The technique involves debridement of facetal articular cartilage, distraction of facets, jamming of ′Goel spacer′ into the articular cavity and fortification of the fixation by lateral mass plate and screw fixation. The ′double-insurance′ method of fixation is safe for vertebral artery, nerve roots and spinal neural structures and the fixation is strong. Conclusions: The discussed technique is safe and provides a strong fixation and a ground for ultimate arthrodesis.

  6. Evaluation of functional outcome of pilon fractures managed with limited internal fixation and external fixation: A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Umesh Kumar; Bansal, Mahesh Chand; Behera, Prateek; Upadhyay, Rahul; Gothwal, Gyan Chand

    2017-11-01

    The management of pilon fractures is controversial primarily due to the high rate of complications irrespective of the mode of treatment. Limited internal fixation with external fixation is associated with minimal soft tissue handling. This may reduce the chances of wound dehiscence and infection. This study was designed to evaluate the functional and clinical outcomes in patients treated with limited internal fixation combined with external fixation in pilon fractures. This study was conducted as a prospective clinical study on 56 skeletally mature patients with closed fractures with poor skin condition, and with open grade 1 and grade 2 distal tibial intra-articular fractures. All patients were treated with combined limited internal fixation and ankle spanning external fixation. All fractures in this series united with an average time period of union of 18.3weeks (ranging from 13 weeks to 30 weeks). There was no non-union in any case. There was malunion in 4 cases, varus malunion (>5 degree) in 2 cases and recurvatum in another 2 cases). Excellent to good functional results were observed in 88% cases based on the modified Ovadia and Beals score. The mean ankle dorsiflexion and planter flexion movements were 10.2±5.3 degrees and 27.4±7.2 degrees respectively. infections occurred in 6 patients which included 4 pin tract infections and 2 superficial wound infection, all 6 healed after removal of pin tract and with oral antibiotics. The technique of combined external fixation with internal fixation is safe and effective management option for intra-articular distal tibial fractures.

  7. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  8. Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.

  9. Ad gist : Ad communication in a single eye fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.; Wedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most ads in practice receive no more than a single eye fixation. This study investigates the limits of what ads can communicate under such adverse exposure conditions. We find that consumers already know at maximum levels of accuracy and with high degree of certainty whether something is an ad or is

  10. Complement fixation test to C burnetii

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complement fixation test; Coxiella burnetii - complement fixation test; C burnetii - complement fixation test ... a specific foreign substance ( antigen ), in this case, C burnetii . Antibodies defend the body against bacteria, viruses, ...

  11. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  12. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danso, S.K.A.; Eskew, D.L. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    Several co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) conducted by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have concentrated on finding the most efficient way of applying nitrogen fertilizers to various crops, using nitrogen-15 (/sup 15/N) as a tracer. The findings of these studies have been adopted in many countries around the world, resulting in savings of nitrogen fertilizers worth many millions of dollars every year. More recently, the Section's CRPs have focused on enhancing the natural process of biological di-nitrogen fixation. The /sup 15/N isotope technique has proven to be very valuable in studies of the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, allowing many more experiments than before to be done and yielding much new practical information. The Soils Section is now working to extend the use of the technique to other nitrogen-fixing symbioses.

  13. The influence on the contact condition and initial fixation stability of the main design parameters of a self-expansion type anterior cruciate ligament fixation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Dae; Oh, Chae Youn; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a self-expansion type anterior cruciate ligament fixation device. The proposed fixation device provides graft fixation force by maintaining contact with the bone tunnel. Since the device maintains contact with the bone tunnel by the force that expands by the self-driven elastic force of the device, the main design parameters that determine the performance of this device are the ring thickness and expansion angle. This paper develops the three-dimensional finite element models of the fixation device and bone. By simulation with the developed finite element model, this paper studies the influence of the main design parameters of the device on the maximum stress around the ring when grasping the fixation device. Through the analysis of the stress on the bone tunnel wall when the fixation device comes in contact with the bone tunnel, this paper shows the influence of the main design parameters of the fixation device on the contact condition. In addition, through the analysis of the migration that occur upon application of the pull-out force, this paper studies the influence of the main design parameters on the initial fixation stability of the fixation device

  14. The influence on the contact condition and initial fixation stability of the main design parameters of a self-expansion type anterior cruciate ligament fixation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Dae [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chae Youn; Kim, Cheol Sang [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This paper proposes a self-expansion type anterior cruciate ligament fixation device. The proposed fixation device provides graft fixation force by maintaining contact with the bone tunnel. Since the device maintains contact with the bone tunnel by the force that expands by the self-driven elastic force of the device, the main design parameters that determine the performance of this device are the ring thickness and expansion angle. This paper develops the three-dimensional finite element models of the fixation device and bone. By simulation with the developed finite element model, this paper studies the influence of the main design parameters of the device on the maximum stress around the ring when grasping the fixation device. Through the analysis of the stress on the bone tunnel wall when the fixation device comes in contact with the bone tunnel, this paper shows the influence of the main design parameters of the fixation device on the contact condition. In addition, through the analysis of the migration that occur upon application of the pull-out force, this paper studies the influence of the main design parameters on the initial fixation stability of the fixation device

  15. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  16. REVISION ANKLE SYNDESMOSIS FIXATION - FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME AFTER TIGHTROPE ® FIXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhilvelan Rajagopalan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Syndesmotic disruptions are often seen in ankle fractures. Malreduction of these fractures can result in arthritis and instability. A proportion of these patients with malreduction require revision fixation. This study presents the results of revision fixation in such patients, using the Ankle TightRope ® (Arthrex system. METHODS Between January 2000 to December 2009, 124 patients who underwent ankle fracture fixations with syndesmotic stabilisation were analysed. Out of 124 patients, 8 patients were diagnosed with failure of primary stabilisation (based on radiological and clinical criteria and subjected to revision fixation using the Ankle TightRope ® (Arthrex system. Followup was done at periodic time intervals of 3, 6 and 12 months. Both clinical and radiological assessment was performed. Complications and duration of hospital stay was recorded. Functional evaluation was performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scoring system. RESULTS Five patients had good results, one satisfactory and two had poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ankle TightRope ® fixation is an alternative method of stabilisation in patients who require revision syndesmosis fixation. Further studies are required to evaluate this method of revision stabilisation as compared to screws.

  17. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  18. Biomechanical Comparison of External Fixation and Compression Screws for Transverse Tarsal Joint Arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latt, L Daniel; Glisson, Richard R; Adams, Samuel B; Schuh, Reinhard; Narron, John A; Easley, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Transverse tarsal joint arthrodesis is commonly performed in the operative treatment of hindfoot arthritis and acquired flatfoot deformity. While fixation is typically achieved using screws, failure to obtain and maintain joint compression sometimes occurs, potentially leading to nonunion. External fixation is an alternate method of achieving arthrodesis site compression and has the advantage of allowing postoperative compression adjustment when necessary. However, its performance relative to standard screw fixation has not been quantified in this application. We hypothesized that external fixation could provide transverse tarsal joint compression exceeding that possible with screw fixation. Transverse tarsal joint fixation was performed sequentially, first with a circular external fixator and then with compression screws, on 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs. The external fixator was attached in abutting rings fixed to the tibia and the hindfoot and a third anterior ring parallel to the hindfoot ring using transverse wires and half-pins in the tibial diaphysis, calcaneus, and metatarsals. Screw fixation comprised two 4.3 mm headless compression screws traversing the talonavicular joint and 1 across the calcaneocuboid joint. Compressive forces generated during incremental fixator foot ring displacement to 20 mm and incremental screw tightening were measured using a custom-fabricated instrumented miniature external fixator spanning the transverse tarsal joint. The maximum compressive force generated by the external fixator averaged 186% of that produced by the screws (range, 104%-391%). Fixator compression surpassed that obtainable with screws at 12 mm of ring displacement and decreased when the tibial ring was detached. No correlation was found between bone density and the compressive force achievable by either fusion method. The compression across the transverse tarsal joint that can be obtained with a circular external fixator including a tibial ring exceeds that

  19. How Life History Can Sway the Fixation Probability of Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Kurokawa, Shun; Giaimo, Stefano; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the effects of demographic structure on evolutionary dynamics when selection acts on reproduction, survival, or both. In contrast to the previously discovered pattern that the fixation probability of a neutral mutant decreases while the population becomes younger, we show that a mutant with a constant selective advantage may have a maximum or a minimum of the fixation probability in populations with an intermediate fraction of young individuals. This highlights the importance of life history and demographic structure in studying evolutionary dynamics. We also illustrate the fundamental differences between selection on reproduction and selection on survival when age structure is present. In addition, we evaluate the relative importance of size and structure of the population in determining the fixation probability of the mutant. Our work lays the foundation for also studying density- and frequency-dependent effects in populations when demographic structures cannot be neglected. PMID:27129737

  20. Fixation and partitioning of heavy metals in slag after incineration of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Yan, Bo

    2012-05-01

    Fixation of heavy metals in the slag produced during incineration of sewage sludge will reduce emission of the metals to the atmosphere and make the incineration process more environmentally friendly. The effects of incineration conditions (incineration temperature 500-1100°C, furnace residence time 0-60min, mass fraction of water in the sludge 0-75%) on the fixation rates and species partitioning of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni in slag were investigated. When the incineration temperature was increased from 500 to 1100°C, the fixation rate of Cd decreased from 87% to 49%, while the fixation rates of Cu and Mn were stable. The maximum fixation rates for Pb and Zn and for Ni and Cr were reached at 900 and 1100°C, respectively. The fixation rates of Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr and Zn decreased as the residence time increased. With a 20min residence time, the fixation rates of Pb and Mn were low. The maximum fixation rates of Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cr were achieved when the mass fraction of water in the sludge was 55%. The fixation rate of Cd decreased as the water mass fraction increased, while the fixation rate of Pb increased. Partitioning analysis of the metals contained in the slag showed that increasing the incineration temperature and residence time promoted complete oxidation of the metals. This reduced the non-residual fractions of the metals, which would lower the bioavailability of the metals. The mass fraction of water in the sludge had little effect on the partitioning of the metals. Correlation analysis indicated that the fixation rates of heavy metals in the sludge and the forms of heavy metals in the incinerator slag could be controlled by optimization of the incineration conditions. These results show how the bioavailability of the metals can be reduced for environmentally friendly disposal of the incinerator slag. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  2. Permanganate Fixation of Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hilton H.

    1959-01-01

    In an evaluation of procedures explored to circumvent some of the problems of osmium tetroxide-fixation and methacrylate embedding of plant materials, excised segments of root tips of Zea mays were fixed for electron microscopy in potassium permanganate in the following treatment variations: unbuffered and veronal-acetate buffered solutions of 0.6, 2.0, and 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at pH 5.0, 6.0, 6.7, and 7.5, and temperatures of 2–4°C. and 22°C. After fixation the segments were dehydrated, embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned, and observed or photographed. The cells of the central region of the rootcap are described. The fixation procedures employing unbuffered solutions containing 2.0 to 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at a temperature of 22°C. gave particularly good preservation of cell structure and all membrane systems. Similar results were obtained using a solution containing 2.0 per cent KMnO4, buffered with veronal-acetate to pH 6.0, and a fixation time of 2 hours at 22°C. The fixation procedure utilizing veronal-acetate buffered, 0.6 per cent KMnO4 at 2–4°C. and pH 6.7 also gave relatively good preservation of most cellular constituents. However, preservation of the plasma membrane was not so good, nor was the intensity of staining so great, as that with the group of fixatives containing greater concentrations of KMnO4. The other fixation procedures did not give satisfactory preservation of fine structure. A comparison is made of cell structures as fixed in KMnO4 or OsO4. PMID:14423414

  3. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  4. External fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-10-10

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with "intertrochanteric" fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years) with "intertrochanteric" fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.This study demonstrated that external fixation of "intertrochantric" fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  5. Capsule-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Small Pupil Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schojai, Merita; Schultz, Tim; Burkhard Dick, H

    2017-08-01

    To describe a new technique for implantation of capsule-fixated intraocular lenses (IOLs) (FEMTIS; Oculentis, Berlin, Germany) in patients with small pupils. In 4 eyes with small pupils, an anterior capsule-fixated IOL was implanted into the capsular bag after femtosecond laser treatment. The two large and two small flaps of the IOL were elevated to the front of the iris and the anterior capsule. Finally, the iris was flipped over the flaps to ensure a fixation of the capsule inside of the capsulotomy. In all cases, the implantation of anterior capsule-fixated IOLs was possible. No complications occurred during surgery or within the first months after surgery. With the described technique, capsulefixated IOLs can be implanted in eyes with small pupil easily and safely. This type of IOL has great potential to improve the refractive outcome by better prediction of the postoperative IOL position and eliminating IOL rotation after cataract surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):568-570.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarangumeli, Alper; Alp, Mehmet Numan; Kural, Gulcan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the results of single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses (IOL) in eyes with sufficient residual capsular support. The results of IOL repositioning by single-suture scleral fixation in 6 eyes of 6 patients with IOL subluxation were included. All subluxated IOLs were single-piece hydrophilic acrylic. Subluxation resulted from posterior capsule tears in 3 eyes, zonular dialyses in 2 eyes, and zonular dialysis with a capsulorhexis tear in 1 eye. A similar technique was used in all eyes in which one haptic was externalized through a superior clear corneal incision and tied with a Pair-PAK 10-0 polypropylene suture, and was finally retracted and fixated behind the iris close to the ciliary sulcus at the 12:00 meridian. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuities ranged between finger counting and 20/70 (mean logMAR 1.02±0.64) preoperatively, and between 20/100 and 20/20 (mean logMAR 0.22±0.26) at the final postoperative visit. All IOLs remained centered and no significant postoperative complications were encountered except for an IOL tilt which resulted in a considerable oblique astigmatism in one eye. Subluxated foldable IOLs may safely be repositioned and secured with a single scleral fixation suture in selected cases with adequate amount of capsular remnants.

  7. Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA), incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%), 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%), and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method. PMID:23050659

  8. Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Rojas Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA, incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%, 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%, and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method.

  9. [Case-control study on effects of external fixation combined with limited internal fixation for the treatment of Pilon fractures of Rüedi-Allgower type III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Da-Peng; You, Wu-Lin; Ji, Le; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Dang, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Kun-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effects of three surgical operations in the treatment of Pilon fracture of Rüedi-Allgower type III, and put forward the best therapeutic method. The clinical data of 33 patients with Pilon fracture who received surgical operations (plaster immobilization group, 10 cases; distal tibia anatomical plate group, 11 cases; external fixation with limited internal fixation group, 12 cases) from October 2009 to January 2012 were analyzed. There were 5 males and 5 females, ranging in age from 24 to 61 years in the plaster immobilization group. There were 7 males and 4 females, ranging in age from 21 to 64 years in the distal tibia anatomical plate group. There were 7 males and 5 females, ranging in age from 23 to 67 years in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group. The Ankle X-ray of Pilon fracture after operation, ankle score, early and late complications were collected. Bourne system was used to evaluate ankle joint function. After 8 months to 3 years follow-up, it was found that three kinds of treatment had significant differences in the outcomes and complications (P external fixation with limited internal fixation group got the best results. The number of anatomic reduction cases in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group (7 cases) and the distal tibia anatomical plate group (8 cases) was more than the plaster immobilization group (2 cases). According to the ankle score, 8 patients got an excellent result, 3 good and 1 poor in the limited internal fixation group ,which was better than those of distal tibia anatomical plate group (5 excellent, 4 good and 2 poor) and the plaster immobilization group (3 excellent, 4 good and 3 poor). The number of early and late complications in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group was more than those in the plaster immobilization group and the distal tibia anatomical plate group (Pexternal fixation with limited internal fixation in the treatment of Pilon fracture

  10. Comparison of Outcomes of Operatively Treated Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures by External Fixation and Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with either external fixation (35 patients or internal fixation (24 patients was reviewed. Outcome measures included the Rasmussen score, clinical complications, development of osteoarthritis and the requirement for total knee replacement (TKR. Twenty-two (92% anatomical reductions were achieved in the internal fixation group compared to 27 (77% in the external fixation group. Infective complications were more common in the external fixation group (9 patients, 26% due to pin tract infection. There were no deep infections in the internal fixation group. The mean Rasmussen score was not significantly different (mean score 32 in external fixation and 29 in internal fixation between the two groups and the incidence of osteoarthritis was the same in both groups. Four patients in the external fixation group underwent a TKR compared to 5 patients in the internal fixation group. Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have similar outcomes following external or internal fixation.

  11. Biomechanical study in vitro on the use of self-designed external fixator in diaphyseal III metacarpal fractures in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, B; Potyński, A; Wajler, C; Szara, T; Czopowicz, M; Drewnowska, O

    2015-01-01

    Diaphyseal fractures of the III metacarpal bone represent 22% of all fractures of the long bones in horses. Treatment of such cases is difficult. The most popular solution used in these types of fractures is two plates applied directly to the bone surface, but they are not applicable on contaminated and infected fractures. External fixators are quite commonly used in human medicine, although in veterinary practice there is no typical stabilizer designed for the treatment of diaphyseal fractures of the III metacarpal bone so far. In this study, an external semicircular fixator of our own design was used and in vitro strength tests were conducted to determine the maximum force which would lead to the destruction of non-fractured bone and fractured bone treated with the stabilizer. On the basis of the strength tests, we can conclude that the stabilizer can be strong enough to allow the horse to stand up after surgery. It also has many favorable features which make it easy to assemble and to take care of a wound, while being safe enough for the animal at the same time.

  12. Biomechanical Strength of Retrograde Fixation in Proximal Third Scaphoid Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Charles A; Boden, Allison L; Hutton, William C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-04-01

    Current techniques for fixation of proximal pole scaphoid fractures utilize antegrade fixation via a dorsal approach endangering the delicate vascular supply of the dorsal scaphoid. Volar and dorsal approaches demonstrate equivalent clinical outcomes in scaphoid wrist fractures, but no study has evaluated the biomechanical strength for fractures of the proximal pole. This study compares biomechanical strength of antegrade and retrograde fixation for fractures of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A simulated proximal pole scaphoid fracture was produced in 22 matched cadaveric scaphoids, which were then assigned randomly to either antegrade or retrograde fixation with a cannulated headless compression screw. Cyclic loading and load to failure testing were performed and screw length, number of cycles, and maximum load sustained were recorded. There were no significant differences in average screw length (25.5 mm vs 25.6 mm, P = .934), average number of cyclic loading cycles (3738 vs 3847, P = .552), average load to failure (348 N vs 371 N, P = .357), and number of catastrophic failures observed between the antegrade and retrograde fixation groups (3 in each). Practical equivalence between the 2 groups was calculated and the 2 groups were demonstrated to be practically equivalent (upper threshold P = .010). For this model of proximal pole scaphoid wrist fractures, antegrade and retrograde screw configuration have been proven to be equivalent in terms of biomechanical strength. With further clinical study, we hope surgeons will be able to make their decision for fixation technique based on approaches to bone grafting, concern for tenuous blood supply, and surgeon preference without fear of poor biomechanical properties.

  13. Safe Kids Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are What We Do Find Your Safe Kids Safe Kids Day Main menu Keeping All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Text Burns and Scalds 4 tips ...

  14. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from

  15. "Same Room, Safe Place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2017-04-01

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  16. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  17. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  18. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  19. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  20. Anterior fixation of the axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Fontes, Ricardo B V

    2010-09-01

    Although anterior fixation of the axis is not commonly performed, plate fixation of C2 is an important technique for treating select upper cervical traumatic injuries and is also useful in the surgical management of spondylosis. To report the technique and outcomes of C2 anterior plate fixation for a series of patients in which the majority presented with symptomatic degenerative spondylosis. Forty-six consecutive patients underwent single or multilevel fusions over a 7-year period; 30 of these had advanced degenerative disease manifested by myelopathy or deformity. Exposure was achieved with rostral extension of the standard anterior cervical exposure via careful soft tissue dissection, mobilization of the superior thyroid artery, and the use of a table-mounted retractor. It was not necessary to remove the submandibular gland, section the digastric muscle, or make additional skin incisions. Screws were placed an average of 4.6 mm (+/- 2.3 mm) from the inferior C2 endplate with a mean sagittal trajectory of 15.7 degrees (+/- 7.6 degrees). Short- and long-term procedure-related mortality was 4.4%, and perioperative morbidity was 8.9%. Patients remained intubated an average of 2.5 days following surgery. Dysphagia was initially reported by 15.2% of patients but resolved by the 8th postoperative week in all patients. Arthrodesis was achieved in all patients available for long-term follow-up. Multilevel fusions were not associated with longer hospitalization or morbidity. Anterior plate fixation of the axis for degenerative disease can be accomplished with acceptable morbidity employing an extension of the standard anterolateral route.

  1. Smaller Fixation Target Size Is Associated with More Stable Fixation and Less Variance in Threshold Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available The aims of this randomized observational case control study were to quantify fixation behavior during standard automated perimetry (SAP with different fixation targets and to evaluate the relationship between fixation behavior and threshold variability at each test point in healthy young participants experienced with perimetry. SAP was performed on the right eyes of 29 participants using the Octopus 900 perimeter, program 32, dynamic strategy. The fixation targets of Point, Cross, and Ring were used for SAP. Fixation behavior was recorded using a wearable eye-tracking glass. All participants underwent SAP twice with each fixation target in a random fashion. Fixation behavior was quantified by calculating the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA and the frequency of deviation from the fixation target. The BCEAs (deg2 of Point, Cross, and Ring targets were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.02, respectively. In all cases, BCEA increased significantly with increasing fixation target size (p < 0.05. The logarithmic value of BCEA demonstrated the same tendency (p < 0.05. A positive correlation was identified between fixation behavior and threshold variability for the Point and Cross targets (ρ = 0.413-0.534, p < 0.05. Fixation behavior increased with increasing fixation target size. Moreover, a larger fixation behavior tended to be associated with a higher threshold variability. A small fixation target is recommended during the visual field test.

  2. Unicortical self-drilling external fixator pins reduce thermal effects during pin insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinwald, Markus; Varady, Patrick A; Augat, Peter

    2017-12-14

    External fixation is associated with the risk of pin loosening and pin infection potentially associated to thermal bone necrosis during pin insertion. This study aims to investigate if the use of external fixator systems with unicortical pins reduces the heat production during pin insertion compared to fixators with bicortical pins. Porcine bone specimens were employed to determine bone temperatures during insertion of fixator pins. Two thermographic cameras were used for a simultaneous temperature measurement on the bone surface (top view) and a bone cross-section (front view). Self-drilling unicortical and bicortical pins were inserted at different rotational speeds: (30-600) rpm. Maximum and mean temperatures of the emerging bone debris, bone surface and bone cross-section were analyzed. Maximum temperatures of up to 77 ± 26 °C were measured during pin insertion in the emerging debris and up to 42 ± 2 °C on the bone surface. Temperatures of the emerging debris increased with increasing rotational speeds. Bicortical pin insertion generated significantly higher temperatures at low insertion speed (30 rpm) CONCLUSION: The insertion of external fixator pins can generate a considerable amount of heat around the pins, primarily emerging from bone debris and at higher insertion speeds. Our findings suggest that unicortical, self-drilling fixator pins have a decreased risk for thermal damage, both to the surrounding tissue and to the bone itself.

  3. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  4. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  5. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  6. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  7. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  8. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  9. Mechanical evaluation of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin tie-in configurations applied to cadaveral humeri from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Redig, Patrick T; Wallace, Larry J; Bourgeault, Craig A; Bechtold, Joan E

    2009-12-01

    Use of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin (ESF-IM) tie-in fixators is an adjustable and effective method of fracture fixation in birds. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of each of the following parameters to the compressive and torsional rigidity of an ESF-IM pin tie-in applied to avian bones with an osteotomy gap: (1) varying the fixation pin position in the proximal bone segment and (2) increasing the number of fixation pins in one or both bone segments. ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs were applied to humeri harvested from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n=24) that had been euthanatized for clinical reasons. Constructs with a variation in the placement of the proximal fixation pin and with 2, 3, or 4 fixation pins applied to avian bone with an osteotomy gap were loaded to a defined displacement in torque and axial compression. Response variables were determined from resulting load-displacement curves (construct stiffness, load at 1-mm displacement). Increasing the number of fixation pins from 1 to 2 per bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (110%) and compression (60%), and the safe load in torque (107%) and compression (50%). Adding a fixation pin to the distal bone segment to form a 3-pin fixator significantly increased the stiffness (27%) and safe load (20%) in torque but not in axial compression. In the configuration with 2 fixation pins, placing the proximal pin distally in the proximal bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (28%), and the safe load in torque (23%) and in axial compression (32%). Results quantified the relative importance of specific parameters affecting the rigidity of ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs as applied to unstable bone fracture models in birds.

  10. Salvage of infected total knee arthroplasty with Ilizarov external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Gurava Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knee arthrodesis may be the only option of treatment in cases of chronic infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA with concomitant irreparable extensor mechanism disruption, extensive bone loss or severe systemic morbidities. Circular external fixation offers possible progressive adjustment to stimulate the bony fusion and to make corrections in alignment. We evaluated the results of knee arthrodesis with one or two stage circular external fixator for infected TKA. Materials and Methods: 16 cases of femoro-tibial fusion were retrospectively evaluated. Male-to-female ratio was 10:6. Mean age of the patients was 62.2 years. Cierney-Mader classification was used for anatomical and physiological evaluation while the bone stock deficiency was classified into mild, moderate and severe. Surgical technique involved either single or two stage arthrodesis using circular external fixator. Results: Union was achieved in 15 patients (93.75%. The mean duration for union (frame application time in these patients was 28.33 weeks (range 22 to 36 weeks. Analysis showed that in the group with frame application time of less than 28 weeks, the incidence of mild to moderate bone deficiency was 83.33%, while in the frame application time more than 28 weeks group the incidence was 20% (P-value 0.034. Similarly the incidence of Cierney-Mader 4B (Bl, Bs, Bls was found to be 33.33% in the group of frame application time of less than 28 weeks, while it was 90% in the group with frame application time more than 28 weeks (P-value 0.035. Conclusion: Circular external fixator is a safe and reliable method to achieve knee arthrodesis in cases of deep infection following TKA. Severe bone stock deficiency and Cierney- Mader type B host are likely risk factors for prolonged frame application time. We recommend a two-stage procedure especially when there is compromised host or severe bone loss.

  11. Polymeric media for tritium fixation. Supplement I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for the fixation of tritium as TH or THO in two different polymeric media are described. The complete procedure for THO fixation in a polyureylene-polyurethane polumer, including polymer molding procedures and leach tests is presented. The catalytic tritiation of polystyrene under very mild conditions using a rhodium catalyst is also described. Thermal stabilities and cost estimates for the polymers examined under this program are discussed. Organic polymers were found to have attractive features for the fixation and storage of concentrated tritium wastes due to the convenience of fixation procedures and favorable properties of the resulting media

  12. Modeling fixation locations using spatial point processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmé, Simon; Trukenbrod, Hans; Engbert, Ralf; Wichmann, Felix

    2013-10-01

    Whenever eye movements are measured, a central part of the analysis has to do with where subjects fixate and why they fixated where they fixated. To a first approximation, a set of fixations can be viewed as a set of points in space; this implies that fixations are spatial data and that the analysis of fixation locations can be beneficially thought of as a spatial statistics problem. We argue that thinking of fixation locations as arising from point processes is a very fruitful framework for eye-movement data, helping turn qualitative questions into quantitative ones. We provide a tutorial introduction to some of the main ideas of the field of spatial statistics, focusing especially on spatial Poisson processes. We show how point processes help relate image properties to fixation locations. In particular we show how point processes naturally express the idea that image features' predictability for fixations may vary from one image to another. We review other methods of analysis used in the literature, show how they relate to point process theory, and argue that thinking in terms of point processes substantially extends the range of analyses that can be performed and clarify their interpretation.

  13. Methanotrophy induces nitrogen fixation during peatland development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, Tuula; Leppänen, Sanna M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aarva, Maija; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tiirola, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) accumulation rates in peatland ecosystems indicate significant biological atmospheric N2 fixation associated with Sphagnum mosses. Here, we show that the linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N2 fixation may constitute an important mechanism in the rapid accumulation of N during the primary succession of peatlands. In our experimental stable isotope enrichment study, previously overlooked methane-induced N2 fixation explained more than one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland stages, where the highest N2 fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged moss vegetation. PMID:24379382

  14. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  15. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  16. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  17. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  18. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reducers Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Medication Health Fraud Resources for You FDA Consumer Updates (Drugs) Page ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  19. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  20. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  1. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  2. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  3. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Safely Give Ibuprofen Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Medicines for Diabetes Complementary and Alternative Medicine How Do Pain Relievers Work? What Medicines Are and What They Do Medicines ...

  4. DroidSafe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Massachusetts Avenue, Build E19-750 Cambridge , MA 02139-4307 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Activity objects illustrating the challenges of points-to and information flow analysis...measure how many malicious flows Droid- Safe was able to detect). As these results illustrate , DroidSafe implements an analysis of unprece- dented

  5. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  6. [Comparison of external fixation with or without limited internal fixation for open knee fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K N; Lan, H; He, Z Y; Wang, X J; Yuan, J; Zhao, P; Mu, J S

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and methods of different fixation methods and prevention of open knee joint fracture. Methods: The data of 86 cases of open knee joint fracture admitted from January 2002 to December 2015 in Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University were analyzed retrospectively.There were 65 males and 21 females aged of 38.6 years. There were 38 cases treated with trans articular external fixation alone, 48 cases were in the trans articular external fixation plus auxiliary limited internal fixation group. All the patients were treated according to the same three stages except for different fixation methods. Observation of external fixation and fracture fixation, fracture healing, wound healing and treatment, treatment and related factors of infection control and knee function recovery. χ(2) test was used to analyze data. Results: Eleven patients had primary wound healing, accounting for 12.8%. Seventy-five patients had two wounds healed, accounting for 87.2%. Only 38 cases of trans articular external fixator group had 31 cases of articular surface reduction, accounting for 81.6%; Five cases of trans articular external fixator assisted limited internal fixation group had 5 cases of poor reduction, accounting for 10.4%; There was significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)=44.132, P external fixation group, a total of 23 cases of patients with infection, accounted for 60.5% of external fixation group; trans articular external fixation assisted limited internal fixation group there were 30 cases of patients with infection, accounting for the assistance of external fixator and limited internal fixation group 62.5%; There was significant difference between the two groups(χ(2)=0.035, P >0.05). Five cases of fracture nonunion cases of serious infection, patients voluntarily underwent amputation. The Lysholm Knee Scale: In the external fixation group, 23 cases were less than 50 points, accounting for 60

  7. Sorption and fixation of large cations by shale formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindley, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Large cations such as Cs + are preferentially sorbed and partially fixed by fine-grained 2 : 1 type layer silicates such as micas, vermiculites, smectites and various mixed-layer minerals. Since these minerals are common constituents of many shale formations, these formations may provide suitable location for the burial of radioactive waste containers. However, the usual investigations of cation sorption and fixation must be extended to the conditions likely to develop in the vicinity of buried radioactive waste. Prior to possible leakage from buried containers, elevated temperatures around the burial site will develop leading to hydrothermal modification of the surrounding mineralogy. A range of temperature and of mineralogy must be envisaged. If and when leakage occurs, an outward diffusion of radioactive ions will occur by solvation in the fluids in the shale. The ratio of radioactive ions/normal ions will diminish outwards from the source. At near distances from the source high temperature modifications of the clay minerals and high concentrations of radioactive cations may lead to saturation of the fixation capacity. At greater distances, little or no thermal modification of the clay minerals and lower concentrations of ions will permit maximum sorption and fixation

  8. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G. (Glasgow Dental Hospital (UK))

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium.

  9. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of 3 H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium. (author)

  10. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  11. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  12. Improper tube fixation causing a leaky cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Babita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaking endotracheal tube cuffs are common problems in intensive care units. We report a case wherein the inflation tube was damaged by the adhesive plaster used for tube fixation and resulted in leaking endotracheal tube cuff. We also give some suggestions regarding the tube fixation and some remedial measures for damaged inflation system.

  13. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether retorted shale additions would significantly affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation. Results indicate that small additions of the shale may stimulate plant growth but with higher concentrations plants are stressed, resulting in a decreased biomass and a compensatory effect of an increased number of nodules and N/sub 2/ fixation potential. (JMT)

  14. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  15. EFFECT OF EMBEDDING METHODS VERSUS FIXATIVE TYPE ON KARYOMETRIC MEASURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOON, ME; VANDERPOEL, HG; TAN, CJA; KOK, LP

    The influence of fixation and embedding methods in seven urologic tumor samples was studied karyometrically for 12 preparatory techniques. Routine histologic formalin fixation was compared with Carbowax and Kryofix fixatives. Also, histologic material was studied embedded in paraffin and plastic

  16. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  17. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  18. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  19. Polymeric media for tritium fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and leach testing of several polymeric media for tritium fixation are presented. Tritiated bakelite, poly(acrylonitrile) and polystyrene successfully fixed tritium. Tritium leach rates at the tracer level appear to be negligible. Advantages and disadvantages of the processes are discussed, and further bench-scale investigations underway are reported. Rough cost estimates are presented for the different media and are compared with alternate approaches such as deep-well injection and long-term tank storage. Polymeric media costs are high compared to deep-well storage and are of the same order of magnitude per liter of water as for isotopic enrichment. With this limitation, polymeric media can be economically feasible only for highly concentrated tritiated wastes. It is recommended that the bakelite and polystyrene processes be examined on a larger scale to permit more accurate cost analysis and process design. (auth)

  20. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  1. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  2. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  4. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  6. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  7. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  8. Calculation of the time fixation accuracy for Si(Li)-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.P.; Krasnov, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    An accuracy of time fixation to pulses of changing shape for li-frifted si detectors with thickness over 1 mm is evaluated. The method of the comparison of main and converted signal shapes is the most universal method of time fixation. The idea of the method consists in shaping a bipolar pulse using a single-polar input Rulse and recording the point of the bipolar signal intersection with the zero level. The combination of an analytical method with numerical computer calculations is used for evaluating the time fixation fluctuations. Analysis of the results obtained shows that the value of delay p=tausub(d)/tausub(n) (where tausub(d) is delay time for the main part of a signal, tausub(n) is the maximum time of electron collection) affects most strongly the time shift. The parameter K=tausub(i)/tausub(n) (tausub(i) is a constant of integrating circuit) affects slightly the maximum value of time shift. For the li-drifted si detector 2 mm thick with dispattacement vottage of 400 V the moment of the time fixation will be equal to 47 is in the case of K--1, p=0.4 and x=0.25 (x=R/i, where R is a particle range in the detector, l is the thickness of the detector depleted area. The fluctuations in time fixation don't exceed 2.3 ns for the whole particle energy range

  9. Experimental Fracture Model versus Osteotomy Model in Metacarpal Bone Plate Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ochman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteotomy or fracture models can be used to evaluate mechanical properties of fixation techniques of the hand skeleton in vitro. Although many studies make use of osteotomy models, fracture models simulate the clinical situation more realistically. This study investigates monocortical and bicortical plate fixation on metacarpal bones considering both aforementioned models to decide which method is best suited to test fixation techniques. Methods. Porcine metacarpal bones (=40 were randomized into 4 groups. In groups I and II bones were fractured with a modified 3-point bending test. The intact bones represented a further control group to which the other groups after fixation were compared. In groups III and IV a standard osteotomy was carried out. Bones were fixated with plates monocortically (group I, III and bicortically (group II, IV and tested for failure. Results. Bones fractured at a mean maximum load of 482.8 N ± 104.8 N with a relative standard deviation (RSD of 21.7%, mean stiffness was 122.3 ± 35 N/mm. In the fracture model, there was a significant difference (=0.01 for maximum load of monocortically and bicortically fixed bones in contrast to the osteotomy model (=0.9. Discussion. In the fracture model, because one can use the same bone for both measurements in the intact state and the bone-plate construct states, the impact of inter-individual differences is reduced. In contrast to the osteotomy model there are differences between monocortical and bicortical fixations in the fracture model. Thus simulation of the in vivo situation is better and seems to be suitable for the evaluation of mechanical properties of fixation techniques on metacarpals.

  10. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eRahav

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO3--rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA. N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L-1 d-1 to 0.38 nmol N L-1 d-1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2to 3.5 and N2 fixation rates by ~ 2 fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2 to 6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP an heterotrophic N2 fixation are carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP concentration and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C: nitrogen (N micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75 % of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets.

  11. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  12. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  13. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  14. The safe home project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  15. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIADI eBi Kuyami Guy Aimé

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this paper is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, fifty-five chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and fifty-five reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2. The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the centre of the screen for 30 seconds. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 sec of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  16. Sutureless Intrascleral Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Remzi; Celik, Haci Ugur; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Rapuano, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    To review sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens (IOL) fixation methods. Review of published literature. Sutureless intrascleral IOL fixation methods are newer and have been developed to eliminate the suture-related complications of sutured scleral fixation methods such as suture-induced inflammation or infection and IOL dislocation or subluxation due to suture degradation or suture breakage. Sutureless intrascleral fixation methods aim for intrascleral haptic fixation to achieve stability of the IOL. Various methods of sutureless scleral fixation have been described. Using a needle, a blade, or a trochar, sclerostomies are created in all techniques for intraocular access. Some surgeons prefer to create scleral tunnels, whereas others use scleral flaps for scleral fixation of haptics. The stability of IOLs is attained by the scar tissue formed around the haptics. Short-term results of these new methods are acceptable; studies including more cases with longer follow-up are needed to determine their long-term success. [J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016;32(9):586-597.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  18. Alfalfa variety selection for maximum fiber content, protein and nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhland, Christopher T. [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Knox, John [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Ward, Susan [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Agarwal, V. J. [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Frey, John [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Carrow, Duane [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Jones, Bruce [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Rife, James [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The fertile soils of Southern Minnesota are highly productive from both a natural and agricultural standpoint. We chose to examine potential feedstock in both of these settings as a focus for our study. In part one of this report we detail our findings examining potential feedstock in prairie and wetlands in the Mankato, MN area in 2009. We were able to familiarize ourselves with techniques used to isolate and quantify concentrations of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in both a classroom and laboratory setting. These techniques were then used for our experiments that examined the effects of harvest regime, irrigation and salinity on eight potential-feedstock varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

  19. 14CO2 fixation pattern of cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, N.; Schiewer, U.

    1985-01-01

    The 14 CO 2 fixation pattern of three cyanobacteria in the light and dark were studied. Two different chromatographic methods widely used for separating labelled photosynthetic intermediates were compared. After ethanolic extraction, a rather uniform fixation pattern reflecting mainly the β-carboxylation pathway is obtained for all 3 species. Of the intermediates, glucosylglycerol is specific and high citrulline and low malate contents are fairly specific to cyanobacteria. The composition of the 14 CO 2 fixation pattern is hardly affected by changes in temperature or light intensity, but it is severely affected by changes in the water potential of the medium. (author)

  20. Carbon dioxide fixation in isolated Kalanchoe chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, C.; Gibbs, M.

    1975-07-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 ..mu..moles of CO/sub 2/ per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1 percent of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1, 6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO/sub 2/ fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. (auth)

  1. Laser-assisted fixation of a nitinol stapes prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötzlmair, Florian; Suchan, Fabian; Pongratz, Thomas; Krause, Eike; Müller, Joachim; Sroka, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    Otosclerosis is an inner ear bone disease characterized by fixation of the stapes and consequently progressive hearing loss. One treatment option is the surgical replacement of the stapes by a prosthesis. When so called "smart materials" like nitinol are used, prosthesis fixation can be performed using a laser without manual crimping on the incus. However, specific laser-prosthesis interactions have not been described yet. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the thermo-mechanical properties of the NiTiBOND® prosthesis as a basis for handling instructions for laser-assisted prosthesis fixation. Closure of the NiTiBOND® prosthesis was induced ex vivo by either a diode laser emitting at λ = 940 nm or a CO 2 laser (λ = 10,600 nm). Total energy for closure was determined. Suitable laser parameters (pulse duration, power per pulse, distance between tip of the laser fiber and prosthesis) were assessed. Specific laser-prosthesis interactions were recorded. Especially the diode laser was found to be an appropriate energy source. A total energy deposit of 60 mJ by pulses in near contact application was found to be sufficient for prosthesis closure ex vivo. Energy should be transmitted through a laser fiber equipollent to the prosthesis band diameter. Specific deformation characteristics due to the zonal prosthesis composition have to be taken into account. NiTiBOND® stapes prosthesis can be closed by very little energy when appropriate energy sources like diode lasers are used, suggesting a relatively safe application in vivo. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:153-157, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  3. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  4. [Biomechanical analysis on healing process of sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle after rigid fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jie; Qu, Ai-li; Ding, Xiao-mei; Hei, Yu-na

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the biomechanical healing process on rigid fixation of sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle (SFMC), and to provide guidelines for surgical treatment. Three-dimensional finite element model (3D-FEAM) of mandible and condyle was established. The right condyle was simulated as SFMC with 0.1 mm space across the condyle length ways. The 3D-FEAM of rigid fixation was established. The biomechanical factors such as stress distribution of condylar surface, displacement around fracture, stress on the plate and stress shielding were calculated during 0, 4, 8 and 12-week after rigid fixation. The maximum equivalent stress of normal condyle was located at the area of middle 1/3 of condylar neck. The maximum equivalent stress at 0-week after fixation was 23 times than that on normal condyle. They were located at the condylar stump and the plate near inferior punctual areas of fracture line. There were little stress on the other areas. The maximum equivalent stress at 4, 8 and 12-week was approximately 6 times than that on normal condyle. They were located at the areas same as the area at 0-week. There were little stress on the other areas at the condyle. The maximum total displacement and maximum total corner were increased 0.57-0.75 mm and 0.01-0.09° respectively during healing process. The maximum equivalent stress at 0-week on the condylar trump was 5-6 times compared with that at 4, 8, and 12-week. The maximum equivalent stress, maximum total displacement and maximum total corner on the fractured fragment were not changed significantly during healing process. The maximum equivalent stress at 0-week on the plate was 7-9 times compared with that at 4, 8, 12-week. The stress of the condyle and stress shielding of the plate may be the reasons of absorbing and rebuilding on the condyle in healing process of SFMC. The biomechanical parameters increase obviously at 4-week after fixation. Elastic intermaxillary traction is necessary to decrease total displacement

  5. [Effectiveness comparison of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator and double plate internal fixation in treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Xu; Zhong, Zeli; Wu, Chao; Tan, Lun

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator with double plate internal fixation in the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures. Between January 2014 and April 2016, 30 patients with type C (Association for the Study of Internal Fixation, AO/ASIF) humeral intercondylar fractures were treated. Kirschner wire suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator was used in 14 cases (group A), and double plate internal fixation in 16 cases (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury cause, disease duration, injury side, and type of fracture between 2 groups ( P >0.05). There was no significant difference in operation time and hospitalization stay between 2 groups ( P >0.05). But the intraoperative blood loss in group A was significantly less than that in group B ( P internal fixation removal, the intraoperative blood loss, and VAS score at 1 day and 3 days after operation in group A were significant better than those in group B ( P external fixator and double plate internal fixation for the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures have ideal outcome in elbow function. But the suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator is better than double plate internal fixation in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative VAS score, and time of internal fixation removal.

  6. Fixation probability on clique-based graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Ok; Yu, Unjong

    2018-02-01

    The fixation probability of a mutant in the evolutionary dynamics of Moran process is calculated by the Monte-Carlo method on a few families of clique-based graphs. It is shown that the complete suppression of fixation can be realized with the generalized clique-wheel graph in the limit of small wheel-clique ratio and infinite size. The family of clique-star is an amplifier, and clique-arms graph changes from amplifier to suppressor as the fitness of the mutant increases. We demonstrate that the overall structure of a graph can be more important to determine the fixation probability than the degree or the heat heterogeneity. The dependence of the fixation probability on the position of the first mutant is discussed.

  7. Motorized injector-assisted intrascleral intraocular lens fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Wang, Shih-Hao; Teng, Yu-Ti; Hsu, Sheng-Min

    2017-03-01

    For eyes with deficient capsular support, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has long been a technical challenge. Recently, intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a three-piece posterior chamber IOL has become a popular option. In this procedure, externalization of the leading haptic during IOL injection is a stressful step. We present a modified technique to improve the ease and safety of this step. Our modified technique involves IOL injection with a motorized injector with several important modifications described here. With these modifications, a surgeon can easily maintain the correct orientation of the IOL in a well-controlled manner during IOL injection. The records of 13 patients who underwent this technique were retrospectively evaluated. Corrected-distance visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (pIOL decentration, or vitreous hemorrhage was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, the motorized injector-assisted intrascleral IOL fixation technique is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional procedure. This technique makes the process of leading haptic externalization easier and more controllable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Motorized injector-assisted intrascleral intraocular lens fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horung Hung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For eyes with deficient capsular support, intraocular lens (IOL implantation has long been a technical challenge. Recently, intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a three-piece posterior chamber IOL has become a popular option. In this procedure, externalization of the leading haptic during IOL injection is a stressful step. We present a modified technique to improve the ease and safety of this step. Our modified technique involves IOL injection with a motorized injector with several important modifications described here. With these modifications, a surgeon can easily maintain the correct orientation of the IOL in a well-controlled manner during IOL injection. The records of 13 patients who underwent this technique were retrospectively evaluated. Corrected-distance visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (p<0.05. No postoperative retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, IOL decentration, or vitreous hemorrhage was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, the motorized injector-assisted intrascleral IOL fixation technique is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional procedure. This technique makes the process of leading haptic externalization easier and more controllable.

  9. Fixation of Selenium by Clay Minerals and Iron Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdy, A. A.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1977-01-01

    In studying Se fixation, soil components capable of retaining Se were investigated. The importance of Fe hydrous oxides in the fixation of Se was established. The clay minerals common to soils, such as kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite, all exhibited Se fixation, but greater fixation occ...

  10. Biomechanical Evaluation of Standard Versus Extended Proximal Fixation Olecranon Plates for Fixation of Olecranon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Allison L; Daly, Charles A; Dalwadi, Poonam P; Boden, Stephanie A; Hutton, William C; Muppavarapu, Raghuveer C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    Small olecranon fractures present a significant challenge for fixation, which has resulted in development of plates with proximal extension. Olecranon-specific plates with proximal extensions are widely thought to offer superior fixation of small proximal fragments but have distinct disadvantages: larger dissection, increased hardware prominence, and the increased possibility of impingement. Previous biomechanical studies of olecranon fracture fixation have compared methods of fracture fixation, but to date there have been no studies defining olecranon plate fixation strength for standard versus extended olecranon plates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical utility of the extended plate for treatment of olecranon fractures. Sixteen matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric elbows were used. Of the 16, 8 matched pairs received a transverse osteotomy including 25% and 8 including 50% of the articular surface on the proximal fragment. One elbow from each pair was randomly assigned to a standard-length plate, and the other elbow in the pair received the extended-length plate, for fixation of the fracture. The ulnae were cyclically loaded and subsequently loaded to failure, with ultimate load, number of cycles, and gap formation recorded. There was no statistically significant difference between the standard and extended fixation plates in simple transverse fractures at either 25% or 50% from the proximal most portion of the articular surface of the olecranon. Standard fixation plates are sufficient for the fixation of small transverse fractures, but caution should be utilized particularly with comminution and nontransverse fracture patterns.

  11. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  12. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  13. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  14. Strain-stress analysis of lower limb with applied fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrázek M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares physiological state of tibia before and after application of an external fixator. The fixator systems’ models but also model of tibia are loaded in the direction of body axis. The paper is focused on the examination of differences in stiffness before and after the application of fixation. Two types of axial external fixators are compared. Both fixators differ in their construction. The first fixator is two-frame and fixation rods are used for fixing the bone tissue (variant I. The second one is fixed into tibia with screws (variant II. We have found out that the two-frame external fixator has much bigger stiffness during limb fixation than the fixator with one body. Much higher deformations compared to physiological state of tibia occur in the variant II.

  15. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  16. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  17. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  18. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  19. [DESIGN AND CLINICAL APPLICATION OF LESSER TROCHANTERIC REDUCTION FIXATION SYSTEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoze; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Jin; Xie, Huibin; Yu, Jiefeng

    2015-02-01

    .319, P = 0.022). According to Harris hip score, the excellent and good rate was 83.3% in the study group (25/30) and was 58.1% in the control group (18/31), showing significant difference (Χ2 = 4.680, P = 0.049). The application of the lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system can reduce stripping of the soft tissue around the fracture fragments, shorten the operation time and the healing time, and preserve the function of the hip joint maximumly.

  20. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae cultivated in open bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centeno da Rosa, Ana Priscila; Fernandes Carvalho, Lisiane; Goldbeck, Luzia [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG), P.O. Box 474, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); Vieira Costa, Jorge Alberto, E-mail: dqmjorge@furg.br [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG), P.O. Box 474, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} We studied the growth and CO{sub 2} fixation by Spirulina LEB18 and Chlorella kessleri. {yields} The maximum dailyfixation was obtained for Spirulina with an injection of 6% of CO{sub 2}. {yields} The microalgae presented growth during the 20 d of culture with up to 18% of CO{sub 2}. {yields} The use of CO{sub 2} from industrial generation decreases the cost of producing biomass. - Abstract: The biofixation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by microalgae has been proven to be an efficient and economical method, mainly due to the photosynthetic ability of these microorganisms to use this gas as a source of nutrients for their development. The aim of this work was to study the growth of Spirulina LEB18 and Chlorella kessleri microalgae, exposed to controlled and non-controlled conditions, with the injection of different concentrations of CO{sub 2}. The cultures was carried out in 6 L open raceway ponds, under controlled conditions at 30 {sup o}C and 39 {mu}E m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and under non-controlled conditions, protected by a tunnel of transparent film. The experiments were subjected to CO{sub 2} injections at concentrations of 0.038, 6, 12 and 18% (v/v). The highest concentration of biomass (4.95 g L{sup -1}) and maximum daily fixation (0.21 g g{sup -1} d{sup -1}) were obtained for Spirulina LEB18 in culture that was prepared in non-controlled conditions with an injection of 6% (v/v) of CO{sub 2}. C. kessleri had maximum (p < 0.0008) specific growth rate (0.84 d{sup -1}) when grown with 18% (v/v) of CO{sub 2} in non-controlled conditions of cultivation.

  1. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae cultivated in open bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno da Rosa, Ana Priscila; Fernandes Carvalho, Lisiane; Goldbeck, Luzia; Vieira Costa, Jorge Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We studied the growth and CO 2 fixation by Spirulina LEB18 and Chlorella kessleri. → The maximum dailyfixation was obtained for Spirulina with an injection of 6% of CO 2 . → The microalgae presented growth during the 20 d of culture with up to 18% of CO 2 . → The use of CO 2 from industrial generation decreases the cost of producing biomass. - Abstract: The biofixation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by microalgae has been proven to be an efficient and economical method, mainly due to the photosynthetic ability of these microorganisms to use this gas as a source of nutrients for their development. The aim of this work was to study the growth of Spirulina LEB18 and Chlorella kessleri microalgae, exposed to controlled and non-controlled conditions, with the injection of different concentrations of CO 2 . The cultures was carried out in 6 L open raceway ponds, under controlled conditions at 30 o C and 39 μE m -2 s -1 and under non-controlled conditions, protected by a tunnel of transparent film. The experiments were subjected to CO 2 injections at concentrations of 0.038, 6, 12 and 18% (v/v). The highest concentration of biomass (4.95 g L -1 ) and maximum daily fixation (0.21 g g -1 d -1 ) were obtained for Spirulina LEB18 in culture that was prepared in non-controlled conditions with an injection of 6% (v/v) of CO 2 . C. kessleri had maximum (p -1 ) when grown with 18% (v/v) of CO 2 in non-controlled conditions of cultivation.

  2. A customized fixation plate with novel structure designed by topological optimization for mandibular angle fracture based on finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Feng; Fan, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Xian-Feng; Baur, Dale A

    2017-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to design a customized fixation plate for mandibular angle fracture using topological optimization based on the biomechanical properties of the two conventional fixation systems, and compare the results of stress, strain and displacement distributions calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). A three-dimensional (3D) virtual mandible was reconstructed from CT images with a mimic angle fracture and a 1 mm gap between two bone segments, and then a FEA model, including volume mesh with inhomogeneous bone material properties, three loading conditions and constraints (muscles and condyles), was created to design a customized plate using topological optimization method, then the shape of the plate was referenced from the stress concentrated area on an initial part created from thickened bone surface for optimal calculation, and then the plate was formulated as "V" pattern according to dimensions of standard mini-plate finally. To compare the biomechanical behavior of the "V" plate and other conventional mini-plates for angle fracture fixation, two conventional fixation systems were used: type A, one standard mini-plate, and type B, two standard mini-plates, and the stress, strain and displacement distributions within the three fixation systems were compared and discussed. The stress, strain and displacement distributions to the angle fractured mandible with three different fixation modalities were collected, respectively, and the maximum stress for each model emerged at the mandibular ramus or screw holes. Under the same loading conditions, the maximum stress on the customized fixation system decreased 74.3, 75.6 and 70.6% compared to type A, and 34.9, 34.1, and 39.6% compared to type B. All maximum von Mises stresses of mandible were well below the allowable stress of human bone, as well as maximum principal strain. And the displacement diagram of bony segments indicated the effect of treatment with different fixation systems. The

  3. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  5. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by the pea crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1986-08-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field and pot experiments using the 15 N isotope dilution technique and spring barley as a non-fixing reference crop. Barley, although not ideal, seemed to be a suitable reference for pea in the 15 N-technique. Maximum N 2 fixation activity of 10 kg N fixed per ha per day was reached around the flat pod growth stage, and the activity decreased rapidly during pod-filling. The pea crop fixed between 100 and 250 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to from 45 to 80 per cent of total crop N. The amount of symbiotically fixed N 2 depended on the climatic conditions in the experimental year, the level of soil mineral N and the pea cultivar. Field-grown pea took up 60 to 70 per cent of the N-fertilizer supplied. The supply of 50 kg NO 3 -N ha -1 inhibited the N 2 fixation approximately 15 per cent. Small amounts of fertilizer N, supplied at sowing (starter-N), slightly stimulated the vegetative growth of pea, but the yields of seed dry matter and protein were not significantly influenced. In the present field experiments the environmental conditions, especially the distribution of rainfall during the growth season, seemed to be more important in determining the protein and dry matter yield of the dry pea crop, than the ability of pea to fix nitrogen symbiotically. However, fertilizer N supplied to pot-grown pea plants at the flat pod growth stage or as split applications significantly increased the yield of seed dry matter and protein. (author)

  6. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  7. Nitrogen fixation in denitrified marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fernandez

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria, whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria. Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP, a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m(-2 d(-1 than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions.

  8. Nitrogen Fixation in Denitrified Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Camila; Farías, Laura; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria), whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria). Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m−2 d−1). Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m−2 d−1) than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m−2 d−1). Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions. PMID:21687726

  9. Stress analysis in a pedicle screw fixation system with flexible rods in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsoo; Park, Won Man; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Lee, SuKyoung

    2010-01-01

    Breakage of screws has been one of the most common complications in spinal fixation systems. However, no studies have examined the breakage risk of pedicle screw fixation systems that use flexible rods, even though flexible rods are currently being used for dynamic stabilization. In this study, the risk of breakage of screws for the rods with various flexibilities in pedicle screw fixation systems is investigated by calculating the von Mises stress as a breakage risk factor using finite element analysis. Three-dimensional finite element models of the lumbar spine with posterior one-level spinal fixations at L4-L5 using four types of rod (a straight rod, a 4 mm spring rod, a 3 mm spring rod, and a 2 mm spring rod) were developed. The von Mises stresses in both the pedicle screws and the rods were analysed under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion moments of 10 Nm with a follower load of 400 N. The maximum von Mises stress, which was concentrated on the neck region of the pedicle screw, decreased as the flexibility of the rod increased. However, the ratio of the maximum stress in the rod to the yield stress increased substantially when a highly flexible rod was used. Thus, the level of rod flexibility should be considered carefully when using flexible rods for dynamic stabilization because the intersegmental motion facilitated by the flexible rod results in rod breakage.

  10. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  11. Graft fixation in cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J; Weiler, A; Caborn, D N; Brown, C H; Johnson, D L

    2000-01-01

    Cruciate ligament reconstruction has progressed dramatically in the last 20 years. Anatomic placement of ligament substitutes has fostered rehabilitation efforts that stress immediate and full range of motion, immediate weightbearing, neuromuscular strength and coordination, and early return to athletic competition (3 months). This has placed extreme importance on secure graft fixation at the time of ligament reconstruction. Current ligament substitutes require a bony or soft tissue component to be fixed within a bone tunnel or on the periosteum at a distance from the normal ligament attachment site. Fixation devices have progressed from metal to biodegradable and from far to near-normal native ligament attachment sites. Ideally, the biomechanical properties of the entire graft construct would approach those of the native ligament and facilitate biologic incorporation of the graft. Fixation should be done at the normal anatomic attachment site of the native ligament (aperture fixation) and, over time, allow the biologic return of the histologic transition zone from ligament to fibrocartilage, to calcified fibrocartilage, to bone. The purpose of this article is to review current fixation devices and techniques in cruciate ligament surgery.

  12. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertrochanteric” fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58–90 years) with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country. PMID:21808680

  13. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem ul Gani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertro-chanteric” fractures remain unsuitable for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertro-chanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet’s point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  14. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  15. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality.

  16. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  17. Loads applied to fixations for chain stretching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, K; Brychta, P

    1985-06-01

    The chains of scraper chain conveyors must be pre-stretched during standstill in order to compensate the elongations occurring during operation. They require frequent retensiening in order to meet the varying operational requirements. During tensioning, the chains are fixed in a point in the top run by means of fixation elements. The authors present a method for calculating the retaining force needed in the fixations. There are three different initial conditions of the chain before trensioning: Tensionsfree chain, pretensioned chain (stressed chain), slack chain. In all three cases, it is important to find out whether or nor the tensioning drive reaches full speed. The method of calculation is illustrated by the example of a scraper chain conveyor; it enables the establishment of rules for tensioning without damaging the chain and is a good basis for the dimensioning of new types of fixation elements.

  18. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  19. Resection arthroplasty, external fixation, and negative pressure dressing for first metatarsophalangeal joint ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Craig; Smith, Nicholas

    2011-03-01

    A frequent complication for the diabetic patient is neuropathic ulceration on the plantar surface of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint which can be difficult to manage. Debridement and resection arthroplasty with temporary external fixation and VAC dressing (Kinetic Concepts Inc, San Antonio, TX) is an alternative operative treatment to amputation. This study examined the outcomes of one center's experience with patients who have undergone this procedure. This retrospective cohort study examined patients who underwent the procedure between March 2002 and March 2010. Information was obtained on relevant outcomes including: the initial procedure, secondary procedures on either foot, total time in external fixation, time until amputation, cause of ulceration and co-morbid conditions. During the study period, 16 patients underwent resection arthroplasty with external fixation for first MTP ulceration. Fourteen of these patients had underlying diabetes mellitus, one had Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and one had neuropathy of unknown cause. All were available for followup at the end of the study period. Median followup was 38 (range, 3 to 96) months. At latest followup, six patients required amputation, either transmetatarsal or transtibial, to treat their recurring ulceration. Resection arthroplasty with temporary external fixation appears to be a safe, effective and possible alternative to amputation for the treatment of neuropathic ulceration of the first MTP.

  20. Sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens fixation with lamellar dissection of scleral tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaji T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Kawaji,1,2 Tomoki Sato,2 Hidenobu Tanihara11Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, 2Sato Eye & Internal Medicine Clinic, Kumamoto, JapanPurpose: To report the results of sutureless scleral fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL by using our developed simple technique.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 48 eyes of 47 patients who underwent sutureless intrascleral IOL fixation by using our modified technique. A 25-gauge microvitreoretinal knife was used to perform sclerotomies and create limbus-parallel scleral tunnels with lamellar dissection in which the haptics were fixed.Results: The IOLs were fixed and centered well. The mean follow-up period was 26.7 months. Postoperative complications included smooth vitreous hemorrhage in four eyes (8.3%, cystoid macular edema in two eyes (4.2%, and iris capture of the IOL in two eyes (4.2%. No other complications, such as breakage of the IOL, spontaneous IOL dislocation, or retinal detachment, were detected during the follow-up period.Conclusion: The lamellar dissection of the limbus-parallel scleral tunnel can simplify the forceps-assisted introduction of the haptics into the scleral tunnel, and this technique seemed to be safe.Keywords: intraocular lenses, ophthalmologic surgical procedures, intrascleral fixation, sutureless fixation

  1. K-wire and tension band wire fixation in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-yu; Cheng, Shao-wen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhong-qin; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dong-quan; Shen, Yue; Ying, Xiao-zhou; Cheng, Xiao-jie; Lv, Chuan-zhu; Peng, Lei

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and therapeutic effect of treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation by K-wire and tension band wire fixation, and to improve the safety and stability of this technique. This study consisted of 9 cases, 6 males and 3 females with the mean age of 25 years (range, 9-62 years). The causes were traffic accident in 7 cases, falling in 1 case and fight in 1 case. The duration from injury to operation was 2 hours to 7 days. There were 5 left dislocations and 4 right dislocations; 8 anterior dislocations and 1 posterior dislocation, including one combined with left scapular fracture and one with left olecranon fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation using K-wires and tension band wires were performed to treat dislocations. All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months, 10 months on average. According to Rockwood's rating scale on postoperative sternoclavicular joint, 8 cases achieved excellent outcomes with an average score of 13.88, and the rest case achieved a good outcome with the score of 12. Anatomical reduction was obtained in all cases. There were no such postoperative complications as severe infection, injury to blood vessel and nerve, failure of fixation, etc. Patients were all satisfied with the anatomical reduction and functional recovery. The technique of K-wire and tension band wire fixation is safe, simple, effective, less invasive and has been successfully used in orthopedic surgery. It is effective in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation though it has some disadvantages.

  2. Tricortical cervical inter-body screw fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A new tricortical method of screw implantation for anterior cervical interbody plate fixation is described. The screws are placed obliquely such that they engage the anterior cortex of the body and traverse through the cortices adjoining the disc space. By this method the screws not only hold the plate firmly with a tricortical purchase, but by virtue of their course stabilize the two adjoining vertebral bodies by themselves. Sixteen patients were treated by this method. In three of these cases only tricortical screws without the metal plate were used for fixation. The advantages of the technique are discussed.

  3. Cosmetic arm lengthening with monorail fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Hemendra Kumar; Singh, Balvinder; Garg, Mohit; Khatkar, Vipin; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb length discrepancy is a rare occurrence. Humerus shortening may need specialized treatment to restore the functional and cosmetic status of upper limb. We report a case of humerus lengthening of 9 cm with a monorail external fixator and the result was observed during a 2-year follow-up. Humerus lengthening needs specialized focus as it is not only a cosmetic issue but also a functional demand. The monorail unilateral fixator is more functional and cosmetically acceptable, and thus becomes an effective treatment option.

  4. Is mask-based stereotactic head-and-neck fixation as precise as stereotactic head fixation for precision radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Bogner, Joachim; Dieckmann, Karin; Poetter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare setup accuracy and reproducibility of a stereotactic head and a head-and-neck fixation system, both based on thermoplastic material. Methods and Material: Ten patients were immobilized with a head and a head-and-neck fixation system (both BrainLAB, Germany). Both mask systems were modified with a custom-made mouthpiece and a strip of thermoplastic material attached to the lower part of the mask. During the first treatment session, after positioning patients using room lasers, two orthogonal portal images were taken as reference. Later on, at least five sets of orthogonal portal images were acquired for each patient. The isocentric setup accuracy was determined by comparing field edges and anatomic landmarks and the repositioning accuracy in the mask was obtained by comparing individual anatomic landmarks with respect to the metal balls, fixed on the masks. Systematic and random deviations and resulting three-dimensional (3D) vectors were calculated. Additionally, margins were derived from the systematic and random component of the isocentric setup accuracy. Finally, inter- and intraobserver variations were analyzed. Results: The systematic variation of the isocentric setup accuracy was very similar for the two mask systems, but the random variations were slightly larger for the head-and-neck system, resulting in a 0.4-mm larger 3D vector. The repositioning variations for the head mask were smaller compared with the head-and-neck mask, resulting in smaller 3D vectors for the random (∼0.4 mm) and systematic variations (∼0.6 mm). For both mask systems, a 2-mm margin can be used in lateral and anteroposterior direction, whereas in craniocaudal direction, this margin should be extended to 2.5 mm for the head mask and to 3 mm for the head-and-neck mask. The average absolute differences between two observers were within 0.5 mm, maximum deviations around 1 mm. Conclusion: Thermoplastic mask-based stereotactic head

  5. Transient improvements in fixational stability in strabismic amblyopes following bifoveal fixation and reduced interocular suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Rajkumar Nallour; Babu, Raiju J; Hess, Robert F; Bobier, William R

    2014-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that fixational stability of the amblyopic eye in strabismics will improve when viewing provides both bifoveal fixation and reduced inter-ocular suppression by reducing the contrast to the fellow eye. Seven strabismic amblyopes (Age: 29.2 ± 9 years; five esotropes and two exotropes) showing clinical characteristics of central suppression were recruited. Interocular suppression was measured by a global motion task. For each participant, a balance point was determined which defined contrast levels for each eye where binocular combination was optimal (interocular suppression minimal). When the balance point could not be determined, this participant was excluded. Bifoveal fixation was established by ocular alignment using a haploscope. Participants dichoptically viewed similar targets (a cross of 2.3° surrounded by a square of 11.3°) at 40 cm. Target contrasts presented to each eye were either high contrast (100% to both eyes) or balanced contrast (attenuated contrast in the fellow fixing eye). Fixation stability was measured over a 5 min period and quantified using bivariate contour ellipse areas in four different binocular conditions; unaligned/high contrast, unaligned/balance point, aligned/high contrast and aligned/balance point. Fixation stability was also measured in six control subjects (Age: 25.3 ± 4 years). Bifoveal fixation in the strabismics was transient (58.15 ± 15.7 s). Accordingly, fixational stability was analysed over the first 30 s using repeated measures anova. Post hoc analysis revealed that for the amblyopic subjects, the fixational stability of the amblyopic eye was significantly improved in aligned/high contrast (p = 0.01) and aligned/balance point (p suppression. However, once initiated, bifoveal fixation is transient with the strabismic eye drifting away from foveal alignment, thereby increasing the angle of strabismus. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  6. [Pedicle flap transfer combined with external fixator to treat leg open fracture with soft tissue defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongchun; Lou, Hua; Jiang, Junwei; Song, Chunlin; Gong, Min; Wang, Yongcai

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the clinical results of treating leg open fracture with soft tissue defect by pedicle flap transfer in combination with external fixator. From May 2004 to June 2007, 12 cases of leg open fracture with soft tissue defect, 9 males and 3 females aged 18-75 years, were treated. Among them, 8 cases were caused by traffic accidents, 2 crush, 1 falling and 1 mechanical accident. According to the Gustilo Classification, there were 2 cases of type II, 5 of type IIIA and 5 of type IIIB. There were 2 cases of upper-tibia fracture, 3 of middle-tibia and 7 of middle-lower. The sizes of soft tissue defect ranged from 5 cm x 3 cm to 22 cm x 10 cm.The sizes of exposed bone ranged from 3 cm x 2 cm to 6 cm x 3 cm. The course of the disease was 1-12 hours. Fracture fixation was reached by external fixators or external fixators and limited internal fixation with Kirschner wire. The wounds with exposed tendons and bones were repaired by ipsilateral local rotation flap, sural neurocutaneous flap and saphenous nerve flap. The size of selected flap ranged from 5 cm x 4 cm to 18 cm x 12 cm. Granulation wounds were repaired by skin grafting or direct suture. All patients were followed up for 6 months to 2 years. All patients survived, among whom 2 with the wound edge infection and 1 with the distal necrosis were cured by changing the dressing, 8 with pin hole infection were treated by taking out the external fixator, 1 with nonunion received fracture healing after bone graft in comminuted fracture of lower tibia, 2 suffered delayed union in middle-lower tibia fracture. The ROM of ankle in 3 cases was mildly poor with surpass-joint fixation, with plantar extension of 0-10 degrees and plantar flexion of 10-30 degrees, while the others had plantar extension of 10-20 degrees and plantar flexion of 30-50 degrees. The method of pedicle flap transfer combined with external fixator is safe and effective for the leg open fracture with soft tissue defect.

  7. Safe percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, N K; Goel, A; Sankhwar, S N

    2012-11-01

    We describe our technique of percutaneous suprapubic catheter insertion with special reference to steps that help to avoid common complications of haematuria and catheter misplacement. The procedure is performed using a stainless steel reusable trocar under local infiltrative anaesthesia, usually at the bedside. After clinical confirmation of a full bladder, the trocar is advanced into the bladder through a skin incision. Once the bladder is entered, the obturator is removed and the assistant inserts a Foley catheter followed by rapid balloon inflation. Slight traction is applied to the catheter for about five minutes. Patients with previous lower abdominal surgery, an inadequately distended bladder or acute pelvic trauma do not undergo suprapubic catheterisation using this method. The procedure was performed in 72 men (mean age: 42.4 years, range: 18-78 years) with urinary retention with a palpable bladder. The average duration of the procedure was less than five minutes. No complications were noted in any of the patients. Trocar suprapubic catheter insertion is a safe and effective bedside procedure for emergency bladder drainage and can be performed by resident surgeons. The common complications associated with the procedure can be avoided with a few careful steps.

  8. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  9. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  10. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  11. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  12. Sacroiliac secure corridor: analysis for safe insertion of iliosacral screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Alves Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posterior pelvic lesions, especially of the sacral-iliac joint, have high mortality and morbidity risks. Definitive fixation is necessary for the joint stabilization, and one option is the sacral percutaneous pinning with screws. Proximity to important structures to this region brings risks to the fixation procedure; therefore, it is important to know the tridimensional anatomy of the pelvis posterior region. Deviations of the surgeon's hand of four degrees may target the screws to those structures; dimorphisms of the upper sacrum and a poor lesion reduction may redound in a screw malpositioning. This study is aimed to evaluate the dimensions of a safe surgical corridor for safe sacroiliac screw insertion and relations with age and sex of the patients. METHOD: One hundred randomly selected pelvis CTs of patients with no pelvic diseases, seen at a tertiary care teaching Hospital. Measurements were made by computer and the safest area for screw insertion was calculated by two methods. The results were expressed in mm (not in degrees, in order to be a further surgical reference. RESULTS: There was a significant size difference in the analyzed sacral vertebra, differing on a wider size in men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between vertebral size and age. By both methods, a safe area for screw insertion could be defined. CONCLUSION: Age does not influence the width of the surgical corridor. The surgeon has a safe corridor considered narrower when inserting screws in a female pelvis than when in a male one. However, as the smallest vertebra found (feminine was considered for statics, it was concluded that this corridor is 20 mm wide in any direction, taking as a reference the centrum of the vertebra.

  13. Modification of bifunctional epoxy resin using CO{sub 2} fixation process and nanoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshkish, Morteza; Bouhendi, Hosein, E-mail: H.boohendi@ippi.ac.ir; Vafayan, Mehdi

    2014-10-15

    A bifunctional epoxy resin was modified by using a CO{sub 2} fixation solution process in the presence of tetra n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as catalyst and the modified treated resin was treated by cloisite 30B as nano additive. The Unmodified epoxy resin (UME), CO{sub 2} fixated modified epoxy resin (CFME), and CFME/clay nano composite (CFMEN), were cured by diethylenetriamine (DETA). A cycloaliphatic compound as a reactive diluent was used to control the viscosity of high viscose CFME. The exfoliation of organoclay in UME and CFME was investigated by X-ray diffraction and activation energy was computed using the advanced integral isoconversional method. The activation energy dependency demonstrated that the mechanism of UME curing did not change in the presence of nanoclay. In contrast, the CO{sub 2} fixation results showed a significant change in the activation energy dependency. The Thermal stability parameters include the initial degradation temperature (IDT), the temperature at the maximum rate of weight loss (T{sub max}), and the decomposition activation energy (E{sub d}) were determined by thermal gravimetry analysis. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis measurements showed that the presence of organoclay in CFME increases the T{sub g} of nano composite in contrast to UME. The fracture roughness of UME, CFME and CFNE were determined by scanning electron microscope. The exfoliated UME/1%clay nanocomposite was confirmed by TEM image. - Highlights: • A new epoxy resin was synthesized using CO{sub 2} fixation reaction. • The synthesized epoxy resin was modified by an organo nano-clay. • CO{sub 2} fixation noticeably changed the curing mechanism. • CO{sub 2} fixation reaction consumes CO{sub 2} which is a harmful greenhouse gas.

  14. Modification of bifunctional epoxy resin using CO2 fixation process and nanoclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshkish, Morteza; Bouhendi, Hosein; Vafayan, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    A bifunctional epoxy resin was modified by using a CO 2 fixation solution process in the presence of tetra n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as catalyst and the modified treated resin was treated by cloisite 30B as nano additive. The Unmodified epoxy resin (UME), CO 2 fixated modified epoxy resin (CFME), and CFME/clay nano composite (CFMEN), were cured by diethylenetriamine (DETA). A cycloaliphatic compound as a reactive diluent was used to control the viscosity of high viscose CFME. The exfoliation of organoclay in UME and CFME was investigated by X-ray diffraction and activation energy was computed using the advanced integral isoconversional method. The activation energy dependency demonstrated that the mechanism of UME curing did not change in the presence of nanoclay. In contrast, the CO 2 fixation results showed a significant change in the activation energy dependency. The Thermal stability parameters include the initial degradation temperature (IDT), the temperature at the maximum rate of weight loss (T max ), and the decomposition activation energy (E d ) were determined by thermal gravimetry analysis. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis measurements showed that the presence of organoclay in CFME increases the T g of nano composite in contrast to UME. The fracture roughness of UME, CFME and CFNE were determined by scanning electron microscope. The exfoliated UME/1%clay nanocomposite was confirmed by TEM image. - Highlights: • A new epoxy resin was synthesized using CO 2 fixation reaction. • The synthesized epoxy resin was modified by an organo nano-clay. • CO 2 fixation noticeably changed the curing mechanism. • CO 2 fixation reaction consumes CO 2 which is a harmful greenhouse gas

  15. Fixation Characteristics of Severe Amblyopia Subtypes: Which One is Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Ozge, Gokhan; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet; Ceylan, Osman Melih; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Ayyıldız, Onder

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in different subtypes of severe amblyopia. This case-control study enrolled a total of 73 male adults, including 18 with pure strabismic severe amblyopia, 19 with pure anisometropic severe amblyopia, 18 with mixed (strabismic plus anizometropic) severe amblyopia, and 18 healthy controls. MP-1 microperimetry was used to evaluate macular sensitivity, location of fixation, and stability of fixation. Mean macular sensitivity, stability of fixation, and location of fixation were significantly worse in all amblyopia subtypes when compared with healthy controls. Intergroup comparisons between amblyopia subtypes revealed that mean macular sensitivity, stability of fixation, and location of fixation were significantly worse in pure strabismic and mixed amblyopic eyes when compared with pure anisometropic amblyopic eyes. Strabismus seems to be a worse prognostic factor in severe amblyopia than anisometropia in terms of fixation characteristics and retinal sensitivity.

  16. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  18. Sacroiliac screw fixation for tile B fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, E.W. van den; Zwienen, C.M. van; Hoek van Dijke, G.A.; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this comparative cadaveric study was to investigate whether the stability of partially unstable pelvic fractures can be improved by combining plate fixation of the symphysis with a posterior sacroiliac screw. METHODS: In six specimens, a Tile B1 (open-book) pelvic fracture

  19. Heterotrophic fixation of CO2 in soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Elhottová, Dana; Novák, Jaroslav; Picek, T.; Šimek, Miloslav; Tykva, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 218-225 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6066901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : heterotrophic fixation * CO2 * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  20. Biodegradable interlocking nails for fracture fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, M.; Bramer, J. A.; Klein, C. P.; de Lange, E. S.; Patka, P.; Haarman, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Serious problems such as stress shielding, allergic reactions, and corrosion are associated with the use of metallic fracture fixation devices in fractured long bones. Metal implants often are removed during a second retrieval operation after fracture healing has completed. A biocompatible implant

  1. Headspace analysis of foams and fixatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truong, Thanh-Tam [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Magwood, Leroy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, Brent [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-27

    In the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D&D) older nuclear facilities, special precautions must be taken with removable or airborne contamination. One possible strategy utilizes foams and fixatives to affix these loose contaminants. Many foams and fixatives are already commercially available, either generically or sold specifically for D&D. However, due to a lack of revelant testing in a radioactive environment, additional verification is needed to confirm that these products not only affix contamination to their surfaces, but also will function in a D&D environment. Several significant safety factors, including flammability and worker safety, can be analyzed through the process of headspace analysis, a technique that analyzes the off gas formed before or during the curing process of the foam/fixative, usually using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This process focuses on the volatile components of a chemical, which move freely between the solid/liquid form within the sample and the gaseous form in the area above the sample (the headspace). Between possibly hot conditions in a D&D situation and heat created in a foaming reaction, the volatility of many chemicals can change, and thus different gasses can be released at different times throughout the reaction. This project focused on analysis of volatile chemicals involved in the process of using foams and fixatives to identify any potential hazardous or flammable compounds.

  2. Miniplate fixation of Le Fort I osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H M

    1986-12-01

    The use of rigid, internal, three-dimensional fixation using vitallium bone plates in 28 consecutive Le Fort I osteotomies is presented. A minimum follow-up period of 6 months was required for inclusion in this patient group. Maxillary movements included advancements (17), intrusions (9), lengthenings (5), and retrusions (2). The majority of maxillae were moved in more than one plane of space. Technical details, complications, and relapse potential are discussed. Advantages of rigid plate fixation include marked reductions in the length of intermaxillary fixation with light training elastics only. Immediate postoperative airway problems are thereby eliminated. Six months of follow-up would appear to indicate a low potential for osseous relapse when compared to wire osteosynthesis, regardless of the direction of maxillary movement. The major disadvantage is the decreased ability of postoperative orthodontics to move dento-osseous segments if skeletal occlusal disharmony persists postoperatively. For this reason, close attention to preoperative planning and operative technique is critical for the success of this fixation method.

  3. Large fluctuations and fixation in evolutionary games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, Michael; Mobilia, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We study large fluctuations in evolutionary games belonging to the coordination and anti-coordination classes. The dynamics of these games, modeling cooperation dilemmas, is characterized by a coexistence fixed point separating two absorbing states. We are particularly interested in the problem of fixation that refers to the possibility that a few mutants take over the entire population. Here, the fixation phenomenon is induced by large fluctuations and is investigated by a semiclassical WKB (Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin) theory generalized to treat stochastic systems possessing multiple absorbing states. Importantly, this method allows us to analyze the combined influence of selection and random fluctuations on the evolutionary dynamics beyond the weak selection limit often considered in previous works. We accurately compute, including pre-exponential factors, the probability distribution function in the long-lived coexistence state and the mean fixation time necessary for a few mutants to take over the entire population in anti-coordination games, and also the fixation probability in the coordination class. Our analytical results compare excellently with extensive numerical simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our treatment is superior to the Fokker–Planck approximation when the selection intensity is finite

  4. 15N in biological nitrogen fixation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1986-05-01

    A bibliography with 298 references on the use of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in the research on the biological fixation of dinitrogen is presented. The literature pertaining to this bibliography covers the period from 1975 to the middle of 1985. (author)

  5. The effect of fixation on esterases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1984-01-01

    The localization of reaction product for non-specific esterase from fresh and aldehyde treated glandular tissue was examined. The electrophoretical studies showed a selective inhibition of certain isoenzymes and a change in mobility of some bands caused by aldehyde fixation. In sections a granular...

  6. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  7. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  8. Plasma catalysis for nitrogen fixation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, B.S.; Wang, Q.; Hessel, V.; Lang, J.; Stankiewicz, A.; Stefanidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    The preferences for localized chemicals production and changing scenarios of renewable electricity cost gives a renewed boost to plasma-assisted valuable chemicals production. Especially, plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation for fertilizer production has the potential to largely change the energy

  9. Comparative study of fixation density maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelke, U.; Liu, H.; Wang, Junle; Callet, Le P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Zepernick, H.-J.; Maeder, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fixation density maps (FDM) created from eye tracking experiments are widely used in image processing applications. The FDM are assumed to be reliable ground truths of human visual attention and as such, one expects a high similarity between FDM created in different laboratories. So far, no studies

  10. Successful fifth metatarsal bulk autograft reconstruction of thermal necrosis post intramedullary fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljkovic, Andrea; Le, Vu; Escudero, Mario; Salat, Peter; Wing, Kevin; Penner, Murray; Younger, Alastair

    2018-03-21

    Reamed intramedullary (IM) screw fixation for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is technically challenging with potentially devastating complications if basic principles are not followed. A case of an iatrogenic fourth-degree burn after elective reamed IM screw fixation of a proximal fifth metatarsal fracture in a high-level athlete is reported. The case was complicated by postoperative osteomyelitis with third-degree soft-tissue defect. This was successfully treated with staged autologous bone graft reconstruction, tendon reconstruction, and local bi-pedicle flap coverage. The patient returned to competitive-level sports, avoiding the need for fifth ray amputation. Critical points of the IM screw technique and definitive reconstruction are discussed. Bulk autograft reconstruction is a safe and effective alternative to ray amputation in segmental defects of the fifth metatarsal.Level of evidence V.

  11. Management of tibial fractures using a circular external fixator in two calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Singh, Gaj Raj; Setia, Harish Chandra

    2010-07-01

    To report the repair of tibial diaphyseal fractures in 2 calves using a circular external skeletal fixator (CEF). Clinical report. Crossbred calves (n=2; age: 6 months; weight: 55 and 60 kg). Mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures were repaired by the use of a 4-ring CEF (made of aluminum rings with 2 mm K-wires) alone in 1 calf and in combination with hemicerclage wiring in 1 calf. Both calves had good weight bearing with moderate lameness postoperatively. Fracture healing occurred by day 60 in 1 calf and by day 30 in calf 2. The CEF was well maintained and tolerated by both calves through fracture healing. Joint mobility and limb usage improved gradually after CEF removal. CEF provided a stable fixation of tibial fractures and healing within 60 days and functional recovery within 90 days. CEF can be safely and successfully used for the management of selected tibial fractures in calves.

  12. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  13. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2014-01-01

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation

  14. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  15. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation.Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups.The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5-24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P  .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P  0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05).External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation.

  16. [Treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng-wang; Shi, Zhan-ying; Hu, Ju-zheng; Wu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    To discuss the clinical effects of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation in the treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures. From January 2008 to June 2014, 17 children of distal femur fractures were treated by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation. There were 12 males and 5 females, aged from 6 to 13 years old with an average of 10.2 years, ranged in the course of disease from 1 h to 2 d. Preoperative diagnoses were confirmed by X-ray films in all children. There were 11 patients with supracondylar fracture , and 6 patients with intercondylar comminuted fracture. According to AO/ASIF classification, 9 fractures were type A1, 5 cases were type A2,and 3 cases were type C1. The intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative radiological examination, lower limbs length and motion of knee joints were observed. Knee joint function was assessed by KSS score. All the patients were followed up from 6 to 38 months with an average of 24.4 months. No nerve or blood vessel injury was found. One case complicated with the external fixation loosening, 2 cases with the infection of pin hole and 3 cases with the leg length discrepancy. Knee joint mobility and length measurement (compared with the contralateral), the average limited inflexion was 10 degrees (0 degrees to 20 degrees), the average limited straight was 4 degrees (0 degrees to 10), the average varus or valgus angle was 3 degrees (0 degrees to 5 degrees). KSS of the injured side was (96.4 +/- 5.0) points at final follow-up, 16 cases got excellent results and 1 good. All fractures obtained healing and no epiphyseal closed early was found. External fixator combined with limited internal fixation has advantages of simple operation, reliable fixation, early functional exercise in treating pediatric distal femurs fractures.

  17. Comparison of skeletal stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy among mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation using absorbable plates and screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Hotta, Asami; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuta; Saito, Yuki

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skeletal stability and plate breakage after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with the mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation techniques using absorbable plates and screws. A total of 76 Japanese patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with and without maxillary deformity were divided into 3 groups randomly. A total of 28 patients underwent SSRO with mono-cortical plate fixation, 23 underwent SSRO with bi-cortical plate fixation, and 25 underwent SSRO with hybrid fixation. Skeletal stability and horizontal condylar angle were analyzed by axial, frontal, and lateral cephalograms from before the operation to 1 year postoperatively. Breakage of the plate and screws was observed by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) immediately after surgery and after 1 year. Although there was a significant difference between the mono-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group regarding right MeAg in T1 (P = 0.0488) and occlusal plane in T1 (P = 0.0346), there were no significant differences between the groups for the other measurements in each time interval. In 2 cases, namely, 6 sides in the mono-cortical plate fixation group, breakage of the absorbable plate was found by 3DCT. However, there was no breakage in the bi-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group. This study results suggested that there were no significant differences in the postoperative skeletal stability among the 3 groups, and bi-cortical fixation as well as hybrid fixation was a reliable and useful method to prevent plate breakage even if an absorbable material was used. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Clinical efficacy of unilateral percutaneous transfacet screws combined with contralateral pedicle screw versus bilateral pedicle screws fixation in the treatment of the degenerative lumbar disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Rong-Xue; Zhou, Hui; Pan, Hao; Yue, Jun; Chen, Hui-Guo; Yang, He-Jie; Jia, Gao-Yong; Wang, Dong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Hua-Zi

    2017-09-25

    To investigate the surgical outcome of unilateral pedicle screw(UPS) after TLIF technique combined with contralateral percutaneous transfacet screw(PTS) fixation vs bilateral pedicle screws(BPS) fixation in treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. From January 2009 to June 2012, 46 patients with degenerative lumbar diseases, including 30 males and 16 females with an average age of 51.5 years old, who were divided into two groups according to different fixation methods. Twenty-two cases underwent UPS after TLIF technique combined with contralateral PTS fixation (group A), while the others underwent BPS fixation(group B). The relative data were analyzed, such as blood loss volume, operative time, fusion rate, ODI score, JOA score and so on. All the patients were followed up for 1 to 3 years with an average of 22 months. Except one case of each group was uncertainty fusion, the rest have obtained bony fusion, and the fusion rates in group A and B were 95.5% and 95.8%, respectively. No displacement and breakage of screw were found during follow-up. Operative time and blood loss volume in group A were better than of group B( P 0.05). Two approaches had similar clinical outcomes for degenerative lumbar disease with no severe instability. Compared with BPS fixation, the UPS after TLIF technique and contralateral PTS fixation has the advantages of less trauma, shorter operative time and less blood loss, and it is a safe and feasible surgical technique.

  19. Clinical Outcomes of Posterior C1 and C2 Screw-Rod Fixation for Atlantoaxial Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Hasan Serdar; Sandal, Evren; Çağli, Sedat

    2017-06-14

    In this study, we aimed at sharing our experiences and contributing to the literature by making a retrospective analysis of the patients we operated with screw-rod system for atlantoaxial instability in our clinic. Archive files of adult patients, who were operated for posterior C1-C2 stabilization with screw and rod in our clinic between January 2006 and January 2016, were analyzed. 28 patients, who had pre and post-operative images, follow-up forms and who were followed for at least one year, were analyzed. Preoperative clinical and radiological records, preoperative observations, postoperative complications, and clinical responses were evaluated. The average age of 28 patients (F:13 M:19) was 44.7 (21-73). Fixation was performed with C1-C2 screw-rod system on the basis of the following diagnoses; type 2 odontoid fracture (16), basilar invagination (5), C1-C2 instability (5), and atlantoaxial subluxation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (2). Lateral mass screws were inserted at C1 segment. C2 screws inserted were bilateral pedicle in 12 cases, bilateral pars in 4, bilateral laminar in 8 and one side pars, one side laminar in 4 cases. There was no screw malposition. Neither implant failure nor recurrent instability was observed during follow-up. Significant clinical improvement was reported according to the assessments done with JOA and VAS scores. C1-C2 screw fixation is regarded as a more successful and safe method than other fixation methods in surgical treatment of atlantoaxial instability considering complications, success in reduction, fusion and fixation strength. C2 laminar screw technique is as successful as the other alternatives in fixation and fusion.

  20. K-wire and tension band wire fixation in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qing-yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and therapeutic effect of treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation by K-wire and tension band wire fixation, and to improve the safety and stability of this technique. Methods: This study consisted of 9 cases, 6 males and 3 females with the mean age of 25 years (range, 9-62 years. The causes were traffic accident in 7 cases, falling in 1 case and fight in 1 case. The duration from injury to operation was 2 hours to 7 days. There were 5 left dislocations and 4 right dislocations; 8 anterior dislocations and 1 posterior dislocation, including one combined with left scapular fracture and one with left olecranon fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation using K-wires and tension band wires were performed to treat dislocations. Results: All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months, 10 months on average. According to Rockwood’s rating scale on postoperative sternoclavicular joint, 8 cases achieved excellent outcomes with an average score of 13.88, and the rest case achieved a good outcome with the score of 12. Anatomical reduction was obtained in all cases. There were no such postoperative complications as severe infection, injury to blood vessel and nerve, failure of fixation, etc. Patients were all satisfied with the anatomical reduction and functional recovery. Conclusions: The technique of K-wire and tension band wire fixation is safe, simple, effective, less invasive and has been successfully used in orthopedic surgery. It is effective in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation though it has some disadvantages. Key words: Sternoclavicular joint; Dislocations; Bone wires; Fracture fixation, internal

  1. Percutaneous Intramedullary Screw Fixation of Distal Fibula Fractures: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukachov, Vladimir V; Birnie, Merel F N; Dingemans, Siem A; de Jong, Vincent M; Schepers, Tim

    The current reference standard for unstable ankle fractures is open reduction and internal fixation using a plate and lag screws. This approach requires extensive dissection and wound complications are not uncommon. The use of intramedullary screw fixation might overcome these issues. The aim of our study was to provide an overview of the published data regarding intramedullary screw fixation of fibula fractures combined with a small consecutive case series. We performed a search of published studies to identify the studies in which fibula fractures were treated with percutaneous intramedullary screw fixation. Additionally, all consecutive patients treated for an unstable ankle fracture in a level 1 trauma center using an intramedullary screw were retrospectively included. The literature search identified 6 studies with a total of 180 patients. Wound infection was seen in 1 patient (0.6%), anatomic reduction was achieved in 168 patients (93.3%), and a loss of reduction was seen in 2 patients (1.1%). Implant removal was deemed necessary in 3 patients (1.7%) and nonunion was seen is 2 patients (1.1%). A total of 11 patients, in whom no wound complications occurred, were included in our study. The follow-up duration was a minimum of 12 months. A secondary dislocation was seen in 1 patient, and delayed union was observed after 7.5 months in 1 other patient. In conclusion, intramedullary screw fixation is a safe and adequate method to use for fibula fractures, with a low risk of wound complications. Additional research regarding functional outcome is warranted. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporary Stabilization with External Fixator in 'Tripolar' Configuration in Two Steps Treatment of Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghino, Walter; Messina, Marco; Filipponi, Marco; Alessandro, Massè

    2016-01-01

    The tibial pilon fractures represent a complex therapeutic problem for the orthopedic surgeon, given the frequent complications and outcomes disabling. The recent medical literature indicates that the best strategy to reduce amount of complications in tibial pilon fractures is two-stages procedure. We describe our experience in the primary stabilization of these fractures. We treated 36 cases with temporary external fixation in a simple configuration, called "tripolar": this is an essential structure (only three screws and three rods), that is possible to perform even without the availability of X-rays and with simple anesthesia or sedation. We found a sufficient mechanical stability for the nursing post-operative, in absence of intraoperative and postoperative problems. The time between trauma and temporary stabilization ranged between 3 and 144 hours; surgical average time was 8.4 minutes. Definitive treatment was carried out with a delay of a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 15 days from the temporary stabilization, always without problems, both in case of ORIF (open reduction, internal fixation) or circular external fixation. Temporary stabilization with external fixator in 'tripolar' configuration seems to be the most effective strategy in two steps treatment of tibial pilon fractures. These preliminary encouraging results must be confirmed by further studies with more cases.

  3. Accidental perforation of the lateral femoral cortex in ACL reconstruction: an investigation of mechanical properties of different fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Mirco; Heletta, Sebastian; Raschke, Michael J; Schliemann, Benedikt; Osada, Nani; Petersen, Wolf; Zantop, Thore

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the medial portal technique with cortical fixation and hybrid fixation after penetration of the lateral cortex by use of different drill sizes. In this biomechanical study a porcine in vitro model was used. The testing protocol consisted of a cyclic loading protocol (1,000 cycles, 50 and 250 N) and subsequent ultimate failure testing. Number of cyclic loadings survived, stiffness, yield load, maximum load, and graft elongation, as well as failure mode, were analyzed after ACL reconstruction with 5- to 9-mm soft-tissue grafts. In the control group, conventional penetration of the lateral cortex with a 4.5-mm drill and cortical fixation were performed. In the tested groups, the lateral cortex was penetrated with a drill matching the graft size. In the first part of the study, we used cortical fixation. In the second part, we used hybrid fixation with an interference screw. In the first part of the study, ACL reconstruction with 5- to 6-mm perforation of the lateral cortex showed no significant differences in ultimate failure load after cyclic loading compared with the control group (P > .05). Specimens with reconstruction with 7- to 9-mm perforation of the lateral cortex and cortical fixation did not survive the cyclic loading protocol. In the second part of the study, with a hybrid fixation technique, ultimate failure testing after cyclic loading of specimens with 7- to 9-mm penetration showed no significant differences in tested parameters compared with the control group (P > .05). After penetration of the lateral cortex with a drill size of more than 6 mm, cortical ACL fixation results in poor mechanical properties. Hybrid fixation increases the mechanical properties significantly after penetration with a 7- to 9-mm drill. We advise caution to avoid penetration of the lateral femoral cortex when using cortical flip-button fixation. In case of

  4. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe: ...

  5. More than a Safe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  6. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.

  7. Is a maximum Revised Trauma Score a safe triage tool for Helicopter Emergency Medical Services cancellations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakopoulos, Georgios F.; Saltzherr, Teun Peter; Lubbers, Wouter D.; Christiaans, Herman M. T.; van Exter, Pieternel; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S. M.; Bloemers, Frank W.; Zuidema, Wietse P.; Goslings, J. Carel; Bakker, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Revised Trauma Score is used worldwide in the prehospital setting and provides a snapshot of patient's physiological state. Several studies have shown that the reliability of the RTS is high in trauma outcomes. In the Netherlands, Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) are

  8. Individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Guo

    Full Text Available Pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine is a difficult and high-risk procedure. The screw is difficult to place rapidly and accurately, and can lead to serious injury of spinal cord or vertebral artery. The aim of this study was to design an individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine.Using CT thin slices data, we employed computer software to design the navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis. The upper cervical spine models and navigation templates were produced by 3D printer with equal proportion, two sets for each case. In one set (Test group, pedicle screws fixation were guided by the navigation template; in the second set (Control group, the screws were fixed under fluoroscopy. According to the degree of pedicle cortex perforation and whether the screw needed to be refitted, the fixation effects were divided into 3 types: Type I, screw is fully located within the vertebral pedicle; Type II, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is 1 mm or with the poor internal fixation stability and in need of renovation. Type I and Type II were acceptable placements; Type III placements were unacceptable.A total of 19 upper cervical spine and 19 navigation templates were printed, and 37 pedicle screws were fixed in each group. Type I screw-placements in the test group totaled 32; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 2; with an acceptable rate of 94.60%. Type I screw placements in the control group totaled 23; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 11, with an acceptable rate of 70.27%. The acceptability rate in test group was higher than the rate in control group. The operation time and fluoroscopic frequency for each screw were decreased, compared with control group.The individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation is easy and safe, with a high success rate in the upper cervical spine surgery.

  9. Individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Dai, Jianhao; Zhang, Junxiang; Ma, Yichuan; Zhu, Guanghui; Shen, Junjie; Niu, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    Pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine is a difficult and high-risk procedure. The screw is difficult to place rapidly and accurately, and can lead to serious injury of spinal cord or vertebral artery. The aim of this study was to design an individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine. Using CT thin slices data, we employed computer software to design the navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis). The upper cervical spine models and navigation templates were produced by 3D printer with equal proportion, two sets for each case. In one set (Test group), pedicle screws fixation were guided by the navigation template; in the second set (Control group), the screws were fixed under fluoroscopy. According to the degree of pedicle cortex perforation and whether the screw needed to be refitted, the fixation effects were divided into 3 types: Type I, screw is fully located within the vertebral pedicle; Type II, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is stability and no need to renovate; Type III, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is >1 mm or with the poor internal fixation stability and in need of renovation. Type I and Type II were acceptable placements; Type III placements were unacceptable. A total of 19 upper cervical spine and 19 navigation templates were printed, and 37 pedicle screws were fixed in each group. Type I screw-placements in the test group totaled 32; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 2; with an acceptable rate of 94.60%. Type I screw placements in the control group totaled 23; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 11, with an acceptable rate of 70.27%. The acceptability rate in test group was higher than the rate in control group. The operation time and fluoroscopic frequency for each screw were decreased, compared with control group. The individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation is easy and safe

  10. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  11. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  12. Nitrogen fixation improvement in Faidherbia albida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toure, O.; Dasilva, M.C.; Badji, S.; Dianda, M.; Ndoye, I.; Gueye, M.

    1998-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment investigated growth, N accumulation and N 2 fixation (using the 15 N-dilution method) by Faidherbia albida in comparison with three species of Acacia, with Parkia biglobosa and Tamarindus indica as non-fixing reference plants. Faidherbia albida was mediocre in comparison with A. seyel, therefore seven provenances of the former were examined in a second pot experiment to investigate within-species variability for the same performance components; a provenance from Kabrousse, Senegal, showed particular promise in terms of dry weight and N accumulation, and fixation of N. This promise was confirmed with a 15-month field experiment, but revealed that there is opportunity for further improvement in N 2 -fixing ability. Faidherbia albida is a slow-growing tree, therefore further field experiments with provenance Kabrousse should be longer term in scope. The data indicate that trenching of the 15 N-labelled area may not be necessary. (author)

  13. Scaphoid Fracture Fixation with an Acutrak? Screw

    OpenAIRE

    Loving, Vilert A.; Richardson, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of fixation of a scaphoid fracture using an Acutrak? screw. This screw is cannulated and headless, which allows it to be implanted below the surface of the bone. It uses the same concept of variable thread pitch as the Herbert screw, but unlike the Herbert screw, is fully threaded, with continuously varying pitch along its length. This variable pitch creates constant compression across a fracture as the screw is advanced, and gives the screw its unique appearance. This featur...

  14. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  15. [Complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Method: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed.The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected.The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion.The quality of included trials was evaluated.RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Result: A total of 17 studies involving 1 402 patients were included.There were 687 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 715 with external fixation.The results of Meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the postoperatively total complications, infection, malunion, tendon rupture ( I 2 =8%, RR =0.77(95% CI 0.65-0.91, Z =3.10, P 0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative complications are present in both open reduction and internal fixation and external fixation.Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation is lower in total complications postoperatively, infection and malunion, but external fixation has lower tendon rupture incidence.

  16. Effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L R; Jin, C X; Yan, J; Han, S Z; He, X B; Yang, X F

    2015-03-31

    This study compared the efficacy between external fixator combined with palmar T-plate internal fixation and simple plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures. A total of 61 patients classified as type C according to the AO/ASIF classification underwent surgery for comminuted distal radius fractures. There were 54 and 7 cases of closed and open fractures, respectively. Moreover, 19 patients received an external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation, and 42 received simple plate internal fixation. All patients were treated successfully during 12-month postoperative follow-up. The follow-up results show that the palmar flexion and dorsiflexion of the wrist, radial height, and palmar angle were significantly better in those treated with the external fixator combined with T-plate compared to those treated with the simple plate only (P 0.05). Hence, the effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures was satisfactory. Patients sufficiently recovered wrist, forearm, and hand function. In conclusion, compared to the simple T-plate, the external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation can reduce the possibility of the postoperative re-shifting of broken bones and keep the distraction of fractures to maintain radial height and prevent radial shortening.

  17. Comparison of screw fixation with elastic fixation methods in the treatment of syndesmosis injuries in ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Mustafa; Donmez, Ferdi; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Cakmak, Selami; Mutlu, Serhat; Guler, Olcay

    2015-07-01

    17 patients with ankle syndesmosic injury were treated with a 4.5mm single cortical screw fixation (passage of screw 4 cortices) and 15 patients were treated with single-level elastic fixation material. All patients were evaluated according to the AOFAS ankle and posterior foot scale at the third, sixth and twelfth months after the fixation. The ankle range of movement was recorded together with the healthy side. The Student's t test was used for statistical comparisons. No statistical significant difference was observed between the AOFAS scores (p>0.05). The range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion motion of the elastic fixation group at the 6th and 12th months were significantly better compared to the screw fixation group (pankle syndesmosis injuries. The unnecessary need of a second surgical intervention for removal of the fixation material is another advantageous aspect of this method of fixation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation in the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanjun, Chen; Xiaoyang, Chen; Jing, Chen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation during the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures. Twenty-four sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in18 patients were fixed by two appliances: intramedullary with one long-screw osteosynthesis or Kirschner wire and extramedullary with one micro-plate. The radiologically-recorded post-operative stability-associated com-plications included the screw/micro-plate loosening, micro-plate twisting, micro-plate fractures, and fragment rotation. The occluding relations, the maximalinter-incisal distances upon mouth opening, and the mandibular deflection upon mouth opening were evaluated based on follow-up clinical examination. Postoperative panoramic X-ray and CT scans showed good repositioning of the fragment, with no redislocation or rotation, no screw/plate loosening, and no plate-twisting or fracture. Clinical examination showed that all patients regained normal mandibular movements, ideal occlusion, and normal maximal inter-incisal distances upon mouth opening. Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation is highly recommended for sagittal condylar fractures because of the anti-rotation effect of the fragment and the reasonable place-ment of the fixation appliances.

  19. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  20. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  1. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  2. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  3. External fixation using locking plate in distal tibial fracture: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Ebraheim, Nabil; Li, Ming; He, Xianfeng; Schwind, Joshua; Liu, Jiayong; Zhu, Limei

    2015-08-01

    External fixation of tibial fractures using a locking plate has been reported with favorable results in some selected patients. However, the stability of external plate fixation in this fracture pattern has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated the stability of external plate fixation with different plate-bone distances. In this study, the computational processing model of external fixation of a distal tibial metaphyseal fracture utilizing the contralateral femoral less invasive stabilization system plate was analyzed. The plate was placed on the anteromedial aspect of tibia with different plate-bone distances: 1, 10, 20, and 30 mm. Under axial load, the stiffness of construct in all groups was higher than intact tibia. Under axial load with an internal rotational force, the stiffness of construct with 1 and 10 mm plate-bone distances was similar to that of an intact tibia and the stiffness of the construct with 20 and 30 mm distances was lower than that of an intact tibia. Under axial load with an external rotational force, the stiffness of the construct in all groups was lower than that of an intact tibia. The maximum plate stresses were concentrated at the two most distal screws and were highest in the construct with the 10 mm plate-bone distance, and least in the construct with a 1 mm plate-bone distance. To guarantee a stable external plate fixation in distal tibial fracture, the plate-bone distance should be less than 30 mm.

  4. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  5. High-level radioactive waste fixation in sintered vitreous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.O.; Messi de Bernasconi, N.; Audero, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The safe storage of high-level wastes from fuel elements reprocessing includes, as a first step, the fixation of the same in materials having a good resistance to the leaching in aqueous medium, such as borosilicate glass. As an alternative to the usual method of the molten glasses, a procedure for the sintering of a powdered glass and waste mixture at lower temperatures (600-700 deg C) has been developed, which minimizes the volatilization of active compounds during the process. Two glasses matrices of different composition and characteristics were used, to which the simulated wastes were added in the ratio of a 10% in weight of oxides. Two sintering techniques were employed 1: cold pressing and further sintering; 2: hot pressing and sintering under pressure. The densities were measured, the microstructure of the samples was analyzed and leaching essays were made in distilled water. The pellet's microstructure was observed by means of optical microscopy, by reflection in polished samples and by transparency in thin slices. The presence of crystalline compounds was analyzed by means of x rays and electron microprobe. The results have shown the convenience to continue with hot pressing essays, because a denser product with a higher resistance to the leaching is thus obtained. (M.E.L.) [es

  6. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sun is by using these tips for skin cancer prevention. Indoor tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin ... to previous findings on the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. Only a small number of people reported ...

  7. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  8. Dukovany NPP - Safely 16 TERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this presentation increasing of power output of the Dukovany NPP is reviewed. To operate all Dukovany Units safely with the perspective of long-term operation (LTO) of 50 - 60 years it is proposed.

  9. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  10. Safe handling of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

  11. Fixation of displaced subcapital femoral fractures. Compression screw fixation versus double divergent pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, J; Howie, C R; Armour, P C

    1988-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients with displaced subcapital fractures of the femoral neck (Garden Grade III or IV) all under 80 years of age and independently mobile, were randomly allocated to fixation with either double divergent pins or a single sliding screw-plate device. The incidence of non-union and infection in the sliding screw-plate group was significantly higher, and we believe that when internal fixation is considered appropriate multiple pinning should be used. Mobility after treatment was disappointing in about half of the patients, and we feel that internal fixation can only be justified in patients who are physiologically well preserved and who maintain a high level of activity.

  12. Fusion Surgery Required for Recurrent Pediatric Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation after Failure of Temporary Fixation with Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Matsuyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In cases of chronic irreducible and recurrent unstable atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF, closed reduction and its maintenance are often unsuccessful, requiring surgical treatment. The purpose of the present report is to describe a rare case of pediatric AARF that required multiple treatments. A 6-year-old boy was diagnosed as having type 2 AARF. After conservative treatment, the patient was treated with temporary fixation surgery (C1-C2 Magerl without a bone graft in consideration of motion preservation after screw removal. AARF recurred after the screw removal and required fusion surgery (Magerl–Brooks with an iliac bone graft. Ultimately, bone union was achieved and the screws were removed 11 months after the surgery. We recommend surgeons be cautious when choosing temporary fixation surgery for AARF in small children. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal time before screw removal.

  13. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...... from several initial conditions to demonstrate that the designed control system is safe for every admissible initial condition....

  14. Safe use of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Based on the ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), this handbook shows how hospital staff can avoid exposing themselves and others to these hazards. It is designed particularly for junior and student nurses. Contents: ionizing radiations, their types and characteristics; their uses and dangers; basic principles in their safe use; safe use in practice; explanation of terms.

  15. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  16. Results of application of external fixation with different types of fixators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extra-focal or external fixation is the method of fracture fixation through the healthy part of the bone using pins or wires. Objective. The aim was to determine which external splints (Ortofix, Mitković, Charnley and Ilizarov had the best biomechanical properties in primary stabilization of spiral, transverse and commutative bone fractures. Methods. To determine the investigation methodology of biomechanical characteristics of the external fixator we used mathematical and computer simulator (software, juvidur physical model and clinical examination. Results. Values of advancing fragments in millimetres obtained by the study of mathematical and computer simulator (software: Charnley - 0.080 mm, Mitković M 20 - 0.785 mm, Ilizarov - 2.245 mm and Ortofix - 1.400 mm. In testing the juvidur model the following values were obtained: the external fixator Mitković M20 - 1.380 mm, Ortofix - 1.470 mm, Ilizarov - 2.410 mm, and Charnley - 2.510 mm. Clinical research of biomechanical characteristics of the effect of vertical force yielded the following results: Mitković M20 - 0.89 mm, Ortofix - 0.14 mm, Charnley - 0.80 mm and Ilizarov - 1.23 mm. Conclusion. When determining the total number of the stability test splints under the effect of vertical force (compression and force effect in antero-posterior, later-lateral plane of cross, spiral and comminuted long bone fractures, the best unified biomechanical stability was shown by the following external fixators: firstly, Mitković M20 (0.93mm, secondly, Charnley fixator (1.14 mm, thirdly, Ortofix (1.22 mm, and fourthly, Ilizarov (1.60 mm.

  17. Biodegradable fixation of mandibular fractures in children: stability and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerit, Kaan C; Hainich, Sibylle; Enislidis, Georg; Turhani, Dritan; Klug, Clemens; Wittwer, Gert; Ockher, Michael; Undt, Gerhard; Kermer, Christian; Watzinger, Franz; Ewers, Rolf

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced (SR-PLDLA) bone plates and screws in open reduction and internal fixation of mandible fractures in children. Thirteen patients (5 female, 8 male; mean age 12 years, range 5-16 years) were operated on various fractures of the mandible (2 symphyseal, 6 parasymphyseal, 4 body, 3 angle, 1 ramus, 2 condylar fractures). The mean follow-up time was 26.4 months (range 10.9-43.4 months). Intermaxillary fixation was applied in cases with concomitant condylar fractures up to 3 weeks. Primary healing of the fractured mandible was observed in all patients. Postoperative complications were minor and transient. The outcome of the operations was not endangered. Adverse tissue reactions to the implants, malocclusion, and growth restrictions did not occur during the observation period. Pediatric patients benefit from the advantages of resorbable materials, especially from faster mobilization and the avoidance of secondary removal operations. Based on these preliminary results, self-reinforced fixation devices are safe and efficient in the treatment of pediatric mandible fractures. However, further clinical investigations are necessary to evaluate the long-term reliability.

  18. Evaluation of pars plana sclera fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangju Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of modified posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation with transscleral fixation. Design and Setting: This is a study, which is conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Jinan Eye Hospital, Jinan Second People′s Hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 patients who were scheduled for sutured PCIOL were divided randomly into modified and conventional groups. The former underwent PCIOL through pars plana fixation with knot buried and without scleral flap and the latter underwent transscleral fixation of PCIOL in the ciliary sulcus. The main outcome measures included operative time, postoperative visual acuity, and postoperative complications. Results: The mean operative time of the modified group was 39.95 ± 5.87 min, which was significantly less than that of the conventional group (45.77 ± 5.21 min; P < 0.05. No difference was found in postoperative visual acuity between the two groups. There were no significant postoperative complications, including knot exposure, endophthalmitis, and retinal detachment in either group. The optical clamping of PCIOL was prone to occur in the conventional group. Conclusion: Modified sutured PCIOL implantation is a safe, effective, and feasible technique for the correction of aphakia in eyes without adequate posterior capsular support.

  19. Oscillating behavior of carbohydrate granule formation and dinitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Nayar, S.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that some aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacteria temporally separate photosynthetic O2 evolution and oxygen-sensitive N2 fixation. Cyanothece sp. ATCC strain 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that fixes N2 during discrete periods of its cell cycle. When the bacteria are maintained under diurnal light-dark cycles, N2 fixation occurs in the dark. Similar cycling is observed in continuous light, implicating a circadian rhythm. Under N2-fixing conditions, large inclusion granules form between the thylakoid membranes. Maximum granulation, as observed by electron microscopy, occurs before the onset of N2 fixation, and the granules decrease in number during the period of N2 fixation. The granules can be purified from cell homogenates by differential centrifugation. Biochemical analyses of the granules indicate that these structures are primarily carbohydrate, with some protein. Further analyses of the carbohydrate have shown that it is a glucose polymer with some characteristics of glycogen. It is proposed that N2 fixation is driven by energy and reducing power stored in these inclusion granules. Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 represents an excellent experimental organism for the study of the protective mechanisms of nitrogenase, metabolic events in cyanobacteria under normal and stress conditions, the partitioning of resources between growth and storage, and biological rhythms.

  20. Mapping occipital bone thickness using computed tomography for safe screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomonori; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Takashima, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Ida, Kazunori; Tanimoto, Katsumasa; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Nagae, Masateru; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Safe and effective insertion of occipital bone screws requires morphological analysis of the occipital bone, which is poorly documented in the literature. The authors of this study present morphological data for determining the area of screw placement for optimal internal fixation. METHODS The subjects of this institutional review board-approved retrospective study were 105 individuals without head and neck disease who underwent CT imaging at the authors' hospital. There were 55 males and 50 females, with a mean age of 57.1 years (range 20-91 years). Measurements using CT were taken according to a matrix of 55 points following a grid with 1-cm spacing based on the external occipital protuberance (EOP). RESULTS The maximum thickness of the occipital bone was at the level of the EOP at 16.4 mm. Areas with thicknesses > 8 mm were more frequent at the EOP and up to 2 cm in all directions, as well as up to 1 cm in all directions at a height of 1 cm inferiorly, and up to 3 cm from the EOP inferiorly. The male group tended to have a thicker occipital bone than the female group, and the differences were significant around the EOP. The ratio of the trabecular bone to the occipital bone thickness was > 30% in the central region. At positions more than 2 cm laterally, the ratio was < 15%, and the ratio gradually decreased further laterally. CONCLUSIONS Screws that are 8 mm long can be placed in the area extending 2 cm laterally from the EOP at the level of the superior nuchal line and approximately 3 cm inferior to the center. These results suggest that it may be possible to effectively insert a screw over a wider area than the conventional reference range.

  1. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  2. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  3. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  4. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  5. Management and follow up of tibial plateau fractures by ′T′ clamp external fixator and limited internal fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmegowda M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial plateau fractures are difficult to treat especially when soft tissue is compromised by open reduction and internal fixation. Many methods have be1en tried in the past to manage these cases of which external fixation were shown to be effective as they limit the soft tissue and wound complications. Methods: Complex tibial plateau fractures of sixteen patients were treated by closed reduction, fixation of articular fragments by screws and application of unilateral external fixator. The external fixator was kept in place till fracture united clinically and radiologically. The patients were followed up for at least one year to assess the function of the knee joint Results: The average duration of external fixation was 13 weeks. All the fractures healed. Pin track infection (five patients and instability (six patients of the knee were encountered with this procedure. The average duration of follow up was 62 weeks. The mean range of motion was 1250 arc. The IOWA knee score averaged 90.3 points. Conclusions: External fixation with limited internal fixation may be effective in the management of complex tibial plateau fractures which requires further support from studies with large sample size. ′T′ clamp external fixation with limited Internal fixation is the procedure of choice when alignment, stability, early mobilisation is required in a soft tissue compromised tibial plateau fractures.

  6. The cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation paradox in natural waters [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Paerl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N (N2 to ammonia (NH3, is a microbially mediated process by which “new” N is supplied to N-deficient water bodies. Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N2 fixation; hence, they are able to circumvent N limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis, they are faced with a paradoxical situation, where one critically important (for supporting growth biochemical process is inhibited by another. N2-fixing cyanobacterial taxa have developed an array of biochemical, morphological, and ecological adaptations to minimize the “oxygen problem”; however, none of these allows N2 fixation to function at a high enough efficiency so that it can supply N needs at the ecosystem scale, where N losses via denitrification, burial, and advection often exceed the inputs of “new” N by N2 fixation. As a result, most marine and freshwater ecosystems exhibit chronic N limitation of primary production. Under conditions of perpetual N limitation, external inputs of N from human sources (agricultural, urban, and industrial play a central role in determining ecosystem fertility and, in the case of N overenrichment, excessive primary production or eutrophication. This points to the importance of controlling external N inputs (in addition to traditional phosphorus controls as a means of ensuring acceptable water quality and safe water supplies. Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N2 to ammonia (NH3 is a  microbially-mediated process by which “new” nitrogen is supplied to N-deficient water bodies.  Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N2 fixation; hence they are able to circumvent nitrogen limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce

  7. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  8. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit; Dave, Akshat; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  9. Clinical comparative analysis on unstable pelvic fractures in the treatment with percutaneous sacroiliac screws and sacroiliac joint anterior plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-L

    2014-01-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy of unstable pelvic fractures in the treatment with percutaneous sacroiliac screws and sacroiliac joint anterior plate fixation. 64 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were selected in the hospital from January 2008 to June 2011, and were randomly divided into two groups.(32 patients with sacroiliac anterior plate fixation as the control group, and another 32 patients with percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation as the observation group). The perioperative period clinical indicators, postoperative Matta score, postoperative Majeed function score of all patients were compared and analyzed. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, wound total length, postoperative fever time, duration of hospitalization in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group. The complication rate (3.1%) in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (21.9%). The rate of Matta score excellent (96.9%) in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (81.2%) after the treatment. The rate of Majeed function score excellent (93.8%) in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (75%) after the treatment. Percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation in the treatment of unstable pelvic fractures has less injury, less bleeding, less pain and rapid recovery which is a safe and effective minimally invasive operation method. The clinical curative effect of percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation is better than anterior plate fixation for the treatment of sacroiliac joint. The full preparation before the surgery and patients with positive can substantially reduce the occurrence of complications rate.

  10. Complications are reduced with a protocol to standardize timing of fixation based on response to resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, Heather A; Moore, Timothy A; Como, John J; Wilczewski, Patricia A; Steinmetz, Michael P; Wagner, Karl G; Smith, Charles E; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Dolenc, Andrea J

    2015-10-01

    Our group developed a protocol, entitled Early Appropriate Care (EAC), to determine timing of definitive fracture fixation based on presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. We hypothesized that utilization of EAC would result in fewer complications than a historical cohort and that EAC patients with definitive fixation within 36 h would have fewer complications than those treated at a later time. Three hundred thirty-five patients with mean age 39.2 years and mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) 26.9 and 380 fractures of the femur (n = 173), pelvic ring (n = 71), acetabulum (n = 57), and/or spine (n = 79) were prospectively evaluated. The EAC protocol recommended definitive fixation within 36 h if lactate <4.0 mmol/L, pH ≥7.25, or base excess (BE) ≥-5.5 mmol/L. Complications including infections, sepsis, DVT, organ failure, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and pulmonary embolism (PE) were identified and compared for early and delayed patients and with a historical cohort. All 335 patients achieved the desired level of resuscitation within 36 h of injury. Two hundred sixty-nine (80%) were treated within 36 h, and 66 had protocol violations, treated on a delayed basis, due to surgeon choice in 71%. Complications occurred in 16.3% of patients fixed within 36 h and in 33.3% of delayed patients (p = 0.0009). Hospital and ICU stays were shorter in the early group: 9.5 versus 17.3 days and 4.4 versus 11.6 days, respectively, both p < 0.0001. This group of patients when compared with a historical cohort of 1443 similar patients with 1745 fractures had fewer complications (16.3 versus 22.1%, p = 0.017) and shorter length of stay (LOS) (p = 0.018). Our EAC protocol recommends definitive fixation within 36 h in resuscitated patients. Early fixation was associated with fewer complications and shorter LOS. The EAC recommendations are safe and effective for the majority of severely injured patients with mechanically

  11. Bilateral Laparoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal Repair Without Mesh Fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Dehal, Ahmed; Woodward, Brandon; Johna, Samir; Yamanishi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mesh fixation during laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair is thought to be necessary to prevent recurrence. However, mesh fixation may increase postoperative chronic pain. This study aimed to describe the experience of a single surgeon at our institution performing this operation. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of all patients who underwent bilateral laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair without mesh fixation for ing...

  12. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Hemendra Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration. Key words: Femur; Ilizarov technique; External fixators

  13. An Alternative Method of Intermaxillary Fixation for Simple Pediatric Mandible Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Scott J; Nguyen, Dennis C; Harvey, Alan A; Patel, Kamlesh B

    2016-03-01

    Mandibular fractures represent a substantial portion of facial fractures in the pediatric population. Pediatric mandibles differ from their adult counterparts in the presence of mixed dentition. Avoidance of injury to developing tooth follicles is critical. Simple mandibular fractures can be treated with intermaxillary fixation (IMF) using arch bars or bone screws. This report describes an alternative to these methods using silk sutures and an algorithm to assist in treating simple mandibular fractures in the pediatric population. A retrospective chart review was performed and the records of 1 surgeon were examined. Pediatric patients who underwent treatment for a mandibular fracture in the operating room from 2011 to 2015 were identified using Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data collected included age, gender, type of fracture, type of treatment used, duration of fixation, and presence of complications. Five patients with a mean age of 6.8 years at presentation were identified. Fracture types were unilateral fractures of the condylar neck (n = 3), bilateral fractures of the condylar head (n = 1), and a unilateral fracture of the condylar head with an associated parasymphyseal fracture (n = 1). IMF was performed in 4 patients using silk sutures, and bone screw fixation was performed in the other patient. No post-treatment complications or malocclusion were reported. Average duration of IMF was 18.5 days. An algorithm is presented to assist in the treatment of pediatric mandibular fractures. Silk suture fixation is a viable and safe alternative to arch bars or bone screws for routine mandibular fractures. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimally invasive anterior pelvic internal fixation: An anatomic study comparing Pelvic Bridge to INFIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Lee M; MacCormick, Lauren M; Dugarte, Anthony J; Rizkala, Amir R; Graves, Sara C; Cole, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    Anterior external fixation for pelvic ring fractures has shown to effectively improve stability and reduce mortality. However, these fixators can be associated with substantial morbidity such as pin tract infection, premature loss of fixation, and decreased quality of life in patients. Recently, two new methods of subcutaneous anterior pelvic internal fixation have been developed; the INFIX and the Pelvic Bridge. These methods have the purported advantages of lower wound complications, less surgical site pain, and improved quality of life. We sought to investigate the measured distances to critical anatomic structures, as well as the qualitative and topographic differences notable during implantation of both devices in the same cadaveric specimen. The Pelvic Bridge and INFIX were implanted in eleven fresh cadavers. Distances were then measured to: the superficial inguinal ring, round ligament, spermatic cord, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve, femoral artery, and femoral vein. Observations regarding implantation and topography were also recorded. The INFIX had greater measured distances from all structures except for the LFCN, in which its proximity placed this structure at risk. Neither device appears to put other critical structures at risk in the supine position. Significant implantation and topographic differences exist between the devices. The INFIX application lacked "safety margins" concerning the LFCN in 10/11 (90.9%) specimens, while Pelvic Bridge placement lacked "safety margins" with regard to the right superficial ring (1/11, 9%) and the right spermatic cord (1/11, 9%). Both the Pelvic Bridge and INFIX lie at safe distances from most critical pelvic structures in the supine position, though INFIX application places the LFCN at risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ARTHROSCOPIC FIXATION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL AVULSION FRACTURES USING FIBRE WIRE WITH OR WITHOUT ENDOBUTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajeet Jagtap

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL avulsion fracture is commonly associated with knee injuries and its management is controversial ranging from conservative treatment to various modalities in arthroscopic fixation. The aim of our study is to assess the clinical and radiological results of arthroscopic fixation using fibre wire with or without Endobutton in the management of ACL avulsion fractures using a simpler technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females who underwent arthroscopic fixation with standard anteromedial and anterolateral ports using fibre wire with or without Endobutton (9 cases only fibre wire was used, 6 cases Endobutton was used in addition for displaced ACL avulsion fractures (Meyers and McKeever’s classification grade 2, grade 3 and grade 4 were analysed. The average age was 26.1 years with a mean follow up of 1 year. All patients were assessed clinically by calculating their Lysholm scores, Lachman test and the radiological union was assessed in the follow up radiographs. Study Design- Retrospective observational case series. RESULTS The mean Lysholm score was 94.93 ± 2.81 (mean ± SD. In 14 patients, Lachman test was negative at the end of final follow up while 1 patient had grade I laxity compared to normal knee. At final followup, all the patients were able to return to their preinjury activity level except one who had an extension lag, underwent arthrolysis subsequently and is improving. CONCLUSION Arthroscopic fixation using this technique of using fibre wire with or without Endobutton is a safe and reliable technique for producing clinicoradiological outcome in displaced ACL avulsion fractures.

  16. Rib Fracture Fixation: Indications and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senekjian, Lara; Nirula, Raminder

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are a frequently identified injury in the trauma population. Not only are multiple rib fractures painful, but they are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Pneumonia in particular can be devastating, especially to an elderly patient, but other complications such as prolonged ventilation and increased intensive care and hospital durations of stay have a negative impact on the patient. Computed tomography scan is the best modality to diagnosis rib fractures but the treatment of fractures is still evolving. Currently patient care involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes pain control, aggressive pulmonary therapy, and possibly surgical fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrogen fixation on a coral reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mague, T.H.; Holm-Hansen, O.

    1975-06-01

    Benthic, heterocystous blue-green algae (genera Calothrix, Hormothamnion and Nostoc) from Eniwetok Atoll were found to reduce acetylene at rapid rates. Slight acetylene reduction was associated with samples of Rhizoclonium (Chlorophyceae) and Oscillatoria (a cyanophyte lacking heterocysts), but this may have been due to contamination by epiphytes. There was virtually no acetylene reduction by phytoplankton, and nutrient enrichment experiments failed to selectively increase the numbers or activity of N/sub 2/-fixing algae in surface water samples. The Nostoc required light for acetylene reduction. Nitrogen fixation by this species could have supplied up to 11 ..mu..g N/cm/sup 2//day to the ecosystem. (auth)

  18. Distal fingertip replantation without skeletal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2005-01-01

    The replantation of fingertip amputation (through the nail bed) requires repair of the artery and vein on the palmar side. These structures are present in different planes, with the artery being deeper and the veins superficial. The authors believe that vascular repair in such cases is facilitated by stabilization of the amputated part by nail-bed repair alone. This provides a certain degree of flexibility, which allows for easier placement of clamps in the limited space available. Although Kirschner wires were not used for bony fixation, bony union was achieved in all five cases in which this technique was used.

  19. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu

    1987-01-01

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  20. Overcoming design fixation through education and creativity methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder

    2013-01-01

    . The first intervention consisted of educating each team on the phenomena and effects of design fixation. The results showed that this intervention reduced the number of fixation elements in comparison to the control group (p=0.025). The second intervention involved using Dix et als' (2006) 'Bad Ideas...... of ideas produced per group and the groups' fixation ratios, adding to the quantity breads novelty debate. Finally, the study also provided further evidence of the hypothesis by Agogué et al (2011) that example solutions constructed from restrictive partitions have a greater fixation affect....

  1. Clinical efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures: A series of 10 cases and surgical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in the management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures. Method: Ten patients with displaced mandibular fractures treated with 1.5 mm four holed titanium mini-plate and 4 mm screws which were removed within four month after surgery. Results: All cases showed satisfactory bone healing without any growth disturbance. Conclusion: Open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF with 1.5 mm titanium mini- plates and 4 mm screws is a reliable and safe method in treatment of displaced paediatric mandibular fractures.

  2. Clinical efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures: a series of 10 cases and surgical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Samir; Kshirsagar, Rajesh; Mishra, Akshay; Shah, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in the management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures. Ten patients with displaced mandibular fractures treated with 1.5 mm four holed titanium mini-plate and 4 mm screws which were removed within four month after surgery. All cases showed satisfactory bone healing without any growth disturbance. Open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF) with 1.5 mm titanium mini- plates and 4 mm screws is a reliable and safe method in treatment of displaced paediatric mandibular fractures.

  3. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  4. Evaluation of two commercial and three home-made fixatives for the substitution of formalin: a formaldehyde-free laboratory is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Cristina; Gerbaudo, Elisa; Ercole, Elisabetta; Vendramin, Anna; Forni, Marco

    2012-09-04

    ideal fixative combining satisfactory morphology with improved preservation of nucleic acids and proteins as well as being easy and safe to dispose of.

  5. Percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation: salvage of failed percutaneous odontoid screw fixation for odontoid fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ai-Min; Jin, Hai-Ming; Lin, Zhong-Ke; Chi, Yong-Long; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the outcomes and safety of using percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation as a salvage technique for odontoid fracture if percutaneous odontoid screw fixation fails. Methods Fifteen in 108 odontoid fracture patients (planned to be treated by percutaneous anterior odontoid screw fixation) were failed to introduce satisfactory odontoid screw trajectory. To salvage this problem, we chose the percutaneous anterior C1/2 trans...

  6. Prospects for inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Public fears over nuclear safety have led some within the nuclear community to investigate the possibility of producing inherently safe nuclear reactors; that is, reactors that are transparently incapable of producing a core melt. While several promising designs of such reactors have been produced, support for large-scale research and development efforts has not been forthcoming. The prospects for commercialization of inherently safe reactors, therefore, are problematic; possible events such as further nuclear reactor accidents and superpower summits, could alter the present situation significantly. (author)

  7. Is nuclear power safe enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, A F [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The lecture formed a commentary on the report of the Norwegian Government's Commission on Nuclear power Safety which was published in October 1978. It was introductorily pointed out that 'safe' and 'safety' are not in themselves meaningful terms and that the probability of an occurrence is the real measure. The main items in the Commission's report have been core meltdown, releases during reprocessing, waste disposal, plutonium diversion and environmental impacts. The 21 members of the Commission were unanimous in 7 of the 8 chapters. In chapter 2, 'Summary and Conclusions', 3 members dissented from the majority opinion, that, subject to certain conditions, nuclear power was a safe and acceptable source of energy.

  8. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  9. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  10. EXTERNAL FIXATION OF METACARPAL AND PHALANGAL FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Margić

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. In past three years we have used smallexternal fixator in the treatment of: 18 closed fractures of metacarpalbones, 15 phalangeal fractures, four dislocated fracturesof MCP and five of PIP joint, ten arthrodesis, five replantations/revascularisations, two pathological fractures, and infew post-traumatic infection of bones and joints.Results. Results were graded as excellent (completely normalfunction, very good (15° deficit of total ROM, good (30° deficitof total ROM; can flex the fingers to the palm, and poor.Excellent result was obtained in the treatment of all 18 metacarpalfractures. The final results in the treatment of 12 closedfragmentated fractures of phalanges were as follows: excellent3, very good 2, good 2 and five poor results (three patientsin this group have fallen on their hands causing refractureand reoperation. Three of four fractures of MCP joint andfour of five fractures involving PIP joint have good mobility.In eight of ten patients arthrodeses are stable and withoutpain. In two cases pathological fractures were first stabilizedand than the tumor was evacuated and grafted with minimaldissection; booth have good results.Conclusion. Author suggests that, in selected cases, with applicationof small external fixator reasonable good results can beobtained.

  11. Biomechanics of lumbar cortical screw-rod fixation versus pedicle screw-rod fixation with and without interbody support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Orribo, Luis; Kalb, Samuel; Reyes, Phillip M; Chang, Steve W; Crawford, Neil R

    2013-04-15

    Seven different combinations of posterior screw fixation, with or without interbody support, were compared in vitro using nondestructive flexibility tests. To study the biomechanical behavior of a new cortical screw (CS) fixation construct relative to the traditional pedicle screw (PS) construct. The CS is an alternative to the PS for posterior fixation of the lumbar spine. The CS trajectory is more sagittally and cranially oriented than the PS, being anchored in the pars interarticularis. Like PS fixation, CS fixation uses interconnecting rods fastened with top-locking connectors. Stability after bilateral CS fixation was compared with stability after bilateral PS fixation in the setting of intact disc and with direct lateral interbody fixation (DLIF) or transforaminal lateral interbody fixation (TLIF) support. Standard nondestructive flexibility tests were performed in cadaveric lumbar specimens, allowing non-paired comparisons of specific conditions from 28 specimens (4 groups of 7) within a larger experiment of multiple hardware configurations. Condition tested and group from which results originated were as follows: (1) intact (all groups); (2) with L3-L4 bilateral PS-rods (group 1); (3) with bilateral CS-rods (group 2); (4) with DLIF (group 3); (5) with DLIF + CS-rods (group 4); (6) with DLIF + PS-rods (group 3); (7) with TLIF + CS-rods (group 2), and (8) with TLIF + PS-rods (group 2). To assess spinal stability, the mean range of motion, lax zone, and stiff zone at L3-L4 were compared during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. With intact disc, stability was equivalent after PS-rod and CS-rod fixation, except that PS-rod fixation was stiffer during axial rotation. With DLIF support, there was no significant difference in stability between PS-rod and CS-rod fixation. With TLIF support, PS-rod fixation was stiffer than CS-rod fixation during lateral bending. Bilateral CS-rod fixation provided about the same stability in cadaveric specimens

  12. Image Guidance to Aid Pedicle Screw Fixation of a Lumbar Fracture-Dislocation Injury in a Toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, John K; Nahkla, Jonathan; Ghandi, Shashank

    2017-09-01

    Pedicle screw fixation of the lumbar spine in children age <2 years is particularly challenging, as successful cannulation of the small pedicle dimensions requires a high level of precision and there are no implants specifically designed for the infant spine. Image-guided navigation is commonly used in adult spinal surgery and may be particularly helpful for the placement of spinal screws in areas where the bony anatomy is small and/or anatomically complex, as in the upper cervical area. A 19-month-old female presented with a fracture-dislocation injury of L1-2. Intraoperative imaging using the O-arm multidimensional imaging system was networked to a workstation, and neuronavigation was used to place pedicle instrumentation with 3.5-mm-diameter polyaxial screws designed for posterior cervical fixation. At a 48-month follow-up, the patient was neurologically intact, demonstrated normal physical development, and was engaging in normal physical activity for her age. Radiographs obtained approximately 4 years postsurgery showed no evidence of loss for fixation. Image-guided placement of pedicle screws may be a useful aid in achieving accurate and safe fixation in the small dimensions of the infant spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective guidelines for removing an external fixator after tibial lengthening using pixel value ratio: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Fan, Qing; Venkatesh, K P; Park, Man S; Song, Hae Ryong

    2009-12-01

    During limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail, decisions regarding external fixator removal and weightbearing depend on the amount of callus seen at the lengthening area on radiographs. However, this method is subjective and objective evaluation of the amount of callus likely would minimize nail or interlocking screw breakage and refracture after fixator removal. We asked how many cortices with full corticalization of the newly formed bone at the lengthening area are needed to allow fixator removal and full weightbearing and how to radiographically determine the stage of corticalization. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients (34 lengthenings) who underwent bilateral tibial lengthenings over an intramedullary nail. The average gain in length was 7.2 +/- 3.4 cm. We determined the pixel value ratio (ratio of pixel value of regenerate versus the mean pixel value of adjacent bone) of the lengthened area on radiographs. There were no nail or screw breakage and refracture. Partial weightbearing with crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in two cortices and full weightbearing without crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in three cortices. The pixel value ratio on radiographs can be an objective parameter for callus measurement and may provide guidelines for the timing of external fixator removal. We cannot determine from our limited data the minimum pixel value in how many cortices would suggest safe removal, but we can say our criteria were not associated with subsequent refracture.

  14. Internal Versus External Fixation of Charcot Midfoot Deformity Realignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel J; Schaffer, Joseph; Chen, Tien; Oh, Irvin

    2016-07-01

    Internal and external fixation techniques have been described for realignment and arthrodesis of Charcot midfoot deformity. There currently is no consensus on the optimal method of surgical reconstruction. This systematic review compared the clinical results of surgical realignment with internal and external fixation, specifically in regard to return to functional ambulation, ulcer occurrence, nonunion, extremity amputation, unplanned further surgery, deep infection, wound healing problems, peri- or intraoperative fractures, and total cases with any complication. A search of multiple databases for all relevant articles published from January 1, 1990, to March 22, 2014, was performed. A logistic regression model evaluated each of the outcomes and its association with the type of fixation method. The odds of returning to functional ambulation were 25% higher for internal fixation (odds ratio [OR], 1.259). Internal fixation had a 42% reduced rate of ulcer occurrence (OR, 0.578). External fixation was 8 times more likely to develop radiographic nonunion than internal fixation (OR, 8.2). Internal fixation resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in extremity amputation (OR, 1.488), a 2-fold increase in deep infection (OR, 2.068), a 3.4-fold increase in wound healing complications (OR, 3.405), and a 1.5-fold increase in the total number of cases experiencing any complication (OR, 1.525). This was associated with a 20% increase in the need for unplanned further surgery with internal fixation (OR, 1.221). Although internal fixation may decrease the risk of nonunion and increase return to functional ambulation, it had a higher rate of overall complications than external fixation for realignment and arthrodesis of Charcot midfoot deformity. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e595-e601.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Design and fabrication of biomimetic multiphased scaffolds for ligament-to-bone fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankang; Zhang, Wenyou; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Xiang; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2015-05-01

    Conventional ligament grafts with single material composition cannot effectively integrate with the host bones due to mismatched properties and eventually affect their long-term function in vivo. Here we presented a multi-material strategy to design and fabricate composite scaffolds including ligament, interface and bone multiphased regions. The interface region consists of triphasic layers with varying material composition and porous structure to mimic native ligament-to-bone interface while the bone region contains polycaprolactone (PCL) anchor and microchanneled ceramic scaffolds to potentially provide combined mechanical and biological implant-bone fixation. Finite element analysis (FEA) demonstrated that the multiphased scaffolds with interference value smaller than 0.5 mm could avoid the fracture of ceramic scaffold during the implantation process, which was validated by in-vitro implanting the multiphased scaffolds into porcine joint bones. Pull-out experiment showed that the initial fixation between the multiphased scaffolds with 0.47 mm interference and the host bones could withstand the maximum force of 360.31±97.51 N, which can be improved by reinforcing the ceramic scaffolds with biopolymers. It is envisioned that the multiphased scaffold could potentially induce the regeneration of a new bone as well as interfacial tissue with the gradual degradation of the scaffold and subsequently realize long-term biological fixation of the implant with the host bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  17. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  18. How Safe Are Our Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Lifer, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Addresses issues of safety and security in libraries. Topics discussed include keeping library collections safe; patron behavioral problems; factoring loss into the budget; staff theft; access versus security; apathy regarding library crime; a need for a unified security apparatus; preventive measures; staff and patron safety; and a…

  19. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  20. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  1. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow

  2. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  3. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  4. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  5. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  6. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  7. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  8. STUDY ON SPANNING EXTERNAL FIXATORS FOR PERIARTICULAR OPEN FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Maddila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Open fractures which occur close to any fracture need immobilisation for the soft tissues to heal. Some open fractures are even fixed with provisional fixations to maintain the alignment of the fractures. The provisional fixation needs to be augmented with external support, which can be given by spanning external fixators across a joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study consists of 38 open fractures of the lower limbs, which are of Gustilo-Anderson’s type IIIB, an MT4 of AO-ASIF soft tissue injury classification essentially requiring open wound management as well as fracture fixation. Wound lavage and debridements are carried out till the soft tissues show granulations. The position in which joint is immobilised is functional and with access to open wound for dressings and inspection without any displacement of the fracture as well as creeping granulation tissue. RESULTS All the cases in our study are maintained with functional position till soft tissue cover is achieved and provisional fixation is done with definitive fixation after soft tissue cover with skin grafting. CONCLUSION Spanning external fixators are useful in maintaining functional positions as well as augmenting the provisional fixation of the compound fractures.

  9. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique.

  10. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of double 4-hole straight plates provided the sufficient stability on the osteotomy site when compared with the other rigid fixation methods used in this study. Key words: Bone plates, bone screws, finite element analysis, jaw fixation techniques, mandible, mandibular osteotomy ...

  11. Indications and outcome of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a well-established surgical treatment of fractures worldwide. However, the indications and modes of stabilization of long bone fractures vary and are evolving .The general trend now is towards fixation with locked intramedullary nail (i.m nail) rather than plate and ...

  12. Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambert R B

    2011-03-01

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the prediction of fixations on mirror-symmetrical forms. The contrast model gives high response at the borders, whereas human observers consistently look at the symmetrical center of these forms. We propose a saliency model that predicts eye fixations using local mirror symmetry. To test the model, we performed an eye-tracking experiment with participants viewing complex photographic images and compared the data with our symmetry model and the contrast model. The results show that our symmetry model predicts human eye fixations significantly better on a wide variety of images including many that are not selected for their symmetrical content. Moreover, our results show that especially early fixations are on highly symmetrical areas of the images. We conclude that symmetry is a strong predictor of human eye fixations and that it can be used as a predictor of the order of fixation.

  13. Femoral fractures : indications an[d] biomechanics of external fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Broekhuizen (Tom); B. van Linge

    1988-01-01

    textabstractInternal fixation can be carried out in various ways. For femoral shaft fractures, an (interlocking) nail is becoming increasingly popular, instead of open realignment of the fracture. External fixation, which has become a generally accepted method of treating fractures of the lower

  14. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Hemendra-Kumar; Jaiman, Ashish; Khatkar, Vipin; Sharma, Vinod-Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration.

  15. Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Geert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambertus

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the

  16. Predicting eye fixations on complex visual stimuli using local symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, G.; de Boer, B.; Schomaker, L.R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the

  17. [Treatment of femoral neck fracture--preference to internal fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Izumi

    2011-03-01

    In the guidelines for the treatment of femoral neck fracture, prosthetic replacement is recommended in displaced one and internal fixation is in undisplaced one. However, in the long view, survived femoral head after internal fixation can be superior to prosthesis which will deteriorate as time goes by. Surgical method should be considered not only by type of fracture but general status of the patient.

  18. Tightrope fixation of ankle syndesmosis injuries: clinical outcome, complications and technique modification.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naqvi, Gohar A

    2012-06-01

    Ankle syndesmotic injuries are complex and require anatomic reduction and fixation. Tightrope fixation is a relatively new technique and we present the largest series of syndesmosis fixation using Arthrex Tightrope™ (Naples, FL, USA).

  19. Fixation and escape times in stochastic game learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Szczesny, Bartosz; Galla, Tobias; Dall’Asta, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations is known to fixate eventually in the absence of mutation. We here show that a similar phenomenon can be found in stochastic game dynamical batch learning, and investigate fixation in learning processes in a simple 2×2 game, for two-player games with cyclic interaction, and in the context of the best-shot network game. The analogues of finite populations in evolution are here finite batches of observations between strategy updates. We study when and how such fixation can occur, and present results on the average time-to-fixation from numerical simulations. Simple cases are also amenable to analytical approaches and we provide estimates of the behaviour of so-called escape times as a function of the batch size. The differences and similarities with escape and fixation in evolutionary dynamics are discussed. (paper)

  20. N2 fixation as a dominant new N source in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean (OUTPACE cruise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffin, Mathieu; Moutin, Thierry; Foster, Rachel Ann; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Michelangelo Doglioli, Andrea; Berthelot, Hugo; Guieu, Cécile; Grosso, Olivier; Helias-Nunige, Sandra; Leblond, Nathalie; Gimenez, Audrey; Petrenko, Anne Alexandra; de Verneil, Alain; Bonnet, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    We performed nitrogen (N) budgets in the photic layer of three contrasting stations representing different trophic conditions in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) Ocean during austral summer conditions (February-March 2015). Using a Lagrangian strategy, we sampled the same water mass for the entire duration of each long-duration (5 days) station, allowing us to consider only vertical exchanges for the budgets. We quantified all major vertical N fluxes both entering (N2 fixation, nitrate turbulent diffusion, atmospheric deposition) and leaving the photic layer (particulate N export). The three stations were characterized by a strong nitracline and contrasted deep chlorophyll maximum depths, which were lower in the oligotrophic Melanesian archipelago (MA, stations LD A and LD B) than in the ultra-oligotrophic waters of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG, station LD C). N2 fixation rates were extremely high at both LD A (593 ± 51 µmol N m-2 d-1) and LD B (706 ± 302 µmol N m-2 d-1), and the diazotroph community was dominated by Trichodesmium. N2 fixation rates were lower (59 ± 16 µmol N m-2 d-1) at LD C, and the diazotroph community was dominated by unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacteria (UCYN). At all stations, N2 fixation was the major source of new N (> 90 %) before atmospheric deposition and upward nitrate fluxes induced by turbulence. N2 fixation contributed circa 13-18 % of primary production in the MA region and 3 % in the SPG water and sustained nearly all new primary production at all stations. The e ratio (e ratio = particulate carbon export / primary production) was maximum at LD A (9.7 %) and was higher than the e ratio in most studied oligotrophic regions (leading to N accumulation in the upper layer appears as a characteristic of the WTSP during the summer season.

  1. Open reduction and internal fixation: Screw injury - Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF is a standard surgical procedure in jaw trauma and in orthognathic surgery. Insertion of screws is a significant risk for accidental tooth root injury with varying outcomes. Contrary evidences are found in literature due to a variety of study designs. This study was undertaken to address the lacunae and possibly estimate the difference in occurrence of tooth damage during or after ORIF between trauma and planned osteotomies. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the data of ORIF in either trauma or orthognathic surgery fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were collected and analyzed. Results: There were 1632 patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria and formed the study group, of which 663 were in orthognathic surgery, of whom 210 had bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. In the trauma group, 358 patients had fractures involving both jaws whereas 272 had maxilla alone and 339 had mandibular fractures alone. On comparing the outcome, of the 9073 screws studied, 93.40% were not involved in any contact with the teeth, 6.3% were in category of potential hits (near apices or the root surfaces, and only 0.28% had evidence of root damage with the screws. It is observed that molar and premolar had a significant difference in terms of the type of surgery (P ≤ 0.05 whereas canine (P = 0.75 and incisor (P = 0.67 showed no statistical difference. Conclusion: ORIF when used as mentioned is a safe way for the management of fractures. The incidence of root injury is not uncommon but can be avoided with careful planning and execution.

  2. Repair of the torn distal biceps tendon by endobutton fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of techniques have been described to reattach the torn distal biceps tendon to the bicipital tuberosity. We report a retrospective analysis of single incision technique using an endobutton fixation in sports persons. Materials and Methods: The present series include nine torn distal biceps tendons in eight patients, fixed anatomically to the radial tuberosity with an endobutton by using a single incision surgical technique; seven patients had suffered the injuries during contact sports. The passage of the endobutton was facilitated by using a blunt tipped pin in order to avoid injury to the posterior interosseous nerve. The patients were evaluated by Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH score and Mayo elbow score. Results: The average age of the patients was 27.35 years (range 21-42 years. Average follow-up was 41.5 months (range 24-102 months. The final average flexion extension arc was 0°-143°, while the average pronation and supination angles were 77° (range 70°-82° and 81° (range 78°-85°, respectively at the last followup. All the patients had a Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH score of 0 and a Mayo elbow score of 100 each. All the seven active sports persons were able to get back to their respective game. There was no nerve injury or any other complication. Conclusions: The surgical procedure used by us is a simple, safe and reproducible technique giving minimal morbidity and better cosmetic results.

  3. Les aciers inoxydables dans les fixations

    CERN Document Server

    CETIM

    2010-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, qui fait la synthèse de plusieurs travaux menés par le Cetim, propose une vue d'ensemble sur les aciers inoxydables utilisés pour les fixations. Au sommaire : les normes EN, ISO et ATSM qui s'y rapportent , les désignations symboliques , les nuances et caractéristiques mécaniques , les différentes formes de corrosion, les méthodes pour les détecter , les règles du métier , les mises en oeuvre. L'ouvrage comprend plusieurs fiches matériaux et des tableaux qui présentent les équivalences entre les désignations.

  4. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    Although a soil-shale mixture was employed as the growth medium in this experiment, the results presentd are applicable to the proposed method of disposal mentioned earlier. Under field conditions, when covering the retorted shale with topsoil, some mixing of these materials might occur in the plant root region. In addition, it has been demonstrated that buried shale negatively affects enzyme activities in overburden surface soil. The occurrence of either of those events could affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation in a manner similar to that reported in this paper. Researchers conclude that due to the varied effects of retorted shale on the legumes tested, further evaluation of other legumes may be necessary. Additional research would be required to determine which legumes have potential use for reclamation of retorted shale.

  5. Do you like what you see? The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der L.N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  6. External Fixation versus two-stage Open Reduction Internal Fixation of distal intra-articular Tibia fractures; a Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby Erichsen, Julie; Jensen, Carsten; Damborg, Frank Lindhøj

    Internal Fixation (ORIF) or External Fixation (EF). Method : A search was conducted using PUBMED, Embase, Cochrane Central, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Studies with level of evidence I-IV comparing EF with two-stage ORIF of DIATF in patients...

  7. Do you like what you see? : The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Hooge, Ignace T C; De Ridder, Denise T D; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  8. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  9. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xiang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Qing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mini-Fragment Fixation Is Equivalent to Bicortical Screw Fixation for Horizontal Medial Malleolus Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Adam M; Wolinsky, Philip R; Robbins, Michael A; Garcia, Tanya C; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2018-05-01

    Horizontal fractures of the medial malleolus occur through application of valgus or abduction force through the ankle that creates a tension failure of the medial malleolus. The authors hypothesize that mini-fragment T-plates may offer improved fixation, but the optimal fixation construct for these fractures remains unclear. Forty synthetic distal tibiae with identical osteotomies were randomized into 4 fixation constructs: (1) two parallel unicortical cancellous screws; (2) two parallel bicortical cortical screws; (3) a contoured mini-fragment T-plate with 2 unicortical screws in the fragment and 2 bicortical screws in the shaft; and (4) a contoured mini-fragment T-plate with 2 bicortical screws in the fragment and 2 unicortical screws in the shaft. Specimens were subjected to offset axial tension loading on a servohydraulic testing system and tracked using high-resolution video. Failure was defined as 2 mm of articular displacement. Analysis of variance followed by a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used to assess for differences between groups, with significance defined as Pfragment T-plate constructs (239±83 N/mm and 190±37 N/mm) and the bicortical screw construct (240±17 N/mm) were not statistically different. The mean stiffness values of both mini-fragment T-plate constructs and the bicortical screw construct were higher than that of a parallel unicortical screw construct (102±20 N/mm). Contoured T-plate constructs provide stiffer initial fixation than a unicortical cancellous screw construct. The T-plate is biomechanically equivalent to a bicortical screw construct, but may be superior in capturing small fragments of bone. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(3):e395-e399.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Fixation free femoral hernia repair with a 3D dynamic responsive implant. A case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G; Romano, G; Agrusa, A; Gordini, L; Gulotta, E; Erdas, E; Calò, P G

    2018-04-23

    To date, no gold standard for the surgical treatment of femoral hernia exists. Pure tissue repair as well as mesh/plug implantation, open or laparoscopic, are the most performed methods. Nevertheless, all these techniques need sutures or mesh fixation. This implies the risk of damaging sensitive structures of the femoral area, along with complications related to tissue tear and postoperative discomfort consequent to poor quality mesh incorporation. The present retrospective multicenter case series highlights the results of femoral hernia repair procedures performed with a 3D dynamic responsive implant in a cohort of 32 patients during a mean follow up of 27 months. Aiming to simplify the surgical procedure and reduce complications, a 3D dynamic responsive implant was delivered for femoral hernia repair, in a patient cohort. After returning the hernia sack to the abdominal cavity, the implant was simply delivered into the hernia defect where it remained, thanks to its inherent centrifugal expansion, obliterating the hernia opening without need of fixation. Postoperative pain assessment was determined using the VAS score system. The use of the 3D prosthetic device allowed for easier and faster surgical repair in a fixation free fashion. None of the typical fixation related complications occurred in the examined patients. Postoperative pain assessment with VAS score showed a very low level of pain, allowing the return of patients to normal activities in extremely reduced times. In the late postoperative period, no discomfort or chronic pain was reported. Femoral hernia repair with the 3D dynamic revealed a quick and safe placement procedure. The reduced pain intensity, as well as the absence of adverse events consequent to sutures or mesh fixation, seems to be a significant benefit of the motile compliance of the device. Furthermore, this 3D prosthesis has already proven to induce an enhanced probiotic response showing ingrowth in the implant of the typical tissue

  12. Only fixation for cervical spondylosis: Report of early results with a preliminary experience with 6 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The author reports early post-operative outcome and preliminary experience with an alternative form of treatment of cervical degenerative or spondylotic disease leading to spinal canal stenosis that involves fixation-arthrodesis of the affected spinal segment using one or two (double insurance transarticular screws for each joint. Materials and Methods: During the period of months from March 2013 to July 2013, six patients having cervical spondylotic cord compression were treated with transarticular method of screw fixation of the involved segments. The operation involved section of the spinous process at its base, opening up of the facet joint, denuding of articular cartilage, placement of intraarticular cavity bone graft chips and insertion of either a single or two transarticular screws at each level. The fixation was done in four levels in four patients and at two levels in two patients. Japanese Orthopedic Association score, visual analog scale (neck pain and Odom′s criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patients before and after the surgery and at follow-up. Results: Immediate post-operative and a relatively short-term post-operative outcome was remarkably gratifying. During the average period of follow-up of 6 months (range: 3-8 months; there was varying degree of recovery of symptoms. The procedure resulted in firm stabilization and fixation of the spinal segment and provided a ground for arthrodesis. No patient worsened after treatment. During the period of follow-up, all patients showed remarkable and progressive recovery in symptoms. Conclusions: Vertical instability and telescoping, listhesis or overriding of the facets on physical activity seems to be the defining phenomenon in pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic disease. The clinical outcome in our patients suggest that only fixation of the spinal segment can be a rationale form of treatment. Transarticular method of treatment is a simple, safe and

  13. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  14. "Cold" Fixation: Reconciliation of Nitrogen Fixation Rates and Diazotroph Assemblages in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, A. A.; Waite, A.; Rost, B.; Richter, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of biological nitrogen fixation are typically conducted in oligotrophic subtropical and tropical marine environments where concentrations of fixed inorganic nitrogen are low. To date, only a handful of nitrogen fixation studies have been conducted in high latitude marine environments, but further investigation is needed to resolve the distribution of cold ocean diazotrophic assemblages. Nitrogen fixation rates and nifH gene distributions were measured at seven stations from 5°E to 20°E, north of 81°N in the Arctic Ocean at the onset of summer 2015. Discrete water samples in ice-covered regions were collected from the sea surface to 200 m for 15N2-tracer additions and targeted nifH gene and transcript analyses. Previous work suggests that heterotrophic bacteria dominate diazotrophic communities in the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, additional nifH gene surveys of sinking particles were conducted to test for enrichment on organic matter-rich microenvironments. Together, these measurements aim to reconcile diazotrophic activity with microbial community composition, further elucidating how nitrogen fixers could impact current concepts in polar carbon and nutrient cycling.

  15. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    much lower, and the performance gained can dramatically reduce life -cycle costs. Validated cost data are scarce, and accurate AM cost models need to be...reduce costs, minimize obsolescence issues and improve both capability and readi- ness across the entire life cycle of naval systems—including both the...of naval weapon systems. The Navy is actively engaging its various communi- ties to align needs and ensure that AM can be safely acceler- ated and

  16. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  17. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  18. Spinopelvic Fixation of Sacroiliac Joint Fractures and Fracture-Dislocations: A Clinical 8 Years Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Mohammad R; Abrisham, Seyed Mohammad J; Vakili, Mahmood; Shirdel, Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic ring injuries and sacroiliac dislocations have significant impacts on patient's quality of life. Several techniques have been described for posterior pelvic fixation. The current study has been designed to evaluate the spinopelvic method of fixation for sacroiliac fractures and fracture-dislocations. Between January 2006 and December 2014, 14 patients with sacroiliac joint fractures, dislocation and fracture-dislocation were treated by Spinopelvic fixation at Shahid Sadoughi Training Hospital, Yazd, Iran. Patients were seen in follow up, on average, out to 32 months after surgery. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of injuries. A functional assessment of the patients was performed using Majeed's score. Patient demographics, reduction quality, loss of fixation, outcomes and complications, return to activity, and screw hardware characteristics are described. The injury was unilateral in 11 (78.5%) patients and bilateral in 3 (21.5%). Associated injuries were present in all patients, including fractures, dislocation and abdominal injuries. Lower limb length discrepancy was less than 10 mm in all patients except two. Displacement, as a measure of quality of reduction was less than 5 mm in 13 patients. The mean Majeed score was 78/100. Wound infection and hardware failure were observed in 3 (21.4%) and 1 (7.1%) cases, respectively. In this study most patients (85%) return to work postoperatively. According to the findings, spinopelvic fixation is a safe and effective technique for treatment of sacroiliac injuries. This method can obtain early partial to full weight bearing and possibly reduce the complications.

  19. Spinopelvic Fixation of Sacroiliac Joint Fractures and Fracture-Dislocations: A Clinical 8 Years Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Sobhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic ring injuries and sacroiliac dislocations have significant impacts on patient’s quality of life. Several techniques have been described for posterior pelvic fixation. The current study has been designed to evaluate the spinopelvic method of fixation for sacroiliac fractures and fracture-dislocations.   Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2014, 14 patients with sacroiliac joint fractures, dislocation and fracture-dislocation were treated by Spinopelvic fixation at Shahid Sadoughi Training Hospital, Yazd, Iran. Patients were seen in follow up, on average, out to 32 months after surgery. Computed tomographic (CT scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of injuries. A functional assessment of the patients was performed using Majeed’s score. Patient demographics, reduction quality, loss of fixation, outcomes and complications, return to activity, and screw hardware characteristics are described Results: The injury was unilateral in 11 (78.5% patients and bilateral in 3 (21.5%. Associated injuries were present in all patients, including fractures, dislocation and abdominal injuries. Lower limb length discrepancy was less than 10 mm in all patients except two. Displacement, as a measure of quality of reduction was less than 5 mm in 13 patients. The mean Majeed score was 78/100. Wound infection and hardware failure were observed in 3 (21.4% and 1 (7.1% cases, respectively. In this study most patients (85% return to work postoperatively. Conclusion: According to the findings, spinopelvic fixation is a safe and effective technique for treatment of sacroiliac injuries. This method can obtain early partial to full weight bearing and possibly reduce the complications.

  20. Proximal humeral fractures: the role of calcium sulphate augmentation and extended deltoid splitting approach in internal fixation using locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, K; Huber, C P; Babu, V; Zadeh, H

    2013-04-01

    injury. Four patients had a longer recovery period due to stiffness, associated wrist fracture and elbow dislocation. The CaSO4 bone substitute was replaced by normal appearing trabecular bone texture at an average of 6 months in all patients. In our experience, we have found the use of locking plates, calcium sulphate bone substitute and tuberosity repair with high-strength sutures to be a safe and reliable method of internal fixation for complex proximal humeral fractures and fracture-dislocations. Furthermore, we have also found the use of the extended deltoid-splitting approach to be safe and to provide excellent exposure facilitating accurate reduction for fixation of the fracture patterns involving displacement of both lesser and greater tuberosities and for fracture-dislocations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporary Stabilization with External Fixator in ‘Tripolar’ Configuration in Two Steps Treatment of Tibial Pilon Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghino, Walter; Messina, Marco; Filipponi, Marco; Alessandro, Massè

    2016-01-01

    Background: The tibial pilon fractures represent a complex therapeutic problem for the orthopedic surgeon, given the frequent complications and outcomes disabling. The recent medical literature indicates that the best strategy to reduce amount of complications in tibial pilon fractures is two-stages procedure. We describe our experience in the primary stabilization of these fractures. Methods: We treated 36 cases with temporary external fixation in a simple configuration, called "tripolar": this is an essential structure (only three screws and three rods), that is possible to perform even without the availability of X-rays and with simple anesthesia or sedation. Results: We found a sufficient mechanical stability for the nursing post-operative, in absence of intraoperative and postoperative problems. The time between trauma and temporary stabilization ranged between 3 and 144 hours; surgical average time was 8.4 minutes. Definitive treatment was carried out with a delay of a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 15 days from the temporary stabilization, always without problems, both in case of ORIF (open reduction, internal fixation) or circular external fixation Conclusion: Temporary stabilization with external fixator in ‘tripolar’ configuration seems to be the most effective strategy in two steps treatment of tibial pilon fractures. These preliminary encouraging results must be confirmed by further studies with more cases. PMID:27123151

  2. Free flap reconstructions of tibial fractures complicated after internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, H; Kuokkanen, H; Tukiainen, E; Asko-Seljavaara, S

    1995-04-01

    The cases of 15 patients are presented where microvascular soft-tissue reconstructions became necessary after internal fixation of tibial fractures. Primarily, seven of the fractures were closed. Eleven fractures had originally been treated by open reduction and internal fixation using plates and screws, and four by intramedullary nailing. All of the patients suffered from postoperative complications leading to exposure of the bone or fixation material. The internal fixation material was removed and radical revision of dead and infected tissue was carried out in all cases. Soft tissue reconstruction was performed using a free microvascular muscle flap (11 latissimus dorsi, three rectus abdominis, and one gracilis). In eight cases the nonunion of the fracture indicated external fixation. The microvascular reconstruction was successful in all 15 patients. In one case the recurrence of deep infection finally indicated a below-knee amputation. In another case, chronic infection with fistulation recurred postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 26 months the soft tissue coverage was good in all the remaining 13 cases. All the fractures united. Microvascular free muscle flap reconstruction of the leg is regarded as a reliable method for salvaging legs with large soft-tissue defects or defects in the distal leg. If after internal fixation of the tibial fracture the osteosynthesis material or fracture is exposed, reconstruction of the soft-tissue can successfully be performed by free flap transfer. By radical revision, external fixation, bone grafting, and a free flap the healing of the fracture can be achieved.

  3. Skin Graft Fixation Using Hydrofiber (Aquacel® Extra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ya-Hui; Lin, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Honda; Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Yi-Wen; Li, Wan-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Nan; Huang, Chieh-Chi

    2018-06-01

    The traditional method of skin graft fixation is with tie-over bollus dressing. The use of splints in the extremities for skin graft fixation is a common practice. However, these splints are heavy and uncomfortable and contribute considerably to our overall medical waste. Hydrofiber (Aquacel Extra) has a strong fluid absorption property and fixates well to the underlying wound once applied. In this study, we used hydrofiber for fixation, avoiding the use of splints after skin grafting. A total of 56 patients reconstructed with split-thickness skin graft that was fixated only with hydrofiber between March 2015 and March 2016 were included in this retrospective study. There were 44 men and 12 women with a mean age of 61 ± 18 years. The defect size ranged from 1 × 1 cm for fingertips to 30 × 12 cm for lower limb defects. The average defect size was 61 ± 78 cm. The mean skin graft take was 96% ± 6%. Because splints were not required, we saved around 48 kg of medical waste over the space of 1 year. The use of hydrofiber for skin graft fixation was effective and technically very simple. Splints were not required with this method, decreasing the medical waste created and increasing patient comfort. We suggest that this is an excellent alternative for skin graft fixation while at the same time decreasing our carbon footprint as surgeons.

  4. Fracture healing using degradable magnesium fixation plates and screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Amy; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Verdelis, Kostas; Noorani, Sabrina; Costello, Bernard J; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Internal bone fixation devices made with permanent metals are associated with numerous long-term complications and may require removal. We hypothesized that fixation devices made with degradable magnesium alloys could provide an ideal combination of strength and degradation, facilitating fracture fixation and healing while eliminating the need for implant removal surgery. Fixation plates and screws were machined from 99.9% pure magnesium and compared with titanium devices in a rabbit ulnar fracture model. Magnesium device degradation and the effect on fracture healing and bone formation were assessed after 4 weeks. Fracture healing with magnesium device fixation was compared with that of titanium devices using qualitative histologic analysis and quantitative histomorphometry. Micro-computed tomography showed device degradation after 4 weeks in vivo. In addition, 2-dimensional micro-computed tomography slices and histologic staining showed that magnesium degradation did not inhibit fracture healing or bone formation. Histomorphology showed no difference in bone-bridging fractures fixed with magnesium and titanium devices. Interestingly, abundant new bone was formed around magnesium devices, suggesting a connection between magnesium degradation and bone formation. Our results show potential for magnesium fixation devices in a loaded fracture environment. Furthermore, these results suggest that magnesium fixation devices may enhance fracture healing by encouraging localized new bone formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  6. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  7. How safe are nuclear plants? How safe should they be?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1988-01-01

    It has become customary to think about safety of nuclear plants in terms of risk as defined by the WASH-1400 study that some of the implications for the non-specialist escape our attention. Yet it is known that a rational program to understand safety, to identify unsafe events, and to use this kind of information or analysis to improve safety, requires us to use the methods of quantitative risk assessment. How this process can be made more understandable to a broader group of nontechnical people and how can a wider acceptance of the results of the process be developed have been questions under study and are addressed in this report. These are questions that have been struggled with for some time in the world of nuclear plant safety. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission examined them for several years as it moved toward developing a position on safety goals for nuclear plants, a requirement that had been assigned it by Congress. Opinion was sought from a broad spectrum of individuals, within the field of nuclear power and outside it, on the topic that was popularly called, ''How safe is safe enough?'' Views were solicited on the answer to the question and also on the way the answer should be framed when it was adopted. This report discusses the public policy and its implementation

  8. Bilateral sacroiliac luxation fixation using a single transiliosacral pin: surgical technique and clinical outcomes in eight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, A; Simpson, D J

    2017-06-01

    A very limited safe anatomical window for transiliosacral implant placement exists in cats (sacroiliac fixation in cats using a single implant to minimise inadvertent iatrogenic damage to local structures and restore pelvic canal diameter. Eight cats underwent surgical fixation for traumatic bilateral sacroiliac luxation using a single smooth intramedullary pin. The pin spanned both ilial wings and sacrum. Implants were applied using a Universal C-guide. Pre- and postsurgery pelvic canal diameter ratios were calculated. Short-term follow-up was performed at 10 to 14 days postoperatively. Long-term follow-up was performed using the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index Questionnaire. Long-term radiographic assessment was available in two cases. The technique achieved safe and accurate implant position with precise sacroiliac joint reduction. Pelvic canal diameter ratios were restored to normal in all cases. Rapid return to normal hind leg function and excellent long-term clinical outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a simple, safe, repeatable and affordable technique for treating bilateral sacroiliac luxations in the cat without the aid of fluoroscopy. The procedure can be performed using surgical tools and inventory readily available in general small animal practices. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Early Experience with Biodegradable Fixation of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mazeed, Ahmed Salah; Shoeib, Mohammed Abdel-Raheem; Saied, Samia Mohammed Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This clinical study aims to evaluate the stability and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced poly-l/dl-lactide (SR-PLDLA) plates and screws for fixation of pediatric mandibular fractures. The study included 12 patients (3–12 years old) with 14 mandibular fractures. They were treated by open reduction and internal fixation by SR-PLDLA plates and screws. Maxillomandibular fixation was maintained for 1 week postoperatively. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and...

  10. Operative Fixation Options for Elective and Diabetic Ankle Arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, Crystal L; Stapleton, John J; Zgonis, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Ankle arthrodesis remains one of the most definitive treatment options for end-stage arthritis, paralysis, posttraumatic and postinfectious conditions, failed total ankle arthroplasty, and severe deformities. The general aims of ankle arthrodesis are to decrease pain and instability, correct the accompanying deformity, and create a stable plantigrade foot. Several surgical approaches have been reported for ankle arthrodesis with internal fixation options. External fixation has also evolved for ankle arthrodesis in certain clinical scenarios. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of midterm to long-term outcomes for ankle arthrodesis using internal and/or external fixation each for elective and diabetic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Isolated Kalanchoe Chloroplasts 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Carolyn; Gibbs, Martin

    1975-01-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 μmoles of CO2 per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1% of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO2 fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. PMID:16659249

  12. Small intrinsically safe reactor implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Reviewing the history of nuclear power, it is found that peaceful uses of nuclear power are children of the war-like atom. Importance of special growth in a shielded environment is emphasized to exploit fully the advantages of nuclear power. Nuclear power reactors must be safe for their assimilation into society from the points of view of both technology and social psychology. ISR/ISER is identified as a missing link in the development of nuclear power reactors from this perspective and advocated for international development and utilization, being unleashed from the concerns of politicization, safety, and proliferation

  13. Mifrenz: Safe email for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hunt

    Full Text Available Products currently available for monitoring children\\'s email usage are either considered to encourage dubious ethical behaviour or are time consuming for parents to administer. This paper describes the development of a new email client application for children called Mifrenz. This new application gives parents the ability to let their children safely use email, with the minimum of intervention. It was developed using mostly free software and also with the desire to provide real first hand programming examples to demonstrate to students.

  14. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  15. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw internal fixation device (INFIX) vs external fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Esquivel, Amanda O; Jin, Xin; Yang, King H; Onwudiwe, Ndidi A; Vaidya, Rahul

    2012-09-27

    We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX). This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX) and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation). Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01) at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017) at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  16. Limited Blood Transfusions Are Safe in Orthopaedic Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Andrea J; Morris, William Z; Como, John J; Wagner, Karl G; Vallier, Heather A

    2016-12-01

    Controversy exists over association of blood transfusions with complications. The purpose was to assess effects of limited transfusions on complication rates and hospital course. Level 1 trauma center. Three hundred seventy-one consecutive patients with Injury Severity Score ≥16 underwent fixation of fractures of spine (n = 111), pelvis (n = 72), acetabulum (n = 57), and/or femur (n = 179). Those receiving >3 units of packed red blood cell were excluded. Fracture type, associated injuries, treatment details, ventilation time, complications, and hospital stay were prospectively recorded. Ninety-eight patients with 107 fractures received limited transfusion, and 119 patients with 123 fractures were not transfused. The groups did not differ in age, fracture types, time to fixation, or associated injuries. Lowest hematocrit was lower in the transfused group (22.8 vs. 30.0, P < 0.0001). Surgical duration (3:23 vs. 2:28) and estimated blood loss (462 vs. 211 mL) were higher in transfused patients (all P < 0.003). Pulmonary complications occurred in 12% of transfused and 4% of nontransfused, (P = 0.10). Mean days of mechanical ventilation (2.51 vs. 0.45), intensive care unit days (4.5 vs. 1.5) and total hospital stay (8.8 vs. 5.7) were higher in transfused patients (all P ≤ 0.006). After multivariate analysis, limited transfusion was associated with increased hospital and intensive care unit stays and mechanical ventilation time, but not with complications. Patients receiving ≤3 units of packed red blood cell had lower hematocrit and greater surgical burden, but no difference in complications versus the nontransfused group. Limited blood transfusions are likely safe, excepting a possible association with longer mechanical ventilation times and hospital stays. Therapeutic level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Paediatric tibial shaft fractures treated by open reduction and stabilization with monolateral external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A-L; Apostolou, N; Vidal, C; Ferrero, E; Mazda, K; Ilharreborde, B

    2018-02-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is increasingly used for surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures, but frequently requires immobilization and delayed full weight-bearing. Therefore, external fixation remains interesting. The aim was to report clinico-radiological outcomes of monolateral external fixation for displaced and unstable tibial shaft fractures in children. All tibial fractures consecutively treated by monolateral external fixation between 2008 and 2013 were followed. Inclusion criteria included skeletal immaturity and closed and open Gustilo I fractures caused by a direct impact. Patients were seen until two years postoperatively. Demographics, mechanism of injury, surgical data and complications were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral side radiographs were performed at each visit. Full-limb 3D reconstructions using biplanar stereroradiography was performed for final limb length and alignment measures. A total of 45 patients (mean age 9.7 years ± 0.5) were included. In all, 17 were Gustilo I fractures, with no difference between open and closed fractures for any data. Mean time to full weight bearing was 18.2 days ± 0.7. After 15 days, 39 patients returned to school. Hardware removal (mean time to union 15.6 weeks ± 0.8) was performed during consultation under analgesic gas. There were no cases of nonunion. No fracture healed with > 10° of angulation (mean 5.1° ± 0.4°). Leg-length discrepancy > 10 mm was found for six patients. This procedure can be a safe and simple surgical treatment for children with tibial shaft fractures. Few complications and early return to school were reported, with the limitations of non-comparative study. IV.

  18. Paediatric tibial shaft fractures treated by open reduction and stabilization with monolateral external fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.-L.; Apostolou, N.; Vidal, C.; Ferrero, E.; Mazda, K.; Ilharreborde, B.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is increasingly used for surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures, but frequently requires immobilization and delayed full weight-bearing. Therefore, external fixation remains interesting. The aim was to report clinico-radiological outcomes of monolateral external fixation for displaced and unstable tibial shaft fractures in children. Methods All tibial fractures consecutively treated by monolateral external fixation between 2008 and 2013 were followed. Inclusion criteria included skeletal immaturity and closed and open Gustilo I fractures caused by a direct impact. Patients were seen until two years postoperatively. Demographics, mechanism of injury, surgical data and complications were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral side radiographs were performed at each visit. Full-limb 3D reconstructions using biplanar stereroradiography was performed for final limb length and alignment measures. Results A total of 45 patients (mean age 9.7 years ± 0.5) were included. In all, 17 were Gustilo I fractures, with no difference between open and closed fractures for any data. Mean time to full weight bearing was 18.2 days ± 0.7. After 15 days, 39 patients returned to school. Hardware removal (mean time to union 15.6 weeks ± 0.8) was performed during consultation under analgesic gas. There were no cases of nonunion. No fracture healed with > 10° of angulation (mean 5.1° ± 0.4°). Leg-length discrepancy > 10 mm was found for six patients. Conclusions This procedure can be a safe and simple surgical treatment for children with tibial shaft fractures. Few complications and early return to school were reported, with the limitations of non-comparative study. Level of Evidence IV PMID:29456750

  19. Surgical outcome of anterior decompression, grafting and fixation in caries of dorsolumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadd, H.I.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcome of anterior decompression, grafting and fixation in tuberculosis of the dorsal and lumbar spine with compression over the neural tissue and neural deficit. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurosurgery Unit-I, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, from January 2008 to March 2012. Methodology: Patients with caries spine having compression over the thecal sac with neurological deficit and kyphosis were included in the study. Patients below 17 years and above 56 years of age; those with bed sores and unfit for anesthesia were excluded from the study. Complete blood picture with ESR, X-rays of chest and of the relevant spinal level, and MRI were done. All patients were treated with corpectomy, debridement, drainage of abscess and grafting followed by fixation with poly-axial screws and rods. All patients were assessed by ASIA Impairment Scale before and after surgery and with Bridwell grading after surgery. Results: Among 79 patients, 47 were males and 32 females. The mean age was 35.97 ± 8.8 years. The commonest level involved was the dorsolumbar junction (n=42, 53.16%). Lower limb power improved to ambulatory level in 60% of patients with complete paraplegia; recovery was excellent in patients with partial weakness; only 2 patients (2.53%) deteriorated to a lower grade. There was no postoperative mortality. One patient had long ICU stay due to lung injury. Conclusion: Corpectomy followed by grafting and fixation is safe and effective procedure for dorsolumbar spinal caries. Even those patients presenting with complete paraplegia showed improvement in motor power to ambulatory level and those who had partial deficit showed excellent improvement. (author)

  20. Biomechanical comparison of supraacetabular external fixation and anterior pelvic bridge plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Ali Turgay; Erbay, Fatma Kübra; Özsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Demir, Teyfik

    2017-10-01

    Unstable pelvic ring injuries are complex and risky injuries due to high morbidity and mortality. Although anterior pelvic external fixator is a suitable method for rapid stabilization of an injured pelvic ring, due to some disadvantages such as high complication rate, nerve damage, and difficulties of patient's mobility and comfort, there has recently been increased searching for alternative methods for stabilization of the pelvic ring. Pubic symphysis zone freely moves in pelvic models. This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical stability of anterior pelvic bridge plating and compare it with supraacetabular external fixators in an untreated unstable pelvic fracture model. Samples were loaded statically with 2-mm/min loading rate in single leg standing position. Maximum load was 2.3 kN. When loading the samples, photographs were taken continuously. Stiffness values were calculated from the load displacement curves. Some reference parameters were described and were measured from unloaded and 2.3-kN-loaded photographs of the test. The mean stiffness values were 491.14 ± 52.22, 478.55 ± 41.44, and 470.25 ± 44.51 N/mm for anterior pelvic bridge plating group, supraacetabular external fixator group, and Control group, respectively. According to the measured parameters from photographs, the mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 4.7 ± 0.32, 15.8 ± 2.01, and 18.2 ± 0.47 mm for anterior pelvic bridge plating, supraacetabular external fixator, and Control group, respectively. The highest displacement in the pubic symphysis was found in Control group, and minimum displacement was observed in anterior pelvic bridge plating group. When the perpendicular distance between the right and left lower end of ischium was examined, it was observed that displacement was minimum in anterior pelvic bridge plating group compared to other two groups, regarding to the high stability of pubic symphysis. In conclusion, this study revealed

  1. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  4. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  5. Necrotizing fasciitis after internal fixation of fracture of femoral trochanteric ? ??

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Leandro Em?lio Nascimento; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Figueiredo, Leonardo Brand?o; Soares, Eduardo Augusto Marques

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and potentially lethal soft tissue infection. We report a case of trochanteric femur fracture in a patient who underwent fracture fixation and developed necrotizing fasciitis. A literature review on the topic will be addressed.

  6. Use of 15N methodology to assess biological nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, G.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of legumes are their ability in symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen for growth. For proper management and a full realization of the benefits of this plant-microbial association, it is necessary to estimate how much nitrogen is fixed under different conditions in the field. It is only after this is known that various factors can be manipulated so as to increase the amount and proportion of N a plant derives from biological fixation. A suitable method for accurately measuring the amount of N crops derive from fixation is therefore an important requirement in any programme aimed at maximizing biological nitrogen fixation. There are several methods available to measure N 2 fixation (Bergersen, 1980) based on (1) increment in N yield and plant growth, (2) nitrogen balance (3) acetylene reduction and (4) the use of isotopes of N. Only isotopic methods will be illustrated here. 20 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  7. Outcome of complex tibial plateau fractures treated with external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil H Mankar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: We believe that minimally invasive treatment by percutaneous techniques and external fixation is a fairly reasonable treatment alternative, if near anatomical reduction of joint surface can be confirmed on fluoroscopy.

  8. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hole Y plates with monocortical screws. 150 N incisal occlusal loads were simulated on the models. The commercial ANSYS software was utilized to calculate the Von Mises stresses on fixative appliances. Results: The highest Von Mises stress ...

  9. Cyanobacteria Occurrence and Nitrogen Fixation Rates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Nitrogen Fixation, Seagrass, Seaweed Farming. Abstract—The .... during every sampling period, using a mercury thermometer and a ..... Capone, D.G. (1993) Determination of nitrogenase activity in aquatic samples ...

  10. A new 3-dimensional head fixation device for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Akaizawa, Takashi; Koyama, Masamichi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new head fixation device for studies of brain function. This device was designed to immobilize subject's heads during image scanning and to precisely reproduce the head position for two different imaging modalities such as MRI and PET. The device consists of a plastic frame, a pillow filled with beads of styrene foam, and a face mask of thermoplastic resin which was originally intended for application in radiotherapy. A bridge for biting was incorporated into the mask for stable fixation. The device enables immobilization of subject's heads with good reproducibility of position at the practical level. Our results indicate that this head fixation system is useful for fixation of head during activation studies using PET. (author)

  11. Nitrogen fixation rates in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Gauns, M.; Kurian, S.; Bardhan, P.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Shenoy, D.M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences bloom of the diazotroph Trichodesmium during certain times of the year when optimal sea surface temperature and oligotrophic condition favour their growth. We measured nitrogen fixation rates in the euphotic zone during...

  12. Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soertini, G.; Hendratno

    1988-01-01

    Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants. Research activities comprising of three experiments were carried out to screen several soybean varieties and mutants for symbiotic N fixation potential. The first two experiments involved screening of seven rhizobium strains/isolate for effective N fixation. Depending on the medium used, plant response to strains was different. In sterile medium, rhizobium strain USDA 136, 142 and TAL 102 showed a high nitrogen fixation potential. In soil only rhizobium strain USDA 110 had better performance and proved to be competitive to the native strains. Nitrogen-15 dilution method was used to screen nitrogen fixing ability of several soybean varieties and mutants. Guntur variety showed a better response to high dose of N fertilizer without disturbance in its fixing ability. This variety then was considered good to be introduced in the cropping system. (author). 8 refs

  13. Fixation of tritium in a highly stable polymer form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Colombo, P.; Pruzansky, J.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the fixation of tritium comprises reacting tritiated water with calcium carbide to produce calcium hydroxide and tritiated acetylene, polymerizing the acetylene, and then incorporating the polymer in a solidifying matrix. 2 claims

  14. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Biological nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the mission was to assist the counterpart scientists in the analysis and interpretation of data relating to nitrogen fixation studies on grain legumes. The report briefly summarizes the discussions that were held with the counterparts

  15. Root contact with maxillomandibular fixation screws in orthognathic surgery: incidence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, I B; Van Sickels, J E; Laureano Filho, J R; Cunningham, L L

    2016-08-01

    The use of maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) screws in orthognathic surgery has become common in recent years. The risk of injury to adjacent roots with their placement in this population has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to review the incidence and consequences of root contact/injury in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. A retrospective analysis of the treatment and radiographic records of patients who underwent orthognathic surgery between January 2013 and September 2014 at a university in Kentucky, USA was performed. The mean number of screws used was correlated to the mean number of roots affected using Spearman's test, set to a level of significance of 5%. Of 125 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery, 15 (12%) had evidence of root contact. Subsequent radiographs showed resolution of the bone defects. There was no clinical evidence of pulpal necrosis or pain during follow-up. The average number of screws used was 3.14±0.35 per patient, with an average of 0.17±0.52 root contacts per patient. There was no correlation between the number of screws used and the number of roots injured (P=0.279). Based on these results, MMF screws can safely be used to establish interim fixation during orthognathic surgery. Caution should be taken during placement to avoid direct injury to the roots of teeth. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-bent elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation for distal radial shaft fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yi-hua; Wang, Zhi-gang; Cai, Hai-qing; Yang, Jie; Xu, Yun-lan; Li, Yu-chan; Zhang, Yu-chen; Chen, Bo-chang

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the functional and radiographic outcomes of pre-bent elastic stable intramedullary nail in treatment of distal radial shaft fractures in children. From January 2006 to December 2008, 18 children with distal radial shaft fracture were treated by close reduction and internal fixation with a pre-bent elastic stable intramedullary nail. The age range was from 5 years to 15 years, with an average of 9 years and 8 months. The minimum follow-up was 12 months. All fractures maintained good alignment postoperatively, and 94.4% (17/18) of the patients regained a full range of rotation of the forearm. One patient has limitation of rotation to less than 10°, this had improved by final follow-up. Complications included soft tissue irritation at the site of nail insertion in one patient and transient scar hypersensitivity in another. Fixation with a pre-bent elastic stable intramedullary nail is an effective, safe and convenient method for treating distal radial shaft fractures in children. © 2010 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Open reduction and internal fixation of patellar fractures with tension band wiring through cannulated screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mudasir; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a relatively new technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures with tension band wiring (TBW) through parallel cannulated compression screws. A total of 30 patients with displaced transverse patellar fracture were enrolled in this prospective study. Of the 30 patients, 20 patients had trauma due to fall, 5 due to road traffic accident, 2 due to fall of heavy object on the knee, 2 due to forced flexion of knee, and 1 had fracture due to being beaten. All 30 patients were treated with vertical skin exposure, fracture open reduction, and internal fixation by anterior TBW through 4.0 mm cannulated screws. The postoperative rehabilitation protocol was standardized. The patients were followed postsurgery to evaluate time required for radiographic bone union, knee joint range of motion (ROM), loss of fracture reduction, material failure, and the overall functional result of knee using Bostman scoring. All the fractures healed radiologically, at an average time of 10.7 weeks (range, 8-12 weeks). The average ROM arc was 129.7 degrees (range, 115-140 degrees). No patient had loss of fracture reduction, implant migration, or material failure. The average Bostman score was 28.6 out of 30. Anterior TBW through cannulated screws for displaced transverse fractures is safe and effective alternative treatment. Good functional results and recovery can be expected. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Brandner

    Full Text Available To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population.Retrospective study.Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed.Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident.Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate.

  19. Mechanical compliance and immunological compatibility of fixative-free decellularized/cryopreserved human pericardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Vinci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pericardial tissue is commonly used to produce bio-prosthetic cardiac valves and patches in cardiac surgery. The procedures adopted to prepare this tissue consist in treatment with aldehydes, which do not prevent post-graft tissue calcification due to incomplete xeno-antigens removal. The adoption of fixative-free decellularization protocols has been therefore suggested to overcome this limitation. Although promising, the decellularized pericardium has not yet used in clinics, due to the absence of proofs indicating that the decellularization and cryopreservation procedures can effectively preserve the mechanical properties and the immunologic compatibility of the tissue. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the present work was to validate a procedure to prepare decellularized/cryopreserved human pericardium which may be implemented into cardiovascular homograft tissue Banks. The method employed to decellularize the tissue completely removed the cells without affecting ECM structure; furthermore, uniaxial tensile loading tests revealed an equivalent resistance of the decellularized tissue to strain, before and after the cryopreservation, in comparison with the fresh tissue. Finally, immunological compatibility, showed a minimized host immune cells invasion and low levels of systemic inflammation, as assessed by tissue transplantation into immune-competent mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate, for the first time, that fixative-free decellularized pericardium from cadaveric tissue donors can be banked according to Tissue Repository-approved procedures without compromising its mechanical properties and immunological tolerance. This tissue can be therefore treated as a safe homograft for cardiac surgery.

  20. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Martina; Thaler-Saliba, Sarah; Plainer, Sophie; Vidic, Bertram; El-Shabrawi, Yosuf; Ardjomand, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population. Design Retrospective study. Patients and Methods Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes) underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed. Results Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate. PMID:26110864

  1. Hemivertebrectomy and fixation with titanium cable for congenital scoliosis in children younger than five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango, Luis Alberto; Meneses, David; Montero, Carlos; Naquira, Luis Felipe

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed. The general objective was to describe the results and behavior of patients with congenital scoliosis secondary to hemivertebrae, treated with hemivertebral resection and fixation with titanium cable. There are different types of treatment: anterior fusion, posterior fusion, hemiepiphyseodesis and hemivertebral resection with or without instrumentation. Instrumentation in young children less than five years is difficult because of the pediatric spine devices are still big for this patient group. Between January 1999 and December 2003, 11 hemivertebrae resection in ten children were evaluated clinically and radiologically at admission, after surgery and at mean follow up of 12 months. The mean deformity angle before surgery was 40.8 degrades, 20.4 degrades alter surgery and 12.4 degrades at final follow up. There was one superficial infection and one of two cables rupture. The mean surgical time for double approach was 7.1 hours and for posterior approach was 3.6 hours. The bleeding for double approach was 656cc and for posterior approach was 186cc. The hemivertebral resection with titanium cable fixation is safe and success alternative for treating congenital scoliosis secondary hemivertebrae in young children

  2. Minimally invasive mini open split-muscular percutaneous pedicle screw fixation of the thoracolumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ulutaş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We prospectively assessed the feasibility and safety of a new percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS fixation technique for instrumentation of the thoracic and lumbar spine in this study. All patients were operated in the prone position under general anesthesia. A 6 to 8 cm midline skin incision was made and wide sub-cutaneous dissection was performed. The paravertebral muscles were first dissected subperiosteally into the midline incision of the fascia for lumbar microdiscectomy with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion cage implantation. After the secondary paramedian incisions on the fascia, the PPSs were inserted via cleavage of the multifidus muscles directly into the pedicles under fluoroscopy visualization. A total of 35 patients underwent surgery with this new surgical technique. The control group for operative time, blood loss and analgesic usage consisted of 35 randomly selected cases from our department. The control group underwent surgery via conventional pedicle screw instrumentation with paramedian fusion. All patients in the minimal invasive surgery series were ambulatory with minimal pain on the first postoperative day. The operation time and blood loss and the postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly less with this new technique. In conclusion, the minimal invasive mini open split-muscular percutaneous pedicle screw fixation technique is safe and feasible. It can be performed via a short midline skin incision and can also be combined with interbody fusion, causing minimal pain without severe muscle damage.

  3. The Role of Personality and Team-Based Product Dissection on Fixation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Christine; Miller, Scarlett; Kremer, Gül E. Okudan

    2013-01-01

    Design fixation has been found to be complex in its definition and expression, but it plays an important role in design idea generation. Identifying the factors that influence fixation is crucial in understanding how to enhance the design process and reduce the negative effects of fixation. One way to potentially mitigate fixation is through…

  4. Nitrogen supply of crops by biological nitrogen fixation. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.; Andersen, A.J.; Soerensen, H.; Thomsen, J.D.

    1985-02-01

    In the present work the contributions from combined N-sources and symbiotic nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen supply of field-grown peas and field beans were evaluated by means of 15 N fertilizer dilution. The effect of N-fertilizer, supplied at sowing and at different stages of plant development, on nitrogen fixation, yield and protein production in peas, was studied in pot experiments. (author)

  5. A Novel Handmade External Fixator for Phalangeal and Metacarpal Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Jafari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The value of external fixation in complex hand injuries is well established. Expenses and technical difficulties of commercial mini external fixator sets have led to the innovation of handmade external fixators. These fixators are used as versatile facilities to treat certain hand fractures. Usually, these structures are made by k-wires crossed filled with cement plastic tube. However, these fixators have multiple deficiencies that should be addressed. Objectives In this study, we described in detail the surgical technique of a handmade concrete like mini external fixator and report its clinical use and results. Methods Our handmade external fixator was applied for 52 patients with 56 fractures. Only 5% of the fractures were closed, non-comminuted extra-articular, and the other 51 fractures were more complex injuries. The mean follow up time was 9.3 months. At the end of the follow up, radiologic and functional assessment (DASH: Disability of arm, shoulder and hand and TAM: Total active motion was evaluated. Results All 56 fractures were united completely. None of the cases experienced pin loosening or reduction loss. Of the fractures, 8.9% malunited due to fracture complexity. The mean dash score was 3.76. TAM was excellent in 45% of the fractures; it was good in 7% and fair in 4%. Conclusions This type of handmade external fixator is simple, lightweight, and cheap. Furthermore, all implements are readily available in most operating fields. The probability of loosening has been greatly diminished because of the concrete like structure. Easy and fast assembly and good clinical and functional results are the other advantages of this technique. Due to the less complication and benefits, this technique could be used for many phalangeal and metacarpal fractures with confidence.

  6. Postinflammatory ossicular fixation: CT analysis with surgical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.D.; Wolfson, R.J.; Marlowe, F.I.; Popky, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Postinflammatory ossicular fixation is a common problem encountered by the otologic surgeon upon exploration because of conductive hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. These nonotosclerotic noncongenital lesions take three pathologic forms: fibrous tissue fixation (chronic adhesive otitis media), hyalinization of collagen (tympanosclerosis), and new bone formation (fibro-osseous sclerosis). More than 300 patients with the clinical diagnosis of chronic otitis media have been examined. This study encompasses 23 proved cases

  7. External fixation of tibial pilon fractures and fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Jukka

    2007-06-01

    Distal tibial fractures are rare and difficult to treat because the bones are subcutaneous. External fixation is commonly used, but the method often results in delayed union. The aim of the present study was to find out the factors that affect fracture union in tibial pilon fractures. For this purpose, prospective data collection of tibial pilon fractures was carried out in 1998-2004, resulting in 159 fractures, of which 83 were treated with external fixation. Additionally, 23 open tibial fractures with significant > 3 cm bone defect that were treated with a staged method in 2000-2004 were retrospectively evaluated. The specific questions to be answered were: What are the risk factors for delayed union associated with two-ring hybrid external fixation? Does human recombinant BMP-7 accelerate healing? What is the role of temporary ankle-spanning external fixation? What is the healing potential of distal tibial bone loss treated with a staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting compared to other locations of the tibia? The following risk factors for delayed healing after external fixation were identified: post-reduction fracture gap of >3 mm and fixation of the associated fibula fracture. Fracture displacement could be better controlled with initial temporary external fixation than with early definitive fixation, but it had no significant effect on healing time, functional outcome or complication rate. Osteoinduction with rhBMP-7 was found to accelerate fracture healing and to shorten the sick leave. A staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting proved to be effective in the treatment of tibial bone loss. Healing potential of the bone loss in distal tibia was at least equally good as in other locations of the tibia.

  8. Bilateral spontaneous subluxation of scleral-fixated intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud I; Nemet, Arie; Sachs, Dani

    2002-12-01

    Two young men with primary ectopic lenses had intracapsular cataract extraction and scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) using 10-0 polypropylene sutures tied to the IOL eyelets. Three to 9 years after implantation, spontaneous IOL vertical subluxation occurred in all 4 eyes (5 IOL loops), probably because of suture breakage. Late subluxation of a sutured IOL may occur several years after implantation. Double fixation and thicker sutures should be considered, especially in young patients.

  9. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  10. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  11. Plant densities and modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Javier de Luca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean nitrogen (N demands can be supplied to a large extent via biological nitrogen fixation, but the mechanisms of source/sink regulating photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation in high yielding cultivars and current crop management arrangements need to be investigated. We investigated the modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] at different plant densities. A field trial was performed in southern Brazil with six treatments, including non-inoculated controls without and with N-fertilizer, both at a density of 320,000 plants ha−1, and plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii at four densities, ranging from 40,000 to 320,000 plants ha−1. Differences in nodulation, biomass production, N accumulation and partition were observed at stage R5, but not at stage V4, indicating that quantitative and qualitative factors (such as sunlight infrared/red ratio assume increasing importance during the later stages of plant growth. Decreases in density in the inoculated treatments stimulated photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation per plant. Similar yields were obtained at the different plant densities, with decreases only at the very low density level of 40,000 plants ha−1, which was also the only treatment to show differences in seed protein and oil contents. Results confirm a fine tuning of the mechanisms of source/sink, photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation under lower plant densities. Higher photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates are capable of sustaining increased plant growth.

  12. Effects of tissue fixation and dehydration on tendon collagen nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Mikael J; Khayyeri, Hanifeh; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Isaksson, Hanna

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the most prominent protein in biological tissues. Tissue fixation is often required for preservation or sectioning of the tissue. This may affect collagen nanostructure and potentially provide incorrect information when analyzed after fixation. We aimed to unravel the effect of 1) ethanol and formalin fixation and 2) 24h air-dehydration on the organization and structure of collagen fibers at the nano-scale using small and wide angle X-ray scattering. Samples were divided into 4 groups: ethanol fixed, formalin fixed, and two untreated sample groups. Samples were allowed to air-dehydrate in handmade Kapton pockets during the measurements (24h) except for one untreated group. Ethanol fixation affected the collagen organization and nanostructure substantially and during 24h of dehydration dramatic changes were evident. Formalin fixation had minor effects on the collagen organization but after 12h of air-dehydration the spatial variation increased substantially, not evident in the untreated samples. Generally, collagen shrinkage and loss of alignment was evident in all samples during 24h of dehydration but the changes were subtle in all groups except the ethanol fixed samples. This study shows that tissue fixation needs to be chosen carefully in order to preserve the features of interest in the tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal: percutaneous bicortical fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vivek; Chung, Hyun Wook; Suh, Jin Soo

    2011-06-01

    Displaced intraarticular zone I and displaced zone II fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal bone are frequently complicated by delayed nonunion due to a vascular watershed. Many complications have been reported with the commonly used intramedullary screw fixation for these fractures. The optimal surgical procedure for these fractures has not been determined. All these observations led us to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous bicortical screw fixation for treating these fractures. Twenty-three fractures were operatively treated by bicortical screw fixation. All the fractures were evaluated both clinically and radiologically for the healing. All the patients were followed at 2 or 3 week intervals till fracture union. The patients were followed for an average of 22.5 months. Twenty-three fractures healed uneventfully following bicortical fixation, with a mean healing time of 6.3 weeks (range, 4 to 10 weeks). The average American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 94 (range, 90 to 99). All the patients reported no pain at rest or during athletic activity. We removed the implant in all cases at a mean of 23.2 weeks (range, 18 to 32 weeks). There was no refracture in any of our cases. The current study shows the effectiveness of bicortical screw fixation for displaced intraarticular zone I fractures and displaced zone II fractures. We recommend it as one of the useful techniques for fixation of displaced zone I and II fractures.

  14. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  15. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  16. Workshop on Developing Safe Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23, 1992, at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was learned from the workshop

  17. Workshop on developing safe software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23 at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was teamed from the workshop

  18. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  19. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...... process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...

  20. Spark-safe power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, I M; Konushkin, N A; Nevozinskiy, A K; Rubinshteyn, B Sh; Serov, V I; Vasnev, M A

    1981-01-01

    A shortcoming of the known power sources is their low reliability. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of the device. This is achieved because the spark-safe power source is equipped with a by-passing transistor and potentiometer, and also a generator of control interruptions in the circuit, an I-element, first separating transformer, control block, second separating transformer whose secondary winding has a relay winding whose contacts are connected to the load circuit are connected in series. The generator of control separations of the circuit is connected to the base of the by-passing transistor and to the power source outlet, the potentiometer is connected in series to the main thyristor. The middle point of the potentiometer is connected to the second inlet of the I-element.

  1. Absence of a Tourniquet Does Not Affect Fixation of Cemented TKA: A Randomized RSA Study of 70 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Ashir; Laursen, Anders C; Jakobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Poul Torben; Laursen, Mogens B

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to determine whether not using a tourniquet in cemented TKA would affect migration of the tibial component measured by radiosterometric analysis (RSA). Seventy patients were randomized into a tourniquet group and a non-tourniquet group and using model-based RSA, the migration of the tibial component was analyzed. Primary and secondary outcome measures were maximum total point motion (MTPM) and translations and rotations. Follow-up period was 2 years. The tibial component was well fixated in both groups and no significant difference in migration between the two groups was detected (P=0.632). Mean MTPM (SD) was 0.47 mm (0.16) in the tourniquet group and 0.45 mm (0.21) in the non-tourniquet group. Absence of tourniquet indicates that stable fixation of the tibial component can be achieved in cemented TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  3. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  4. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  5. The importance of regulation of nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    I am not a proponent of including more detail in models simply because it makes them more realistic. More complexity increases the difficulty of model interpretation, so it only makes sense to include complexity if its benefit exceeds its costs. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) is one process for which I feel the benefits of including greater complexity far outweigh the costs. I don't think that just because I work on BNF; I work on BNF because I think that. BNF, a microbial process carried out by free-living and symbiotic microbes, is the dominant N input to many ecosystems, the primary mechanism by which N deficiency can feed back to N inputs, and a main mechanism by which N surplus can develop. The dynamics of BNF, therefore, have huge implications for the rate of carbon uptake and the extent of CO2 fertilization, as well as N export to waterways and N2O emissions to the atmosphere. Unfortunately, there are serious deficiencies in our understanding of BNF. One main deficiency in our understanding is the extent to which various symbiotic N fixing organisms respond to imbalanced nutrition. Theory suggests that these responses, which I will call "strategies," have fundamental consequences for N fixer niches and ecosystem-level N and C cycling. Organisms that fix N regardless of whether they need it, a strategy that I will call "obligate," occupy post-disturbance niches and rapidly lead to N surplus. On the contrary, organisms that only fix as much N as they need, a "facultative" strategy, can occupy a wider range of successional niches, do not produce surplus N, and respond more rapidly to increased atmospheric CO2. In this talk I will show new results showing that consideration of these strategies could on its own explain the latitudinal distribution of symbiotic N fixing trees in North America. Specifically, the transition in N-fixing tree abundance from ~10% of basal area south of 35° latitude to ~1% of basal area north of 35° latitude that we observe

  6. Computed tomography- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults: a new technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Browaeys, Patrick; Nouri, Yasir; Ibba, Caroline [Hopital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Radiology, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Research Institute, Department of Radiology, Nice (France); Boileau, Pascal [Hopital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nice (France)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults. Ten consecutive adult patients (four men and six women; mean age: 57.1 [range, 44-78 years]) were prospectively treated by percutaneous screw fixation for low-grade (six grade 1 and four grade 2) isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5. For each patient, two 4.0-mm Asnis III cannulated screws were placed to fix the pars interarticularis defects. All procedures were performed under local anaesthesia by using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. Post-operative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The procedure time ranged from 45 to 60 min. The mean screw length was 27 mm (range, 24-32 mm). The VAS and ODI measurements {+-} SD decreased from 7.8 {+-} 0.9 preoperatively to 1.5 {+-} 1.1 at the last 2-year follow-up, and from 62.3 {+-} 17.2 to 15.1 {+-} 6.0, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Neither slip progression nor screw failure was noted. This feasibility study showed that CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation could be a rapid, safe and effective method of treating low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomography- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults: a new technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Browaeys, Patrick; Nouri, Yasir; Ibba, Caroline; Hauger, Olivier; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Boileau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults. Ten consecutive adult patients (four men and six women; mean age: 57.1 [range, 44-78 years]) were prospectively treated by percutaneous screw fixation for low-grade (six grade 1 and four grade 2) isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5. For each patient, two 4.0-mm Asnis III cannulated screws were placed to fix the pars interarticularis defects. All procedures were performed under local anaesthesia by using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. Post-operative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The procedure time ranged from 45 to 60 min. The mean screw length was 27 mm (range, 24-32 mm). The VAS and ODI measurements ± SD decreased from 7.8 ± 0.9 preoperatively to 1.5 ± 1.1 at the last 2-year follow-up, and from 62.3 ± 17.2 to 15.1 ± 6.0, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Neither slip progression nor screw failure was noted. This feasibility study showed that CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation could be a rapid, safe and effective method of treating low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  8. Internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones using bioabsorbable screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageed, M; Steinberg, T; Drumm, N; Stubbs, N; Wegert, J; Koene, M

    2018-03-01

    Fractures involving the proximal one-third of the splint bone are relatively rare and are challenging to treat. A variety of management techniques have been reported in the literature. The aim of this retrospective case series was to describe the clinical presentation and evaluate the efficacy of bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws in internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones in horses. The medical records, diagnostic images and outcome of all horses diagnosed with a proximal fracture of the splint bones and treated with partial resection and internal fixation of the proximal stump using bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. Eight horses met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were no complications encountered during screw placement or postoperatively. Six horses returned to full work 3 months after the operation and two horses remained mildly lame. On follow-up radiographs 12 months postoperatively (n = 2) the screws were not completely absorbed. The screws resulted in a cone-shaped radiolucency, which was progressively replaced from the outer margins by bone sclerosis. The use of bioabsorbable screws for fixation of proximal fractures of the splint bone appears to be a safe and feasible technique and may offer several advantages over the use of traditional metallic implants. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Combined 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy and scleral fixation of intraocular lens without conjunctival dissection in managing lens complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ling; Wang, Nan-Kai; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Jen

    2018-04-23

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy and scleral fixation of intraocular lens (IOL) without conjunctival dissection. A retrospective study in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung and Taoyuan, Taiwan. Patients receiving combined 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy and scleral fixation of IOL without conjunctival dissection were enrolled. The ocular findings, causes of lens complication, surgical procedures, type of IOL used, and complications were documented. We included 40 eyes from 39 patients (27 male, 12 female) with a mean age of 59.5 [standard deviation (±) 14.8] years old. The mean follow-up duration was 6.8 ± 5.4 months. The cause of lens complications was ocular trauma in 24 (60%) eyes, cataract surgery complications in 11 (28%) eyes, and spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens in 5 (13%) eyes. The overall best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (logMAR) improved from 1.359 ± 0.735 to 0.514 ± 0.582 (p IOL decentration was found in 3 (8%) eyes and 1 (3%) eye respectively. Combined 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy and scleral fixation of IOL without conjunctival dissection is effective and safe in managing a wide variety of lens complications, with good postoperative comfort and visual recovery. Retrospective study, not applicable.

  10. Safe Handover : Safe Patients - The Electronic Handover System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS.

  11. Safe semi-supervised learning based on weighted likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Masanori; Takeuchi, Jun'ichi

    2014-05-01

    We are interested in developing a safe semi-supervised learning that works in any situation. Semi-supervised learning postulates that n(') unlabeled data are available in addition to n labeled data. However, almost all of the previous semi-supervised methods require additional assumptions (not only unlabeled data) to make improvements on supervised learning. If such assumptions are not met, then the methods possibly perform worse than supervised learning. Sokolovska, Cappé, and Yvon (2008) proposed a semi-supervised method based on a weighted likelihood approach. They proved that this method asymptotically never performs worse than supervised learning (i.e., it is safe) without any assumption. Their method is attractive because it is easy to implement and is potentially general. Moreover, it is deeply related to a certain statistical paradox. However, the method of Sokolovska et al. (2008) assumes a very limited situation, i.e., classification, discrete covariates, n(')→∞ and a maximum likelihood estimator. In this paper, we extend their method by modifying the weight. We prove that our proposal is safe in a significantly wide range of situations as long as n≤n('). Further, we give a geometrical interpretation of the proof of safety through the relationship with the above-mentioned statistical paradox. Finally, we show that the above proposal is asymptotically safe even when n(')

  12. Improving tribological and anti-bacterial properties of titanium external fixation pins through surface ceramic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huan; Mukinay, Tatiana; Li, Maojun; Hood, Richard; Soo, Sein Leung; Cockshott, Simon; Sammons, Rachel; Li, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an advanced ceramic conversion surface engineering technology has been applied for the first time to self-drilling Ti6Al4V external fixation pins to improve their performance in terms of biomechanical, bio-tribological and antibacterial properties. Systematic characterisation of the ceramic conversion treated Ti pins was carried out using Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, nano- and micro-indentation and scratching; the biomechanical and bio-tribological properties of the surface engineered Ti pins were evaluated by insertion into high density bone simulation material; and the antibacterial behaviour was assessed with Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 6571. The experimental results have demonstrated that the surfaces of Ti6Al4V external fixation pins were successfully converted into a TiO 2 rutile layer (~2 μm in thickness) supported by an oxygen hardened case (~15 μm in thickness) with very good bonding due to the in-situ conversion nature. The maximum insertion force and temperature were reduced from 192N and 31.2 °C when using the untreated pins to 182N and 26.1 °C when the ceramic conversion treated pins were tested. This is mainly due to the significantly increased hardness (more than three times) and the effectively enhanced wear resistance of the cutting edge of the self-drilling Ti pins following the ceramic conversion treatment. The antibacterial tests also revealed that there was a significantly reduced number of bacteria isolated from the ceramic conversion treated pins compared to the untreated pins of around 50 % after 20 h incubation, P < 0.01 (0.0024). The results reported are encouraging and could pave the way towards high-performance anti-bacterial titanium external fixation pins with reduced pin-track infection and pin loosing.

  13. New Perspectives on Nitrogen Fixation Measurements Using 15N2 Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Wannicke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the method widely used to determine 15N2 fixation rates in marine and freshwater environments was found to underestimate rates because the dissolution of the added 15N2 gas bubble in seawater takes longer than theoretically calculated. As a solution to the potential underestimate of rate measurements, the usage of the enriched water method was proposed to provide constant 15N2 enrichment. Still, the superiority of enriched water method over the previously used bubble injection remains inconclusive. To clarify this issue, we performed laboratory based experiments and implemented the results into an error analysis of 15N2 fixation rates. Moreover, we conducted a literature search on the comparison of the two methods to calculate a mean effect size using a meta-analysis approach. Our results indicate that the error potentially introduced by an equilibrium phase of the 15N2 gas is −72% at maximum for experiments with very short incubation times of 1 h. In contrast, the underestimation was negligible for incubations lasting 12–24 h (error is −0.2%. Our meta-analysis indicates that 84% of the measurements in the two groups will overlap and there is a 61% chance that a sample picked at random from the enriched water group will have a higher value than one picked at random from the bubble group. Overall, the underestimation of N2 fixation rates when using the bubble method relative to the enriched water method is highly dependent on incubation time and other experimental conditions and cannot be generalized.

  14. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology, making it more

  15. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Braakman

    Full Text Available The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology

  16. Safe Handover : Safe Patients – The Electronic Handover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS. PMID:26734244

  17. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  18. Working safely with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Wynne

    1993-01-01

    In common with exposure to many other laboratory chemicals, exposure to ionising radiations and to radioactive materials carries a small risk of causing harm. Because of this, there are legal limits to the amount of exposure to ionising radiations at work and special rules for working with radioactive materials. Although radiation protection is a complex subject it is possible to simplify to 10 basic things you should do -the Golden Rules. They are: 1) understand the nature of the hazard and get practical training; 2) plan ahead to minimise time spent handling radioactivity; 3) distance yourself appropriately from sources of radiation; 4) use appropriate shielding for the radiation; 5) contain radioactive materials in defined work areas; 6) wear appropriate protective clothing and dosimeters; 7) monitor the work area frequently for contamination control; 8) follow the local rules and safe ways of working; 9) minimise accumulation of waste and dispose of it by appropriate routes, and 10) after completion of work, monitor, wash, and monitor yourself again. These rules are expanded in this article. (author)

  19. Materials for passively safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, T.

    1993-01-01

    Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness

  20. Safe and green nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Energy development plays an important role in the national economic growth. Presently the per capita consumption of energy in our country is about 750 kWh including captive power generation which is low in comparison to that in the developed countries like USA where it is about 12,000 kWh. As of now the total installed capacity of electricity generation is about 152,148 MW(e) which is drawn from Thermal (65%), Hydel (24%), Nuclear (3%) power plants and Renewables (8%). It is expected that by the end of year 2020, the required installed capacity would be more than 3,00,000 MW(e), if we assume per capita consumption of about 800-1000 kWh for Indian population of well over one billion. To meet the projected power requirement in India, suitable options need to be identified and explored for generation of electricity. For choosing better alternatives various factors such as availability of resources, potential to generate commercial power, economic viability, etc. need to be considered. Besides these factors, an important factor which must be taken into consideration is protection of environment around the operating power stations. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the nuclear power generation is an environmentally benign option for meeting the future requirement of electricity in India. It also discusses the need for creating the public awareness about the safe operations of the nuclear power plants and ionising radiation. (author)

  1. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  2. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  3. Iliococcygeus fixation for the treatment of apical vaginal prolapse: efficacy and safety at 5 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serati, Maurizio; Braga, Andrea; Bogani, Giorgio; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Sorice, Paola; Ghezzi, Fabio; Salvatore, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Sacrocolpopexy is considered the gold standard treatment for vaginal vault prolapse. However, the vaginal approach is very common, with 80-90 % of procedures being performed via this route. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of iliococcygeus (ICG) fixation in the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse, with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. We prospectively enrolled women with symptomatic vaginal vault prolapse (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification [POP-Q] stage ≥2) who were treated with ICG fixation. Subjective success was defined in the case of Patient Global Impression of Improvement ≤ 2 and an absence of bulging symptoms. Objective success was defined as stage of prolapse < 2 in all compartments. Overall success rate was defined as women without prolapse symptoms, PGI-I ≤ 2, stage of prolapse < 2, and no need for other surgery. All women filled in the Prolapse Quality of Life (P-QOL) questionnaire both at the preoperative visit and at every follow-up visit. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors involved in the risk of recurrent POP. After a median (range) follow-up of 68.8 (60-92) months the subjective, objective, and overall cure rates were 88.6 % (39 out of 44), 84.1 % (37 out of 44), and 84.1 % (37 out of 44) respectively. Only preoperative stage IV vault descensus independently predicted POP recurrence after iliococcygeus fixation (OR: 8.78 [95 % CI: 1.31-9.42]; p < 0.001). Iliococcygeus fixation is a safe and effective surgical technique for the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse with long-lasting effectiveness.

  4. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...... detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation...

  5. Optimizing pediatric interdental fixation by use of a paramedian palatal fixation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNichols, Colton H; Hatef, Daniel A; Cole, Patrick D; Hollier, Larry H

    2012-03-01

    Condylar fractures are the most common injury seen in pediatric mandibular trauma. These injuries often cannot be adequately stabilized by conservative techniques such as splinting. The pediatric condyle fracture often requires a period of intermaxillary fixation. Because of the characteristics of the developing dentition, circumdental wiring is often not possible. Surgeons commonly achieve interdental stabilization by the connection of a circum-mandibular wire and a second wire placed through a drill hole in the piriform aperture. This method can be problematic in the young patient whose palatal suture is still patent. In this brief technical note, the use of a paramedian drill hole through the palate posterior to the maxillary incisors is described. It is believed that this method is superior to other techniques because it avoids injury to the deciduous tooth buds and allows for the maxillary wire to be seated in more structurally sound tissues.

  6. C-2 anterior plate-screw fixation: a quantitative anatomical and morphometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoglu, M; Ozbag, D; Gumusalan, Y

    2010-01-01

    Discectomy and inter-vertebral body fusion combined with the anterior plate-screw fixa tion is the common procedure in cervical spine surgery. But the anterior plate-screw fixation of the C2 spine has been the uncommon surgical procedure. In this study, we analyze the anatomy of the C2 body relevant to C2 anterior plate-screw fixation. Eighty-six dried C2 spines were evaluated directly for this study. Measurements were made on the C2 body width and midsagittal anteroposterior (AP) depth and the anteroposterior parasagittal depth 5 mm lateral to midline on the inferior endplates, in addition to on the middle body. Measurements also were made of anteroposterior parasagittal vertebral depth with both medial and lateral inclination of 10 degrees, with respect to the parasagittal plane of the vertebral body. The ideal maximum screw length and trajectory was found to be AP medial parasagittal depth of inferior surface of the C2 body [Right: 13.7 +/- 1.4 mm (11.0-17.9), Left: 13.6 +/- 1.5 mm (10.7-17.8)]. We report the measurements of the vertebral body of the C2. We think these measurements provide guidelines for operating on the anterior C2 spine, and enhance the confidence interval for the surgeon (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 24).

  7. Finite element simulation and clinical follow-up of lumbar spine biomechanics with dynamic fixations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Más

    Full Text Available Arthrodesis is a recommended treatment in advanced stages of degenerative disc disease. Despite dynamic fixations were designed to prevent abnormal motions with better physiological load transmission, improving lumbar pain and reducing stress on adjacent segments, contradictory results have been obtained. This study was designed to compare differences in the biomechanical behaviour between the healthy lumbar spine and the spine with DYNESYS and DIAM fixation, respectively, at L4-L5 level. Behaviour under flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation are compared using healthy lumbar spine as reference. Three 3D finite element models of lumbar spine (healthy, DYNESYS and DIAM implemented, respectively were developed, together a clinical follow-up of 58 patients operated on for degenerative disc disease. DYNESYS produced higher variations of motion with a maximum value for lateral bending, decreasing intradiscal pressure and facet joint forces at instrumented level, whereas screw insertion zones concentrated stress. DIAM increased movement during flexion, decreased it in another three movements, and produced stress concentration at the apophyses at instrumented level. Dynamic systems, used as single systems without vertebral fusion, could be a good alternative to degenerative disc disease for grade II and grade III of Pfirrmann.

  8. The Effect of Insertion Technique on Temperatures for Standard and Self-Drilling External Fixation Pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah; Lee, Adam K; Widmaier, James C

    2017-08-01

    No studies have assessed the effects of parameters associated with insertion temperature in modern self-drilling external fixation pins. The current study assessed how varying the presence of irrigation, insertion speed, and force impacted the insertion temperatures of 2 types of standard and self-drilling external fixation half pins. Seventy tests were conducted with 10 trials for 4 conditions on self-drilling pins, and 3 conditions for standard pins. Each test used a thermocouple inside the pin to measure temperature rise during insertion. Adding irrigation to the standard pin insertion significantly lowered the maximum temperature (P drilling pin tests dropped average rise in temperature from 151.3 ± 21.6°C to 124.1 ± 15.3°C (P = 0.005). When the self-drilling pin insertion was decreased considerably from 360 to 60 rpm, the temperature decreased significantly from 151.3 ± 21.6°C to 109.6 ± 14.0°C (P drilling pin temperature increase was not significant. The standard pin had lower peak temperatures than the self-drilling pin for all conditions. Moreover, slowing down the insertion speed and adding irrigation helped mitigate the temperature increase of both pin types during insertion.

  9. Using synthetic biology to distinguish and overcome regulatory and functional barriers related to nitrogen fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation is a complex process requiring multiple genes working in concert. To date, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene cluster, divided into seven operons, is one of the most studied systems. Its nitrogen fixation capacity is subject to complex cascade regulation and physiological limitations. In this report, the entire K. pneumoniae nif gene cluster was reassembled as operon-based BioBrick parts in Escherichia coli. It provided ~100% activity of native K. pneumoniae system. Based on the expression levels of these BioBrick parts, a T7 RNA polymerase-LacI expression system was used to replace the σ(54-dependent promoters located upstream of nif operons. Expression patterns of nif operons were critical for the maximum activity of the recombinant system. By mimicking these expression levels with variable-strength T7-dependent promoters, ~42% of the nitrogenase activity of the σ(54-dependent nif system was achieved in E. coli. When the newly constructed T7-dependent nif system was challenged with different genetic and physiological conditions, it bypassed the original complex regulatory circuits, with minor physiological limitations. Therefore, we have successfully replaced the nif regulatory elements with a simple expression system that may provide the first step for further research of introducing nif genes into eukaryotic organelles, which has considerable potentials in agro-biotechnology.

  10. [Staple fixation for the treatment of hamate metacarpal joint injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang-Hua; Zeng, Lin-Ru; Huang, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Zhen-Shuang; Xin, Da-Wei; Xu, Can-Da

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effcacy of the staple fixation for the treatment of hamate metacarpal joint injury. From May 2009 to November 2012,16 patients with hamate metacarpal joint injury were treated with staple fixation including 10 males and 6 females with an average age of 33.6 years old ranging from 21 to 57 years. Among them, 11 cases were on the fourth or fifth metacarpal base dislocation without fractures, 5 cases were the fourth or fifth metacarpal base dislocation with avulsion fractures of the back of hamatum. Regular X-ray review was used to observe the fracture healing, joint replacement and position of staple fixation. The function of carpometacarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal joint were evaluated according to ASIA (TAM) system evaluation method. All incision were healed well with no infection. All patients were followed up from 16 to 24 months with an average of (10.0 +/- 2.7) months. No dislocation recurred, the position of internal fixator was good,no broken nail and screw withdrawal were occurred. Five patients with avulsion fracture of the back of hamatum achieved bone healing. The function of carpometacarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal was excellent in 10 cases,good in 5 cases, moderate in 1 case. The application of the staple for the treatment of hamatometacarpal joint injury has the advantages of simple operation, small trauma, reliable fixation, early postoperative function exercise and other advantages, which is the ideal operation mode for hamatometacarpal joint injury.

  11. Relative strength of tailor's bunion osteotomies and fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Todd B; LaPointe, Stephan J

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of data is available on the mechanical strength of fifth metatarsal osteotomies. The present study was designed to provide that information. Five osteotomies were mechanically tested to failure using a materials testing machine and compared with an intact fifth metatarsal using a hollow saw bone model with a sample size of 10 for each construct. The osteotomies tested were the distal reverse chevron fixated with a Kirschner wire, the long plantar reverse chevron osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, a mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, the mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, and an additional cerclage wire and a transverse closing wedge osteotomy fixated with a box wire technique. Analysis of variance was performed, resulting in a statistically significant difference among the data at p chevron was statistically the strongest construct at 130 N, followed by the long plantar osteotomy at 78 N. The chevron compared well with the control at 114 N, and they both fractured at the proximal model to fixture interface. The other osteotomies were statistically and significantly weaker than both the chevron and the long plantar constructs, with no statistically significant difference among them at 36, 39, and 48 N. In conclusion, the chevron osteotomy was superior in strength to the sagittal and transverse plane osteotomies and similar in strength and failure to the intact model. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of cemented and uncemented fixation in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas E; Harper, Benjamin L; Bjorgul, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to :1. Understand the rationale behind using uncemented fixation in total knee arthroplasty.2.Discuss the current literature comparing cemented and uncemented total knee arthroplasty3. Describe the value of radiostereographic analysis in assessing implant stability.4. Appreciate the limitations in the available literature advocating 1 mode of fixation in total knee arthroplasty. Total knee arthroplasty performed worldwide uses either cemented, cementless, or hybrid (cementless femur with a cemented tibia) fixation of the components. No recent literature review concerning the outcomes of cemented vs noncemented components has been performed. Noncemented components offer the potential advantage of a biologic interface between the bone and implants, which could demonstrate the greatest advantage in long-term durable fixation in the follow-up of young patients undergoing arthroplasty. Several advances have been made in the backing of the tibial components that have not been available long enough to yield long-term comparative follow-up studies. Short-term radiostereographic analysis studies have yielded differing results. Although long-term, high-quality studies are still needed, material advances in biologic fixation surfaces, such as trabecular metal and hydroxyapatite, may offer promising results for young and active patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty when compared with traditional cemented options. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  14. Fixation Probability in a Haploid-Diploid Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Otto, Sarah P

    2017-01-01

    Classical population genetic theory generally assumes either a fully haploid or fully diploid life cycle. However, many organisms exhibit more complex life cycles, with both free-living haploid and diploid stages. Here we ask what the probability of fixation is for selected alleles in organisms with haploid-diploid life cycles. We develop a genetic model that considers the population dynamics using both the Moran model and Wright-Fisher model. Applying a branching process approximation, we obtain an accurate fixation probability assuming that the population is large and the net effect of the mutation is beneficial. We also find the diffusion approximation for the fixation probability, which is accurate even in small populations and for deleterious alleles, as long as selection is weak. These fixation probabilities from branching process and diffusion approximations are similar when selection is weak for beneficial mutations that are not fully recessive. In many cases, particularly when one phase predominates, the fixation probability differs substantially for haploid-diploid organisms compared to either fully haploid or diploid species. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Fixation orientation in ankle fractures with syndesmosis injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, Craig J; Collman, David R; Lagaay, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate reduction of the syndesmosis has been shown to be an important prognostic factor for functional outcome in ankle injuries that disrupt the syndesmosis. The purpose of the present case series was to assess the fixation orientation and the position of the fibula within the tibial incisura after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures with syndesmosis injury. Computed tomography was used to assess the accuracy of the reduction. Twelve patients were included in the present case series. A ratio representing the relationship between the tibia and fibula and the orientation of the syndesmotic fixation was measured preoperatively and postoperatively and compared with the uninjured contralateral ankle, representing the patient's normal anatomy. The measurements were accomplished electronically to one tenth of 1 mm using Stentor Intelligent Informatics, I-site, version 3.3.1 (Phillips Electronics; Andover, MA). Posteriorly oriented syndesmotic fixation caused posterior translation of the fibula with respect to the tibia and anteriorly oriented syndesmotic fixation caused anterior translation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  17. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  18. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.; Walker, J.L.; Polito, J.

    1981-11-01

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  19. EEG Negativity in Fixations Used for Gaze-Based Control: Toward Converting Intentions into Actions with an Eye-Brain-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Sergei L.; Nuzhdin, Yuri O.; Svirin, Evgeny P.; Trofimov, Alexander G.; Fedorova, Anastasia A.; Kozyrskiy, Bogdan L.; Velichkovsky, Boris M.

    2016-01-01

    We usually look at an object when we are going to manipulate it. Thus, eye tracking can be used to communicate intended actions. An effective human-machine interface, however, should be able to differentiate intentional and spontaneous eye movements. We report an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker that differentiates gaze fixations used for control from spontaneous fixations involved in visual exploration. Eight healthy participants played a game with their eye movements only. Their gaze-synchronized EEG data (fixation-related potentials, FRPs) were collected during game's control-on and control-off conditions. A slow negative wave with a maximum in the parietooccipital region was present in each participant's averaged FRPs in the control-on conditions and was absent or had much lower amplitude in the control-off condition. This wave was similar but not identical to stimulus-preceding negativity, a slow negative wave that can be observed during feedback expectation. Classification of intentional vs. spontaneous fixations was based on amplitude features from 13 EEG channels using 300 ms length segments free from electrooculogram contamination (200–500 ms relative to the fixation onset). For the first fixations in the fixation triplets required to make moves in the game, classified against control-off data, a committee of greedy classifiers provided 0.90 ± 0.07 specificity and 0.38 ± 0.14 sensitivity. Similar (slightly lower) results were obtained for the shrinkage Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA) classifier. The second and third fixations in the triplets were classified at lower rate. We expect that, with improved feature sets and classifiers, a hybrid dwell-based Eye-Brain-Computer Interface (EBCI) can be built using the FRP difference between the intended and spontaneous fixations. If this direction of BCI development will be successful, such a multimodal interface may improve the fluency of interaction and can possibly become the basis for a new input device

  20. EEG Negativity in Fixations Used for Gaze-Based Control: Toward Converting Intentions into Actions with an Eye-Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei L. Shishkin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We usually look at an object when we are going to manipulate it. Thus, eye tracking can be used to communicate intended actions. An effective human-machine interface, however, should be able to differentiate intentional and spontaneous eye movements. We report an electroencephalogram (EEG marker that differentiates gaze fixations used for control from spontaneous fixations involved in visual exploration. Eight healthy participants played a game with their eye movements only. Their gaze-synchronized EEG data (fixation-related potentials, FRPs were collected during game’s control-on and control-off conditions. A slow negative wave with a maximum in the parietooccipital region was present in each participant’s averaged FRPs in the control-on conditions and was absent or had much lower amplitude in the control-off condition. This wave was similar but not identical to stimulus-preceding negativity, a slow negative wave that can be observed during feedback expectation. Classification of intentional vs. spontaneous fixations was based on amplitude features from 13 EEG channels using 300 ms length segments free from electrooculogram contamination (200..500 ms relative to the fixation onset. For the first fixations in the fixation triplets required to make moves in the game, classified against control-off data, a committee of greedy classifiers provided 0.90 ± 0.07 specificity and 0.38 ± 0.14 sensitivity. Similar (slightly lower results were obtained for the shrinkage LDA classifier. The second and third fixations in the triplets were classified at lower rate. We expect that, with improved feature sets and classifiers, a hybrid dwell-based Eye-Brain-Computer Interface (EBCI can be built using the FRP difference between the intended and spontaneous fixations. If this direction of BCI development will be successful, such a multimodal interface may improve the fluency of interaction and can possibly become the basis for a new input device for

  1. Pediatric mandibular fractures treated by rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G B

    1993-09-01

    Mandibular fractures in the pediatric patient population are relatively uncommon. These patients present with their own unique treatment requirements. Most fractures have been treated conservatively by dental splints. Closed reduction techniques with maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in very young children can pose several concerns, including cooperation, compliance and adequate nutritional intake. Rigid internal fixation of unstable mandibular fractures using miniplates and screws circumvents the need for MMF and allows immediate jaw mobilization. At major pediatric trauma institutions, there has been an increasing trend toward the use of this treatment when open reduction is necessary. This article presents a report of a five-year-old child who presented with bilateral mandibular fractures and was treated by rigid internal fixation and immediate mandibular mobilization.

  2. Buckminsterfullerenes: a non-metal system for nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Makoto; Uemura, Sakae; Takekuma, Shin-Ichi; Takekuma, Hideko; Yoshida, Zen-Ichi

    2004-03-18

    In all nitrogen-fixation processes known so far--including the industrial Haber-Bosch process, biological fixation by nitrogenase enzymes and previously described homogeneous synthetic systems--the direct transformation of the stable, inert dinitrogen molecule (N2) into ammonia (NH3) relies on the powerful redox properties of metals. Here we show that nitrogen fixation can also be achieved by using a non-metallic buckminsterfullerene (C60) molecule, in the form of a water-soluble C60:gamma-cyclodextrin (1:2) complex, and light under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. This metal-free system efficiently fixes nitrogen under mild conditions by making use of the redox properties of the fullerene derivative.

  3. Operative Fixation of Rib Fractures Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, David; Taylor, Benjamin; McLaurin, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are extremely common injuries and vary in there severity from single nondisplaced fractures to multiple segmental fractures resulting in flail chest and respiratory compromise. Historically, rib fractures have been treated conservatively with pain control and respiratory therapy. However this method may not be the best treatment modality in all situations. Operative fixation of select rib fractures has been increasing in popularity especially in patients with flail chest and respiratory compromise. Newer techniques use muscle sparing approaches and precontoured locking plate technology to obtain stable fixation and allow improved respiration. Current reports shows that rib fracture fixation offers the benefits of improved respiratory mechanics and improved pain control in the severe chest wall injury with resultant improvement in patient outcomes by decreasing time on the ventilator, time in the intensive care unit, and overall hospital length of stay.

  4. Single absorbable polydioxanone pin fixation for distal chevron bunion osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deorio, J K; Ware, A W

    2001-10-01

    The distal chevron osteotomy is a well-established technique for correction of symptomatic mild to moderate metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformity. Fixation of the osteotomy ranges from none to bone pegs, Kirschner wires, screws, or absorbable pins. We evaluated one surgeon's (J.K.D.) results of distal chevron osteotomy fixation with a single, nonpredrilled, 1.3-mm poly-p-dioxanone pin and analyzed any differences in patients with unilateral or bilateral symptomatic metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformities. All osteotomies healed without evidence of infection, osteolysis, nonunion, or necrosis. Equal correction was achieved in unilateral and bilateral procedures. The technique is quick and easy, and adequate fixation is achieved.

  5. Can we improve fixation and outcomes? Use of bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Antonio; Larsson, Sune; Hoang Kim, Amy; Gelsomini, Letizia; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2009-07-01

    Hip fractures secondary to osteoporosis are common in the elderly. Stabilizing these fractures until union is achieved is a challenge due to poor bone stock and insufficient purchase of the implant to the bone. The reported high rate of complications has prompted extensive research in the development of fixation techniques. Furthermore, manipulation of both the local fracture environment in terms of application of growth factors, scaffolds, and mesenchymal cells and the systemic administration of agents promoting bone formation and bone strength has been considered as a treatment option with promising results. There are only a few evidence-based studies reporting on fixation augmentation techniques. This article reports on the efficacy of bone graft substitutes for the fixation of hip fractures, in particular calcium phosphates, which have been used as granules, cements, and implant coatings.

  6. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  7. Clinical comparison between the retromandibular approach for reduction and fixation and endoscope-assisted open reduction and internal fixation for mandibular condyle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Shinnosuke; Takahashi, Tetsu; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yamashita, Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Endoscope-assisted transoral open reduction and internal fixation (EAORIF) for mandibular condyle fractures has recently become popular because it is minimally invasive, provides excellent visibility without a large incision, and reduces surgical scarring and the risk of facial nerve injury. This report describes a retrospective clinical study that compared certain clinical parameters, including postoperative function, between the retromandibular (RM) approach and EAORIF. Fifteen patients were treated by the RM approach, whereas 15 underwent EAORIF between July 2006 and September 2011 at Kyushu Dental College, Japan. Clinical indices comprised fracture line, fracture type, number of plates used, surgical duration, bleeding amount, and functional items, including maximum interincisal opening, mandibular deviation on the opening pathway, malocclusion, facial paresthesia, and temporomandibular joint pain and clicking. The areas subjected to either approach included lower neck and subcondyle. The RM approach was used for mandibular condyle fractures with dislocation of a small bone segment. Both groups used 2 plates in all cases. Surgical duration, maximum interincisal opening, mandibular deviation, occlusion, and temporomandibular joint function at 6 months after surgery were comparable between groups. The average bleeding amount in the EAORIF group was greater than in the RM group. One patient from the RM group developed facial paresthesia that persisted for 6 months after surgery. It was concluded that surgical treatment was suitable for fractures of the lower neck and subcondylar. Both procedures showed good results in the functional items of this study.

  8. The Comparison of Lichtenstein Procedure with and without Mesh-Fixation for Inguinal Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyzullah Ersoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Although inguinal hernia repair is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the world, the best repair method has not gained acceptance yet. The ideal repair must be safe, simple, and easy to perform and require minimal dissection which provides enough exploration, maintain patient’s comfort in the early stage, and also be cost-effective, reducing operation costs, labor loss, hospital stay, and recurrence. Materials and Methods. There were eighty-five patients between the ages of 18 and 75, diagnosed with inguinal hernia in our clinic. Lichtenstein procedure for hernia repair was performed under spinal anesthesia in all patients. Forty-two patients had the standard procedure and, in 43 patients, the polypropylene mesh was used without fixation. All patients were examined and questioned on the 7th day of the operation in terms of pain, scrotal edema, and the presence of seroma and later on in the 6th postoperative month in terms of paresthesia, neuropraxia, and recurrence by a single physician. Results. Operative time and pain scores in the nonfixation group were significantly lower, without any increase in rates of recurrence. Conclusion. Based on these findings, in Lichtenstein hernia repair method, nonfixation technique can be used safely with better results.

  9. Estimation of nitrogen fixation in Saccharum spp. by 15N dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mohan

    1994-01-01

    The amount of nitrogen fixed by bacteria associated with the roots of Saccharum spontaneum, S. sinense, and S. barberi has been estimated by 15 N-isotope dilution method using Sclerotachya fusca as a non-fixing control. S. spontaneum produced highest shoot dry weight among the species tested but maximum nitrogen was accumulated by S. barberi. Highest dilution in the 15 N-enrichment was observed in S. spontaneum followed by S. sinense and S. barberi in comparison to the control plant of Sclerotchya fusca. S. spontaneum derived 60 per cent followed by S. sinense 54 per cent and S. barberi 35 per cent of their total nitrogen requirement through fixation of nitrogen by diazotrophic bacteria associated with their roots. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Characteristics of nitrogen fixation of mixed diazotrophs associated with rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Fan; Wang Zhengfang; Wang Yaodong; Song Wei

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of N 2 fixation of diazotrophs associated with rice plant in paddy soils in Nanjing was studied by 15 N tracing technique. The results showed that amount of N fixed by rice plant was 1.03 kg/666.7 m 2 and the rate of fixed N was 6.7%. The maximum N fixed was occurred during jointing-complete heading stage. The daily average amount of N fixed reached to 24.31 mg/m 2 ·day. The fixed N of jointing-complete heading stage was 40.9% of that whole rice growth stage. The amount of fixed N during jointing-maturing stage was over 70% of whole rice growth stage. The economic benefits for fertilizer saving was 13.3 kg/666.7 m 2 of ammonium sulphate. The yield of rice grain was increased by 4.14% after inoculation with the mixed diazotrophs

  11. Dependence of carbon dioxide concentration on microalgal carbon dioxide fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yeoung Sang; Park, Song Moon [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea); Bolesky, Bohumil [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Batch cultivation of chlorella vulgaris was carried out under various CO{sub 2} concentrations in order to understand and describe mathematically the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation. The volumetric CO{sub 2} transfer coefficient from mixture gas to culture medium was estimated from the volumetric O{sub 2} transfer coefficient obtained experimentally. Using this transfer coefficient and aquatic equilibrium relationship between dissolved inorganic carbons, the behavior of dissolved CO{sub 2} was calculated during microalgal culture. When air containing 0.035%(v/v) CO{sub 2} was supplied into microalgal culture, the fixation rate was limited by CO{sub 2} transfer rate. However, the limitation was disappeared by supplying mixture gas containing above 2%(v/v) CO{sub 2} and the dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration was maintained at the saturated value. In the range of CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the flue gases from thermal power sations and steel-making plants, the microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation rate was inhibited. The CO{sub 2} fixation rate was successfully formulated by a new empirical equation as a function of dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration, which could be useful for modeling and simulating the performance of photobioreaction with enriched CO{sub 2}. Also, it was found that the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation was reversible and that microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation process could be stable against a shock of unusually high CO{sub 2} concentration. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Eran; Shiff, Jacob S; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The degree of rigidity of internal fixation required for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures has long been at the center of debate in the literature. A statistical comparison between rigid fixation and monocortical fixation has been difficult because of multiple terms, definitions, and technical variations. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analysis tool to combine information from multiple studies and to compare complication rates for different fixation methods. An English language literature search was conducted for articles on mandibular angle fractures. Information was collected on four variables of interest: compression/noncompression technique, monocortical/bicortical screws, number of plates, and location of plates. Five outcome rates were analyzed: infection, reoperation, hardware removal, malunion, and nonunion. Meta-analyses were run using Comprehensive Meta Analysis, version 2.2.03. Twenty-four studies with relevant data on the variables and outcomes of interest met the inclusion criteria. Significantly higher rates of infection, reoperation, and hardware removal were found for compression compared with noncompression, two plates compared with one plate, and for plates located on both the inferior and superior borders as compared with superior or inferior only. There were also significantly higher infection rates for bicortical screws compared with monocortical screws and higher malunion rates for compression compared with noncompression plating techniques. The results of this meta-analysis found lower complication rates with the use of noncompression, monocortical, and single-plate fixation, supporting the trend toward a single, superiorly placed, monocortical miniplate for fixation of mandibular angle fractures.

  13. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  14. Preliminary experience with biodegradable implants for fracture fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodegradable implants were designed to overcome the disadvantages of metal-based internal fixation devices. Although they have been in use for four decades internationally, many surgeons in India continue to be skeptical about the mechanical strength of biodegradable implants, hence this study. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done to assess the feasibility and surgeon confidence level with biodegradable implants over a 12-month period in an Indian hospital. Fifteen fractures (intra-articular, metaphyseal or small bone fractures were fixed with biodegradable implants. The surgeries were randomly scheduled so that different surgeons with different levels of experience could use the implants for fixation. Results: Three fractures (one humeral condyle, two capitulum, were supplemented by additional K-wires fixation. Trans-articular fixator was applied in two distal radius and two pilon fractures where bio-pins alone were used. All fractures united, but in two cases the fracture displaced partially during the healing phase; one fibula due to early walking, and one radius was deemed unstable even after bio-pin and external fixator. Conclusions: Biodegradable -implants are excellent for carefully selected cases of intra-articular fractures and some small bone fractures. However, limitations for use in long bone fractures persist and no great advantage is gained if a "hybrid" composite is employed. The mechanical properties of biopins and screws in isolation are perceived to be inferior to those of conventional metal implants, leading to low confidence levels regarding the stability of reduced fractures; these implants should be used predominantly in fracture patterns in which internal fixation is subjected to minimal stress.

  15. Growth and carbon fixation rate of calcareous algae cricosphaera carterae. Sekkaiso cricosphaera carterae no zoshoku to tanso kotei sokudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, M; Furusaki, S [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shigematsu, K [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Shigeta, K [Kanagawa Prefectural Office, Yokohama (Japan)

    1993-09-10

    Notice has been given on a calcareous alga among micro marine algae that play an important role in carbon circulation, and the representative alga, Cricosphaera carterae was cultured to discuss growth and carbon fixation rate experimentally. It was found that nutrient salt is taken in more actively in the bright period during which no fission occurs, and less actively during the growth stage in the dark period. Dependence of nitrate concentration on specific growth rate was measured with semi-continuous culture and two formulas were formulated. The specific growth rate was 0.53/d at an average nitrogen concentration on the ocean surface of 15 mg/m[sup 3]. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.9/d, and the fixing ratio of inorganic carbon to organic carbon was roughly 0.1. Further, the alga was cultured with CO2 concentration doubled (to 715 ppm), where no large difference was discovered in the growth and the inorganic carbon fixation. From these findings, the carbon fixation amount due to algae on the entire earth was calculated to roughly 4 billion tons per year. 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Soaking morselized allograft in bisphosphonate can impair implant fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, Jørgen; Bechtold, Joan E

    2007-01-01

    biomechanical implant fixation and graft incorporation. In 10 dogs, a pair of titanium implants surrounded by a 2.5-mm gap was inserted into the proximal part of each humerus during two separate surgeries to allow two observation periods. The gap was filled with impacted, morselized allograft soaked in either...... of implants was observed for 12 weeks and the second pair for 4 weeks. Implants were evaluated by histomorphometry and biomechanical pushout test. We found substantially decreased biomechanical implant fixation for all implants surrounded by impacted, morselized allograft that had been soaked in alendronate...

  17. [Usefullness of intrasacral fixation in an extremely unstable lumbosacral spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Tsukasa; Nishiguchi, Mitsuhisa; Kusaka, Noboru; Takayama, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yasuhiko; Ogihara, Kotaro; Nakagawa, Minoru

    2007-04-01

    Intrasacral fixation technique devised by Jackson is said to provide rigid lumbosacral fixation. We treated 3 cases of lumbosacral lesions using this technique in which lumbosacral segment had become extremely unstable during surgical intervention adding to the effect of original lesions. In all cases, surgeries were performed in 2 stages, intrasacral fixation and anterior stabilization. Case 1: A 52-year-old male was diagnosed fungal discitis and spondylitis at L4 and L5. X-ray showed destruction of the vertebral bodies. L2, L3 and sacrum were fixed posteriorly using the intrasacral fixation technique. One week after the first operation, L4 and L5 vertebral bodies were replaced by long fibula grafts through the extraperitoneal approach. Case 2: A 25-year-old female with cauda equina syndrome and abnormal body form diagnosed as having spondyloptosis in which the entire vertebral body of L5 had descended below the endplate of S1. MR imaging revealed marked canal stenosis at the S1 level. In the first surgery, L5 vertebral body was resected through the transperitoneal approach. After 1 week of bed rest, posterior segments of L5 were resected, L4 was affixed to the sacrum and anterior stabilization was achieved with 2 mesh cages and lumbosacral spine was fixed using the intrasacral fixation technique. Case 3: A 64-year-old female was diagnosed as having pyogenic discitis and osteomyelitis at the L5-S1 level. In spite of successful medical treatment for infection, low back pain continued. Radiologically, L5 vertebral body was shown to have collapsed and slipped anteriorly over the sacrum. L3, L4 and sacrum were fixed by intrasacral fixation. One week after the first operation, the L5/S1 disc and the suppurtive vertebral bodies were resected through the extraperitoneal approach and anterior stabilization was performed with iliac bone grafts. At follow-up for a minimum of 6 months, initial fixation was maintained in all 3 cases and bony fusion was obtained. The

  18. The use of titanium and stainless steel in fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J S; Richards, R G

    2010-11-01

    The use of metal in fracture fixation has demonstrated unrivalled success for many years owing to its high stiffness, strength, biological toleration and overall reliable function. The most prominent materials used are electropolished stainless steel and commercially pure titanium, along with the more recent emergence of titanium alloys. Despite the many differences between electropolished stainless steel and titanium, both materials provide a relatively predictable clinical outcome, and offer similar success for fulfilling the main biomechanical and biological requirements of fracture fixation despite distinctive differences in implant properties and biological responses. This article explores these differences by highlighting the limitations and advantages of both materials, and addresses how this translates to clinical success.

  19. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13 N, 24 Na and 22 Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N 2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  20. Solidification of liquid radioactive concentrates by fixation with cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekar, A.; Breza, M.; Timulak, J.; Krajc, T.

    1985-01-01

    In testing the technology of liquid radioactive wastes cementation, the effect was mainly studied of the content of boric acid and its salts on cement solidification, the effect of additives on radionuclide leachability and the effect of the salt content on the cementation product. On the basis of experimental work carried out on laboratory scale with model samples and samples of radioactive concentrate from the V-1 nuclear power plant, the following suitable composition of the cementation mixture was determined: 40% Portland cement, 40% zeolite containing material and 20% power plant ash. The most suitable ratio of liquid radioactive wastes and the cementation mixture is 0.5. As long as in such case the salt content of the concentrate ranges between 20 and 25%, the cementation product will have a maximum salt content of 10% and a leachability of the order of 10 -3 to 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day with a mechanical strength allowing safe handling. It was also found that the quality processing of the cement paste with degassing, e.g., by vibration, is more effective for the production of a pore-free cementation product than the application of various additives which are supposed to eliminate pore formation. (Z.M.)

  1. Evaluation of two commercial and three home-made fixatives for the substitution of formalin: a formaldehyde–free laboratory is possible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanini Cristina

    2012-09-01

    registered proprietary products, may expand the search for the ideal fixative combining satisfactory morphology with improved preservation of nucleic acids and proteins as well as being easy and safe to dispose of.

  2. Evaluation of two commercial and three home-made fixatives for the substitution of formalin: a formaldehyde–free laboratory is possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    proprietary products, may expand the search for the ideal fixative combining satisfactory morphology with improved preservation of nucleic acids and proteins as well as being easy and safe to dispose of. PMID:22947094

  3. The feasibility and radiological features of sacral alar iliac fixation in an adult population: a 3D imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical treatments for adult spinal deformities often include pelvic fixation, and the feasibility of sacral-2 alar iliac (S2AI screw fixation has been shown previously. However, sometimes S2AI screw fixation cannot be applied due to the presence of an osteolytic lesion or trauma or because the biomechanical properties of only an S2AI screw is insufficient. Therefore, we questioned the feasibility of using sacral AI screws in other segments and determined whether S3AI and S4AI screws have the potential to be used for sacral fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and radiological features of sacral AI fixation in S1–S4 in an adult population using 3D imaging techniques. Methods: Computed tomography (CT scans were taken of 45 patients and were imported into Mimics (Version 10.01, Materialise, Belgium software to reconstruct the 3D digital images. Next, a cylinder (radius of 3.5 mm was drawn to imitate the screw trajectory of a S1–4 AI screw, and every imitated screw in each segment was adjusted to a maximum upward and downward angle to acquire the feasible region. The parameters of the S1–4AI screw trajectories were measured. Results: Sacral AI screws could be successfully imitated using 3D digital imaging. The S4AI screw trajectory could be obtained in 19 of 45 patient images (42.2%, while the feasibility rates of S1AI, S2AI, and S3AI screw fixation were 100%, 100%, and 91.1% (41/45, respectively. The feasible regions of S1AI, S2AI, and S3AI screw trajectories were wide enough, while the adjustable angle of S4AI screws was very small. Conclusion: It is feasible to place S1–2AI screws in the entire adult population and S3–4AI screws in some of the adult population. Furthermore, our study suggested that 3D digital images are suitable to study the feasibility of new screw fixation.

  4. Modified fixation with pinning and external fixation components for feline femur multiple-lined fracture: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S.; Matuhashi, A.

    1992-01-01

    A 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat, weighing 3kg, was referred to us because of right hind leg lameness occuring for 3 days' duration. Radiography of the affected leg revealed severe femoral diaphysial comminuted fracture. The affected leg was treated using wire with an intramedullary Stainman pin being placed completely through the femur. After suturing the wound, both ends of the intramedullary pin exposed both proximally and distally were fixed with external fixation components (two double clamps, two single clamps, two short rods and one long rod) to prevent the pin from rotation. There was a slight gait problem due to the external apparatus and no post-operative infection. The function of the right hind leg gradually recovered. The intramedullary pin and external fixative apparatus were removed on the 52nd day after surgery. This modified fixation appears to offer versatility in the treatment of various fractures in smaller dogs and cats

  5. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  6. Distal radius fracture arthroscopic intraarticular displacement measurement after open reduction and internal fixation from a volar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Katayama, Takeshi; Akahane, Manabu

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess articular surface reduction arthroscopically after volar locked-plate fixation of distal radius fractures (DRFs) via fluoroscopyguided open reduction/internal fixation. We also aimed to develop preoperative radiographic criteria to help assist in determining which DRFs may need arthroscopic evaluation. A total of 31 consecutive patients with DRF were prospectively enrolled. Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs as well as axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were obtained just after attempted reduction of the DRF. The widest articular displacement at the radiocarpal joint surface of the distal radius (preopD) was then measured using a digital radiography imaging system. The DRF was reduced under fluoroscopy, and a volar locked plate was applied. The degree of residual articular displacement was then measured arthroscopically, and the maximum displacement (postopD) was measured with a calibrated probe. Of the 31 patients, 7 had an arthroscopically assessed maximum postopD of > or = 2 mm after internal fixation. The correlation coefficients between each preopD and postopD of all radiographs and CTs were statistically significant. The cutoff values were 0.5 mm for PA radiographs, 2.10 mm for lateral radiographs, 2.15 mm for axial CT scans, 3.15 mm for coronal CT scans, and 1.20 mm for sagittal CT scans. All cutoff values for PA and lateral radiographs and for axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were unsuitable as screening criteria for arthroscopic reduction of DRF because of their low sensitivities and specificities. The cutoff value of the new preopD (the sum of the preopDs determined by lateral radiography and coronal CT scan) was 5.80 mm, and its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Because a new preopD cutoff value of 5.80 mm is a good indicator for residual articular displacement after internal fixation of >2 mm, it is also a good indicator for the need for arthroscopic evaluation after

  7. Distal radius fracture arthroscopic intraarticular displacement measurement after open reduction and internal fixation from a volar approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Katayama, Takeshi; Akahane, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess articular surface reduction arthroscopically after volar locked-plate fixation of distal radius fractures (DRFs) via fluoroscopy-guided open reduction/internal fixation. We also aimed to develop preoperative radiographic criteria to help assist in determining which DRFs may need arthroscopic evaluation. A total of 31 consecutive patients with DRF were prospectively enrolled. Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs as well as axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were obtained just after attempted reduction of the DRF. The widest articular displacement at the radiocarpal joint surface of the distal radius (preopD) was then measured using a digital radiography imaging system. The DRF was reduced under fluoroscopy, and a volar locked plate was applied. The degree of residual articular displacement was then measured arthroscopically, and the maximum displacement (postopD) was measured with a calibrated probe. Of the 31 patients, 7 had an arthroscopically assessed maximum postopD of ≥2 mm after internal fixation. The correlation coefficients between each preopD and postopD of all radiographs and CTs were statistically significant. The cutoff values were 0.5 mm for PA radiographs, 2.10 mm for lateral radiographs, 2.15 mm for axial CT scans, 3.15 mm for coronal CT scans, and 1.20 mm for sagittal CT scans. All cutoff values for PA and lateral radiographs and for axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were unsuitable as screening criteria for arthroscopic reduction of DRF because of their low sensitivities and specificities. The cutoff value of the new preopD (the sum of the preopDs determined by lateral radiography and coronal CT scan) was 5.80 mm, and its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Because a new preopD cutoff value of 5.80 mm is a good indicator for residual articular displacement after internal fixation of >2 mm, it is also a good indicator for the need for arthroscopic evaluation after

  8. Comparative study of thyroid fixation of different iodine compounds; Etude comparative de la fixation thyroidienne de differents composes iodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, R; Coeur, A; Raynfeld, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the thyroid fixation of various iodine compounds in mineral or organic form. The animals (rats) are given therapeutic doses of the derivative orally with the object of saturating the thyroid, and then receive a determined dose of radio-iodine 131 by intra-peritoneal injection; any fixation of this latter is then measured under anaesthetic by means of a scintillation counter. Whatever form of iodine derivative was used whether in ionic (potassium iodide type) or organic form (iodo-tannic syrup) or in the form of elementary iodine (iodinated water), thyroid saturation was always obtained, as shown by practically zero fixation of the 4 {mu}curies of iodine 131 administered by intra-peritoneal injection. (author) [French] Notre travail a pour but l'etude de la fixation thyroidienne de differents composes iodes sous forme minerale ou organique. Les animaux (rats), apres absorption orale de doses therapeutiques de derives destines a saturer leur thyroide recoivent par voie intra-peritoneale une dose determinee de radio-iode {sup 131}I, la fixation eventuelle de ce dernier est ensuite mesuree sous anesthesie en utilisant un compteur a scintillation. Quelle que soit la forme utilisee, c'est-a-dire derive iode sous forme ionique (type iodure de potassium) ou sous forme organique (sirop iodotanique) ou encore sous forme d'iode metalloidique (eau iodee), nous avons obtenu chaque fois une saturation thyroidienne mise en evidence par une fixation pratiquement nulle des 4 {mu}curies de l'iode 131 injectes par voie intraperitoneale. (auteur)

  9. A cell shrinkage artefact in growth plate chondrocytes with common fixative solutions: importance of fixative osmolarity for maintaining morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Loqman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable increase in chondrocyte volume is a major determinant in the longitudinal growth of mammalian bones. To permit a detailed morphological study of hypertrophic chondrocytes using standard histological techniques, the preservation of normal chondrocyte morphology is essential. We noticed that during fixation of growth plates with conventional fixative solutions, there was a marked morphological (shrinkage artifact, and we postulated that this arose from the hyper-osmotic nature of these solutions. To test this, we fixed proximal tibia growth plates of 7-day-old rat bones in either (a paraformaldehyde (PFA; 4%, (b glutaraldehyde (GA; 2% with PFA (2% with ruthenium hexamine trichloride (RHT; 0.7%, (c GA (2% with RHT (0.7%, or (d GA (1.3% with RHT (0.5% and osmolarity adjusted to a ‘physiological’ level of ~280mOsm. Using conventional histological methods, confocal microscopy, and image analysis on fluorescently-labelled fixed and living chondrocytes, we then quantified the extent of cell shrinkage and volume change. Our data showed that the high osmolarity of conventional fixatives caused a shrinkage artefact to chondrocytes. This was particularly evident when whole bones were fixed, but could be markedly reduced if bones were sagittally bisected prior to fixation. The shrinkage artefact could be avoided by adjusting the osmolarity of the fixatives to the osmotic pressure of normal extracellular fluids (~280mOsm. These results emphasize the importance of fixative osmolarity, in order to accurately preserve the normal volume/morphology of cells within tissues.

  10. A financial analysis of maxillomandibular fixation versus rigid internal fixation for treatment of mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B L; Kearns, G; Gordon, N; Kaban, L B

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of mandibular fracture treatment by closed reduction with maxillomandibular fixation (CRF) with open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF). This was a retrospective study of 85 patients admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service at San Francisco General Hospital and treated for mandibular fractures from January 1 to December 31, 1993. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) those treated with CRF and 2) those treated with ORIF. The outcome variables were length of hospital stay, duration of anesthesia, and time in operating room. The charge for primary fracture treatment included the fees for the operation and hospitalization without any complications. Within the group of 85 patients treated for mandibular fractures in 1993, 10 patients treated with CRF and 10 patients treated with ORIF were randomly selected, and hospital billing statements were used to estimate the average charge of primary treatment. The average charge to manage a major postoperative infection also was estimated based on the billing statements of 10 randomly selected patients treated in 1992 (5 treated with CRF, 5 with ORIF) who required hospital admission for the management of a complication. The average total charge was computed by using the average charge for primary treatment plus the incidence of postoperative infection multiplied by the average charge for management of that complication. Eighty-five patients were included in the study. The average charge for primary treatment was $10,100 for the CRF group and $28,362 for the ORIF group. The average charge for the inpatient management of a major postoperative infection was $26,671 for the CRF group and $39,213 for the ORIF group. The average total charge for management of a mandible fracture with CRF was $10,927; the total charge for the ORIF group was $34,636. The results of this retrospective study suggest that the use of CRF in the management of mandibular

  11. Short Segment Fixation Versus Short Segment Fixation With Pedicle Screws at the Fracture Level for Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most prevailing surgical procedure in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, Short Segment Fixation (SSF, is often followed by loss of correction or hardware failure which may be significant enough to require another surgical intervention. In order to take advantage of its benefits but to avoid or diminish the risk and impact of associated drawbacks, some other alternatives have been lately developed among which we refer to short segment fixation with intermediate screws (SSF+IS. This article provides a comparative picture over the effectiveness of the two above-mentioned surgical treatments, focusing on their potential to prevent the loss of correction.

  12. Microbial fixation of CO2 in water bodies and in drylands to combat climate change, soil loss and desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federico; Olguín, Eugenia J; Diels, Ludo; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-01-25

    The growing concern for the increase of the global warming effects due to anthropogenic activities raises the challenge of finding novel technological approaches to stabilize CO2 emissions in the atmosphere and counteract impinging interconnected issues such as desertification and loss of biodiversity. Biological-CO2 mitigation, triggered through biological fixation, is considered a promising and eco-sustainable method, mostly owing to its downstream benefits that can be exploited. Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and some autotrophic bacteria could potentially fix CO2 more efficiently than higher plants, due to their faster growth. Some examples of the potential of biological-CO2 mitigation are reported and discussed in this paper. In arid and semiarid environments, soil carbon sequestration (CO2 fixation) by cyanobacteria and biological soil crusts is considered an eco-friendly and natural process to increase soil C content and a viable pathway to soil restoration after one disturbance event. Another way for biological-CO2 mitigation intensively studied in the last few years is related to the possibility to perform carbon dioxide sequestration using microalgae, obtaining at the same time bioproducts of industrial interest. Another possibility under study is the exploitation of specific chemotrophic bacteria, such as Ralstonia eutropha (or picketii) and related organisms, for CO2 fixation coupled with the production chemicals such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In spite of the potential of these processes, multiple factors still have to be optimized for maximum rate of CO2 fixation by these microorganisms. The optimization of culture conditions, including the optimal concentration of CO2 in the provided gas, the use of metabolic engineering and of dual purpose systems for the treatment of wastewater and production of biofuels and high value products within a biorefinery concept, the design of photobioreactors in the case of phototrophs are some

  13. [Effectiveness of U-shape titanium screw-rod fixation system with bone autografting for lumbar spondylolysis of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiaobing; Yang, Shuangshi; Cao, Haiquan; Jing, Xingquan; Yin, Jun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of U-shape titanium screw-rod fixation system with bone autografting for lumbar spondylolysis of young adults. Between January 2008 and December 2011, 32 patients with lumbar spondylolysis underwent U-shape titanium screw-rod fixation system with bone autografting. All patients were male with an average age of 22 years (range, 19-32 years). The disease duration ranged from 3 to 24 months (mean, 14 months). L3 was involved in spondylolysis in 2 cases, L4 in 10 cases, and L5 in 20 cases. The preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores were 8.0 +/- 1.1 and 75.3 +/- 11.2, respectively. The operation time was 80-120 minutes (mean, 85 minutes), and the blood loss was 150-250 mL (mean, 210 mL). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients without complications of infection and nerve symptom. Thirty-two patients were followed up 12-24 months (mean, 14 months). Low back pain was significantly alleviated after operation. The VAS and ODI scores at 3 months after operation were 1.0 +/- 0.5 and 17.6 +/- 3.4, respectively, showing significant differences when compared with preoperative ones (t = 30.523, P = 0.000; t = 45.312, P = 0.000). X-ray films and CT showed bone fusion in the area of isthmus defects, with the bone fusion time of 6-12 months (mean, 9 months). During follow-up, no secondary lumbar spondyloly, adjacent segment degeneration, or loosening or breaking of internal fixator was found. The U-shape titanium screw-rod fixation system with bone autografting is a reliable treatment for lumbar spondylolysis of young adults because of a high fusion rate, minimal invasive, and maximum retention of lumbar range of motion.

  14. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  15. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark; Reeves, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  16. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  17. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  18. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  19. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  20. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  1. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  2. Impact of Crab Bioturbation on Nitrogen-Fixation Rates in Red Sea Mangrove Sediment

    KAUST Repository

    Qashqari, Maryam S.

    2017-01-01

    be uptaken by plants. Hence, biological nitrogen fixation increases the input of nitrogen in the mangrove ecosystem. In this project, we focus on measuring the rates of nitrogen fixation on Red Sea mangrove (Avicennia marina) located at Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

  3. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  4. [Long-term efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the Long-term efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Methods: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed. The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected. The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion. The quality of included trials was evaluated. RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Results: Sixteen studies involving 1 268 patients were included. There were 618 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 650 with external fixation. The results of meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the complications postoperatively (infection( I (2)=0%, RR =0.27, 95% CI 0.16-0.45, Z =4.92, P internal fixation and external fixation are effective treatment for unstable distal radius fractures. Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation provides reduced complications postoperatively, lower DASH scores and better restoration of volar tilt for treatment of distal radius fractures.

  5. Percutaneous Pin Fixation of Gartland Type I11 Supraconylar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S G Lungu M.Med (Orth). Specialist Orthopaedic Surgeon. Zambian Italian Orthopaedic Hospital, Lusaka. Key words: Percutaneous, pin fixation, Gartland type Ill, supracondylar, fractures, and humerus. This was a prospective study of 40 children with severely displaced (Gartland Type 111) supracondylar fractures of the ...

  6. Nitrogen fixation and nodulation of soybean as affected by rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the efficacy of different adhesives added to rhizobial seed inoculum on soybean nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in a screen house and under field conditions. The experiment was a 6×3 factorial arranged in Completely Randomized Design and Randomized Complete Block Design for the pot ...

  7. Breeding for traits supportive of nitrogen fixation in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herridge, David F.

    2001-01-01

    As the potential economic benefits of enhancing dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation of crop, pasture and forage legumes are substantial, the idea that legume breeding could play a role in enhancing N 2 fixation was advanced more than 50 years ago. Various programmes have sought to genetically improve a wide range of species, from pasture legumes such as red clover (Trifolium pratense) to the crop legumes like soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). In some the selection trait was yield, whilst in others it was high plant reliance on N 2 fixation (%Ndfa). A third strategy was to optimise legume nodulation through specific nodulation traits, e.g. mass, duration, promiscuous and selective nodulation. Plant genetic variation was sought from natural populations or created through mutagenesis. Although methods for assessing single plants and populations of plants for yield and %Ndfa varied over the years, it is now clear that measurements based on either 15 N or xylem solute analysis are the most reliable. Methodological issues as well as poor focus plagued many of the earlier programmes, since enhancing N 2 fixation essentially involves adapting legumes to fix more N when growing in N-poor soils. Programmes in which plant genotypes are inoculated with effective rhizobia and screened under conditions of low soil N maximise the symbiotic potential of the legume. (author)

  8. Ender’s Nail fixation in paediatric femoral shaft fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Dwivedi

    2013-12-01

    Flynn criteria 34 had excellent and 6 had satisfactory results. No poor results were seen. Conclusion: Ender’s nail fixation can be preferred method of treatment for femoral shaft fractures in age group 5 -15 years as the results are excellent and satisfactory. It is technically simple and can be done in a closed manner. It spares the vascularity and growth plate.

  9. Accuracy of a hexapod parallel robot kinematics based external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschingbauer, Maximilian; Heuer, Hinrich J D; Seide, Klaus; Wendlandt, Robert; Münch, Matthias; Jürgens, Christian; Kirchner, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Different hexapod-based external fixators are increasingly used to treat bone deformities and fractures. Accuracy has not been measured sufficiently for all models. An infrared tracking system was applied to measure positioning maneuvers with a motorized Precision Hexapod® fixator, detecting three-dimensional positions of reflective balls mounted in an L-arrangement on the fixator, simulating bone directions. By omitting one dimension of the coordinates, projections were simulated as if measured on standard radiographs. Accuracy was calculated as the absolute difference between targeted and measured positioning values. In 149 positioning maneuvers, the median values for positioning accuracy of translations and rotations (torsions/angulations) were below 0.3 mm and 0.2° with quartiles ranging from -0.5 mm to 0.5 mm and -1.0° to 0.9°, respectively. The experimental setup was found to be precise and reliable. It can be applied to compare different hexapod-based fixators. Accuracy of the investigated hexapod system was high. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Management and quantification of nitrogen fixation in Leucaena leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo, E.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pruning and age on N 2 fixation were studied using Leucaena leucocephala isoline K28, with Cassia siamea as the non-N 2 -fixing reference species, at a site of degraded soil fertility typical of much of the farming land in Ghana. The 15 N-dilution method was used to estimate N2 fixation. Cassia siamea consistently produced higher total biomass and total N yields than did L. leucocephala. The mean value for the fraction of N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) was higher for pruned L. leucocephala (36%) than for unpruned trees (18%). There was some underestimation of N 2 fixation as a result of using C. siamea as the reference, and because root N-contents were not determined. Strong, significant linear correlations were observed between foliar and whole-tree (weighted average) percent 15 N atom excess in unpruned L. leucocephala and C. siamea, suggesting that foliar 15 N enrichment can be used to accurately estimate %Ndfa. The results demonstrated that the 15 N-enrichment methodology can provide meaningful estimates of %Ndfa and total N 2 fixed for mixed tree plantations under field conditions, when adequate spacing is provided. (author)

  11. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenach, A.-M.; Chalamet, Alain; Pachiaudi, Christiane

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of 15 N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference [fr

  12. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  13. Operative fixation of chest wall fractures: an underused procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J David; Franklin, Glen A; Heffley, Susan; Seligson, David

    2007-06-01

    Chest wall fractures, including injuries to the ribs and sternum, usually heal spontaneously without specific treatment. However, a small subset of patients have fractures that produce overlying bone fragments that may produce severe pain, respiratory compromise, and, if untreated mechanically, result in nonunion. We performed open reduction and internal fixation on seven patients with multiple rib fractures-five in the initial hospitalization and two delayed--as well as 35 sternal fractures (19 immediate fixation and 16 delayed). Operative fixation was accomplished using titanium plates and screws in both groups of patients. All patients with rib fractures did well; there were no major complications or infections, and no plates required removal. Clinical results were excellent. There was one death in the sternal fracture group in a patient who was ventilator-dependent preoperatively and extubated himself in the early postoperative period. Otherwise, the results were excellent, with no complications occurring in this group. Three patients had their plates removed after boney union was achieved. No evidence of infection or nonunion occurred. The excellent results achieved in the subset of patients with severe chest wall deformities treated initially at our institution and those referred from outside suggest that operative fixation is a useful modality that is likely underused.

  14. Cyanobacteria Occurrence and Nitrogen Fixation Rates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence and biological nitrogen fixation rates of epiphytic and benthic diazotrophs were studied in seagrass meadows at sites with seaweed farms and at a control site without seaweed farms from two locations, Chwaka Bay and Jambiani, along the east coast of. Zanzibar. Ten species of cyanobacteria were ...

  15. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... values on fixative appliances were predicted by means of. 3D FEA. The highest ... such as poor resistance to torsional forces, poor rigidity, and poor stability in ... the adequacy of mathematical models to relate mechanical factors such as ... the risk of bacterial contamination, scarring, postoperative edema ...

  16. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activity of Azotobacter chroococcum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brotonegoro, S.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of some chemical, physical and biological factors on growth, efficiency of nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activity of Azotobacter chroococcum.

    From biochemical studies with cell-free

  17. Resorbable screws for fixation of autologous bone grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RSB; Bos, RRM; van der Wal, JE; Vissink, A

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of resorbable screws made of poly (D,L-lactide) acid (PDLLA) for fixation of autologous bone grafts related to graft regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. In eight edentulous patients suffering from insufficient retention of their

  18. Serious complication 1?year after sacrospinous ligament fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Violet J.; van der Vaart, Huub C.; Heggelman, Ben G. F.; Schraffordt Koops, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    Myositis of the gluteal region caused by group A streptococci 1 year after a sacrospinous ligament fixation was recognised as a serious complication of this procedure. Most likely, the infection was spread to the gluteal region through a port d’entree caused by vaginal atrophy, via the non-resorbable sutures. The patient was treated successfully with antibiotics intravenous and local estrogens.

  19. Button fixation technique for Achilles tendon reinsertion: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awogni, David; Chauvette, Guillaume; Lemieux, Marie-Line; Balg, Frédéric; Langelier, Ève; Allard, Jean-Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insertional tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon is a frequent and disabling pathologic entity. Operative treatment is indicated for patients for whom nonoperative management has failed. The treatment can consist of the complete detachment of the tendon insertion and extensive debridement. We biomechanically tested a new operative technique that uses buttons for fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion on the posterior calcaneal tuberosity and compared it with 2 standard bone anchor techniques. A total of 40 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens were used to compare 3 fixation techniques for reinserting the Achilles tendon: single row anchors, double row anchors, and buttons. The ultimate loads and failure mechanisms were recorded. The button assembly (median load 764 N, range 713 to 888) yielded a median fixation strength equal to 202% (range 137% to 251%) of that obtained with the double row anchors (median load 412 N, range 301 to 571) and 255% (range 213% to 317%) of that obtained with the single row anchors (median load 338 N, range 241 to 433N). The most common failure mechanisms were suture breakage with the buttons (55%) and pull out of the implant with the double row (70%) and single row (85%) anchors. The results of the present biomechanical cadaver study have shown that Achilles tendon reinsertion fixation using the button technique provides superior pull out strength than the bone anchors tested. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimates of biological nitrogen fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a natural semi arid ecosystem, in Ferlo, Senegal was estimated using 15N natural abundance (15N) procedure. Other non-fixing trees accompanying P. lucens in the same area were also investigated as control. Results showed an important variation of 15N in leaves between ...