Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui
2014-12-01
We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures Th and Tc (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.
Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi
2012-03-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, ηm, of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), ηm becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th. For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency ηm at maximum power output is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-Tc/Th is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation.
Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation.
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi
2012-03-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η(m), of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures T(h) and T(c), respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), η(m) becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h). For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency η(m) at maximum power output is bounded from above by η(C)/(2-η(C)) and from below by η(C)/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η(CA)=1-√(T(c)/T(h)) is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation.
Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui
2014-12-01
We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (power based on these two different kinds of quantum systems are bounded from the upper side by the same expression η(mp)≤η(+)≡η(C)(2)/[η(C)-(1-η(C))ln(1-η(C))] with η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h) as the Carnot efficiency. This expression η(mp) possesses the same universality of the CA efficiency η(CA)=1-√(1-η(C)) at small relative temperature difference. Within the context of irreversible thermodynamics, we calculate the Onsager coefficients and show that the value of η(CA) is indeed the upper bound of EMP for an Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.
Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme
2012-02-17
We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.
Quantum Coherent Three-Terminal Thermoelectrics: Maximum Efficiency at Given Power Output
Robert S. Whitney
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This work considers the nonlinear scattering theory for three-terminal thermoelectric devices used for power generation or refrigeration. Such systems are quantum phase-coherent versions of a thermocouple, and the theory applies to systems in which interactions can be treated at a mean-field level. It considers an arbitrary three-terminal system in any external magnetic field, including systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, such as chiral thermoelectrics, as well as systems in which the magnetic field plays no role. It is shown that the upper bound on efficiency at given power output is of quantum origin and is stricter than Carnot’s bound. The bound is exactly the same as previously found for two-terminal devices and can be achieved by three-terminal systems with or without broken time-reversal symmetry, i.e., chiral and non-chiral thermoelectrics.
Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum heat engine based on two coupled oscillators.
Wang, Jianhui; Ye, Zhuolin; Lai, Yiming; Li, Weisheng; He, Jizhou
2015-06-01
We propose and theoretically investigate a system of two coupled harmonic oscillators as a heat engine. We show how these two coupled oscillators within undamped regime can be controlled to realize an Otto cycle that consists of two adiabatic and two isochoric processes. During the two isochores the harmonic system is embedded in two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c)(semigroup approach to model the thermal relaxation dynamics along the two isochoric processes, and we find the upper bound of efficiency at maximum power (EMP) η* to be a function of the Carnot efficiency η(C)(=1-T(c)/T(h)): η*≤η(+)≡η(C)(2)/[η(C)-(1-η(C))ln(1-η(C))], identical to those previously derived from ideal (noninteracting) microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic systems.
Ye, Zhuo-Lin; Li, Wei-Sheng; Lai, Yi-Ming; He, Ji-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Hui
2015-12-01
We propose a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine model that works between two superposed states, employing a single particle confined in an arbitrary power-law trap as the working substance. Applying the superposition principle, we obtain the explicit expressions of the power and efficiency, and find that the efficiency at maximum power is bounded from above by the function: η+ = θ/(θ + 1), with θ being a potential-dependent exponent. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11505091, 11265010, and 11365015, and the Jiangxi Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 20132BAB212009
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Quantum-dot Carnot engine at maximum power.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2010-04-01
We evaluate the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum-dot Carnot heat engine. The universal values of the coefficients at the linear and quadratic order in the temperature gradient are reproduced. Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is recovered in the limit of weak dissipation.
Sorting quantum systems efficiently
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-05-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.
Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms
McElwaine, J N
1997-01-01
This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.
Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy
Moffat, J. W.
2016-11-01
We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-05-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-05-05
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; O'Brien, Jeremy; Wang, Jingbo; Matthews, Jonathan
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise quantum walks have shown much potential as a frame- work for developing new quantum algorithms. In this paper, we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs ef...
Efficient Quantum Key Distribution
Ardehali, M; Chau, H F; Lo, H K
1998-01-01
We devise a simple modification that essentially doubles the efficiency of a well-known quantum key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard (BB84). Our scheme assigns significantly different probabilities for the different polarization bases during both transmission and reception to reduce the fraction of discarded data. The actual probabilities used in the scheme are announced in public. As the number of transmitted signals increases, the efficiency of our scheme can be made to approach 100%. The security of our scheme (against single-photon eavesdropping strategies) is guaranteed by a refined analysis of accepted data which is employed to detect eavesdropping: Instead of lumping all the accepted data together to estimate a single error rate, we separate the accepted data into various subsets according to the basis employed and estimate an error rate for each subset individually. Our scheme is the first quantum key distribution with an efficiency greater than 50%. We remark that our idea is rath...
Maximum-power quantum-mechanical Carnot engine.
Abe, Sumiyoshi
2011-04-01
In their work [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)], Bender, Brody, and Meister have shown by employing a two-state model of a particle confined in the one-dimensional infinite potential well that it is possible to construct a quantum-mechanical analog of the Carnot engine through changes of both the width of the well and the quantum state in a specific manner. Here, a discussion is developed about realizing the maximum power of such an engine, where the width of the well moves at low but finite speed. The efficiency of the engine at the maximum power output is found to be universal independently of any of the parameters contained in the model.
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-01
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-29
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
Reconstructing quantum states efficiently
Cramer, M; Plenio, M. B.
2010-01-01
Quantum state tomography, the ability to deduce the density matrix of a quantum system from measured data, is of fundamental importance for the verification of present and future quantum devices. It has been realized in systems with few components but for larger systems it becomes rapidly infeasible because the number of quantum measurements and computational resources required to process them grow exponentially in the system size. Here we show that we can gain an exponential advantage over d...
Quantum-enhanced Sensing and Efficient Quantum Computation
2015-07-27
Quantum -enhanced sensing and efficient quantum computation Ian Walmsley THE UNIVERSITY OF...COVERED (From - To) 1 February 2013 - 31 January 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum -enhanced sensing and efficient quantum computation 5a. CONTRACT...1895616013 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Final report for “ Quantum ‐Enhanced Sensing and Efficient Quantum Computation
Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath
Liu, Shengnan
2016-01-01
The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation betw...
The maximum efficiency of nano heat engines depends on more than temperature
Woods, Mischa; Ng, Nelly; Wehner, Stephanie
Sadi Carnot's theorem regarding the maximum efficiency of heat engines is considered to be of fundamental importance in the theory of heat engines and thermodynamics. Here, we show that at the nano and quantum scale, this law needs to be revised in the sense that more information about the bath other than its temperature is required to decide whether maximum efficiency can be achieved. In particular, we derive new fundamental limitations of the efficiency of heat engines at the nano and quantum scale that show that the Carnot efficiency can only be achieved under special circumstances, and we derive a new maximum efficiency for others. A preprint can be found here arXiv:1506.02322 [quant-ph] Singapore's MOE Tier 3A Grant & STW, Netherlands.
High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb
Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh
2017-03-01
An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm‑1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.
High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb
Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh
2017-01-01
An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm−1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy. PMID:28262834
Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath
Shengnan Liu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.
Efficient quantum transmission in multiple-source networks.
Luo, Ming-Xing; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian; Wang, Xiaojun
2014-04-02
A difficult problem in quantum network communications is how to efficiently transmit quantum information over large-scale networks with common channels. We propose a solution by developing a quantum encoding approach. Different quantum states are encoded into a coherent superposition state using quantum linear optics. The transmission congestion in the common channel may be avoided by transmitting the superposition state. For further decoding and continued transmission, special phase transformations are applied to incoming quantum states using phase shifters such that decoders can distinguish outgoing quantum states. These phase shifters may be precisely controlled using classical chaos synchronization via additional classical channels. Based on this design and the reduction of multiple-source network under the assumption of restricted maximum-flow, the optimal scheme is proposed for specially quantized multiple-source network. In comparison with previous schemes, our scheme can greatly increase the transmission efficiency.
Efficiency at Maximum Power of Interacting Molecular Machines
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2012-01-01
We investigate the efficiency of systems of molecular motors operating at maximum power. We consider two models of kinesin motors on a microtubule: for both the simplified and the detailed model, we find that the many-body exclusion effect enhances the efficiency at maximum power of the many- motor...... system, with respect to the single motor case. Remarkably, we find that this effect occurs in a limited region of the system parameters, compatible with the biologically relevant range....
Efficiency of autonomous soft nanomachines at maximum power.
Seifert, Udo
2011-01-14
We consider nanosized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing nonequilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques, or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall into three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient," "strong and inefficient," and "balanced." For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.
Superfast maximum-likelihood reconstruction for quantum tomography
Shang, Jiangwei; Zhang, Zhengyun; Ng, Hui Khoon
2017-06-01
Conventional methods for computing maximum-likelihood estimators (MLE) often converge slowly in practical situations, leading to a search for simplifying methods that rely on additional assumptions for their validity. In this work, we provide a fast and reliable algorithm for maximum-likelihood reconstruction that avoids this slow convergence. Our method utilizes the state-of-the-art convex optimization scheme, an accelerated projected-gradient method, that allows one to accommodate the quantum nature of the problem in a different way than in the standard methods. We demonstrate the power of our approach by comparing its performance with other algorithms for n -qubit state tomography. In particular, an eight-qubit situation that purportedly took weeks of computation time in 2005 can now be completed in under a minute for a single set of data, with far higher accuracy than previously possible. This refutes the common claim that MLE reconstruction is slow and reduces the need for alternative methods that often come with difficult-to-verify assumptions. In fact, recent methods assuming Gaussian statistics or relying on compressed sensing ideas are demonstrably inapplicable for the situation under consideration here. Our algorithm can be applied to general optimization problems over the quantum state space; the philosophy of projected gradients can further be utilized for optimization contexts with general constraints.
Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine
Izumida, Y.
2013-10-01
We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.
Local solutions of Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Quantum State Tomography
Gonçalves, Douglas S; Lavor, Carlile; Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; Ribeiro, P H Souto
2011-01-01
Maximum likelihood estimation is one of the most used methods in quantum state tomography, where the aim is to find the best density matrix for the description of a physical system. Results of measurements on the system should match the expected values produced by the density matrix. In some cases however, if the matrix is parameterized to ensure positivity and unit trace, the negative log-likelihood function may have several local minima. In several papers in the field, authors associate a source of errors to the possibility that most of these local minima are not global, so that optimization methods can be trapped in the wrong minimum, leading to a wrong density matrix. Here we show that, for convex negative log-likelihood functions, all local minima are global. We also show that a practical source of errors is in fact the use of optimization methods that do not have global convergence property or present numerical instabilities. The clarification of this point has important repercussion on quantum informat...
Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines.
Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph
2012-04-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior.
Quantum computing: Efficient fault tolerance
Gottesman, Daniel
2016-12-01
Dealing with errors in a quantum computer typically requires complex programming and many additional quantum bits. A technique for controlling errors has been proposed that alleviates both of these problems.
Osterloh, Frank E
2014-10-02
The Shockley-Queisser analysis provides a theoretical limit for the maximum energy conversion efficiency of single junction photovoltaic cells. But besides the semiconductor bandgap no other semiconductor properties are considered in the analysis. Here, we show that the maximum conversion efficiency is limited further by the excited state entropy of the semiconductors. The entropy loss can be estimated with the modified Sackur-Tetrode equation as a function of the curvature of the bands, the degeneracy of states near the band edges, the illumination intensity, the temperature, and the band gap. The application of the second law of thermodynamics to semiconductors provides a simple explanation for the observed high performance of group IV, III-V, and II-VI materials with strong covalent bonding and for the lower efficiency of transition metal oxides containing weakly interacting metal d orbitals. The model also predicts efficient energy conversion with quantum confined and molecular structures in the presence of a light harvesting mechanism.
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-05-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-05-31
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.
Efficiency at Maximum Power of Low-Dissipation Carnot Engines
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; van den Broeck, Christian
2010-10-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η*, of engines performing finite-time Carnot cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For engines reaching Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th in the reversible limit (long cycle time, zero dissipation), we find in the limit of low dissipation that η* is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. These bounds are reached when the ratio of the dissipation during the cold and hot isothermal phases tend, respectively, to zero or infinity. For symmetric dissipation (ratio one) the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-Tc/Th is recovered.
Efficiency at maximum power of low-dissipation Carnot engines.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2010-10-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η*, of engines performing finite-time Carnot cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For engines reaching Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th in the reversible limit (long cycle time, zero dissipation), we find in the limit of low dissipation that η* is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. These bounds are reached when the ratio of the dissipation during the cold and hot isothermal phases tend, respectively, to zero or infinity. For symmetric dissipation (ratio one) the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-√Tc/Th] is recovered.
Efficient Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication
LIU Wen-Jie; CHEN Han-Wu; LI Zhi-Qiang; LIU Zhi-Hao
2008-01-01
Two protocols of quantum direct communication with authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042305] were recently indicated to be insecure against the authenticator Trent attacks [Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 026301]. We present two efficient protocols by using four Pauli operations, which are secure against inner Trent attacks as well as outer Eve attacks. Finally, we generalize them to multiparty quantum direction communication.
Efficient maximum likelihood parameterization of continuous-time Markov processes
McGibbon, Robert T
2015-01-01
Continuous-time Markov processes over finite state-spaces are widely used to model dynamical processes in many fields of natural and social science. Here, we introduce an maximum likelihood estimator for constructing such models from data observed at a finite time interval. This estimator is drastically more efficient than prior approaches, enables the calculation of deterministic confidence intervals in all model parameters, and can easily enforce important physical constraints on the models such as detailed balance. We demonstrate and discuss the advantages of these models over existing discrete-time Markov models for the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations.
Efficiency at maximum power of a discrete feedback ratchet
Jarillo, Javier; Tangarife, Tomás; Cao, Francisco J.
2016-01-01
Efficiency at maximum power is found to be of the same order for a feedback ratchet and for its open-loop counterpart. However, feedback increases the output power up to a factor of five. This increase in output power is due to the increase in energy input and the effective entropy reduction obtained as a consequence of feedback. Optimal efficiency at maximum power is reached for time intervals between feedback actions two orders of magnitude smaller than the characteristic time of diffusion over a ratchet period length. The efficiency is computed consistently taking into account the correlation between the control actions. We consider a feedback control protocol for a discrete feedback flashing ratchet, which works against an external load. We maximize the power output optimizing the parameters of the ratchet, the controller, and the external load. The maximum power output is found to be upper bounded, so the attainable extracted power is limited. After, we compute an upper bound for the efficiency of this isothermal feedback ratchet at maximum power output. We make this computation applying recent developments of the thermodynamics of feedback-controlled systems, which give an equation to compute the entropy reduction due to information. However, this equation requires the computation of the probability of each of the possible sequences of the controller's actions. This computation becomes involved when the sequence of the controller's actions is non-Markovian, as is the case in most feedback ratchets. We here introduce an alternative procedure to set strong bounds to the entropy reduction in order to compute its value. In this procedure the bounds are evaluated in a quasi-Markovian limit, which emerge when there are big differences between the stationary probabilities of the system states. These big differences are an effect of the potential strength, which minimizes the departures from the Markovianicity of the sequence of control actions, allowing also to
AN EFFICIENT APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD SIGNAL DETECTION FOR MIMO SYSTEMS
Cao Xuehong
2007-01-01
This paper proposes an efficient approximate Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection method for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, which searches local area instead of exhaustive search and selects valid search points in each transmit antenna signal constellation instead of all hyperplane. Both of the selection and search complexity can be reduced significantly. The method performs the tradeoff between computational complexity and system performance by adjusting the neighborhood size to select the valid search points. Simulation results show that the performance is comparable to that of the ML detection while the complexity is only as the small fraction of ML.
On a robust and efficient maximum depth estimator
ZUO YiJun; LAI ShaoYong
2009-01-01
The best breakdown point robustness is one of the most outstanding features of the univariate median. For this robustness property, the median, however, has to pay the price of a low efficiency at normal and other light-tailed models. Affine equivariant multivariate analogues of the univariate median with high breakdown points were constructed in the past two decades. For the high breakdown robustness, most of them also have to sacrifice their efficiency at normal and other models,nevertheless. The affine equivariant maximum depth estimator proposed and studied in this paper turns out to be an exception. Like the univariate median, it also possesses a highest breakdown point among all its multivariate competitors. Unlike the univariate median, it is also highly efficient relative to the sample mean at normal and various other distributions, overcoming the vital low-efficiency shortcoming of the univariate and other multivariate generalized medians. The paper also studies the asymptotics of the estimator and establishes its limit distribution without symmetry and other strong assumptions that are typically imposed on the underlying distribution.
Efficiency at maximum power of a chemical engine.
Hooyberghs, Hans; Cleuren, Bart; Salazar, Alberto; Indekeu, Joseph O; Van den Broeck, Christian
2013-10-01
A cyclically operating chemical engine is considered that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. The working fluid is a gas of finite-sized spherical particles interacting through elastic hard collisions. For a generic transport law for particle uptake and release, the efficiency at maximum power η(mp) [corrected] takes the form 1/2+cΔμ+O(Δμ(2)), with 1∕2 a universal constant and Δμ the chemical potential difference between the particle reservoirs. The linear coefficient c is zero for engines featuring a so-called left/right symmetry or particle fluxes that are antisymmetric in the applied chemical potential difference. Remarkably, the leading constant in η(mp) [corrected] is non-universal with respect to an exceptional modification of the transport law. For a nonlinear transport model, we obtain η(mp) = 1/(θ + 1) [corrected], with θ > 0 the power of Δμ in the transport equation.
Efficiency at maximum power of a chemical engine
Hooyberghs, Hans; Salazar, Alberto; Indekeu, Joseph O; Broeck, Christian Van den
2013-01-01
A cyclically operating chemical engine is considered that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. The working fluid is a gas of finite-sized spherical particles interacting through elastic hard collisions. For a generic transport law for particle uptake and release, the efficiency at maximum power $\\eta$ takes the form 1/2+c\\Delta \\mu + O(\\Delta \\mu^2), with 1/2 a universal constant and $\\Delta \\mu$ the chemical potential difference between the particle reservoirs. The linear coefficient c is zero for engines featuring a so-called left/right symmetry or particle fluxes that are antisymmetric in the applied chemical potential difference. Remarkably, the leading constant in $\\eta$ is non-universal with respect to an exceptional modification of the transport law. For a nonlinear transport model we obtain \\eta = 1/(\\theta +1), with \\theta >0 the power of $\\Delta \\mu$ in the transport equation
Energy-efficient quantum computing
Ikonen, Joni; Salmilehto, Juha; Möttönen, Mikko
2017-04-01
In the near future, one of the major challenges in the realization of large-scale quantum computers operating at low temperatures is the management of harmful heat loads owing to thermal conduction of cabling and dissipation at cryogenic components. This naturally raises the question that what are the fundamental limitations of energy consumption in scalable quantum computing. In this work, we derive the greatest lower bound for the gate error induced by a single application of a bosonic drive mode of given energy. Previously, such an error type has been considered to be inversely proportional to the total driving power, but we show that this limitation can be circumvented by introducing a qubit driving scheme which reuses and corrects drive pulses. Specifically, our method serves to reduce the average energy consumption per gate operation without increasing the average gate error. Thus our work shows that precise, scalable control of quantum systems can, in principle, be implemented without the introduction of excessive heat or decoherence.
High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes for photon counting applications
Orlov, Dmitry A; Pinto, Serge Duarte; Glazenborg, Rene; Kernen, Emilie
2016-01-01
Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors.
Abe, Sumiyoshi; Okuyama, Shinji
2012-01-01
The role of the superposition principle is discussed for the quantum-mechanical Carnot engine introduced by Bender, Brody, and Meister [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)]. It is shown that the efficiency of the engine can be enhanced by the superposition of quantum states. A finite-time process is also discussed and the condition of the maximum power output is presented. Interestingly, the efficiency at the maximum power is lower than that without superposition.
Resource-efficient linear optical quantum computation.
Browne, Daniel E; Rudolph, Terry
2005-07-01
We introduce a scheme for linear optics quantum computation, that makes no use of teleported gates, and requires stable interferometry over only the coherence length of the photons. We achieve a much greater degree of efficiency and a simpler implementation than previous proposals. We follow the "cluster state" measurement based quantum computational approach, and show how cluster states may be efficiently generated from pairs of maximally polarization entangled photons using linear optical elements. We demonstrate the universality and usefulness of generic parity measurements, as well as introducing the use of redundant encoding of qubits to enable utilization of destructive measurements--both features of use in a more general context.
Quantum Dot Spectrum Converters for Enhanced High Efficiency Photovoltaics Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to enhance solar cell efficiency, radiation resistance and affordability. The Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC) disperses quantum dots...
Time-optimal excitation of maximum quantum coherence: Physical limits and pulse sequences
Köcher, S. S.; Heydenreich, T.; Zhang, Y.; Reddy, G. N. M.; Caldarelli, S.; Yuan, H.; Glaser, S. J.
2016-04-01
Here we study the optimum efficiency of the excitation of maximum quantum (MaxQ) coherence using analytical and numerical methods based on optimal control theory. The theoretical limit of the achievable MaxQ amplitude and the minimum time to achieve this limit are explored for a set of model systems consisting of up to five coupled spins. In addition to arbitrary pulse shapes, two simple pulse sequence families of practical interest are considered in the optimizations. Compared to conventional approaches, substantial gains were found both in terms of the achieved MaxQ amplitude and in pulse sequence durations. For a model system, theoretically predicted gains of a factor of three compared to the conventional pulse sequence were experimentally demonstrated. Motivated by the numerical results, also two novel analytical transfer schemes were found: Compared to conventional approaches based on non-selective pulses and delays, double-quantum coherence in two-spin systems can be created twice as fast using isotropic mixing and hard spin-selective pulses. Also it is proved that in a chain of three weakly coupled spins with the same coupling constants, triple-quantum coherence can be created in a time-optimal fashion using so-called geodesic pulses.
Maximum quantum nonlocality between systems that never interacted
Cabello, Adán, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)
2012-12-03
We show that there is a stronger form of bipartite quantum nonlocality in which systems that never interacted are as nonlocal as allowed by no-signaling. For this purpose, we first show that nonlocal boxes, theoretical objects that violate a bipartite Bell inequality as much as the no-signaling principle allows and which are physically impossible for most scenarios, are feasible if the two parties have 3 measurements with 4 outputs. Then we show that, in this case, entanglement swapping allows us to prepare mixtures of nonlocal boxes using systems that never interacted. -- Highlights: ► We show quantum correlations as nonlocal as allowed by no-signaling between systems that never interacted. ► We show that nonlocal boxes are feasible if 2 parties have 3 measurements with 4 outputs. ► Experimental implementations of 1 and 2 are proposed.
Delocalized Quantum States Enhance Photocell Efficiency
Zhang, Yiteng; Alharbi, Fahhad H; Engel, Greg; Kais, Sabre
2014-01-01
The high quantum efficiency of photosynthetic complexes has inspired researchers to explore new routes to utilize this process for photovoltaic devices. Quantum coherence has been demonstrated to play a crucial role within this process. Herein, we propose a three-dipole system as a model of a new photocell type which exploits the coherence among its three dipoles. We have proved that the efficiency of such a photocell is greatly enhanced by quantum coherence. We have also predicted that the photocurrents can be enhanced by about 49.5 % in such a coherent coupled dipole system compared with the uncoupled dipoles. These results suggest a promising novel design aspect of photosynthesis-mimicking photovoltaic devices.
Efficient quantum circuits for one-way quantum computing.
Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Liu, Yu-Xi; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco
2009-03-13
While Ising-type interactions are ideal for implementing controlled phase flip gates in one-way quantum computing, natural interactions between solid-state qubits are most often described by either the XY or the Heisenberg models. We show an efficient way of generating cluster states directly using either the imaginary SWAP (iSWAP) gate for the XY model, or the sqrt[SWAP] gate for the Heisenberg model. Our approach thus makes one-way quantum computing more feasible for solid-state devices.
Improving quantum sensing efficiency with virtual modes
Lanzagorta, Marco; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Le, Truc; Jitrik, Oliverio; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.
2016-05-01
Recent research suggests that quantum radar offers several potential advantages over classical sensing technologies. At present, the primary practical challenge is the fast and efficient generation of entangled microwave photons. To mitigate this limitation we propose and briefly examine a distributed architecture to synthetically increase the number of effectively-distinguishable modes.
Efficient sharing of a continuous-variable quantum secret
Tyc, T; Sanders, B C; Tyc, Tomas; Rowe, David J.; Sanders, Barry C.
2003-01-01
We propose an efficient scheme for sharing a continuous variable quantum secret using passive optical interferometry and squeezers: this efficiency is achieved by showing that a maximum of two squeezers is required to replicate the secret state, and we obtain the cheapest configuration in terms of total squeezing cost. Squeezing is a cost for the dealer of the secret as well as for the receivers, and we quantify limitations to the fidelity of the replicated secret state in terms of the squeezing employed by the dealer.
High Speed Travelling Wave Single-Photon Detectors With Near-Unity Quantum Efficiency
Pernice, W; Minaeva, O; Li, M; Goltsman, G N; Sergienko, A V; Tang, H X
2011-01-01
Ultrafast, high quantum efficiency single photon detectors are among the most sought-after elements in modern quantum optics and quantum communication. Close-to-unity photon detection efficiency is essential for scalable measurement-based quantum computation, quantum key distribution, and loophole-free Bell experiments. However, imperfect modal matching and finite photon absorption rates have usually limited the maximum attainable detection efficiency of single photon detectors. Here we demonstrate a superconducting nanowire detector atop nanophotonic waveguides and achieve single photon detection efficiency up to 94% at telecom wavelengths. Our detectors are fully embedded in a scalable, low loss silicon photonic circuit and provide ultrashort timing jitter of 18ps at multi-GHz detection rates. Exploiting this high temporal resolution we demonstrate ballistic photon transport in silicon ring resonators. The direct implementation of such a detector with high quantum efficiency, high detection speed and low ji...
A fully efficient secure quantum cryptography protocol
Xiang Bin Wang
2001-01-01
Since Bennett and Brassard suggested their quantum key distribution protocol(BB84 protocol) in 1984, the subject has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The protocol allows two remote parties Alice and Bob to create and share a secret key using a quantum channel and public authenticated communications. The quantum key created in this way is in principle secure because eavesdroppers have no way to tap the quantum channel without disturb it. In the protocol, two level quantum bits are measured in two basis, $X$ and $Z$ randomly by Bob. So at least half of the measurement results will be discarded because Bob has a half probability taking the measurement in a wrong basis. On the other hand, the security is not the maximum in BB84 protocol. To increase the security, one may straightforwardly increase the number of basis used in the protocol. For example, six state protocol was proposed recently for two level system. However, in this way, it seems to be the case that the higher the secu...
Maximum efficiency of low-dissipation heat engines at arbitrary power
Holubec, Viktor; Ryabov, Artem
2016-07-01
We investigate maximum efficiency at a given power for low-dissipation heat engines. Close to maximum power, the maximum gain in efficiency scales as a square root of relative loss in power and this scaling is universal for a broad class of systems. For low-dissipation engines, we calculate the maximum gain in efficiency for an arbitrary fixed power. We show that engines working close to maximum power can operate at considerably larger efficiency compared to the efficiency at maximum power. Furthermore, we introduce universal bounds on maximum efficiency at a given power for low-dissipation heat engines. These bounds represent direct generalization of the bounds on efficiency at maximum power obtained by Esposito et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 150603). We derive the bounds analytically in the regime close to maximum power and for small power values. For the intermediate regime we present strong numerical evidence for the validity of the bounds.
Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion.
Langford, N K; Ramelow, S; Prevedel, R; Munro, W J; Milburn, G J; Zeilinger, A
2011-10-12
Single photons are excellent quantum information carriers: they were used in the earliest demonstrations of entanglement and in the production of the highest-quality entanglement reported so far. However, current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed, single photons, and linear optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here we introduce a deterministic process--coherent photon conversion (CPC)--that provides a new way to generate and process complex, multiquanta states for photonic quantum information applications. The technique uses classically pumped nonlinearities to induce coherent oscillations between orthogonal states of multiple quantum excitations. One example of CPC, based on a pumped four-wave-mixing interaction, is shown to yield a single, versatile process that provides a full set of photonic quantum processing tools. This set satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for a scalable quantum computing architecture, including deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates (based on a novel form of photon-photon interaction), high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free from higher-order imperfections, and robust, high-efficiency detection. It can also be used to produce heralded multiphoton entanglement, create optically switchable quantum circuits and implement an improved form of down-conversion with reduced higher-order effects. Such tools are valuable building blocks for many quantum-enabled technologies. Finally, using photonic crystal fibres we experimentally demonstrate quantum correlations arising from a four-colour nonlinear process suitable for CPC and use these measurements to study the feasibility of reaching the deterministic regime with current technology. Our scheme, which is based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting
Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits
Ivanchenko, E. A.
2015-09-01
Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.
Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita, E-mail: kavita@iisermohali.ac.in
2016-09-07
Estimation of quantum states is an important step in any quantum information processing experiment. A naive reconstruction of the density matrix from experimental measurements can often give density matrices which are not positive, and hence not physically acceptable. How do we ensure that at all stages of reconstruction, we keep the density matrix positive? Recently a method has been suggested based on maximum likelihood estimation, wherein the density matrix is guaranteed to be positive definite. We experimentally implement this protocol on an NMR quantum information processor. We discuss several examples and compare with the standard method of state estimation. - Highlights: • State estimation using maximum likelihood method was performed on an NMR quantum information processor. • Physically valid density matrices were obtained every time in contrast to standard quantum state tomography. • Density matrices of several different entangled and separable states were reconstructed for two and three qubits.
Internal quantum efficiency modeling of silicon photodiodes.
Gentile, T R; Brown, S W; Lykke, K R; Shaw, P S; Woodward, J T
2010-04-01
Results are presented for modeling of the shape of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) versus wavelength for silicon photodiodes in the 400 nm to 900 nm wavelength range. The IQE data are based on measurements of the external quantum efficiencies of three transmission optical trap detectors using an extensive set of laser wavelengths, along with the transmittance of the traps. We find that a simplified version of a previously reported IQE model fits the data with an accuracy of better than 0.01%. These results provide an important validation of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral radiant power responsivity scale disseminated through the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility, as well as those scales disseminated by other National Metrology Institutes who have employed the same model.
Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...
changes in product value are important, it is easy to join them to herd cost efficiency for ... should be evaluated in terms of total herd or life cycle effi- ciency, and not only for a ..... The decline of herd efficiency with increases in b in. Table 2 is in ...
Chen, Jincan; Yan, Zijun; Wu, Liqing
1996-06-01
Considering a thermoelectric generator as a heat engine cycle, the general differential equations of the temperature field inside thermoelectric elements are established by means of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. These equations are used to study the influence of heat leak, Joule's heat, and Thomson heat on the performance of the thermoelectric generator. New expressions are derived for the power output and the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator. The maximum power output is calculated and the optimal matching condition of load is determined. The maximum efficiency is discussed by a representative numerical example. The aim of this research is to provide some novel conclusions and redress some errors existing in a related investigation.
Maximum herd efficiency in meat production II. The influence of ...
efficiency involves reproduction and replacement rates, early fertility, and degree of fertility at first mating. .... For cattle and sheep, an estimate of the effect of early breeding ..... Genetic correlations among sex-limited traits in beef cattle. :. Anim.
High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes in photon counting detectors
Orlov, D. A.; DeFazio, J.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Glazenborg, R.; Kernen, E.
2016-04-01
Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors, which is demonstrated with an MCP photomultiplier tube for single and multi-photoelectron detection.
Quantum Confined Semiconductors for High Efficiency Photovoltaics
Beard, Matthew
2014-03-01
Semiconductor nanostructures, where at least one dimension is small enough to produce quantum confinement effects, provide new pathways for controlling energy flow and therefore have the potential to increase the efficiency of the primary photon-to-free energy conversion step. In this discussion, I will present the current status of research efforts towards utilizing the unique properties of colloidal quantum dots (NCs confined in three dimensions) in prototype solar cells and demonstrate that these unique systems have the potential to bypass the Shockley-Queisser single-junction limit for solar photon conversion. The solar cells are constructed using a low temperature solution based deposition of PbS or PbSe QDs as the absorber layer. Different chemical treatments of the QD layer are employed in order to obtain good electrical communication while maintaining the quantum-confined properties of the QDs. We have characterized the transport and carrier dynamics using a transient absorption, time-resolved THz, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence. I will discuss the interplay between carrier generation, recombination, and mobility within the QD layers. A unique aspect of our devices is that the QDs exhibit multiple exciton generation with an efficiency that is ~ 2 to 3 times greater than the parental bulk semiconductor.
Rotta, Davide; De Michielis, Marco; Ferraro, Elena; Fanciulli, Marco; Prati, Enrico
2016-06-01
Scalability from single-qubit operations to multi-qubit circuits for quantum information processing requires architecture-specific implementations. Semiconductor hybrid qubit architecture is a suitable candidate to realize large-scale quantum information processing, as it combines a universal set of logic gates with fast and all-electrical manipulation of qubits. We propose an implementation of hybrid qubits, based on Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dots, compatible with the CMOS industrial technological standards. We discuss the realization of multi-qubit circuits capable of fault-tolerant computation and quantum error correction, by evaluating the time and space resources needed for their implementation. As a result, the maximum density of quantum information is extracted from a circuit including eight logical qubits encoded by the [[7, 1, 3
Ouerdane, H.; Apertet, Y.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.
2015-07-01
Classical equilibrium thermodynamics is a theory of principles, which was built from empirical knowledge and debates on the nature and the use of heat as a means to produce motive power. By the beginning of the 20th century, the principles of thermodynamics were summarized into the so-called four laws, which were, as it turns out, definitive negative answers to the doomed quests for perpetual motion machines. As a matter of fact, one result of Sadi Carnot's work was precisely that the heat-to-work conversion process is fundamentally limited; as such, it is considered as a first version of the second law of thermodynamics. Although it was derived from Carnot's unrealistic model, the upper bound on the thermodynamic conversion efficiency, known as the Carnot efficiency, became a paradigm as the next target after the failure of the perpetual motion ideal. In the 1950's, Jacques Yvon published a conference paper containing the necessary ingredients for a new class of models, and even a formula, not so different from that of Carnot's efficiency, which later would become the new efficiency reference. Yvon's first analysis of a model of engine producing power, connected to heat source and sink through heat exchangers, went fairly unnoticed for twenty years, until Frank Curzon and Boye Ahlborn published their pedagogical paper about the effect of finite heat transfer on output power limitation and their derivation of the efficiency at maximum power, now mostly known as the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency. The notion of finite rate explicitly introduced time in thermodynamics, and its significance cannot be overlooked as shown by the wealth of works devoted to what is now known as finite-time thermodynamics since the end of the 1970's. The favorable comparison of the CA efficiency to actual values led many to consider it as a universal upper bound for real heat engines, but things are not so straightforward that a simple formula may account for a variety of situations. The
On the maximum efficiency of realistic heat engines
Miranda, E N
2012-01-01
In 1975, Courzon and Ahlborn studied a Carnot engine with thermal losses and got an expression for its efficiency that described better the performance of actual heat machines than the traditional result due to Carnot. In their original derivation, time appears explicitly and this is disappointing in the framework of classical thermodynamics. In this note a derivation is given without any explicit reference to time.
Quantum wells for high-efficiency photovoltaics
Alonso-Álvarez, Diego; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas
2016-03-01
Over the last couple of decades, there has been an intense research on strain balanced semiconductor quantum wells (QW) to increase the efficiency of multi-junction solar (MJ) solar cells grown monolithically on germanium. So far, the most successful application of QWs have required just to tailor a few tens of nanometers the absorption edge of a given subcell in order to reach the optimum spectral position. However, the demand for higher efficiency devices requiring 3, 4 or more junctions, represents a major difference in the challenges QWs must face: tailoring the absorption edge of a host material is not enough, but a complete new device, absorbing light in a different spectral region, must be designed. Among the most important issues to solve is the need for an optically thick structure to absorb enough light while keeping excellent carrier extraction using highly strained materials. Improvement of the growth techniques, smarter device designs - involving superlattices and shifted QWs, for example - or the use of quantum wires rather than QWs, have proven to be very effective steps towards high efficient MJ solar cells based on nanostructures in the last couple of years. But more is to be done to reach the target performances. This work discusses all these challenges, the limitations they represent and the different approaches that are being used to overcome them.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Shi-Jie Wei; Dong Ruan; Gui-Lu Long
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the op...
Blandino, Rémi; Barbieri, Marco; Etesse, Jean; Grangier, Philippe; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa
2012-01-01
We show that the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution in presence of a Gaussian noisy lossy channel can be arbitrarily increased using a linear noiseless amplifier. We explicitly consider a protocol using amplitude and phase modulated coherent states with reverse reconciliation. We find that a noiseless amplifier with amplitude gain g can increase the maximum admissible losses by a factor 1/g^2.
Efficient entanglement purification in quantum repeaters
Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan; Zhao Sheng-Mei; Zheng Bao-Yu
2012-01-01
We present an efficient entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with controlled-not (CNOT) gates and linear optics.With the CNOT gates,our EPP can reach a higher fidelity than the conventional one.Moreover,it does not require the fidelity of the initial mixed state to satisfy · · 1· 2.If the initial state is not entangled,it still can be purified.With the linear optics,this protocol can get pure maximally entangled pairs with some probabilities.Meanwhile,it can be used to purify the entanglement between the atomic ensembles in distant locations.This protocol may be useful in long-distance quantum communication.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Prasanta K. Panigrahi
2015-01-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete...
Study on maximum efficiency control strategy for induction motor
无
2007-01-01
Two new techniques for effficiency-optimization control (EOC) of induction motor drives were proposed. The first method combined Loss Model and "golden section technique", which was faster than the available methods. Secondly, the low-frequency ripple torque due to decrease of rotor flux was compensated in a feedforward manner. If load torque or speed command changed, the efficiency search algorithm would be abandoned and the rated flux would be established to get the best transient response. The close agreement between the simulation and the experimental results confirmed the validity and usefulness of the proposed techniques.
Haseli, Y
2016-05-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal efficiency and power production of typical models of endoreversible heat engines at the regime of minimum entropy generation rate. The study considers the Curzon-Ahlborn engine, the Novikov's engine, and the Carnot vapor cycle. The operational regimes at maximum thermal efficiency, maximum power output and minimum entropy production rate are compared for each of these engines. The results reveal that in an endoreversible heat engine, a reduction in entropy production corresponds to an increase in thermal efficiency. The three criteria of minimum entropy production, the maximum thermal efficiency, and the maximum power may become equivalent at the condition of fixed heat input.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-07-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.
Efficiency at maximum power and efficiency fluctuations in a linear Brownian heat-engine model
Park, Jong-Min; Chun, Hyun-Myung; Noh, Jae Dong
2016-07-01
We investigate the stochastic thermodynamics of a two-particle Langevin system. Each particle is in contact with a heat bath at different temperatures T1 and T2 (autonomous heat engine performing work against the external driving force. Linearity of the system enables us to examine thermodynamic properties of the engine analytically. We find that the efficiency of the engine at maximum power ηM P is given by ηM P=1 -√{T2/T1 } . This universal form has been known as a characteristic of endoreversible heat engines. Our result extends the universal behavior of ηM P to nonendoreversible engines. We also obtain the large deviation function of the probability distribution for the stochastic efficiency in the overdamped limit. The large deviation function takes the minimum value at macroscopic efficiency η =η ¯ and increases monotonically until it reaches plateaus when η ≤ηL and η ≥ηR with model-dependent parameters ηR and ηL.
On the maximum speed of operation of a quantum "black box"
Dugic, M
2001-01-01
We investigate the minimum time needed for (i.e. the maximum speed of) a quantum "black box" ("oracle") operation which employs "quantum parallelism" to be executed. We emphasize that the operation considered employs the quantum-measurement-like establishing of entanglement in the composite system "input register + output register" of a quantum computer's hardware, and we show that the speed of the operation can be increased by increasing the coupling (strength of interaction) in the composite system, as well as by some local operations (e.g., a proper state preparation) performed on the output register. It also proves that the operation employing a macroscopic (or at least a mesoscopic) system to mediate the registers' interaction should be much faster than the operation performed through direct registers' interaction. Finally, we show that adding energy to the composite system needs not to speed up the operation considered. Rather, e.g., in the case of mutually directly interacting registers, the requiremen...
Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Wronski, Jorrit;
2014-01-01
to power. In this study we propose four linear regression models to predict the maximum obtainable thermal efficiency for simple and recuperated ORCs. A previously derived methodology is able to determine the maximum thermal efficiency among many combinations of fluids and processes, given the boundary...
Quan, H T
2014-06-01
We study the maximum efficiency of a heat engine based on a small system. It is revealed that due to the finiteness of the system, irreversibility may arise when the working substance contacts with a heat reservoir. As a result, there is a working-substance-dependent correction to the Carnot efficiency. We derive a general and simple expression for the maximum efficiency of a Carnot cycle heat engine in terms of the relative entropy. This maximum efficiency approaches the Carnot efficiency asymptotically when the size of the working substance increases to the thermodynamic limit. Our study extends Carnot's result of the maximum efficiency to an arbitrary working substance and elucidates the subtlety of thermodynamic laws in small systems.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems.
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-07-28
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d(3)) in contrast to O(d(4)) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-07-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm.
An efficient quantum circuit analyser on qubits and qudits
Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.
2011-10-01
This paper presents a highly efficient decomposition scheme and its associated Mathematica notebook for the analysis of complicated quantum circuits comprised of single/multiple qubit and qudit quantum gates. In particular, this scheme reduces the evaluation of multiple unitary gate operations with many conditionals to just two matrix additions, regardless of the number of conditionals or gate dimensions. This improves significantly the capability of a quantum circuit analyser implemented in a classical computer. This is also the first efficient quantum circuit analyser to include qudit quantum logic gates.
High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors
Kahen, Keith
2013-12-31
The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of
Detective quantum efficiency of the LODOX system
de Villiers, Mattieu; de Jager, Gerhard
2003-06-01
The Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of a digital x-ray imaging system describes how much of the signal to noise ratio of the incident radiation is sustained in the resultant digital image. This measure of dose efficiency is suitable for the comparison of detectors produced by different manufacturers. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) stipulates standard methods and conditions for the measurement of the DQE for single exposure imaging systems such as flat panel detectors. This paper shows how the calculation is adapted for DQE measurements of scanning systems. In this paper it is described how to measure the presampled Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) using an edge test method and how to extract the horizontal and vertical components of the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) in a way that is insensitive to structured noise patterns often found in scanned images. The calculation of the total number of incident photons from the radiation dose measurement is explained and results are provided for the Lodox low dose full body digital x-ray scanning system which is developed in South Africa.
The detective quantum efficiency of an imaging detector
Zanella, G. [Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN; Zannoni, R. [Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN
1995-05-15
The efficiency of an imaging detector is a more extensive parameter than the quantum efficiency of a track detector or of a counter, as an image is created by the summation of many responses due to the single incoming quanta. This efficiency parameter is the so-called detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The paper illustrates the general meaning of DQE and the procedure to measure it. (orig.).
Absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency using parametric downconversion.
Rarity, J G; Ridley, K D; Tapster, P R
1987-11-01
We show that a parametric downconversion crystal emitting angle resolved coincident photon pairs can be used to measure the absolute quantum efficiency of a photon counting detection system. We have measured the quantum efficiency of a silicon avalanche photodiode, operated in Geiger mode, as a function of operating voltage and compare this to results obtained using a conventional method.
Efficient Scheme for Optimizing Quantum Fourier Circuits
JIANG Min; ZHANG Zengke; Tzyh-Jong Tarn
2008-01-01
In quantum circuits, importing of additional qubits can reduce the operation time and prevent de-coherence induced by the environment. However, excessive qubits may make the quantum system vulner-able. This paper describes how to relax existing qubits without additional qubits to significantly reduce the operation time of the quantum Fourier circuit compared to a circuit without optimization. The results indicate that this scheme makes full use of the qubits relaxation. The concepts can be applied to improve similar quantum circuits and guide the physical implementations of quantum algorithms or devices.
Quantum Efficiency Measurements of Femtosecond Vectorial Photoemission on Cu Photocathodes
Banfi, F; Galimberti, P G; Giannetti, C; Pagliara, S; Parmigiani, F; Pedersoli, E
2005-01-01
Quantum Efficiency (QE) measurements of single photon photoemission from a Cu(111) single crystal and a Cu polycrystal photocathodes, irradiated by 150~fs-6.28~eV laser pulses, are reported over a broad range of incidence angle in both s and p polarizations. The maximum value of QE for the Cu polycrystal sample is Y~4*10(-4), obtained with p polarization at an angle of incidence theta=65°. Our data confirm the vectorial photoemission model. Issues concerning surface roughness and symmetry considerations are addressed. An explanation in terms of non local conductivity tensor is proposed. Advantages of a 6.28~eV photon as compared to the standard 4.71~eV photon in use with Cu photocathodes are discussed.
Y. Haseli
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal efficiency and power production of typical models of endoreversible heat engines at the regime of minimum entropy generation rate. The study considers the Curzon-Ahlborn engine, the Novikov’s engine, and the Carnot vapor cycle. The operational regimes at maximum thermal efficiency, maximum power output and minimum entropy production rate are compared for each of these engines. The results reveal that in an endoreversible heat engine, a reduction in entropy production corresponds to an increase in thermal efficiency. The three criteria of minimum entropy production, the maximum thermal efficiency, and the maximum power may become equivalent at the condition of fixed heat input.
Recent advance on the efficiency at maximum power of heat engines
Tu Zhan-Chun
2012-01-01
This review reports several key advances on the theoretical investigations of efficiency at maximum power of heat engines in the past five years.The analytical results of efficiency at maximum power for the Curzon-Ahlborn heat engine,the stochastic heat engine constructed from a Brownian particle,and Feynman's ratchet as a heat engine are presented.It is found that:the efficiency at maximum power exhibits universal behavior at small relative temperature differences; the lower and the upper bounds might exist under quite general conditions; and the problem of efficiency at maximum power comes down to seeking for the minimum irreversible entropy production in each finite-time isothermal process for a given time.
Abhijit Sinha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A comparative analysis on thermodynamic efficiency based on maximum power & power density conditions have been performed for a solar-driven Carnot heat engine with internal irreversibility. In this analysis, the heat transfer from the hot reservoir is to be in the radiation mode and the heat transfer to the cold reservoir is to be in the convection mode. The thermodynamic efficiency function, power & power density functions have been derived and maximization of the power functions have been performed for various design parameters. From the optimum conditions, the thermal efficiencies at maximum power and power densities have been obtained. The effects of internal irreversibility, extreme temperature ratios & specific engine size in area ratio between the hot & cold reservoirs as various design parameters on thermodynamic efficiencies have been investigated for both the conditions. The efficiencies have been compared with Curzon-Ahlborn & Carnot efficiencies respectively.The analysis showed that the efficiency at maximum power output is greater than the efficiency at maximum power density. And the efficiencies can be greater than the Curzon- Ahlborn`s efficiency only for low values of design parameters.
Efficiency at maximum power for an Otto engine with ideal feedback
Wang, Honghui; He, Jizhou; Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi
2016-10-01
We propose an Otto heat engine that undergoes processes involving a special class of feedback and analyze theoretically its response. We use stochastic thermodynamics to determine the performance characteristics of the heat engine and indicate the possibility that its maximum efficiency can surpass the Carnot value. The analytical expression for efficiency at maximum power, including the effects resulting from feedback, reduces to that previously derived based on an engine without feedback.
Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots
Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren
2010-01-01
We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD.......1±2.6 and an encouragingly high QE of (48±14)% for the SCQDs....
Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots
Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren;
2010-01-01
We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...
Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in PET scanners: A simulation study.
Karpetas, George E; Michail, Christos M; Fountos, George P; Kalyvas, Nektarios I; Valais, Ioannis G; Kandarakis, Ioannis S; Panayiotakis, George S
2017-07-01
The aim of the present study is to introduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for the image quality assessment of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. For this purpose, a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source was simulated using a previously validated, scanner and source geometry, Monte Carlo (MC) model. The model was developed with the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR), with cluster computing. The GE Discovery ST PET scanner was simulated by using a previously validated code. A plane source consisting of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrate, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) in order to obtain the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source, whereas the NNPS data were estimated from the corresponding coronal images. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation ordered subsets maximum a posteriori one step late (MLE)-OS-MAP-OSL algorithm, by using various subsets 1-21) and iterations 1-20). MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. However, the range of the increase in the MTF is limited as the number of subsets increases. The noise levels were found to increase with the corresponding increase of both the number of iterations and subsets. The maximum NNPS value (0.517mm(2)) was observed for the 420 MLEM-equivalent iterations reconstructed image at 0cycles/mm. Finally DQE values were found to increase for spatial frequencies up to 0.038cycles/mm and to decrease thereafter with the corresponding increase in both number of iterations and subsets. The maximum DQE value (0.48 at 0.038cycles/mm) was
Yao, Wen-ting; Chen, Xiao-bo; Cheng, Huan-li; Zhou, Gu; Deng, Zhi-wei; Li, Yong-liang; Yan, Da-dong; Peng, Fang-lin
2015-02-01
The authors present a solar cell model with a three photons quantum-cutting system on the rear surface, then the method of calculation of limiting efficiencies was used to get the maximum efficiency 58.58% at the band gap Eg=0.9315 eV, and in contrast with two-photons quantum-cutting system, it is greatly improved. The result can prove that the three-photons quantum-cutting has a great sense to improve the efficiencies of solar cells. It is the exciting development for us to find out the useful luminescence materials to get the high efficiency.
Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.; Böhm, Marcus L.; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, Florencia; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Ducati, Caterina; Ehrler, Bruno; Greenham, Neil C.
2015-01-01
Multiple-exciton generation—a process in which multiple charge-carrier pairs are generated from a single optical excitation—is a promising way to improve the photocurrent in photovoltaic devices and offers the potential to break the Shockley–Queisser limit. One-dimensional nanostructures, for example nanorods, have been shown spectroscopically to display increased multiple exciton generation efficiencies compared with their zero-dimensional analogues. Here we present solar cells fabricated from PbSe nanorods of three different bandgaps. All three devices showed external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100% and we report a maximum external quantum efficiency of 122% for cells consisting of the smallest bandgap nanorods. We estimate internal quantum efficiencies to exceed 150% at relatively low energies compared with other multiple exciton generation systems, and this demonstrates the potential for substantial improvements in device performance due to multiple exciton generation. PMID:26411283
Davis, Nathaniel J L K; Böhm, Marcus L; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, Florencia; Jellicoe, Tom C; Ducati, Caterina; Ehrler, Bruno; Greenham, Neil C
2015-09-28
Multiple-exciton generation-a process in which multiple charge-carrier pairs are generated from a single optical excitation-is a promising way to improve the photocurrent in photovoltaic devices and offers the potential to break the Shockley-Queisser limit. One-dimensional nanostructures, for example nanorods, have been shown spectroscopically to display increased multiple exciton generation efficiencies compared with their zero-dimensional analogues. Here we present solar cells fabricated from PbSe nanorods of three different bandgaps. All three devices showed external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100% and we report a maximum external quantum efficiency of 122% for cells consisting of the smallest bandgap nanorods. We estimate internal quantum efficiencies to exceed 150% at relatively low energies compared with other multiple exciton generation systems, and this demonstrates the potential for substantial improvements in device performance due to multiple exciton generation.
Asymptotic correctability of Bell-diagonal quantum states and maximum tolerable bit error rates
Ranade, K S; Ranade, Kedar S.; Alber, Gernot
2005-01-01
The general conditions are discussed which quantum state purification protocols have to fulfill in order to be capable of purifying Bell-diagonal qubit-pair states, provided they consist of steps that map Bell-diagonal states to Bell-diagonal states and they finally apply a suitably chosen Calderbank-Shor-Steane code to the outcome of such steps. As a main result a necessary and a sufficient condition on asymptotic correctability are presented, which relate this problem to the magnitude of a characteristic exponent governing the relation between bit and phase errors under the purification steps. These conditions allow a straightforward determination of maximum tolerable bit error rates of quantum key distribution protocols whose security analysis can be reduced to the purification of Bell-diagonal states.
Quantum enhanced estimation of optical detector efficiencies
Barbieri Marco
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum mechanics establishes the ultimate limit to the scaling of the precision on any parameter, by identifying optimal probe states and measurements. While this paradigm is, at least in principle, adequate for the metrology of quantum channels involving the estimation of phase and loss parameters, we show that estimating the loss parameters associated with a quantum channel and a realistic quantum detector are fundamentally different. While Fock states are provably optimal for the former, we identify a crossover in the nature of the optimal probe state for estimating detector imperfections as a function of the loss parameter using Fisher information as a benchmark. We provide theoretical results for on-off and homodyne detectors, the most widely used detectors in quantum photonics technologies, when using Fock states and coherent states as probes.
Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key
Li Chun-Yan; Li Xi-Han; Deng Fu-Guo; Zhou Hong-Yu
2008-01-01
This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.
Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems
Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina
2011-01-01
Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.
Kano, Shinya; Fujii, Minoru
2017-03-01
We study the conversion efficiency of an energy harvester based on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with heat leakage. Heat leakage current from a hot electrode to a cold electrode is taken into account in the analysis of the harvester operation. Modeling of electrical output indicates that a maximum heat leakage current is not negligible because it is larger than that of the heat current harvested into electrical power. A reduction of heat leakage is required in this energy harvester in order to obtain efficient heat-to-electrical conversion. Multiple energy levels of a quantum dot can increase the output power of the harvester. Heavily doped colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are a possible candidate for a quantum-dot monolayer in the energy harvester to reduce heat leakage, scaling down device size, and increasing electrical output via multiple discrete energy levels.
Systematic measurement of maximum efficiencies and detuning lengths at the JAERI free-electron laser
Nishimori, N; Nagai, R; Minehara, E J
2002-01-01
We made a systematic measurement of efficiency detuning curves at several gain and loss parameters. The absolute detuning length (delta L) of an optical cavity was measured within an accuracy of 0.1 mu m around the maximum efficiency by a pulse-stacking method using an external laser. The FEL gain was controlled by the undulator gap instead of bunch charge, because we can change the gain rapidly while maintaining constant electron bunch conditions. For the high-gain and low-loss regions, the maximum efficiency is obtained at delta L=0 mu m and is larger than the value derived from the theoretical scaling law in the superradiant regime, while for the low-gain region the maximum efficiency is obtained for delta L shorter than 0 mu m and is similar to the scaling law.
Highly efficient frequency conversion with bandwidth compression of quantum light
Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Sansoni, Linda; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Harder, Georg; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine
2017-01-01
Hybrid quantum networks rely on efficient interfacing of dissimilar quantum nodes, as elements based on parametric downconversion sources, quantum dots, colour centres or atoms are fundamentally different in their frequencies and bandwidths. Although pulse manipulation has been demonstrated in very different systems, to date no interface exists that provides both an efficient bandwidth compression and a substantial frequency translation at the same time. Here we demonstrate an engineered sum-frequency-conversion process in lithium niobate that achieves both goals. We convert pure photons at telecom wavelengths to the visible range while compressing the bandwidth by a factor of 7.47 under preservation of non-classical photon-number statistics. We achieve internal conversion efficiencies of 61.5%, significantly outperforming spectral filtering for bandwidth compression. Our system thus makes the connection between previously incompatible quantum systems as a step towards usable quantum networks. PMID:28134242
Highly efficient frequency conversion with bandwidth compression of quantum light
Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Sansoni, Linda; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Harder, Georg; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine
2017-01-01
Hybrid quantum networks rely on efficient interfacing of dissimilar quantum nodes, as elements based on parametric downconversion sources, quantum dots, colour centres or atoms are fundamentally different in their frequencies and bandwidths. Although pulse manipulation has been demonstrated in very different systems, to date no interface exists that provides both an efficient bandwidth compression and a substantial frequency translation at the same time. Here we demonstrate an engineered sum-frequency-conversion process in lithium niobate that achieves both goals. We convert pure photons at telecom wavelengths to the visible range while compressing the bandwidth by a factor of 7.47 under preservation of non-classical photon-number statistics. We achieve internal conversion efficiencies of 61.5%, significantly outperforming spectral filtering for bandwidth compression. Our system thus makes the connection between previously incompatible quantum systems as a step towards usable quantum networks.
Highly efficient frequency conversion with bandwidth compression of quantum light
Allgaier, Markus; Sansoni, Linda; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Harder, Georg; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine
2016-01-01
Hybrid quantum networks rely on efficient interfacing of dissimilar quantum nodes, since elements based on parametric down-conversion sources, quantum dots, color centres or atoms are fundamentally different in their frequencies and bandwidths. While pulse manipulation has been demonstrated in very different systems, to date no interface exists that provides both an efficient bandwidth compression and a substantial frequency translation at the same time. Here, we demonstrate an engineered sum-frequency-conversion process in Lithium Niobate that achieves both goals. We convert pure photons at telecom wavelengths to the visible range while compressing the bandwidth by a factor of 7.47 under preservation of non-classical photon-number statistics. We achieve internal conversion efficiencies of 75.5%, significantly outperforming spectral filtering for bandwidth compression. Our system thus makes the connection between previously incompatible quantum systems as a step towards usable quantum networks.
Blandino, Rémi; Etesse, Jean; Grangier, Philippe [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 2 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Leverrier, Anthony [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland and INRIA Paris-Rocquencourt, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Barbieri, Marco [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 2 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex, France and Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Tualle-Brouri, Rosa [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 2 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex, France and Institut Universitaire de France, 103 boulevard St. Michel, 75005, Paris (France)
2014-12-04
We show that the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution in presence of a Gaussian noisy lossy channel can be arbitrarily increased using a heralded noiseless linear amplifier. We explicitly consider a protocol using amplitude and phase modulated coherent states with reverse reconciliation. Assuming that the secret key rate drops to zero for a line transmittance T{sub lim}, we find that a noiseless amplifier with amplitude gain g can improve this value to T{sub lim}/g{sup 2}, corresponding to an increase in distance proportional to log g. We also show that the tolerance against noise is increased.
Efficient self-consistent quantum transport simulator for quantum devices
Gao, X., E-mail: xngao@sandia.gov; Mamaluy, D.; Nielsen, E.; Young, R. W.; Lilly, M. P.; Bishop, N. C.; Carroll, M. S.; Muller, R. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, 1515 Eubank SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Shirkhorshidian, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, 1515 Eubank SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2014-04-07
We present a self-consistent one-dimensional (1D) quantum transport simulator based on the Contact Block Reduction (CBR) method, aiming for very fast and robust transport simulation of 1D quantum devices. Applying the general CBR approach to 1D open systems results in a set of very simple equations that are derived and given in detail for the first time. The charge self-consistency of the coupled CBR-Poisson equations is achieved by using the predictor-corrector iteration scheme with the optional Anderson acceleration. In addition, we introduce a new way to convert an equilibrium electrostatic barrier potential calculated from an external simulator to an effective doping profile, which is then used by the CBR-Poisson code for transport simulation of the barrier under non-zero biases. The code has been applied to simulate the quantum transport in a double barrier structure and across a tunnel barrier in a silicon double quantum dot. Extremely fast self-consistent 1D simulations of the differential conductance across a tunnel barrier in the quantum dot show better qualitative agreement with experiment than non-self-consistent simulations.
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Lee, Jae-Weon; Bergou, Janos A
2009-01-01
Quantum key distribution schemes which employ encoding on vacuum-one-photon qubits are capable of transferring more information bits per particle than the standard schemes employing polarization or phase coding. We calculate the maximum number of classical bits per particle that can be securely transferred when the key distribution is performed with the BB84 and B92 protocols, respectively, using the vacuum-one-photon qubits. In particular, we show that for a generalized B92 protocol with the vacuum-one-photon qubits, a maximum of two bits per particle can be securely transferred. We also demonstrate the advantage brought about by performing a generalized measurement that is optimized for unambiguous discrimination of the encoded states: the parameter range where the transfer of two bits per particle can be achieved is dramatically enhanced as compared to the corresponding parameter range of projective measurements.
Wide-Band, High-Quantum-Efficiency Photodetector
Jackson, Deborah; Wilson, Daniel; Stern, Jeffrey
2007-01-01
A design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of optiA design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of opti-
Efficient near-infrared quantum cutting in NaYF4: Ho3+, Yb3+ for solar photovoltaics.
Deng, Kaimo; Gong, Tao; Hu, Lingxun; Wei, Xiantao; Chen, Yonghu; Yin, Min
2011-01-31
Quantum cutting converting a ultraviolet photon into two near-infrared photons has been demonstrated by spectroscopic measurements in NaYF4:Ho3+,Yb3+ synthesized by hydrothermal method. Evidence is provided to confirm the occurrence of quantum cutting. Upon excitation of Ho3+ 5G4 level, near-infrared quantum cutting could occur through a two-step resonance energy transfer from Ho3+ to Yb3+ by cross relaxation, with a maximum quantum efficiency of 155.2%. This result reveals the possibility of violet to near-infrared quantum cutting with a quantum efficiency larger than 100% in Ho3+/Yb3+ codoped fluorides, suggesting the possible application in modifying the solar spectrum to enhance the efficiency of silicon solar cells.
An Efficient Algorithm for Maximum-Entropy Extension of Block-Circulant Covariance Matrices
Carli, Francesca P; Pavon, Michele; Picci, Giorgio
2011-01-01
This paper deals with maximum entropy completion of partially specified block-circulant matrices. Since positive definite symmetric circulants happen to be covariance matrices of stationary periodic processes, in particular of stationary reciprocal processes, this problem has applications in signal processing, in particular to image modeling. Maximum entropy completion is strictly related to maximum likelihood estimation subject to certain conditional independence constraints. The maximum entropy completion problem for block-circulant matrices is a nonlinear problem which has recently been solved by the authors, although leaving open the problem of an efficient computation of the solution. The main contribution of this paper is to provide an efficient algorithm for computing the solution. Simulation shows that our iterative scheme outperforms various existing approaches, especially for large dimensional problems. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a positive definite circulant completio...
Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.
Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-02-19
The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions.
Temperature dependence of quantum efficiency of Schottky diodes based on 4H-SiC
Blank, T V; Kalinina, E V; Konstantinov, O V; Konstantinov, A O; Hallen, A
2001-01-01
The metal-semiconductor structures, which made it possible to create the photoreceivers of the Cr-4H-SiC ultraviolet radiation with the photosensitivity maximum by 4.9 eV and quantum efficiency up to 0.3 were manufactured on the basis of the n-4H-SiC pure epitaxial layer. The experimental study on the temperature dependence of the quantum efficiency of the photoelectric transformation showed, that by the photons energy of 3.4-4.7 eV and the temperatures above 300 K there takes place fast growth of the quantum efficiency with growth of temperatures, which is conditioned by participation of the phonons in the indirect interzonal transitions
Efficient quantum circuits for dense circulant and circulant like operators
Zhou, S. S.; Wang, J. B.
2017-05-01
Circulant matrices are an important family of operators, which have a wide range of applications in science and engineering-related fields. They are, in general, non-sparse and non-unitary. In this paper, we present efficient quantum circuits to implement circulant operators using fewer resources and with lower complexity than existing methods. Moreover, our quantum circuits can be readily extended to the implementation of Toeplitz, Hankel and block circulant matrices. Efficient quantum algorithms to implement the inverses and products of circulant operators are also provided, and an example application in solving the equation of motion for cyclic systems is discussed.
Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids
Kim, Younghoon
2015-11-18
© 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals\\' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.
Quantum transport efficiency and Fourier's law.
Manzano, Daniel; Tiersch, Markus; Asadian, Ali; Briegel, Hans J
2012-12-01
We analyze the steady-state energy transfer in a chain of coupled two-level systems connecting two thermal reservoirs. Through an analytic treatment we find that the energy current is independent of the system size, hence violating Fourier's law of heat conduction. The classical diffusive behavior in Fourier's law of heat conduction can be recovered by introducing decoherence to the quantum systems constituting the chain. We relate these results to recent discussions of energy transport in biological light-harvesting systems, and discuss the role of quantum coherence and entanglement.
Quantum transport efficiency and Fourier's law
Manzano, Daniel; Asadian, Ali; Briegel, Hans J
2011-01-01
We analyze the steady-state energy transfer in a chain of coupled two-level systems connecting two thermal reservoirs. Through an analytic treatment we find that the energy current is independent of the system size, hence violating Fourier's law of heat conduction. The classical diffusive behavior in Fourier's law of heat conduction can be recovered by introducing decoherence to the quantum systems constituting the chain. Implications of these results on energy transfer in biological light harvesting systems, and the role of quantum coherences and entanglement are discussed.
Maximum efficiency of state-space models of nanoscale energy conversion devices.
Einax, Mario; Nitzan, Abraham
2016-07-07
The performance of nano-scale energy conversion devices is studied in the framework of state-space models where a device is described by a graph comprising states and transitions between them represented by nodes and links, respectively. Particular segments of this network represent input (driving) and output processes whose properly chosen flux ratio provides the energy conversion efficiency. Simple cyclical graphs yield Carnot efficiency for the maximum conversion yield. We give general proof that opening a link that separate between the two driving segments always leads to reduced efficiency. We illustrate these general result with simple models of a thermoelectric nanodevice and an organic photovoltaic cell. In the latter an intersecting link of the above type corresponds to non-radiative carriers recombination and the reduced maximum efficiency is manifested as a smaller open-circuit voltage.
Maximum efficiency of state-space models of nanoscale energy conversion devices
Einax, Mario; Nitzan, Abraham
2016-07-01
The performance of nano-scale energy conversion devices is studied in the framework of state-space models where a device is described by a graph comprising states and transitions between them represented by nodes and links, respectively. Particular segments of this network represent input (driving) and output processes whose properly chosen flux ratio provides the energy conversion efficiency. Simple cyclical graphs yield Carnot efficiency for the maximum conversion yield. We give general proof that opening a link that separate between the two driving segments always leads to reduced efficiency. We illustrate these general result with simple models of a thermoelectric nanodevice and an organic photovoltaic cell. In the latter an intersecting link of the above type corresponds to non-radiative carriers recombination and the reduced maximum efficiency is manifested as a smaller open-circuit voltage.
Commuting quantum circuits: efficient classical simulations versus hardness results
Ni, Xiaotong
2012-01-01
The study of quantum circuits composed of commuting gates is particularly useful to understand the delicate boundary between quantum and classical computation. Indeed, while being a restricted class, commuting circuits exhibit genuine quantum effects such as entanglement. In this paper we show that the computational power of commuting circuits exhibits a surprisingly rich structure. First we show that every 2-local commuting circuit acting on d-level systems and followed by single-qudit measurements can be efficiently simulated classically with high accuracy. In contrast, we prove that such strong simulations are hard for 3-local circuits. Using sampling methods we further show that all commuting circuits composed of exponentiated Pauli operators e^{i\\theta P} can be simulated efficiently classically when followed by single-qubit measurements. Finally, we show that commuting circuits can efficiently simulate certain non-commutative processes, related in particular to constant-depth quantum circuits. This give...
An efficient quantum secure direct communication scheme with authentication
Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen
2007-01-01
In this paper an efficient quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme with authentication is presented,which is based on quantum entanglement and polarized single photons. The present protocol uses Einstein-PodolskyRosen (EPR) pairs and polarized single photons in batches. A particle of the EPR pairs is retained in the sender's QSDC protocol. According to the shared information beforehand, these two kinds of quantum states are mixed and then transmitted via a quantum channel. The EPR pairs are used to transmit secret messages and the polarized single photons used for authentication and eavesdropping check. Consequently, because of the dual contributions of the polarized single photons, no classical information is needed. The intrinsic efficiency and total efficiency are both 1 in this scheme as almost all of the instances are useful and each EPR pair can be used to carry two bits of information.
Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren; Nikolaev, I.S.
2007-01-01
We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics....
Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency
Esposito, Martina; Randi, Francesco [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Benatti, Fabio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Kourousias, Georgios; Curri, Alessio [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); University of Cologne, Institute of Physics II, Cologne (Germany); Fausti, Daniele [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)
2016-12-15
Optical homodyne tomography consists in reconstructing the quantum state of an optical field from repeated measurements of its amplitude at different field phases (homodyne data). The experimental noise, which unavoidably affects the homodyne data, leads to a detection efficiency η<1. The problem of reconstructing quantum states from noisy homodyne data sets prompted an intense scientific debate about the presence or absence of a lower homodyne efficiency bound (η>0.5) below which quantum features, like quantum interferences, cannot be retrieved. Here, by numerical experiments, we demonstrate that quantum interferences can be effectively reconstructed also for low homodyne detection efficiency. In particular, we address the challenging case of a Schroedinger cat state and test the minimax and adaptive Wigner function reconstruction technique by processing homodyne data distributed according to the chosen state but with an efficiency η>0.5. By numerically reproducing the Schroedinger's cat interference pattern, we give evidence that quantum state reconstruction is actually possible in these conditions, and provide a guideline for handling optical tomography based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors. (orig.)
Latella Ivan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We analyse the process of conversion of near-field thermal radiation into usable work by considering the radiation emitted between two planar sources supporting surface phonon-polaritons. The maximum work flux that can be extracted from the radiation is obtained taking into account that the spectral flux of modes is mainly dominated by these surface modes. The thermodynamic efficiencies are discussed and an upper bound for the first law efficiency is obtained for this process.
Ouerdane, Henni; Goupil, Christophe; Lecoeur, Philippe
2014-01-01
[...] By the beginning of the 20th century, the principles of thermodynamics were summarized into the so-called four laws, which were, as it turns out, definitive negative answers to the doomed quests for perpetual motion machines. As a matter of fact, one result of Sadi Carnot's work was precisely that the heat-to-work conversion process is fundamentally limited; as such, it is considered as a first version of the second law of thermodynamics. Although it was derived from Carnot's unrealistic model, the upper bound on the thermodynamic conversion efficiency, known as the Carnot efficiency, became a paradigm as the next target after the failure of the perpetual motion ideal. In the 1950's, Jacques Yvon published a conference paper containing the necessary ingredients for a new class of models, and even a formula, not so different from that of Carnot's efficiency, which later would become the new efficiency reference. Yvon's first analysis [...] went fairly unnoticed for twenty years, until Frank Curzon and Bo...
Design of Asymmetrical Relay Resonators for Maximum Efficiency of Wireless Power Transfer
Bo-Hee Choi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new design method of asymmetrical relay resonators for maximum wireless power transfer. A new design method for relay resonators is demanded because maximum power transfer efficiency (PTE is not obtained at the resonant frequency of unit resonator. The maximum PTE for relay resonators is obtained at the different resonances of unit resonator. The optimum design of asymmetrical relay is conducted by both the optimum placement and the optimum capacitance of resonators. The optimum placement is found by scanning the positions of the relays and optimum capacitance can be found by using genetic algorithm (GA. The PTEs are enhanced when capacitance is optimally designed by GA according to the position of relays, respectively, and then maximum efficiency is obtained at the optimum placement of relays. The capacitance of the second resonator to nth resonator and the load resistance should be determined for maximum efficiency while the capacitance of the first resonator and the source resistance are obtained for the impedance matching. The simulated and measured results are in good agreement.
3D Navier-Stokes Simulations of a rotor designed for Maximum Aerodynamic Efficiency
Johansen, Jeppe; Madsen, Helge. Aa.; Gaunaa, Mac
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the design of a three-bladed wind turbine rotor taking into account maximum aerodynamic efficiency only and not considering structural as well as offdesign issues. The rotor was designed assuming constant induction for most of the blade span, but near the tip region a ...
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou
2012-11-01
We investigate the efficiency at the maximum power output (EMP) of an irreversible Carnot engine performing finite-time cycles between two reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (Carnot efficiency, whether the internally dissipative friction is considered or not. When dissipations of two "isothermal" and two "adiabatic" processes are symmetric, respectively, and the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation, the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency η(CA) = 1-sqrt[T(c)/T(h)] is derived.
Efficiency at and near maximum power of low-dissipation heat engines.
Holubec, Viktor; Ryabov, Artem
2015-11-01
A universality in optimization of trade-off between power and efficiency for low-dissipation Carnot cycles is presented. It is shown that any trade-off measure expressible in terms of efficiency and the ratio of power to its maximum value can be optimized independently of most details of the dynamics and of the coupling to thermal reservoirs. The result is demonstrated on two specific trade-off measures. The first one is designed for finding optimal efficiency for a given output power and clearly reveals diseconomy of engines working at maximum power. As the second example we derive universal lower and upper bounds on the efficiency at maximum trade-off given by the product of power and efficiency. The results are illustrated on a model of a diffusion-based heat engine. Such engines operate in the low-dissipation regime given that the used driving minimizes the work dissipated during the isothermal branches. The peculiarities of the corresponding optimization procedure are reviewed and thoroughly discussed.
Efficiency at and near maximum power of low-dissipation heat engines
Holubec, Viktor; Ryabov, Artem
2015-11-01
A universality in optimization of trade-off between power and efficiency for low-dissipation Carnot cycles is presented. It is shown that any trade-off measure expressible in terms of efficiency and the ratio of power to its maximum value can be optimized independently of most details of the dynamics and of the coupling to thermal reservoirs. The result is demonstrated on two specific trade-off measures. The first one is designed for finding optimal efficiency for a given output power and clearly reveals diseconomy of engines working at maximum power. As the second example we derive universal lower and upper bounds on the efficiency at maximum trade-off given by the product of power and efficiency. The results are illustrated on a model of a diffusion-based heat engine. Such engines operate in the low-dissipation regime given that the used driving minimizes the work dissipated during the isothermal branches. The peculiarities of the corresponding optimization procedure are reviewed and thoroughly discussed.
Optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits.
Ozkan, Fahri; Tuna, M Cihat; Baylar, Ahmet; Ozturk, Mualla
2014-01-01
Oxygen is an important component of water quality and its ability to sustain life. Water aeration is the process of introducing air into a body of water to increase its oxygen saturation. Water aeration can be accomplished in a variety of ways, for instance, closed-conduit aeration. High-speed flow in a closed conduit involves air-water mixture flow. The air flow results from the subatmospheric pressure downstream of the gate. The air entrained by the high-speed flow is supplied by the air vent. The air entrained into the flow in the form of a large number of bubbles accelerates oxygen transfer and hence also increases aeration efficiency. In the present work, the optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits was studied experimentally. Results showed that aeration efficiency increased with the air-demand ratio to a certain point and then aeration efficiency did not change with a further increase of the air-demand ratio. Thus, there was an optimum value for the air-demand ratio, depending on the Froude number, which provides maximum aeration efficiency. Furthermore, a design formula for aeration efficiency was presented relating aeration efficiency to the air-demand ratio and Froude number.
Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation
Broadbent, Anne
2016-08-01
In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.
Efficient arbitrated quantum signature and its proof of security
Li, Qin; Li, Chengqing; Long, Dongyang; Chan, Wai Hong; Wang, Changji
2013-07-01
In this paper, an efficient arbitrated quantum signature scheme is proposed by combining quantum cryptographic techniques and some ideas in classical cryptography. In the presented scheme, the signatory and the receiver can share a long-term secret key with the arbitrator by utilizing the key together with a random number. While in previous quantum signature schemes, the key shared between the signatory and the arbitrator or between the receiver and the arbitrator could be used only once, and thus each time when a signatory needs to sign, the signatory and the receiver have to obtain a new key shared with the arbitrator through a quantum key distribution protocol. Detailed theoretical analysis shows that the proposed scheme is efficient and provably secure.
Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode
Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike
2017-02-01
On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.
The Next Generation Photoinjector (thermal Emittance, Quantum Efficiency)
Palmer, D T
1998-01-01
This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S-band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 A range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1 nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 $\\pi$ mm-mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 $\\pi$ mm-mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes...
Efficient Quantum Private Communication Based on Dynamic Control Code Sequence
Cao, Zheng-Wen; Feng, Xiao-Yi; Peng, Jin-Ye; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Qi, Jin
2016-12-01
Based on chaos and quantum properties, we propose a quantum private communication scheme with dynamic control code sequence. The initial sequence is obtained via chaotic systems, and the control code sequence is derived by grouping, XOR and extracting. A shift cycle algorithm is designed to enable the dynamic change of control code sequence. Analysis shows that transmission efficiency could reach 100 % with high dynamics and security.
Statistical estimation of the efficiency of quantum state tomography protocols.
Bogdanov, Yu I; Brida, G; Genovese, M; Kulik, S P; Moreva, E V; Shurupov, A P
2010-07-02
A novel operational method for estimating the efficiency of quantum state tomography protocols is suggested. It is based on a priori estimation of the quality of an arbitrary protocol by means of universal asymptotic fidelity distribution and condition number, which takes minimal value for better protocol. We prove the adequacy of the method both with numerical modeling and through the experimental realization of several practically important protocols of quantum state tomography.
Efficient method for transport simulations in quantum cascade lasers
Maczka Mariusz
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient method for simulating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers is presented. The calculations are performed within a simple approximation inspired by Büttiker probes and based on a finite model for semiconductor superlattices. The formalism of non-equilibrium Green’s functions is applied to determine the selected transport parameters in a typical structure of a terahertz laser. Results were compared with those obtained for a infinite model as well as other methods described in literature.
Efficient method for transport simulations in quantum cascade lasers
Maczka, Mariusz; Pawlowski, Stanislaw
2016-12-01
An efficient method for simulating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers is presented. The calculations are performed within a simple approximation inspired by Büttiker probes and based on a finite model for semiconductor superlattices. The formalism of non-equilibrium Green's functions is applied to determine the selected transport parameters in a typical structure of a terahertz laser. Results were compared with those obtained for a infinite model as well as other methods described in literature.
Efficient Quantum Private Communication Based on Dynamic Control Code Sequence
Cao, Zheng-Wen; Feng, Xiao-Yi; Peng, Jin-Ye; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Qi, Jin
2017-04-01
Based on chaos and quantum properties, we propose a quantum private communication scheme with dynamic control code sequence. The initial sequence is obtained via chaotic systems, and the control code sequence is derived by grouping, XOR and extracting. A shift cycle algorithm is designed to enable the dynamic change of control code sequence. Analysis shows that transmission efficiency could reach 100 % with high dynamics and security.
Efficiency at maximum power of thermochemical engines with near-independent particles.
Luo, Xiaoguang; Liu, Nian; Qiu, Teng
2016-03-01
Two-reservoir thermochemical engines are established by using near-independent particles (including Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein particles) as the working substance. Particle and heat fluxes can be formed based on the temperature and chemical potential gradients between two different reservoirs. A rectangular-type energy filter with width Γ is introduced for each engine to weaken the coupling between the particle and heat fluxes. The efficiency at maximum power of each particle system decreases monotonously from an upper bound η(+) to a lower bound η(-) when Γ increases from 0 to ∞. It is found that the η(+) values for all three systems are bounded by η(C)/2 ≤ η(+) ≤ η(C)/(2-η(C)) due to strong coupling, where η(C) is the Carnot efficiency. For the Bose-Einstein system, it is found that the upper bound is approximated by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency: η(CA)=1-sqrt[1-η(C)]. When Γ → ∞, the intrinsic maximum powers are proportional to the square of the temperature difference of the two reservoirs for all three systems, and the corresponding lower bounds of efficiency at maximum power can be simplified in the same form of η(-)=η(C)/[1+a(0)(2-η(C))].
Efficiency at maximum power of thermochemical engines with near-independent particles
Luo, Xiaoguang; Liu, Nian; Qiu, Teng
2016-03-01
Two-reservoir thermochemical engines are established by using near-independent particles (including Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein particles) as the working substance. Particle and heat fluxes can be formed based on the temperature and chemical potential gradients between two different reservoirs. A rectangular-type energy filter with width Γ is introduced for each engine to weaken the coupling between the particle and heat fluxes. The efficiency at maximum power of each particle system decreases monotonously from an upper bound η+ to a lower bound η- when Γ increases from 0 to ∞ . It is found that the η+ values for all three systems are bounded by ηC/2 ≤η+≤ηC/(2 -ηC ) due to strong coupling, where ηC is the Carnot efficiency. For the Bose-Einstein system, it is found that the upper bound is approximated by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency: ηCA=1 -√{1 -ηC } . When Γ →∞ , the intrinsic maximum powers are proportional to the square of the temperature difference of the two reservoirs for all three systems, and the corresponding lower bounds of efficiency at maximum power can be simplified in the same form of η-=ηC/[1 +a0(2 -ηC ) ] .
Scaling-up quantum heat engines efficiently via shortcuts to adiabaticity
Beau, M; del Campo, A
2016-01-01
The finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine that uses a single particle as a working medium generally increases the output power at the expense of inducing friction that lowers the cycle efficiency. We propose to scale up a quantum heat engine utilizing a many-particle working medium in combination with the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity to boost the nonadiabatic performance by eliminating quantum friction and reducing the cycle time. To this end, we first analyze the finite-time thermodynamics of a quantum Otto cycle implemented with a quantum fluid confined in a time-dependent harmonic trap. We show that nonadiabatic effects can be controlled and tailored to match the adiabatic performance using a variety of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As a result, the nonadiabatic dynamics of the scaled-up many-particle quantum heat engine exhibits no friction and the cycle can be run at maximum efficiency with a tunable output power. We demonstrate our results with a working medium consisting of particles with inv...
Scaling-Up Quantum Heat Engines Efficiently via Shortcuts to Adiabaticity
Mathieu Beau
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine that uses a single particle as a working medium generally increases the output power at the expense of inducing friction that lowers the cycle efficiency. We propose to scale up a quantum heat engine utilizing a many-particle working medium in combination with the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity to boost the nonadiabatic performance by eliminating quantum friction and reducing the cycle time. To this end, we first analyze the finite-time thermodynamics of a quantum Otto cycle implemented with a quantum fluid confined in a time-dependent harmonic trap. We show that nonadiabatic effects can be controlled and tailored to match the adiabatic performance using a variety of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As a result, the nonadiabatic dynamics of the scaled-up many-particle quantum heat engine exhibits no friction, and the cycle can be run at maximum efficiency with a tunable output power. We demonstrate our results with a working medium consisting of particles with inverse-square pairwise interactions that includes non-interacting and hard-core bosons as limiting cases.
Mid-infrared interband cascade photodetectors with high quantum efficiency
Tian, Zhao-Bing; Singh, Anjali; Rigg, Kevin; Krishna, Sanjay
2016-02-01
Antimony-based Interband Cascade (IC) photodetectors are emerging as viable candidates for highperformance infrared applications, especially at high operating temperatures. In our previous IC detector designs using InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices, the quantum efficiency was relatively low as the designs were optimized for high signal to noise ratio. Here we report our recent development of low-noise mid-IR IC photodetectors with high external quantum efficiency. By adopting IC detectors with thicker absorber designs, the quantum efficiency of these mid-IR IC detectors has been increased up to 35%. These IC devices continue to have low-dark current and high temperature operations. Some further analysis on the device characteristics is also presented.
Efficiency, Power and Period of a model quantum heat engine working in a finite time
Bekele, Mulugeta; Dima, Tolasa A.; Alemye, Mekuannent; Chegeno, Warga
We take a spin-half quantum particle undergoing Carnot type cyclic process in a finite time assisted by two heat reservoirs and an external magnetic field. We find that the power of the heat engine is maximum at a particular period of the cyclic process and efficiency at the maximum power is at least half of the Carnot efficiency. We further apply the Omega-criterion for a figure of merit representing a compromise between useful power and lost power determining the corresponding efficiency for the optimization criterion to be at least three fourth of the Carnot efficiency. The authers are thankful to the International Science programme, IPS, Uppsala, Sweden for their support to our research lab.
Nano-patterned superconducting surface for high quantum efficiency cathode
Hannon, Fay; Musumeci, Pietro
2017-03-07
A method for providing a superconducting surface on a laser-driven niobium cathode in order to increase the effective quantum efficiency. The enhanced surface increases the effective quantum efficiency by improving the laser absorption of the surface and enhancing the local electric field. The surface preparation method makes feasible the construction of superconducting radio frequency injectors with niobium as the photocathode. An array of nano-structures are provided on a flat surface of niobium. The nano-structures are dimensionally tailored to interact with a laser of specific wavelength to thereby increase the electron yield of the surface.
Nano-patterned superconducting surface for high quantum efficiency cathode
Hannon, Fay; Musumeci, Pietro
2017-03-07
A method for providing a superconducting surface on a laser-driven niobium cathode in order to increase the effective quantum efficiency. The enhanced surface increases the effective quantum efficiency by improving the laser absorption of the surface and enhancing the local electric field. The surface preparation method makes feasible the construction of superconducting radio frequency injectors with niobium as the photocathode. An array of nano-structures are provided on a flat surface of niobium. The nano-structures are dimensionally tailored to interact with a laser of specific wavelength to thereby increase the electron yield of the surface.
Quantum efficiencies of the photo-Fenton degradation of atrazine in water.
Benzaquén, T B; Isla, M A; Alfano, O M
2012-01-01
An experimental work in a well-stirred batch recycling reactor for the photo-Fenton degradation of atrazine in water is presented. A study of the quantum efficiency is performed to assess the effectiveness of the photo-Fenton process on the atrazine degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization. Apparent and absolute quantum efficiencies of degradation and mineralization of an atrazine-based commercial herbicide are determined under different experimental conditions. Higher apparent efficiencies were found for both atrazine degradation and TOC mineralization when the ferric ion and hydrogen peroxide concentrations are increased. Because of the well known stability of the triazine ring, atrazine was not completely mineralized by the photo-Fenton process. However, a TOC reduction of 40% was achieved, being 62.5% of the maximum value that can be reached.
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on
Fidelity decay as an efficient indicator of quantum chaos.
Emerson, Joseph; Weinstein, Yaakov S; Lloyd, Seth; Cory, D G
2002-12-31
We demonstrate that a system's rate of fidelity decay under repeated perturbations may be measured efficiently on a quantum information processor, and analyze the conditions under which this indicator is a reliable probe of quantum chaos. The type and rate of the decay are not dependent on the eigenvalue statistics of the unperturbed system, but depend on the system's eigenvector statistics in the eigenbasis of the perturbation. For random eigenvector statistics, the decay is exponential with a rate fixed by the variance of the perturbation's energy spectrum. Hence, even classically regular models can exhibit an exponential fidelity decay under generic quantum perturbations. These results clarify which perturbations can distinguish classically regular and chaotic quantum systems.
An efficient quantum search engine on unsorted database
Lu, Songfeng; Zhang, Yingyu; Liu, Fang
2013-10-01
We consider the problem of finding one or more desired items out of an unsorted database. Patel has shown that if the database permits quantum queries, then mere digitization is sufficient for efficient search for one desired item. The algorithm, called factorized quantum search algorithm, presented by him can locate the desired item in an unsorted database using O() queries to factorized oracles. But the algorithm requires that all the attribute values must be distinct from each other. In this paper, we discuss how to make a database satisfy the requirements, and present a quantum search engine based on the algorithm. Our goal is achieved by introducing auxiliary files for the attribute values that are not distinct, and converting every complex query request into a sequence of calls to factorized quantum search algorithm. The query complexity of our algorithm is O() for most cases.
The ACT{sup 2} project: Demonstration of maximum energy efficiency in real buildings
Crawley, D.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Krieg, B.L. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)
1991-11-01
A large US utility recently began a project to determine whether the use of new energy-efficient end-use technologies and systems would economically achieve substantial energy savings (perhaps as high as 75% over current practice). Using a field-based demonstration approach, the Advanced Customer Technology Test (ACT{sup 2}) for Maximum Energy Efficiency is providing information on the maximum energy savings possible when integrated packages of new high-efficiency end-use technologies are incorporated into commercial and residential buildings and industrial and agricultural processes. This paper details the underlying rationale, approach, results to date, and future plans for ACT{sup 2}. The ultimate goal is energy efficiency (doing more with less energy) rather than energy conservation (freezing in the dark). In this paper, we first explain why a major United States utility is committed to pursuing demand-side management so aggressively. Next, we discuss the approach the utility chose for conducting the ACT{sup 2} project. We then review results obtained to date from the project`s pilot demonstration site. Last, we describe other related demonstration projects being proposed by the utility.
The ACT sup 2 project: Demonstration of maximum energy efficiency in real buildings
Crawley, D.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Krieg, B.L. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States))
1991-11-01
A large US utility recently began a project to determine whether the use of new energy-efficient end-use technologies and systems would economically achieve substantial energy savings (perhaps as high as 75% over current practice). Using a field-based demonstration approach, the Advanced Customer Technology Test (ACT{sup 2}) for Maximum Energy Efficiency is providing information on the maximum energy savings possible when integrated packages of new high-efficiency end-use technologies are incorporated into commercial and residential buildings and industrial and agricultural processes. This paper details the underlying rationale, approach, results to date, and future plans for ACT{sup 2}. The ultimate goal is energy efficiency (doing more with less energy) rather than energy conservation (freezing in the dark). In this paper, we first explain why a major United States utility is committed to pursuing demand-side management so aggressively. Next, we discuss the approach the utility chose for conducting the ACT{sup 2} project. We then review results obtained to date from the project's pilot demonstration site. Last, we describe other related demonstration projects being proposed by the utility.
Efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines.
Wang, Yang; Tu, Z C
2012-01-01
The efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines is investigated based on the assumption that the rate of irreversible entropy production of the working substance in each "isothermal" process is a quadratic form of the heat exchange rate between the working substance and the reservoir. It is found that the maximum power output corresponds to minimizing the irreversible entropy production in two isothermal processes of the Carnot-like cycle, and that the efficiency at maximum power output has the form η(mP)=η(C)/(2-γη(C)), where η(C) is the Carnot efficiency, while γ depends on the heat transfer coefficients between the working substance and two reservoirs. The value of η(mP) is bounded between η(-)≡η(C)/2 and η(+)≡η(C)/(2-η(C)). These results are consistent with those obtained by Chen and Yan [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3740 (1989)] based on the endoreversible assumption, those obtained by Esposito et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)] based on the low-dissipation assumption, and those obtained by Schmiedl and Seifert [Europhys. Lett. 81, 20003 (2008)] for stochastic heat engines which in fact also satisfy the low-dissipation assumption. Additionally, we find that the endoreversible assumption happens to hold for Carnot-like heat engines operating at the maximum power output based on our fundamental assumption, and that the Carnot-like heat engines that we focused on do not strictly satisfy the low-dissipation assumption, which implies that the low-dissipation assumption or our fundamental assumption is a sufficient but non-necessary condition for the validity of η(mP)=η(C)/(2-γη(C)) as well as the existence of two bounds, η(-)≡η(C)/2 and η(+)≡η(C)/(2-η(C)).
The maximum power efficiency 1-√τ: Research, education, and bibliometric relevance
Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.; Medina, A.; Velasco, S.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.
2015-07-01
The well-known efficiency at maximum power for a cyclic system working between hot T h and low T c temperatures given by the equation 1-√ τ( τ= T c /T h), has become a landmark result with regards to the thermodynamic optimization of a great variety of energy converters. Its wide applicability and sole dependence on the external heat bath temperatures (as the Carnot efficiency does) allows for an easy comparison with experimental efficiencies leading to a striking fair agreement. Reversible, finite-time, and linear-irreversible derivations are analyzed in order to show a broader perspective about its meaning from both researching and pedagogical point of views. Its scientific relevance and historical development are also analyzed in this work by means of some bibliometric data. This article is supplemented with comments by Hong Qian and a final reply by the authors.
Efficiency and its bounds for thermal engines at maximum power using Newton's law of cooling.
Yan, H; Guo, Hao
2012-01-01
We study a thermal engine model for which Newton's cooling law is obeyed during heat transfer processes. The thermal efficiency and its bounds at maximum output power are derived and discussed. This model, though quite simple, can be applied not only to Carnot engines but also to four other types of engines. For the long thermal contact time limit, new bounds, tighter than what were known before, are obtained. In this case, this model can simulate Otto, Joule-Brayton, Diesel, and Atkinson engines. While in the short contact time limit, which corresponds to the Carnot cycle, the same efficiency bounds as that from Esposito et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)] are derived. In both cases, the thermal efficiency decreases as the ratio between the heat capacities of the working medium during heating and cooling stages increases. This might provide instructions for designing real engines.
Efficiency and its bounds for thermal engines at maximum power using Newton's law of cooling
Yan, H.; Guo, Hao
2012-01-01
We study a thermal engine model for which Newton's cooling law is obeyed during heat transfer processes. The thermal efficiency and its bounds at maximum output power are derived and discussed. This model, though quite simple, can be applied not only to Carnot engines but also to four other types of engines. For the long thermal contact time limit, new bounds, tighter than what were known before, are obtained. In this case, this model can simulate Otto, Joule-Brayton, Diesel, and Atkinson engines. While in the short contact time limit, which corresponds to the Carnot cycle, the same efficiency bounds as that from Esposito [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.150603 105, 150603 (2010)] are derived. In both cases, the thermal efficiency decreases as the ratio between the heat capacities of the working medium during heating and cooling stages increases. This might provide instructions for designing real engines.
Efficient Quantum State Estimation with Over-complete Tomography
Zhang, Chi; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2011-01-01
It is widely accepted that the selection of measurement bases can affect the efficiency of quantum state estimation methods, precision of estimating an unknown state can be improved significantly by simply introduce a set of symmetrical measurement bases. Here we compare the efficiencies of estimations with different numbers of measurement bases by numerical simulation and experiment in optical system. The advantages of using a complete set of symmetrical measurement bases are illustrated mor...
Report of high quantum efficiency photocathode at Milano
Michelato, P. (INFN and University of Milano, Lab. LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, 2009, Segrate (Georgia))
1992-07-01
R D activity on high quantum efficiency alkali antimonide photocathode is in progress at Milano, in the context of the ARES program. Inside a preliminary preparation chamber, Cs[sub 3]Sb layers with qunatum efficiency up to 9% (at [lambda]=543.5 nm) and lifetime of some days has been recently produced on copper, stainless steel and niobium, using a reproducible deposition procedure adapted to the material of the different substrata.
High quantum efficiency GaP avalanche photodiodes.
McIntosh, Dion; Zhou, Qiugui; Chen, Yaojia; Campbell, Joe C
2011-09-26
Gallium Phosphide (GaP) reach-through avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are reported. The APDs exhibited dark current less than a pico-ampere at unity gain. A quantum efficiency of 70% was achieved with a recessed window structure; this is almost two times higher than previous work. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Efficient wave-function matching approach for quantum transport calculations
Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg; Hansen, Per Christian; Petersen, Dan Erik;
2009-01-01
The wave-function matching (WFM) technique has recently been developed for the calculation of electronic transport in quantum two-probe systems. In terms of efficiency it is comparable to the widely used Green's function approach. The WFM formalism presented so far requires the evaluation of all ...
Modeling the irradiance dependency of the quantum efficiency of potosynthesis
Silsbe, G.M.; Kromkamp, J.C.
2012-01-01
Measures of the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis (phi(PSII)) across an irradiance (E) gradient are an increasingly common physiological assay and alternative to traditional photosynthetic-irradiance (PE) assays. Routinely, the analysis and interpretation of these data are analogous to PE measure
Efficiency at maximum power output for an engine with a passive piston
Sano, Tomohiko G.; Hayakawa, Hisao
2016-08-01
Efficiency at maximum power (MP) output for an engine with a passive piston without mechanical controls between two reservoirs is studied theoretically. We enclose a hard core gas partitioned by a massive piston in a temperature-controlled container and analyze the efficiency at MP under a heating and cooling protocol without controlling the pressure acting on the piston from outside. We find the following three results: (i) The efficiency at MP for a dilute gas is close to the Chambadal-Novikov-Curzon-Ahlborn (CNCA) efficiency if we can ignore the sidewall friction and the loss of energy between a gas particle and the piston, while (ii) the efficiency for a moderately dense gas becomes smaller than the CNCA efficiency even when the temperature difference of the reservoirs is small. (iii) Introducing the Onsager matrix for an engine with a passive piston, we verify that the tight coupling condition for the matrix of the dilute gas is satisfied, while that of the moderately dense gas is not satisfied because of the inevitable heat leak. We confirm the validity of these results using the molecular dynamics simulation and introducing an effective mean-field-like model which we call the stochastic mean field model.
Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots
Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.
2010-01-01
We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD......) samples with varying thickness of the capping layer. We determine radiative and nonradiative decay rates, from which we calculate an OS of 10.1+/-2.6 and an encouragingly high QE of (47+/-14)% for the SCQDs. The nonideal QE is attributed to nonradiative recombination at the etched nanohole interface...
High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems
Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)
2011-09-30
The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.
Selva, J
2011-01-01
This paper presents an efficient method to compute the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of the parameters of a complex 2-D sinusoidal, with the complexity order of the FFT. The method is based on an accurate barycentric formula for interpolating band-limited signals, and on the fact that the ML cost function can be viewed as a signal of this type, if the time and frequency variables are switched. The method consists in first computing the DFT of the data samples, and then locating the maximum of the cost function by means of Newton's algorithm. The fact is that the complexity of the latter step is small and independent of the data size, since it makes use of the barycentric formula for obtaining the values of the cost function and its derivatives. Thus, the total complexity order is that of the FFT. The method is validated in a numerical example.
Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph
2012-03-01
Energy conversion efficiency at maximum output power, which embodies the essential characteristics of heat engines, is the main focus of the present work. The so-called Curzon and Ahlborn efficiency η(CA) is commonly believed to be an absolute reference for real heat engines; however, a different but general expression for the case of stochastic heat engines, η(SS), was recently found and then extended to low-dissipation engines. The discrepancy between η(CA) and η(SS) is here analyzed considering different irreversibility sources of heat engines, of both internal and external types. To this end, we choose a thermoelectric generator operating in the strong-coupling regime as a physical system to qualitatively and quantitatively study the impact of the nature of irreversibility on the efficiency at maximum output power. In the limit of pure external dissipation, we obtain η(CA), while η(SS) corresponds to the case of pure internal dissipation. A continuous transition between from one extreme to the other, which may be operated by tuning the different sources of irreversibility, also is evidenced.
An Efficient Quantum Somewhat Homomorphic Symmetric Searchable Encryption
Sun, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Ting; Sun, Zhiwei; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jianping; Xie, Weixin
2017-01-01
In 2009, Gentry first introduced an ideal lattices fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme. Later, based on the approximate greatest common divisor problem, learning with errors problem or learning with errors over rings problem, FHE has developed rapidly, along with the low efficiency and computational security. Combined with quantum mechanics, Liang proposed a symmetric quantum somewhat homomorphic encryption (QSHE) scheme based on quantum one-time pad, which is unconditional security. And it was converted to a quantum fully homomorphic encryption scheme, whose evaluation algorithm is based on the secret key. Compared with Liang's QSHE scheme, we propose a more efficient QSHE scheme for classical input states with perfect security, which is used to encrypt the classical message, and the secret key is not required in the evaluation algorithm. Furthermore, an efficient symmetric searchable encryption (SSE) scheme is constructed based on our QSHE scheme. SSE is important in the cloud storage, which allows users to offload search queries to the untrusted cloud. Then the cloud is responsible for returning encrypted files that match search queries (also encrypted), which protects users' privacy.
An Efficient Quantum Somewhat Homomorphic Symmetric Searchable Encryption
Sun, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Ting; Sun, Zhiwei; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jianping; Xie, Weixin
2017-04-01
In 2009, Gentry first introduced an ideal lattices fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme. Later, based on the approximate greatest common divisor problem, learning with errors problem or learning with errors over rings problem, FHE has developed rapidly, along with the low efficiency and computational security. Combined with quantum mechanics, Liang proposed a symmetric quantum somewhat homomorphic encryption (QSHE) scheme based on quantum one-time pad, which is unconditional security. And it was converted to a quantum fully homomorphic encryption scheme, whose evaluation algorithm is based on the secret key. Compared with Liang's QSHE scheme, we propose a more efficient QSHE scheme for classical input states with perfect security, which is used to encrypt the classical message, and the secret key is not required in the evaluation algorithm. Furthermore, an efficient symmetric searchable encryption (SSE) scheme is constructed based on our QSHE scheme. SSE is important in the cloud storage, which allows users to offload search queries to the untrusted cloud. Then the cloud is responsible for returning encrypted files that match search queries (also encrypted), which protects users' privacy.
Stysley, Paul; Coyle, Barry; Clarke, Greg; Poulios, Demetrios; Kay, Richard
2015-01-01
The Global Ecosystems Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a planned mission sending a LIDAR instrument to the International Space Station that will employ three NASA laser transmitters. This instrument will produce parallel tracks on the Earth's surface that will provide global 3D vegetation canopy measurements. To meet the mission goals a total of 5 High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator lasers will to be built (1 ETU + 3 Flight + 1 spare) in-house at NASA-GSFC. This presentation will summarize the HOMER design, the testing the design has completed in the past, and the plans to successfully build the units needed for the GEDI mission.
Efficiency and its bounds for thermal engines at maximum power using Newton's law of cooling
Yan, H; Guo, H.
2012-01-01
We study a thermal engine model for which Newton's cooling law is obeyed during heat transfer processes. The thermal efficiency and its bounds at maximum output power are derived and discussed. This model, though quite simple, can be applied not only to Carnot engines but also to four other types of engines. For the long thermal contact time limit, new bounds, tighter than what were known before, are obtained. In this case, this model can simulate Otto, Joule-Brayton, Diesel, and Atkinson eng...
Efficient quantum algorithm for computing n-time correlation functions.
Pedernales, J S; Di Candia, R; Egusquiza, I L; Casanova, J; Solano, E
2014-07-11
We propose a method for computing n-time correlation functions of arbitrary spinorial, fermionic, and bosonic operators, consisting of an efficient quantum algorithm that encodes these correlations in an initially added ancillary qubit for probe and control tasks. For spinorial and fermionic systems, the reconstruction of arbitrary n-time correlation functions requires the measurement of two ancilla observables, while for bosonic variables time derivatives of the same observables are needed. Finally, we provide examples applicable to different quantum platforms in the frame of the linear response theory.
Green synthesis of highly efficient CdSe quantum dots for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells
Gao, Bing; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Mengya; Yuan, Shuanglong; Yang, Yunxia, E-mail: yangyunxia@ecust.edu.cn, E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Chen, Guorong, E-mail: yangyunxia@ecust.edu.cn, E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Bo [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)
2014-05-21
Green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for application in the quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is investigated in this work. The CdSe QDs were prepared with glycerol as the solvent, with sharp emission peak, full width at half maximum around 30 nm, and absorption peak from 475 nm to 510 nm. The reaction is environmental friendly and energy saving. What's more, the green synthesized CdSe QDs are coherence to the maximum remittance region of the solar spectrum and suitable as sensitizers to assemble onto TiO{sub 2} electrodes for cell devices application. What's more, the dynamic procedure of the carriers' excitation, transportation, and recombination in the QDSCs are discussed. Because the recombination of the electrons from the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}'s to the electrolyte affects the efficiency of the solar cells greatly, 3-Mercaptopropionic acid capped water-dispersible QDs were used to cover the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The resulting green synthesized CdSe QDSCs with Cu{sub 2}S as the electrode show a photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 3.39%.
Efficient method for the calculation of dissipative quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers.
Greck, Peter; Birner, Stefan; Huber, Bernhard; Vogl, Peter
2015-03-09
We present a novel and very efficient method for calculating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). It follows the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but sidesteps the calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. This method generalizes the phenomenological Büttiker probe model by taking into account individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully self-consistent NEGF calculation for realistic devices. We apply this method to a new THz QCL design which works up to 250 K - according to our calculations.
An efficient biologically-inspired photocell enhanced by quantum coherence
Creatore, C; Emmott, S; Chin, A W
2013-01-01
Artificially reproducing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture of photosynthetic reaction centres that explicitly harnesses the quantum mechanical effects recently discovered in photosynthetic complexes. Quantum interference of photon absorption/emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of realistic parameters, opening a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.
Photoconductive gain and quantum efficiency of remotely doped Ge/Si quantum dot photodetectors
Yakimov, A. I.; Kirienko, V. V.; Armbrister, V. A.; Bloshkin, A. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Shklyaev, A. A.
2016-10-01
We study the effect of quantum dot charging on the mid-infrared photocurrent, optical gain, hole capture probability, and absorption quantum efficiency in remotely delta-doped Ge/Si quantum dot photodetectors. The dot occupation with holes is controlled by varying dot and doping densities. From our investigations of samples doped to contain from about one to nine holes per dot we observe an over 10 times gain enhancement and similar suppression of the hole capture probability with increased carrier population. The data are explained by quenching the capture process and increasing the photoexcited hole lifetime due to formation of the repulsive Coulomb potential of the extra holes inside the quantum dots. The normal incidence quantum efficiency is found to be strongly asymmetric with respect to applied bias polarity. Based on the polarization-dependent absorption measurements it is concluded that, at a positive voltage, when holes move toward the nearest δ-doping plane, photocurrent is originated from the bound-to-continuum transitions of holes between the ground state confined in Ge dots and the extended states of the Si matrix. At a negative bias polarity, the photoresponse is caused by optical excitation to a quasibound state confined near the valence band edge with subsequent tunneling to the Si valence band. In a latter case, the possibility of hole transfer into continuum states arises from the electric field generated by charge distributed between quantum dots and delta-doping planes.
Efficient Photovoltaic System Maximum Power Point Tracking Using a New Technique
Mehdi Seyedmahmoudian
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Partial shading is an unavoidable condition which significantly reduces the efficiency and stability of a photovoltaic (PV system. When partial shading occurs the system has multiple-peak output power characteristics. In order to track the global maximum power point (GMPP within an appropriate period a reliable technique is required. Conventional techniques such as hill climbing and perturbation and observation (P&O are inadequate in tracking the GMPP subject to this condition resulting in a dramatic reduction in the efficiency of the PV system. Recent artificial intelligence methods have been proposed, however they have a higher computational cost, slower processing time and increased oscillations which results in further instability at the output of the PV system. This paper proposes a fast and efficient technique based on Radial Movement Optimization (RMO for detecting the GMPP under partial shading conditions. The paper begins with a brief description of the behavior of PV systems under partial shading conditions followed by the introduction of the new RMO-based technique for GMPP tracking. Finally, results are presented to demonstration the performance of the proposed technique under different partial shading conditions. The results are compared with those of the PSO method, one of the most widely used methods in the literature. Four factors, namely convergence speed, efficiency (power loss reduction, stability (oscillation reduction and computational cost, are considered in the comparison with the PSO technique.
Bounds and phase diagram of efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling molecular motors.
Tu, Z C
2013-02-01
The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) for tight-coupling molecular motors is investigated within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. It is found that the EMP depends merely on the constitutive relation between the thermodynamic current and force. The motors are classified into four generic types (linear, superlinear, sublinear, and mixed types) according to the characteristics of the constitutive relation, and then the corresponding ranges of the EMP for these four types of molecular motors are obtained. The exact bounds of the EMP are derived and expressed as the explicit functions of the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step. A phase diagram is constructed which clearly shows how the region where the parameters (the load distribution factor and the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step) are located can determine whether the value of the EMP is larger or smaller than 1/2. This phase diagram reveals that motors using ATP as fuel under physiological conditions can work at maximum power with higher efficiency (> 1/2) for a small load distribution factor (< 0.1).
Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems
Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.
1983-01-01
An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.
Efficient quantum circuits for continuous-time quantum walks on composite graphs
Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.
2017-02-01
In this paper, we investigate the simulation of continuous-time quantum walks on specific classes of graphs, for which it is possible to fast-forward the time-evolution operator to achieve constant-time simulation complexity and to perform the simulation exactly, i.e. ε =0 , while maintaining \\text{poly}≤ft(\\text{log}(n)\\right) efficiency. In particular, we discuss two classes of composite graphs, commuting graphs and Cartesian product of graphs, that contain classes of graphs which can be simulated in this fashion. This allows us to identify new families of graphs that we can efficiently simulate in a quantum circuit framework, providing practical and explicit means to explore quantum-walk based algorithms in laboratories.
High-efficiency "green" quantum dot solar cells.
Pan, Zhenxiao; Mora-Seró, Iván; Shen, Qing; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yan; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Xinhua; Bisquert, Juan
2014-06-25
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extremely interesting materials for the development of photovoltaic devices, but currently the present the drawback is that the most efficient devices have been prepared with toxic heavy metals of Cd or Pb. Solar cells based on "green" QDs--totally free of Cd or Pb--present a modest efficiency of 2.52%. Herein we achieve effective surface passivation of the ternary CuInS2 (CIS) QDs that provides high photovoltaic quality core/shell CIS/ZnS (CIS-Z) QDs, leading to the development of high-efficiency green QD solar cells that surpass the performance of those based on the toxic cadmium and lead chalcogenides QDs. Using wide absorption range QDs, CIS-Z-based quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSC) configuration with high QD loading and with the benefit of the recombination reduction with type-I core/shell structure, we boost the power conversion efficiency of Cd- and Pb-free QDSC to a record of 7.04% (with certified efficiency of 6.66%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation. This efficiency is the best performance to date for QDSCs and also demonstrates that it is possible to obtain comparable or even better photovoltaic performance from green CIS QDs to the toxic cadmium and lead chalcogenides QDs.
High-efficiency reconciliation for continuous variable quantum key distribution
Bai, Zengliang; Yang, Shenshen; Li, Yongmin
2017-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is the most mature application of quantum information technology. Information reconciliation is a crucial step in QKD and significantly affects the final secret key rates shared between two legitimate parties. We analyze and compare various construction methods of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and design high-performance irregular LDPC codes with a block length of 106. Starting from these good codes and exploiting the slice reconciliation technique based on multilevel coding and multistage decoding, we realize high-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation with efficiency higher than 95% for signal-to-noise ratios above 1. Our demonstrated method can be readily applied in continuous variable QKD.
Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper Photocathode
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-28
The quantum efficiency of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction, surface cleanliness and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
An efficient quantum key distribution protocol with orthogonal product states
Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan
2007-01-01
An efficient quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol with orthogonal product states in the 3(×)3 Hilbert space is presented. The sender, Alice, disorders the orthogonal product state sequence and sends it to Bob. After Alice has published the matching information of the particle sequence, Bob recovers the correct correspondences and makes an orthogonal measurement on the orthogonal product states to obtain the information sent by Alice. Finally, security analysis is also made.
High Quantum Efficiency Phototubes for Atmospheric Fluorescence Telescopes
Kruppke-Hansen, Daniel
2009-01-01
The detection of atmospheric fluorescence light from extensive air showers has become a powerful tool for accurate measurements of the energy and mass of ultra-high energy cosmic ray particles. Employing large area imaging telescopes with mirror areas of 10m2 or more, showers out to distances of 30km and more can be observed. Matrices of low-noise photomultipliers are used to detect the faint light of the air showers against the ambient night-sky background noise. The signal-to-noise ratio of such a system is found to be proportional to the square root of the mirror area times the quantum efficiency of the phototube. Thus, higher quantum efficiencies could potentially improve the quality of the measurement and/or lead to the construction of more compact telescopes. In this paper, we shall discuss such improvements to be expected from high quantum efficiency phototubes that became available on the market only very recently. A series of simulations has been performed with data of different types of commercially...
Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles
Iida, Daisuke [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Katsushika, 125-8585 Tokyo (Japan); Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi Tempaku, 468-8502 Nagoya (Japan); Fadil, Ahmed, E-mail: afad@fotonik.dtu.dk; Ou, Yiyu; Kopylov, Oleksii; Ou, Haiyan [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Chen, Yuntian, E-mail: yuntian@hust.edu.cn [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi Tempaku, 468-8502 Nagoya (Japan); Akasaki, Isamu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi Tempaku, 468-8502 Nagoya (Japan); Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho Chikusa, 464-8603 Nagoya (Japan)
2015-09-15
We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantum-well structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density on the enhancement factor is investigated. We obtain an internal quantum efficiency enhancement by a factor of 2.3 at 756 W/cm{sup 2}, and a factor of 8.1 at 1 W/cm{sup 2}. A Purcell enhancement up to a factor of 26 is estimated by fitting the experimental results to a theoretical model for the efficiency enhancement factor.
Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles
Daisuke Iida
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantum-well structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density on the enhancement factor is investigated. We obtain an internal quantum efficiency enhancement by a factor of 2.3 at 756 W/cm2, and a factor of 8.1 at 1 W/cm2. A Purcell enhancement up to a factor of 26 is estimated by fitting the experimental results to a theoretical model for the efficiency enhancement factor.
An efficient quantum secret sharing protocol with orthogonal product states
2007-01-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing protocol with orthogonal product states in the 33 Hilbert space is presented. The particles in the orthogonal product states form two particle sequences. One sequence is sent to Bob and the other is sent to Charlie after rearranging the particle orders. With the help of Alice, Bob and Charlie make the corresponding local measurement to obtain the information of the or- thogonal product states prepared. This protocol has many distinct features such as great capacity and high efficiency.
An efficient quantum secret sharing protocol with orthogonal product states
YANG YuGuang; WEN QiaoYan; ZHU FuChen
2007-01-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing protocol with orthogonal product states in the 3(×)3 Hilbert space is presented. The particles in the orthogonal product states form two particle sequences. One sequence is sent to Bob and the other is sent to Charlie after rearranging the particle orders. With the help of Alice, Bob and Charlie make the corresponding local measurement to obtain the information of the orthogonal product states prepared. This protocol has many distinct features such as great capacity and high efficiency.
Efficient calculation of dissipative quantum transport properties in semiconductor nanostructures
Greck, Peter
2012-11-26
We present a novel quantum transport method that follows the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but side steps any self-consistent calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. We termed this method the multi-scattering Buettiker-Probe (MSB) method. It generalizes the so-called Buettiker-Probe model but takes into account all relevant individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully selfconsistent non-equilibrium Green's function calculation for realistic devices, yet accurately reproduces the results of the latter method as well as experimental data. This method is fairly easy to implement and opens the path towards realistic three-dimensional quantum transport calculations. In this work, we review the fundamentals of the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for quantum transport calculations. Then, we introduce our novel MSB method after briefly reviewing the original Buettiker-Probe model. Finally, we compare the results of the MSB method to NEGF calculations as well as to experimental data. In particular, we calculate quantum transport properties of quantum cascade lasers in the terahertz (THz) and the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral domain. With a device optimization algorithm based upon the MSB method, we propose a novel THz quantum cascade laser design. It uses a two-well period with alternating barrier heights and complete carrier thermalization for the majority of the carriers within each period. We predict THz laser operation for temperatures up to 250 K implying a new temperature record.
Simulation of maximum light use efficiency for some typical vegetation types in China
无
2006-01-01
Maximum light use efficiency (εmax) is a key parameter for the estimation of net primary productivity (NPP) derived from remote sensing data. There are still many divergences about its value for each vegetation type. The εmax for some typical vegetation types in China is simulated using a modified least squares function based on NOAA/AVHRR remote sensing data and field-observed NPP data. The vegetation classification accuracy is introduced to the process. The sensitivity analysis of εmax to vegetation classification accuracy is also conducted. The results show that the simulated values of εmax are greater than the value used in CASA model, and less than the values simulated with BIOME-BGC model. This is consistent with some other studies. The relative error of εmax resulting from classification accuracy is -5.5%―8.0%. This indicates that the simulated values of εmax are reliable and stable.
Cushing, Scott K; Bristow, Alan D; Wu, Nianqiang
2015-11-28
Plasmonics can enhance solar energy conversion in semiconductors by light trapping, hot electron transfer, and plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET). The multifaceted response of the plasmon and multiple interaction pathways with the semiconductor makes optimization challenging, hindering design of efficient plasmonic architectures. Therefore, in this paper we use a density matrix model to capture the interplay between scattering, hot electrons, and dipole-dipole coupling through the plasmon's dephasing, including both the coherent and incoherent dynamics necessary for interactions on the plasmon's timescale. The model is extended to Shockley-Queisser limit calculations for both photovoltaics and solar-to-chemical conversion, revealing the optimal application of each enhancement mechanism based on plasmon energy, semiconductor energy, and plasmon dephasing. The results guide application of plasmonic solar-energy harvesting, showing which enhancement mechanism is most appropriate for a given semiconductor's weakness, and what nanostructures can achieve the maximum enhancement.
Efficient photon extraction from a quantum dot in a broad-band planar cavity antenna
Ma, Yong, E-mail: y.ma@hw.ac.uk; Kremer, Peter E.; Gerardot, Brian D., E-mail: B.D.Gerardot@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, SUPA, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)
2014-01-14
We analyse the extraction of photons emitted from single InAs quantum dots embedded in planar microcavities. The structures are designed to achieve broad-band operation and high-collection efficiency from a device requiring straightforward fabrication, even with electrical contacts. The designs consist of a quantum dot in a GaAs membrane with asymmetric top and bottom mirrors and a top-side solid immersion lens (SIL). Four separate cases are considered in our design: a GaAs membrane only (case 1), GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top (case 2), a GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top and a back mirror consisting of Au (case 3), a GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top of a distribute Bragg reflector mirror and Au back mirror (case 4). Both finite difference time domain and analytical simulations are used to calculate the electric field, power density, and far-field radiation pattern. For optimized structures (case 4), we obtain significant extraction efficiencies (>50%) with modest Purcell enhancements (∼20%) and a large spectral full-width-half-maximum (>100 nm). The high-extraction efficiency, broad-band operation, and facile fabrication make the proposed structures promising for realistic quantum dot devices.
2008-01-01
Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration,input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝Δ(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory,and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches,four maximum-efficiency branches,and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained,as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton’s heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.
SONG HanJiang; CHEN LinGen; SUN FengRui
2008-01-01
Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration, input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝△(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory, and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches, four maximum-efficiency branches, and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained, as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton's heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.
Zimmermann, Tomas
2011-01-01
We propose to measure nonadiabaticity of molecular quantum dynamics rigorously with the quantum fidelity between the Born-Oppenheimer and fully nonadiabatic dynamics. It is shown that this measure of nonadiabaticity applies in situations where other criteria, such as the energy gap criterion or the extent of population transfer, fail. We further propose to estimate this quantum fidelity efficiently with a generalization of the dephasing representation to multiple surfaces. Two variants of the multiple-surface dephasing representation (MSDR) are introduced, in which the nuclei are propagated either with the fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) or with the locally mean field dynamics (LMFD). The LMFD can be interpreted as the Ehrenfest dynamics of an ensemble of nuclear trajectories, and has been used previously in the nonadiabatic semiclassical initial value representation. In addition to propagating an ensemble of classical trajectories, the MSDR requires evaluating nonadiabatic couplings and solving the Sc...
Quantum efficiency of a single microwave photon detector based on a semiconductor double quantum dot
Wong, Clement H.; Vavilov, Maxim G.
2017-01-01
Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we consider a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting resonator that is driven by the microwave field of a superconducting transmission line. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and show that the resonator-coupled DQD is a sensitive microwave single photon detector. Using currently available experimental parameters of DQD-resonator coupling and dissipation, including the effects of 1 /f charge noise and phonon noise, we determine the parameter regime for which incident photons are completely absorbed and near-unit ≳98 % efficiency can be achieved. We show that this regime can be reached by using very high quality resonators with quality factor Q ≃105 .
Optimal power and efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engines
Yin, Yong; Chen, Lingen; Wu, Feng
2017-01-01
A quantum Stirling heat engine model is established in this paper in which imperfect regeneration and heat leakage are considered. A single particle which contained in a one-dimensional infinite potential well is studied, and the system consists of countless replicas. Each particle is confined in its own potential well, whose occupation probabilities can be expressed by the thermal equilibrium Gibbs distributions. Based on the Schrödinger equation, the expressions of power output and efficiency for the engine are obtained. Effects of imperfect regeneration and heat leakage on the optimal performance are discussed. The optimal performance region and the optimal values of important parameters of the engine cycle are obtained. The results obtained can provide some guidelines for the design of a quantum Stirling heat engine.
Efficient estimation of resonant coupling between quantum systems.
Stenberg, Markku P V; Sanders, Yuval R; Wilhelm, Frank K
2014-11-21
We present an efficient method for the characterization of two coupled discrete quantum systems, one of which can be controlled and measured. For two systems with transition frequencies ωq, ωr, and coupling strength g we show how to obtain estimates of g and ωr whose error decreases exponentially in the number of measurement shots rather than as a power law expected in simple approaches. Our algorithm can thereby identify g and ωr simultaneously with high precision in a few hundred measurement shots. This is achieved by adapting measurement settings upon data as it is collected. We also introduce a method to eliminate erroneous estimates with small overhead. Our algorithm is robust against the presence of relaxation and typical noise. Our results are applicable to many candidate technologies for quantum computation, in particular, for the characterization of spurious two-level systems in superconducting qubits or stripline resonators.
Efficient Biologically Inspired Photocell Enhanced by Delocalized Quantum States
Creatore, C.; Parker, M. A.; Emmott, S.; Chin, A. W.
2013-12-01
Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.
Radix-independent, efficient arrays for multi-level n-qudit quantum and reversible computation
Mohammadi, Majid
2015-08-01
Multiple-valued quantum logic allows the designers to reduce the number of cells while obtaining more functionality in the quantum circuits. Large r-valued reversible or quantum gates ( r stands for radix and is more than 2) cannot be directly realized in the current quantum technology. Therefore, we are interested in designing the large reversible and quantum controlled gates using the arrays of one-quantum digit (qudit) or two-qudit gates. In our previous work, we proposed quantum arrays to implement the r-valued quantum circuits. In this paper, we propose novel efficient structures and arrays, for r-valued quantum logic gates. The quantum costs of the developed quantum arrays are independent of the radix of calculations in the quantum circuit.
Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors
Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-01-01
Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|2 ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors. PMID:27456691
Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors
Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-07-01
Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|2 ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors.
Improved efficiency of maximum likelihood analysis of time series with temporally correlated errors
Langbein, John O.
2017-01-01
Most time series of geophysical phenomena have temporally correlated errors. From these measurements, various parameters are estimated. For instance, from geodetic measurements of positions, the rates and changes in rates are often estimated and are used to model tectonic processes. Along with the estimates of the size of the parameters, the error in these parameters needs to be assessed. If temporal correlations are not taken into account, or each observation is assumed to be independent, it is likely that any estimate of the error of these parameters will be too low and the estimated value of the parameter will be biased. Inclusion of better estimates of uncertainties is limited by several factors, including selection of the correct model for the background noise and the computational requirements to estimate the parameters of the selected noise model for cases where there are numerous observations. Here, I address the second problem of computational efficiency using maximum likelihood estimates (MLE). Most geophysical time series have background noise processes that can be represented as a combination of white and power-law noise, 1/fα">1/fα1/fα with frequency, f. With missing data, standard spectral techniques involving FFTs are not appropriate. Instead, time domain techniques involving construction and inversion of large data covariance matrices are employed. Bos et al. (J Geod, 2013. doi:10.1007/s00190-012-0605-0) demonstrate one technique that substantially increases the efficiency of the MLE methods, yet is only an approximate solution for power-law indices >1.0 since they require the data covariance matrix to be Toeplitz. That restriction can be removed by simply forming a data filter that adds noise processes rather than combining them in quadrature. Consequently, the inversion of the data covariance matrix is simplified yet provides robust results for a wider range of power-law indices.
Improved efficiency of maximum likelihood analysis of time series with temporally correlated errors
Langbein, John
2017-02-01
Most time series of geophysical phenomena have temporally correlated errors. From these measurements, various parameters are estimated. For instance, from geodetic measurements of positions, the rates and changes in rates are often estimated and are used to model tectonic processes. Along with the estimates of the size of the parameters, the error in these parameters needs to be assessed. If temporal correlations are not taken into account, or each observation is assumed to be independent, it is likely that any estimate of the error of these parameters will be too low and the estimated value of the parameter will be biased. Inclusion of better estimates of uncertainties is limited by several factors, including selection of the correct model for the background noise and the computational requirements to estimate the parameters of the selected noise model for cases where there are numerous observations. Here, I address the second problem of computational efficiency using maximum likelihood estimates (MLE). Most geophysical time series have background noise processes that can be represented as a combination of white and power-law noise, 1/f^{α } with frequency, f. With missing data, standard spectral techniques involving FFTs are not appropriate. Instead, time domain techniques involving construction and inversion of large data covariance matrices are employed. Bos et al. (J Geod, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0605-0) demonstrate one technique that substantially increases the efficiency of the MLE methods, yet is only an approximate solution for power-law indices >1.0 since they require the data covariance matrix to be Toeplitz. That restriction can be removed by simply forming a data filter that adds noise processes rather than combining them in quadrature. Consequently, the inversion of the data covariance matrix is simplified yet provides robust results for a wider range of power-law indices.
Improved efficiency of maximum likelihood analysis of time series with temporally correlated errors
Langbein, John
2017-08-01
Most time series of geophysical phenomena have temporally correlated errors. From these measurements, various parameters are estimated. For instance, from geodetic measurements of positions, the rates and changes in rates are often estimated and are used to model tectonic processes. Along with the estimates of the size of the parameters, the error in these parameters needs to be assessed. If temporal correlations are not taken into account, or each observation is assumed to be independent, it is likely that any estimate of the error of these parameters will be too low and the estimated value of the parameter will be biased. Inclusion of better estimates of uncertainties is limited by several factors, including selection of the correct model for the background noise and the computational requirements to estimate the parameters of the selected noise model for cases where there are numerous observations. Here, I address the second problem of computational efficiency using maximum likelihood estimates (MLE). Most geophysical time series have background noise processes that can be represented as a combination of white and power-law noise, 1/f^{α } with frequency, f. With missing data, standard spectral techniques involving FFTs are not appropriate. Instead, time domain techniques involving construction and inversion of large data covariance matrices are employed. Bos et al. (J Geod, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0605-0) demonstrate one technique that substantially increases the efficiency of the MLE methods, yet is only an approximate solution for power-law indices >1.0 since they require the data covariance matrix to be Toeplitz. That restriction can be removed by simply forming a data filter that adds noise processes rather than combining them in quadrature. Consequently, the inversion of the data covariance matrix is simplified yet provides robust results for a wider range of power-law indices.
Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics
Kemp, K. W.
2013-01-01
The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Thermodynamic limits to the efficiency of solar energy conversion by quantum devices
Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.
1981-01-01
The second law of thermodynamics imposes a strict limitation to the energy converted from direct solar radiation to useful work by a quantum device. This limitation requires that the amount of energy converted to useful work (energy in any form other than heat) can be no greater than the change in free energy of the radiation fields. Futhermore, in any real energy conversion device, not all of this available free energy in the radiation field can be converted to work because of basic limitations inherent in the device itself. A thermodynamic analysis of solar energy conversion by a completely general prototypical quantum device is presented. This device is completely described by two parameters, its operating temperature T sub R and the energy threshold of its absorption spectrum. An expression for the maximum thermodynamic efficiency of a quantum solar converter was derived in terms of these two parameters and the incident radiation spectrum. Efficiency curves for assumed solar spectral irradiance corresponding to air mass zero and air mass 1.5 are presented.
Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles
Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed; Chen, Yuntian
2015-01-01
We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantumwell structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density...... on the enhancement factor is investigated. We obtain an internal quantum efficiency enhancement by a factor of 2.3 at 756 W/cm2 , and a factor of 8.1 at 1 W/cm2 . A Purcell enhancement up to a factor of 26 is estimated by fitting the experimental results to a theoretical model for the efficiency enhancement factor....
Simulating Hamiltonians in Quantum Networks Efficient Schemes and Complexity Bounds
Wocjan, P; Janzing, D; Beth, T; Wocjan, Pawel; Roetteler, Martin; Janzing, Dominik; Beth, Thomas
2001-01-01
We address the problem of simulating pair-interaction Hamiltonians in n node quantum networks where the subsystems have arbitrary, possibly different, dimensions. We show that any pair-interaction can be used to simulate any other by applying sequences of appropriate local control sequences. Efficient schemes for decoupling and time reversal can be constructed from orthogonal arrays. Conditions on time optimal simulation are formulated in terms of spectral majorization of matrices characterizing the coupling parameters. Moreover, we consider a specific system of n harmonic oscillators with bilinear interaction. In this case, decoupling can efficiently be achieved using the combinatorial concept of difference schemes. For this type of interactions we present optimal schemes for inversion.
Murphy, Patrick Charles
1985-01-01
An algorithm for maximum likelihood (ML) estimation is developed with an efficient method for approximating the sensitivities. The algorithm was developed for airplane parameter estimation problems but is well suited for most nonlinear, multivariable, dynamic systems. The ML algorithm relies on a new optimization method referred to as a modified Newton-Raphson with estimated sensitivities (MNRES). MNRES determines sensitivities by using slope information from local surface approximations of each output variable in parameter space. The fitted surface allows sensitivity information to be updated at each iteration with a significant reduction in computational effort. MNRES determines the sensitivities with less computational effort than using either a finite-difference method or integrating the analytically determined sensitivity equations. MNRES eliminates the need to derive sensitivity equations for each new model, thus eliminating algorithm reformulation with each new model and providing flexibility to use model equations in any format that is convenient. A random search technique for determining the confidence limits of ML parameter estimates is applied to nonlinear estimation problems for airplanes. The confidence intervals obtained by the search are compared with Cramer-Rao (CR) bounds at the same confidence level. It is observed that the degree of nonlinearity in the estimation problem is an important factor in the relationship between CR bounds and the error bounds determined by the search technique. The CR bounds were found to be close to the bounds determined by the search when the degree of nonlinearity was small. Beale's measure of nonlinearity is developed in this study for airplane identification problems; it is used to empirically correct confidence levels for the parameter confidence limits. The primary utility of the measure, however, was found to be in predicting the degree of agreement between Cramer-Rao bounds and search estimates.
Quantum efficiency of colloidal suspensions containing quantum dot/silica hybrid particles
Jeon, Hyungjoon; Yoon, Cheolsang; Lee, Sooho; Lee, Doh C.; Shin, Kyusoon; Lee, Kangtaek
2016-10-01
We have investigated the fluorescence properties of colloidal suspensions conntaining quantum dot (QD)/silica hybrid particles. First, we synthesized QD/silica hybrid particles with silica-QD-silica (SQS) core-shell-shell geometry, and monitored the quantum efficiencies of their suspensions at various particle concentrations. We found that the quantum efficiency (QE) of SQS particles in deionized (DI) water was much lower than that of the QDs even at low particle concentration, mainly due to the light scattering of emitted photons at the silica/water interface, followed by reabsorption by QDs. As the concentration of SQS particles was increased, both light scattering and reabsorption by QDs became more important, which further reduced the QE. Refractive index-matched solvent, however, reduced light scattering, yielding greater QE than DI water. Next, we induced aggregation of SQS particles, and found that QE increased as particles aggregated in DI water because of reduced light scattering and reabsorption, whereas it remained almost constant in the refractive index-matched solvent. Finally, we studied aggregation of highly concentrated silica particle suspensions containing a low concentration of SQS particles, and found that QE increased with aggregation because light scattering and reabsorption were reduced.
Tripathi, Brijesh; Sircar, Ratna
2016-09-01
The maximum performance of nc-Si:H/a-Si:H quantum well solar cell is theoretically evaluated by studying the spectral absorption of incident radiation with respect to the number of inserted nc-Si:H quantum well layers. Fundamental intrinsic properties of a-Si:H and nc-Si:H materials reported in literature have been used to evaluate the performance parameters. Enhanced spectral absorption is recorded due to insertion of nc-Si:H quantum well layers in the intrinsic region of a-Si:H solar cell. By inserting 50 QW layers of nc-Si:H in the intrinsic region of the a-Si:H solar cell, the short-circuit current density (JSC) increases by ∼100% as compared to the baseline whereas the open-circuit voltage (VOC) decreases by ∼38%. The decrease in VOC is explained on the basis of quasi-Fermi level separation under the illuminated state of solar cell. Theoretical maximum efficiency, having the combined effect of the increase in JSC and decrease in VOC, has increased by ∼24% in comparison with the baseline due to the use of QW as calculated using ideal carrier lifetime value. With a realistic carrier lifetime of the state-of-the-art a-Si:H solar cells, the addition of QWs do not yield any significant gain. From this study, it is concluded that a high carrier lifetime is required to gain a noteworthy benefit from the nc-Si:H/a-Si:H QWs.
Calculation method of quantum efficiency to TiO2 nanocrystal photocatalysis reaction
无
2002-01-01
The quantum yield is an important factor to evaluate the efficiency of photoreactor. This article gives an overall calculation method of the quantum efficiency(ф) and the apparent quantum efficiency(ф2) to the TiO2/UV photocatalysis system. Furthermore, for the immobility system (IS), the formulation of the faction of light absorbed by the TiO2 thin film is proposed so as to calculate the quantum efficiency by using the measured value and theoretic calculated value of transmissivity (T). For the suspension system(SS), due to the difficulty to obtain the absorption coefficient (α) of TiO2 particulates, the quantum efficiency is calculated by means of the relative photonic efficiency (ξr) and the standard quantum yield (фstandard).
Efficient generation of photonic entanglement and multiparty quantum communication
Trojek, Pavel
2007-09-15
This thesis deals largely with the problem of efficient generation of photonic entanglement with the principal aim of developing a bright source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, which meets the requirements for reliable and economic operation of quantum communication prototypes and demonstrators. Our approach uses a cor-related photon-pair emission in nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric downconversion pumped by light coming from a compact and cheap blue laser diode. Two alternative source configurations are examined within the thesis. The first makes use of a well established concept of degenerate non-collinear emission from a single type-II nonlinear crystal and the second relies on a novel method where the emissions from two adjacent type-I phase-matched nonlinear crystals operated in collinear non-degenerate regime are coherently overlapped. The latter approach showed to be more effective, yielding a total detected rate of almost 10{sup 6} pairs/s at >98% quantum interference visibility of polarization correlations. The second issue addressed within the thesis is the simplification and practical implementation of quantum-assisted solutions to multiparty communication tasks. We show that entanglement is not the only non-classical resource endowing the quantum multiparty information processing its power. Instead, only the sequential communication and transformation of a single qubit can be sufficient to accomplish certain tasks. This we prove for two distinct communication tasks, secret sharing and communication complexity. Whereas the goal of the first is to split a cryptographic key among several parties in a way that its reconstruction requires their collaboration, the latter aims at reducing the amount of communication during distributed computational tasks. Importantly, our qubitassisted solutions to the problems are feasible with state-of-the-art technology. This we clearly demonstrate in the laboratory implementation for 6 and 5 parties
Kim, T.; Liu, B.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T., E-mail: t.wang@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2014-04-21
A “coherent” nanocavity structure has been designed on two-dimensional well-ordered InGaN/GaN nanodisk arrays with an emission wavelength in the green spectral region, leading to a massive enhancement in resonance mode in the green spectra region. By means of a cost-effective nanosphere lithography technique, we have fabricated such a structure on an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well epiwafer and have observed the “coherent” nanocavity effect, which leads to an enhanced spontaneous emission (SE) rate. The enhanced SE rate has been confirmed by time resolved photoluminescence measurements. Due to the coherent nanocavity effect, we have achieved a massive improvement in internal quantum efficiency with a factor of 88, compared with the as-grown sample, which could be significant to bridge the “green gap” in solid-state lighting.
An efficient approximation algorithm for finding a maximum clique using Hopfield network learning.
Wang, Rong Long; Tang, Zheng; Cao, Qi Ping
2003-07-01
In this article, we present a solution to the maximum clique problem using a gradient-ascent learning algorithm of the Hopfield neural network. This method provides a near-optimum parallel algorithm for finding a maximum clique. To do this, we use the Hopfield neural network to generate a near-maximum clique and then modify weights in a gradient-ascent direction to allow the network to escape from the state of near-maximum clique to maximum clique or better. The proposed parallel algorithm is tested on two types of random graphs and some benchmark graphs from the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DIMACS). The simulation results show that the proposed learning algorithm can find good solutions in reasonable computation time.
Efficient Levenberg-Marquardt minimization of the maximum likelihood estimator for Poisson deviates
Laurence, T; Chromy, B
2009-11-10
Histograms of counted events are Poisson distributed, but are typically fitted without justification using nonlinear least squares fitting. The more appropriate maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for Poisson distributed data is seldom used. We extend the use of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm commonly used for nonlinear least squares minimization for use with the MLE for Poisson distributed data. In so doing, we remove any excuse for not using this more appropriate MLE. We demonstrate the use of the algorithm and the superior performance of the MLE using simulations and experiments in the context of fluorescence lifetime imaging. Scientists commonly form histograms of counted events from their data, and extract parameters by fitting to a specified model. Assuming that the probability of occurrence for each bin is small, event counts in the histogram bins will be distributed according to the Poisson distribution. We develop here an efficient algorithm for fitting event counting histograms using the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for Poisson distributed data, rather than the non-linear least squares measure. This algorithm is a simple extension of the common Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) algorithm, is simple to implement, quick and robust. Fitting using a least squares measure is most common, but it is the maximum likelihood estimator only for Gaussian-distributed data. Non-linear least squares methods may be applied to event counting histograms in cases where the number of events is very large, so that the Poisson distribution is well approximated by a Gaussian. However, it is not easy to satisfy this criterion in practice - which requires a large number of events. It has been well-known for years that least squares procedures lead to biased results when applied to Poisson-distributed data; a recent paper providing extensive characterization of these biases in exponential fitting is given. The more appropriate measure based on the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE
Efficient Levenberg-Marquardt minimization of the maximum likelihood estimator for Poisson deviates
Laurence, T; Chromy, B
2009-11-10
Histograms of counted events are Poisson distributed, but are typically fitted without justification using nonlinear least squares fitting. The more appropriate maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for Poisson distributed data is seldom used. We extend the use of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm commonly used for nonlinear least squares minimization for use with the MLE for Poisson distributed data. In so doing, we remove any excuse for not using this more appropriate MLE. We demonstrate the use of the algorithm and the superior performance of the MLE using simulations and experiments in the context of fluorescence lifetime imaging. Scientists commonly form histograms of counted events from their data, and extract parameters by fitting to a specified model. Assuming that the probability of occurrence for each bin is small, event counts in the histogram bins will be distributed according to the Poisson distribution. We develop here an efficient algorithm for fitting event counting histograms using the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for Poisson distributed data, rather than the non-linear least squares measure. This algorithm is a simple extension of the common Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) algorithm, is simple to implement, quick and robust. Fitting using a least squares measure is most common, but it is the maximum likelihood estimator only for Gaussian-distributed data. Non-linear least squares methods may be applied to event counting histograms in cases where the number of events is very large, so that the Poisson distribution is well approximated by a Gaussian. However, it is not easy to satisfy this criterion in practice - which requires a large number of events. It has been well-known for years that least squares procedures lead to biased results when applied to Poisson-distributed data; a recent paper providing extensive characterization of these biases in exponential fitting is given. The more appropriate measure based on the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE
NIU Jun; YANG Zhi; CHANG Ben-Kang
2009-01-01
The mathematical expression of the electron diffusion and drift length LDE of exponential doping photocathode is deduced. In the quantum efficiency equation of the reflection-mode uniform doping cathode, substituting L_(DE) for L_D, the equivalent quantum efficiency equation of the reflection-mode exponential doping cathode is obtained. By using the equivalent equation, theoretical simulation and experimental analysis shows that the equivalent index formula and formula-doped cathode quantum efficiency results in fine.The equivalent equation avoids complicated calculation, thereby simplifies the process of solving the quantum efficiency of exponential doping photocathode.
Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces
Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.
2016-04-01
Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O ( N ) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O ( N 2 ) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O ( N ) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.
Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji
2014-05-01
We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.
Maheshwari, Govind; Chaudhary, S; Somani, S.K
2010-01-01
The efficient power, defined as the product of power output and efficiency of the engine, is taken as the objective for performance analysis and optimization of an endoreversible combined Carnot heat...
Practical expressions describing detective quantum efficiency in flat-panel detectors
Kim, H. K.
2011-11-01
In radiology, image quality excellence is a balance between system performance and patient dose, hence x-ray systems must be designed to ensure the maximum image quality is obtained for the lowest consistent dose. The concept of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely used to quantify, understand, measure, and predict the performance of x-ray detectors and imaging systems. Cascaded linear-systems theory can be used to estimate DQE based on the system design parameters and this theoretical DQE can be utilized for determining the impact of various physical processes, such as secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, reabsorption noise, and others. However, the prediction of DQE usually requires tremendous efforts to determine each parameter consisting of the cascaded linear-systems model. In this paper, practical DQE formalisms assessing both the photoconductor- and scintillator-based flat-panel detectors under quantum-noise-limited operation are described. The developed formalisms are experimentally validated and discussed for their limits. The formalisms described in this paper would be helpful for the rapid prediction of the DQE performances of developing systems as well as the optimal design of systems.
Calculation and Improvement on External Quantum Efficiency of OLEDs
无
2006-01-01
The calculation of the external quantum efficiency(ηext) of organic light-emitting devices(OLEDs) is presented theoretically. The basic idea is to obtain ηext by calculating the fraction of the generated light that can escape through the top surface and the average transmittance over the escape cone. During the calculation, the effects of the interference, absorption and multiple reflections are neglected. Then a result of a typical 8-tris-hydroxyquinoline aluminum(Alq3)-based OLEDs on a planar glass substrate is obtained. And a twice increase in ηext can be achieved by using a high-index-glass substrate with an antireflection coating(SiO2) on substrate surface.
A concise quantum efficiency measurement system for gaseous photomultipliers
Moriya, Toru [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Tokanai, Fuyuki, E-mail: tokanai@sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Okazaki, Keisuke; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Gunji, Shuichi [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kawabata, Hironobu; Sohtome, Takayuki [BUNKOUKEIKI Co., Ltd., Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0033 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Takayuki [Graduate School of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirioyuki; Okada, Teruyuki; Ohishi, Noboru [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka 438-0193 (Japan); Kishimoto, Syunji [Institute of Material Structure Science, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)
2013-12-21
We have been developing gaseous photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a bialkali photocathode combined with micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs). The sensitivity of a PMT is described in terms of its quantum efficiency (QE). The QE is very important in many experiments, particularly when dealing with low photon statistics. A concise QE measurement system has been developed to evaluate the characteristics of a sealed gaseous PMT with a bialkali photocathode. This QE measurement system consists of a Xe arc lamp source, reflective optics and filters, a monochromator, and a reference Si photodiode detector. Using the system, we evaluated the QE, gain, and long-term stability of the gaseous PMT. Here, we report the results of our evaluation.
Efficient Design of Reversible Multiplexers with Low Quantum Cost
Ashima Malhotra
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Multiplexing is the generic term used to designate the operation of sending one or more analogue or digital signals over a common transmission line at dissimilar times or speeds and as such, the scheme we use to do just that is called a Multiplexer. In digital electronics, multiplexers are similarly known as data selectors as they can “select” each input line, are made from individual Analogue Switches encased in a single IC package as conflicting to the “mechanical” type selectors such as standard conservative switches and relays. In today era, reversibility has become essential part of digital world to make digital circuits more efficient. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to reduce quantum cost and power for various multiplexers. The results are simulated in Xilinx by using VHDL language.
Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z C
2015-02-01
We present a unified perspective on nonequilibrium heat engines by generalizing nonlinear irreversible thermodynamics. For tight-coupling heat engines, a generic constitutive relation for nonlinear response accurate up to the quadratic order is derived from the stalling condition and the symmetry argument. By applying this generic nonlinear constitutive relation to finite-time thermodynamics, we obtain the necessary and sufficient condition for the universality of efficiency at maximum power, which states that a tight-coupling heat engine takes the universal efficiency at maximum power up to the quadratic order if and only if either the engine symmetrically interacts with two heat reservoirs or the elementary thermal energy flowing through the engine matches the characteristic energy of the engine. Hence we solve the following paradox: On the one hand, the quadratic term in the universal efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling heat engines turned out to be a consequence of symmetry [Esposito, Lindenberg, and Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 130602 (2009); Sheng and Tu, Phys. Rev. E 89, 012129 (2014)]; On the other hand, typical heat engines such as the Curzon-Ahlborn endoreversible heat engine [Curzon and Ahlborn, Am. J. Phys. 43, 22 (1975)] and the Feynman ratchet [Tu, J. Phys. A 41, 312003 (2008)] recover the universal efficiency at maximum power regardless of any symmetry.
Li, Yonghui; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhu, Haiyu
2015-01-01
Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject...
Boiroux, Dimitri; Juhl, Rune; Madsen, Henrik;
2016-01-01
This paper addresses maximum likelihood parameter estimation of continuous-time nonlinear systems with discrete-time measurements. We derive an efficient algorithm for the computation of the log-likelihood function and its gradient, which can be used in gradient-based optimization algorithms...
Bergboer, N.H; Verdult, V.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.
2002-01-01
We present a numerically efficient implementation of the nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood identification of multivariable linear time-invariant (LTI) state-space models. This implementation is based on a local parameterization of the system and a gradient search in the resulting parame
High-conjugation-efficiency aqueous CdSe quantum dots.
Au, Giang H T; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng
2013-11-12
Quantum dots (QDs) are photoluminescent nanoparticles that can be directly or indirectly coupled with a receptor such as an antibody to specifically image a target biomolecule such as an antigen. Recent studies have shown that QDs can be directly made at room temperature and in an aqueous environment (AQDs) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the capping ligand without solvent and ligand exchange typically required by QDs made by the organic solvent routes (OQDs). In this study, we have synthesized CdSe AQDs and compared their conjugation efficiency and imaging efficacy with commercial carboxylated OQDs in HT29 colon cancer cells using a primary antibody-biotinylated secondary antibody-streptavidin (SA) sandwich. We showed that the best imaging condition for AQDs occurred when one AQD was bound with 3 ± 0.3 SA with a nominal SA/AQD ratio of 4 corresponding to an SA conjugation efficiency of 75 ± 7.5%. In comparison, for commercial CdSe-ZnS OQDs to achieve 2.7 ± 0.4 bound SAs per OQD for comparable imaging efficacy a nominal SA/OQD ratio of 80 was needed corresponding to an SA conjugation efficiency of 3.4 ± 0.5% for CdSe-ZnS OQDs. The more than 10 times better SA conjugation efficiency of the CdSe AQDs as compared to that of the CdSe-ZnS OQDs was attributed to more capping molecules on the AQD surface as a result of the direct aqueous synthesis. More capping molecules on the AQD surface also allowed the SA-AQD conjugate to be stable in cell culture medium for more than three days without losing their staining capability in a flowing cell culture medium. In contrast, SA-OQD conjugates aggregated in cell culture medium and in phosphate buffer saline solution over time.
Maximum efficiency of steady-state heat engines at arbitrary power.
Ryabov, Artem; Holubec, Viktor
2016-05-01
We discuss the efficiency of a heat engine operating in a nonequilibrium steady state maintained by two heat reservoirs. Within the general framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics we derive a universal upper bound on the efficiency of the engine operating at arbitrary fixed power. Furthermore, we show that a slight decrease of the power below its maximal value can lead to a significant gain in efficiency. The presented analysis yields the exact expression for this gain and the corresponding upper bound.
Effect of finite phosphor thickness on detective quantum efficiency
Nishikawa, R.M.; Yaffe, M.J.; Holmes, R.B. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))
1989-09-01
In this paper we describe theoretically the relationship between the finite thickness of a phosphor screen and its spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency DQE(f-). The finite thickness of the screen causes a variation in both the total number of light quanta emitted from the screen in a burst from a given x-ray interaction and in the spatial distribution of the quanta within the light burst (i.e., shape or point spread function (PSF) of the light burst). The variation in magnitude of the burst gives rise to a spatial-frequency-independent reduction in DQE, characterized by the scintillation efficiency As. The variation in PSF causes a roll off in DQE with increasing spatial frequency which we have characterized by the function Rc(f). Both As and Rc(f) can be determined from the moments of the distribution of the spatial Fourier spectrum of light bursts emitted from the phosphor and thus they are related: As is a scaling factor for Rc(f). Our theory predicts that it is necessary for all light bursts which appear at the output to have the same magnitude to maximize As and the same shape to maximize Rc(f). These requirements can lead to the result that the fluorescent screen with the highest modulation transfer function will not necessarily have the highest DQE(f) even at high spatial frequencies.
DENG Fu-Guo; LONG Gui-Lu; WANG Yan; XIAO Li
2004-01-01
@@ The security of quantum communications lies in the capability of the legitimate parties to detect eavesdropping.Here we propose to use delayed measurement to increase the efficiency of protocols of quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing that uses a random choice of measuring-basis. In addition to a higher efficiency,these measures also bring the benefit of much reduced amount of classical communications.
An Efficient Deterministic Quantum Algorithm for the Integer Square-free Decomposition Problem
Li, Jun; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng; Suter, Dieter
2011-01-01
Quantum computers are known to be qualitatively more powerful than classical computers, but so far only a small number of different algorithms have been discovered that actually use this potential. It would therefore be highly desirable to develop other types of quantum algorithms that widen the range of possible applications. Here we propose an efficient and deterministic quantum algorithm for finding the square-free part of a large integer - a problem for which no efficient classical algori...
An Efficient Exact Quantum Algorithm for the Integer Square-free Decomposition Problem
Jun Li; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du; Dieter Suter
2012-01-01
Quantum computers are known to be qualitatively more powerful than classical computers, but so far only a small number of different algorithms have been discovered that actually use this potential. It would therefore be highly desirable to develop other types of quantum algorithms that widen the range of possible applications. Here we propose an efficient and exact quantum algorithm for finding the square-free part of a large integer - a problem for which no efficient classical algorithm exis...
Ortega-Casanova, Joaquin; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon
2015-11-01
The thrust generated by two heaving plates in tandem is analysed for two particular sets of configurations of interest in forward flight: a plunging leading plate with the trailing plate at rest, and the two plates heaving with the same frequency and amplitude, but varying the phase difference. The thrust efficiency of the leading plate is augmented in relation to a single plate heaving with the same frequency and amplitude in most cases. In the first configuration, we characterize the range of nondimensional heaving frequencies and amplitudes of the leading plate for which the stationary trailing plate contributes positively to the global thrust. The maximum global thrust efficiency, reached for an advance ratio slightly less than unity and a reduced frequency close to 5, is about the same as the maximum efficiency for an isolated plate. But for low frequencies the tandem configuration with the trailing plate at rest is more thrust efficient than the isolated plate. In the second configuration, we find that the maximum thrust efficiency is reached for a phase lag of 180o (counterstroking), particularly for an advance ratio unity and a reduced frequency 4.4, and it is practically the same as in the other configuration and that for a single plate. Supported by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of Spain Grant no. DPI2013-40479-P.
Origin of low quantum efficiency of photoluminescence of InP/ZnS nanocrystals
Shirazi, Roza; Kovacs, Andras; Corell, Dennis Dan
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the origin of a strong wavelength dependence of the quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals. We find that while the average size of the nanocrystals increased by 50%, resulting in longer emission wavelength, the quantum efficiency drops more than one order of magnitude ...
Ruslana Sushko
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential. Material and Methods: in order to identify the factors that have supported the performance of Ukraine's male national team in the European Championship, data analysis and generalization of scientific and technical literature and online data, analysis of official protocols of competitive activities, analysis and generalization of best pedagogical practices, pedagogical supervision, methods of mathematical statistics were used. Results: the efficiency of competitive activity of basketball players was analyzed using such indicators as team roles, won and lost matches, scored and missed points, technical, tactical and age indicators. Conclusions: the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential were identified with regard to age indicators
On the 'fake' inferred entanglement associated with the maximum entropy inference of quantum states
Batle, J.; Casas, M. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Plastino, A.R. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Faculty of Astronomy and Geophysics, National University La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); National Research Council, CONICET (AR)); Plastino, A. [National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); Department of Physics, National University La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)
2001-08-24
The inference of entangled quantum states by recourse to the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle is considered in connection with the recently pointed out problem of fake inferred entanglement (Horodecki R et al 1999 Phys. Rev. A 59 1799). We show that there are operators A-circumflex, both diagonal and non-diagonal in the Bell basis, such that, when the expectation value
无
2006-01-01
A new method was used to prepare erbium-doped high silica (SiO2%＞96%) glasses by sintering nanoporous glasses. The concentration of erbium ions in high silica glasses can be considerably more than that in silica glasses prepared by using conventional methods. The fluorescence of 1532 nm has an FWHM (Full Wave at Half Maximum) of 50 nm, wider than 35 nm of EDSFA (erbium-doped silica fiber amplifer), and hence the glass possesses potential application in broadband fiber amplifiers. The Judd-Ofelt theoretical analysis reflects that the quantum efficiency of this erbium-doped glass is about 0.78, although the erbium concentration in this glass (6×103) is about twenty times higher than that in silica glass. These excellent characteristics of Er-doped high silica glass will be conducive to its usage in optical amplifiers and microchip lasers.
Design, Development and Testing of a PC Based One Axis Sun Tracking System for Maximum Efficiency
Sonu AGARWAL
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The solar energy is a clean source of energy and the photo-voltaic (PV solar panel converts the solar radiation into voltage. The PV solar panel produces the maximum power when the incident angle of sunlight is 90°. In the present paper a PC based one axis sun tracking system has been described to keep the PV solar panel perpendicular to the incident sunlight and thus to have maximum solar power utilization. A computer controlled stepper motor has been used in the tracking system to provide motion to the photovoltaic panel. LDR has been used as photo sensor to sense the incident solar radiation. The implementation of the system has been realized by designing optical to electrical signal conversion circuit, analog to digital conversion circuit, motor driving circuit and parallel port interfacing with PC. Experimental results are also included in order to validate the system performance.
Go Pink! The Effect of Secondary Quanta on Detective Quantum Efficiency
Watson, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-09-05
Photons are never directly observable. Consequently, we often use photoelectric detectors (eg CCDs) to record associated photoelectrons statistically. Nonetheless, it is an implicit goal of radiographic detector designers to achieve the maximum possible detector efficiency1. In part the desire for ever higher efficiency has been due to the fact that detectors are far less expensive than associated accelerator facilities (e.g. DARHT and PHERMEX2). In addition, higher efficiency detectors often have better spatial resolution. Consequently, the optimization of the detector, not the accelerator, is the system component with the highest leverage per dollar. In recent years, imaging scientists have adopted the so-called Detective Quantum Efficiency, or DQE as a summary measure of detector performance. Unfortunately, owing to the complex nature of the trade-space associated with detector components, and the natural desire for simplicity and low(er) cost, there has been a recent trend in Los Alamos to focus only on the zerofrequency efficiency, or DQE(0), when designing such systems. This narrow focus leads to system designs that neglect or even ignore the importance of high-spatial-frequency image components. In this paper we demonstrate the significant negative impact of these design choices on the Noise Power Spectrum1 (NPS) and recommend a more holistic approach to detector design. Here we present a statistical argument which indicates that a very large number (>20) of secondary quanta (typically visible light and/or recorded photo-electrons) are needed to take maximum advantage of the primary quanta (typically x-rays or protons) which are available to form an image. Since secondary particles come in bursts, they are not independent. In short, we want to maximize the pink nature of detector noise at DARHT.
Ancilla-less selective and efficient quantum process tomography
Schmiegelow, Christian Tomás; Larotonda, Miguel Antonio; Paz, Juan Pablo
2011-01-01
Several methods, known as Quantum Process Tomography, are available to characterize the evolution of quantum systems, a task of crucial importance. However, their complexity dramatically increases with the size of the system. Here we present the theory describing a new type of method for quantum process tomography. We describe an algorithm that can be used to selectively estimate any parameter characterizing a quantum process. Unlike any of its predecessors this new quantum tomographer combines two main virtues: it requires investing a number of physical resources scaling polynomially with the number of qubits and at the same time it does not require any ancillary resources. We present the results of the first photonic implementation of this quantum device, characterizing quantum processes affecting two qubits encoded in heralded single photons. Even for this small system our method displays clear advantages over the other existing ones.
Ruikun Mai
2017-02-01
Full Text Available One of the most promising inductive power transfer applications is the wireless power supply for locomotives which may cancel the need for pantographs. In order to meet the dynamic and high power demands of wireless power supplies for locomotives, a relatively long transmitter track and multiple receivers are usually adopted. However, during the dynamic charging, the mutual inductances between the transmitter and receivers vary and the load of the locomotives also changes randomly, which dramatically affects the system efficiency. A maximum efficiency point tracking control scheme is proposed to improve the system efficiency against the variation of the load and the mutual inductances between the transmitter and receivers while considering the cross coupling between receivers. Firstly, a detailed theoretical analysis on dual receivers is carried out. Then a control scheme with three control loops is proposed to regulate the receiver currents to be the same, to regulate the output voltage and to search for the maximum efficiency point. Finally, a 2 kW prototype is established to validate the performance of the proposed method. The overall system efficiency (DC-DC efficiency reaches 90.6% at rated power and is improved by 5.8% with the proposed method under light load compared with the traditional constant output voltage control method.
Lemofouet, Sylvain; Rufer, Alfred
This paper presents a hybrid energy storage system mainly based on Compressed Air, where the storage and withdrawal of energy are done within maximum efficiency conditions. As these maximum efficiency conditions impose the level of converted power, an intermittent time-modulated operation mode is applied to the thermodynamic converter to obtain a variable converted power. A smoothly variable output power is achieved with the help of a supercapacitive auxiliary storage device used as a filter. The paper describes the concept of the system, the power-electronic interfaces and especially the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) algorithm and the strategy used to vary the output power. In addition, the paper introduces more efficient hybrid storage systems where the volumetric air machine is replaced by an oil-hydraulics and pneumatics converter, used under isothermal conditions. Practical results are also presented, recorded from a low-power air motor coupled to a small DC generator, as well as from a first prototype of the hydro-pneumatic system. Some economical considerations are also made, through a comparative cost evaluation of the presented hydro-pneumatic systems and a lead acid batteries system, in the context of a stand alone photovoltaic home application. This evaluation confirms the cost effectiveness of the presented hybrid storage systems.
Toward efficient fiber-based quantum interface (Conference Presentation)
Soshenko, Vladimir; Vorobyov, Vadim V.; Bolshedvorsky, Stepan; Lebedev, Nikolay; Akimov, Alexey V.; Sorokin, Vadim; Smolyaninov, Andrey
2016-04-01
NV center in diamond is attracting a lot of attention in quantum information processing community [1]. Been spin system in clean and well-controlled environment of diamond it shows outstanding performance as quantum memory even at room temperature, spin control with single shot optical readout and possibility to build up quantum registers even on single NV center. Moreover, NV centers could be used as high-resolution sensitive elements of detectors of magnetic or electric field, temperature, tension, force or rotation. For all of these applications collection of the light emitted by NV center is crucial point. There were number of approaches suggested to address this issue, proposing use of surface plasmoms [2], manufacturing structures in diamond [3] etc. One of the key feature of any practically important interface is compatibility with the fiber technology. Several groups attacking this problem using various approaches. One of them is placing of nanodiamonds in the holes of photonic crystal fiber [4], another is utilization of AFM to pick and place nanodiamond on the tapered fiber[5]. We have developed a novel technique of placing a nanodiamond with single NV center on the tapered fiber by controlled transfer of a nanodiamond from one "donor" tapered fiber to the "target" clean tapered fiber. We verify our ability to transfer only single color centers by means of measurement of second order correlation function. With this technique, we were able to double collection efficiency of confocal microscope. The majority of the factors limiting the collection of photons via optical fiber are technical and may be removed allowing order of magnitude improved in collection. We also discuss number of extensions of this technique to all fiber excitation and integration with nanostructures. References: [1] Marcus W. Doherty, Neil B. Manson, Paul Delaney, Fedor Jelezko, Jörg Wrachtrup, Lloyd C.L. Hollenberg , " The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond," Physics Reports
Lunnemann, Per; van Dijk-Moes, Relinde J A; Pietra, Francesca; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Koenderink, A Femius
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that a simple silver coated ball lens can be used to accurately measure the entire distribution of radiative transition rates of quantum dot nanocrystals. This simple and cost-effective implementation of Drexhage's method that uses nanometer-controlled optical mode density variations near a mirror, not only allows to extract calibrated ensemble-averaged rates, but for the first time also to quantify the full inhomogeneous dispersion of radiative and non radiative decay rates across thousands of nanocrystals. We apply the technique to novel ultra-stable CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod emitters. The emitters are of large current interest due to their improved stability and reduced blinking. We retrieve a room-temperature ensemble average quantum efficiency of 0.87+-0.08 at a mean lifetime around 20 ns. We confirm a log-normal distribution of decay rates as often assumed in literature and we show that the rate distribution-width, that amounts to about 30% of the mean decay rate, is strongly dependent on the l...
INVESTIGATION OF VEHICLE WHEEL ROLLING WITH MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY IN THE BRAKE MODE
D. Leontev
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Up-to-date vehicles are equipped by various systems of braking effort automatic control theparameters calculation of which do not as a rule have a rational solution. In order to increase theworking efficiency of such systems it is necessary to have the data concerning the impact of variousoperational factors on processes occurring at braking of the object of adjustment (vehicle wheel.Data availability concerning the impact of operational factors allows to decrease geometricalparameters of adjustment devices (modulators and maintain their efficient operation under variousexploitation conditions of vehicle’s motion.
Maximum-Likelihood Detection for Energy-Efficient Timing Acquisition in NB-IoT
2016-01-01
Initial timing acquisition in narrow-band IoT (NB-IoT) devices is done by detecting a periodically transmitted known sequence. The detection has to be done at lowest possible latency, because the RF-transceiver, which dominates downlink power consumption of an NB-IoT modem, has to be turned on throughout this time. Auto-correlation detectors show low computational complexity from a signal processing point of view at the price of a higher detection latency. In contrast a maximum likelihood cro...
Fu, Jian
2010-01-01
We demonstrate that a tensor product structure could be obtained by introducing pseudorandom phase sequences into classical fields with two orthogonal modes. Using classical fields modulated with pseudorandom phase sequences, we discuss efficient simulation of several typical quantum states, including product state, Bell states, GHZ state, and W state. By performing quadrature demodulation scheme, we could obtain the mode status matrix of the simulating classical fields, based on which we propose a sequence permutation mechanism to reconstruct the simulated quantum states. The research on classical simulation of quantum states is important, for it not only enables potential practical applications in quantum computation, but also provides useful insights into fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics.
Measuring the absolute quantum efficiency of luminescent materials
Rohwer, Lauren Shea [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-0892, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0892 (United States)]. E-mail: leshea@sandia.gov; Martin, James E. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-0892, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0892 (United States)
2005-11-15
A measurement system and mathematical procedure are developed for determining the absolute quantum efficiency (QE), of luminescent materials. This technique, based on absorption of diffuse light within an integrating sphere, is applied to fluorescent laser dyes and conventional phosphor powders. The system described is tested for excitation in the near-UV and blue regions, but can be applied to higher energy excitation (UV), as well as lower energy excitation in the visible to near-IR, with the appropriate photodetectors and optical filters. The system was tested on both liquid and solid samples such as Coumarin 500 (CM500) dye in methanol and ethyl acetate; Rhodamine 6G in ethanol; and a variety of powder phosphors. The QE of quinine sulfate dihydrate solution (5x10{sup -3} M in 0.1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), a NIST fluorescence standard, was found to be in good agreement with the NIST value under 390 nm excitation. The accuracy of this measurement technique is acceptable for samples with absorption cross sections greater than {approx}6 mm{sup 2}.
Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency
Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na
2010-04-01
Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.
Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency
Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)
2010-02-15
The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.
Detective quantum efficiency of electron area detectors in electron microscopy
McMullan, G., E-mail: gm2@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Chen, S.; Henderson, R.; Faruqi, A.R. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)
2009-08-15
Recent progress in detector design has created the need for a careful side-by-side comparison of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and resolution-dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of existing electron detectors with those of detectors based on new technology. We present MTF and DQE measurements for four types of detector: Kodak SO-163 film, TVIPS 224 charge coupled device (CCD) detector, the Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector, and an experimental direct electron monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) detector. Film and CCD performance was measured at 120 and 300 keV, while results are presented for the Medipix2 at 120 keV and for the MAPS detector at 300 keV. In the case of film, the effects of electron backscattering from both the holder and the plastic support have been investigated. We also show that part of the response of the emulsion in film comes from light generated in the plastic support. Computer simulations of film and the MAPS detector have been carried out and show good agreement with experiment. The agreement enables us to conclude that the DQE of a backthinned direct electron MAPS detector is likely to be equal to, or better than, that of film at 300 keV.
Detective quantum efficiency of electron area detectors in electron microscopy.
McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Faruqi, A R
2009-08-01
Recent progress in detector design has created the need for a careful side-by-side comparison of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and resolution-dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of existing electron detectors with those of detectors based on new technology. We present MTF and DQE measurements for four types of detector: Kodak SO-163 film, TVIPS 224 charge coupled device (CCD) detector, the Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector, and an experimental direct electron monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) detector. Film and CCD performance was measured at 120 and 300 keV, while results are presented for the Medipix2 at 120 keV and for the MAPS detector at 300 keV. In the case of film, the effects of electron backscattering from both the holder and the plastic support have been investigated. We also show that part of the response of the emulsion in film comes from light generated in the plastic support. Computer simulations of film and the MAPS detector have been carried out and show good agreement with experiment. The agreement enables us to conclude that the DQE of a backthinned direct electron MAPS detector is likely to be equal to, or better than, that of film at 300 keV.
Toward Improved Rotor-Only Axial Fans—Part II: Design Optimization for Maximum Efficiency
Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Thompson, M. C.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2000-01-01
Numerical design optimization of the aerodynamic performance of axial fans is carried out, maximizing the efficiency in a designinterval of flow rates. Tip radius, number of blades, and angular velocity of the rotor are fixed, whereas the hub radius andspanwise distributions of chord length...
An efficient quantum light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime
Yang, Sheng-Jun; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-01-01
Quantum repeater holds the promise for scalable long-distance quantum communication. Towards a first quantum repeater based on memory-photon entanglement, significant progresses have made in improving performances of the building blocks. Further development is hindered by the difficulty of integrating key capabilities such as long storage time and high memory efficiency into a single system. Here we report an efficient light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime by confining laser-cooled atoms with 3D optical lattice and enhancing the atom-photon coupling with a ring cavity. An initial retrieval efficiency of 76(5)% together with an 1/e lifetime of 0.22(1) s have been achieved simultaneously, which already support sub-Hz entanglement distribution up to 1000 km through quantum repeater. Together with an efficient telecom interface and moderate multiplexing, our result may enable a first quantum repeater system that beats direct transmission in the near future.
Efficient strategies for genome scanning using maximum-likelihood affected-sib-pair analysis
Holmans, P.; Craddock, N. [Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)
1997-03-01
Detection of linkage with a systematic genome scan in nuclear families including an affected sibling pair is an important initial step on the path to cloning susceptibility genes for complex genetic disorders, and it is desirable to optimize the efficiency of such studies. The aim is to maximize power while simultaneously minimizing the total number of genotypings and probability of type I error. One approach to increase efficiency, which has been investigated by other workers, is grid tightening: a sample is initially typed using a coarse grid of markers, and promising results are followed up by use of a finer grid. Another approach, not previously considered in detail in the context of an affected-sib-pair genome scan for linkage, is sample splitting: a portion of the sample is typed in the screening stage, and promising results are followed up in the whole sample. In the current study, we have used computer simulation to investigate the relative efficiency of two-stage strategies involving combinations of both grid tightening and sample splitting and found that the optimal strategy incorporates both approaches. In general, typing half the sample of affected pairs with a coarse grid of markers in the screening stage is an efficient strategy under a variety of conditions. If Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds, it is most efficient not to type parents in the screening stage. If Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not hold (e.g., because of stratification) failure to type parents in the first stage increases the amount of genotyping required, although the overall probability of type I error is not greatly increased, provided the parents are used in the final analysis. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.
Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation
Broadbent, Anne
2015-01-01
In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the pa...
Richards, V. M.; Dai, W.
2014-01-01
A MATLAB toolbox for the efficient estimation of the threshold, slope, and lapse rate of the psychometric function is described. The toolbox enables the efficient implementation of the updated maximum-likelihood (UML) procedure. The toolbox uses an object-oriented architecture for organizing the experimental variables and computational algorithms, which provides experimenters with flexibility in experimental design and data management. Descriptions of the UML procedure and the UML Toolbox are provided, followed by toolbox use examples. Finally, guidelines and recommendations of parameter configurations are given. PMID:24671826
Shen, Yi; Dai, Wei; Richards, Virginia M
2015-03-01
A MATLAB toolbox for the efficient estimation of the threshold, slope, and lapse rate of the psychometric function is described. The toolbox enables the efficient implementation of the updated maximum-likelihood (UML) procedure. The toolbox uses an object-oriented architecture for organizing the experimental variables and computational algorithms, which provides experimenters with flexibility in experimental design and data management. Descriptions of the UML procedure and the UML Toolbox are provided, followed by toolbox use examples. Finally, guidelines and recommendations of parameter configurations are given.
Lisi, A D; Illuminati, F; Vitali, D; Lisi, Antonio Di; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David
2004-01-01
We introduce an efficient and robust scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum non-demolition measurements of total atomic populations and on quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for photo-detection with ideal efficiency as well as in the presence of losses.
Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng
2015-12-30
We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.
Maximum Efficiency of Thermoelectric Heat Conversion in High-Temperature Power Devices
V. I. Khvesyuk
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Modern trends in development of aircraft engineering go with development of vehicles of the fifth generation. The features of aircrafts of the fifth generation are motivation to use new high-performance systems of onboard power supply. The operating temperature of the outer walls of engines is of 800–1000 K. This corresponds to radiation heat flux of 10 kW/m2 . The thermal energy including radiation of the engine wall may potentially be converted into electricity. The main objective of this paper is to analyze if it is possible to use a high efficiency thermoelectric conversion of heat into electricity. The paper considers issues such as working processes, choice of materials, and optimization of thermoelectric conversion. It presents the analysis results of operating conditions of thermoelectric generator (TEG used in advanced hightemperature power devices. A high-temperature heat source is a favorable factor for the thermoelectric conversion of heat. It is shown that for existing thermoelectric materials a theoretical conversion efficiency can reach the level of 15–20% at temperatures up to 1500 K and available values of Ioffe parameter being ZT = 2–3 (Z is figure of merit, T is temperature. To ensure temperature regime and high efficiency thermoelectric conversion simultaneously it is necessary to have a certain match between TEG power, temperature of hot and cold surfaces, and heat transfer coefficient of the cooling system. The paper discusses a concept of radiation absorber on the TEG hot surface. The analysis has demonstrated a number of potentialities for highly efficient conversion through using the TEG in high-temperature power devices. This work has been implemented under support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation; project No. 1145 (the programme “Organization of Research Engineering Activities”.
Thien-Tong Nguyen; Doyoung Byun
2008-01-01
In the "modified quasi-steady" approach, two-dimensional (2D) aerodynamic models of flapping wing motions are analyzed with focus on different types of wing rotation and different positions of rotation axis to explain the force peak at the end of each half stroke. In this model, an additional velocity of the mid chord position due to rotation is superimposed on the translational relative velocity of air with respect to the wing. This modification produces augmented forces around the end of eachstroke. For each case of the flapping wing motions with various combination of controlled translational and rotational velocities of the wing along inclined stroke planes with thin figure-of-eight trajectory, discussions focus on lift-drag evolution during one stroke cycle and efficiency of types of wing rotation. This "modified quasi-steady" approach provides a systematic analysis of various parameters and their effects on efficiency of flapping wing mechanism. Flapping mechanism with delayed rotation around quarter-chord axis is an efficient one and can be made simple by a passive rotation mechanism so that it can be useful for robotic application.
Efficient and long-lived quantum memory with cold atoms inside a ring cavity
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Dietrich, Peter; Rui, Jun; Dück, Alexander; Strassel, Thorsten; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Zhao, Bo; Pan, Jian-Wei; 10.1038/nphys2324
2012-01-01
Quantum memories are regarded as one of the fundamental building blocks of linear-optical quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. A long standing goal to realize scalable quantum information processing is to build a long-lived and efficient quantum memory. There have been significant efforts distributed towards this goal. However, either efficient but short-lived or long-lived but inefficient quantum memories have been demonstrated so far. Here we report a high-performance quantum memory in which long lifetime and high retrieval efficiency meet for the first time. By placing a ring cavity around an atomic ensemble, employing a pair of clock states, creating a long-wavelength spin wave, and arranging the setup in the gravitational direction, we realize a quantum memory with an intrinsic spin wave to photon conversion efficiency of 73(2)% together with a storage lifetime of 3.2(1) ms. This realization provides an essential tool towards scalable linear-optical quantum information processing.
Photo-acoustic spectroscopy and quantum efficiency of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses
Kuhn, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kuhn84@googlemail.com; Tiegel, Mirko; Herrmann, Andreas; Rüssel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institute of Materials Research, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Engel, Sebastian; Wenisch, Christoph; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A. [Otto-Schott-Institute of Materials Research, Jena University, Löbdergraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany); Körner, Jörg; Seifert, Reinhard; Yue, Fangxin; Klöpfel, Diethardt [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Jena University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C. [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Jena University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany)
2015-09-14
In this contribution, we analyze the effect of several preparation methods of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses on their quantum efficiency by using photo-acoustic measurements in comparison to standard measurement methods including the determination via the fluorescence lifetime and an integrating sphere setup. The preparation methods focused on decreasing the OH concentration by means of fluorine-substitution and/or applying dry melting atmospheres, which led to an increase in the measured fluorescence lifetime. However, it was found that the influence of these methods on radiative properties such as the measured fluorescence lifetime alone does not per se give exact information about the actual quantum efficiency of the sample. The determination of the quantum efficiency by means of fluorescence lifetime shows inaccuracies when refractive index changing elements such as fluorine are incorporated into the glass. Since fluorine not only eliminates OH from the glass but also increases the “intrinsic” radiative fluorescence lifetime, which is needed to calculate the quantum efficiency, it is difficult to separate lifetime quenching from purely radiative effects. The approach used in this contribution offers a possibility to disentangle radiative from non-radiative properties which is not possible by using fluorescence lifetime measurements alone and allows an accurate determination of the quantum efficiency of a given sample. The comparative determination by an integrating sphere setup leads to the well-known problem of reabsorption which embodies itself in the measurement of too low quantum efficiencies, especially for samples with small quantum efficiencies.
An Efficient Exact Quantum Algorithm for the Integer Square-free Decomposition Problem.
Li, Jun; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng; Suter, Dieter
2012-01-01
Quantum computers are known to be qualitatively more powerful than classical computers, but so far only a small number of different algorithms have been discovered that actually use this potential. It would therefore be highly desirable to develop other types of quantum algorithms that widen the range of possible applications. Here we propose an efficient and exact quantum algorithm for finding the square-free part of a large integer - a problem for which no efficient classical algorithm exists. The algorithm relies on properties of Gauss sums and uses the quantum Fourier transform. We give an explicit quantum network for the algorithm. Our algorithm introduces new concepts and methods that have not been used in quantum information processing so far and may be applicable to a wider class of problems.
An Efficient Deterministic Quantum Algorithm for the Integer Square-free Decomposition Problem
Li, Jun; Du, Jiangfeng; Suter, Dieter
2011-01-01
Quantum computers are known to be qualitatively more powerful than classical computers, but so far only a small number of different algorithms have been discovered that actually use this potential. It would therefore be highly desirable to develop other types of quantum algorithms that widen the range of possible applications. Here we propose an efficient and deterministic quantum algorithm for finding the square-free part of a large integer - a problem for which no efficient classical algorithm exists. The algorithm relies on properties of Gauss sums and uses the quantum Fourier transform. We give an explicit quantum network for the algorithm. Our algorithm introduces new concepts and methods that have not been used in quantum information processing so far and may be applicable to a wider class of problems.
Apparent bandgap shift in the internal quantum efficiency for solar cells with back reflectors
Steiner, M. A.; Perl, E. E.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Jain, N.; Levi, D.; Horner, G.
2017-04-01
We demonstrate that in solar cells with highly reflective back mirrors, the measured internal quantum efficiency exhibits a shift in bandgap relative to the measured external quantum efficiency. The shift arises from the fact that the measured reflectance at the front surface includes a superposition of waves reflecting from the front and back surfaces. We quantify the magnitude of the apparent shift and discuss the errors that can result in determination of quantities such as the photocurrent. Because of this apparent shift, it is important the bandgap be determined from the external quantum efficiency.
Quantum efficiency of InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures grown on silicon substrates
Anufriev, Roman; Chauvin, Nicolas; Bru-Chevallier, Catherine [Universite de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL)-UMR5270-CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Khmissi, Hammadi [Universite de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectronique et Nanostructures (LMON), Faculte des Sciences, Monastir (Tunisia); Naji, Khalid; Gendry, Michel [Universite de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL)-UMR5270-CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully (France); Patriarche, Gilles [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN), UPR20-CNRS, Marcoussis (France)
2013-10-15
Photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE) is experimentally investigated, using an integrating sphere, as a function of excitation power on both InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires (QRod-NWs) and radial quantum well nanowires (QWell-NWs) grown on silicon substrates. The measured values of the QE are compared with those of the planar analogues such as quantum dash and quantum well samples, and found to be comparable for the quantum well structures at relatively low power density. Further studies reveal that the values of QE of the QRod-NWs and QWell-NWs are limited by the low quality of the InP NW structure and the quality of radial quantum well, respectively. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Highly Efficient Perovskite-Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes by Surface Engineering
Pan, Jun
2016-08-16
A two-step ligand-exchange strategy is developed, in which the long-carbon-chain ligands on all-inorganic perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Br, Cl) quantum dots (QDs) are replaced with halide-ion-pair ligands. Green and blue light-emitting diodes made from the halide-ion-paircapped quantum dots exhibit high external quantum efficiencies compared with the untreated QDs.
A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire
Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel; Malik, Nitin Singh
2010-01-01
The development of efficient solid-state sources of single photons is a major challenge in the context of quantum communication,optical quantum information processing and metrology1. Such a source must enable the implementation of a stable, single-photon emitter, like a colour centre in diamond2...... with carefully tailored ends13. Under optical pumping, we demonstrate a record source efficiency of 0.72, combined with pure single-photon emission. This non-resonant approach also provides broadband spontaneous emission control, thus offering appealing novel opportunities for the development of single-photon......–4 or a semiconductor quantum dot5–7. Achieving a high extraction efficiency has long been recognized as a major issue, and both classical solutions8 and cavity quantum electrodynamics effects have been applied1,9–12. We adopt a different approach, based on an InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic nanowire...
Optimal efficiency of quantum transport in a disordered trimer.
Giusteri, Giulio G; Celardo, G Luca; Borgonovi, Fausto
2016-03-01
Disordered quantum networks, such as those describing light-harvesting complexes, are often characterized by the presence of peripheral ringlike structures, where the excitation is initialized, and inner structures and reaction centers (RCs), where the excitation is trapped and transferred. The peripheral rings often display distinguished coherent features: Their eigenstates can be separated, with respect to the transfer of excitation, into two classes of superradiant and subradiant states. Both are important to optimize transfer efficiency. In the absence of disorder, superradiant states have an enhanced coupling strength to the RC, while the subradiant ones are basically decoupled from it. Static on-site disorder induces a coupling between subradiant and superradiant states, thus creating an indirect coupling to the RC. The problem of finding the optimal transfer conditions, as a function of both the RC energy and the disorder strength, is very complex even in the simplest network, namely, a three-level system. In this paper we analyze such trimeric structure, choosing as the initial condition an excitation on a subradiant state, rather than the more common choice of an excitation localized on a single site. We show that, while the optimal disorder is of the order of the superradiant coupling, the optimal detuning between the initial state and the RC energy strongly depends on system parameters: When the superradiant coupling is much larger than the energy gap between the superradiant and the subradiant levels, optimal transfer occurs if the RC energy is at resonance with the subradiant initial state, whereas we find an optimal RC energy at resonance with a virtual dressed state when the superradiant coupling is smaller than or comparable to the gap. The presence of dynamical noise, which induces dephasing and decoherence, affects the resonance structure of energy transfer producing an additional incoherent resonance peak, which corresponds to the RC energy being
Modeling of detective quantum efficiency considering scatter-reduction devices
Park, Ji Woong; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The reduction of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) cannot be restored and thus has become a severe issue in digital mammography.1 Therefore, antiscatter grids are typically used in mammography. Scatter-cleanup performance of various scatter-reduction devices, such as air gaps,2 linear (1D) or cellular (2D) grids,3, 4 and slot-scanning devices,5 has been extensively investigated by many research groups. In the present time, a digital mammography system with the slotscanning geometry is also commercially available.6 In this study, we theoretically investigate the effect of scattered photons on the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) performance of digital mammography detectors by using the cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) approach. We show a simple DQE formalism describing digital mammography detector systems equipped with scatter reduction devices by regarding the scattered photons as additive noise sources. The LFD increased with increasing PMMA thickness, and the amounts of LFD indicated the corresponding SF. The estimated SFs were 0.13, 0.21, and 0.29 for PMMA thicknesses of 10, 20, and 30 mm, respectively. While the solid line describing the measured MTF for PMMA with 0 mm was the result of least-squares of regression fit using Eq. (14), the other lines were simply resulted from the multiplication of the fit result (for PMMA with 0 mm) with the (1-SF) estimated from the LFDs in the measured MTFs. Spectral noise-power densities over the entire frequency range were not much changed with increasing scatter. On the other hand, the calculation results showed that the spectral noise-power densities increased with increasing scatter. This discrepancy may be explained by that the model developed in this study does not account for the changes in x-ray interaction parameters for varying spectral shapes due to beam hardening with increasing PMMA thicknesses.
Efficient and exact maximum likelihood quantisation of genomic features using dynamic programming.
Song, Mingzhou; Haralick, Robert M; Boissinot, Stéphane
2010-01-01
An efficient and exact dynamic programming algorithm is introduced to quantise a continuous random variable into a discrete random variable that maximises the likelihood of the quantised probability distribution for the original continuous random variable. Quantisation is often useful before statistical analysis and modelling of large discrete network models from observations of multiple continuous random variables. The quantisation algorithm is applied to genomic features including the recombination rate distribution across the chromosomes and the non-coding transposable element LINE-1 in the human genome. The association pattern is studied between the recombination rate, obtained by quantisation at genomic locations around LINE-1 elements, and the length groups of LINE-1 elements, also obtained by quantisation on LINE-1 length. The exact and density-preserving quantisation approach provides an alternative superior to the inexact and distance-based univariate iterative k-means clustering algorithm for discretisation.
Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Leon-Galicia, A; Morales-Gomez, J R
2007-01-01
In this work we include, for the Carnot cycle, irreversibilities of linear finite rate of heat transferences between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs and internal dissipations of the working fluid. A first optimization of the power output, the efficiency and ecological function of an irreversible Carnot cycle, with respect to: internal temperature ratio, time ratio for the heat exchange and the allocation ratio of the heat exchangers; is performed. For the second and third optimizations, the optimum values for the time ratio and internal temperature ratio are substituted into the equation of power and, then, the optimizations with respect to the cost and effectiveness ratio of the heat exchangers are performed. Finally, a criterion of partial optimization for the class of irreversible Carnot engines is herein presented.
Hapenciuc, C. L.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.; Mihailescu, I. N.
2017-04-01
Thermoelectric materials are used today in thermoelectric devices for heat to electricity(thermoelectric generators-TEG) or electricity to heat(heat pumps) conversion in a large range of applications. In the case of TEGs the final measure of their performance is given by a quantity named the maximum efficiency which shows how much from the heat input is converted into electrical power. Therefore it is of great interest to know correctly how much is the efficiency of a device to can make commercial assessments. The concept of engineering figure of merit, Zeng, and engineering power factor, Peng, were already introduced in the field to quantify the efficiency of a single material under temperature dependent thermoelectric properties, with the mention that the formulas derivation was limited to one leg of the thermoelectric generator. In this paper we propose to extend the concept of engineering figure of merit to a thermoelectric generator by introducing a more general concept of device engineering thermoelectric figure of merit, Zd,eng, which depends on the both TEG materials properties and which shall be the right quantity to be used when we are interested in the evaluation of the efficiency. Also, this work takes into account the electrical contact resistance between the electrodes and thermoelement legs in an attempt to quantify its influence upon the performance of a TEG. Finally, a new formula is proposed for the maximum efficiency of a TEG.
Efficient numerical solution of excitation number conserving quantum systems
Zhang, Zheyong; Ding, Jianping; Wang, Hui-Tian
2017-08-01
A system composed of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a two-level atom is one of the quantum systems, which can be completely solved. Although this system is simple, it is never a easy work for the quantum calculations, especially when the system consists of many such simple constituent parts. In this paper, we present a programming method, by which the calculation tasks for the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian of system can be automatically fulfilled. Coupled-cavity array systems are used to demonstrate our programming method. Some quantum properties of these systems are also discussed.
Efficient Computation of Transition State Resonances and Reaction Rates from a Quantum Normal Form
Schubert, Roman; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen
2006-01-01
A quantum version of a recent formulation of transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed provides an algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and the associated Gamov-Siegert resonances with very high accuracy. The algorithm is especially efficient for multi-degree-o
CHARACTERISING THE EOS SLOT-SCANNING SYSTEM WITH THE EFFECTIVE DETECTIVE QUANTUM EFFICIENCY.
Clavel, A H; Monnin, P; Létang, J M; Verdun, F R; Darbon, A
2016-06-01
As opposed to the standard detective quantum efficiency (DQE), effective DQE (eDQE) is a figure of merit that allows comparing the performances of imaging systems in the presence of scatter rejection devices. The geometry of the EOS™ slot-scanning system is such that the detector is self-collimated and rejects scattered radiation. In this study, the EOS system was characterised using the eDQE in imaging conditions similar to those used in clinical practice: with phantoms of different widths placed in the X-ray beam, for various incident air kerma and tube voltages corresponding to the phantom thickness. Scatter fractions in EOS images were extremely low, around 2 % for all configurations. Maximum eDQE values spanned 9-14.8 % for a large range of air kerma at the detector plane from 0.01 to 1.34 µGy. These figures were obtained with non-optimised EOS setting but still over-performed most of the maximum eDQEs recently assessed for various computed radiology and digital radiology systems with antiscatter grids.
Silver, R.N.; Gubernatis, J.E.; Sivia, D.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Jarrell, M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1990-01-01
In this article we describe the results of a new method for calculating the dynamical properties of the Anderson model. QMC generates data about the Matsubara Green's functions in imaginary time. To obtain dynamical properties, one must analytically continue these data to real time. This is an extremely ill-posed inverse problem similar to the inversion of a Laplace transform from incomplete and noisy data. Our method is a general one, applicable to the calculation of dynamical properties from a wide variety of quantum simulations. We use Bayesian methods of statistical inference to determine the dynamical properties based on both the QMC data and any prior information we may have such as sum rules, symmetry, high frequency limits, etc. This provides a natural means of combining perturbation theory and numerical simulations in order to understand dynamical many-body problems. Specifically we use the well-established maximum entropy (ME) method for image reconstruction. We obtain the spectral density and transport coefficients over the entire range of model parameters accessible by QMC, with data having much larger statistical error than required by other proposed analytic continuation methods.
Optimizing WiMAX: Mitigating Co-Channel Interference for Maximum Spectral Efficiency
ABDUL QADIR ANSARI
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The efficient use of radio spectrum is one of the most important issues in wireless networks because spectrum is generally limited and wireless environment is constrained to channel interference. To cope up and for increased usefulness of radio spectrum wireless networks use frequency reuse technique. The frequency reuse technique allows the use of same frequency band in different cells of same network considering inter-cell distance and resulting interference level. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access PHY profile is designed to use FRF (Frequency Reuse Factor of one. When FRF of one is used it results in an improved spectral efficacy but also results in CCI (Co-Channel interference at cell boundaries. The effect of interference is always required to be measured so that some averaging/ minimization techniques may be incorporated to keep the interference level up to some acceptable threshold in wireless environment. In this paper, we have analyzed, that how effectively CCI impact can be mitigated by using different subcarrier permutation types presented in IEEE 802.16 standard. A simulation based analysis is presented wherein impact of using same and different permutation base in adjacent cells in a WiMAX network on CCI, under varying load conditions is analyzed. We have further studied the effect of permutation base in environment where frequency reuse technique is used in conjunction with cell sectoring for better utilization of radio spectrum.
High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term objective of this program is to develop flexible, lightweight, single-junction solar cells using quantum structured designs that can achieve ultra-high...
High efficiency detection technology on quantum action using radiation excitation
Okubo, Masataka; Ukibe, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Isao; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Shoji, Akira; Kobayashi, Naoto [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
2000-02-01
In 1998 fiscal year, as a local quasi particle loss process, it was elucidated that there was a quasi particle loss induced with magnetic flux quantum trapped by a detector on its cooling. Hitherto, it was reported that action of a tunnel junction detector was different by its magnetic history. That is, the detector had unstability such as variation of its action on its cooling. Therefore, the quasi particle loss induced by magnetic flux quantum forming cause of the unstability was quantitatively evaluated. As a result, it was elucidated that output of the detector was reduced half only by trapping the magnetic flux quantum with numbers corresponding to weak magnetic field like geomagnetism. And, this phenomenon was also described by using a model concept with quasi particle trapping due to the magnetic flux quantum. (G.K.)
Efficient Quantum Information Transfer Through a Uniform Channel
Paola Verrucchi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Effective quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be obtained by inducing a coherent dynamics in quantum wires with homogeneous intrawire interactions. This goal is accomplished by optimally tuning the coupling between the wire endpoints and the two qubits there attached. A general procedure to determine such value is devised, and scaling laws between the optimal coupling and the length of the wire are found. The procedure is implemented in the case of a wire consisting of a spin-1/2 XY chain: results for the time dependence of the quantities which characterize quantum-state and entanglement transfer are found of extremely good quality also for very long wires. The present approach does not require engineered intrawire interactions nor a specific initial pulse shaping, and can be applied to a vast class of quantum channels.
Higuita Cano, Mauricio; Mousli, Mohamed Islam Aniss; Kelouwani, Sousso; Agbossou, Kodjo; Hammoudi, Mhamed; Dubé, Yves
2017-03-01
This work investigates the design and validation of a fuel cell management system (FCMS) which can perform when the fuel cell is at water freezing temperature. This FCMS is based on a new tracking technique with intelligent prediction, which combined the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking with variable perturbation-current step and the fuzzy logic technique (MEPT-FL). Unlike conventional fuel cell control systems, our proposed FCMS considers the cold-weather conditions, the reduction of fuel cell set-point oscillations. In addition, the FCMS is built to respond quickly and effectively to the variations of electric load. A temperature controller stage is designed in conjunction with the MEPT-FL in order to operate the FC at low-temperature values whilst tracking at the same time the maximum efficiency point. The simulation results have as well experimental validation suggest that propose approach is effective and can achieve an average efficiency improvement up to 8%. The MEPT-FL is validated using a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) of 500 W.
ZHANG Jian-hua; OU YANG Jun; LI Xue-yong; LI Hong-jian
2007-01-01
An analytical model is presented to calculate the disassociation probability and the external quantum efficiency at high field in doped organic electrophosphorescence(EPH) devices. The charge recombination process and the triplet(T)-triplet(T) annihilation processes are taken into account in this model. The influences of applied voltage and the thickness of the device on the disassociation probability, and of current density and the thickness of the device on the external quantum efficiency are studied thoroughly by including and ignoring the disassociation of excitons. It is found that the dissociation probability of excitons will come close to 1 at high electric field, and the external EPH quantum efficiency is almost the same at low electric field. There is a large discrepancy of the external EPH quantum efficiency at high electric field for including or ignoring the disassociation of excitons.
High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS)...
High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to utilize quantum dots to develop a super high-efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for space. In metamorphic triple junction space solar...
High Quantum Efficiency 1024x1024 Longwave Infrared SLS FPA and Camera Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a high quantum efficiency (QE) 1024x1024 longwave infrared focal plane array (LWIR FPA) and CAMERA with ~ 12 micron cutoff wavelength made from...
High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice...
Radko, Ilya; Boll, Mads; Israelsen, Niels Møller
2016-01-01
It is generally accepted that nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in bulk diamond are bright sources of luminescence. However, the exact value of their internal quantum efficiency (IQE) has not been measured so far. Here we use an implementation of Drexhage's scheme to quantify the IQE of shallow...... the quantum efficiency to be 0.70 ± 0.07 and 0.82 ± 0.08, respectively....
Amauris Gilbert-Hernández
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A procedure for the selection of maximum pipe thickness to achieve efficient thermal insulation in piping with steam tracing was developed. The bibliographical review allowed identifying the limitations of previous investigations with regard to the selection of pipe thickness in transfer systems with steam tracing. The model for calculating the overall lost heat was prepared. The procedure considers economic criteria for the selection of pipe thickness and established an optimal thickness value which guarantees a total minimum cost by establishing a balance between the expenditures resulting from heat loss and the project costs.
Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements
ZAIDI,SALEEM H.
2000-04-01
Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to
High Efficiency, Low Power-Consumption DFB Quantum Cascade Lasers Without Lateral Regrowth.
Jia, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Liu, Feng-Qi; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Wang, Dong-Bo; Jia, Xue-Feng; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Zhan-Guo
2017-12-01
Very low power-consumption distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) at the wavelength around 4.9 μm were fabricated by conventional process without lateral regrowth of InP:Fe or using sidewall grating. Benefitted from the optimized materials and low waveguide loss, very low threshold current density of 0.5 kA/cm(2) was obtained for a device with cavity length of 2 mm. Combined with the partial-high-reflection coating, the 1-mm-long DFB QCL achieved low power-consumption continuous wave (CW) operation up to 105 °C. The CW threshold power-consumptions were 0.72 and 0.78 W at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. The maximum CW output power was over 110 mW at 15 °C and still more than 35 mW at 105 °C. At 15 °C, wall-plug efficiency of 5.5% and slope efficiency of 1.8 W/A were deduced, which were very high for low power-consumption DFB QCLs.
Towards Realising Secure and Efficient Image and Video Processing Applications on Quantum Computers
Abdullah M. Iliyasu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Exploiting the promise of security and efficiency that quantum computing offers, the basic foundations leading to commercial applications for quantum image processing are proposed. Two mathematical frameworks and algorithms to accomplish the watermarking of quantum images, authentication of ownership of already watermarked images and recovery of their unmarked versions on quantum computers are proposed. Encoding the images as 2n-sized normalised Flexible Representation of Quantum Images (FRQI states, with n-qubits and 1-qubit dedicated to capturing the respective information about the colour and position of every pixel in the image respectively, the proposed algorithms utilise the flexibility inherent to the FRQI representation, in order to confine the transformations on an image to any predetermined chromatic or spatial (or a combination of both content of the image as dictated by the watermark embedding, authentication or recovery circuits. Furthermore, by adopting an apt generalisation of the criteria required to realise physical quantum computing hardware, three standalone components that make up the framework to prepare, manipulate and recover the various contents required to represent and produce movies on quantum computers are also proposed. Each of the algorithms and the mathematical foundations for their execution were simulated using classical (i.e., conventional or non-quantum computing resources, and their results were analysed alongside other longstanding classical computing equivalents. The work presented here, combined together with the extensions suggested, provide the basic foundations towards effectuating secure and efficient classical-like image and video processing applications on the quantum-computing framework.
Efficiency and Coherence of Quantum-Dot Single-Photon Sources
Madsen, Marta Arcari
The main goal of the project has been to realize an efficient source of coherent single photons by coupling a self-assembled quantum dot to a photonic crystal waveguide. Such a source would have a wide range of applications in the field of quantum information processing. By studying the coupling...... on this result, we improved the design of the photonic crystal waveguide, and we characterized in detail the efficiency of the device and the coherence of the emitted single photons. We investigate the decoherence mechanisms affecting the quantum dots by performing resonance fluorescence experiments on emitters...... of a single charge. A very high degree of coherence can be achieved by embedding quantum dots in electrically gated samples. We show that a single quantum dot behaves like a nearly-ideal two-level system in a sample with electrical gates, and single photons emitted up to 1 μs apart show indistinguishability...
Efficient quantum computation in a network with probabilistic gates and logical encoding
Borregaard, J.; Sørensen, A. S.; Cirac, J. I.
2017-01-01
An approach to efficient quantum computation with probabilistic gates is proposed and analyzed in both a local and nonlocal setting. It combines heralded gates previously studied for atom or atomlike qubits with logical encoding from linear optical quantum computation in order to perform high......-fidelity quantum gates across a quantum network. The error-detecting properties of the heralded operations ensure high fidelity while the encoding makes it possible to correct for failed attempts such that deterministic and high-quality gates can be achieved. Importantly, this is robust to photon loss, which...... is typically the main obstacle to photonic-based quantum information processing. Overall this approach opens a path toward quantum networks with atomic nodes and photonic links....
Multipulse addressing of a Raman quantum memory: configurable beam splitting and efficient readout.
Reim, K F; Nunn, J; Jin, X-M; Michelberger, P S; Champion, T F M; England, D G; Lee, K C; Kolthammer, W S; Langford, N K; Walmsley, I A
2012-06-29
Quantum memories are vital to the scalability of photonic quantum information processing (PQIP), since the storage of photons enables repeat-until-success strategies. On the other hand, the key element of all PQIP architectures is the beam splitter, which allows us to coherently couple optical modes. Here, we show how to combine these crucial functionalities by addressing a Raman quantum memory with multiple control pulses. The result is a coherent optical storage device with an extremely large time bandwidth product, that functions as an array of dynamically configurable beam splitters, and that can be read out with arbitrarily high efficiency. Networks of such devices would allow fully scalable PQIP, with applications in quantum computation, long distance quantum communications and quantum metrology.
Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States
Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run
2016-07-01
Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.
Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser With Efficient Coupling and Beam Profile
Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Lin, Robert H.; Williams, Benjamin
2012-01-01
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are unipolar semiconductor lasers, where the wavelength of emitted radiation is determined by the engineering of quantum states within the conduction band in coupled multiple-quantum-well heterostructures to have the desired energy separation. The recent development of terahertz QCLs has provided a new generation of solid-state sources for radiation in the terahertz frequency range. Terahertz QCLs have been demonstrated from 0.84 to 5.0 THz both in pulsed mode and continuous wave mode (CW mode). The approach employs a resonant-phonon depopulation concept. The metal-metal (MM) waveguide fabrication is performed using Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding to bond the GaAs/AlGaAs epitaxial layer to a GaAs receptor wafer.
Arbones, B.; Figueiras, F. G.; Varela, R.
2000-09-01
Spectral and non-spectral measurements of the maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation for natural phytoplankton assemblages were compared in order to evaluate their effect on bio-optical models of primary production. Field samples were collected from two different coastal regions of NW Spain in spring, summer and autumn and in a polar environment (Gerlache Strait, Antarctica) during the austral summer. Concurrent determinations were made of spectral phytoplankton absorption coefficient [ aph( λ)], white-light-limited slope of the photosynthesis-irradiance relationships ( αB), carbon uptake action spectra [ αB( λ)], broad-band maximum quantum yields ( φm), and spectral maximum quantum yields [ φm( λ)]. Carbon uptake action spectra roughly followed the shape of the corresponding phytoplankton absorption spectra but with a slight displacement in the blue-green region that could be attributed to imbalance between the two photosystems PS I and PS II. Results also confirmed previous observations of wavelength dependency of maximum quantum yield. The broad-band maximum quantum yield ( φm) calculated considering the measured spectral phytoplankton absorption coefficient and the spectrum of the light source of the incubators was not significantly different form the averaged spectral maximum quantum yield [ overlineφ max(λ) ] ( t-test for paired samples, P=0.34). These results suggest that maximum quantum yield can be estimated with enough accuracy from white-light P- E curves and measured phytoplankton absorption spectra. Primary production at light limiting regimes was compared using four different models with a varying degree of spectral complexity. No significant differences ( t-test for paired samples, P=0.91) were found between a spectral model based on the carbon uptake action spectra [ αB( λ) — model a] and a model which uses the broad-band φm and measured aph( λ) (model b). In addition, primary production derived from constructed action spectra [ ac
Liu, Guohong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Shuming
2016-07-01
The microcavity effect in top-emitting quantum dot light-emitting diodes (TQLEDs) is theoretically and experimentally investigated. By carefully optimizing the cavity length, the thickness of the top Ag electrode and the thickness of the capping layer, very bright and efficient TQLEDs with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 12.5% are demonstrated. Strong dependence of luminance and efficiency on cavity length is observed, in good agreement with theoretical calculation. By setting the normal-direction resonant wavelength around the peak wavelength of the intrinsic emission, highest luminance of 112 000 cd/m(2) (at a driving voltage of 7 V) and maximum current efficiency of 27.8 cd/A are achieved, representing a 12-fold and a 2.1-fold enhancement compared to 9000 cd/m(2) and 13.2 cd/A of the conventional bottom emitting devices, respectively, whereas the highest EQE of 12.5% is obtained by setting the resonant wavelength 30 nm longer than the peak wavelength of the intrinsic emission. Benefit from the very narrow spectrum of QDs and the low absorption of silver electrodes, the potential of microcavity effect can be fully exploited in TQLEDs.
Modeling of dilute nitride cascaded quantum well solar cells for high efficiency photovoltaics
Vijaya, G.; Alemu, A.; Freundlich, A.
2013-03-01
III-V Dilute Nitride multi-quantum well structures are currently promising candidates to achieve 1 sun efficiencies of cell in a 4 junction configuration could yield 1 sun efficiencies greater than 40%. However for a conventional deep well design the characteristic carrier escape times could exceed that of radiative recombination hence limiting the current output of the cell, as has been indicated by prior experiments. In order to increase the current extraction here we evaluate the performance of a cascaded quantum well design whereby a thermally assisted resonant tunneling process is used to accelerate the carrier escape process (efficiency. The quantum efficiency of a p-i-n subcell where a periodic sequence of quantum wells with well and barrier thicknesses adjusted for the sequential extraction operation is calculated using a 2D drift diffusion model and taking into account absorption properties of resulting MQWs. The calculation also accounts for the E-field induced modifications of absorption properties and quantization in quantum wells. The results are then accounted for to calculate efficiencies for the proposed 4 junction design, and indicate potential for reaching efficiencies in excess of this structure is above 42% (1 sun) and above 50% (500 sun) AM1.5.
Origin of low quantum efficiency of photoluminescence of InP/ZnS nanocrystals
Shirazi, Roza, E-mail: rozas@fotonik.dtu.dk [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersted Plads 343, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Kovacs, Andras [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grunberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Julich, 52425 Julich (Germany); Dan Corell, Dennis [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Riso, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gritti, Claudia [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersted Plads 343, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Michael Petersen, Paul [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Riso, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Kardynal, Beata [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersted Plads 343, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); PGI-9, Forschungszentrum Julich, JARA FIT, 52425 Julich (Germany)
2014-01-15
In this paper, we study the origin of a strong wavelength dependence of the quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals. We find that while the average size of the nanocrystals increased by 50%, resulting in longer emission wavelength, the quantum efficiency drops more than one order of magnitude compared to the quantum efficiency of the small nanocrystals. By correlating this result with the time-resolved photoluminescence we find that the reduced photoluminescence efficiency is caused by a fast growing fraction of non-emissive nanocrystals while the quality of the nanocrystals that emit light is similar for all samples. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the polycrystalline nature of many of the large nanocrystals, pointing to the grain boundaries as one possible site for the photoluminescence quenching defects. -- Highlights: • We investigate drop of quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals emitting at longer wavelengths. • We correlate quantum efficiency measurements with time-resolved carrier dynamics. • We find that only a small fraction of larger nanocrystals is optically active.
Nimo, Antwi; Grgic, Dario; Reindl, Leonhard M.
2012-04-01
This work presents the optimization of radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) circuits using Schottky diodes for remote wireless energy harvesting applications. Since different applications require different wireless RF to DC circuits, RF harvesters are presented for different applications. Analytical parameters influencing the sensitivity and efficiency of the circuits are presented. Results showed in this report are analytical, simulated and measured. The presented circuits operate around the frequency 434 MHz. The result of an L-matched RF to DC circuit operates at a maximum efficiency of 27 % at -35 dBm input. The result of a voltage multiplier achieves an open circuit voltage of 6 V at 0 dBm input. The result of a broadband circuit with a frequency band of 300 MHz, achieves an average efficiency of 5 % at -30 dBm and open circuit voltage of 47 mV. A high quality factor (Q) circuit is also realized with a PI network matching for narrow band applications.
Enhancing Otto-Mobile Efficiency via Addition of a Quantum Carnot Cycle
Opatrný, Tomáš; Scully, Marlan O.
2003-09-01
It was shown recently that one can improve the efficiency of the Otto cycle by taking advantage of the internal degrees of freedom of an ideal gas [M. O. Scully, “The Quantum Afterburner”, Phys. Rev. Lett., to be published]. Here we discuss the limiting improvement of the efficiency by considering reversible cycles with both internal and external degrees of freedom.
Efficiency and Coherence of Quantum-Dot Single-Photon Sources
Madsen, Marta Arcari
of single quantum dots to the waveguide, we demonstrate that the emitters are coupled with near-unity efficiency to the waveguide mode. We measure a coupling efficiency (β-factor) as high as 98.4% close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode, and β-factors above 90% over a bandwidth of 20 nm. Based...
Efficient mode conversion in an optical nanoantenna mediated by quantum emitters
Straubel, Jakob; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Slowik, Karolina
2016-01-01
Converting signals between different electromagnetic modes is an asset for future information technologies. In general, slightly asymmetric optical nanoantennas enable the coupling between bright and dark modes sustained by an optical nanoantenna. However, the conversion efficiency might be very low. Here, we show that the additional incorporation of a quantum emitter allows to tremendously enhance this efficiency. The enhanced local density of states cycles the quantum emitter between its upper and lower level at an extremely hight rate; hence converting the energy very efficient. The process is robust with respect to possible experimental tolerances and adds a new ingredient to be exploited while studying and applying coupling phenomena in optical nanosystems.
High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies
Dixon, P. Ben [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Murphy, Ryan [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Rosenberg, Danna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Grein, Matthew E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Stelmakh, Veronika [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL; Wong, Franco N. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
2015-01-01
We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.
Efficient measurement of quantum gate error by interleaved randomized benchmarking.
Magesan, Easwar; Gambetta, Jay M; Johnson, B R; Ryan, Colm A; Chow, Jerry M; Merkel, Seth T; da Silva, Marcus P; Keefe, George A; Rothwell, Mary B; Ohki, Thomas A; Ketchen, Mark B; Steffen, M
2012-08-24
We describe a scalable experimental protocol for estimating the average error of individual quantum computational gates. This protocol consists of interleaving random Clifford gates between the gate of interest and provides an estimate as well as theoretical bounds for the average error of the gate under test, so long as the average noise variation over all Clifford gates is small. This technique takes into account both state preparation and measurement errors and is scalable in the number of qubits. We apply this protocol to a superconducting qubit system and find a bounded average error of 0.003 [0,0.016] for the single-qubit gates X(π/2) and Y(π/2). These bounded values provide better estimates of the average error than those extracted via quantum process tomography.
Efficient algorithms for the laboratory discovery of optimal quantum controls.
Turinici, Gabriel; Le Bris, Claude; Rabitz, Herschel
2004-01-01
The laboratory closed-loop optimal control of quantum phenomena, expressed as minimizing a suitable cost functional, is currently implemented through an optimization algorithm coupled to the experimental apparatus. In practice, the most commonly used search algorithms are variants of genetic algorithms. As an alternative choice, a direct search deterministic algorithm is proposed in this paper. For the simple simulations studied here, it outperforms the existing approaches. An additional algorithm is introduced in order to reveal some properties of the cost functional landscape.
Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells
Kramer, Illan J.
2014-11-10
(Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.
Nanopatterned Quantum Dot Lasers for High Speed, High Efficiency, Operation
2015-04-27
SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS ...growth using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These methods allowed us to realize quantum dot active regions in which the injected carriers...temperature sensitivity , commonly observed in self-assembled QD lasers2. An alternate approach to SK QD formation is the use of nanopatterning with
Efficient optimal minimum error discrimination of symmetric quantum states
Assalini, Antonio; Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco
2010-01-01
This article deals with the quantum optimal discrimination among mixed quantum states enjoying geometrical uniform symmetry with respect to a reference density operator ρ0. It is well known that the minimal error probability is given by the positive operator-valued measure obtained as a solution of a convex optimization problem, namely a set of operators satisfying geometrical symmetry, with respect to a reference operator Π0 and maximizing Tr(ρ0Π0). In this article, by resolving the dual problem, we show that the same result is obtained by minimizing the trace of a semidefinite positive operator X commuting with the symmetry operator and such that X⩾ρ0. The new formulation gives a deeper insight into the optimization problem and allows to obtain closed-form analytical solutions, as shown by a simple but not trivial explanatory example. In addition to the theoretical interest, the result leads to semidefinite programming solutions of reduced complexity, allowing to extend the numerical performance evaluation to quantum communication systems modeled in Hilbert spaces of large dimension.
Coropceanu, Igor; Bawendi, Moungi G
2014-07-09
CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been optimized toward luminescent solar concentration (LSC) applications. Systematically increasing the shell thickness continuously reduced reabsorption up to a factor of 45 for the thickest QDs studied (with ca. 14 monolayers of CdS) compared to the initial CdSe cores. Moreover, an improved synthetic method was developed that retains a high-fluorescence quantum yield, even for particles with the thickest shell volume, for which a quantum yield of 86% was measured in solution. These high quantum yield thick shell quantum dots were embedded in a polymer matrix, yielding highly transparent composites to serve as prototype LSCs, which exhibited an optical efficiency as high as 48%. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model LSC performance and to identify the major loss channels for LSCs incorporating the materials developed. The results of the simulation are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.
Advanced quantum communication systems
Jeffrey, Evan Robert
Quantum communication provides several examples of communication protocols which cannot be implemented securely using only classical communication. Currently, the most widely known of these is quantum cryptography, which allows secure key exchange between parties sharing a quantum channel subject to an eavesdropper. This thesis explores and extends the realm of quantum communication. Two new quantum communication protocols are described. The first is a new form of quantum cryptography---relativistic quantum cryptography---which increases communication efficiency by exploiting a relativistic bound on the power of an eavesdropper, in addition to the usual quantum mechanical restrictions intrinsic to quantum cryptography. By doing so, we have observed over 170% improvement in communication efficiency over a similar protocol not utilizing relativity. A second protocol, Quantum Orienteering, allows two cooperating parties to communicate a specific direction in space. This application shows the possibility of using joint measurements, or projections onto an entangled state, in order to extract the maximum useful information from quantum bits. For two-qubit communication, the maximal fidelity of communication using only separable operations is 73.6%, while joint measurements can improve the efficiency to 78.9%. In addition to implementing these protocols, we have improved several resources for quantum communication and quantum computing. Specifically, we have developed improved sources of polarization-entangled photons, a low-loss quantum memory for polarization qubits, and a quantum random number generator. These tools may be applied to a wide variety of future quantum and classical information systems.
Mehrotra, Shakti; Prakash, O; Khan, Feroz; Kukreja, A K
2013-02-01
KEY MESSAGE : ANN-based combinatorial model is proposed and its efficiency is assessed for the prediction of optimal culture conditions to achieve maximum productivity in a bioprocess in terms of high biomass. A neural network approach is utilized in combination with Hidden Markov concept to assess the optimal values of different environmental factors that result in maximum biomass productivity of cultured tissues after definite culture duration. Five hidden Markov models (HMMs) were derived for five test culture conditions, i.e. pH of liquid growth medium, volume of medium per culture vessel, sucrose concentration (%w/v) in growth medium, nitrate concentration (g/l) in the medium and finally the density of initial inoculum (g fresh weight) per culture vessel and their corresponding fresh weight biomass. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was represented as the function of these five Markov models, and the overall simulation of fresh weight biomass was done with this combinatorial ANN-HMM. The empirical results of Rauwolfia serpentina hairy roots were taken as model and compared with simulated results obtained from pure ANN and ANN-HMMs. The stochastic testing and Cronbach's α-value of pure and combinatorial model revealed more internal consistency and skewed character (0.4635) in histogram of ANN-HMM compared to pure ANN (0.3804). The simulated results for optimal conditions of maximum fresh weight production obtained from ANN-HMM and ANN model closely resemble the experimentally optimized culture conditions based on which highest fresh weight was obtained. However, only 2.99 % deviation from the experimental values could be observed in the values obtained from combinatorial model when compared to the pure ANN model (5.44 %). This comparison showed 45 % better potential of combinatorial model for the prediction of optimal culture conditions for the best growth of hairy root cultures.
WANG Yang; TU Zhan-Chun
2013-01-01
The Carnot-like heat engines are classified into three types (normal-,sub-and,super-dissipative) according to relations between the minimum irreversible entropy production in the "isothermal" processes and the time for completing those processes.The efficiencies at maximum power of normal-,sub-and super-dissipative Carnot-like heat engines are proved to be bounded between ηc/2 and ηc/ (2-ηc),ηc/2 and ηc,0 and ηc/ (2-ηc),respectively.These bounds are also shared by linear,sub-and super-linear irreversible Carnot-like engines [Tu and Wang,Europhys.Lett.98 (2012) 40001] although the dissipative engines and the irreversible ones are inequivalent to each other.
Quantum Dots Promise to Significantly Boost Solar Cell Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)
2013-08-01
In the search for a third generation of solar-cell technologies, a leading candidate is the use of 'quantum dots' -- tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots have the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into energy -- perhaps even doubling it in some devices -- because of their ability to generate more than one bound electron-hole pair, or exciton, per incoming photon. NREL has produced quantum dots using colloidal suspensions; then, using molecular self-assembly, they have been fabricated into the first-ever quantum-dot solar cells. While these devices operate with only 4.4% efficiency, they demonstrate the capability for low-cost manufacturing.
Miyoshi, Makoto; Tsutsumi, Tatsuya; Kabata, Tomoki; Mori, Takuma; Egawa, Takashi
2017-03-01
We investigated the effect of well layer thicknesses on the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and energy conversion efficiency (ECE) for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The results indicated that EQE and ECE have maximum values at a specific well thickness. When the well thickness is sufficiently thin, EQE and ECE increase with an increase in the well thickness owing to an increase in light absorption. Then, once the well thickness surpasses a critical thickness, EQE and ECE begin to decrease owing to the influence of nonradiative recombination processes, which was indicated by the static and dynamic photoluminescence analyses. The critical well thickness probably depends not only on the MQW design but also on growth conditions. Further, we confirmed that the increased total thickness of the stacked well layers leads to increased light absorption and thereby contributes to the improvement of solar cell performance. A high short circuit current density of 1.34 mA/cm2 and a high ECE of 1.31% were achieved for a InGaN/GaN MQW solar cell with a 3.2-nm-thick InGaN well with total well thickness of 115 nm.
A Highly Efficient Hybrid GaAs Solar Cell Based on Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Sensitization
Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen
2014-07-01
This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current.
Highly efficient photocatalytic activity of CuO quantum dot decorated rGO nanocomposites
Dutta, Shibsankar; Das, Kajari; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Jana, D.; De, S. K.; De, Sukanta
2016-08-01
CuO quantum dots (QD) of size 4.5 nm decorated on a rGO sheet to form nanocomposites with different weight percentages via a simple soft chemical route was reported here. Tuning of CuO QD absorption towards the visible region from the UV region in the presence of rGO was also observed. The luminescence of rGO was found to be quenched in rGO-CuO nanocomposites due to charge transfer from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the rGO layer to the conduction band of CuO. Systematic and concise studies of photocatalytic performance towards degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye by CuO QD along with rGO-CuO nanocomposites were presented in this work. A nanocomposite with an equal weight percentage of rGO and CuO degrades almost 99% of MB under irradiation of visible light for 50 min, showing maximum degradation efficiency.
Ahmed, H.; S. J. McCormack; Doran, J.
2016-01-01
Core-shell quantum dots CdSe/ZnS and lumogen yellow organic dye are characterized by their inclusion in luminescent downshifting (LDS) layers. Layers were deposited on top of crystalline silicon cell (c-Si), dye synthesized solar cell (DSSC), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) minimodules. External quantum efficiency measurements for the solar cell/LDS devices are discussed. Experimental results were compared with an optical model developed by Rothemund, 2014.
H. Ahmed
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Core-shell quantum dots CdSe/ZnS and lumogen yellow organic dye are characterized by their inclusion in luminescent downshifting (LDS layers. Layers were deposited on top of crystalline silicon cell (c-Si, dye synthesized solar cell (DSSC, and cadmium telluride (CdTe minimodules. External quantum efficiency measurements for the solar cell/LDS devices are discussed. Experimental results were compared with an optical model developed by Rothemund, 2014.
Lee, Joo Hyung; Yang, Eui Yeol; Oh, Se Young
2013-03-01
In previous work, we have reported that a P3HT:PCBM-based organic photovoltaic cell using a thermally evaporated DMDCNQI buffer layer shows a high power conversion efficiency. In the present work, we have fabricated organic photovoltaic cells consisting of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:DMDCNQI/DMDCNQI/Al using an all-solution process. A thin, uniform DMDCNQI film was obtained in a methanol solution with high solubility and low viscosity. The prepared device shows a high power conversion efficiency of 2.9%. In particular, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 81% was obtained.
Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu
2016-06-01
We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.
Efficient Modeling of Coulomb Interaction Effect on Exciton in Crystal-Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot
Taherkhani, Masoomeh; Gregersen, Niels; Mørk, Jesper
2016-01-01
The binding energy and oscillation strength of the ground-state exciton in type-II quantum dot (QD) is calculated by using a post Hartree-Fock method known as the configuration interaction (CI) method which is significantly more efficient than conventional methods like ab initio method. We show t...... that the Coulomb interaction between electron and holes in these structures considerably affects the transition dipole moment which is the key parameter of optical quantum gating in STIRAP (stimulated Raman adiabatic passage) process for implementing quantum gates [1], [2]....
Fluorescent porous silicon biological probes with high quantum efficiency and stability.
Tu, Chang-Ching; Chou, Ying-Nien; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Wu, Jingda; Jiang, Shaoyi; Lin, Lih Y
2014-12-01
We demonstrate porous silicon biological probes as a stable and non-toxic alternative to organic dyes or cadmium-containing quantum dots for imaging and sensing applications. The fluorescent silicon quantum dots which are embedded on the porous silicon surface are passivated with carboxyl-terminated ligands through stable Si-C covalent bonds. The porous silicon bio-probes have shown photoluminescence quantum yield around 50% under near-UV excitation, with high photochemical and thermal stability. The bio-probes can be efficiently conjugated with antibodies, which is confirmed by a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.
Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation
England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J.
2014-02-01
The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.
Efficiency dip observed with InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells
Lai, Kunyu
2014-01-01
The dip of external quantum efficiency (EQE) is observed on In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells upon the increase of incident optical power density. With indium composition increased to 25%, the EQE dip becomes much less noticeable. The composition dependence of EQE dip is ascribed to the competition between radiative recombination and photocurrent generation in the active region, which are dictated by quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and composition fluctuation in the MQWs.
An efficient quantum scheme for Private Set Intersection
Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun
2016-01-01
Private Set Intersection allows a client to privately compute set intersection with the collaboration of the server, which is one of the most fundamental and key problems within the multiparty collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the parties. In this paper, we first present a cheat-sensitive quantum scheme for Private Set Intersection. Compared with classical schemes, our scheme has lower communication complexity, which is independent of the size of the server's set. Therefore, it is very suitable for big data services in Cloud or large-scale client-server networks.
Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells
Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevičius, J. [Institute of Applied Research and Semiconductor Physics Department, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, Vilnius LT-10222 (Lithuania); Jurkevičius, J., E-mail: jonas.jurkevicius@ff.vu.lt [Institute of Applied Research and Semiconductor Physics Department, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, Vilnius LT-10222 (Lithuania); Shur, M.S. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States); Shatalov, M.; Yang, J.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc. (United States)
2014-11-15
Photoluminescence spectroscopy of AlGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells under quasi-steady-state conditions in the temperature range from 8 to 300 K revealed a strong dependence of droop onset threshold on temperature that was explained by the influence of carrier delocalization. The delocalization at room temperature results predominantly in enhancement of bimolecular radiative recombination, while being favorable for enhancement of nonradiative recombination at low temperatures. Studies of stimulated emission confirmed the strong influence of carrier localization on droop.
An efficient quantum mechanical method for radical pair recombination reactions
Lewis, Alan M.; Fay, Thomas P.; Manolopoulos, David E.
2016-12-01
The standard quantum mechanical expressions for the singlet and triplet survival probabilities and product yields of a radical pair recombination reaction involve a trace over the states in a combined electronic and nuclear spin Hilbert space. If this trace is evaluated deterministically, by performing a separate time-dependent wavepacket calculation for each initial state in the Hilbert space, the computational effort scales as O (Z2log Z ) , where Z is the total number of nuclear spin states. Here we show that the trace can also be evaluated stochastically, by exploiting the properties of spin coherent states. This results in a computational effort of O (M Z log Z ) , where M is the number of Monte Carlo samples needed for convergence. Example calculations on a strongly coupled radical pair with Z >106 show that the singlet yield can be converged to graphical accuracy using just M =200 samples, resulting in a speed up by a factor of >5000 over a standard deterministic calculation. We expect that this factor will greatly facilitate future quantum mechanical simulations of a wide variety of radical pairs of interest in chemistry and biology.
Scales of Time Where the Quantum Discord Allows an Efficient Execution of the DQC1 Algorithm
M. Ávila
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The power of one qubit deterministic quantum processor (DQC1 (Knill and Laflamme (1998 generates a nonclassical correlation known as quantum discord. The DQC1 algorithm executes in an efficient way with a characteristic time given by τ=Tr[Un]/2n, where Un is an n qubit unitary gate. For pure states, quantum discord means entanglement while for mixed states such a quantity is more than entanglement. Quantum discord can be thought of as the mutual information between two systems. Within the quantum discord approach the role of time in an efficient evaluation of τ is discussed. It is found that the smaller the value of t/T is, where t is the time of execution of the DQC1 algorithm and T is the scale of time where the nonclassical correlations prevail, the more efficient the calculation of τ is. A Mösbauer nucleus might be a good processor of the DQC1 algorithm while a nuclear spin chain would not be efficient for the calculation of τ.
Ma, Shao-Qiang; Zhu, Han-Jie; Zhang, Guo-Feng
2017-04-01
The effects of different quantum feedback types on the estimation precision of the detection efficiency are studied. It is found that the precision can be more effective enhanced by a certain feedback type through comparing these feedbacks and the precision has a positive relation with detection efficiency for the optimal feedback when the system reach the state of dynamic balance. In addition, the bigger the proportion of |1> is the higher the precision is and we will not obtain any information about the parameter to be estimated if |0> is chosen as initial state for the feedback type λσz.
A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire
Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel; Malik, Nitin Singh
2010-01-01
The development of efficient solid-state sources of single photons is a major challenge in the context of quantum communication,optical quantum information processing and metrology1. Such a source must enable the implementation of a stable, single-photon emitter, like a colour centre in diamond2...... with carefully tailored ends13. Under optical pumping, we demonstrate a record source efficiency of 0.72, combined with pure single-photon emission. This non-resonant approach also provides broadband spontaneous emission control, thus offering appealing novel opportunities for the development of single...
High Efficiency Hybrid Solar Cells Using Nanocrystalline Si Quantum Dots and Si Nanowires.
Dutta, Mrinal; Thirugnanam, Lavanya; Trinh, Pham Van; Fukata, Naoki
2015-07-28
We report on an efficient hybrid Si nanocrystal quantum dot modified radial p-n junction thinner Si solar cell that utilizes the advantages of effective exciton collection by energy transfer from nanocrystal-Si (nc-Si) quantum dots to underlying radial p-n junction Si nanowire arrays with excellent carrier separation and propagation via the built-in electric fields of radial p-n junctions. Minimization of recombination, optical, and spectrum losses in this hybrid structure led to a high cell efficiency of 12.9%.
Very Efficient Single-Photon Sources Based on Quantum Dots in Photonic Wires
Gerard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel
2014-01-01
We review the recent development of high efficiency single photon sources based on a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. Unlike cavity-based devices, very pure single photon emission and efficiencies exceeding 0.7 photon per pulse are jointly demonstrated under non-resonant pumping conditions....... By placing a tip-shaped or trumpet-like tapering at the output end of the wire, a highly directional Gaussian far-field emission pattern is obtained. More generally, a photonic wire containing a quantum dot appears as an attractive template to explore and exploit in a solid-state system the unique optical...
Efficient algorithms for large-scale quantum transport calculations
Brück, Sascha; Calderara, Mauro; Bani-Hashemian, Mohammad Hossein; VandeVondele, Joost; Luisier, Mathieu
2017-08-01
Massively parallel algorithms are presented in this paper to reduce the computational burden associated with quantum transport simulations from first-principles. The power of modern hybrid computer architectures is harvested in order to determine the open boundary conditions that connect the simulation domain with its environment and to solve the resulting Schrödinger equation. While the former operation takes the form of an eigenvalue problem that is solved by a contour integration technique on the available central processing units (CPUs), the latter can be cast into a linear system of equations that is simultaneously processed by SplitSolve, a two-step algorithm, on general-purpose graphics processing units (GPUs). A significant decrease of the computational time by up to two orders of magnitude is obtained as compared to standard solution methods.
A Novel Implementation of Efficient Algorithms for Quantum Circuit Synthesis
Zeller, Luke
In this project, we design and develop a computer program to effectively approximate arbitrary quantum gates using the discrete set of Clifford Gates together with the T gate (π/8 gate). Employing recent results from Mosca et. al. and Giles and Selinger, we implement a decomposition scheme that outputs a sequence of Clifford, T, and Tt gates that approximate the input to within a specified error range ɛ. Specifically, the given gate is first rounded to an element of Z[1/2, i] with a precision determined by ɛ, and then exact synthesis is employed to produce the resulting gate. It is known that this procedure is optimal in approximating an arbitrary single qubit gate. Our program, written in Matlab and Python, can complete both approximate and exact synthesis of qubits. It can be used to assist in the experimental implementation of an arbitrary fault-tolerant single qubit gate, for which direct implementation isn't feasible.
Robust and Efficient Sifting-Less Quantum Key Distribution Protocols
Grosshans, Frédéric
2009-01-01
We show that replacing the usual sifting step of the standard quantum-key-distribution protocol BB84 by a one-way reverse reconciliation procedure increases its robustness against photon-number-splitting (PNS) attacks to the level of the SARG04 protocol while keeping the raw key-rate of BB84. This protocol, which uses the same state and detection than BB84, is the m=4 member of a protocol-family using m polarization states which we introduce here. We show that the robustness of these protocols against PNS attacks increases exponentially with m, and that the effective keyrate of optimized weak coherent pulses decreases with the transmission T like T^{1+1/(m-2)}.
Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-10-27
Quantum repeater is one of the important building blocks for long distance quantum communication network. The previous quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optical elements can only be performed with a maximal success probability of 1/2 during the entanglement creation and entanglement swapping procedures. Meanwhile, the polarization noise during the entanglement distribution process is harmful to the entangled channel created. Here we introduce a general interface between a polarized photon and an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-sided optical cavity, and with which we propose a high-efficiency quantum repeater protocol in which the robust entanglement distribution is accomplished by the stable spatial-temporal entanglement and it can in principle create the deterministic entanglement between neighboring atomic ensembles in a heralded way as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Meanwhile, the simplified parity-check gate makes the entanglement swapping be completed with unity efficiency, other than 1/2 with linear optics. We detail the performance of our protocol with current experimental parameters and show its robustness to the imperfections, i.e., detuning and coupling variation, involved in the reflection process. These good features make it a useful building block in long distance quantum communication.
E TEYAR
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The use of semi-conducting materials in the photoelectrochemical detoxification of water became a very important research field. For this purpose, TiO2 nanostructures thin films with size of 18 nm to 45nm have been synthesized at low temperature. It is found by means of cyclic voltametry and coulometry measurements that the best photoelectrochemical quantum efficiency under UV monochromatic light with a wavelength of 365 nm and a solution of NaOH 0.1N is obtained in the case of thermal oxidation deposition method which can reach 28% compared to ultrasonic spray and dip coating methods of which the quantum is less than 20%. The crystal structure has an influence on the photo-degradation of methanol. The crystal structure which is recommended for this task is the anatase one, especially in the dipping case when the quantum increases after addition of methanol more than twice compared to the solution of NaOH without methanol. The photoelectrochemical quantum efficiency of these films is related to the number of dips and annealing under air at 550°C during one hour. The annealing has no effect on the quantum efficiency of the films, but decreases there photocatalytic activity as showed by the measure of the photocurrent related to methanol photodegradation. The annealing has no effect on the crystal structure of the material. The impedance spectroscopy of six dips deposited films with and without methanol shows that the annealing increases the doping and weakly decreases the film quantum efficiency. This implies, the importance of surface morphology which the rough is decreasing as showed by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the precursor concentration in ethanol have been investigated by using films, synthesized at T=550°C. The quantum efficiency increases weakly according the precursor concentration. It tends towards a saturation at great concentrations of precursor. In Na OH with methanol added, it passes by a maximum at
Leistikow, M.D.; Johansen, Jeppe; Kettelarij, A.J.;
2009-01-01
, allowing us to determine the size-dependent quantum efficiency and oscillator strength. We find that the quantum efficiency decreases with increasing emission energy mostly due to an increase in nonradiative decay. We manage to obtain the oscillator strength of the important class of CdSe quantum dots....... The oscillator strength varies weakly with frequency in agreement with behavior of quantum dots in the strong confinement limit. Surprisingly, previously calculated tight-binding results differ by a factor of 5 with the measured absolute values. Results from pseudopotential calculations agree well...
Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation
Goto, Hayato
2014-01-01
Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation. PMID:25511387
Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Goto, Hayato
2014-12-16
Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Efficient interfacing of light and surface plasmon polaritons for quantum optics applications
Eran, Kot
control of matter. These include applications such as efficient photon collection, single-photon switching and transistors, and long-range optical coupling of quantum bits for quantum communications. However, generating and controlling strong coherent interaction between otherwise very weakly interacting...... interaction are the window to the underlying quantum world. It is no surprise then that there has always been push to find more, and gain better control over systems in which this interaction can be studied. In the past two decades, this end was further motivated as applications were envisioned to coherent...... light and quantum emitters proves a difficult task. Current days solutions range from cavities, atomic ensembles, photonic band gaps structures, ion traps and optical latices are all being improved and studied but none has yet to emerge as superior. Recently, another proposal for such a strong coupling...
Efficient spin filter using multi-terminal quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction
Yokoyama Tomohiro
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We propose a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect (SHE in a quantum dot connected to three leads. We show that the SHE is significantly enhanced by the resonant tunneling if the level spacing in the quantum dot is smaller than the level broadening. We stress that the SHE is tunable by changing the tunnel coupling to the third lead. Next, we perform a numerical simulation for a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures. The spin filter shows an efficiency of more than 50% when the conditions for the enhanced SHE are satisfied. PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc,71.70.Ej,73.63.Kv,85.75.-d
Salant, Asaf; Shalom, Menny; Hod, Idan; Faust, Adam; Zaban, Arie; Banin, Uri
2010-10-26
Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) may benefit from the ability to tune the quantum dot optical properties and band gap through the manipulation of their size and composition. Moreover, the inorganic nanocrystals may provide increased stability compared to organic sensitizers. We report the facile fabrication of QDSSC by electrophoretic deposition of CdSe QDs onto conducting electrodes coated with mesoporous TiO(2). Unlike prior chemical linker-based methods, no pretreatment of the TiO(2) was needed, and deposition times as short as 2 h were sufficient for effective coating. Cross-sectional chemical analysis shows that the Cd content is nearly constant across the entire TiO(2) layer. The dependence of the deposition on size was studied and successfully applied to CdSe dots with diameters between 2.5 and 5.5 nm as well as larger CdSe quantum rods. The photovoltaic characteristics of the devices are greatly improved compared with those achieved for cells prepared with a linker approach, reaching efficiencies as high as 1.7%, under 1 sun illumination conditions, after treating the coated electrodes with ZnS. Notably, the absorbed photon to electron conversion efficiencies did not show a clear size-dependence indicating efficient electron injection even for the larger QD sizes. The electrophoretic deposition method can be easily expanded and applied for preparations of QDSSCs using diverse colloidal quantum dot and quantum rod materials for sensitization.
Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots.
Koleilat, Ghada I; Levina, Larissa; Shukla, Harnik; Myrskog, Stefan H; Hinds, Sean; Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G; Sargent, Edward H
2008-05-01
Half of the sun's power lies in the infrared. As a result, the optimal bandgaps for solar cells in both the single-junction and even the tandem architectures lie beyond 850 nm. However, progress in low-cost, large-area, physically flexible solar cells has instead been made in organic and polymer materials possessing absorption onsets in the visible. Recent advances have been achieved in solution-cast infrared photovoltaics through the use of colloidal quantum dots. Here we report stable solution-processed photovoltaic devices having 3.6% power conversion efficiency in the infrared. The use of a strongly bound bidentate linker, benzenedithiol, ensures device stability over weeks. The devices reach external quantum efficiencies of 46% in the infrared and 70% across the visible. We investigate in detail the physical mechanisms underlying the operation of this class of device. In contrast with drift-dominated behavior in recent reports of PbS quantum dot photovoltaics, we find that diffusion of electrons and holes over hundreds of nanometers through our PbSe colloidal quantum dot solid is chiefly responsible for the high external quantum efficiencies obtained in this new class of devices.
Nikiforov, Alexander; Gamez, Jose A; Thiel, Walter; Filatov, Michael
2016-01-07
Two new light-driven molecular rotary motors based on the N-alkylated indanylidene benzopyrrole frameworks are proposed and studied using quantum chemical calculations and nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations. These new motors perform pure axial rotation, and the photochemical steps of the rotary cycle are dominated by the fast bond-length-alternation motion that enables ultrafast access to the S1/S0 intersection. The new motors are predicted to display a quantum efficiency higher than that of the currently available synthetic all-hydrocarbon motors. Remarkably, the quantum efficiency is not governed by the topography (peaked versus sloped) of the minimum-energy conical intersection, whereas the S1 decay time depends on the topography as well as on the energy of the intersection relative to the S1 minimum. It is the axial chirality (helicity), rather than the point chirality, that controls the sense of rotation of the motor.
Efficient Dielectric Metasurface Collimating Lenses for Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers
Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei
2015-01-01
Light emitted from single-mode semiconductor lasers generally has large divergence angles, and high numerical aperture lenses are required for beam collimation. Visible and near infrared lasers are collimated using aspheric glass or plastic lenses, yet collimation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers typically requires more costly aspheric lenses made of germanium, chalcogenide compounds, or other infrared-transparent materials. Here we report mid-infrared dielectric metasurface flat lenses that efficiently collimate the output beam of single-mode quantum cascade lasers. The metasurface lenses are composed of amorphous silicon posts on a flat sapphire substrate and can be fabricated at low cost using a single step conventional UV binary lithography. Mid-infrared radiation from a 4.8 $\\mu$m distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser is collimated using a polarization insensitive metasurface lens with 0.86 numerical aperture and 79% transmission efficiency. The collimated beam has a half divergence angle of 0...
Lei, Fengcai; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yongfu; Xu, Jiaqi; Liu, Katong; Liang, Liang; Yao, Tao; Pan, Bicai; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi
2016-09-01
Ultrathin metal layers can be highly active carbon dioxide electroreduction catalysts, but may also be prone to oxidation. Here we construct a model of graphene confined ultrathin layers of highly reactive metals, taking the synthetic highly reactive tin quantum sheets confined in graphene as an example. The higher electrochemical active area ensures 9 times larger carbon dioxide adsorption capacity relative to bulk tin, while the highly-conductive graphene favours rate-determining electron transfer from carbon dioxide to its radical anion. The lowered tin-tin coordination numbers, revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, enable tin quantum sheets confined in graphene to efficiently stabilize the carbon dioxide radical anion, verified by 0.13 volts lowered potential of hydroxyl ion adsorption compared with bulk tin. Hence, the tin quantum sheets confined in graphene show enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability. This work may provide a promising lead for designing efficient and robust catalysts for electrolytic fuel synthesis.
Highly efficient multiple-layer CdS quantum dot sensitized III-V solar cells.
Lin, Chien-Chung; Han, Hau-Vei; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lin, Wein-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen
2014-02-01
In this review, the concept of utilization of solar spectrum in order to increase the solar cell efficiency is discussed. Among the three mechanisms, down-shifting effect is investigated in detail. Organic dye, rare-earth minerals and quantum dots are three most popular down-shift materials. While the enhancement of solar cell efficiency was not clearly observed in the past, the advances in quantum dot fabrication have brought strong response out of the hybrid platform of a quantum dot solar cell. A multiple layer structure, including PDMS as the isolation layer, is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of pulse spray system, precise control can be achieved and the optimized concentration can be found.
Spectral difference Lanczos method for efficient time propagation in quantum control theory.
Farnum, John D; Mazziotti, David A
2004-04-01
Spectral difference methods represent the real-space Hamiltonian of a quantum system as a banded matrix which possesses the accuracy of the discrete variable representation (DVR) and the efficiency of finite differences. When applied to time-dependent quantum mechanics, spectral differences enhance the efficiency of propagation methods for evolving the Schrodinger equation. We develop a spectral difference Lanczos method which is computationally more economical than the sinc-DVR Lanczos method, the split-operator technique, and even the fast-Fourier-Transform Lanczos method. Application of fast propagation is made to quantum control theory where chirped laser pulses are designed to dissociate both diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The specificity of the chirped laser fields is also tested as a possible method for molecular identification and discrimination.
Shi, Zhifeng; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yuantao; Chen, Yongsheng; Li, Xinjian; Wu, Di; Xu, Tingting; Shan, Chongxin; Du, Guotong
2017-01-11
Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), because of its fundamental scientific importance and practical applications in the fields of low-cost light source or display applications, have drawn worldwide attention in recent years. However, PeLEDs available today suffer from a compromise in their emission efficiency and operation stability. In this study, we designed and fabricated a stacking all-inorganic multilayer structure by using inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) as the emissive layer and inorganic n-type MgZnO and p-type MgNiO as the carrier injectors, respectively. Through energy band engineering of carrier injectors by Mg incorporation and their thickness optimization, PeLEDs with maximum luminance of 3809 cd/m(2), luminous efficiency of 2.25 cd/A, and external quantum efficiency of 2.39% have been realized, which are much better than most PeLEDs from CH3NH3PbBr3 films, and comparable with the highest results reported on CsPbBr3 QDs LEDs. More importantly, the unencapsulated PeLEDs in a continuous current mode demonstrate a remarkable operation stability against water and oxygen degradation. After a continuous operation for 10 h under a dc bias (10.0 V), nearly 80% of the original efficiency of the PeLEDs has been retained, greatly superior to reference and other previously reported devices constructed with conventional organic carrier injectors. Our results obtained open possibilities for the design and development of high-efficiency and air-stable PeLEDs that are not dependent on expensive and less-stable organic carrier injectors.
Confidence and efficiency scaling in Variational Quantum Monte Carlo calculations
Delyon, François; Holzmann, Markus
2016-01-01
Based on the central limit theorem, we discuss the problem of evaluation of the statistical error of Monte Carlo calculations using a time discretized diffusion process. We present a robust and practical method to determine the effective variance of general observables and show how to verify the equilibrium hypothesis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We then derive scaling laws of the efficiency illustrated by Variational Monte Carlo calculations on the two dimensional electron gas.
Confidence and efficiency scaling in variational quantum Monte Carlo calculations
Delyon, F.; Bernu, B.; Holzmann, Markus
2017-02-01
Based on the central limit theorem, we discuss the problem of evaluation of the statistical error of Monte Carlo calculations using a time-discretized diffusion process. We present a robust and practical method to determine the effective variance of general observables and show how to verify the equilibrium hypothesis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We then derive scaling laws of the efficiency illustrated by variational Monte Carlo calculations on the two-dimensional electron gas.
Simple formalism for efficient derivatives and multi-determinant expansions in quantum Monte Carlo
Filippi, C.; Assaraf, R.; Moroni, S.
2016-01-01
We present a simple and general formalism to compute efficiently the derivatives of a multi-determinant Jastrow-Slater wave function, the local energy, the interatomic forces, and similar quantities needed in quantum Monte Carlo. Through a straightforward manipulation of matrices evaluated on the oc
The effect of nonadiabaticity on the efficiency of quantum memory based on an optical cavity
Veselkova, N. G.; Sokolov, I. V.
2017-07-01
Quantum efficiency is an important characteristic of quantum memory devices that are aimed at recording the quantum state of light signals and its storing and reading. In the case of memory based on an ensemble of cold atoms placed in an optical cavity, the efficiency is restricted, in particular, by relaxation processes in the system of active atomic levels. We show how the effect of the relaxation on the quantum efficiency can be determined in a regime of the memory usage in which the evolution of signals in time is not arbitrarily slow on the scale of the field lifetime in the cavity and when the frequently used approximation of the adiabatic elimination of the quantized cavity mode field cannot be applied. Taking into account the effect of the nonadiabaticity on the memory quality is of interest in view of the fact that, in order to increase the field-medium coupling parameter, a higher cavity quality factor is required, whereas storing and processing of sequences of many signals in the memory implies that their duration is reduced. We consider the applicability of the well-known efficiency estimates via the system cooperativity parameter and estimate a more general form. In connection with the theoretical description of the memory of the given type, we also discuss qualitative differences in the behavior of a random source introduced into the Heisenberg-Langevin equations for atomic variables in the cases of a large and a small number of atoms.
Quantum efficiencies exceeding unity due to impact ionization in silicon solar cells
Kolodinski, Sabine; Werner, Jürgen H.; Wittchen, Thomas; Queisser, Hans J.
1993-10-01
Absolute measurements demonstrate internal quantum efficiencies in silicon solar cells to exceed unity for photon energies above the first direct band gap and to show distinct spectral features that correspond to specific points in the Brillouin zone. Ultraviolet radiation can generate hot carriers with sufficient energy to cause impact ionization which results in two electron hole pairs per incident photon.
A novel high-efficiency single-mode quantum dot single photon source
Gerard, J.M.; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland
2008-01-01
We present a novel single-mode single photon source exploiting the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a photonic wire. Besides an excellent coupling (>95%) of QD spontaneous emission to the fundamental guided mode [1], we show that a single photon collection efficiency...
Design Rules for High-Efficiency Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Multilayer Approach.
Shalom, Menny; Buhbut, Sophia; Tirosh, Shay; Zaban, Arie
2012-09-06
The effect of multilayer sensitization in quantum-dot (QD)-sensitized solar cells is reported. A series of electrodes, consisting of multilayer CdSe QDs were assembled on a compact TiO2 layer. Photocurrent measurements along with internal quantum efficiency calculation reveal similar electron collection efficiency up to a 100 nm thickness of the QD layers. Moreover, the optical density and the internal quantum efficiency measurements reveal that the desired surface area of the TiO2 electrode should be increased only by a factor of 17 compared with a compact electrode. We show that the sensitization of low-surface-area TiO2 electrode with QD layers increases the performance of the solar cell, resulting in 3.86% efficiency. These results demonstrate a conceptual difference between the QD-sensitized solar cell and the dye-based system in which dye multilayer decreases the cell performance. The utilization of multilayer QDs opens new opportunities for a significant improvement of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells via innovative cell design.
LHCb: Quantum Efficiency of Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH
Lambert, Robert W
2007-01-01
The production of 550 hybrid photon detectors to be used within the LHCb RICH detectors has recently finished. Photonis-DEP have succeeded in consistently improving the tube quantum efficiency, by a relative 27,% with respect to preseries and prototype tubes, when integrated over the energy spectrum.
Efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics
Zhang Jin; Ye Liu
2004-01-01
We present an efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics.Involved in this scheme are n identical two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. Discussion indicates that this scheme can be realized easily by current technologies.
Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shuji; Higashide, Ryo; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hattori, Masumi; Okada, Yoko; Hayashi, Norio; Sawada, Michito
2014-07-01
In the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) evaluation of detectors for digital radiography (DR) systems, physical image quality indices such as modulation transfer function (MTF) and normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) need to be accurately measured to obtain highly accurate DQE evaluations. However, there is a risk of errors in these measurements. In this study, we focused on error factors that should be considered in measurements using clinical DR systems. We compared the incident photon numbers indicated in IEC 62220-1 with those estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation based on X-ray energy spectra measured employing four DR systems. For NNPS, influences of X-ray intensity non-uniformity, tube voltage and aluminum purity were investigated. The effects of geometric magnifications on MTF accuracy were also examined using a tungsten edge plate at distances of 50, 100 and 150 mm from the detector surface at a source-image receptor distance of 2000 mm. The photon numbers in IEC 62220-1 coincided with our estimates of values, with error rates below 2.5%. Tube voltage errors of approximately ±5 kV caused NNPS errors of within 1.0%. The X-ray intensity non-uniformity caused NNPS errors of up to 2.0% at the anode side. Aluminum purity did not affect the measurement accuracy. The maximum MTF reductions caused by geometric magnifications were 3.67% for 1.0-mm X-ray focus and 1.83% for 0.6-mm X-ray focus.
Area laws and efficient descriptions of quantum many-body states
Ge, Yimin; Eisert, Jens
2016-08-01
It is commonly believed that area laws for entanglement entropies imply that a quantum many-body state can be faithfully represented by efficient tensor network states—a conjecture frequently stated in the context of numerical simulations and analytical considerations. In this work, we show that this is in general not the case, except in one-dimension. We prove that the set of quantum many-body states that satisfy an area law for all Renyi entropies contains a subspace of exponential dimension. We then show that there are states satisfying area laws for all Renyi entropies but cannot be approximated by states with a classical description of small Kolmogorov complexity, including polynomial projected entangled pair states or states of multi-scale entanglement renormalisation. Not even a quantum computer with post-selection can efficiently prepare all quantum states fulfilling an area law, and we show that not all area law states can be eigenstates of local Hamiltonians. We also prove translationally and rotationally invariant instances of these results, and show a variation with decaying correlations using quantum error-correcting codes.
Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide.
Arcari, M; Söllner, I; Javadi, A; Lindskov Hansen, S; Mahmoodian, S; Liu, J; Thyrrestrup, H; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P
2014-08-29
A quantum emitter efficiently coupled to a nanophotonic waveguide constitutes a promising system for the realization of single-photon transistors, quantum-logic gates based on giant single-photon nonlinearities, and high bit-rate deterministic single-photon sources. The key figure of merit for such devices is the β factor, which is the probability for an emitted single photon to be channeled into a desired waveguide mode. We report on the experimental achievement of β=98.43%±0.04% for a quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, corresponding to a single-emitter cooperativity of η=62.7±1.5. This constitutes a nearly ideal photon-matter interface where the quantum dot acts effectively as a 1D "artificial" atom, since it interacts almost exclusively with just a single propagating optical mode. The β factor is found to be remarkably robust to variations in position and emission wavelength of the quantum dots. Our work demonstrates the extraordinary potential of photonic crystal waveguides for highly efficient single-photon generation and on-chip photon-photon interaction.
Efficient method for calculating electronic bound states in arbitrary one-dimensional quantum wells
de Aquino, V. M.; Iwamoto, H.; Dias, I. F. L.; Laureto, E.; da Silva, M. A. T.; da Silva, E. C. F.; Quivy, A. A.
2017-01-01
In the present paper it is demonstrated that the bound electronic states of multiple quantum wells structures may be calculated very efficiently by expanding their eigenstates in terms of the eigenfunctions of a particle in a box. The bound states of single and multiple symmetric or nonsymmetric wells are calculated within the single-band effective mass approximation. A comparison is then made between the results obtained for simple cases with exact calculations. We also apply our approach to a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure composed of forty periods each one with seven quantum wells. The method may be very useful to design narrow band quantum cascade photodetectors to work without applied bias in a photovoltaic mode. With the presented method the effects of a electric field may also be easily included which is very important if one desires study quantum well structures for application to the development of quantum cascade lasers. The advantages of the method are also presented.
Functional Basis for Efficient Physical Layer Classical Control in Quantum Processors
Ball, Harrison; Nguyen, Trung; Leong, Philip H. W.; Biercuk, Michael J.
2016-12-01
The rapid progress seen in the development of quantum-coherent devices for information processing has motivated serious consideration of quantum computer architecture and organization. One topic which remains open for investigation and optimization relates to the design of the classical-quantum interface, where control operations on individual qubits are applied according to higher-level algorithms; accommodating competing demands on performance and scalability remains a major outstanding challenge. In this work, we present a resource-efficient, scalable framework for the implementation of embedded physical layer classical controllers for quantum-information systems. Design drivers and key functionalities are introduced, leading to the selection of Walsh functions as an effective functional basis for both programing and controller hardware implementation. This approach leverages the simplicity of real-time Walsh-function generation in classical digital hardware, and the fact that a wide variety of physical layer controls, such as dynamic error suppression, are known to fall within the Walsh family. We experimentally implement a real-time field-programmable-gate-array-based Walsh controller producing Walsh timing signals and Walsh-synthesized analog waveforms appropriate for critical tasks in error-resistant quantum control and noise characterization. These demonstrations represent the first step towards a unified framework for the realization of physical layer controls compatible with large-scale quantum-information processing.
Heterostructures for Increased Quantum Efficiency in Nitride LEDs
Davis, Robert F. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2010-09-30
Task 1. Development of an advanced LED simulator useful for the design of efficient nitride-based devices. Simulator will contain graphical interface software that can be used to specify the device structure, the material parameters, the operating conditions and the desired output results. Task 2. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the microstructure, defect concentration, mechanical stress and strain and IQE of controlled changes in the chemistry and process route of deposition of the buffer layer underlying the active region of nitride-based blue- and greenemitting LEDs. Task 3. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the physical properties including polarization and IQE of controlled changes in the geometry, chemistry, defect density, and microstructure of components in the active region of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Task 4. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on IQE of novel heterostructure designs to funnel carriers into the active region for enhanced recombination efficiency and elimination of diffusion beyond this region. Task 5. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence of enhanced p-type doping on the chemical, electrical, and microstructural characteristics of the acceptor-doped layers, the hole injection levels at Ohmic contacts, the specific contact resistivity and the IQE of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Development and optical and electrical characterization of reflective Ohmic contacts to n- and p-type GaN films.
Várnai, Csilla; Burkoff, Nikolas S; Wild, David L
2013-12-10
Maximum Likelihood (ML) optimization schemes are widely used for parameter inference. They maximize the likelihood of some experimentally observed data, with respect to the model parameters iteratively, following the gradient of the logarithm of the likelihood. Here, we employ a ML inference scheme to infer a generalizable, physics-based coarse-grained protein model (which includes Go̅-like biasing terms to stabilize secondary structure elements in room-temperature simulations), using native conformations of a training set of proteins as the observed data. Contrastive divergence, a novel statistical machine learning technique, is used to efficiently approximate the direction of the gradient ascent, which enables the use of a large training set of proteins. Unlike previous work, the generalizability of the protein model allows the folding of peptides and a protein (protein G) which are not part of the training set. We compare the same force field with different van der Waals (vdW) potential forms: a hard cutoff model, and a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential with vdW parameters inferred or adopted from the CHARMM or AMBER force fields. Simulations of peptides and protein G show that the LJ model with inferred parameters outperforms the hard cutoff potential, which is consistent with previous observations. Simulations using the LJ potential with inferred vdW parameters also outperforms the protein models with adopted vdW parameter values, demonstrating that model parameters generally cannot be used with force fields with different energy functions. The software is available at https://sites.google.com/site/crankite/.
Optimal Power and Efficiency of Quantum Thermoacoustic Micro-cycle Working in 1D Harmonic Trap
E, Qing; Wu, Feng; Yin, Yong; Liu, XiaoWei
2017-10-01
Thermoacoustic engines (including heat engines and refrigerators) are energy conversion devices without moving part. They have great potential in aviation, new energy utilization, power technology, refrigerating and cryogenics. The thermoacoustic parcels, which compose the working fluid of a thermoacoustic engine, oscillate within the sound channel with a temperature gradient. The thermodynamic foundation of a thermoacoustic engine is the thermoacoustic micro-cycle (TAMC). In this paper, the theory of quantum mechanics is applied to the study of the actual thermoacoustic micro-cycle for the first time. A quantum mechanics model of the TAMC working in a 1D harmonic trap, which is named as a quantum thermoacoustic micro-cycle (QTAMC), is established. The QTAMC is composed of two constant force processes connected by two straight line processes. Analytic expressions of the power output and the efficiency for QTAMC have been derived. The effects of the trap width and the temperature amplitude on the power output and the thermal efficiency have been discussed. Some optimal characteristic curves of power output versus efficiency are plotted, and then the optimization region of QTAMC is given in this paper. The results obtained here not only enrich the thermoacoustic theory but also expand the application of quantum thermodynamics.
Negentropy as a source of efficiency: a nonequilibrium quantum Otto cycle
Li, Hai; Zou, Jian; Yu, Wen-Li; Li, Lin; Xu, Bao-Ming; Shao, Bin
2013-07-01
We consider a single quantum mechanical particle confined to an one-dimensional (1D) infinite square well, and propose a nonequilibrium quantum Otto cycle (NQOC). Compared with the conventional quantum Otto engine (CQOE) investigated by [T.D. Kieu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 140403 (2004); T.D. Kieu, Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 115 (2006)], due to the effects of negentropy produced in the NQOC, many interesting features appear: (1) in general, the NQOC is capable of extracting more work, so it is more efficient; (2) the NQOC can operate even when T 1 = T 2 or T 1 < T 2, where T 1 ( T 2) represents the temperature of hot (cold) bath; (3) in some cases, the NQOC can absorb heat from both baths and completely transforms them into work. These results demonstrate that the negentropy can be understood as an effective source of efficiency in quantum heat engines (QHEs) and meanwhile it is shown that the second law of thermodynamics is not violated. At last, we also show that the efficiency of NQOC reduces to that of classical Otto cycle in the classical limit.
Efficient exciton funneling in cascaded PbS quantum dot superstructures.
Xu, Fan; Ma, Xin; Haughn, Chelsea R; Benavides, Jamie; Doty, Matthew F; Cloutier, Sylvain G
2011-12-27
Benzenedithiol (BDT) and ethanedithiol (EDT) ligand-exchange treatments can be used to cross-link colloidal PbS quantum dots into nanocrystalline film structures with distinct optoelectronic properties. Such structures can provide a unique platform to study the energy transfer between layers of quantum dots with different sizes. In this report, efficient exciton funneling and recycling of surface state-bound excitons is observed in cascaded PbS quantum dot-based multilayered superstructures, where the excitons transfer from the larger band gap or donor layers to the smallest band gap or acceptor layers. In this system, both the BDT- and EDT-treated cascaded structures exhibit dramatically enhanced photoluminescence from the acceptor layers. As we show, the energy transfer mechanisms involved and their efficiencies are significantly different depending on the ligand-exchange treatment. In the future, we believe these efficient exciton recycling and funneling mechanisms could be used to improve significantly the photocurrent, charge-transport, and conversion efficiencies in low-cost nanocrystalline and hybrid solar cells and the emission efficiencies in hybrid light-emitting devices.
Highly efficient CdS-quantum-dot-sensitized GaAs solar cells.
Lin, Chien-Chung; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Tsai, Yu Lin; Han, Hau-Vei; Shih, Huai-Shiang; Chang, Yi-An; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen
2012-03-12
We demonstrate a hybrid design of traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with colloidal CdS quantum dots. With anti-reflective feature at long wavelength and down-conversion at UV regime, the CdS quantum dot effectively enhance the overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 18.9% compared to traditional GaAs-based device. A more detailed study showed an increase of surface photoconductivity due to UV presence, and the fill factor of the solar cell can be improved accordingly.
Efficient Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States
DENG Fu-Guo; ZHOU Ping; LI Xi-Han; LI Chun-Yan; ZHOU Hong-Yu
2006-01-01
@@ An efficient multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)states following some ideas in quantum dense coding. The agents take the single-photon measurements on the photons received for eavesdropping check and exploit the four local unitary operations I, σz, σx and iσy tocode their message. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity as each GHZ state can carry two bits of information. The parties do not need to announce the measuring bases for almost all the photons, which will reduce the classical information exchanged largely. The intrinsic efficiency for qubits and the total efficiency both approach the maximal values.
Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kubo, Shosei; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Murata, Yasujiro; Adachi, Chihaya; Kaji, Hironori
2015-12-01
Triarylboron compounds have attracted much attention, and found wide use as functional materials because of their electron-accepting properties arising from the vacant p orbitals on the boron atoms. In this study, we design and synthesize new donor-acceptor triarylboron emitters that show thermally activated delayed fluorescence. These emitters display sky-blue to green emission and high photoluminescence quantum yields of 87-100 % in host matrices. Organic light-emitting diodes using these emitting molecules as dopants exhibit high external quantum efficiencies of 14.0-22.8 %, which originate from efficient up-conversion from triplet to singlet states and subsequent efficient radiative decay from singlet to ground states.
General Formula for the Efficiency of Quantum-Mechanical Analog of the Carnot Engine
Sumiyoshi Abe
2013-04-01
Full Text Available An analog of the Carnot engine reversibly operating within the framework of pure-state quantum mechanics is discussed. A general formula is derived for the efficiency of such an engine with an arbitrary confining potential. Its expression is given in terms of an energy spectrum and shows how the efficiency depends on a potential as the analog of a working material in thermodynamics, in general. This non-universal nature results from the fact that there exists no analog of the second law of thermodynamics in pure-state quantum mechanics where the von Neumann entropy identically vanishes. A special class of spectra, which leads to a common form of the efficiency, is identified.
Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications
Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.
2013-01-01
must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light...... factor, meaning that efficient coupling from the QD to the guided mode is obtained over a broad spectral range of ~ 50-100 nm. [4] This means that spectral alignment between the emitter line and a narrow cavity line is not required, which represents a huge practical advantage in the fabrication...
Efficient Approximation of the Dynamics of One-Dimensional Quantum Spin Systems
Osborne, Tobias J.
2006-10-01
In this Letter we show that an arbitrarily good approximation to the propagator eitH for a 1D lattice of n quantum spins with Hamiltonian H may be obtained with polynomial computational resources in n and the error γ and exponential resources in |t|. Our proof makes use of the finitely correlated state or matrix product state formalism exploited by numerical renormalization group algorithms like the density matrix renormalization group. There are two immediate consequences of this result. The first is that Vidal’s time-dependent density matrix renormalization group will require only polynomial resources to simulate 1D quantum spin systems for logarithmic |t|. The second consequence is that continuous-time 1D quantum circuits with logarithmic |t| can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer, despite the fact that, after discretization, such circuits are of polynomial depth.
An efficient matrix product operator representation of the quantum chemical Hamiltonian
Keller, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.keller@phys.chem.ethz.ch; Reiher, Markus, E-mail: markus.reiher@phys.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Dolfi, Michele, E-mail: dolfim@phys.ethz.ch; Troyer, Matthias, E-mail: troyer@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2015-12-28
We describe how to efficiently construct the quantum chemical Hamiltonian operator in matrix product form. We present its implementation as a density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for quantum chemical applications. Existing implementations of DMRG for quantum chemistry are based on the traditional formulation of the method, which was developed from the point of view of Hilbert space decimation and attained higher performance compared to straightforward implementations of matrix product based DMRG. The latter variationally optimizes a class of ansatz states known as matrix product states, where operators are correspondingly represented as matrix product operators (MPOs). The MPO construction scheme presented here eliminates the previous performance disadvantages while retaining the additional flexibility provided by a matrix product approach, for example, the specification of expectation values becomes an input parameter. In this way, MPOs for different symmetries — abelian and non-abelian — and different relativistic and non-relativistic models may be solved by an otherwise unmodified program.
High Efficient Quantum Key Distribution by Random Using Classified Signal Coherent States
XI Jing-Bo; FANG Xi-Ming
2006-01-01
The decoy-state method is a useful method in resisting the attacks on quantum key distribution. However, how to choose the intensities of decoy states and the ratio of the decoy states and the signal state is still an open question. We present a simple formula to analyse the problem. We also give a simple method to derive the bounds of the necessary counting rates and quantum bit error rates for BB84 and SARG04; the latter was previously proposed by Scarani et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004) 057901] We then propose a multi-signal-state method which employs different coherent states either as the decoy state or as the signal state to carry out quantum key distribution. We find our protocol more efficient and feasible.
DeVore, Matthew S; Gull, Stephen F; Johnson, Carey K
2012-04-05
We describe a method for analysis of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) burst measurements using classic maximum entropy. Classic maximum entropy determines the Bayesian inference for the joint probability describing the total fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency. The method was tested with simulated data and then with DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes. The most probable joint distribution can be marginalized to obtain both the overall distribution of fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency distribution. This method proves to be ideal for determining the distance distribution of FRET-labeled biomolecules, and it successfully predicts the shape of the recovered distributions.
Wang, Peng; Lei, Jianping; Su, Mengqi; Liu, Yueting; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian
2013-09-17
This work presented a photocurrent response mechanism of quantum dots (QDs) under illumination with the concept of a quantum photoelectric effect. Upon irradiation, the photoelectron could directly escape from QDs. By using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) to capture the photoelectron, a new visual system was proposed due to the formation of an insoluble reduction product, purple formazan, which could be used to visualize the quantum photoelectric effect. The interaction of copper(II) with QDs could form trapping sites to interfere with the quantum confinement and thus blocked the escape of photoelectron, leading to a "signal off" visual method for sensitive copper(II) detection. Meanwhile, by using QDs as a signal tag to label antibody, a "signal on" visual method was also proposed for immunoassay of corresponding protein. With meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic-capped CdTe QDs and carcino-embryonic antigen as models, the proposed visual detection methods showed high sensitivity, low detection limit, and wide detectable concentration ranges. The visualization of quantum photoelectric effect could be simply extended for the detection of other targets. This work opens a new visual detection way and provides a highly efficient tool for bioanalysis.
Efficiency studies on semipolar GaInN-GaN quantum well structures
Scholz, Ferdinand; Meisch, Tobias; Elkhouly, Karim [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University (Germany)
2016-12-15
In order to clarify the reasons for the fairly poor electroluminescence (EL) performance of semipolar LED structures grown on patterned sapphire wafers, we have analyzed both, pure photoluminescence (PL) test structures without doping only containing 5 GaInN quantum wells and full EL test structures, all emitting at a wavelength of about 510 nm. Evaluating the PL intensity over a wide range of temperatures and excitation powers, we conclude that such quantum wells possess a fairly large internal quantum efficiency of about 20%. However, on EL test structures containing nominally the same quantum wells, we obtained an optical output power of only about 150μW at an applied current of 20 mA. This may be due partly to some thermal destruction of the quantum wells by the overgrowth with p-GaN. Even more important seems to be the not yet finally optimized p-doping of these structures. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Van Le, Quyet; Beom Kim, Jong; Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Byeongdu; Lee, Dong Ryeol
2017-08-16
We have investigated the effect of reaction temperature of hot-injection method on the structural properties of CsPbX3 (X: Br, I, Cl) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) using the small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. It is confirmed that the size of the NCs decreased as the reaction temperature decreased, resulting stronger quantum confinement. The cubic-phase perovskite NCs were formed despite the reaction temperatures increased from 140 to 180 °C. However, monodispersive NC cubes which are required for densely packing self-assembly film were only formed at lower temperatures. From the X-ray scattering measurements, the spin-coated film from more monodispersive perovskite nanocubes synthesized at lower temperatures resulted in more preferred orientation. This dense-packing perovskite film with preferred orientation yielded efficient light-emitting diode (LED) performance. Thus, the dense-packing structure of NC assemblies formed after spin-coating should be considered for high-efficient LEDs based on perovskite quantum dots in addition to quantum confinement effect of the quantum dots.
Toropov, A. A.; Shevchenko, E. A.; Shubina, T. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Nechaev, D. V.; Evropeytsev, E. A.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Pozina, G.; Rouvimov, S.; Ivanov, S. V.
2016-11-01
We present theoretical optimization of the design of a quantum well (QW) heterostructure based on AlGaN alloys, aimed at achievement of the maximum possible internal quantum efficiency of emission in the mid-ultraviolet spectral range below 300 nm at room temperature. A sample with optimized parameters was fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using the submonolayer digital alloying technique for QW formation. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed strong compositional disordering of the thus-fabricated QW, which presumably facilitates lateral localization of charge carriers in the QW plane. Stress evolution in the heterostructure was monitored in real time during growth using a multibeam optical stress sensor intended for measurements of substrate curvature. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy confirmed that radiative recombination in the fabricated sample dominated in the whole temperature range up to 300 K. This leads to record weak temperature-induced quenching of the QW emission intensity, which at 300 K does not exceed 20% of the low-temperature value.
Toropov, A. A.; Shevchenko, E. A.; Shubina, T. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Nechaev, D. V.; Evropeytsev, E. A.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Pozina, G.; Rouvimov, S.; Ivanov, S. V.
2017-07-01
We present theoretical optimization of the design of a quantum well (QW) heterostructure based on AlGaN alloys, aimed at achievement of the maximum possible internal quantum efficiency of emission in the mid-ultraviolet spectral range below 300 nm at room temperature. A sample with optimized parameters was fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using the submonolayer digital alloying technique for QW formation. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed strong compositional disordering of the thus-fabricated QW, which presumably facilitates lateral localization of charge carriers in the QW plane. Stress evolution in the heterostructure was monitored in real time during growth using a multibeam optical stress sensor intended for measurements of substrate curvature. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy confirmed that radiative recombination in the fabricated sample dominated in the whole temperature range up to 300 K. This leads to record weak temperature-induced quenching of the QW emission intensity, which at 300 K does not exceed 20% of the low-temperature value.
An efficient two-step quantum key distribution protocol with orthogonal product states
Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen
2007-01-01
An efficient two-step quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol with orthogonal product states in the n( )n(n ≥ 3) Hilbert space is presented. In this protocol, the particles in the orthogonal product states form two particle sequences.The sender, Alice, first sends one sequence to the receiver, Bob. After Bob receives the first particle sequence, Alice and Bob check eavesdropping by measuring a fraction of particles randomly chosen. After ensuring the security of the quantum channel, Alice sends the other particle sequence to Bob. By making an orthogonal measurement on the two particle sequences, Bob can obtain the information of the orthogonal product states sent by Alice. This protocol has many distinct features such as great capacity, high efficiency in that it uses all orthogonal product states in distributing the key except those chosen for checking eavesdroppers.
A novel method to increase quantum efficiency of the monolithically integrated PIN/HBT-receiver
Cui, Hailin; Zhou, Shouli; Huang, Hui; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin
2005-11-01
Adding resonant cavity to increase quantum efficiency of the monolithically integrated PIN/HBT-Receiver is described. Between the InP buffer and device epitaxial structure, InP/InGaAsP quarter wavelength stack (QWS) are used to form DBR (Distributed Bragg Reflectors) mirror. The PIN-PD is integrated within a Fabry-Perot cavity and the incident light is reflected many times by the Fabry-Perot cavity and consequently absorbed many times by the absorption layer. Therefore, the quantum efficiency of this detector is enlarged, meanwhile other performances such as frequency response are not influenced. We discuss the method to fabricate the resonance cavity, make theory simulation, optimize design on it, and analyze the advantage of this device.
General and Efficient C-C Bond Forming Photoredox Catalysis with Semiconductor Quantum Dots.
Caputo, Jill A; Frenette, Leah C; Zhao, Norman; Sowers, Kelly L; Krauss, Todd D; Weix, Daniel J
2017-03-29
Photoredox catalysis has become an essential tool in organic synthesis because it enables new routes to important molecules. However, the best available molecular catalysts suffer from high catalyst loadings and rely on precious metals. Here we show that colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) can serve as efficient and robust, precious-metal free, photoassisted redox catalysts. A single-sized CdSe quantum dot (3.0 ± 0.2 nm) can replace several different dye catalysts needed for five different photoredox reactions (β-alkylation, β-aminoalkylation, dehalogenation, amine arylation, and decarboxylative radical formation). Even without optimization of the QDs or the reaction conditions, efficiencies rivaling those of the best available metal dyes were obtained.
Quantum efficiency of the CCD camera (XIS) for the ASTRO-E mission
Katayama, H; Kohmura, T; Katayama, K; Yoshita, K; Tsunemi, H; Kitamoto, S; Hayashida, K; Miyata, E; Hashimotodani, K; Koyama, K; Ricker, G; Bautz, M W; Foster, R; Kissel, S
1999-01-01
We measured the optical and the X-ray transmission of the optical blocking filters for the X-ray Imaging Spectrometers (XISs) which are the X-ray CCD cameras of the ASTRO-E satellite. We conclude that the oxidation of the aluminum reduces the optical transmission down to approx 60-70% of the theoretical value of the aluminum. We achieved optical transmission below 5x10 sup - sup 5 in the range from 4000 to 9500 A by using aluminum thickness of 1200 A, while the theoretical calculation requires 800 A. The measurement of absolute quantum efficiency of XIS is also performed at several particular energies. We confirmed 20% quantum efficiency at 0.5 keV for the XIS engineering model (XIS EM).
Simulation of the detective quantum efficiency for a hybrid pixel detector
Risco Norrlid, L. del [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: lilian@tsl.uu.se; Edling, Fredrik [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Fransson, K. [The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 533, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Brenner, R. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Bingefors, N. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Gustafsson, L. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, C. [Scanditronix Wellhoefer AB, Stalgatan 14, 754 50 Uppsala (Sweden)
2005-05-11
A simulation tool has been developed for the analysis of the performance of an X-ray imaging hybrid pixel detector. The photon transport and charge collection were simulated with the aid of the Monte Carlo based code GEANT and the readout signal processing was simulated in a program written in the LabView programming environment. Results of the spatial frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency are presented and the influence of charge sharing, the threshold settings, level of exposure, the noise sources on the detector performance are studied. The detector was found to operate quantum limited down to an exposure of 0.08 {mu}Gy, below which it is limited by the readout noise. The threshold setting has a strong influence on both the efficiency and the spatial resolution due to charge sharing, and a compromise between the two is necessary. The optimized threshold value corresponds to half of the mean energy of the input spectrum.
Enhanced quantum efficiency for CsI grown on a graphite-based substrate coating
Friese, J; Homolka, J; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Peter, M; Zeitelhack, K; Kienle, P; Körner, H J
1999-01-01
Quantum efficiencies (QE) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region have been measured for solid CsI layers on various substrates. The CsI films were deposited applying electron beam evaporation. The QE measurements were performed utilizing synchrotron radiation as well as light from a deuterium lamp. A GaAsP diode with a sensitivity calibration traceable to a primary radiation standard was used for normalization. For CsI layers grown on resin-stabilized graphite films a significant enhancement of QE was observed. Substrates suitable for gas detector applications and aging properties were investigated. The procedures to prepare and reproduce high quantum efficient CsI layers are described.
Clawson, Savannah Ellen
2017-01-01
The quantum efficiency of a Burle 8850 photomultiplier tube with a potassium-caesium-antimony (bialkali) photocathode was determined by attenuating a 1 mW HeNe laser emitting at 633 nm and measuring the signal frequency when the laser was incident on the photomultiplier. A temperature range of 5 $^{\\circ}$C $-$ 20 $^{\\circ}$C was investigated and it was found that the quantum efficiency decreases with temperature, with the signal frequency decreasing at a faster rate than the dark current frequency. Therefore, it was concluded that it would not be beneficial to cool photomultiplier tubes operating in the visible spectrum for use in collinear laser spectroscopy due to a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio. The signal pulse height distribution was also analysed and found to be independent of temperature within the range investigated.
Enhanced quantum efficiency of photoelectron emission, through surface textured metal electrodes
Alexander, Anna; Bandaru, Prabhakar R., E-mail: pbandaru@ucsd.edu [Program in Materials Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, 92130 (United States); Moody, Nathan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2016-03-15
It is predicted that the quantum efficiency (QE) of photoelectron emission from metals may be enhanced, possibly by an order of magnitude, through optimized surface texture. Through extensive computational simulations, it is shown that the absorption enhancement in select surface groove geometries may be a dominant contributor to enhanced QE and corresponds to localized Fabry–Perot resonances. The inadequacy of extant analytical models in predicting the QE increase, and suggestions for further improvement, are discussed.
Efficient parabolic evaluation of coupling terms in hybrid quantum/classical simulations
Bastida, Adolfo, E-mail: bastida@um.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Soler, Miguel Angel; Zuniga, Jose; Requena, Alberto [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Miguel, Beatriz [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, 30203 Cartagena (Spain)
2009-03-30
A parabolic interpolation function of time is proposed to evaluate the non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements and the adiabatic energies at intermediate times within the classical time integration interval in hybrid quantum/classical simulations. The accuracy and the computational efficiency of this parabolic approximation are illustrated by carrying out a numerical application to the well-studied vibrational relaxation of I{sub 2} in liquid xenon.
Liu, Xilan; Wang, Hangxing; Yang, Tingbin; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Xiong
2012-07-25
Operating at room temperature, polymer photodetectors (PDs) with external quantum efficiency approximately 80%, detectivity over 10(13) Jones, linear dynamic range over 120 dB, and dark current a few decades of nA/cm(2) were demonstrated. All these performance parameters were achieved by combined treatment of active layer with solvent vapor annealing and of polymer PDs with postproduction thermal annealing. These high performance parameters demonstrated that polymer PDs is comparable to or better than inorganic counterparts.
Liu, Ni; Xu, Ling; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Jun; Su, Weining; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji
2014-12-01
Eu-doped ZnSe:/ZnS quantum dots (formed as ZnSe:Eu/ZnS QDs) were successfully synthesized by a two-step wet chemical method: nucleation doping and epitaxial shell growing. The sensitization characteristics of Eu-doped ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QD are studied in detail using photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation spectra (PLE) and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. The emission intensity of Eu ions is enhanced and that of ZnSe QDs is decreased, implying that energy was transferred from the excited ZnSe host materials (the donor) to the doped Eu ions (the acceptor). PLE reveals that the ZnSe QDs act as an antenna for the sensitization of Eu ions through an energy transfer process. The dynamics of ZnSe:Eu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots with different shell thicknesses and doping concentrations are studied via PL spectra and fluorescence lifetime spectra. The maximum phosphorescence efficiency is obtained when the doping concentration of Eu is approximately 6% and the sample showed strong white light under ultraviolet lamp illumination. By surface modification with ZnS shell layer, the intensity of Eu-related PL emission is increased approximately three times compared with that of pure ZnSe:Eu QDs. The emission intensity and wavelength of ZnSe:Eu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots can be modulated by different shell thickness and doping concentration. The results provide a valuable insight into the doping control for practical applications in laser, light-emitting diodes and in the field of biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen
2016-01-01
Light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high 3He/4He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application. PMID:26813491
Ollis, D.F. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
1996-09-01
In the remediation industries, a useful treatment technology must be {open_quotes}general, robust, and cheap{close_quotes}. Among oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is now broadly demonstrated to destroy common water and air contaminants. The potential process uses of highly stable titania, long lived lamps (one year), and room temperature operation, indicating a simple and robust process. We are left to address the third criterion: Can photocatalysis be {open_quotes}cheap{close_quotes}? In both liquid phase and gas phase treatment and purification by photocatalysis, it is established that the primary barrier to commercialization is often cost. Cost in return is dominated by the efficiency with which solar or lamp photons are harvested for productive light, and subsequent dark, reactions. This paper therefore defines fundamental needs in photocatalysis for pollution control in terms of activities which could lead to quantum efficiency enhancement. We first recall three related definitions. The quantum yield (QY) is the ratio of molecules of reactant converted per photon absorbed, a fundamental quantity. A less fundamental, but more easily measured variable is the quantum efficiency (QE), the ratio of molecules converted per photon entering the reactor. A third variable is the energy required per order of magnitude pollutant reduction, or EEO, a definition which provides for easy energy cost comparisons among different technologies. Each measure cited here reflects the photon, and thus the electrical, cost of this photochemistry.
Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites.
Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Yakunin, Sergii; Rice, Peter; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingchao; Nedelcu, Georgian; Kim, Yeongin; Lin, Shangchao; Santos, Elton J G; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Shih, Chih-Jen
2016-10-03
Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are emerging as one of the most promising candidates for low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, due to a small exciton binding energy, it is not yet possible to achieve an efficient electroluminescence within the blue wavelength region at room temperature, as is necessary for full-spectrum light sources. Here, we demonstrate efficient blue LEDs based on the colloidal, quantum-confined 2D perovskites, with precisely controlled stacking down to one-unit-cell thickness (n = 1). A variety of low-k organic host compounds are used to disperse the 2D perovskites, effectively creating a matrix of the dielectric quantum wells, which significantly boosts the exciton binding energy by the dielectric confinement effect. Through the Förster resonance energy transfer, the excitons down-convert and recombine radiatively in the 2D perovskites. We report room-temperature pure green (n = 7-10), sky blue (n = 5), pure blue (n = 3), and deep blue (n = 1) electroluminescence, with record-high external quantum efficiencies in the green-to-blue wavelength region.
Quantum efficiency performances of the NIR European Large Format Array detectors tested at ESTEC
Crouzet, P.-E.; Duvet, L.; de Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Blommaert, S.; Butler, B.; Van Duinkerken, G.; ter Haar, J.; Heijnen, J.; van der Luijt, K.; Smit, H.
2015-10-01
Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 10/12/2015, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 10/23/2015. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. The Payload Technology Validation Section (SRE-FV) at ESTEC has the goal to validate new technology for future or on-going mission. In this framework, a test set up to characterize the quantum efficiency of near-infrared (NIR) detectors has been created. In the context of the NIR European Large Format Array ("LFA"), 3 deliverables detectors coming from SELEX-UK/ATC (UK) on one side, and CEA/LETI- CEA/IRFU-SOFRADIR (FR) on the other side were characterized. The quantum efficiency of an HAWAII-2RG detector from Teledyne was as well measured. The capability to compare on the same setup detectors from different manufacturers is a unique asset for the future mission preparation office. This publication will present the quantum efficiency results of a HAWAII-2RG detector from Teledyne with a 2.5um cut off compared to the LFA European detectors prototypes developed independently by SELEX-UK/ATC (UK) on one side, and CEA/LETI- CEA/IRFU-SOFRADIR (FR) on the other side.
Dukka, Bahadur K C; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Tomita, Etsuji; Seki, Tomokazu; Fujiyama, Asao
2002-01-01
We developed maximum clique-based algorithms for spot matching for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images, protein structure alignment and protein side-chain packing, where these problems are known to be NP-hard. Algorithms based on direct reductions to the maximum clique can find optimal solutions for instances of size (the number of points or residues) up to 50-150 using a standard PC. We also developed pre-processing techniques to reduce the sizes of graphs. Combined with some heuristics, many realistic instances can be solved approximately.
A novel high-efficiency single-mode quantum dot single photon source
Gerard, J.M.; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland
2008-01-01
We present a novel single-mode single photon source exploiting the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a photonic wire. Besides an excellent coupling (>95%) of QD spontaneous emission to the fundamental guided mode [1], we show that a single photon collection efficiency...... above 80% within a 0.5 numerical aperture can be achieved using a bottom Bragg mirror and a tapering of the nanowire tip. Because this photon collection strategy does not exploit the Purcell effect, it could also be efficiently applied to broadband single photon emitters such as F-centers in diamond....
Brennan, Thomas P.
2013-01-01
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow both PbS quantum dots and Al2O3 barrier layers in a solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). Barrier layers grown prior to quantum dots resulted in a near-doubling of device efficiency (0.30% to 0.57%) whereas barrier layers grown after quantum dots did not improve efficiency, indicating the importance of quantum dots in recombination processes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Wu, Feng
2017-05-03
Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at similar to 350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.
Wu, Feng; Sun, Haiding; AJia, Idris A.; Roqan, Iman S.; Zhang, Daliang; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Li, Xiaohang
2017-06-01
Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at ~350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.
High Quantum Efficiency AlGaN/InGaN Photodetectors
Buckley, James H; Leopold, Daniel
2009-11-24
High efficiency photon counting detectors in use today for high energy particle detection applications have a significant spectral mismatch with typical sources and have a number of practical problems compared with conventional bialkali photomultiplier tubes. Numerous high energy physics experiments that employ scintillation light detectors or Cherenkov detectors would benefit greatly from photomultipliers with higher quantum efficiencies. The need for extending the sensitivity of photon detectors to the blue and UV wavebands comes from the fact that both Cherenkov light and some scintillators have an emission spectrum which is peaked at short wavelengths. This research involves the development of high quantum efficiency, high gain, UV/blue photon counting detectors based on AlGaN/InGaN photocathode heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The work could eventually lead to nearly ideal light detectors with a number of distinct advantages over existing technologies for numerous applications in high-energy physics and particle astrophysics. Potential advantages include much lower noise detection, better stability and radiation resistance than other cathode structures, very low radioactive background levels for deep underground experiments and high detection efficiency of individual UV-visible photons. We are also working on the development of photocathodes with intrinsic gain, initially improving the detection efficiency of hybrid semiconductor-vacuum tube devices, and eventually leading to an all-solid-state photomultiplier device.
Rijmen, Frank
2009-01-01
Maximum marginal likelihood estimation of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models has been hampered by the calculation of the multidimensional integral over the ability distribution. However, the researcher often has a specific hypothesis about the conditional (in)dependence relations among the latent variables. Exploiting these…
Boiroux, Dimitri; Juhl, Rune; Madsen, Henrik
2016-01-01
. This algorithm uses UD decomposition of symmetric matrices and the array algorithm for covariance update and gradient computation. We test our algorithm on the Lotka-Volterra equations. Compared to the maximum likelihood estimation based on finite difference gradient computation, we get a significant speedup...
Pilla, Viviane, E-mail: vivianepilla@infis.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Munin, Egberto [Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco (UNICASTELO), Centro de Engenharia Biomedica (Brazil)
2012-10-15
The thermo-optical parameters of cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (CdSe/ZnS) core-shell quantum dots (QDs) suspended in aqueous solutions were measured using a Thermal Lens (TL) technique. TL transient measurements were performed using the mode-mismatched dual-beam (excitation and probe) configuration. A He-Ne laser at {lambda}{sub p} = 632.8 nm was used as the probe beam, and an Ar{sup +} laser (at {lambda}{sub e} = 514.5 nm) was used as the excitation beam to study the effect of the core sizes (2-4 nm) of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals functionalized with amine (R-NH{sub 2}) or carboxyl (R-COOH) groups. The average values of the thermal diffusivity D = (1.48 {+-} 0.06) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/s obtained for QDs samples are in good agreement with the pure water solvent result. The fraction thermal load ({phi}) and radiative quantum efficiencies ({eta}) of the functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs were determined and compared with non-functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs. The obtained {eta} values for non-functionalized CdSe/ZnS are slightly higher than those for the QDs functionalized with amine or carboxyl groups.
Ai, Qing; Jin, Bih-Yaw; Cheng, Yuan-Chung
2013-01-01
Elucidating quantum coherence effects and geometrical factors for efficient energy transfer in photosynthesis has the potential to uncover non-classical design principles for advanced organic materials. We study energy transfer in a linear light-harvesting model to reveal that dimerized geometries with strong electronic coherences within donor and acceptor pairs exhibit significantly improved efficiency, which is in marked contrast to predictions of the classical F\\"orster theory. We reveal that energy tuning due to coherent delocalization of photoexcitations is mainly responsible for the efficiency optimization. This coherence-assisted energy-tuning mechanism also explains the energetics and chlorophyll arrangements in the widely-studied Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. We argue that a clustered network with rapid energy relaxation among donors and resonant energy transfer from donor to acceptor states provides a basic formula for constructing efficient light-harvesting systems, and the general principles revea...
Inoue, Hideko; Yamada, Yui; Ohsawa, Nobuharu; Seo, Satoshi; Hosoumi, Shunsuke; Watabe, Takeyoshi; Mitsumori, Satomi; Kido, Hiromitsu
2016-09-01
We report a newly developed deep-blue phosphorescent iridium complex exhibiting a narrow emission spectrum. The use of this complex resulted in a deep-blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) exceeding 30%. Two iridium complexes with a 4H-1,2,4-triazole ligand which has an adamantyl group at the 4-position were synthesized, with the resulting effects of the adamantyl group on photoluminescence (PL) behavior investigated. [Ir(Adm1)3] having a 1-adamantyl group did not exhibit any emissions at room temperature, whereas [Ir(Adm2)3] having a 2-adamantyl group exhibited a blue emission with a peak wavelength of 459 nm and a high PL quantum yield of 0.94. Structural transformations between the ground state and excited state were estimated by molecular orbital calculations, which suggests that [Ir(Adm1)3] undergoes a considerably more extensive change than [Ir(Adm2)3]. It is therefore probable that [Ir(Adm1)3] ultimately experiences thermal deactivation owing to structural relaxation. Furthermore, an OLED was fabricated using [Ir(Adm2)3] as a dopant. The associated electroluminescence spectrum had an emission peak at 457 nm and a relatively small shoulder peak at 485 nm, which are consistent with the PL spectrum. A narrowed emission spectrum with a full width at half maximum of 58 nm was obtained, leading to a deep-blue emission with high color purity (CIE, x = 0.15, y = 0.22). This device ultimately exhibited an extremely high EQE of 32% at 2 mA/cm2, which was likely attributable to an increase in outcoupling efficiency via molecular orientation.
Internal quantum efficiency and tunable colour temperature in monolithic white InGaN/GaN LED
Titkov, Ilya E.; Yadav, Amit; Zerova, Vera L.; Zulonas, Modestas; Tsatsulnikov, Andrey F.; Lundin, Wsevolod V.; Sakharov, Alexey V.; Rafailov, Edik U.
2014-01-01
Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE) of two-colour monolithic white light emitting diode (LED) was measured by temperature dependant electro-luminescence (TDEL) and analysed with modified rate equation based on ABC model. External, internal and injection efficiencies of blue and green quantum wells were analysed separately. Monolithic white LED contained one green InGaN QW and two blue QWs being separated by GaN barrier. This paper reports also the tunable behaviour of correlated colour temperat...
Wang, Guan-Yu; Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-04-01
Quantum entanglement is the key resource in quantum information processing, especially in quantum communication network. However, affected by the environment noise, the maximally entangled states usually collapse into nonmaximally entangled ones or even mixed states. Here we present two high-efficiency schemes to complete the entanglement concentration of nonlocal two-atom systems. Our first scheme is used to concentrate the nonlocal atomic systems in the partially entangled states with known parameters, and it has the optimal success probability. The second scheme is used to concentrate the entanglement of the nonlocal two-atom systems in the partially entangled states with unknown parameters. Compared with the other schemes for the entanglement concentration of atomic systems, our two protocols are more efficient and practical. They require only an ancillary single photon to judge whether they succeed or not, and they work in a heralded way with detection inefficiency and absence of sophisticated single-photon detectors in practical applications. Moreover, they are insensitive to both the cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission.
Lei, Fengcai; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yongfu; Xu, Jiaqi; Liu, Katong; Liang, Liang; Yao, Tao; Pan, Bicai; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi
2016-01-01
Ultrathin metal layers can be highly active carbon dioxide electroreduction catalysts, but may also be prone to oxidation. Here we construct a model of graphene confined ultrathin layers of highly reactive metals, taking the synthetic highly reactive tin quantum sheets confined in graphene as an example. The higher electrochemical active area ensures 9 times larger carbon dioxide adsorption capacity relative to bulk tin, while the highly-conductive graphene favours rate-determining electron transfer from carbon dioxide to its radical anion. The lowered tin–tin coordination numbers, revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, enable tin quantum sheets confined in graphene to efficiently stabilize the carbon dioxide radical anion, verified by 0.13 volts lowered potential of hydroxyl ion adsorption compared with bulk tin. Hence, the tin quantum sheets confined in graphene show enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability. This work may provide a promising lead for designing efficient and robust catalysts for electrolytic fuel synthesis. PMID:27585984
Image quality and detective quantum efficiency of new screens HG-M and XG-S
Sawada, Michito; Tsuge, Tatsuya; Oda, Koji; Kosuge, Keiko [Anjo Kosei Hospital, Aichi (Japan)
1998-04-01
Imaging characteristics of the new screens HG-M (AD system) and XG-S (EX system) were examined in terms of both image quality and x-ray utilization efficiency. For the evaluation of these screens, NEQ(u), which represents an overall evaluation of the imaging properties of the screen-film system, was measured to determine image quality, and DQE(u), which represents detective quantum efficiency, was measured to determine x-ray utilization efficiency. The conventional screen HR-8, which has similar sensitivity, was examined in the same way, and the results were compared with those of the new screens. The new screens were found to have inferior graininess but superior sharpness, NEQ(u), and DQE(u) in comparison with the HR-8 screen. These results indicate that the new screens improve both image quality and detective quantum efficiency. Therefore, the HG-M and XG-S screens, which include the new phosphor technology, can be considered new-generation screens with improved image quality performance for sensitivity. In use, these screens provided superior image quality to the conventional screen with identical exposure. (author)
Quantum efficiency of silica-coated rare-earth doped yttrium silicate
Cervantes-Vásquez, D., E-mail: dcervant@cnyn.unam.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico); Contreras, O.E.; Hirata, G.A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico)
2013-11-15
The photoluminescent properties of rare earth-activated white-emitting Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb nanocrystalline phosphor prepared by two different methods, pressure-assisted combustion synthesis and sol–gel, were studied. The synthesized phosphor samples were post-annealed at 1373 K and 1623 K in order to obtain the X1-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and X2-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases, respectively, which were confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Photoluminescence analysis showed the contribution of two blue-emission bands within the 380–450 nm region originating from 5d–4f transitions in Ce{sup 3+} ions and a well-defined green emission of Tb{sup 3+} ions located at 545 nm corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5} electronic transitions. Thereafter, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb powders were coated with colloidal silica in order to investigate the effect of silica coatings on their luminescent properties. Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements were carefully performed, which revealed an increase of 12% of efficiency in coated compared with bare-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphor. -- Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphor powders were successfully coated with colloidal silica. • Post-annealing treatments improved the quantum efficiency of silica-coated Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphors. • Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements showed an increase of 12%.
Spectral-gap analysis for efficient tunneling in quantum adiabatic optimization
Brady, Lucas T.; van Dam, Wim
2016-09-01
We investigate the efficiency of quantum adiabatic optimization when overcoming potential barriers to get from a local to a global minimum. Specifically we look at n qubit systems with symmetric cost functions f :{0,1 } n→R , where the ground state must tunnel through a potential barrier of width nα and height nβ. By the quantum adiabatic theorem the time delay sufficient to ensure tunneling grows quadratically with the inverse spectral gap during this tunneling process. We analyze barrier sizes with 1 /2 ≤α +β and α folklore result by Goldstone from 2002, which used large spin and instanton methods. Parts of our result also refine recent results by Kong and Crosson [arXiv:1511.06991] and Jiang et al. [arXiv:1603.01293] about the exponential gap scaling.
Ma, Liang; Tu, Chunlai; Le, Phuong; Chitoor, Shweta; Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U; Teng, Kai Wen; Ge, Pinghua; Selvin, Paul R; Smith, Andrew M
2016-03-16
Quantum dots are fluorescent nanoparticles used to detect and image proteins and nucleic acids. Compared with organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, these nanocrystals have enhanced brightness, photostability, and wavelength tunability, but their larger size limits their use. Recently, multidentate polymer coatings have yielded stable quantum dots with small hydrodynamic dimensions (≤10 nm) due to high-affinity, compact wrapping around the nanocrystal. However, this coating technology has not been widely adopted because the resulting particles are frequently heterogeneous and clustered, and conjugation to biological molecules is difficult to control. In this article we develop new polymeric ligands and optimize coating and bioconjugation methodologies for core/shell CdSe/Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S quantum dots to generate homogeneous and compact products. We demonstrate that "ligand stripping" to rapidly displace nonpolar ligands with hydroxide ions allows homogeneous assembly with multidentate polymers at high temperature. The resulting aqueous nanocrystals are 7-12 nm in hydrodynamic diameter, have quantum yields similar to those in organic solvents, and strongly resist nonspecific interactions due to short oligoethylene glycol surfaces. Compared with a host of other methods, this technique is superior for eliminating small aggregates identified through chromatographic and single-molecule analysis. We also demonstrate high-efficiency bioconjugation through azide-alkyne click chemistry and self-assembly with hexa-histidine-tagged proteins that eliminate the need for product purification. The conjugates retain specificity of the attached biomolecules and are exceptional probes for immunofluorescence and single-molecule dynamic imaging. These results are expected to enable broad utilization of compact, biofunctional quantum dots for studying crowded macromolecular environments such as the neuronal synapse and cellular cytoplasm.
A fast and efficient algorithm for Slater determinant updates in quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Nukala, Phani K V V; Kent, P R C
2009-05-28
We present an efficient low-rank updating algorithm for updating the trial wave functions used in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. The algorithm is based on low-rank updating of the Slater determinants. In particular, the computational complexity of the algorithm is O(kN) during the kth step compared to traditional algorithms that require O(N(2)) computations, where N is the system size. For single determinant trial wave functions the new algorithm is faster than the traditional O(N(2)) Sherman-Morrison algorithm for up to O(N) updates. For multideterminant configuration-interaction-type trial wave functions of M+1 determinants, the new algorithm is significantly more efficient, saving both O(MN(2)) work and O(MN(2)) storage. The algorithm enables more accurate and significantly more efficient QMC calculations using configuration-interaction-type wave functions.
Tsai, Meng-Lin
2015-12-16
By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs), we have achieved a high efficiency of 16.55% in n-type Si heterojunction solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on the photon downconversion phenomenon of GQDs to make more photons absorbed in the depletion region for effective carrier separation, leading to the enhanced photovoltaic effect. The short circuit current and the fill factor are increased from 35.31 to 37.47 mA/cm2 and 70.29% to 72.51%, respectively. The work demonstrated here holds the promise for incorporating graphene-based materials in commercially available solar devices for developing ultra-high efficiency photovoltaic cells in the future.
High quantum-efficiency photon-number-resolving detector for photonic on-chip information processing
Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Linares, Antia Lamas; Spring, Justin B; Humphreys, Peter C; Mirin, Richard P; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo
2013-01-01
The integrated optical circuit is a promising architecture for the realization of complex quantum optical states and information networks. One element that is required for many of these applications is a high-efficiency photon detector capable of photon-number discrimination. We present an integrated photonic system in the telecom band at 1550 nm based on UV-written silica-on-silicon waveguides and modified transition-edge sensors capable of number resolution and over 40% efficiency. Exploiting the mode transmission failure of these devices, we multiplex three detectors in series to demonstrate a combined 79% +/- 2% detection efficiency with a single pass, and 88% +/- 3% at the operating wavelength of an on-chip terminal reflection grating. Furthermore, our optical measurements clearly demonstrate no significant unexplained loss in this system due to scattering or reflections. This waveguide and detector design therefore allows the placement of number-resolving single-photon detectors of predictable efficienc...
Kukush, Alexander; Schneeweiss, Hans
2004-01-01
We compare the asymptotic covariance matrix of the ML estimator in a nonlinear measurement error model to the asymptotic covariance matrices of the CS and SQS estimators studied in Kukush et al (2002). For small measurement error variances they are equal up to the order of the measurement error variance and thus nearly equally efficient.
Development of III-Sb Quantum Dot Systems for High Efficiency Intermediate Band Solar Cells
Huffaker, Diana [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hubbard, Seth [Rochester Inst. of Technology, NY (United States); Norman, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2015-07-31
This project aimed to develop solar cells that can help reduce cost per watt. This work focused on developing solar cells that utilize quantum dot (QD) nanomaterials to provide multijunction solar cell efficiency at the cost of single junction solar cell. We focused on a novel concept known as intermediate band solar cells (IBSC) where an additional energy band is inserted in a single solar cell to accommodate sub-bandgap photons absorption which otherwise are lost through transmission. The additional energy band can be achieved by growing QDs within a solar cell p-n junction. Though numerous studies have been conducted to develop such QD systems, very small improvements in solar energy conversion efficiency have been reported. This is mainly due to non-optimal material parameters such as band gap, band offset etc. In this work, we identified and developed a novel QD material system that meets the requirements of IBSC more closely than the current state-of-the-art technology. To achieve these goals, we focused on three important areas of solar cell design: band structure calculations of new materials, efficient device design for high efficiency, and development of new semiconductor materials. In this project, we focused on III-Sb materials as they possess a wide range of energy bandgaps from 0.2 eV to 2eV. Despite the difficulty involved in realizing these materials, we were successfully developed these materials through a systematic approach. Materials studied in this work are AlAsSb (Aluminum Arsenide Antimonide), InAlAs (Indium Aluminum Arsenide) and InAs (Indium Arsenide). InAs was used to develop QD layers within AlAsSb and InAlAs p-n junctions. As the QDs have very small volume, up to 30 QD layers been inserted into the p-n junction to enhance light absorption. These QD multi-stack devices helped in understanding the challenges associated with the development of quantum dot solar cells. The results from this work show that the quantum dot solar cells indeed
Radovcich, N. A.; Dreim, D.; Okeefe, D. A.; Linner, L.; Pathak, S. K.; Reaser, J. S.; Richardson, D.; Sweers, J.; Conner, F.
1985-01-01
Work performed in the design of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency is documented with emphasis on design criteria, design methodology, and three design configurations. The design database includes complete finite element model description, sizing data, geometry data, loads data, and inertial data. A design process which satisfies the economics and practical aspects of a real design is illustrated. The cooperative study relationship between the contractor and NASA during the course of the contract is also discussed.
Kaiadi, Mehrzad; Tunestål, Per; Johansson, Bengt
2010-01-01
High EGR rates combined with turbocharging has been identified as a promising way to increase the maximum load and efficiency of heavy duty spark ignition Natural Gas engines. With stoichiometric conditions a three way catalyst can be used which means that regulated emissions can be kept at very low levels. Most of the heavy duty NG engines are diesel engines which are converted for SI operation. These engine's components are in common with the diesel-engine which put limits on higher exh...
High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers.
Kim, Gi-Hwan; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Yoon, Yung Jin; Lan, Xinzheng; Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Abbas, Abdullah Saud; Yang, Zhenyu; Fan, Fengjia; Ip, Alexander H; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kim, Jin Young; Sargent, Edward H
2015-11-11
The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.
A theoretical model for calculation of the detective quantum efficiency in granular scintillators
Cavouras, D. E-mail: cavouras@hol.gr; Kandarakis, I.; Tsoukos, S.; Kateris, A.; Nomicos, C.D.; Panayiotakis, G.S
2001-11-01
A theoretical model has been developed for calculating the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of scintillators, by taking into account the internal structure of granular scintillators often used in medical imaging detectors. Scintillators were considered to consist of N elementary thin layers containing spherical scintillating grains of equal size. Grains were assumed to be regularly distributed within each thin layer, the thickness of the latter being equal to the grain diameter. Values of the X-ray absorption and X-ray attenuation coefficients, of the intrinsic X-ray to light conversion efficiency and of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients were used as input data to the model. Optical scattering and optical absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the model to experimental luminescence data. The model was employed to calculate the detective quantum efficiency of La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu, ZnSCdS:Ag, ZnSCdS:Au,Cu scintillators. Results of the calculations were found close to values published in previous studies.
Necessary detection efficiencies for secure quantum key distribution and bound randomness
Acín, Antonio; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Passaro, Elsa; Pironio, Stefano; Skrzypczyk, Paul
2016-01-01
In recent years, several hacking attacks have broken the security of quantum cryptography implementations by exploiting the presence of losses and the ability of the eavesdropper to tune detection efficiencies. We present a simple attack of this form that applies to any protocol in which the key is constructed from the results of untrusted measurements performed on particles coming from an insecure source or channel. Because of its generality, the attack applies to a large class of protocols, from standard prepare-and-measure to device-independent schemes. Our attack gives bounds on the critical detection efficiencies necessary for secure quantum key distribution, which show that the implementation of most partly device-independent solutions is, from the point of view of detection efficiency, almost as demanding as fully device-independent ones. We also show how our attack implies the existence of a form of bound randomness, namely nonlocal correlations in which a nonsignalling eavesdropper can find out a posteriori the result of any implemented measurement.
High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers
Kim, Gi-Hwan
2015-11-11
© 2015 American Chemical Society. The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.
Harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian: an efficient tool to capture quantum effects of large systems.
Yang, Yonggang; Liu, Xiaomeng; Meuwly, Markus; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang
2012-11-26
Starting from a reaction path Hamiltonian, a suitably reduced harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian is derived by averaging over all the normal mode coordinates. Generalization of the harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian to any dimensions are performed and the feasibility to use a linear reaction path/surface are investigated and discussed. By use of a harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian, the tunneling splitting and proton transfer dynamics of malonaldehyde is briefly discussed and shows that the harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian is an efficient tool to capture quantum effects in larger systems.
A hybrid superconducting quantum dot acting as an efficient charge and spin Seebeck diode
Hwang, Sun-Yong; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa
2016-09-01
We propose a highly efficient thermoelectric diode device built from the coupling of a quantum dot with a normal or ferromagnetic electrode and a superconducting reservoir. The current shows a strongly nonlinear behavior in the forward direction (positive thermal gradients) while it almost vanishes in the backward direction (negative thermal gradients). Our discussion is supported by a gauge-invariant current-conserving transport theory accounting for electron-electron interactions inside the dot. We find that the diode behavior is greatly tuned with external gate potentials, Zeeman splittings or lead magnetizations. Our results are thus relevant for the search of novel thermoelectric devices with enhanced functionalities.
Information detective quantum efficiency of X-ray film-intensifier foil systems
Hoeschen, D.; Stargardt, A.; Mirande, W.
1988-04-01
The capability of screen-film combinations of detection and representation of information is described by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The DQE may be calculated from the sensitivity, the gradient of the characteristic curve, the modulation transfer function and the Wiener spectrum. These parameters have been determined for fourteen screen-film combinations and the DQE's have been calculated. It is shown that the low frequency region the DQE does not depend on spatial frequency. This constant level of DQE is mostly dependent on the absorbance of the screens. Consequences from this fact, as well for the manufacturer as for the user of the screens, are discussed.
A one-dimensional model for the quantum efficiency of front-surface-field solar cells
Yernaux, M. I.; Battochio, C.; Verlinden, P.; van de Wiele, F.
1984-11-01
A one-dimensional analytical model is proposed to calculate the photocurrent generated in interdigitated back contact solar cells with a high-low junction at the front illuminated surface. The high-low junction is simulated by constant doping levels, mobilities and lifetimes. A study of the quantum efficiency of front-surface-field (FSF) solar cells is made and the computer results are compared with experimental results. A method of determining the real and the effective surface recombination velocity of FSF solar cells is proposed.
Wu, Jianlan; Ma, Jian; Silbey, Robert J; Cao, Jianshu
2011-01-01
Following the calculation of optimal energy transfer in thermal environment in our first paper (New J. Phys. {\\bf 12}, 105012), full quantum dynamics and leading-order `classical' hopping kinetics are compared for the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex with the thermal bath described by classical white noise (the Haken-Strobl model) and by quantum Debye noise. Because the two-site quantum dynamics is fully captured by the hopping kinetics, the difference between the quantum dynamics and 'classical' kinetics is due to higher-order quantum corrections, which include non-local multi-site coherence, i.e. long-range coherence. We observe that higher-order quantum correction leads to small changes in the trapping time or in energy transfer efficiency. (1-2% in the Haken-Strobl model and $\\lessapprox 10%$ in the quantum Debye model), suggesting that quantum coherence does not extend beyond a pair of sites in FMO and the optimal efficiency in FMO can be explained by Forster rate theory. However, using the pop...
Near-Unity Internal Quantum Efficiency of Luminescent Silicon Nanocrystals with Ligand Passivation.
Sangghaleh, Fatemeh; Sychugov, Ilya; Yang, Zhenyu; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Linnros, Jan
2015-07-28
Spectrally resolved photoluminescence (PL) decays were measured for samples of colloidal, ligand-passivated silicon nanocrystals. These samples have PL emission energies with peak positions in the range ∼1.4-1.8 eV and quantum yields of ∼30-70%. Their ensemble PL decays are characterized by a stretched-exponential decay with a dispersion factor of ∼0.8, which changes to an almost monoexponential character at fixed detection energies. The dispersion factors and decay rates for various detection energies were extracted from spectrally resolved curves using a mathematical approach that excluded the effect of homogeneous line width broadening. Since nonradiative recombination would introduce a random lifetime variation, leading to a stretched-exponential decay for an ensemble, we conclude that the observed monoexponential decay in size-selected ensembles signifies negligible nonradiative transitions of a similar strength to the radiative one. This conjecture is further supported as extracted decay rates agree with radiative rates reported in the literature, suggesting 100% internal quantum efficiency over a broad range of emission wavelengths. The apparent differences in the quantum yields can then be explained by a varying fraction of "dark" or blinking nanocrystals.
Meinardi, Francesco; Ehrenberg, Samantha; Dhamo, Lorena; Carulli, Francesco; Mauri, Michele; Bruni, Francesco; Simonutti, Roberto; Kortshagen, Uwe; Brovelli, Sergio
2017-02-01
Building-integrated photovoltaics is gaining consensus as a renewable energy technology for producing electricity at the point of use. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could extend architectural integration to the urban environment by realizing electrode-less photovoltaic windows. Crucial for large-area LSCs is the suppression of reabsorption losses, which requires emitters with negligible overlap between their absorption and emission spectra. Here, we demonstrate the use of indirect-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures such as highly emissive silicon quantum dots. Silicon is non-toxic, low-cost and ultra-earth-abundant, which avoids the limitations to the industrial scaling of quantum dots composed of low-abundance elements. Suppressed reabsorption and scattering losses lead to nearly ideal LSCs with an optical efficiency of η = 2.85%, matching state-of-the-art semi-transparent LSCs. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that optimized silicon quantum dot LSCs have a clear path to η > 5% for 1 m2 devices. We are finally able to realize flexible LSCs with performances comparable to those of flat concentrators, which opens the way to a new design freedom for building-integrated photovoltaics elements.
Shen, Huaibin; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Weiwei; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Titov, Alexandre; Hyvonen, Jake; Li, Lin Song
2013-11-29
In this paper, we present an innovative method for the synthesis of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure quantum dots (QDs) using 'greener' chemicals. The PL of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure QDs ranges from 600 to 820 nm, and the as-synthesized core/shell structures show narrow size distributions and stable and high quantum yields (50–75%). Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been demonstrated by employing the CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell QDs as emitters. The devices fabricated based on these type-II core/shell QDs show color-saturated near-infrared emission from the QD layers, a low turn-on voltage of 1.55 V, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.59%, and a current density and maximum radiant emittance of 2.1 × 10(3) mA cm−2 and 17.7 mW cm−2 at 8 V; it is the first report to use type-II core/shell QDs as near-infrared emitters and these results may offer a practicable platform for the realization of near-infrared QD-based light-emitting diodes, night-vision-readable displays, and friend/foe identification system.
Hayashi, Tomohiko; Matsuura, Azuma; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Minoru
2012-01-01
Herein, the absorption maximum of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is calculated using our recently developed method in which the whole protein can be treated quantum mechanically at the level of INDO/S-CIS//ONIOM (B3LYP/6-31G(d,p): AMBER). The full quantum mechanical calculation is shown to reproduce the so-called opsin shift of bR with an error of less than 0.04 eV. We also apply the same calculation for 226 different bR mutants, each of which was constructed by replacing any one of the amino acid residues of the wild-type bR with Gly. This substitution makes it possible to elucidate the extent to which each amino acid contributes to the opsin shift and to estimate the inter-residue synergistic effect. It was found that one of the most important contributions to the opsin shift is the electron transfer from Tyr185 to the chromophore upon excitation. We also indicate that some aromatic (Trp86, Trp182) and polar (Ser141, Thr142) residues, located in the vicinity of the retinal polyene chain and the β-ionone ring, respectively, play an important role in compensating for the large blue-shift induced by both the counterion residues (Asp85, Asp212) and an internal water molecule (W402) located near the Schiff base linkage. In particular, the effect of Trp86 is comparable to that of Tyr185. In addition, Ser141 and Thr142 were found to contribute to an increase in the dipole moment of bR in the excited state. Finally, we provide a complete energy diagram for the opsin shift together with the contribution of the chromophore-protein steric interaction. PMID:27493528
Sniegowski, Kristel; Bers, Karolien; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Spanoghe, Pieter; Springael, Dirk
2012-08-01
Addition of pesticide-primed soil containing adapted pesticide degrading bacteria to the biofilter matrix of on farm biopurification systems (BPS) which treat pesticide contaminated wastewater, has been recommended, in order to ensure rapid establishment of a pesticide degrading microbial community in BPS. However, uncertainties exist about the minimal soil inoculum density needed for successful bioaugmentation of BPS. Therefore, in this study, BPS microcosm experiments were initiated with different linuron primed soil inoculum densities ranging from 0.5 to 50 vol.% and the evolution of the linuron mineralization capacity in the microcosms was monitored during feeding with linuron. Successful establishment of a linuron mineralization community in the BPS microcosms was achieved with all inoculum densities including the 0.5 vol.% density with only minor differences in the time needed to acquire maximum degradation capacity. Moreover, once established, the robustness of the linuron degrading microbial community towards expected stress situations proved to be independent of the initial inoculum density. This study shows that pesticide-primed soil inoculum densities as low as 0.5 vol.% can be used for bioaugmentation of a BPS matrix and further supports the use of BPS for treatment of pesticide-contaminated wastewater at farmyards.
Yin, X.; Belay, D.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.
2014-01-01
Maximum quantum yield for leaf CO2 assimilation under limiting light conditions (UCO2LL) is commonly estimated as the slope of the linear regression of net photosynthetic rate against absorbed irradiance over a range of low-irradiance conditions. Methodological errors associated with this estimation
Yin, X.; Belay, D.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.
2014-01-01
Maximum quantum yield for leaf CO2 assimilation under limiting light conditions (UCO2LL) is commonly estimated as the slope of the linear regression of net photosynthetic rate against absorbed irradiance over a range of low-irradiance conditions. Methodological errors associated with this estimation
Simple formalism for efficient derivatives and multi-determinant expansions in quantum Monte Carlo
Filippi, Claudia; Assaraf, Roland; Moroni, Saverio
2016-05-01
We present a simple and general formalism to compute efficiently the derivatives of a multi-determinant Jastrow-Slater wave function, the local energy, the interatomic forces, and similar quantities needed in quantum Monte Carlo. Through a straightforward manipulation of matrices evaluated on the occupied and virtual orbitals, we obtain an efficiency equivalent to algorithmic differentiation in the computation of the interatomic forces and the optimization of the orbital parameters. Furthermore, for a large multi-determinant expansion, the significant computational gain afforded by a recently introduced table method is here extended to the local value of any one-body operator and to its derivatives, in both all-electron and pseudopotential calculations.
Efficient molecular quantum dynamics in coordinate and phase space using pruned bases
Larsson, Henrik R; Tannor, David J
2016-01-01
We present an efficient implementation of dynamically pruned quantum dynamics, both in coordinate space and in phase space. We combine the ideas behind the biorthogonal von Neumann basis (PvB) with the orthogonalized momentum-symmetrized Gaussians (Weylets) to create a new basis, projected Weylets, that takes the best from both methods. We benchmark pruned dynamics using phase-space-localized PvB, projected Weylets, and coordinate-space-localized DVR bases, with real-world examples in up to six dimensions. We show that coordinate-space localization is most important for efficient pruning and that pruned dynamics is much faster compared to unpruned, exact dynamics. Phase-space localization is useful for more demanding dynamics where many basis functions are required. There, projected Weylets offer a more compact representation than pruned DVR bases.
Efficient molecular quantum dynamics in coordinate and phase space using pruned bases
Larsson, H. R.; Hartke, B.; Tannor, D. J.
2016-11-01
We present an efficient implementation of dynamically pruned quantum dynamics, both in coordinate space and in phase space. We combine the ideas behind the biorthogonal von Neumann basis (PvB) with the orthogonalized momentum-symmetrized Gaussians (Weylets) to create a new basis, projected Weylets, that takes the best from both methods. We benchmark pruned time-dependent dynamics using phase-space-localized PvB, projected Weylets, and coordinate-space-localized DVR bases, with real-world examples in up to six dimensions. For the examples studied, coordinate-space localization is the most important factor for efficient pruning and the pruned dynamics is much faster than the unpruned, exact dynamics. Phase-space localization is useful for more demanding dynamics where many basis functions are required. There, projected Weylets offer a more compact representation than pruned DVR bases.
Seifert, Holger; Schueppel, Rico; Riede, Moritz K.; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Brier, Eduard; Reinold, Egon; Baeuerle, Peter [Institut fuer Organische Chemie II und Neue Materialien, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)
2008-07-01
We investigate organic p-i-n solar cells with an oligothiophene derivative as donor and Fullerene C{sub 60} as acceptor materials. This donor-acceptor heterojunction leads to solar cells with an open circuit voltage as high as 1.0 V and a reasonable power conversion efficiency of up to 3.4%. Measuring current-voltage characteristics under monochromatic illumination of low intensity (non-standard reporting conditions), we find a wavelength dependent fill factor of these photovoltaic devices. Furthermore, we determine the external quantum efficiency (EQE) from the photoresponse of these devices using a modulated monochromatic illumination on top of a white light bias as well as an external voltage bias. The EQE spectrum can be attributed to the spectrally different absorption of donor and acceptor. We discuss the dependence of the EQE spectrum from the applied external voltage with respect to the charge generation mechanism.
Courtney, Joseph M; Rienstra, Chad M
2016-08-01
We present a systematic study of dipolar double quantum (DQ) filtering in (13)C-labeled organic solids over a range of magic-angle spinning rates, using the SPC-n recoupling sequence element with a range of n symmetry values from 3 to 11. We find that efficient recoupling can be achieved for values n⩾7, provided that the (13)C nutation frequency is on the order of 100kHz or greater. The decoupling-field dependence was investigated and explicit heteronuclear decoupling interference conditions identified. The major determinant of DQ filtering efficiency is the decoupling interference between (13)C and (1)H fields. For (13)C nutation frequencies greater than 75kHz, optimal performance is observed without an applied (1)H field. At spinning rates exceeding 20kHz, symmetry conditions as low as n=3 were found to perform adequately.
Ivanov, Mikhail V; Babikov, Dmitri
2012-05-14
Efficient method is proposed for computing thermal rate constant of recombination reaction that proceeds according to the energy transfer mechanism, when an energized molecule is formed from reactants first, and is stabilized later by collision with quencher. The mixed quantum-classical theory for the collisional energy transfer and the ro-vibrational energy flow [M. Ivanov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144107 (2011)] is employed to treat the dynamics of molecule + quencher collision. Efficiency is achieved by sampling simultaneously (i) the thermal collision energy, (ii) the impact parameter, and (iii) the incident direction of quencher, as well as (iv) the rotational state of energized molecule. This approach is applied to calculate third-order rate constant of the recombination reaction that forms the (16)O(18)O(16)O isotopomer of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented.
Two-Step Efficient Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Using Three-Qubit W State
YUAN Hao; ZHOU Jun; ZHANG Gang; WEI Xiang-Fei; LIU Xiang-Yuan
2011-01-01
A two-step deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) scheme using blocks of three-qubit W state is proposed. In this scheme, the secret messages can be encoded by employing four two-particle unitary operations and directly decoded by utilizing the corresponding measurements in Bell basis or single-particle basis. Comparing with most previous DSQC protocols, the present scheme has a high total efficiency, which comes up to 50％. Apart from this,it has still the advantages of high capacity as each W state can carry two bits of secret information, and high intrinsic efficiency because almost all the instances are useful. Furthermore, the security of this communication can be ensured by the decoy particle checking technique and the two-step transmitting idea.
Hamadou, A.; Thobel, J.-L.; Lamari, S.
2016-10-01
A four level rate equations model for a terahertz optically pumped electrically driven quantum cascade laser is here introduced and used to model the system both analytically and numerically. In the steady state, both in the presence and absence of the terahertz optical field, we solve the resulting nonlinear system of equations and obtain closed form expressions for the levels occupation, population inversion as well as the mid-infrared pump threshold intensity in terms of the device parameters. We also derive, for the first time for this system, an analytical formula for the optical external efficiency and analyze the simultaneous effects of the cavity length and pump intensity on it. At moderate to high pump intensities, we find that the optical external efficiency scales roughly as the reciprocal of the cavity length.
Simple formalism for efficient derivatives and multi-determinant expansions in quantum Monte Carlo.
Filippi, Claudia; Assaraf, Roland; Moroni, Saverio
2016-05-21
We present a simple and general formalism to compute efficiently the derivatives of a multi-determinant Jastrow-Slater wave function, the local energy, the interatomic forces, and similar quantities needed in quantum Monte Carlo. Through a straightforward manipulation of matrices evaluated on the occupied and virtual orbitals, we obtain an efficiency equivalent to algorithmic differentiation in the computation of the interatomic forces and the optimization of the orbital parameters. Furthermore, for a large multi-determinant expansion, the significant computational gain afforded by a recently introduced table method is here extended to the local value of any one-body operator and to its derivatives, in both all-electron and pseudopotential calculations.
Efficient and universal quantum key distribution based on chaos and middleware
Jiang, Dong; Chen, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuemei; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises unconditionally secure communications, however, the low bit rate of QKD cannot meet the requirements of high-speed applications. Despite the many solutions that have been proposed in recent years, they are neither efficient to generate the secret keys nor compatible with other QKD systems. This paper, based on chaotic cryptography and middleware technology, proposes an efficient and universal QKD protocol that can be directly deployed on top of any existing QKD system without modifying the underlying QKD protocol and optical platform. It initially takes the bit string generated by the QKD system as input, periodically updates the chaotic system, and efficiently outputs the bit sequences. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that our protocol can efficiently increase the bit rate of the QKD system as well as securely generate bit sequences with perfect statistical properties. Compared with the existing methods, our protocol is more efficient and universal, it can be rapidly deployed on the QKD system to increase the bit rate when the QKD system becomes the bottleneck of its communication system.
Efficient inorganic solid solar cells composed of perovskite and PbS quantum dots
Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Huang, Yang; Wei, Junfeng; Liu, Feng; Shao, Zhipeng; Hu, Linhua; Chen, Shuanghong; Yang, Shangfeng; Tang, Junwang; Yao, Jianxi; Dai, Songyuan
2015-05-01
Lead halide perovskite solar cells have attracted great interest due to their high efficiency and simple fabrication process. However, the high efficiency heavily relies on expensive organic hole-transporting materials (OHTMs) such as 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD), it is preferable to replace these expensive OHTMs by inorganic and low cost materials. Here, we report colloidal PbS quantum dots synthesized by a facile method and used as the inorganic hole-transporting material in a hybrid perovskite solar cell. By controlling the crystalline morphology of the perovskite capping layer, the recombination process is significantly retarded. Furthermore, a pure inorganic solar cell prepared by a two-step process demonstrated a nearly 8% power conversion efficiency due to efficient charge separation by a cascade of junctions and retarding charge recombination by a void-free capping layer. The stability of the inorganic solar cell was also tested with a little decay observed within ca. 100 h.Lead halide perovskite solar cells have attracted great interest due to their high efficiency and simple fabrication process. However, the high efficiency heavily relies on expensive organic hole-transporting materials (OHTMs) such as 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD), it is preferable to replace these expensive OHTMs by inorganic and low cost materials. Here, we report colloidal PbS quantum dots synthesized by a facile method and used as the inorganic hole-transporting material in a hybrid perovskite solar cell. By controlling the crystalline morphology of the perovskite capping layer, the recombination process is significantly retarded. Furthermore, a pure inorganic solar cell prepared by a two-step process demonstrated a nearly 8% power conversion efficiency due to efficient charge separation by a cascade of junctions and retarding charge recombination by a void-free capping layer
Zhu, Haiming; Song, Nianhui; Lian, Tianquan
2013-08-07
In quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), redox electrolytes act as hole scavengers to regenerate the QD ground state from its oxidized form, thus enabling a continuous device operation. However, unlike molecular sensitizers, QDs also have redox-active trap states within the band gap, which can be charged in the presence of redox electrolyte. The effects of electrolyte induced charging of QDs on the performance of QDSSCs have not been reported. Here, using steady-state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy, we show that CdSe/CdS3MLZnCdS2MLZnS2ML core/multishell QDs are charged in the presence of sulfide electrolytes due to the reduction of surface states. As a result, exciton lifetimes in these QDs are shortened due to an Auger recombination process. Such charging induced fast Auger recombination can compete effectively with electron transfer from QDs to TiO2 and reduce the electron injection efficiency in QDSSCs. We believe that the reported charging effects are present for most colloidal nanocrystals in the presence of redox media and have important implications for designing QD-based photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices.
Influence of dislocation density on internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based semiconductors
Jiadong Yu
2017-03-01
Full Text Available By considering the effects of stress fields coming from lattice distortion as well as charge fields coming from line charges at edge dislocation cores on radiative recombination of exciton, a model of carriers’ radiative and non-radiative recombination has been established in GaN-based semiconductors with certain dislocation density. Using vector average of the stress fields and the charge fields, the relationship between dislocation density and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE is deduced. Combined with related experimental results, this relationship is fitted well to the trend of IQEs of bulk GaN changing with screw and edge dislocation density, meanwhile its simplified form is fitted well to the IQEs of AlGaN multiple quantum well LEDs with varied threading dislocation densities but the same light emission wavelength. It is believed that this model, suitable for different epitaxy platforms such as MOCVD and MBE, can be used to predict to what extent the luminous efficiency of GaN-based semiconductors can still maintain when the dislocation density increases, so as to provide a reasonable rule of thumb for optimizing the epitaxial growth of GaN-based devices.
Sertore, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.sertore@mi.infn.it; Michelato, Paolo; Monaco, Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Milano – LASA, Via Fratelli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Manini, Paolo; Siviero, Fabrizio [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, 20020 Lainate (Italy)
2014-05-15
High quantum efficiency photocathodes are routinely used as laser triggered emitters in the advanced high brightness electron sources based on radio frequency guns. The sensitivity of “semiconductor” type photocathodes to vacuum levels and gas composition requires special care during preparation and handling. This paper will discuss the results obtained using a novel pumping approach based on coupling a 20 l s{sup −1} sputter ion getter pump with a CapaciTorr® D100 non evaporable getter (NEG) pump. A pressure of 8⋅10{sup −8} Pa was achieved using only a sputter ion pump after a 6 day bake-out. With the addition of a NEG pump, a pressure of 2⋅10{sup −9} Pa was achieved after a 2 day bake-out. These pressure values were maintained without power due to the ability of the NEG to pump gases by chemical reaction. Long term monitoring of cathodes quantum efficiencies was also carried out at different photon wavelengths for more than two years, showing no degradation of the photoemissive film properties.
A. Malasi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles are amongst the most effective ways to resonantly couple optical energy into and out of nanometer sized volumes. However, controlling and/or tuning the transfer of this incident energy to the surrounding near and far field is one of the most interesting challenges in this area. Due to the dielectric properties of metallic silver (Ag, its nanoparticles have amongst the highest radiative quantum efficiencies (η, i.e., the ability to radiatively transfer the incident energy to the surrounding. Here we report the discovery that bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag made with immiscible and plasmonically weak Co metal can show comparable and/or even higher η values. The enhancement is a result of the narrowing of the plasmon bandwidth from these bimetal systems. The phenomenological explanation of this effect based on the dipolar approximation points to the reduction in radiative losses within the Ag nanoparticles when in contact with cobalt. This is also supported by a model of coupling between poor and good conductors based on the surface to volume ratio. This study presents a new type of bandwidth engineering, one based on using bimetal nanostructures, to tune and/or enhance the quality factor and quantum efficiency for near and far-field plasmonic applications.
High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells and Methods for Constructing the Same
Welser, Roger E. (Inventor); Sood, Ashok K. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Photon absorption, and thus current generation, is hindered in conventional thin-film solar cell designs, including quantum well structures, by the limited path length of incident light passing vertically through the device. Optical scattering into lateral waveguide structures provides a physical mechanism to increase photocurrent generation through in-plane light trapping. However, the insertion of wells of high refractive index material with lower energy gap into the device structure often results in lower voltage operation, and hence lower photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. The voltage output of an InGaAs quantum well waveguide photovoltaic device can be increased by employing a III-V material structure with an extended wide band gap emitter heterojunction. Analysis of the light IV characteristics reveals that non-radiative recombination components of the underlying dark diode current have been reduced, exposing the limiting radiative recombination component and providing a pathway for realizing solar-electric conversion efficiency of 30% or more in single junction cells.
Quantum efficiency measurement of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) CCD detectors
Krishnamurthy, A.; Villasenor, J.; Thayer, C.; Kissel, S.; Ricker, G.; Seager, S.; Lyle, R.; Deline, A.; Morgan, E.; Sauerwein, T.; Vanderspek, R.
2016-07-01
Very precise on-ground characterization and calibration of TESS CCD detectors will significantly assist in the analysis of the science data from the mission. An accurate optical test bench with very high photometric stability has been developed to perform precise measurements of the absolute quantum efficiency. The setup consists of a vacuum dewar with a single MIT Lincoln Lab CCID-80 device mounted on a cold plate with the calibrated reference photodiode mounted next to the CCD. A very stable laser-driven light source is integrated with a closed-loop intensity stabilization unit to control variations of the light source down to a few parts-per-million when averaged over 60 s. Light from the stabilization unit enters a 20 inch integrating sphere. The output light from the sphere produces near-uniform illumination on the cold CCD and on the calibrated reference photodiode inside the dewar. The ratio of the CCD and photodiode signals provides the absolute quantum efficiency measurement. The design, key features, error analysis, and results from the test campaign are presented.
Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Ehrsam, M.; Goodwin, J.; Garcia, H.; Kalyanaraman, R.
2016-10-01
Plasmonic nanoparticles are amongst the most effective ways to resonantly couple optical energy into and out of nanometer sized volumes. However, controlling and/or tuning the transfer of this incident energy to the surrounding near and far field is one of the most interesting challenges in this area. Due to the dielectric properties of metallic silver (Ag), its nanoparticles have amongst the highest radiative quantum efficiencies (η), i.e., the ability to radiatively transfer the incident energy to the surrounding. Here we report the discovery that bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag made with immiscible and plasmonically weak Co metal can show comparable and/or even higher η values. The enhancement is a result of the narrowing of the plasmon bandwidth from these bimetal systems. The phenomenological explanation of this effect based on the dipolar approximation points to the reduction in radiative losses within the Ag nanoparticles when in contact with cobalt. This is also supported by a model of coupling between poor and good conductors based on the surface to volume ratio. This study presents a new type of bandwidth engineering, one based on using bimetal nanostructures, to tune and/or enhance the quality factor and quantum efficiency for near and far-field plasmonic applications.
Babin, Marcel; Morel, André; Claustre, Hervé; Bricaud, Annick; Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul G.
1996-08-01
Natural variability of the maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation ( φC max), as determined from the initial slope of the photosynthesis-irradiance curve and from light absorption measurements, was studied at three sites in the northeast tropical Atlantic representing typical eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic regimes. At the eutrophic and mesotrophic sites, where the mixed layer extended deeper than the euphotic layer, all photosynthetic parameters were nearly constant with depth, and φC max averaged between 0.05 and 0.03 molC (mol quanta absorbed) -1, respectively. At the oligotrophic site, a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) existed and φC max varied from ca 0.005 in the upper nutrient-depleted mixed layer to 0.063 below the DCM in stratified waters. firstly, φC max was found roughly to covary with nitrate concentration between sites and with depth at the oligotrophic site, and secondly, it was found to decrease with increasing relative concentrations of non-photosynthetic pigments. The extent of φC max variations directly related to nitrate concentration was inferred from variations in the fraction of functional PS2 reaction centers ( f), measured using fast repetition rate fluorometry. Covariations between f and nitrate concentration indicate that the latter factor may be responsible for a 2-fold variation in φC max. Moreover, partitioning light absorption between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments suggests that the variable contribution of the non-photosynthetic absorption may explain a 3-fold variation in φC max, as indicated by variations in the effective absorption cross-section of photosystem 2 ( σPS2). Results confirm the role of nitrate in φC max variation, and emphasize those of light and vertical mixing.
Ahmed M. Al-Sabagh
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The structure effect on corrosion inhibition of two amines and their derivatives is the main object of this article. The first amine was 1,8-diaminooctane and its ethoxylated (50 e.o. 1,8-diaminooctane and propoxylated (50 p.o. 1,8-diaminooctane. The second amine is the tetraethylenepentamine and its ethoxylated (50 e.o. and propoxylated (50 p.o. derivatives. The investigations were carried out by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance, quantum calculations and SEM measurements. The data obtained for the first amine showed the minimum inhibition efficiency (65.5%, meanwhile the maximum inhibition efficiency was 78.9% for its propoxylated derivative. On the other hand the maximium inhibition efficiency was 91% for the second propoxylated amine. The electronic properties; HOMO and LUMO energy levels, energy gap, dipole moment, polarizability, log P, total energy, charge densities, area/molecule and hydration energy have been calculated. The inhibition efficiency was calculated theoretically using the electronic parameters. From the obtained results, there is a significant difference between the inhibition efficiency of the electronic and the inhibition efficiency experimentally. The results were discussed on the light of the chemical structure of the used inhibitors. In general, the inhibition efficiency is affected by the shape and structure of the molecule.
Kumar, Indrajit; Priyam, Amiya; Choubey, Ravi Kant
2013-06-01
Supersaturation controlled synthesis of thioglycollic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots in aqueous medium has been carried out. With a four-fold increase in the degree of supersaturation, the photoluminescence quantum efficiency of the nanoparticles was enhanced more than five times to a remarkably high value of 46%. This was accompanied by concomitant narrowing of the size distribution of the QDs. The simplified approach obviates the need for post-preparative treatments to improve the particle characteristics.
Shevchenko, E. A.; Nechaev, D. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A.
2016-08-01
We present photoluminescence studies of AIxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN (y = x+0.3) quantum well (QW) heterostructures with graded AI content in barrier layers, emitting in the range 285-315 nm. The best-established internal quantum efficiency of the QW emission is as high as 81% at 300 K, owing to enhanced activation energy of charge carriers and exciton binding energy in the QW heterostructure with optimized design.
Lin, Ting-An; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Tsai, Wei-Lung; Lee, Wei-Kai; Wu, Meng-Jung; Jiao, Min; Pan, Kuan-Chung; Yi, Chih-Lung; Chung, Chin-Lung; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wu, Chung-Chih
2016-08-01
Extremely efficient sky-blue organic electroluminescence with external quantum efficiency of ≈37% is achieved in a conventional planar device structure, using a highly efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter based on the spiroacridine-triazine hybrid and simultaneously possessing nearly unitary (100%) photoluminescence quantum yield, excellent thermal stability, and strongly horizontally oriented emitting dipoles (with a horizontal dipole ratio of 83%).
Scemama, Anthony; Caffarel, Michel; Oseret, Emmanuel; Jalby, William
2013-04-30
Various strategies to implement efficiently quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations for large chemical systems are presented. These include: (i) the introduction of an efficient algorithm to calculate the computationally expensive Slater matrices. This novel scheme is based on the use of the highly localized character of atomic Gaussian basis functions (not the molecular orbitals as usually done), (ii) the possibility of keeping the memory footprint minimal, (iii) the important enhancement of single-core performance when efficient optimization tools are used, and (iv) the definition of a universal, dynamic, fault-tolerant, and load-balanced framework adapted to all kinds of computational platforms (massively parallel machines, clusters, or distributed grids). These strategies have been implemented in the QMC=Chem code developed at Toulouse and illustrated with numerical applications on small peptides of increasing sizes (158, 434, 1056, and 1731 electrons). Using 10-80 k computing cores of the Curie machine (GENCI-TGCC-CEA, France), QMC=Chem has been shown to be capable of running at the petascale level, thus demonstrating that for this machine a large part of the peak performance can be achieved. Implementation of large-scale QMC simulations for future exascale platforms with a comparable level of efficiency is expected to be feasible. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul, E-mail: paul.tavan@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Lehrstuhl für BioMolekulare Optik, Ludwig–Maximilians Universität München, Oettingenstr. 67, 80538 München (Germany)
2015-03-14
Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online.
Titanium oxide morphology controls charge collection efficiency in quantum dot solar cells.
Kolay, Ankita; Kumar, P Naresh; Kumar, Sarode Krishna; Deepa, Melepurath
2017-02-08
Charge transfer at the TiO2/quantum dots (QDs) interface, charge collection at the TiO2/QDs/current collector (FTO or SnO2:F) interface, and back electron transfer at the TiO2/QDs/S(2-) interface are processes controlled by the electron transport layer or TiO2. These key processes control the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs). Here, four TiO2 morphologies, porous nanoparticles (PNPs), nanowires (NWs), nanosheets (NSHs) and nanoparticles (NPs), were sensitized with CdS and the photovoltaic performances were compared. The marked differences in the cell parameters on going from one morphology to the other have been explained by correlating the shape, structure and the above-described interfacial properties of a given TiO2 morphology to the said parameters. The average magnitudes of PCEs follow the order: NWs (5.96%) > NPs (4.95%) > PNPs (4.85%) > NSHs (2.5%), with the champion cell based on NWs exhibiting a PCE of 6.29%. For NWs, an optimal balance between the fast photo-excited electron injection to NWs at the NW/CdS interface, the high resistance offered at the TiO2 NW/CdS/S(2-) interfaces to electron recombination with the oxidized electrolyte or with the holes in CdS, the low electron transport resistance in NWs, and low dark currents, yields the highest efficiency due to directional unhindered transport of electrons afforded by the NWs. For NSHs, electron trapping in the two dimensional sheets, and a high electron recombination rate prevent the effective transfer of electrons to FTO, thus reducing short circuit current density significantly, resulting in a poor performance. This study provides a deep understanding of charge transfer, transport and collection processes necessary for the design of efficient QDSCs.
Detective quantum efficiency of photon-counting x-ray detectors.
Tanguay, Jesse; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A
2015-01-01
Single-photon-counting (SPC) x-ray imaging has the potential to improve image quality and enable novel energy-dependent imaging methods. Similar to conventional detectors, optimizing image SPC quality will require systems that produce the highest possible detective quantum efficiency (DQE). This paper builds on the cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) framework to develop a comprehensive description of the DQE of SPC detectors that implement adaptive binning. The DQE of SPC systems can be described using the CSA approach by propagating the probability density function (PDF) of the number of image-forming quanta through simple quantum processes. New relationships are developed to describe PDF transfer through serial and parallel cascades to accommodate scatter reabsorption. Results are applied to hypothetical silicon and selenium-based flat-panel SPC detectors including the effects of reabsorption of characteristic/scatter photons from photoelectric and Compton interactions, stochastic conversion of x-ray energy to secondary quanta, depth-dependent charge collection, and electronic noise. Results are compared with a Monte Carlo study. Depth-dependent collection efficiency can result in substantial broadening of photopeaks that in turn may result in reduced DQE at lower x-ray energies (20-45 keV). Double-counting interaction events caused by reabsorption of characteristic/scatter photons may result in falsely inflated image signal-to-noise ratio and potential overestimation of the DQE. The CSA approach is extended to describe signal and noise propagation through photoelectric and Compton interactions in SPC detectors, including the effects of escape and reabsorption of emission/scatter photons. High-performance SPC systems can be achieved but only for certain combinations of secondary conversion gain, depth-dependent collection efficiency, electronic noise, and reabsorption characteristics.
Detective quantum efficiency of photon-counting x-ray detectors
Tanguay, Jesse, E-mail: jessetan@mail.ubc.ca [Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canadaand Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Yun, Seungman [Biomedical Engineering Program, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canadaand School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-73 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Kyung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-73 (Korea, Republic of); Cunningham, Ian A. [Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Program, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada)
2015-01-15
Purpose: Single-photon-counting (SPC) x-ray imaging has the potential to improve image quality and enable novel energy-dependent imaging methods. Similar to conventional detectors, optimizing image SPC quality will require systems that produce the highest possible detective quantum efficiency (DQE). This paper builds on the cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) framework to develop a comprehensive description of the DQE of SPC detectors that implement adaptive binning. Methods: The DQE of SPC systems can be described using the CSA approach by propagating the probability density function (PDF) of the number of image-forming quanta through simple quantum processes. New relationships are developed to describe PDF transfer through serial and parallel cascades to accommodate scatter reabsorption. Results are applied to hypothetical silicon and selenium-based flat-panel SPC detectors including the effects of reabsorption of characteristic/scatter photons from photoelectric and Compton interactions, stochastic conversion of x-ray energy to secondary quanta, depth-dependent charge collection, and electronic noise. Results are compared with a Monte Carlo study. Results: Depth-dependent collection efficiency can result in substantial broadening of photopeaks that in turn may result in reduced DQE at lower x-ray energies (20–45 keV). Double-counting interaction events caused by reabsorption of characteristic/scatter photons may result in falsely inflated image signal-to-noise ratio and potential overestimation of the DQE. Conclusions: The CSA approach is extended to describe signal and noise propagation through photoelectric and Compton interactions in SPC detectors, including the effects of escape and reabsorption of emission/scatter photons. High-performance SPC systems can be achieved but only for certain combinations of secondary conversion gain, depth-dependent collection efficiency, electronic noise, and reabsorption characteristics.
Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D. [Technol. Educ. Inst. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Medical Instrum. Technol.; Panayiotakis, G.S. [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Triantis, D.; Nomicos, C.D. [Department of Electronics, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Aigaleo, Athens (Greece)
1997-11-11
The spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of imaging scintillators was studied independently of the optical detector (film, photocathode, or photodiode) employed in medical imaging devices. A method was developed to experimentally determine the scintillator DQE in terms of its luminescence efficiency (LE), quantum detection efficiency, modulation transfer function, and light emission spectrum. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb and ZnSCdS:Ag scintillating screens were prepared in laboratory and were excited to luminescence by a medical X-ray tube. Maximum DQE values varied between 0.13 and 0.33 depending on the scintillator material, the screen coating weight, and the tube voltage; Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb was superior to La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb followed by ZnSCdS:Ag and Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb. This ranking was maintained at frequencies up to 100 cycles/cm. Considering the same material, DQE of thin screens was found superior to DQE of thicker screens at medium-to-high frequencies. The proposed method allows for the comparison of imaging characteristics of scintillating materials without the inclusion of optical detector imaging properties. (orig.). 20 refs.
Ramachandran, Hema; Pillai, K. P. P.; Bindu, G. R.
2016-08-01
A two-port network model for a wireless power transfer system taking into account the distributed capacitances using PP network topology with top coupling is developed in this work. The operating and maximum power transfer efficiencies are determined analytically in terms of S-parameters. The system performance predicted by the model is verified with an experiment consisting of a high power home light load of 230 V, 100 W and is tested for two forced resonant frequencies namely, 600 kHz and 1.2 MHz. The experimental results are in close agreement with the proposed model.
Internal quantum efficiency in yellow-amber light emitting AlGaN-InGaN-GaN heterostructures
Ngo, Thi Huong; Gil, Bernard; Valvin, Pierre [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb – UMR 5221, CNRS and University Montpellier, Case courier 074, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Damilano, Benjamin; Lekhal, Kaddour; De Mierry, Philippe [CRHEA-CNRS Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)
2015-09-21
We determine the internal quantum efficiency of strain-balanced AlGaN-InGaN-GaN hetero-structures designed for yellow-amber light emission, by using a recent model based on the kinetics of the photoluminescence decay initiated by Iwata et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015)]. Our results indicate that low temperature internal quantum efficiencies sit in the 50% range and we measure that adding an AlGaN layer increases the internal quantum efficiency from 50% up to 57% with respect to the GaN-InGaN case. More dramatic, it almost doubles from 2.5% up to 4.3% at room temperature.
Fischbach, Sarah; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Tauscher, Esra Burcu Yarar; Gericke, Fabian; Thoma, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Strittmatter, André; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan
2017-07-01
We present an efficient broadband single-photon source which is fabricated by a flip-chip gold-bonding technique and in-situ electron beam lithography. The device comprises a single InGaAs quantum dot that is centered at the bottom of a monolithic mesa structure and located above a gold mirror for enhanced photon-extraction efficiency. We show a photon-extraction efficiency of ηex t=(18 ±2 ) % into a numerical aperture of 0.4 and a high suppression of multi-photon events from this source with g(2 )(0 )=0.015 ±0.009 . Our deterministic device with a backside gold mirror can be combined with electrical contacts and piezo-tuning capabilities in future refinements, which represents an important step towards a spectrally tunable plug-and-play quantum-light source with broadband enhancement for photonic quantum networks.
Wei Bao; Zhicheng Su; Changcheng Zheng; Jiqiang Ning; Shijie Xu
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells (MQW) LED structure was nanotextured into quasi-one-dimensional nanowires (NWs) with different average diameters with a combination approach of Ni nanoislands as mask + dry etching. Such nanotexturing bring out several appealing effects including deeper localization of carriers and significant improvement in quantum efficiency (e.g., from 4.76% of the planar MQW structure to 12.5% of the 160 nm MQW NWs) of light emission in the whole interested...
Meng, Lingqiang; Wang, Hui; Wei, Xiaofang; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Yongzhen; Kong, Xiangbin; Lv, Xiaopeng; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Ying
2016-08-17
Highly efficiency nondoped thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with multiquantum wells structure were demonstrated. By using an emitting layer with seven quantum wells, the nondoped TADF OLEDs exhibit high efficiency with EQE of 22.6%, a current efficiency of 69 cd/A, and a power efficiency of 50 lm/W, which are higher than those of the conventional doped OLED and among the best of the TADF OLEDs. The high performance of the devices can be ascribed to effective confinement of the charges and excitons in the emission layer by the quantum well structure. The emission layer with multiquantum well structure is demonstrated to be cost effective for highly efficient nondoped TADF OLEDs and holds great potential for organic electronics.
Internal quantum efficiency and tunable colour temperature in monolithic white InGaN/GaN LED
Titkov, Ilya E.; Yadav, Amit; Zerova, Vera L.; Zulonas, Modestas; Tsatsulnikov, Andrey F.; Lundin, Wsevolod V.; Sakharov, Alexey V.; Rafailov, Edik U.
2014-03-01
Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE) of two-colour monolithic white light emitting diode (LED) was measured by temperature dependant electro-luminescence (TDEL) and analysed with modified rate equation based on ABC model. External, internal and injection efficiencies of blue and green quantum wells were analysed separately. Monolithic white LED contained one green InGaN QW and two blue QWs being separated by GaN barrier. This paper reports also the tunable behaviour of correlated colour temperature (CCT) in pulsed operation mode and effect of self-heating on device performance.
XIAO,De-Bao; TIAN,Zhi-Yuan; XI,Lu; ZHAO,Li-Yun; YANG,Wen-Sheng; YAO,Jian-Nian
2003-01-01
Organic nanocrystals of 1,3,5-triphenyl-2-pyrazoline(TPP) with a series of sizes were synthesized by reprecipitation method. The luminescence quantum efficiency of TPP nanocrystals increases from 24.2% for the nanocrystals with an average size of 300 nm to 34.6% for those with an average size of 20 nm. Surface cappinb by polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) will improve the quantum efficiency of TPP nanocrystals. The size-dependence and equilibrium between the TPP monomers and the aggregates in TPP nanocrystals.
PbSe quantum dot solar cells with more than 6% efficiency fabricated in ambient atmosphere.
Zhang, Jianbing; Gao, Jianbo; Church, Carena P; Miller, Elisa M; Luther, Joseph M; Klimov, Victor I; Beard, Matthew C
2014-10-08
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for the next generation of photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Much of the progress in QD PVs is based on using PbS QDs, partly because they are stable under ambient conditions. There is considerable interest in extending this work to PbSe QDs, which have shown an enhanced photocurrent due to multiple exciton generation (MEG). One problem complicating such device-based studies is a poor stability of PbSe QDs toward exposure to ambient air. Here we develop a direct cation exchange synthesis to produce PbSe QDs with a large range of sizes and with in situ chloride and cadmium passivation. The synthesized QDs have excellent air stability, maintaining their photoluminescence quantum yield under ambient conditions for more than 30 days. Using these QDs, we fabricate high-performance solar cells without any protection and demonstrate a power conversion efficiency exceeding 6%, which is a current record for PbSe QD solar cells.
Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography
Cahn, R. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94707 (United States); Cederstroem, B. [Royal Institute of Technology, Frescativaegen 24, 10405 Stockholm, (Sweden); Danielsson, M. [Royal Institute of Technology, Frescativaegen 24, 10405 Stockholm, (Sweden); Hall, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, Frescativaegen 24, 10405 Stockholm, (Sweden); Lundqvist, M. [Royal Institute of Technology, Frescativaegen 24, 10405 Stockholm, (Sweden); Nygren, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94707 (United States)
1999-12-01
An evaluation of the dependence of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) on the incident energy spectrum has been made for mammography. The DQE dependence on the energy spectrum has been evaluated for energy-integrating detectors, photon-counting detectors, and detectors that measure the energy of each photon. To isolate the effect of the x-ray energy spectrum the detector has been assumed to be ideal, i.e., all noise sources are assumed to be zero except for quantum fluctuations. The result shows that the improvement in DQE, if the energy-integrating detector is compared to a single-photon counting detector, is of the order of 10%. Comparing the energy-integrating detector and the detector measuring the energy for each photon the improvement is around 30% using a molybdenum anode spectrum typical in mammography. It is shown that the optimal weight factors to combine the data in the case the energy is measured are very well approximated if the weight factors are proportional to E{sup -3}. Another conclusion is that in calculating the DQE, a detector should be compared to one that uses ideal energy weighting for each photon since this provides the best signal-to-noise ratio. This has generally been neglected in the literature. (c) 1999 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Fair and Efficient Packet Scheduling Using Resilient Quantum Round-Robin
Guikai Liu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Round-robin based packet scheduling algorithms are suitable for high-speed networks, but in a variable-length packet environment, this kind of scheduling algorithm need consider packet length to guarantee scheduling fairness. Previous schemes are not perfect for fairness and efficiency. This paper presents a new easily implementable scheduling discipline, called Resilient Quantum Round-Robin (RQRR, in which the quantum given to each of the flows in a round is not fixed and is calculated depending on the transmission situation of all the flows in the previous round. We prove that the implementation complexity of RQRR is O (1 with respect to the number of flows. We analytically prove the fairness properties of RQRR, and show that its relative fairness measure has an upper bound of 7Max-1, where Max is the size of the largest packets. Finally, we present simulation results comparing the fairness and performance characteristics of RQRR with deficit round-robin (DRR, which show that RQRR achieves better short time scale fairness and scheduling delay properties.
M. Girotto
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a velocidade e intensidade de ação do hexazinone isolado e em mistura com outros inibidores do fotossistema II, através da eficiência fotossintética de Panicum maximum em pós-emergência. O ensaio foi constituído de seis tratamentos: hexazinone (250 g ha-1, tebuthiuron (1,0 kg ha-1, hexazinone + tebuthiuron (125 g ha-1 + 0,5 kg ha-1, diuron (2.400 g ha-1, hexazinone + diuron (125 + 1.200 g ha-1, metribuzin (1.440 g ha-1, hexazinone + metribuzin (125 + 720 g ha-1 e uma testemunha. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, as plantas foram transportadas para casa de vegetação sob condições controladas de temperatura e umidade, onde ficaram durante o período experimental, sendo realizadas as seguintes avaliações: taxa de transporte de elétrons e análise visual de intoxicação. A avaliação com o fluorômetro foi realizada nos intervalos de 1, 2, 6, 24, 48, 72, 120 e 168 horas após a aplicação, e as avaliações visuais, aos três e sete dias após a aplicação. Os resultados demonstraram diferença nos tratamentos, enfatizando a aplicação do diuron, que reduziu lentamente o transporte de elétrons comparado com os outros herbicidas e, em mistura com hexazinone, apresentou efeito sinérgico. Verificou-se com o uso do fluorômetro a intoxicação antecipada em plantas de P. maximum após a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II de forma isolada e em mistura.This work aimed to evaluate the speed and intensity of action of hexazinone applied alone and in combination with other photo-system II inhibitors on the photosynthetic efficiency of Panicum maximum in post-emergence. The assay consisted of six treatments: hexazinone (250 g ha-1, tebuthiuron (1.0 kg ha-1, hexazinone + tebuthiuron (125 g ha-1+ 0.5 kg ha-1, diuron (2,400 g ha-1, hexazinone + diuron (125 + 1,200 g ha-1, metribuzin