2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob
2011-01-01
The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...
Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers.
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob
2011-03-01
The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.
Discussion of liquid threshold pressure gradient
Xiukun Wang
2017-06-01
The correct interpretation is that there are two flow regimes: nonlinear flow regime (non-Darcy flow regime when the pressure gradients are low, and linear flow regime (Darcy flow regime when the pressure gradient is intermediate or high. The nonlinear flow regime starts from the origin point. As the pressure gradient is increased, the curve becomes a straight line demonstrating the linear flow regime. We have verified our views by first analyzing the causes of non-Darcy flow, and then systematically analyzed typical experimental data and correlations in the literature. We conclude that TPG does not exist. We also use several counter examples to support our conclusion.
Pressure Gradient Evolution and Substorm Onset
Zhonghua, Y.; Pu, Z.; Cao, X.; Nishimura, T.; Zhang, H.; Fu, S.; Xie, L.; Guo, R.
2011-12-01
Near-Earth current disruption (NECD) and substorm current wedge (SCW) formation are two related key phenomena for substorm onset. They are believed to be in close association with evolution of pressure gradient near the inner edge of plasma sheet. In the past, a few attempts have been made to investigate the pressure gradient in the late growth phase based on one- or two-spacecraft observations (e.g. , Korth et al., 1991; Pu et al., 1992; Shiokawa et al., 1998; Xing et al., 2010, 2011,etc). In this paper, with linearization assumption in the inner-probe region, we use THEMIS three-probe measurements to estimate the pressure gradient near the inner edge of the equatorward and duskward (dawnward) plasma sheet where pressure gradient in the Z-direction is almost vanished. We therefore can roughly get the two-dimensional pressure gradient in the X- and Y-direction simultaneously. Our observations indicate that the pressure gradients in both the X- and Y-direction enhance right after (within one minute) substorm onset. The enhanced pressure gradient in the Y-direction is duskward (dawnward) when the probes are in the duskside (dawnside) of the enhanced earthward flow in the growth phase. The enhanced dawn-dusk pressure gradients can drive downward field-aligned current (FAC) on the dawnside and upward FAC on the duskside, thus make contributions to the NECD and formation of SCW. THEMIS in situ data and all-sky auroral images for two events are presented, followed by a brief discussion.
Effect of pressure gradients on Gortler instability
Ragab, S. A.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1980-01-01
Gortler instability for boundary-layer flows over generally curved walls is considered. The full linearized disturbance equations are obtained in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. A perturbation procedure to account for second-order effects is used to determine the effects of the displacement thickness and the variation of the streamline curvature on the neutral stability of the Blasius flow. The pressure gradient in the mean flow is accounted for by solving the nonsimilar boundary-layer equations. Growth rates are obtained for the actual mean flow and the Falkner-Skan flows. The results demonstrate the strong influence of the pressure gradient and the nonsimilarity of the basic flow on the stability characteristics.
Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna
2014-01-01
By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressure...... gradient is also treated as any other turbulence quantity like velocity fluctuations and statistical properties of the vertical pressure gradient are calculated from the DNS data. The presence of a vertical pressure gradient in the near bed region has significant implications for sediment transport....
49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at a...
Noninvasive estimation of 2-D pressure gradients in steady flow using ultrasound
Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes;
2014-01-01
A noninvasive method for estimating 2-D pressure gradients from ultrasound vector velocity data is presented. It relies on vector velocity fields acquired using the transverse oscillation method during steady flow conditions. The pressure gradients are calculated from the velocity fields using...... of -7% for the axial component and -8% for the lateral component. The relative standard deviation of the estimator is 5% (axial component) and 30% (lateral component) when studying the pressure gradient across the constriction using 3 velocity frames per pressure estimate. The study shows that 2-D...... phantom. The geometry of the model is determined from magnetic resonance imaging. The presented study is conducted assuming steady flow using velocity data acquired at 18 frames per second. The proposed method shows pressure gradients at the constricted region from -8 kPa/m to 9 kPa/m, with a maximum bias...
Kuracina Richard
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the measurement of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of exposure pressure rise of wood dust cloud. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dtmax of dust clouds. The wood dust cloud in the chamber is achieved mechanically. The testing of explosions of wood dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value is 7.95 bar. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value was 68 bar / s.
Luminescence from cavitation bubbles deformed in uniform pressure gradients
Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed
2017-09-01
Presented here are observations that demonstrate how the deformation of millimetric cavitation bubbles by a uniform pressure gradient quenches single-collapse luminescence. Our innovative measurement system captures a broad luminescence spectrum (wavelength range, 300-900 nm) from the individual collapses of laser-induced bubbles in water. By varying the bubble size, driving pressure, and perceived gravity level aboard parabolic flights, we probed the limit from aspherical to highly spherical bubble collapses. Luminescence was detected for bubbles of maximum radii within the previously uncovered range, R0=1.5 -6 mm, for laser-induced bubbles. The relative luminescence energy was found to rapidly decrease as a function of the bubble asymmetry quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ , which is the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. As established previously, ζ also dictates the characteristic parameters of bubble-driven microjets. The threshold of ζ beyond which no luminescence is observed in our experiment closely coincides with the threshold where the microjets visibly pierce the bubble and drive a vapor jet during the rebound. The individual fitted blackbody temperatures range between Tlum=7000 and Tlum=11 500 K but do not show any clear trend as a function of ζ . Time-resolved measurements using a high-speed photodetector disclose multiple luminescence events at each bubble collapse. The averaged full width at half-maximum of the pulse is found to scale with R0 and to range between 10 and 20 ns.
Pressure Gradient Estimation Based on Ultrasonic Blood Flow Measurement
Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro; Shiina, Tsuyoshi
2006-05-01
Mechanical load to the blood vessel wall, such as shear stress and pressure, which occurs in blood flow dynamics, contribute greatly to plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and to biochemical activation of endothelial cells. Therefore, noninvasive estimations of these mechanical loads are able to provide useful information for the prevention of vascular diseases. Although the pressure is the dominant component of mechanical load, for practical purposes, the pressure gradient is also often important. So far, we have investigated the estimation of the kinematic viscosity coefficient using a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations and ultrasonic velocity measurement. In this paper, a method for pressure gradient estimation using the estimated kinematic viscosity coefficient is proposed. The validity of the proposed method was investigated on the basis of the analysis with the data obtained by computer simulation and a flow phantom experiment. These results revealed that the proposed method can provide a valid estimation of the pressure gradient.
2010-10-01
... distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough to...) No person may operate a low pressure distribution system at a pressure lower than the minimum... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum and minimum allowable operating...
49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.
2010-10-01
... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a segment of a high pressure distribution system at a pressure that exceeds the... segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage,...
Non-invasive measurement of pressure gradients using ultrasound
Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes
2013-01-01
A non-invasive method for estimating 2-D pressure gradients from ultrasound vector velocity data is presented. The method relies on in-plane vector velocity fields acquired using the Transverse Oscillation method. The pressure gradients are estimated by applying the Navier-Stokes equations...... Medical 2202 UltraView Pro Focus scanner. The results are validated through finite element simulations of the carotid flow model where the geometry is determined from MR images. This proof of concept study was conducted at nine ultrasound frames per second. Estimated pressure gradients along...... the longitudinal direction of the constriction varied from 0 kPa/m to 10 kPa/m with a normalized bias of -9.1% for the axial component and -7.9% for the lateral component. The relative standard deviation of the estimator, given in reference to the peak gradient, was 28.4% in the axial direction and 64...
Scale analysis of turbulent channel flow with varying pressure gradient
邱翔; 罗剑平; 黄永祥; 卢志明; 刘宇陆
2014-01-01
In this paper orthogonal wavelet transformations are applied to decompose experimental velocity signals in fully develo-ped channel flows with varying pressure gradient into scales. We analyze the time series from turbulent data, to obtain the statistical characteristics, correlations between the adjacent scales and the principal scale of coherent structures in different scales by wavelet transformations. The results show that, in the counter gradient transport (CGT) region, skewness factors and flatness factors deviate strongly from the corresponding values of Gaussian distribution on certain scales. PDFs on each scale confirm this observation. Scale-scale correlations show further that the fluctuations on some certain special scales are more intermittent than nearby. Principal scale of coherent structure is coincident with the scales on which the statistical properties depart from Gaussian distribution. These features are the same for different families of wavelets, and it also shows some different features in the region between favorable pressure gradient and adverse pressure gradient.
Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård
The present study covers both a numerical and experimental investigation of the processes in the oscillatory boundary layer. In the first part a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to study the vertical pressure gradient, and its role in relation to laminar to turbulent transition...... and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence....... This is in contrast to velocity fluctuations that are diffusive, so they can also contain residual turbulence from the previous half cycle until they are dissipated. Furthermore, the magnitude of the mean value of conditionally averaged vertical pressure gradient (for −∂p∗/∂x∗ 2 > 0) is compared to the submerged...
Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.
2016-03-01
In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.
Redshift drift in a pressure gradient cosmology
Balcerzak, Adam
2012-01-01
We derive the redshift drift formula for the inhomogeneous pressure spherically symmetric Stephani universes which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. We show that there is a clear difference between the redshift drift predictions for these two models. The Stephani models have positive drift values at small redshift and behave qualitatively as the $\\Lambda$CDM models while the drift for LTB models is always negative. This prediction can be tested in future space experiments such as E-ELT, TMT, GMT or CODEX.
Study of maximum pressure for composite hepta-tubular powders
M. C. Gupta
1959-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper the expressions for maximum pressure occurring positions in the case of composite hepta-tubular powers used in conventional guns and the corresponding conditions have been derived under certain conditions, viz., the value of n, the ratio of specific heats, has been assumed to be the same for both the charges and the covolume corrections have not been neglected.
Nonparallel stability of boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction
Saric, W. S.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1977-01-01
An analysis is presented for the linear nonparallel stability of boundary layer flows with pressure gradients and suction. The effect of the boundary layer growth is included by using the method of multiple scales. The present analysis is compared with those of Bouthier and Gaster and the roles of the different definitions of the amplification rates are discussed. The results of these theories are compared with experimental data for the Blasius boundary layer. Calculations are presented for stability characteristics of boundary layers with pressure gradients and nonsimilar suction distributions.
Maximum bubble pressure rheology of low molecular mass organogels.
Fei, Pengzhan; Wood, Steven J; Chen, Yan; Cavicchi, Kevin A
2015-01-13
Maximum bubble pressure rheology is used to characterize organogels of 0.25 wt % 12-hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) in mineral oil, 3 wt % (1,3:2,4) dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) in poly(ethylene glycol), and 1 wt % 1,3:2,4-bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol (DMDBS) in poly(ethylene glycol). The maximum pressure required to inflate a bubble at the end of capillary inserted in a gel is measured. This pressure is related to the gel modulus in the case of elastic cavitation and the gel modulus and toughness in the case of irreversible fracture. The 12-HSA/mineral oil gels are used to demonstrate that this is a facile technique useful for studying time-dependent gel formation and aging and the thermal transition from a gel to a solution. Comparison is made to both qualitative gel tilting measurements and quantitative oscillatory shear rheology to highlight the utility of this measurement and its complementary nature to oscillatory shear rheology. The DBS and DMDBS demonstrate the generality of this measurement to measure gel transition temperatures.
Luminescence from cavitation bubbles deformed in uniform pressure gradients
Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed
2017-01-01
Presented here are observations that demonstrate how the deformation of millimetric cavitation bubbles by a uniform pressure gradient quenches single collapse luminescence. Our innovative measurement system captures a broad luminescence spectrum (wavelength range 300-900 nm) from the individual collapses of laser-induced bubbles in water. By varying the bubble size, driving pressure and the perceived gravity level aboard parabolic flights, we probed the limit from aspherical to highly spheric...
Bian, Liheng; Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Yang, Changhuei; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai
2016-01-01
Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is a novel computational coherent imaging technique for high space-bandwidth product imaging. Mathematically, Fourier ptychographic (FP) reconstruction can be implemented as a phase retrieval optimization process, in which we only obtain low resolution intensity images corresponding to the sub-bands of the sample's high resolution (HR) spatial spectrum, and aim to retrieve the complex HR spectrum. In real setups, the measurements always suffer from various degenerations such as Gaussian noise, Poisson noise, speckle noise and pupil location error, which would largely degrade the reconstruction. To efficiently address these degenerations, we propose a novel FP reconstruction method under a gradient descent optimization framework in this paper. The technique utilizes Poisson maximum likelihood for better signal modeling, and truncated Wirtinger gradient for error removal. Results on both simulated data and real data captured using our laser FPM setup show that the proposed...
Pressure-gradient-induced Alfven eigenmodes: 2. Kinetic excitation with ion temperature gradient
Bierwage, Andreas; Zonca, Fulvio
2009-01-01
The kinetic excitation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discrete Alfven eigenmodes in the second MHD ballooning stable domain is studied in the presence of a thermal ion temperature gradient (ITG), using linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of a local flux tube in shifted-circle tokamak geometry. The instabilities are identified as alpha-induced toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (alphaTAE); that is, bound states trapped between pressure-gradient-induced potential barriers of the Schroedinger equation for shear Alfven waves. Using numerical tools, we examine in detail the effect of kinetic thermal ion compression on alphaTAEs; both non-resonant coupling to ion sound waves and wave-particle resonances. It is shown that the Alfvenic ITG instability thresholds (e.g., the critical temperature gradient) are determined by two resonant absorption mechanisms: Landau damping and continuum damping. The numerical results are interpreted on the basis of a theoretical framework previously derived from a variational f...
Radiation Pressure Acceleration: the factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy
Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Leemans, W P
2016-01-01
Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it trans...
Study of the starting pressure gradient in branching network
无
2010-01-01
In order to increase the production of oil in low permeability reservoirs with high efficiency,it is necessary to fully understand the properties and special behaviors of the reservoirs and correctly describe the flow in the reservoirs.This paper applies the branching network mode to the study of the starting pressure gradient of nonlinear Newtonian fluid (Bingham fluid) in the reservoirs with low permeability based on the fact that the fractured network may exist in the reservoirs.The proposed model for starting pressure gradient is a function of yield stress,microstructural parameters of the network.The proposed model may have the potential in further exploiting the mechanisms of flow in porous media with fractured network.
46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55... POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure...
PRESSURE GRADIENT FROM THE CONTRIBUTION OF BOTH GEOTHERMAL AND GRAVITY IN THE LITHOSPHERE
无
2005-01-01
The pressure gradient of the lithosphere is a key to explaining various geological processes, and varies also in time and space similar to the geothermal gradient. In this paper a correlation formula of geothermal gradients and pressure gradients was built with the thermocomprestion coefficients. Based on this formula, the article has studied the relation between the pressure gradients and the geothermal gradients in the lithosphere, and the results indicate that the pressure gradient in the lithosphere is nonlinear, and its minimum value is the lithostatic gradient, and that the pressure gradient of the lithosphere will increase obviously with the contribution of both geothermal and gravity, and could be twice times more than the lithostatic gradient.
Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V; Linsley, Braddock K; Tudhope, Alexander W; Gagan, Michael K; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L; Esat, Tezer M; Thompson, William G; Tiwari, Manish; Potts, Donald C; Mudelsee, Manfred; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Webster, Jody M
2014-06-17
Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and δ(18)O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 °C larger temperature decrease between 17° and 20°S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial meridional temperature change during the last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous deglacial drying of northeastern Australia. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and may be more resilient than previously thought.
Ice Particles Trapped by Temperature Gradients at mbar Pressure
Kelling, Thorben; Dürmann, Christoph
2011-01-01
In laboratory experiments we observe that ice particles (\\leq100 \\mu m) entrained in a low pressure atmosphere (~1 mbar) get trapped by temperature gradients between three reservoirs at different tempertature. Confining elements are a peltier element at 250 K (bottom), a liquid nitrogen reservoir at 77 K (top) and the surrounding vacuum chamber at 293 K. Particle levitation and trapping is modeled by an interplay of thermophoresis, photophoresis and gravity. A number of ice particles are trapped simultaneously in close spatial distance to each other at least up to minutes and are accessible for further experiments.
Maximum Pressure Evaluation during Expulsion of Entrapped Air from Pressurized Pipelines
Diana Maria Bucur
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Pressurized pipeline systems may have a wide operating regime. This paper presents the experimental analysis of the transient flow in a horizontal pipe containing an air pocket, which allows the ventilation of the air after the pressurization of the hydraulic system, through an orifice placed at the downstream end. The measurements are made on a laboratory set-up, for different supply pressures and various geometries of water column length, air pocket and expulsion orifice diameter. Dimensional analysis is carried out in order to determine a relation between the parameters influencing the maximum pressure value. A two equations model is obtained and a criterion is established for their use. The equations are validated with experimental data from the present laboratory set-up and with other data available in the literature. The results presented as non-dimensional quantities variations show a good agreement with the previous experimental and analytical researches.
Investigation of pressure gradient aware wall modeling in LES
Thiry, Olivier; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Duponcheel, Matthieu
2015-11-01
This work focuses on the investigation of various wall modeling strategies for the simulation of high Reynolds number wall-bounded turbulent flows with acceleration and/or deceleration. Our code is based on fourth order finite differences, is momentum conserving, and is energy conserving up to fourth order. We here use a ``channel flow'' set-up, with no slip and wall modeling at the bottom, with slip at the top, and with blowing and/or suction at the top in order to generate the desired acceleration-deceleration profile. Two strategies are investigated and compared. Pressure gradient corrected algebraic models are first considered, and we investigate various local averaging techniques so as to avoid imposing mean profile laws pointwise. RANS sub-layer models are then also considered, where the turbulent viscosity is corrected to account for pressure gradient effects and for resolved LES fluctuations effects. A wall-resolved LES was also performed to provide a reference solution. Research fellow (Ph.D. student) at the F.R.S. - FNRS (Belgium).
Broeckhoven, K; Verstraeten, M; Choikhet, K; Dittmann, M; Witt, K; Desmet, G
2011-02-25
We report on a general theoretical assessment of the potential kinetic advantages of running LC gradient elution separations in the constant-pressure mode instead of in the customarily used constant-flow rate mode. Analytical calculations as well as numerical simulation results are presented. It is shown that, provided both modes are run with the same volume-based gradient program, the constant-pressure mode can potentially offer an identical separation selectivity (except from some small differences induced by the difference in pressure and viscous heating trajectory), but in a significantly shorter time. For a gradient running between 5 and 95% of organic modifier, the decrease in analysis time can be expected to be of the order of some 20% for both water-methanol and water-acetonitrile gradients, and only weakly depending on the value of V(G)/V₀ (or equivalently t(G)/t₀). Obviously, the gain will be smaller when the start and end composition lie closer to the viscosity maximum of the considered water-organic modifier system. The assumptions underlying the obtained results (no effects of pressure and temperature on the viscosity or retention coefficient) are critically reviewed, and can be inferred to only have a small effect on the general conclusions. It is also shown that, under the adopted assumptions, the kinetic plot theory also holds for operations where the flow rate varies with the time, as is the case for constant-pressure operation. Comparing both operation modes in a kinetic plot representing the maximal peak capacity versus time, it is theoretically predicted here that both modes can be expected to perform equally well in the fully C-term dominated regime (where H varies linearly with the flow rate), while the constant pressure mode is advantageous for all lower flow rates. Near the optimal flow rate, and for linear gradients running from 5 to 95% organic modifier, time gains of the order of some 20% can be expected (or 25-30% when accounting for
PRESSURE AND PRESSURE GRADIENT IN AN AXISYMMETRIC RIGID VESSEL WITH STENOSIS
无
2006-01-01
Based on an improvement of the Karman-Pohlhausen's method, using nonlinear polynomial fitting and numerical integral, the axial distributions of pressure and its gradient in an axisymmetric rigid vessel with stenosis were obtained, and the distributions related to Reynolds number and the geometry of stenotic vessel were discussed. It shows that with the increasing of stenotic degree or Reynolds number, the fluctuation of pressure and its gradient in stenotic area is intense rapidly, and negative pressure occurs subsequently in the diverging part of stenotic area. Especially when the axial range of stenosis extends, the flow of blood in the diverging part will be more obviously changed.In higher Reynolds number or heavy stenosis, theoretical calculation is mainly in accordance with past experiments.
High Pressure, High Gradient RF Cavities for Muon Beam Cooling
Johnson, R P
2004-01-01
High intensity, low emittance muon beams are needed for new applications such as muon colliders and neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. Ionization cooling, where muon energy is lost in a low-Z absorber and only the longitudinal component is regenerated using RF cavities, is presently the only known cooling technique that is fast enough to be effective in the short muon lifetime. RF cavities filled with high-pressure hydrogen gas bring two advantages to the ionization technique: the energy absorption and energy regeneration happen simultaneously rather than sequentially, and higher RF gradients and better cavity breakdown behavior are possible than in vacuum due to the Paschen effect. These advantages and some disadvantages and risks will be discussed along with a description of the present and desired RF R&D efforts needed to make accelerators and colliders based on muon beams less futuristic.
Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness
Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano
2010-04-01
An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.
Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient
Huang, Hai [Idaho National Laboratory; Mattson, Earl Douglas [Idaho National Laboratory; Podgorney, Robert Karl [Idaho National Laboratory
2015-04-01
A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.
Roughness induced flow separation in adverse pressure gradient
Joo, Jongwook; Emory, Mike; Bose, Sanjeeb; Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om
2016-11-01
Surface roughness does not only increase turbulent mixing, but also thickens boundary-layers, making flows more susceptible to separation. Detailed flow physics related to the separation is not understood well. Bammert and Milsch (1972) demonstrates a clear example of surface roughness induced separation under adverse pressure gradient. In the study, compressor cascades with NACA 65 airfoils are systematically roughened and the flow over suction surface gradually separates early as roughness increases. A set of Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) over the Bammert's case is investigated, since RANS simulations using roughness models suffer from capturing the separation. In the current study, surface roughness is represented in two different approaches; 1) Realistic rough surface represented by stochastically distributed hills and valleys are gridded and solved with unstructured finite volume method, 2) Using block-structured grid, surface roughness is gridded as a staggered array of 3D rectangles, in a similar way of the previous study for roughened low pressure turbine (GT2016-57912). The current LES's capture rich features of the flow phenomena, which will bring comprehensive understanding of the roughness induced separation. This collaboration is made through 2016 CTR Summer Program.
Bergboer, N.H; Verdult, V.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.
2002-01-01
We present a numerically efficient implementation of the nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood identification of multivariable linear time-invariant (LTI) state-space models. This implementation is based on a local parameterization of the system and a gradient search in the resulting parame
The effect of pressure gradient on the structure of an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer
Lei, Ting-Kwo
1993-01-01
Hot-wire anemometry was used to study the effect of adverse pressure gradient on the large-scale structures of equilibrium turbulent boundary layers. A previously existing zero-pressure gradient wind tunnel was modified into an adverse-pressure gradient wind tunnel, which had the capability of creating designated adverse-pressure gradient equilibrium turbulent boundary layer flows. The range of the equilibrium parameter beta was from 0.0 to 1.8 along a 1.50 m long test section of the wind tunnel. Computer programs were developed to predict the geometric shape of the test section for an equilibrium adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer flow. The numerical prediction of the test section geometry was found to be satisfactory and a substantial effort was saved in the establishment of an equilibrium boundary layer. Three equilibrium boundary layer flows at values of beta = 0.0, 0.8, and 1.8, which respectively represents zero, mild, and strong adverse pressure gradient, were established and were found to be suitable for turbulence structure measurements. Space-time correlation measurements were carried out to determine the convection velocities and inclination angles of the large-scale structures for the three different pressure gradient cases. The convection velocity measurements were performed at various heights which ranged form y(sup +) = 225 to 525 for each beta value. It was found that, within the range of height of the measurements, the convection velocity was independent of height In the case of the strong adverse-pressure gradient flow, the convection velocity was observed to be much lower than the convection velocity observed in the case of zero-pressure gradient. In the case of the mild-pressure gradient flow, it was observed that the pressure gradient effect on the convection velocity was negligible as compared to the zero-pressure gradient case. The inclination angle in the case of strong-pressure gradient case was found to be much greater than
The role of pressure anisotropy on the maximum mass of cold compact stars
Karmakar, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Sharma, R.; Maharaj, S.D.
2007-01-01
We study the physical features of a class of exact solutions for cold compact anisotropic stars. The effect of pressure anisotropy on the maximum mass and surface redshift is analysed in the Vaidya-Tikekar model. It is shown that maximum compactness, redshift and mass increase in the presence of anisotropic pressures; numerical values are generated which are in agreement with observation.
Measurement of Threshold Pressure Gradient of Microchannels by Static Method
SONG Fu-Quan; JIANG Ren-Jie; BIAN Shu-Li
2007-01-01
The development of oil fields and laboratory experiment present the threshold pressure gradient (TPG) of liquid flow in low permeability porous media, which is called the micro-size effect in porous media. Some micro-size effects in micro-electro-mechanism systems (MEMS) are not always in agreement with each other. We propose an experiment setup to measure the TPG of microchannels by static method in the microchannels with the diameter ranging from 20-320 μm. The results present the existence of TPG in microchannel, and show an effect that the TPG of microchannel increases with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter. The relation between TPG and diameter is in agreement with single-log normalization. Additionally, the influence of errors in the experiment shows the data of experiment are valid. Finally, the mechanism of micro-size effects is discussed by revealing the facial force between liquid and solid and theory of boundary liquid, but the explanation is still not good, and needs further study.
On the Law of Equal Pressure Maximum%等压最大值定律
王子佳
2011-01-01
This paper states the law of equal pressure maximum, including： the law of gas temperature T＇s equal pressure maximum; the law of gas volume X＇s equal pressure maximum; the law of gas cubage V＇s equal pressure maximum; the law of unit gas volume X＇s equal pressure maximum.%阐述了等压最大值定律，包括：（1）瓦斯温度T等压最大值定律，（2）瓦斯量N等压最大值定律，（3）瓦斯容积V等压最大值定律，（4）单位容积瓦斯量x等压最大值定律4种．
49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.
2010-10-01
... operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable operating... design pressure of the weakest element in the segment, determined in accordance with subparts C and D of... K of this part, if any variable necessary to determine the design pressure under the design...
Kang, Ji Yun; Kim, Jung Gi; Park, Hyo Wook; Kim, Hyoung Seop
2016-05-27
The concept of multiscale architectured materials is established using composition and grain size gradients. Composition-gradient nanostructured materials are produced from coarse grained interstitial free steels via carburization and high-pressure torsion. Quantitative analyses of the dislocation density using X-ray diffraction and microstructural studies clearly demonstrate the gradients of the dislocation density and grain size. The mechanical properties of the gradient materials are compared with homogeneous nanostructured carbon steel without a composition gradient in an effort to investigate the gradient effect. Based on the above observations, the potential of multiscale architecturing to open a new material property is discussed.
Raynald Labrecque
2009-11-01
Full Text Available It is known that mechanical work, and in turn electricity, can be produced from a difference in the chemical potential that may result from a salinity gradient. Such a gradient may be found, for instance, in an estuary where a stream of soft water is flooding into a sink of salty water which we may find in an ocean, gulf or salt lake. Various technological approaches are proposed for the production of energy from a salinity gradient between a stream of soft water and a source of salty water. Before considering the implementation of a typical technology, it is of utmost importance to be able to compare various technological approaches, on the same basis, using the appropriate variables and mathematical formulations. In this context, exergy balance can become a very useful tool for an easy and quick evaluation of the maximum thermodynamic work that can be produced from energy systems. In this short paper, we briefly introduce the use of exergy for enabling us to easily and quickly assess the theoretical maximum power or ideal reversible work we may expect from typical salinity gradient energy systems.
Importance of pressure gradient in solid oxide fuel cell electrodes for modeling study
Ni, Meng; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Leung, Michael K. H.
The pressure gradients in the electrodes of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are frequently neglected without any justification in calculating the concentration overpotentials of the SOFC electrodes in modeling studies. In this short communication, a comparative study has been conducted to study the effect of pressure gradients on mass transfer and the resulting concentration overpotentials of an SOFC running on methane (CH 4) fuel. It is found that the pressure gradients in both anode and cathode are significant in the fuel cell electrochemical activities. Neglecting the anode pressure gradient in the calculation can lead to underestimation of the concentration overpotential by about 20% at a typical current density of 5000 A m -2 and at a temperature of 1073 K. The deviation can be even larger at a higher temperature. At the cathode, neglecting the pressure gradient can result in overestimation of the concentration overpotential by about 10% under typical working conditions.
The role of pressure anisotropy on the maximum mass of cold compact stars
Karmakar, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Sharma, R.; Maharaj, S. D.
2007-06-01
We study the physical features of a class of exact solutions for cold compact anisotropic stars. The effect of pressure anisotropy on the maximum mass and surface red-shift is analysed in the Vaidya--Tikekar model. It is shown that maximum compactness, red-shift and mass increase in the presence of anisotropic pressures; numerical values are generated which are in agreement with observation.
The role of pressure anisotropy on the maximum mass of cold compact stars
S Karmakar; S Mukherjee; S Sharma; S D Maharaj
2007-06-01
We study the physical features of a class of exact solutions for cold compact anisotropic stars. The effect of pressure anisotropy on the maximum mass and surface red-shift is analysed in the Vaidya–Tikekar model. It is shown that maximum compactness, red-shift and mass increase in the presence of anisotropic pressures; numerical values are generated which are in agreement with observation.
Semenov, Semen; Schimpf, Martin
2004-01-01
The movement of molecules and homopolymer chains dissolved in a nonelectrolyte solvent in response to a temperature gradient is considered a consequence of temperature-induced pressure gradients in the solvent layer surrounding the solute molecules. Local pressure gradients are produced by nonuniform London-van der Waals interactions, established by gradients in the concentration (density) of solvent molecules. The density gradient is produced by variations in solvent thermal expansion within the nonuniform temperature field. The resulting expression for the velocity of the solute contains the Hamaker constants for solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, the radius of the solute molecule, and the viscosity and cubic coefficient of thermal expansion of the solvent. In this paper we consider an additional force that arises from directional asymmetry in the interaction between solvent molecules. In a closed cell, the resulting macroscopic pressure gradient gives rise to a volume force that affects the motion of dissolved solutes. An expression for this macroscopic pressure gradient is derived and the resulting force is incorporated into the expression for the solute velocity. The expression is used to calculate thermodiffusion coefficients for polystyrene in several organic solvents. When these values are compared to those measured in the laboratory, the consistency is better than that found in previous reports, which did not consider the macroscopic pressure gradient that arises in a closed thermodiffusion cell. The model also allows for the movement of solute in either direction, depending on the relative values of the solvent and solute Hamaker constants.
R. van Mastrigt (Ron)
1990-01-01
textabstractThe contractility of the urinary bladder can be adequately described in terms of the parameters P0 (isometric pressure) and Vmax (maximum contraction velocity). In about 12% of urodynamic evaluations of patients these clinically relevant parameters can be calculated from pressure and flo
On the maximum likelihood training of gradient-enhanced spatial Gaussian processes
Zimmermann, Ralf
2013-01-01
Spatial Gaussian processes, alias spatial linear models or Kriging estimators, are a powerful and well-established tool for the design and analysis of computer experiments in a multitude of engineering applications. A key challenge in constructing spatial Gaussian processes is the training...... to incorporate the cross-correlations between the function values and their partial deriva- tives in the maximum likelihood estimation. In this paper it is proved that in consistency with the model assumptions, both the autocorrelations and the aforementioned cross-correlations must be considered when optimizing...
Comparison of Coral Reef Ecosystems along a Fishing Pressure Gradient
Weijerman, M.W.; Fulton, E.A.; Parrish, F.A.
2013-01-01
Three trophic mass-balance models representing coral reef ecosystems along a fishery gradient were compared to evaluate ecosystem effects of fishing. The majority of the biomass estimates came directly from a large-scale visual survey program; therefore, data were collected in the same way for all t
On the impact of adverse pressure gradient on the supersonic turbulent boundary layer
Wang, Qian-Cheng; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Zhao, Yu-Xin
2016-11-01
By employing the particle image velocimetry, the mean and turbulent characteristics of a Mach 2.95 turbulent boundary layer are experimentally investigated without the impact of curvature. The physical mechanism with which the streamwise adverse pressure gradient affects the supersonic boundary layer is revealed. The data are compared to that of the concave boundary layer with similar streamwise distributions of wall static pressure to clarify the separate impacts of the adverse pressure gradient and the concave curvature. The logarithmic law is observed to be well preserved for both of the cases. The dip below the logarithmic law is not observed in present investigation. Theoretical analysis indicates that it could be the result of compromise between the opposite impacts of the compression wave and the increased turbulent intensity. Compared to the zero pressure gradient boundary layer, the principal strain rate and the turbulent intensities are increased by the adverse pressure gradient. The shear layer formed due the hairpin packets could be sharpened by the compression wave, which leads to higher principal strain rate and the associated turbulent level. Due to the additional impact of the centrifugal instability brought by the concave wall, even higher turbulent intensities than that of the adverse pressure gradient case are introduced. The existence of velocity modes within the zero pressure gradient boundary layer suggests that the large scale motions are statistically well organized. The generation of new velocity modes due to the adverse pressure gradient indicates that the turbulent structure is changed by the adverse pressure gradient, through which more turbulence production that cannot be effectively predicted by the Reynolds-stress transport equations could be brought.
Foulger, G.R.
1995-01-01
Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author
Large eddies induced by local impulse at wall of boundary layer with pressure gradients
Changgen Lu; Weidong Cao; Yanmei Zhang; Jintao Peng
2008-01-01
Large eddies induced by local impulse at the wall with pressure gradients in the boundary layer was studied by direct numerical sim-ulations. The results show that the amplitude evolution, the high and low speed stripes, the formation of streamwise vortices, the ejection and sweeping, inflexions and distortion at the mean velocity profiles, as well as other characteristics, are consistent with the experimental and other numerical results. It is also found that large eddies are easy to be excited with adverse pressure gradient in the boundary layer,and the growth of amplitudes, formation of streamwise vortices and the influencing area etc., are much larger than those with favorable pressure gradient in the boundary layer. In contrast, large eddies are hardly to be induced through local impulse disturbance at the wall with favorable pressure gradients in the boundary layer.
Quantifying dynamic changes in plantar pressure gradient in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy
Chi-Wen Lung
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Diabetic foot ulcers remain one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Peak plantar pressure (PPP and peak pressure gradient (PPG during walking have been shown to be associated with the development of diabetic foot ulcers. To gain further insight into the mechanical etiology of diabetic foot ulcers, examination of the pressure gradient angle (PGA has been recently proposed. The PGA quantifies directional variation or orientation of the pressure gradient during walking, and provides a measure of whether pressure gradient patterns are concentrated or dispersed along the plantar surface. We hypothesized that diabetics at risk of foot ulceration would have smaller PGA in key plantar regions, suggesting less movement of the pressure gradient over time. A total of 27 participants were studied, including 19 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and 8 non-diabetic control subjects. A foot pressure measurement system was used to measure plantar pressures during walking. PPP, PPG and PGA were calculated for four foot regions - 1st toe (T1, 1st metatarsal head (M1, 2nd metatarsal head (M2, and heel (HL. Consistent with prior studies, PPP and PPG were significantly larger in the diabetic group compared to non-diabetic controls in the T1 and M1 regions, but not M2 or HL. For example, PPP was 165% (P=0.02 and PPG was 214% (P<0.001 larger in T1. PGA was found to be significantly smaller in the diabetic group in T1 (46%, P=0.04, suggesting a more concentrated pressure gradient pattern under the toe. The proposed PGA may improve our understanding of the role of pressure gradient on the risk of diabetic foot ulcers.
Quantifying Dynamic Changes in Plantar Pressure Gradient in Diabetics with Peripheral Neuropathy
Lung, Chi-Wen; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T.; Burns, Stephanie; Lin, Fang; Jan, Yih-Kuen
2016-01-01
Diabetic foot ulcers remain one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Peak plantar pressure (PPP) and peak pressure gradient (PPG) during walking have been shown to be associated with the development of diabetic foot ulcers. To gain further insight into the mechanical etiology of diabetic foot ulcers, examination of the pressure gradient angle (PGA) has been recently proposed. The PGA quantifies directional variation or orientation of the pressure gradient during walking and provides a measure of whether pressure gradient patterns are concentrated or dispersed along the plantar surface. We hypothesized that diabetics at risk of foot ulceration would have smaller PGA in key plantar regions, suggesting less movement of the pressure gradient over time. A total of 27 participants were studied, including 19 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and 8 non-diabetic control subjects. A foot pressure measurement system was used to measure plantar pressures during walking. PPP, PPG, and PGA were calculated for four foot regions – first toe (T1), first metatarsal head (M1), second metatarsal head (M2), and heel (HL). Consistent with prior studies, PPP and PPG were significantly larger in the diabetic group compared with non-diabetic controls in the T1 and M1 regions, but not M2 or HL. For example, PPP was 165% (P = 0.02) and PPG was 214% (P < 0.001) larger in T1. PGA was found to be significantly smaller in the diabetic group in T1 (46%, P = 0.04), suggesting a more concentrated pressure gradient pattern under the toe. The proposed PGA may improve our understanding of the role of pressure gradient on the risk of diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:27486576
On determining characteristic length scales in pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers
Vinuesa, R.; Bobke, A.; Örlü, R.; Schlatter, P.
2016-05-01
In the present work, we analyze three commonly used methods to determine the edge of pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers: two based on composite profiles, the one by Chauhan et al. ["Criteria for assessing experiments in zero pressure gradient boundary layers," Fluid Dyn. Res. 41, 021404 (2009)] and the one by Nickels ["Inner scaling for wall-bounded flows subject to large pressure gradients," J. Fluid Mech. 521, 217-239 (2004)], and the other one based on the condition of vanishing mean velocity gradient. Additionally, a new method is introduced based on the diagnostic plot concept by Alfredsson et al. ["A new scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity in wall-bounded turbulent flows and what it tells us about the `outer' peak," Phys. Fluids 23, 041702 (2011)]. The boundary layers developing over the suction and pressure sides of a NACA4412 wing section, extracted from a direct numerical simulation at chord Reynolds number Rec = 400 000, are used as the test case, besides other numerical and experimental data from favorable, zero, and adverse pressure-gradient flat-plate turbulent boundary layers. We find that all the methods produce robust results with mild or moderate pressure gradients, although the composite-profile techniques require data preparation, including initial estimations of fitting parameters and data truncation. Stronger pressure gradients (with a Rotta-Clauser pressure-gradient parameter β larger than around 7) lead to inconsistent results in all the techniques except the diagnostic plot. This method also has the advantage of providing an objective way of defining the point where the mean streamwise velocity is 99% of the edge velocity and shows consistent results in a wide range of pressure gradient conditions, as well as flow histories. Collapse of intermittency factors obtained from a wide range of pressure-gradient and Re conditions on the wing further highlights the robustness of the diagnostic plot method to determine the
Secondary subharmonic instability of boundary layers with pressure gradient and suction
El-Hady, Nabil M.
1988-01-01
Three-dimensional linear secondary instability is investigated for boundary layers with pressure gradient and suction in the presence of a finite amplitude TS wave. The focus is on principal parametric resonance responsible for a strong growth of subharmonics in a low disturbance environment. Calculations are presented for the effect of pressure gradients and suction on controlling the onset and amplification of the secondary instability.
Bagheri, Nader; White, Bruce R.; Lei, Ting-Kwo
1994-01-01
Hot-wire anemometry measurements in an incompressible turbulent boundary-layer flow over a heated flat plate under equilibrium adverse-pressure-gradient conditions (beta = 1.8) were made for two different temperature difference cases (10 and 15 C) between the wall and the freestream. Space-time correlations of temperature fluctuations (T') were obtained with a pair of subminiature temperature fluctuation probes. The mean convection velocities, the mean inclination angles, and coherence characteristics of the T' large-scale structure were determined. The present temperature structures measurements for a nonisothermal boundary layer are compared to the zero-pressure-gradient case with identical temperature differences previously reported, in which the mean convection velocity of the T' structure was a function of position y(sup +) and independent of the limited temperature-difference cases tested. The three major findings of the present study, as compared to the zero-pressure-gradient case, are (1) the mean convection speed of the T' structure under beta = 1.8 pressure-gradient conditions was found to be substantially lower in the logarithmic core region than the zero-pressure-gradient case. Additionally, the mean convection speed is felt by the authors to be a function of pressure-gradient parameter beta; (2) the mean inclination angle of the T' structure to the wall under the adverse-pressure-gradient flow was 32 deg, which compares favorably to the 30-deg value of the zero-pressure-gradient case; and (3) the limited data suggests that the mean convection velocity of the T' structure is a function of y(sup +) and independent of the limited temperature-difference cases tested.
Uts, I.; Glazyrin, K.; Lee, K. K.
2012-12-01
Advances in experimental techniques allow for the studying of geophysics and planetary science related materials under high pressure and high temperature conditions. With the intrinsic limits of the multianvil apparatus, compression in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) has become the preferred method for creating the extreme conditions of planetary interiors. High pressures up to 1 Mbar can be routinely obtained in laboratories with the use of DACs. Additionally, as in situ laser heating is becoming progressively more affordable for DACs, it is becoming more common to find laser heating setups in many large scale facilities. After the sample material, the pressure medium is the second most important ingredient for a successful high pressure DAC experiment. Not every pressure medium is equally suitable for every experiment. For example, solid pressure media are more persistent than gaseous pressure media if high temperature heating is required. The melting point of the former is much higher, and melting of pressure media may induce undesirable sample shift in the pressure chamber. However, the most important characteristic of a pressure medium is its ability to maintain hydrostaticity in the DAC. The media, particularly solid pressure media, become less effective with increasing pressure. One of the most popular ways of alleviating pressure gradients is through laser annealing of the sample. We explore the effectiveness of this technique in relation to common pressure media, namely, alkali metal halides NaCl, CsCl, KCl, LiF, and oxide MgO. The samples were laser annealed at temperatures above 2000 K. Pressure gradients were determined through the analysis of diamond Raman and ruby fluorescence peaks before and after annealing the sample with a near-infrared laser. We find that the effect of annealing varies for different materials. For some (NaCl and KCl), it reduces pressure gradients considerably, but for the others (MgO), the effect of annealing is less profound.
Turbulence measurements in axisymmetric supersonic boundary layer flow in adverse pressure gradients
Gootzait, E.; Childs, M. E.
1977-01-01
Mean flow and turbulence measurements are presented for adiabatic compressible turbulent boundary layer flow in adverse pressure gradients. The gradients were induced on the wall of an axially symmetric wind tunnel by contoured centerbodies mounted on the wind tunnel centerline. The boundary layer turbulence downstream of a boundary layer bleed section in a zero pressure gradient was also examined. The measurements were obtained using a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer. The adverse pressure gradients were found to significantly alter the turbulence properties of the boundary layer. With flow through the bleed holes there was a measureable decrease in the rms longitudinal velocity fluctuations near the wall and the turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer was reduced.
On determining characteristic length scales in pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers
Vinuesa, Ricardo; Örlü, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp
2016-04-01
In the present work we analyze three methods used to determine the edge of pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers: two based on composite profiles, the one by Chauhan et al. (Fluid Dyn. Res. 41:021401, 2009) and the one by Nickels (J. Fluid Mech. 521:217-239, 2004), and the other one based on the condition of vanishing mean velocity gradient. Additionally, a new method is introduced based on the diagnostic plot concept by Alfredsson et al. (Phys. Fluids 23:041702, 2011). The boundary layer developing over the suction side of a NACA4412 wing profile, extracted from a direct numerical simulation at Rec = 400,000, is used as the test case. We find that all the methods produce robust results with mild or moderate pressure gradients, but stronger pressure gradients (with β larger than around 7) lead to inconsistent results in all the techniques except the diagnostic plot. This method also has the advantage of providing an objective way of defining the point where the mean streamwise velocity is 99% of the edge velocity, and shows consistent results in a wide range of pressure gradient conditions, as well as flow histories. Therefore, the technique based on the diagnostic plot is a robust method to determine the boundary layer thickness (equivalent to δ99) and edge velocity in pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers.
Grözinger, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Wiesinger, Benjamin; Schmehl, Jörg; Kramer, Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Mehra, Tarun [Department of Dermatology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Grosse, Ulrich; König, Claudius [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany)
2013-12-01
Purpose: The portosystemic pressure gradient is an important factor defining prognosis in hepatic disease. However, noninvasive prediction of the gradient and the possible reduction by establishment of a TIPSS is challenging. A cohort of patients receiving TIPSS was evaluated with regard to imaging features of collaterals in cross-sectional imaging and the achievable reduction of the pressure gradient by establishment of a TIPSS. Methods: In this study 70 consecutive patients with cirrhotic liver disease were retrospectively evaluated. Patients received either CT or MR imaging before invasive pressure measurement during TIPSS procedure. Images were evaluated with regard to esophageal and fundus varices, splenorenal collaterals, short gastric vein and paraumbilical vein. Results were correlated with Child stage, portosystemic pressure gradient and post-TIPSS reduction of the pressure gradient. Results: In 55 of the 70 patients TIPSS reduced the pressure gradient to less than 12 mmHg. The pre-interventional pressure and the pressure reduction were not significantly different between Child stages. Imaging features of varices and portosystemic collaterals did not show significant differences. The only parameter with a significant predictive value for the reduction of the pressure gradient was the pre-TIPSS pressure gradient (r = 0.8, p < 0.001). Conclusions: TIPSS allows a reliable reduction of the pressure gradient even at high pre-interventional pressure levels and a high collateral presence. In patients receiving TIPSS the presence and the characteristics of the collateral vessels seem to be too variable to draw reliable conclusions concerning the portosystemic pressure gradient.
Song, Y.; Wright, D.
1998-01-01
A formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography-following coordinates is proposed and diagnostically analyzed by Song. We investigate numerical consistency with respect to global energy conservation, depth-integrated momentum changes, and the represent of the bottom pressure torque.
A study of wake development and structure in constant pressure gradients
Liu, Xiaofeng
2001-07-01
Motivated by the application to high-lift aerodynamics for commercial transport aircraft, a systematic investigation into the response of symmetric/asymmetric planar turbulent wake development to constant adverse, zero and favorable pressure gradients has been conducted. The experiments are performed at a Reynolds number of 2.4 × 106 based on the chord of the wake generator. A unique feature of this wake study is that the pressure gradients imposed on the wake flow field are held constant. The experimental measurements involve both conventional Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Hot Wire Anemometry flow field surveys of mean and turbulent quantities including the turbulent kinetic energy budget. In addition, similarity analysis and numerical simulation have also been conducted for this wake study. A focus of the research has been to isolate the effects of both pressure gradient and initial wake asymmetry on the wake development. Experimental results reveal that the pressure gradient has a tremendous influence on the wake development, despite the relatively modest pressure gradients imposed. For a given pressure gradient, the development of an initially asymmetric wake is different from the initially symmetric wake. An explicit similarity solution for the shape parameters of the symmetric wake is obtained and agrees with the experimental results. The turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements of the symmetric wake demonstrate that except for the convection term, the imposed pressure gradient does not change the fundamental flow physics of turbulent kinetic energy transport. Based on the turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements, an approach to correct the bias error associated with the notoriously difficult dissipation estimate is proposed and validated through the comparison of the experimental estimate with a direct numerical simulation result.
IN VITRO COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM PRESSURE DEVELOPED BY IRRIGATION SYSTEMS IN A KIDNEY MODEL.
Proietti, Silvia; Dragos, Laurian; Somani, Bhaskar K; Butticè, Salvatore; Talso, Michele; Emiliani, Esteban; Baghdadi, Mohammed; Giusti, Guido; Traxer, Olivier
2017-04-05
To evaluate in vitro the maximum pressure generated in an artificial kidney model when people of different levels of strengths used various irrigation systems. Fifteen people were enrolled and divided in 3 groups based on their strengths. Individual strength was evaluated according to the maximum pressure each participant was able to achieve using an Encore™ Inflator. The irrigation systems evaluated were: T-FlowTM Dual Port, HilineTM, continuous flow single action pumping system (SAPSTM) with the system close and open, Irri-flo IITM, a simple 60-ml syringe and PeditrolTM . Each irrigation system was connected to URF-V2 ureteroscope, which was inserted into an artificial kidney model. Each participant was asked to produce the maximum pressure possible with every irrigation device. Pressure was measured with the working channel (WC) empty, with a laser fiber and a basket inside. The highest pressure was achieved with the 60 ml-syringe system and the lowest with SAPS continuous version system (with continuous irrigation open), compared to the other irrigation devices (p< 0.0001). Irrespective of the irrigation system, there was a significant difference in the pressure between the WC empty and when occupied with the laser fiber or the basket inside it (p<0.0001). The stratification between the groups showed that the most powerful group could produce the highest pressure in the kidney model with all the irrigation devices in almost any situation. The exception to this was the T-Flow system, which was the only device where no statistical differences were detected among these groups. The use of irrigation systems can often generate excessive pressure in an artificial kidney model, especially with an unoccupied WC of the ureteroscope. Depending on the strength of force applied, very high pressure can be generated by most irrigation devices irrespective of whether the scope is occupied or not.
Schobeiri, M. T.; John, J.
1996-01-01
The turbomachinery wake flow development is largely influenced by streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The objective of this investigation is to study the development of the wake under the influence of streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The experimental investigation is carried out in two phases. The first phase involves the study of the wake behind a stationary circular cylinder (steady wake) in curved channels at positive, zero, and negative streamwise pressure gradients. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress components are measured using a X-hot-film probe. The measured quantities obtained in probe coordinates are transformed to a curvilinear coordinate system along the wake centerline and are presented in similarity coordinates. The results of the steady wakes suggest strong asymmetry in velocity and Reynolds stress components. However, the velocity defect profiles in similarity coordinates are almost symmetrical and follow the same distribution as the zero pressure gradient straight wake. The results of Reynolds stress distributions show higher values on the inner side of the wake than the outer side. Other quantities, including the decay of maximum velocity defect, growth of wake width, and wake integral parameters, are also presented for the three different pressure gradient cases of steady wake. The decay rate of velocity defect is fastest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the positive pressure gradient case. Conversely, the growth of the wake width is fastest for the positive streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient. The second phase studies the development of periodic unsteady wakes generated by the circular cylinders of the rotating wake generator in a curved channel at zero streamwise pressure gradient. Instantaneous velocity components of the periodic unsteady wakes, measured with a stationary X-hot-film probe, are analyzed by the
Metz, Johan A Jacob; Staňková, Kateřina; Johansson, Jacob
2016-03-01
This paper should be read as addendum to Dieckmann et al. (J Theor Biol 241:370-389, 2006) and Parvinen et al. (J Math Biol 67: 509-533, 2013). Our goal is, using little more than high-school calculus, to (1) exhibit the form of the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics for classical life history problems, where the examples in Dieckmann et al. (J Theor Biol 241:370-389, 2006) and Parvinen et al. (J Math Biol 67: 509-533, 2013) are chosen such that they avoid a number of the problems that one gets in this most relevant of applications, (2) derive the fitness gradient occurring in the CE from simple fitness return arguments, (3) show explicitly that setting said fitness gradient equal to zero results in the classical marginal value principle from evolutionary ecology, (4) show that the latter in turn is equivalent to Pontryagin's maximum principle, a well known equivalence that however in the literature is given either ex cathedra or is proven with more advanced tools, (5) connect the classical optimisation arguments of life history theory a little better to real biology (Mendelian populations with separate sexes subject to an environmental feedback loop), (6) make a minor improvement to the form of the CE for the examples in Dieckmann et al. and Parvinen et al.
Behavior of a horizontal air curtain subjected to a vertical pressure gradient
Linden, James; Phelps, LeEllen
2012-09-01
We present the details on an experiment to investigate the behavior of an air curtain that is subjected to a transverse pressure gradient. The setup simulates the conditions that will be present in the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), a 4-meter solar observatory that will be built on Haleakala, Hawaii. A test rig was built to replicate the region at which the optical path crosses a temperature and pressure boundary between the telescope mount region, which is at the ambient temperature and pressure, and a warmer, pressurized lab space directly below. Use of an air curtain in place of an optically-transmitting window at the interface would allow science observations at a wider range of scientific wavelengths. With the air curtain exhibiting transitional flow behavior across the boundary, and applied pressure gradients of up to 6.5 Pa, we found that the air curtain was able to hold a pressure gradient of 0.25 Pa. As the applied pressure was increased, transient turbulent regions formed at the interface, and predictable flow behavior only occurred in the region closest to the air curtain blower. Computer modeling is used to validate the test data, identify laminar regions of the air curtain where minimal image distortion would occur, and explore the relationship between the applied pressure, effective pressure difference, and air curtain profile.
Non-linear aspects of Görtler instability in boundary layers with pressure gradient
Rogenski, J. K.; de Souza, L. F.; Floryan, J. M.
2016-12-01
The laminar flow over a concave surface may undergo transition to a turbulent state driven by secondary instabilities initiated by the longitudinal vortices known as Görtler vortices. These vortices distort the boundary layer structure by modifying the streamwise velocity component in both spanwise and wall-normal directions. Numerical simulations have been conducted to identify the role of the external pressure gradients in the development and saturation of the vortices. The results show that flows with adverse pressure gradients reach saturation upstream from the saturation location for neutral and favorable pressure gradients. In the transition region, the mean spanwise shear stress is about three times larger than in the flow without the vortices.
Non-invasive Measurement of Pressure Gradients in Pulsatile Flow using Ultrasound
Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes
2013-01-01
approach. Pressure gradients are calculated from the measured velocity fields using the Navier-Stokes equation. Velocity fields are measured during constant and pulsating flow on a carotid bifurcation phantom and on a common carotid artery in-vivo. Scanning is performed with a 5 MHz BK8670 linear......This paper demonstrates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The proposed method relies on vector velocity fields acquired from ultrasound data. 2-D flow data are acquired at 18-23 frames/sec using the Transverse Oscillation...... transducer using a BK Medical 2202 UltraView Pro Focus scanner. The calculated pressure gradients are validated through a finite element simulation of the constant flow model. The geometry of the flow simulation model is reproduced using MRI data, thereby providing identical flow domains in measurement...
Pressure Gradient Influence on MHD Flow for Generalized Burgers’ Fluid with Slip Condition
Ghada H. Ibraheem,
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a research for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers' fluid including by an accelerating plate and flowing under the action of pressure gradient. Where the no – slip assumption between the wall and the fluid is no longer valid. The fractional calculus approach is introduced to establish the constitutive relationship of the generalized Burgers' fluid. By using the discrete Laplace transform of the sequential fractional derivatives, a closed form solutions for the velocity and shear stress are obtained in terms of Fox H- function for the following two problems: (i flow due to a constant pressure gradient, and (ii flow due to due to a sinusoidal pressure gradient. The solutions for no – slip condition and no magnetic field, can be derived as special cases of our solutions. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters on the velocity distribution characteristics are analyzed and discussed in detail. Comparison between the two cases is also made.
Coherent structures of a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer
Sekimoto, Atsushi; Kitsios, Vassili; Atkinson, Callum; Jiménez, Javier; Soria, Julio
2016-11-01
The turbulence statistics and structures are studied in direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (APG-TBL). The self-similar APG-TBL at the verged of separation is achieved by a modification of the far-field boundary condition to produce the desired pressure gradient. The turbulence statistics in the self-similar region collapse by using the scaling of the external velocity and the displacement thickness. The coherent structures of the APG-TBL are investigated and compared to those of zero-pressure gradient case and homogeneous shear flow. The support of the ARC, NCI and Pawsey SCC funded by the Australian and Western Australian governments as well as the support of PRACE funded by the European Union are gratefully acknowledged.
Jiang-Tao Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear dual-porosity flow model, specifically considering the quadratic pressure gradient term, wellbore storage coefficient, well skin factor, and interporosity flow of matrix to natural fractures, was established for well production in a naturally fractured formation and then solved using a semianalytical method, including Laplace transform and a transformation of the pressure function. Analytical solution of the model in Laplace space was converted to numerical solution in real space using Stehfest numerical inversion. Nonlinear flow process for well production in a naturally fractured formation with different external boundaries was simulated and analyzed using standard pressure curves. Influence of the quadratic pressure gradient coefficient on pressure curves was studied qualitatively and quantitatively in conditions of a group of fixed model parameters. The research results show that the semianalytical modelling method is applicable in simulating the nonlinear dual-porosity flow behavior.
The establishment of a new deliverability equation considering threshold pressure gradient
Li Lezhong; Li Xiangfang; He Dongbo; Xu Hanbing
2009-01-01
The flowing mechanism of a low permeability gas reservoir is different from a conventional gas reservoir, espe-cially for that with higher irreducible water saturation the threshold pressure gradient exists. At present, in all the deliverability equation, the additional pressure drop caused by the threshold pressure gradient is viewed as constant, but this method has big error in the practical application. Based on the non-Darcy steady flow equation, the limited integral of the additional pressure drop is solved in this paper and it is realized that the additional pressure drop is not a constant but has something to do with production data, and a new deliverability equation is derived, with the relevant processing method for modified isochronal test data. The new deliverability equation turns out to be practical through onsite applica-tion.
Scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity in zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers
Wei, Tie; Klewicki, Joseph
2016-12-01
The scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity V (x ,y ) in zero-pressure-gradient laminar and turbulent boundary-layer flows are investigated using numerical simulation data, physical experiment data, and integral analyses of the governing equations. The maximum mean wall-normal velocity V∞ and the boundary-layer thickness δ are evidenced to be the proper scaling for V over most if not all of the boundary layer. This is different from the behavior of the mean streamwise velocity U or the turbulent shear stress T =-ρ , which depend on different characteristic length scales in the regions near and away from the surface, respectively. The reason for this apparent difference in scaling behaviors is described physically relative to the downstream development of the U velocity profile and the mechanisms of boundary-layer growth. Insights pertaining to this are further surmised from an analytical relationship for the ratio of the displacement to momentum thickness, i.e., shape factor H . Integral analyses using the continuity and mean momentum equation show that U∞V∞/uτ2=H , where uτ is the friction velocity. Both the laminar similarity solution and direct numerical simulation data in post-transitional flows convincingly support this relation. Over the transitional regime, data of sufficiently high quality are lacking to check if this relation remains valid.
40 CFR 147.1803 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule-maximum injection pressure.
2010-07-01
... authorized by rule-maximum injection pressure. 147.1803 Section 147.1803 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED...—maximum injection pressure. The owner or operator shall limit injection pressure to the lesser of: (a) A...
Non-invasive Estimation of Pressure Gradients in Pulsatile Flow using Ultrasound
Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand
2014-01-01
This paper investigates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The presented set-up is based on vector velocity fields measured on a blood mimicking fluid moving at a peak flow rate of 1 ml/s through a constricted vessel. Fields of ...... and standard deviation of 10% and 13%, respectively, relative to peak estimated gradient. The paper concludes that maps of pressure gradients can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound with a precision of more than 85%......This paper investigates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The presented set-up is based on vector velocity fields measured on a blood mimicking fluid moving at a peak flow rate of 1 ml/s through a constricted vessel. Fields...... of pressure gradients are calculated using the Navier-Stokes equations. Flow data are acquired to a depth of 3 cm using directional synthetic aperture flow imaging on a linear array transducer producing 1500 image frames of velocity estimates per second. Scans of a carotid bifurcation phantom with a 70...
Wang Ai-Ke
2005-01-01
In the fluid model, we derive a dispersion relation for the toroidal drift modes of tokamak plasmas, including the ion pressure gradient and the magnetic field gradient and curvature. It is shown that the magnetic field gradient and curvature (MFGC) can cause instabilities at the rational surface, which are of toroidicity-induced (TI) modes. On the other hand, it is discovered that the ion pressure gradient can stabilize the present MFGC instabilities. The critical threshold of ion pressure gradient, which makes the growth rate reduced to zero, is obtained both analytically and numerically.
2015-01-01
Background: Muscle weakness especially weakness of the respiratory muscles is a complication of chronic kidney disease. The cause of muscle weakness is the accumulation of excessive amounts of urea and other toxins. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hemodialysis on respiratory muscle strength by measuring maximum inspiratory (PI max) and expiratory pressure (PE max). Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on 31 patients with chronic kidney disease at Mo...
Li, X.; Chin, L. P.; Tankin, R. S.; Jackson, T.; Stutrud, J.; Switzer, G.
1991-07-01
Measurements were made of the droplet size and velocity distributions in a hollow cone spray from a pressure atomizer using a phase/Doppler particle analyzer. The maximum entropy principle is used to predict these distributions. The constraints imposed in this model involve conversation of mass, momentum, and energy. Estimates of the source terms associated with these constraints are made based on physical reasoning. Agreement between the measurements and the predictions is very good.
Delles, Michael; Rengier, Fabian; Ley, Sebastian; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Unterhinninghofen, Roland
2011-01-01
In cardiovascular diagnostics, phase-contrast MRI is a valuable technique for measuring blood flow velocities and computing blood pressure values. Unfortunately, both velocity and pressure data typically suffer from the strong image noise of velocity-encoded MRI. In the past, separate approaches of regularization with physical a-priori knowledge and data representation with continuous functions have been proposed to overcome these drawbacks. In this article, we investigate polynomial regularization as an exemplary specification of combining these two techniques. We perform time-resolved three-dimensional velocity measurements and pressure gradient computations on MRI acquisitions of steady flow in a physical phantom. Results based on the higher quality temporal mean data are used as a reference. Thereby, we investigate the performance of our approach of polynomial regularization, which reduces the root mean squared errors to the reference data by 45% for velocities and 60% for pressure gradients.
Koene, Bart M.; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Bouma, Wobbe; Mariani, Massimo A.; Peels, Kathinka C.; van Dantzig, Jan-Melle; van Straten, Albert H.
In this study, we sought to determine the effect of the mean transprosthetic pressure gradient (TPG), measured at 6 weeks after aortic valve replacement (AVR) or AVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on late all-cause mortality. Between January 1998 and March 2012, 2,276 patients (mean age
The pressure gradient for heterogeneous flow of coal, sand and iron in pipelines
Yu, X.Q.
1986-01-01
The existing relationships based on Durand's method to predict pressure gradients for slurry flow in pipelines appear to be inadequate when accounting for a wide range of variables such as particle size and relative density as well as concentration. Using the coal, sand and iron ore data collected
A Remark on the Regularity Criterion for the 3D Boussinesq Equations Involving the Pressure Gradient
Zujin Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations and obtain a regularity criterion involving the pressure gradient in the Morrey-Companato space Mp,q. This extends and improves the result of Gala (Gala 2013 for the Navier-Stokes equations.
Equilibrium turbulent boundary layers with wall suction/blowing and pressure gradients
Patwardhan, Saurabh; Ramesh, O. N.
2012-11-01
Conditions for the equilibrium conditions in turbulent boundary layers with suction or blowing across a no slip wall and pressure gradients are derived from the governing equations. It is also shown that under these conditions the governing equations show self similarity in the conventional inner co-ordinates as well as ``laminar-like'' co-ordinates. The only turbulent boundary layer in ``perfect equilibrium'' known as sink flow turbulent boundary layer forms a subset of this more general equilibrium concept. Direct numerical simulations were carried out to investigate this hypothesis for the case of favourable pressure gradient with small blowing at the wall. Reynolds number invariance and complete self similarity of mean velocity profile and second order turbulence statistics is observed along the flow direction similar to the sink flow boundary layer. A comparison between the case with wall blowing and imposed favourable pressure gradient and the sink flow case for same value of pressure gradient parameter reveals a shift in log law in mean velocity profile and increase in peak turbulence intensities.
Barrier island breach evolution: Alongshore transport and bay-ocean pressure gradient interactions
Safak, Ilgar; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.
2016-12-01
Physical processes controlling repeated openings and closures of a barrier island breach between a bay and the open ocean are studied using aerial photographs and atmospheric and hydrodynamic observations. The breach site is located on Pea Island along the Outer Banks, separating Pamlico Sound from the Atlantic Ocean. Wind direction was a major control on the pressure gradients between the bay and the ocean to drive flows that initiate or maintain the breach opening. Alongshore sediment flux was found to be a major contributor to breach closure. During the analysis period from 2011 to 2016, three hurricanes had major impacts on the breach. First, Hurricane Irene opened the breach with wind-driven flow from bay to ocean in August 2011. Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 quadrupled the channel width from pressure gradient flows due to water levels that were first higher on the ocean side and then higher on the bay side. The breach closed sometime in Spring 2013, most likely due to an event associated with strong alongshore sediment flux but minimal ocean-bay pressure gradients. Then, in July 2014, Hurricane Arthur briefly opened the breach again from the bay side, in a similar fashion to Irene. In summary, opening and closure of breaches are shown to follow a dynamic and episodic balance between along-channel pressure gradient driven flows and alongshore sediment fluxes.
Nguyen, T.; Berg, van den A.; Eijkel, J.C.T.
2015-01-01
We present an in-depth analysis and analytical solution for AC hydrodynamic flow (driven by a timedependent pressure gradient and/or electric fields) of viscoelastic fluid through cylindrical micro-, nanochannels. Particularly, for this purpose we solve the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation tog
Nozzle design in a fiber spinning process for a maximal pressure gradient
Yang Zhanping
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The thickness of a spinneret is always a geometrical constraint in nozzle design. The geometrical form of a nozzle has a significant effect on the subsequent spinning characteristics. This paper gives an optimal condition for maximal pressure gradient through the nozzle.
Symmetries and Group-Invariant Solutions for Transonic Pressure-Gradient Equations
王丽真; 黄晴
2011-01-01
Lie symmetry group method is applied to study the transonic pressure-gradient equations in two-dimensional space. Its symmetry groups and corresponding optimal systems are determined, and several classes of irrotational groupinvariant solutions associated to the symmetries are obtained and special case of one-dimensional rarefaction wave is found.
Popovic, Z.B.; Prasad, A.; Garcia, M.J.; Arbab-Zadeh, A.; Borowski, A.; Dijk, E.; Greenberg, N.L.; Levine, B.D.; Thomas, J.D.
2006-01-01
Diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) are a measure of the ability of the ventricle to facilitate its filling using diastolic suction. We assessed 15 healthy young but sedentary subjects, aged <50 yr (young subjects; age, 35 +/- 9 yr); 13 healthy but sedentary seniors, aged >65 yr wi
Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mentzer, Steven J; Tsuda, Akira
2017-05-21
In most mammals, compensatory lung growth occurs after the removal of one lung (pneumonectomy). Although the mechanism of alveolar growth is unknown, the patterning of complex alveolar geometry over organ-sized length scales is a central question in regenerative lung biology. Because shear forces appear capable of signaling the differentiation of important cells involved in neoalveolarization (fibroblasts and myofibroblasts), interstitial fluid mechanics provide a potential mechanism for the patterning of alveolar growth. The movement of interstitial fluid is created by two basic mechanisms: 1) the non-uniform motion of the boundary walls, and 2) parenchymal pressure gradients external to the interstitial fluid. In a previous study (Haber et al., Journal of Theoretical Biology 400: 118-128, 2016), we investigated the effects of non-uniform stretching of the primary septum (associated with its heterogeneous mechanical properties) during breathing on generating non-uniform Stokes flow in the interstitial space. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of parenchymal pressure gradients on interstitial flow. Dependent upon lung microarchitecture and physiologic conditions, parenchymal pressure gradients had a significant effect on the shear stress distribution in the interstitial space of primary septa. A dimensionless parameter δ described the ratio between the effects of a pressure gradient and the influence of non-uniform primary septal wall motion. Assuming that secondary septa are formed where shear stresses were the largest, it is shown that the geometry of the newly generated secondary septa was governed by the value of δ. For δ smaller than 0.26, the alveolus size was halved while for higher values its original size was unaltered. We conclude that the movement of interstitial fluid, governed by parenchymal pressure gradients and non-uniform primary septa wall motion, provides a plausible mechanism for the patterning of alveolar growth. Copyright © 2017
Perturbations of the solar wind flow by radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients
H. J. Fahr
2004-06-01
Full Text Available It has been found that pick-up ions at their dynamical incorporation into the solar wind modify the original conditions of the asymptotic solar wind plasma flow. In this respect, it has meanwhile been revealed in many papers that these type of solar wind modifications, i.e. deceleration and decrease of effective Mach number, are not only due to the pick-up ion loading effects, but also to the action of pick-up ion pressure gradients. Up to now only the effects of radial pick-up ion pressure gradients were considered, however, analogously but latitudinal pressure gradients also appear to be important. Here we study the effects of radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients, occurring especially during solar minimum conditions at mid-latitude regions where slow solar wind streams change to fast solar wind streams. First, we give estimates of the latitudinal wind components connected with these gradients, and then after revealing its importance, present a more quantitative calculation of solar wind velocity and density perturbations resulting from these pressure forces. It is shown that the relative density perturbations near and in the ecliptic increase with radial distance and thus may well explain the measured non-spherically symmetric density decrease with distance. We also show that the solar wind decelerations actually seen with Voyager-1/2 are in conciliation with interstellar hydrogen densities of n_{H∞}≥0.1cm^{-3}, in contrast to earlier claims for n_{H∞}=0.05cm^{-3}.
Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; Prior, D. L.; Scalia, G. M.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.
2000-01-01
The simplified Bernoulli equation relates fluid convective energy derived from flow velocities to a pressure gradient and is commonly used in clinical echocardiography to determine pressure differences across stenotic orifices. Its application to pulmonary venous flow has not been described in humans. Twelve patients undergoing cardiac surgery had simultaneous high-fidelity pulmonary venous and left atrial pressure measurements and pulmonary venous pulsed Doppler echocardiography performed. Convective gradients for the systolic (S), diastolic (D), and atrial reversal (AR) phases of pulmonary venous flow were determined using the simplified Bernoulli equation and correlated with measured actual pressure differences. A linear relationship was observed between the convective (y) and actual (x) pressure differences for the S (y = 0.23x + 0.0074, r = 0.82) and D (y = 0.22x + 0.092, r = 0.81) waves, but not for the AR wave (y = 0. 030x + 0.13, r = 0.10). Numerical modeling resulted in similar slopes for the S (y = 0.200x - 0.127, r = 0.97), D (y = 0.247x - 0. 354, r = 0.99), and AR (y = 0.087x - 0.083, r = 0.96) waves. Consistent with numerical modeling, the convective term strongly correlates with but significantly underestimates actual gradient because of large inertial forces.
Moes, C.C.M.
2007-01-01
The pressure distribution and the location of the points of maximum pressure, usually below the ischial tuberosities, was measured for subjects sitting on a flat, hard and horizontal support, and varying angle of the rotation of the pelvis. The pressure data were analyzed for force- and pressure-rel
Chu, T.K.
1987-12-01
The interplay of electron cross-field thermal conduction and the reconnection of magnetic field lines around an m = 1 magnetic island prior to a sawtooth crash can generate a large pressure gradient in a boundary layer adjacent to the reconnecting surface, leading to an enhanced gradient of poloidal beta to satisfy the threshold condition for ideal MHD modes. This narrow boundary layer and the short onset time of a sawtooth crash can be supported by fine-grained turbulent processes in a tokamak plasma. 11 refs.
Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Macias, B. R.; Willig, M.; Johnson, K.; Stenger, M. B.
2017-01-01
Astronauts and cosmonauts may experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing, and for several days post-landing following short- and long-duration spaceflight. Presyncopal symptoms have been documented in approximately 20% of short-duration and greater than 60% of long-duration flyers on landing day specifically during 5-10 min of controlled (no countermeasures employed at the time of testing) stand tests or 80 deg head-up tilt tests. Current operational countermeasures to orthostatic intolerance include fluid loading prior to and whole body cooling during re-entry as well as compression garments that are worn during and for up to several days after landing. While both NASA and the Russian space program have utilized compression garments to protect astronauts and cosmonauts traveling on their respective vehicles, a "next-generation" gradient compression garment (GCG) has been developed and tested in collaboration with a commercial partner to support future space flight missions. Unlike previous compression garments used operationally by NASA that provide a single level of compression across only the calves, thighs, and lower abdomen, the GCG provides continuous coverage from the feet to below the pectoral muscles in a gradient fashion (from approximately 55 mm Hg at the feet to approximately 16 mmHg across the abdomen). The efficacy of the GCG has been demonstrated previously after a 14-d bed rest study without other countermeasures and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Currently the GCG is being tested during a stand test following long-duration missions (6 months) to the International Space Station. While results to date have been promising, interactions of the GCG with other space suit components have not been examined. Specifically, it is unknown whether wearing the GCG over NASA's Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG; absorbent briefs worn for the collection of urine and feces while suited during re-entry and landing) will
Two-Dimensional Regular Shock Reflection for the Pressure Gradient System of Conservation Laws
Yuxi Zheng
2006-01-01
We establish the existence of a global solution to a regular reflection of a shock hitting a ramp for the pressure gradient system of equations. The set-up of the reflection is the same as that of Mach's experiment for the compressible Euler system, i.e., a straight shock hitting a ramp. We assume that the angle of the ramp is close to 90 degrees. The solution has a reflected bow shock wave, called the diffraction of the planar shock at the compressive corner, which is mathematically regarded as a free boundary in the self-similar variable plane.The pressure gradient system of three equations is a subsystem, and an approximation, of the full Euler system,and we offer a couple of derivations.
Atkinson, Callum; Amili, Omid; Stanislas, Michel; Cuvier, Christophe; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Srinath, Sricharan; Laval, Jean-Philippe; Kaehler, Christian; Hain, Rainer; Scharnowski, Sven; Schroeder, Andreas; Geisler, Reinhard; Agocs, Janos; Roese, Anni; Willert, Christian; Klinner, Joachim; Soria, Julio
2016-11-01
The study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers is complicated by the need to characterise both the local pressure gradient and it's upstream flow history. It is therefore necessary to measure a significant streamwise domain at a resolution sufficient to resolve the small scales features. To achieve this collaborative particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in the large boundary layer wind-tunnel at the Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, including: planar measurements spanning a streamwise domain of 3.5m using 16 cameras covering 15 δ spanwise wall-normal stereo-PIV measurements, high-speed micro-PIV of the near wall region and wall shear stress; and streamwise wall-normal PIV in the viscous sub layer. Details of the measurements and preliminary results will be presented.
Huhn, F.; Schanz, D.; Gesemann, S.; Schröder, A.
2016-09-01
Pressure gradient fields in unsteady flows can be estimated through flow measurements of the material acceleration in the fluid and the assumption of the governing momentum equation. In order to derive pressure from its gradient, almost exclusively two numerical methods have been used to spatially integrate the pressure gradient until now: first, direct path integration in the spatial domain, and second, the solution of the Poisson equation for pressure. Instead, we propose an alternative third method that integrates the pressure gradient field in Fourier space. Using a FFT function, the method is fast and easy to implement in programming languages for scientific computing. We demonstrate the accuracy of the integration scheme on a synthetic pressure field and apply it to an experimental example based on time-resolved material acceleration data from high-resolution Lagrangian particle tracking with the Shake-The-Box method.
The transpired turbulent boundary layer in various pressure gradients and the blow-off condition
Georgiou, D. P.; Louis, J. F.
1984-12-01
Experimental data are reported from studies of the cooling effectiveness and conditions leading to blow-off in transpiration cooling (TC). The TC configuration used featured a sintered bronze plate in a hot blowdown wind tunnel. Cooled air was pumped through the plate and data were gathered with calorimeters downstream of a piece of sandpaper which tripped the boundary layer. Pressure taps were also used. Local pressure gradient effects were small, but local accelerations reduced the cooling effectiveness. The downstream Stanton numbers were sensitive to the upstream coolant-injection ratio. Increasing the injection rate had, at best, only a small effect on the local heat flux.
Sound Localization in Lizards: Functioning of a Pressure-Gradient Receiver
van Hemmen, J. Leo
2009-03-01
Because of their small interaural distance, lizards as well as some other animals have developed a special hearing mechanism, the ``pressure-gradient receiver''. The lizard peripheral auditory system differs from the mammalian one by a coupling of the two eardrums through the internal mouth cavity. We present a three-dimensional analytical model of the pressure-gradient receiver. The central aspect of the coupling of the membranes through the mouth cavity is realized by means of the boundary conditions. Moreover, the lizard's middle ear, a simple lever construction called columella, is asymmetrically attached to the tympanic membrane. This has motivated us to solve the problem of how the middle ear influences the spatial-amplitude profile and the frequency distribution of the tympanic membrane vibration. Finally, we show results from numerical simulations of the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies in a lizard's internal mouth cavity bounded by the eardrums. To this end, we have constructed the complex geometry from a cast imprint of the cavity with the help of three-dimensional scans. Our results led to an interesting speculation regarding the neurobiological use of the pressure-gradient system.
DNS of self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer
Soria, Julio; Kitsios, Vassili; Sekimoto, Atsushi; Atkinson, Callum; Jiménez, Javier
2016-11-01
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a self-similar adverse pressure gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at the verge of separation has been set-up and carried out. The DNS APG TBL has a displacement thickness based Reynolds number that ranges up to 30,000. The conditions for self-similarity and appropriate scaling will be highlighted, with the first and second order velocity statistical profiles non-dimensionalised using this scaling. The details of the DNS and the required boundary conditions that are necessary to establish this self-similar APG-TBL will be presented. The statistical properties of the self-similar adverse pressure gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL) DNS will presented, as will the profiles of the terms in the momentum equation, spanwise/wall-normal kinetic energy spectrum and two-point correlations, which will be compared to those of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. NCI and Pawsey SCC funded by the Australian and Western Australian governments as well as the support of PRACE funded by the European Union are gratefully acknowledged.
Influence of pressure gradient on streamwise skewness factor in turbulent boundary layer
Dróżdż, Artur
2014-08-01
The paper shows an effect of favourable and adverse pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layer. The skewness factor of streamwise velocity component was chosen as a measure of the pressure gradient impact. It appears that skewness factor is an indicator of convection velocity of coherent structures, which is not always equal to the average flow velocity. The analysis has been performed based upon velocity profiles measured with hot-wire technique in turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient corresponding to turbomachinery conditions. The results show that the skewness factor decreases in the flow region subjected to FPG and increases in the APG conditions. The changes of convection velocity and skewness factor are caused by influence of large-scale motion through the mechanism called amplitude modulation. The large-scale motion is less active in FPG and more active in APG, therefore in FPG the production of vortices is random (there are no high and low speed regions), while in the APG the large-scale motion drives the production of vortices. Namely, the vortices appear only in the high-speed regions, therefore have convection velocity higher than local mean velocity. The convection velocity affects directly the turbulent sweep and ejection events. The more flow is dominated by large-scale motion the higher values takes both the convection velocity of small-scale structures and sweep events induced by them.
Ungar, Eugene K.; Richards, W. Lance
2015-01-01
The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared astronomical observation experiments. These experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium temperatures. The liquid helium supply is contained in large (i.e., 10 liters or more) vacuum-insulated dewars. Should the dewar vacuum insulation fail, the inrushing air will condense and freeze on the dewar wall, resulting in a large heat flux on the dewar's contents. The heat flux results in a rise in pressure and the actuation of the dewar pressure relief system. A previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) assessment provided recommendations for the wall heat flux that would be expected from a loss of vacuum and detailed an appropriate method to use in calculating the maximum pressure that would occur in a loss of vacuum event. This method involved building a detailed supercritical helium compressible flow thermal/fluid model of the vent stack and exercising the model over the appropriate range of parameters. The experimenters designing science instruments for SOFIA are not experts in compressible supercritical flows and do not generally have access to the thermal/fluid modeling packages that are required to build detailed models of the vent stacks. Therefore, the SOFIA Program engaged the NESC to develop a simplified methodology to estimate the maximum pressure in a liquid helium dewar after the loss of vacuum insulation. The method would allow the university-based science instrument development teams to conservatively determine the cryostat's vent neck sizing during preliminary design of new SOFIA Science Instruments. This report details the development of the simplified method, the method itself, and the limits of its applicability. The simplified methodology provides an estimate of the dewar pressure after a loss of vacuum insulation that can be used for the initial design of the liquid helium dewar vent stacks. However, since it is not an exact
Thomas, Catherine [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)
2000-01-19
Theoretical models have shown that the maximum magnetic field in radio frequency superconducting cavities is the superheating field H{sub sh}. For niobium, H{sub sh} is 25 - 30% higher than the thermodynamical H{sub c} field: H{sub sh} within (240 - 274) mT. However, the maximum magnetic field observed so far is in the range H{sub c,max} = 152 mT for the best 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. This field is lower than the critical field H{sub c1} above which the superconductor breaks up into divided normal and superconducting zones (H{sub c1}{<=}H{sub c}). Thermal instabilities are responsible for this low value. In order to reach H{sub sh} before thermal breakdown, high power short pulses are used. The cavity needs then to be strongly over-coupled. The dedicated test bed has been built from the collaboration between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) - Sezione di Genoa, and the Service d'Etudes et Realisation d'Accelerateurs (SERA) of Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL). The maximum magnetic field, H{sub rf,max}, measurements on INFN cavities give lower results than the theoretical speculations and are in agreement with previous results. The superheating magnetic fields is linked to the magnetic penetration depth. This superconducting characteristic length can be used to determine the quality of niobium through the ratio between the resistivity measured at 300 K and 4.2 K in the normal conducting state (RRR). Results have been compared to previous ones and agree pretty well. They show that the RRR measured on cavities is superficial and lower than the RRR measured on samples which concerns the volume. (author)
Moes, C.C.M.
2007-01-01
The pressure distribution and the location of the points of maximum pressure, usually below the ischial tuberosities, was measured for subjects sitting on a flat, hard and horizontal support, and varying angle of the rotation of the pelvis. The pressure data were analyzed for force- and
Benício, Kadja; Dias, Fernando A. L.; Gualdi, Lucien P.; Aliverti, Andrea; Resqueti, Vanessa R.; Fregonezi, Guilherme A. F.
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of diaphragmatic activation control (diaphC) on Sniff Nasal-Inspiratory Pressure (SNIP) and Maximum Relaxation Rate of inspiratory muscles (MRR) in healthy subjects. METHOD: Twenty subjects (9 male; age: 23 (SD=2.9) years; BMI: 23.8 (SD=3) kg/m2; FEV1/FVC: 0.9 (SD=0.1)] performed 5 sniff maneuvers in two different moments: with or without instruction on diaphC. Before the first maneuver, a brief explanation was given to the subjects on how to perform the sniff test. For sniff test with diaphC, subjects were instructed to perform intense diaphragm activation. The best SNIP and MRR values were used for analysis. MRR was calculated as the ratio of first derivative of pressure over time (dP/dtmax) and were normalized by dividing it by peak pressure (SNIP) from the same maneuver. RESULTS: SNIP values were significantly different in maneuvers with and without diaphC [without diaphC: -100 (SD=27.1) cmH2O/ with diaphC: -72.8 (SD=22.3) cmH2O; p<0.0001], normalized MRR values were not statistically different [without diaphC: -9.7 (SD=2.6); with diaphC: -8.9 (SD=1.5); p=0.19]. Without diaphC, 40% of the sample did not reach the appropriate sniff criteria found in the literature. CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic control performed during SNIP test influences obtained inspiratory pressure, being lower when diaphC is performed. However, there was no influence on normalized MRR. PMID:26578254
Takeda, Osamu; Iwamoto, Hirone; Sakashita, Ryota; Iseki, Chiaki; Zhu, Hongmin
2017-07-01
A surface tension measurement method based on the maximum bubble pressure (MBP) method was developed in order to precisely determine the surface tension of molten silicates in this study. Specifically, the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements was quantified, and the criteria for accurate measurement were investigated. It was found that the MBP apparently increased with an increase in viscosity. This was because extra pressure was required for the flowing liquid inside the capillary due to viscous resistance. It was also expected that the extra pressure would decrease by decreasing the fluid velocity. For silicone oil with a viscosity of 1000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot }\\hbox {s}, the error on the MBP could be decreased to +1.7 % by increasing the bubble detachment time to 300 \\hbox {s}. However, the error was still over 1 % even when the bubble detachment time was increased to 600 \\hbox {s}. Therefore, a true value of the MBP was determined by using a curve-fitting technique with a simple relaxation function, and that was succeeded for silicone oil at 1000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot } \\hbox {s} of viscosity. Furthermore, for silicone oil with a viscosity as high as 10 000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot }\\hbox {s}, the apparent MBP approached a true value by interrupting the gas introduction during the pressure rising period and by re-introducing the gas at a slow flow rate. Based on the fundamental investigation at room temperature, the surface tension of the \\hbox {SiO}2-40 \\hbox {mol}%\\hbox {Na}2\\hbox {O} and \\hbox {SiO}2-50 \\hbox {mol}%\\hbox {Na}2\\hbox {O} melts was determined at a high temperature. The obtained value was slightly lower than the literature values, which might be due to the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements being removed in this study.
Cesaroni, Claudio; Spogli, Luca; Alfonsi, Lucilla; De Franceschi, Giorgiana; Ciraolo, Luigi; Francisco Galera Monico, Joao; Scotto, Carlo; Romano, Vincenzo; Aquino, Marcio; Bougard, Bruno
2015-12-01
This work presents a contribution to the understanding of the ionospheric triggering of L-band scintillation in the region over São Paulo state in Brazil, under high solar activity. In particular, a climatological analysis of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data acquired in 2012 is presented to highlight the relationship between intensity and variability of the total electron content (TEC) gradients and the occurrence of ionospheric scintillation. The analysis is based on the GNSS data acquired by a dense distribution of receivers and exploits the integration of a dedicated TEC calibration technique into the Ground Based Scintillation Climatology (GBSC), previously developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. Such integration enables representing the local ionospheric features through climatological maps of calibrated TEC and TEC gradients and of amplitude scintillation occurrence. The disentanglement of the contribution to the TEC variations due to zonal and meridional gradients conveys insight into the relation between the scintillation occurrence and the morphology of the TEC variability. The importance of the information provided by the TEC gradients variability and the role of the meridional TEC gradients in driving scintillation are critically described.
Lina Siaudvytyte
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.
Michael S. Firstenberg
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Echocardiography is routinely used to assess ventricular and valvular function, particularly in patients with known or suspected cardiac disease and who have evidence of hemodynamic compromise. A cornerstone to the use of echocardiographic imaging is not only the qualitative assessment, but also the quantitative Doppler-derived velocity characteristics of intracardiac blood flow. While simplified equations, such as the modified Bernoulli equation, are used to estimate intracardiac pressure gradients based upon Doppler velocity data, these modified equations are based upon assumptions of the varying contributions of the different forces that contribute to blood flow. Unfortunately, the assumptions can result in significant miscalculations in determining a gradient if not completely understood or they are misapplied. We briefly summarize the principles of fluid dynamics that are used clinically with some of the inherent limitations of routine broad application of the simplified Bernoulli equation.
Herrmann, Tarrah A; Siefert, Andrew W; Pressman, Gregg S; Gollin, Hannah R; Touchton, Steven A; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit P
2013-09-01
Mitral annular calcification (MAC) involves calcium deposition in the fibrous annulus supporting the mitral valve (MV). When calcification extends onto the leaflets, valve opening can be restricted. The influence of MAC MV geometry on Doppler gradients is unknown. This study describes a novel methodology to rapid-prototype subject-specific MAC MVs. Replicated valves were used to assess the effects of distorted annular-leaflet geometry on Doppler-derived, transmitral gradients in comparison to direct pressure measurements and to determine if transmitral gradients vary according to measurement location. Three-dimensional echocardiography data sets were selected for two MAC MVs and one healthy MV. These MVs were segmented and rapid prototyped in their middiastolic configuration for in vitro testing. The effects of MV geometry, measurement modality, and measurement location on transmitral pressure gradient were assessed by Doppler and catheter at three locations along the MV's intercommissural axis. When comparing dimensions of the rapid-prototyped valves to the subject echocardiography data sets, mean relative errors ranged from 6.2% to 35%. For the evaluated MVs, Doppler pressure gradients exhibited good agreement with catheter-measured gradients at a variety of flow rates, though with slight systematic overestimation in the recreated MAC valves. For all of the tested MVs, measuring the transmitral pressure gradient at differing valve orifice positions had minimal impact on observed gradients. Upon the testing of additional normal and calcific MVs, these data may contribute to an improved clinical understanding of MAC-related mitral stenosis. Moreover, they provide the ability to statistically evaluate between measurement locations, flow rates, and valve geometries for Doppler-derived pressure gradients. Determining these end points will contribute to greater clinical understanding for the diagnosis MAC patients and understanding the use and application of Doppler
Vasile Cojocaru
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.
Analysis of mine's air leakage based on pressure gradient matrix between nodes
ZHANG Jian-rang; WANG Hong-gang; WU Feng-liang; CHANG Xin-tan
2008-01-01
Air leakage may significantly affect the effectiveness of mine ventilation by in-creasing the cost of ventilation and arousing problems for ventilation management. Fur-thermore, air leakage may accelerate the process of coal spontaneous combustion andcause gas explosion, thus greatly threatens the safety of coat production. The estimationof air leakage, therefore, have great practical significance. For any ventilation system ofcoal mines, there is a defined pattern of pressure gradient which drived the mine air toflow in the network, drives possible air leakage to go shortcut as well. Air leakage mayoccur through ventilation structures such as ventilation doors and fractures of the surroun-dig coal and rock of airways. A concept and the relevent calculation method of the pres-sure gradient matrix was put forward to assist the analysis of potential air leakage routes.A simplified example was used to introduce the application principle of'pressure gradientmatrix in identifying all the potential air leaking routes, which offers a deeper understand-ing over the ventilation system and the prevention of coal spontaneous combustion.
Liu, Xiao-Feng; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.
2001-01-01
Turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) is a very important quantity for turbulence modeling and the budget of this quantity in its transport equation can provide insight into the flow physics. Turbulence kinetic energy budget measurements were conducted for a symmetric turbulent wake flow subjected to constant zero, favorable and adverse pressure gradients in year-three of research effort. The purpose of this study is to clarify the flow physics issues underlying the demonstrated influence of pressure gradient on wake development and provide experimental support for turbulence modeling. To ensure the reliability of these notoriously difficult measurements, the experimental procedure was carefully designed on the basis of an uncertainty analysis. Four different approaches, based on an isotropic turbulence assumption, a locally axisymmetric homogeneous turbulence assumption, a semi-isotropy assumption and a forced balance of the TKE equation, were applied for the estimate of the dissipation term. The pressure transport term is obtained from a forced balance of the turbulence kinetic energy equation. This report will present the results of the turbulence kinetic energy budget measurement and discuss their implication on the development of strained turbulent wakes.
Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient
Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.
2002-01-01
The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.
Chopard, Romain; Meneveau, Nicolas; Plastaras, Philoktimon; Janin, Sebastien; Seronde, Marie-France; Ecarnot, Fiona; Schiele, Francois
2013-06-15
Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) is the reference technique for evaluating aortic stenosis (AS) but may be unreliable in some cases. We aimed to assess whether the use of a pressure wire to measure simultaneous transaortic gradient and aortic valve area (AVA) could be helpful in patients in whom initial noninvasive evaluations were considered doubtful for AS. Fifty-seven patients (mean age 76 years; 39 men) underwent cardiac catheterization with single arterial access for assessment of AVA with the Gorlin and Gorlin formula. Transaortic pressure was obtained by 2 invasive methods: (1) conventional pullback method (PM) from the left ventricle toward the aorta and (2) simultaneous method (SM) with transaortic pressure simultaneously recorded with a 0.014-inch pressure wire introduced into the left ventricle and with a diagnostic catheter placed in the ascending aorta. Reasons for inaccurate assessment by 2D-TTE were low flow states (88%) and/or atrial fibrillation (79%). Agreement for severe AS defined by AVA <0.6 cm²/m² between SM and 2D-TTE and between SM and PM was fair, with kappa coefficients of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.75) and 0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.7) respectively; agreement was poor between 2D-TTE and PM (kappa: 0.23; 95% CI 0.002-0.36). SM led to a reclassification of the severity of AS in 9 patients (15.8%) compared with 2D-TTE and in 11 patients (19.3%) compared with PM. In conclusion, invasive evaluation of doubtful AS by measuring simultaneous transaortic gradient using a pressure wire may provide an attractive method that can lead to a change in therapeutic strategy in a substantial proportion of patients.
Local pressure gradients due to incipience of boiling in subcooled flows
Ruggles, A.E.; McDuffee, J.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
1995-09-01
Models for vapor bubble behavior and nucleation site density during subcooled boiling are integrated with boundary layer theory in order to predict the local pressure gradient and heat transfer coefficient. Models for bubble growth rate and bubble departure diameter are used to scale the movement of displaced liquid in the laminar sublayer. An added shear stress, analogous to a turbulent shear stress, is derived by considering the liquid movement normal to the heated surface. The resulting mechanistic model has plausible functional dependence on wall superheat, mass flow, and heat flux and agrees well with data available in the literature.
Exact solution of unsteady flow generated by sinusoidal pressure gradient in a capillary tube
M. Abdulhameed
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of unsteady second grade fluid in a capillary tube with sinusoidal pressure gradient is developed with non-homogenous boundary conditions. Exact analytical solutions for the velocity profiles have been obtained in explicit forms. These solutions are written as the sum of the steady and transient solutions for small and large times. For growing times, the starting solution reduces to the well-known periodic solution that coincides with the corresponding solution of a Newtonian fluid. Graphs representing the solutions are discussed.
Hazem A. Attia
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The unsteady Hartmann flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid bounded by two parallel nonconducting porous plates is studied with heat transfer taking the ion slip into consideration. An external uniform magnetic field and a uniform suction and injection are applied perpendicular to the plates, while the fluid motion is subjected to an exponential decaying pressure gradient. The two plates are kept at different but constant temperatures while the Joule and viscous dissipations are included in the energy equation. The effect of the ion slip and the uniform suction and injection on both the velocity and temperature distributions is examined.
Coherent structures in a zero-pressure-gradient and a strongly decelerated boundary layer
Simens, Mark P.; Gungor, Ayse G.; Maciel, Yvan
2016-04-01
Coherent structures in a strongly decelerated large-velocity-defect turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and a zero pressure gradient (ZPG) boundary layer are analysed by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The characteristics of the one-point velocity stastistics are also considered. The adverse pressure gradient (APG) TBL simulation is a new one carried out by the present authors. The APG TBL begins as a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, decelerates under a strong adverse pressure gradient, and separates near the end of the domain in the form of a very thin separation bubble. The one-point velocity statistics in the outer region of this large-defect boundary layer are compared to those of two other large-velocity-defect APG TBLs (one in dynamic equilibrium, the other in disequilibrium) and a mixing layer. In the upper half of the large-defect boundary layers, the velocity statistics are similar to those of the mixing layer. The dominant peaks of turbulence production and Reynolds stresses are located in the middle of the boundary layers. Three-dimensional spatial correlations of (u, u) and (u, v) show that coherence is lost in the streamwise and spanwise directions as the velocity defect increases. Near-wall streaks tend to disappear in the large-defect zone of the flow to be replaced by more disorganized u motions. Near-wall sweeps and ejections are also less numerous. In the outer region, the u structures tend to be shorter, less streaky, and more inclined with respect to the wall than in the ZPG TBL. The sweeps and ejections are generally bigger with respect to the boundary layer thickness in the large-defect boundary layer, even if the biggest structures are found in the ZPG TBL. Large sweeps and ejections that reach the wall region (wall-attached) are less streamwise elongated and they occupy less space than in the ZPG boundary layer. The distinction between wall-attached and wall-detached structures is not as pronounced in the large-defect TBL.
Gap heating with pressure gradients. [for Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles
Scott, C. D.; Maraia, R. J.
1979-01-01
The heating rate distribution and temperature response on the gap walls of insulating tiles is analyzed to determine significant phenomena and parameters in flows where there is an external surface pressure gradient. Convective heating due to gap flow, modeled as fully developed pipe flow, is coupled with a two-dimensional thermal model of the tiles that includes conduction and radiative heat transfer. To account for geometry and important environmental parameters, scale factors are obtained by curve-fitting measured temperatures to analytical solutions. These scale factors are then used to predict the time-dependent gap heat flux and temperature response of tile gaps on the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry.
Effect of Favorable Pressure Gradients on Turbine Blade Pressure Surface Heat Transfer
Boyle, Robert J.; Giel, P. W.
2002-01-01
Recent measurements on a turbine rotor showed significant relaminarization effects. These effects were evident on the pressure surface heat transfer measurements. The character of the heat transfer varied with Reynolds number. Data were obtained for exit Reynolds numbers between 500,000 and 880,000. Tests were done with a high level of inlet turbulence, 7.5%. At lower Reynolds numbers the heat transfer was similar to that for laminar flow, but at a level higher than for laminar flow. At higher Reynolds numbers the heat transfer was similar to turbulent flow, when the acceleration parameter, K, was sufficiently small. The proposed paper discusses the experimental results, and also discusses approaches to calculating the surface heat transfer for the blade surface. Calculations were done using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes CFD analysis. The results of these tests, when compared with previous blade tests in the same facility, illustrate modeling difficulties that were encountered in CFD predictions. The two blades were in many ways similar. However, the degree of agreement between the same analysis and the experimental data was significantly different. These differences are highlighted to illustrate where improvements in modeling approaches are needed for transitional flows.
Observations of wave-induced pore pressure gradients and bed level response on a surf zone sandbar
Anderson, Dylan; Cox, Dan; Mieras, Ryan; Puleo, Jack A.; Hsu, Tian-Jian
2017-06-01
Horizontal and vertical pressure gradients may be important physical mechanisms contributing to onshore sediment transport beneath steep, near-breaking waves in the surf zone. A barred beach was constructed in a large-scale laboratory wave flume with a fixed profile containing a mobile sediment layer on the crest of the sandbar. Horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients were obtained by finite differences of measurements from an array of pressure transducers buried within the upper several centimeters of the bed. Colocated observations of erosion depth were made during asymmetric wave trials with wave heights between 0.10 and 0.98 m, consistently resulting in onshore sheet flow sediment transport. The pore pressure gradient vector within the bed exhibited temporal rotations during each wave cycle, directed predominantly upward under the trough and then rapidly rotating onshore and downward as the wavefront passed. The magnitude of the pore pressure gradient during each phase of rotation was correlated with local wave steepness and relative depth. Momentary bed failures as deep as 20 grain diameters were coincident with sharp increases in the onshore-directed pore pressure gradients, but occurred at horizontal pressure gradients less than theoretical critical values for initiation of the motion for compact beds. An expression combining the effects of both horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients with bed shear stress and soil stability is used to determine that failure of the bed is initiated at nonnegligible values of both forces.Plain Language SummaryThe pressure gradient present within the seabed beneath breaking waves may be an important physical mechanism transporting sediment. A large-scale laboratory was used to replicate realistic surfzone conditions in controlled tests, allowing for horizontal and vertical pressure gradient magnitudes and the resulting sediment bed response to be observed with precise instruments. Contrary to previous studies
THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON LOW FREQUENCY OSCILLATING NATURAL CONVECTION WITH PRESSURE GRADIENT
G.C. Sharma; Madhu Jain; Mahesh Chandra
2003-01-01
The oscillating natural convection in the presence of transverse magnetic field with time depending pressure gradient is studied. The analysis of the problem is carried out by assuming that the fluid is flowing in a parallel plate configuration. The emphasis is on low frequency oscillating convective flows induced by g-jitter associated with micro gravity because of their importance to the space processing materials. A general solution for an oscillating flow in the presence of transverse magnetic field is carried out. Some special cases of the oscillating flow and its response to an applied magnetic field are performed. It was observed that the behavior of oscillating free convective flows depends on frequency, amplitude of the driving buoyancy forces, temperature gradient, magnetic field and the electric conditions of the channel walls. In the absence of magnetic field, buoyancy force plays a predominant role in driving the oscillatory flow pattern, and velocity magnitude is also affected by temperature gradients. To suppress the oscillating flow external magnetic field can be used. It is also found that the reduction of the velocity is inversely proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field with conducting wall but directly proportional to the inverse of the magnetic field with insulating wall. Detailed calculations and computational results are also carried out to depict the real situation.
Staging of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis： The role of hepaticvenous pressure gradient measurement
Ki Tae Suk; Dong Joon Kim
2015-01-01
Liver fibrosis is a common histological change ofchronic liver injury and it is closely related with portalhypertension which is hemodynamic complication ofchronic liver disease. Currently, liver fibrosis has beenknown as a reversible dynamic process in previousliteratures. Although liver biopsy is a gold standardfor assessing the stage of liver fibrosis, it may notcompletely represent the stage of liver fibrosis becauseof sampling error or semi-quantative measurement.Recent evidences suggested that histologic, clinical,hemodynamic, and biologic features are closelyassociated in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepaticvenous pressure gradient （HVPG） measurement has beenknown as a modality to evaluate the portal pressure.The HVPG measurement has been used clinicallyfor fibrosis diagnosis, risk stratification, preoperativescreening for liver resection, monitoring the efficacy ofmedical treatments, and assessing the prognosis of liverfibrosis. Therefore, the HVPG measurement can be usedto monitor areas the chronic liver disease but also otherimportant areas of chronic liver disease.
Beyond Pressure Gradients: The Effects of Intervention on Heart Power in Aortic Coarctation
Brüning, Jan; Hellmeier, Florian; Nordmeyer, Sarah; da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Schubert, Stephan; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Kelm, Marcus
2017-01-01
Background In aortic coarctation, current guidelines recommend reducing pressure gradients that exceed given thresholds. From a physiological standpoint this should ideally improve the energy expenditure of the heart and thus prevent long term organ damage. Objectives The aim was to assess the effects of interventional treatment on external and internal heart power (EHP, IHP) in patients with aortic coarctation and to explore the correlation of these parameters to pressure gradients obtained from heart catheterization. Methods In a collective of 52 patients with aortic coarctation 25 patients received stenting and/or balloon angioplasty, and 20 patients underwent MRI before and after an interventional treatment procedure. EHP and IHP were computed based on catheterization and MRI measurements. Along with the power efficiency these were combined in a cardiac energy profile. Results By intervention, the catheter gradient was significantly reduced from 21.8±9.4 to 6.2±6.1mmHg (p<0.001). IHP was significantly reduced after intervention, from 8.03±5.2 to 4.37±2.13W (p < 0.001). EHP was 1.1±0.3 W before and 1.0±0.3W after intervention, p = 0.044. In patients initially presenting with IHP above 5W intervention resulted in a significant reduction in IHP from 10.99±4.74 W to 4.94±2.45W (p<0.001), and a subsequent increase in power efficiency from 14 to 26% (p = 0.005). No significant changes in IHP, EHP or power efficiency were observed in patients initially presenting with IHP < 5W. Conclusion It was demonstrated that interventional treatment of coarctation resulted in a decrease in IHP. Pressure gradients, as the most widespread clinical parameters in coarctation, did not show any correlation to changes in EHP or IHP. This raises the question of whether they should be the main focus in coarctation interventions. Only patients with high IHP of above 5W showed improvement in IHP and power efficiency after the treatment procedure. Trial Registration clinicaltrials
Chien-Chung Chen
Full Text Available Perceived depth is conveyed by multiple cues, including binocular disparity and luminance shading. Depth perception from luminance shading information depends on the perceptual assumption for the incident light, which has been shown to default to a diffuse illumination assumption. We focus on the case of sinusoidally corrugated surfaces to ask how shading and disparity cues combine defined by the joint luminance gradients and intrinsic disparity modulation that would occur in viewing the physical corrugation of a uniform surface under diffuse illumination. Such surfaces were simulated with a sinusoidal luminance modulation (0.26 or 1.8 cy/deg, contrast 20%-80% modulated either in-phase or in opposite phase with a sinusoidal disparity of the same corrugation frequency, with disparity amplitudes ranging from 0'-20'. The observers' task was to adjust the binocular disparity of a comparison random-dot stereogram surface to match the perceived depth of the joint luminance/disparity-modulated corrugation target. Regardless of target spatial frequency, the perceived target depth increased with the luminance contrast and depended on luminance phase but was largely unaffected by the luminance disparity modulation. These results validate the idea that human observers can use the diffuse illumination assumption to perceive depth from luminance gradients alone without making an assumption of light direction. For depth judgments with combined cues, the observers gave much greater weighting to the luminance shading than to the disparity modulation of the targets. The results were not well-fit by a Bayesian cue-combination model weighted in proportion to the variance of the measurements for each cue in isolation. Instead, they suggest that the visual system uses disjunctive mechanisms to process these two types of information rather than combining them according to their likelihood ratios.
Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Hori, Takane; Murata, Shin; Sato, Kenichiro; Baba, Toshitaka; Okada, Masato
2016-12-01
We constructed a model to predict the maximum tsunami height by a Gaussian process (GP) that uses pressure gauge data from the Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET) in the Nankai trough. We found a greatly improved generalization error of the maximum tsunami height by our prediction model. The error is about one third of that by a previous method, which tends to make larger predictions, especially for large tsunami heights (>10 m). These results indicate that GP enables us to get a more accurate prediction of tsunami height by using pressure gauge data.
Ungar, Eugene K.
2014-01-01
The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared observation experiments. The experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium (LHe) temperatures. A question arose regarding the heat input and peak pressure that would result from a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation. Owing to concerns about the adequacy of dewar pressure relief in the event of a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation, the SOFIA Program engaged the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This report summarizes and assesses the experiments that have been performed to measure the heat flux into LHe dewars following a sudden vacuum insulation failure, describes the physical limits of heat input to the dewar, and provides an NESC recommendation for the wall heat flux that should be used to assess the sudden loss of vacuum insulation case. This report also assesses the methodology used by the SOFIA Program to predict the maximum pressure that would occur following a loss of vacuum event.
Pick-up ion pressure gradients modulating the solar wind dynamics
Fahr, Hans J.; Fichtner, Horst
1995-01-01
Neutral interstellar atoms penetrate deeply into the inner heliosphere before they become ionized by various processes. As ions they are picked-up by the frozen-in magnetic fields and are convected outwards with the solar wind plasma. Thereby the primary plasma flow is mass, momentum, and energy-loaded. The dynamics of the distant multi-constituent solar wind is, however, not solely determined by these loading processes, but is also affected by the wave-mediated pick-up ion pressure gradients derivable from the pick-up ion distribution function. The action of the radial components of these pressures essentially counter balances the decelerating effect of the solar wind momentum loading, diminishing strongly the deceleration of the distant solar wind. Furthermore the latitudinal components of the pick-up ion pressures induce latitudinal forces acting on the multiconstituent solar plasma outflow and inducing nonradial bulk flow components. The enforced nonradial outflow geometry on the upwind hemisphere may partly be responsible for the magnetic flux deficit which was claimed since several years in the PIONEER-10 magnetic flux data.
A Simple Method for Noninvasive Quantification of Pressure Gradient Across the Pulmonary Valve.
Zhou, Xueying; Xing, Changyang; Feng, Yang; Duan, Yunyou; Zheng, Qiangsun; Wang, Zuojun; Liu, Jie; Cao, Tiesheng; Yuan, Lijun
2017-02-15
Pressure gradient across the pulmonary valve (PVPG) is an important hemodynamic variable used in the management of patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. However, a reliable noninvasive method is unavailable. We hypothesized that a progressive Muller maneuver would elicit the pulmonary valve premature opening (PVPO) in diastole and that this event would be detectable by Doppler echocardiography. The intrathoracic pressure (ITP) decrease during this maneuver equals PVPG, which may be assessed with a custom airway pressure measurement device. A total of 102 subjects were enrolled in the study. At the earliest appearance of PVPO, the ITP decrease was recorded as the PVPG. PVPG was also simultaneously measured and compared by other two methods: right heart catheterization in 43 subjects, and routine Doppler echocardiography (pulmonary regurgitation jet) in the other 59 subjects. The results measured by different approaches were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis. PVPG assessed via PVPO showed strong agreement with PVPG measured by catheterization or routine Doppler echocardiography methods, with Lin concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.70, respectively. In conclusion, PVPO provides a new noninvasive method of quantification of PVPG.
Shin, Dong In; Lim, Eun Mo; Huh, Nam Su [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Shin Beom; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
A structural integrity of steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants is one of crucial parameters for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Thus, many studies have been made to provide engineering methods to assess integrity of defective tubes of commercial nuclear power plants considering its operating environments and defect characteristics. As described above, the geometric and operating conditions of steam generator tubes in integral reactor are significantly different from those of commercial reactor. Therefore, the structural integrity assessment of defective tubes of integral reactor taking into account its own operating conditions and geometric characteristics, i. e., external pressure and helically coiled shape, should be made to demonstrate compliance with the current design criteria. Also, ovality is very specific characteristics of the helically coiled tube because it is occurred during the coiling processes. The wear, occurring from FIV (Flow Induced Vibration) and so on, is main degradation of steam generator tube. In the present study, maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with wear is predicted based on the detailed 3-dimensional finite element analysis. As for shape of wear defect, the rectangular shape is considered. In particular, the effect of ovality on the maximum external pressure of helically coiled tubes with rectangular shaped wear is investigated. In the present work, the maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with rectangular shaped wear is investigated via detailed 3-D FE analyses. In order to cover a practical range of geometries for defective tube, the variables affecting the maximum external pressure were systematically varied. In particular, the effect of tube ovality on the maximum external pressure is evaluated. It is expected that the present results can be used as a technical backgrounds for establishing a practical structural integrity assessment guideline of
Implicit Large-Eddy Simulations of Zero-Pressure Gradient, Turbulent Boundary Layer
Sekhar, Susheel; Mansour, Nagi N.
2015-01-01
A set of direct simulations of zero-pressure gradient, turbulent boundary layer flows are conducted using various span widths (62-630 wall units), to document their influence on the generated turbulence. The FDL3DI code that solves compressible Navier-Stokes equations using high-order compact-difference scheme and filter, with the standard recycling/rescaling method of turbulence generation, is used. Results are analyzed at two different Re values (500 and 1,400), and compared with spectral DNS data. They show that a minimum span width is required for the mere initiation of numerical turbulence. Narrower domains ((is) less than 100 w.u.) result in relaminarization. Wider spans ((is) greater than 600 w.u.) are required for the turbulent statistics to match reference DNS. The upper-wall boundary condition for this setup spawns marginal deviations in the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles, particularly in the buffer region.
Diamond, P.H.; Biglari, H.; Gang, F.Y.; Kim, Y.B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Wang, X.H.; Xu, X.Q. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Dominguez, N.; Carreras, B.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lynch, V.E.; Charlton, L.A.; Garcia, L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Terry, P.W.; Newman, D.E. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Physics); Koniges, A.E.; Crotinger, J.; Dannevik, W. (Lawre
1990-12-01
Recent advances in the theory of trapped particle pressure gradient driven turbulence are summarized. A novel theory of trapped ion convective cell turbulence is presented. It is shown that nonlinear transfer to small scales occurs, and that saturation levels are not unphysically large, as previously thought. As the virulent saturation mechanism of ion Compton scattering is shown to result in weak turbulence at higher frequencies, it is thus likely that trapped ion convective cells are the major agent of tokamak transport. Fluid-like trapped electron modes at short wavelengths (k{sub {theta}} {rho}{sub i} > 1) are shown to drive an inward particle pinch. The characteristics of convective cell turbulence in flat density discharges are described, as is the stability of dissipative trapped electron modes in stellarators, with flexible magnetic field structure. The role of cross-correlations in the dynamics of multi-field models of drift wave turbulence is discussed. 32 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Direct Numerical Simulation and Theories of Wall Turbulence with a Range of Pressure Gradients
Coleman, G. N.; Garbaruk, A.; Spalart, P. R.
2014-01-01
A new Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Couette-Poiseuille flow at a higher Reynolds number is presented and compared with DNS of other wall-bounded flows. It is analyzed in terms of testing semi-theoretical proposals for universal behavior of the velocity, mixing length, or eddy viscosity in pressure gradients, and in terms of assessing the accuracy of two turbulence models. These models are used in two modes, the traditional one with only a dependence on the wall-normal coordinate y, and a newer one in which a lateral dependence on z is added. For pure Couette flow and the Couette-Poiseuille case considered here, this z-dependence allows some models to generate steady streamwise vortices, which generally improves the agreement with DNS and experiment. On the other hand, it complicates the comparison between DNS and models.
Wall mass transfer and pressure gradient effects on turbulent skin friction
Watson, R. D.; Balasubramanian, R.
1984-01-01
The effects of mass injection and pressure gradients on the drag of surfaces were studied theoretically with the aid of boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes codes. The present investigation is concerned with the effects of spatially varying the injection in the case of flat-plate drag. Effects of suction and injection on wavy wall surfaces are also explored. Calculations were performed for 1.2 m long surfaces, one flat and the other sinusoidal with a wavelength of 30.5 cm. Attention is given to the study of the effect of various spatial blowing variations on flat-plate skin friction reduction, local skin friction coefficient calculated by finite difference boundary-layer code and Navier-Stokes code, and the effect of phase-shifting sinusoidal mass transfer on the drag of a sinusoidal surface.
ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing
2008-01-01
Much has been written of the error in computing the baroclinic pressure gradient (BPG) with sigma coordinates in ocean or atmos- pheric numerical models. The usual way to reduce the error is to subtract area-averaged density stratification of the whole computa- tion region. But if there is great difference between the area-averaged and the local averaged density stratification, the error will be obvious. An example is given to show that the error from this method may be larger than that from no correction sometimes. The definition of local area is put forward. Then, four improved BPG difference schemes of subtracting the local averaged density strat- ification are designed to reduce the error. Two of them are for diagnostic calculation (density field is fixed), and the others are for prognostic calculation (density field is not fixed). The results show that the errors from these schemes all significantly decrease.
Glinka, Z
1977-05-01
The effect of abscisic acid on the exudation rate from decapitated roots of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated in the presence and absence of an imposed hydrostatic pressure gradient. The magnitude of the abscisic acid effect was constant even when suctions up to 60 cm Hg were applied to the cut stumps.When roots were bathed in a THO-labeled nutrient solution, the course of the appearance of radioactivity in the exudate, expressed as a function of exudate volume, was not affected by abscisic acid treatment but was strongly speeded up by applying suction.The implications of those findings with regard to the water pathway through the root and the location of the abscisic acid effect are discussed.
A Nonlinear k-ε Turbulence Model Applicable to High Pressure Gradient and Large Curvature Flow
Xiyao Gu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Most of the RANS turbulence models solve the Reynolds stress by linear hypothesis with isotropic model. They can not capture all kinds of vortexes in the turbomachineries. In this paper, an improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is proposed, which is modified from the RNG k-ε turbulence model and Wilcox's k-ω turbulence model. The Reynolds stresses are solved by nonlinear methods. The nonlinear k-ε turbulence model can calculate the near wall region without the use of wall functions. The improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is used to simulate the flow field in a curved rectangular duct. The results based on the improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model agree well with the experimental results. The calculation results prove that the nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is available for high pressure gradient flows and large curvature flows, and it can be used to capture complex vortexes in a turbomachinery.
Turbulent magnetic field amplification driven by cosmic-ray pressure gradients
Drury, Luke O'C
2012-01-01
Observations of non-thermal emission from several supernova remnants suggest that magnetic fields close to the blastwave are much stronger than would be naively expected from simple shock compression of the field permeating the interstellar medium (ISM). We present a simple model which is capable of achieving sufficient magnetic field amplification to explain the observations. We propose that the cosmic-ray pressure gradient acting on the inhomogeneous ISM upstream of the supernova blastwave induces strong turbulence upstream of the supernova blastwave. The turbulence is generated through the differential acceleration of the upstream ISM which occurs as a result of density inhomogeneities in the ISM. This turbulence then amplifies the pre-existing magnetic field. Numerical simulations are presented which demonstrate that amplification factors of 20 or more are easily achievable by this mechanism when reasonable parameters for the ISM and supernova blastwave are assumed. The length scale over which this amplif...
Mean flow structure of non-equilibrium boundary layers with adverse pressure gradient
B C Mandal; H P Mazumdar; S S Dutta
2014-10-01
In this paper Spalding’s formulation for the law of the wall with constants modified by Persen is used to describe the inner region (viscous sub-layer and certain portion of logarithmic layer) and a wake law due to Persen is used to describe the wake region (outer region). These two laws are examined in the light of measured data by Marušić and Perry for non-equilibrium adverse pressure gradient layers. It is observed that structure of turbulence for this flow is well-described by these two laws. From the known structure of turbulence eddy viscosity for the flow under consideration is calculated. Self similarity in eddy viscosity is observed in the wall region.
Noer, Ivan; Praestholm, J; Tønnesen, K H
1981-01-01
to the angiographic findings. A consistent pressure gradient was found in the various types of arterial occlusions. In patients with occlusion of both the aorta and the iliac arteries, the systolic pressure drop was about 60% (range, 50-78%, SD 9%). The various types of iliac artery occlusions resulted in quite...... uniform systolic pressure drops of about 50% (range 35-68%, SD 9%). In contrast, the systolic pressure drop along different types of iliac stenoses showed a wide variation, ranging from a minimal drop to about 60%. The degree of stenosis on the angiogram was correlated significantly with the pressure drop...
RESEARCH AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER AT POSITIVE PRESSURE GRADIENT
Vitaliy Mamchuk
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Mathematical modeling of complex turbulent near-wall flows, that occur during the flow of airfoils, is impossible without understanding the nature of the flow in boundary layer. From a mathematical point of view, the calculation of such flows, because in practical problems they regarded as turbulent, and the characteristics of turbulence are largely dependent on the geometry of the profile of the longitudinal component of the average velocity of the near-wall flow. Based on this, the purpose of this work is studying and mathematical modeling of turbulent near-wall flows in the interaction with the real streamlined surface, that has certain features, such as the curvature, roughness, etc., as well as the study and research of the influence of the pressure gradient on the empirical coefficients, parameters of the flow, velocity profiles and friction stress. Methods: We performed the calculations using numerical finite-difference marching method with algebraic model of turbulent viscosity coefficient. Results: In this paper we present some results of the numerical study of the effect of the positive pressure gradient on the empirical coefficients of the transition zone and the law of the near-wall and the outer-wall areas. Discussion: Comparison of the calculated results with the experimental data shows that the proposed approaches provide an opportunity to simulate the flow as close as possible to their physical properties. Presented mathematical model for the calculation of turbulent boundary layers and near-wall flows makes it possible to calculate such a complex and valuable from a practical point of view type of the flow as the aerodynamic trail behind the streamlined body.
49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.
2010-10-01
... integrity of the coating using direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) or alternating current voltage... pipeline segment. (ii) To address interference currents, perform the following: (A) Conduct an interference survey to detect the presence and level of any electrical current that could impact external...
Kai Yan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A predictive model for droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer has been proposed based on the maximum entropy formalism (MEF. The constraint conditions of the MEF model include the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The effects of liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio on the droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer are investigated. Results show that model based on maximum entropy formalism works well to predict droplet size and velocity distributions under different spray conditions. Liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio have different effects on droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer.
Sildenafil does not influence hepatic venous pressure gradient in patients with cirrhosis
Jens Otto Clemmesen; Annamaria Giraldi; Peter Ott; Kim Dalhoff; Bent Adel Hansen; Fin Stolze Larsen
2008-01-01
AIM: To investigate if sildenafil increases splanchnic blood flow and changes the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) in patients with cirrhosis. Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors are valuable in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension in patients with end-stage liver disease. However, the effect of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors on splanchnic blood flow and portal hypertension remains essentially unknown. METHODS: Ten patients with biopsy proven cirrhosis (five females/five males, mean age 54±8 years) and an HVPG above 12 mmHg were studied after informed consent. Measurement of splanchnic blood flow and the HVPG during liver vein catheterization were done before and 80 min after oral administration of 50 mg sildenafil. Blood flow was estimated by use of indocyanine green clearance technique and Fick's principle, with correction for non-steady state. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of sildenafil was 222±136 ng/mL 80 min after administration. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 77±7 mmHg to 66±12 mmHg, P=0.003, while the splanchnic blood flow and oxygen consumption remained unchanged at 1.14±0.71 L/min and 2.3±0.6 mmol/ min, respectively. Also the HVPG remained unchanged (18±2 mmHg vs 16±2 mmHg) with individual changes ranging from-8 mmHg to+2 mmHg. In seven patients, HVPG decreased and in three it increased. CONCLUSION: In spite of arterial blood pressure decreases 80 min after administration of the phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor sildenafil, the present study could not demonstrate any clinical relevant influence on splanichnic blood flow, oxygen consumption or the HVPG.
Deutsch, Karol; Śledź, Janusz; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Labus, Michał; Karbarz, Dariusz; Pasicka, Bernadetta; Chrabąszcz, Michał; Śledź, Arkadiusz; Klank-Szafran, Monika; Vitali-Sendoz, Laura; Kameczura, Tomasz; Śpikowski, Jerzy; Stec, Piotr; Ujda, Marek; Stec, Sebastian
2017-06-01
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is an established effective method for the treatment of typical cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL). The introduction of 3-dimensional electro-anatomic systems enables RFCA without fluoroscopy (No-X-Ray [NXR]). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of CTI RFCA during implementation of the NXR approach and the maximum voltage-guided (MVG) technique for ablation of AFL.Data were obtained from prospective standardized multicenter ablation registry. Consecutive patients with the first RFCA for CTI-dependent AFL were recruited. Two navigation approaches (NXR and fluoroscopy based as low as reasonable achievable [ALARA]) and 2 mapping and ablation techniques (MVG and pull-back technique [PBT]) were assessed. NXR + MVG (n = 164; age: 63.7 ± 9.5; 30% women), NXR + PBT (n = 55; age: 63.9 ± 10.7; 39% women); ALARA + MVG (n = 36; age: 64.2 ± 9.6; 39% women); and ALARA + PBT (n = 205; age: 64.7 ± 9.1; 30% women) were compared, respectively. All groups were simplified with a 2-catheter femoral approach using 8-mm gold tip catheters (Osypka AG, Germany or Biotronik, Germany) with 15 min of observation. The MVG technique was performed using step-by-step application by mapping the largest atrial signals within the CTI.Bidirectional block in CTI was achieved in 99% of all patients (P = NS, between groups). In NXR + MVG and NXR + PBT groups, the procedure time decreased (45.4 ± 17.6 and 47.2 ± 15.7 min vs. 52.6 ± 23.7 and 59.8 ± 24.0 min, P < .01) as compared to ALARA + MVG and ALARA + PBT subgroups. In NXR + MVG and NXR + PBT groups, 91% and 98% of the procedures were performed with complete elimination of fluoroscopy. The NXR approach was associated with a significant reduction in fluoroscopy exposure (from 0.2 ± 1.1 [NXR + PBT] and 0.3 ± 1.6 [NXR + MVG] to 7.7 ± 6.0 min [ALARA + MVG] and 9
Pressure gradients and boiling as mechanisms for localizing ore in porphyry systems
Cunningham, Charles G.
1978-01-01
Fluid inclusions in ore zones of porphyry systems indicate that extensive boiling of hydrothermal fluids accompanies deposition of ore and gangue minerals. The boiling commonly accompanied a change from a lithostatic to a hydrostatic environment during evolution of an epizonal stock. Pressure gradients near the margin of the stock can determine whether ore or only a diffuse zone of mineralization is formed. A sharp drop in pressure in an epizonal environment is more likely to cause extensive boiling than a comparable change in a deeper environment, as the slope of the boiling curve steepens with an increase 'in pressure. The drop in pressure causes the hydrothermal fluids to boil and creates a crackle (stockwork) breccia, which hosts the veinlets of gangue quartz and ore minerals. The boiling selectively partitions CO2, H2S, and HCl into the vapor phase, changing the pH, composition, ionic strength, and thus the solubility product of metal complexes in the remaining liquid and causing the ore and gangue to come out of solution. Fluid inclusions trapped from boiling solutions can exhibit several forms, depending on the physical and chemical conditions of the hydrothermal fluid from which they were trapped. In one case, inclusions when heated can homogenize to either liquid or vapor at the same temperature, which is the true boiling temperature. In another case, homogenization of various inclusions can occur through a range of temperatures. The latter case results from the trapping of mixture of liquid and vapor. Variations in salinity can result from boiling of the hydrothermal fluid, or intermittent incorporation of high-salinity fluids from the magma, or trapping of fluids of varying densities at pressure-temperature conditions above the critical point of the fluid. In places, paleopressure-temperature transition zones can be recognized by fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures and phase relationships and by the presence of anhydrite daughter minerals
Computational evaluation of intraventricular pressure gradients based on a fluid-structure approach.
Redaelli, A; Montevecchi, F M
1996-11-01
The dynamics of intraventricular blood flow, i.e. its rapid evolution, implies the rise of intraventricular pressure gradients (IPGs) characteristic of the inertia-driven events as experimentally observed by Pasipoularides (1987, 1990) and by Falsetti et al. (1986). The IPG time course is determined by the wall contraction which, in turn, depends on the load applied, namely the intraventricular pressure which is the sum of the aortic pressure (i.e., the systemic net response) and the IPG. Hence the IPGs account, at least in part, for the wall movement. These considerations suggest the necessity of a comprehensive analysis of the ventricular mechanics involving both ventricular wall mechanics and intraventricular fluid dynamics as each domain determines the boundary conditions of the other. This paper presents a computational approach to ventricular ejection mechanics based on a fluid-structure interaction calculation for the evaluation of the IPG time course. An axisymmetric model of the left ventricle is utilized. The intraventricular fluid is assumed to be Newtonian. The ventricle wall is thin and is composed of two sets of counter-rotating fibres which behave according to the modified version of Wong's sarcomere model proposed by Montevecchi and Pietrabissa and Pietrabissa et al. (1987, 1991). The full Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid domain are solved using Galerkin's weighted residual approach in conjunction with finite element approximation (FIDAP). The wall displacement is solved using the multiplane quasi-Newton method proposed by Buzzi Ferraris and Tronconi (1985). The interaction procedure is performed by means of an external macro which compares the flow fields and the wall displacement and appropriately modifies the boundary conditions to reach the simultaneous and congruous convergence of the two problems. The results refer to a simulation of the ventricular ejection with a heart rate of 72 bpm. In this phase the ventricle ejects 61 cm3
Intraoperative evaluation of transmitral pressure gradients after edge-to-edge mitral valve repair.
Jan N Hilberath
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve (MV has been described as a viable option used for the surgical management of mitral regurgitation (MR. Based on the significant changes in MV geometry associated with this technique, we hypothesized that edge-to-edge MV repairs are associated with higher intraoperative transmitral pressure gradients (TMPG compared to conventional methods. METHODS: Patient records and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE examinations of 552 consecutive patients undergoing MV repair at a single institution over a three year period were assessed. After separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, peak and mean TMPG were recorded for each patient and subsequently analyzed. RESULTS: 84 patients (15% underwent edge-to-edge MV repair. Peak and mean TMPG were significantly higher compared to gradients in patients undergoing conventional repairs: 10.7 ± 0.5 mmHg vs 7.1 ± 0.2 mmHg; P<0.0001 and 4.3 ± 0.2 mmHg vs 2.8 ± 0.1 mmHg; P<0.0001. Only patients with mean TMPG ≥ 7 mmHg (n = 9 required prompt reoperation for iatrogenic mitral stenosis (MS. No differences in peak and mean TMPG were observed among edge-to-edge repairs performed in isolation, compared to those performed in combination with annuloplasty: 11.0 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 10.3 ± 0.6 mmHg and 4.4 ± 0.3 mmHg vs 4.3 ± 0.3 mmHg. There were no differences in TMPG between various types of annuloplasty techniques used in combination with the edge-to-edge repairs. CONCLUSIONS: Edge-to-edge MV repairs are associated with higher intraoperative peak and mean TMPG after separation from CPB compared to conventional repair techniques. Unless gradients are severely elevated, these findings are not necessarily suggestive of iatrogenic MS. Thus, in the immediate postoperative period mildly elevated TMPG can be expected and tolerated after edge-to-edge mitral repairs.
Kelisani, M. Dayyani; Doebert, S.; Aslaninejad, M.
2016-08-01
The critical process of beam loading compensation in high intensity accelerators brings under control the undesired effect of the beam induced fields to the accelerating structures. A new analytical approach for optimizing standing wave accelerating structures is found which is hugely fast and agrees very well with simulations. A perturbative analysis of cavity and waveguide excitation based on the Bethe theorem and normal mode expansion is developed to compensate the beam loading effect and excite the maximum field gradient in the cavity. The method provides the optimum values for the coupling factor and the cavity detuning. While the approach is very accurate and agrees well with simulation software, it massively shortens the calculation time compared with the simulation software.
Kelisani, M. Dayyani, E-mail: mdayyani@cern.ch [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), BE Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Doebert, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), BE Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aslaninejad, M. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-08-21
The critical process of beam loading compensation in high intensity accelerators brings under control the undesired effect of the beam induced fields to the accelerating structures. A new analytical approach for optimizing standing wave accelerating structures is found which is hugely fast and agrees very well with simulations. A perturbative analysis of cavity and waveguide excitation based on the Bethe theorem and normal mode expansion is developed to compensate the beam loading effect and excite the maximum field gradient in the cavity. The method provides the optimum values for the coupling factor and the cavity detuning. While the approach is very accurate and agrees well with simulation software, it massively shortens the calculation time compared with the simulation software.
Ripoll, Cristina; Groszmann, Roberto J.; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Bosch, Jaime; Grace, Norman; Burroughs, Andrew; Planas, Ramon; Escorsell, Angels; Garcia-Pagan, Juan Carlos; Makuch, Robert; Patch, David; Matloff, Daniel S.
2013-01-01
Background/Aims A total of 213 patients with compensated cirrhosis, portal hypertension and no varices were included in a trial evaluating beta-blockers in preventing varices. Predictors of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) were analyzed. Methods Baseline laboratory tests, ultrasound and HVPG measurements were performed. Patients were followed prospectively every three months until development of varices or variceal bleeding or end of the study in 09/02. The endpoint was HCC development according to standard diagnostic criteria. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were developed to identify predictors of HCC. Results In a median follow-up of 58 months 26/213 (12.2%) patients developed HCC. Eight patients were transplanted and 28 patients died without HCC. Twenty-one (84%) HCC developed in patients with HCV. On multivariate analysis HVPG (HR 1.18; 95%CI 1.08–1.29), albumin (HR 0.34; 95%CI 0.14–0.83) and viral etiology (HR 4.59; 95%CI 1.51–13.92) were independent predictors of HCC development. ROC curves identified 10 mmHg of HVPG as the best cutoff; those who had an HVPG above this value had a 6-fold increase in the HCC incidence. Conclusions Portal hypertension is an independent predictor of HCC development. An HVPG >10 mmHg is associated with a 6-fold increase of HCC risk. PMID:19303163
Direct Numerical Simulation of Zero-Pressure Gradient and Sink Flow Turbulent Boundary Layers
Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2010-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulations have been performed for the zero pressure gradient (ZPG) (600 < Reθ< 900) and for the sink flow turbulent boundary layers (K = 7.71x10-7). A finite difference code on Cartesian grid was used to perform the simulations. Inflow generation method developed by Lund et al. was used to generate inflow boundary condition for the ZPG case. This method was slightly modified for the case of sink flow in view of self-similarity it possesses in the inner co-ordinates. Hence, there was no need to use empirical relations for the calculation of inlet θ or δ and rescaling in outer co-ordinates. The average statistics obtained from the simulations are in close agreement with the experimental as well as DNS data available in the literature. The intermittency distribution in the case of sink flow approaches zero inside the boundary layer (y = 0.8δ), an observation which is also confirmed by the experiments. This effect could be due to the acceleration near the boundary layer edge which suppresses the turbulent fluctuations near the boundary layer edge.
Hazem A Attia; W Abbas; Mostafa A M Abdeen; Ahmed A M Said
2015-02-01
The aim of the present paper is to study the unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic viscous Couette flow with heat transfer in a Darcy porous medium between two infinite parallel porous plates considering Hall effect, and temperature dependent physical properties under constant pressure gradient. The parallel plates are assumed to be porous and subjected to a uniform suction from above and injection from below while the fluid is flowing through a porous medium that is assumed to obey Darcy’s law. A numerical solution for the governing nonlinear partial differential equations coupled with set of momentum equations and the energy equation including the viscous and Joule dissipations is adopted. The effect of the porosity of the medium, the Hall current and the temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity on both the velocity and temperature distributions are investigated. It is found that the porosity numberMhas a marked effect on decreasing the velocity distribution (owing to a simultaneous increase in Darcy porous drag). Also the temperature T is decreased considerably with increasing porosity number.With increasing Hall current parameter m, the velocity component u (x-direction) is considerably increased, whereas velocity component w (z-direction) is reduced. Temperatures are decreased in the early stages of flow but effectively increased in the steady state with increasing m.
Yip, Ngai Yin
2011-05-15
Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. This work presents the fabrication of thin-film composite membranes customized for high performance in pressure retarded osmosis. We also present the development of a theoretical model to predict the water flux in pressure retarded osmosis, from which we can predict the power density that can be achieved by a membrane. The model is the first to incorporate external concentration polarization, a performance limiting phenomenon that becomes significant for high-performance membranes. The fabricated membranes consist of a selective polyamide layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer made by phase separation. The highly porous support layer (structural parameter S = 349 μm), which minimizes internal concentration polarization, allows the transport properties of the active layer to be customized to enhance PRO performance. It is shown that a hand-cast membrane that balances permeability and selectivity (A = 5.81 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, B = 0.88 L m-2 h-1) is projected to achieve the highest potential peak power density of 10.0 W/m2 for a river water feed solution and seawater draw solution. The outstanding performance of this membrane is attributed to the high water permeability of the active layer, coupled with a moderate salt permeability and the ability of the support layer to suppress the undesirable accumulation of leaked salt in the porous support. Membranes with greater selectivity (i.e., lower salt permeability, B = 0.16 L m-2 h-1) suffered from a lower water permeability (A = 1.74 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) and would yield a lower peak power density of 6.1 W/m2, while membranes with a higher permeability and lower selectivity (A = 7.55 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, B = 5.45 L m-2 h-1) performed poorly due to severe reverse salt permeation, resulting in a similar projected peak power density of 6.1 W/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Gagan, Michael K.; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L.; Esat, Tezer M.; Thompson, William G.; Tiwari, Manish; Potts, Donald C.; Mudelsee, Manfred; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Webster, Jody M.
2015-04-01
Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and δ18O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that were drilled by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 along the shelf edge seaward of the modern GBR. The Sr/Ca and δ18O records of the precisely U-Th dated fossil shallow-water corals show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 ° C larger temperature decrease between 17° S and 20° S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial and regionally differing temperature change during the last deglaciation, much larger temperature changes than previously recognized. Furthermore, our findings suggest a northward contraction of the Western Pacific Warm Pool during the LGM and last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous drying of northeastern Australia at that time. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and, considering temperature alone, may be more resilient than previously thought. Webster, J. M., Yokoyama, Y. & Cotteril, C. & the Expedition 325 Scientists. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Vol. 325 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International Inc., 2011). Felis, T., McGregor, H. V., Linsley, B. K., Tudhope, A. W., Gagan, M. K., Suzuki, A., Inoue, M., Thomas, A. L., Esat, T. M., Thompson, W. G., Tiwari, M., Potts, D. C., Mudelsee, M., Yokoyama, Y., Webster, J. M. Intensification of the meridional temperature gradient in the Great Barrier Reef following the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature Communications 5, 4102
Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2013-01-01
Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response...... of the composite is inclined compared to a standard pressure independent yield surfaces. The evolution of the macroscopic yield surface is investigated by quantifying both anisotropic hardening (expansion) and kinematic hardening (translation), where the coefficients of anisotropy and the Bauschinger stress...
On axial temperature gradients due to large pressure drops in dense fluid chromatography.
Colgate, Sam O; Berger, Terry A
2015-03-13
The effect of energy degradation (Degradation is the creation of net entropy resulting from irreversibility.) accompanying pressure drops across chromatographic columns is examined with regard to explaining axial temperature gradients in both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The observed effects of warming and cooling can be explained equally well in the language of thermodynamics or fluid dynamics. The necessary equivalence of these treatments is reviewed here to show the legitimacy of using whichever one supports the simpler determination of features of interest. The determination of temperature profiles in columns by direct application of the laws of thermodynamics is somewhat simpler than applying them indirectly by solving the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. Both disciplines show that the preferred strategy for minimizing the reduction in peak quality caused by temperature gradients is to operate columns as nearly adiabatically as possible (i.e. as Joule-Thomson expansions). This useful fact, however, is not widely familiar or appreciated in the chromatography community due to some misunderstanding of the meaning of certain terms and expressions used in these disciplines. In fluid dynamics, the terms "resistive heating" or "frictional heating" have been widely used as synonyms for the dissipation function, Φ, in the NS energy equation. These terms have been widely used by chromatographers as well, but often misinterpreted as due to friction between the mobile phase and the column packing, when in fact Φ describes the increase in entropy of the system (dissipation, ∫TdSuniv>0) due to the irreversible decompression of the mobile phase. Two distinctly different contributions to the irreversibility are identified; (1) ΔSext, viscous dissipation of work done by the external surroundings driving the flow (the pump) contributing to its warming, and (2) ΔSint, entropy change accompanying decompression of
Tait, Alastair W.; Fisher, Kent R.; Srinivasan, Poorna; Simon, Justin I.
2016-11-01
Carbonaceous chondrites, such as those associated with the Vigarano (CV) parent body, exhibit a diverse range of oxidative/reduced alteration mineralogy (McSween, 1977). Although fluids are often cited as the medium by which this occurs (Rubin, 2012), a mechanism to explain how this fluid migrates, and why some meteorite subtypes from the same planetary body are more oxidized than others remains elusive. In our study we examined a slab of the well-known Allende (CV3OxA) meteorite. Using several petrological techniques (e.g., Fry's and Flinn) and Computerized Tomography (CT) we discover it exhibits a strong penetrative planar fabric, resulting from strain partitioning among its major components: Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) (64.5%CT) > matrix (21.5%Fry) > chondrules (17.6%CT). In addition to the planar fabric, we found a strong lineation defined by the alignment of the maximum elongation of flattened particles interpreted to have developed by an impact event. The existence of a lineation could either be non-coaxial deformation, or the result of a mechanically heterogeneous target material. In the later case it could have formed due to discontinuous patches of sub-surface ice and/or fabrics developed through prior impact compaction (MacPherson and Krot, 2014), which would have encouraged preferential flow within the target material immediately following the impact, compacting pore spaces. We suggest that structurally controlled movement of alteration fluids in the asteroid parent body along pressure gradients contributed to the formation of secondary minerals, which may have ultimately lead to the different oxidized subtypes.
Polyatomic gases with dynamic pressure: Maximum entropy principle and shock structure
Pavić-Čolić, Milana; Simić, Srboljub
2016-01-01
This paper is concerned with the analysis of polyatomic gases within the framework of kinetic theory. Internal degrees of freedom are modeled using a single continuous variable corresponding to the molecular internal energy. Non-equilibrium velocity distribution function, compatible with macroscopic field variables, is constructed using the maximum entropy principle. A proper collision cross section is constructed which obeys the micro-reversibility requirement. The source term and entropy production rate are determined in the form which generalizes the results obtained within the framework of extended thermodynamics. They can be adapted to appropriate physical situations due to the presence of parameters. They are also compared with the results obtained using BGK approximation. For the proposed model the shock structure problem is thoroughly analyzed.
Boccio, J.; Economos, C.
1972-01-01
An analysis of the incompressible turbulent boundary layer, developing under the combined effects of mass transfer and pressure gradient, is presented in this paper. A strip-integral method is employed whereby two of the three governing equations are obtained by integrating the combined momentum and continuity equation to 50 percent and 100 percent, respectively, of the boundary-layer height. The latter equation is the usual momentum-integral equation; the former equation requires specification of shear. Accordingly, Clauser's equilibrium eddy-viscosity law is assumed valid at this point. The third and final equation is obtained by specifying that Stevenson's velocity profiles apply throughout the domain of interest, from which a skin-friction law can be derived. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experiments of McQuaid, which include combined effects of variable pressure gradient and mass transfer, show good agreement.
Engwirda, Darren; Kelley, Maxwell; Marshall, John
2017-08-01
Discretisation of the horizontal pressure gradient force in layered ocean models is a challenging task, with non-trivial interactions between the thermodynamics of the fluid and the geometry of the layers often leading to numerical difficulties. We present two new finite-volume schemes for the pressure gradient operator designed to address these issues. In each case, the horizontal acceleration is computed as an integration of the contact pressure force that acts along the perimeter of an associated momentum control-volume. A pair of new schemes are developed by exploring different control-volume geometries. Non-linearities in the underlying equation-of-state definitions and thermodynamic profiles are treated using a high-order accurate numerical integration framework, designed to preserve hydrostatic balance in a non-linear manner. Numerical experiments show that the new methods achieve high levels of consistency, maintaining hydrostatic and thermobaric equilibrium in the presence of strongly-sloping layer geometries, non-linear equations-of-state and non-uniform vertical stratification profiles. These results suggest that the new pressure gradient formulations may be appropriate for general circulation models that employ hybrid vertical coordinates and/or terrain-following representations.
THE GENERALIZED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD METHOD APPLIED TO HIGH PRESSURE PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
Lúcio CARDOZO-FILHO
1997-12-01
Full Text Available The generalized maximum likelihood method was used to determine binary interaction parameters between carbon dioxide and components of orange essential oil. Vapor-liquid equilibrium was modeled with Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong equations, using a methodology proposed in 1979 by Asselineau, Bogdanic and Vidal. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data on binary mixtures formed with carbon dioxide and compounds usually found in orange essential oil were used to test the model. These systems were chosen to demonstrate that the maximum likelihood method produces binary interaction parameters for cubic equations of state capable of satisfactorily describing phase equilibrium, even for a binary such as ethanol/CO2. Results corroborate that the Peng-Robinson, as well as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong, equation can be used to describe phase equilibrium for the following systems: components of essential oil of orange/CO2.Foi empregado o método da máxima verossimilhança generalizado para determinação de parâmetros de interação binária entre os componentes do óleo essencial de laranja e dióxido de carbono. Foram usados dados experimentais de equilíbrio líquido-vapor de misturas binárias de dióxido de carbono e componentes do óleo essencial de laranja. O equilíbrio líquido-vapor foi modelado com as equações de Peng-Robinson e de Soave-Redlich-Kwong usando a metodologia proposta em 1979 por Asselineau, Bogdanic e Vidal. A escolha destes sistemas teve como objetivo demonstrar que o método da máxima verosimilhança produz parâmetros de interação binária, para equações cúbicas de estado capazes de descrever satisfatoriamente até mesmo o equilíbrio para o binário etanol/CO2. Os resultados comprovam que tanto a equação de Peng-Robinson quanto a de Soave-Redlich-Kwong podem ser empregadas para descrever o equilíbrio de fases para o sistemas: componentes do óleo essencial de laranja/CO2.
Åsberg, Dennis; Chutkowski, Marcin; Leśko, Marek; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny
2017-01-06
Large pressure gradients are generated in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using sub-2μm particles causing significant temperature gradients over the column due to viscous heating. These pressure and temperature gradients affect retention and ultimately result in important selectivity shifts. In this study, we developed an approach for predicting the retention time shifts due to these gradients. The approach is presented as a step-by-step procedure and it is based on empirical linear relationships describing how retention varies as a function of temperature and pressure and how the average column temperature increases with the flow rate. It requires only four experiments on standard equipment, is based on straightforward calculations, and is therefore easy to use in method development. The approach was rigorously validated against experimental data obtained with a quality control method for the active pharmaceutical ingredient omeprazole. The accuracy of retention time predictions was very good with relative errors always less than 1% and in many cases around 0.5% (n=32). Selectivity shifts observed between omeprazole and the related impurities when changing the flow rate could also be accurately predicted resulting in good estimates of the resolution between critical peak pairs. The approximations which the presented approach are based on were all justified. The retention factor as a function of pressure and temperature was studied in an experimental design while the temperature distribution in the column was obtained by solving the fundamental heat and mass balance equations for the different experimental conditions. We strongly believe that this approach is sufficiently accurate and experimentally feasible for this separation to be a valuable tool when developing a UHPLC method. After further validation with other separation systems, it could become a useful approach in UHPLC method development, especially in the pharmaceutical industry where
Kline, Cassie N; Macias, Brandon R; Kraus, Emily; Neuschwander, Timothy B; Angle, Niren; Bergan, John; Hargens, Alan R
2008-01-01
The purposes of this study were to (1) investigate compression levels beneath an inelastic legging equipped with a new pressure-adjustment system, (2) compare the inelastic compression levels with those provided by a well-known elastic stocking, and (3) evaluate each support's gradient compression production. Eighteen subjects without venous reflux and 12 patients with previously documented venous reflux received elastic and inelastic compression supports sized for the individual. Skin surface pressures under the elastic (Sigvaris 500, 30-40 mm Hg range, Sigvaris, Inc., Peachtree City, GA) and inelastic (CircAid C3 with Built-in-Pressure System [BPS], CircAid Medical Products, San Diego, CA) supports were measured using a calibrated Tekscan I-Scan device (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA). The elastic stocking produced significantly lower skin surface pressures than the inelastic legging. Mean pressures (+/- standard error) beneath the elastic stocking were 26 +/- 2 and 23 +/- 1 mm Hg at the ankle and below-knee regions, respectively. Mean pressures (+/- standard error) beneath the inelastic legging with the BPS were 50 +/- 3 and 38 +/- 2 mm Hg at the ankle and below-knee regions, respectively. Importantly, our study indicates that only the inelastic legging with the BPS produces significant ankle to knee gradient compression (p = .001).
无
2001-01-01
Conventional models for fluid flow in well tests have not been consistent with material balance. According to the slightly compressible fluid assumption, the quadratic gradient term in the nonlinear partial differential equation has been usually neglected. This approach is questionable for live oil and low permeability reservoirs. We have already known that linearization by neglecting quadratic gradient terms may lead to errors for large values of well-test time. In this paper, a method that is consistent with material balance was proposed on the spherical flow system. All terms in the nonlinear partial eqiation were retained. Exact solution for the resulting nonlinear partial differential equation in an infinite reservoir was obtained by using the Laplace transform considering wellbore storage. Analytical solution for nonlinear partial differential equation are resulted by using orthogonal transforms under both closed and constant-pressure outer boundary conditions. The law of pressure changes for a fluid compressibility α and a storage coefficient CD were discussed.
Chernoray Valery
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We report here the results of a study on measurements and prediction of laminar-turbulent transition at high free-stream turbulence in boundary layers of the airfoil-like geometries with presence of the external pressure gradient changeover. The experiments are performed for a number of flow cases with different flow Reynolds number, turbulence intensity and pressure gradient distributions. The results were then compared to numerical calculations for same geometries and flow conditions. The experiments and computations are performed for the flow parameters which are typical for turbomachinery applications and the major idea of the current study is the validation of the turbulence model which can be used for such engineering applications.
Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin
2016-06-17
250μm×100mm fused silica glass capillaries were packed with 1.8μm high-strength silica (HSS) fully porous particles. They were prepared without bulky stainless steel endfittings and metal frits, which both generate significant sample dispersion. The isocratic efficiencies and gradient peak capacities of these prototype capillary columns were measured for small molecules (n-alkanophenones) using a home-made ultra-low dispersive micro-HPLC instrument. Their resolution power was compared to that of standard 2.1mm×100mm very high-pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) narrow-bore columns packed with the same particles. The results show that, for the same column efficiency (25000 plates) and gradient steepness (0.04min(-1)), the peak capacity of the 250μm i.d. capillary columns is systematically 15-20% higher than that of the 2.1mm i.d. narrow-bore columns. A validated model of gradient chromatography enabled one to predict accurately the observed peak capacities of the capillary columns for non-linear solvation strength retention behavior and under isothermal conditions. Thermodynamics applied to the eluent quantified the temperature difference for the thermal gradients in both capillary and narrow-bore columns. Experimental data revealed that the gradient peak capacity is more affected by viscous heating than the column efficiency. Unlike across 2.1mm i.d. columns, the changes in eluent composition across the 250μm i.d. columns during the gradient is rapidly relaxed by transverse dispersion. The combination of (1) the absence of viscous heating and (2) the high uniformity of the eluent composition across the diameter of capillary columns explains the intrinsic advantage of capillary over narrow-bore columns in gradient vHPLC.
Lee, Jeong Min; Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Dae Yun; Lee, Seong Hyuk [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
This study numerically investigated the influence of spanwise pressure gradient on heat transfer of a 3D turbulent boundary layer with longitudinal vortices. A 30° bend in the passage provided the spanwise pressure gradient. The longitudinal pair vortices were generated using a pair of delta winglets. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations based on the conventional Reynolds stress model were used. The predictions agreed well with the experimental data for the straight plate. The turbulent boundary layer was significantly perturbed with the longitudinal vortices. The spanwise pressure gradient contributed to faster degradation of the longitudinal vortices and widened the perturbed flow region. The local Stanton number distributions were asymmetric because of the difference in the evolution of the longitudinal vortices in the curved region. Moreover, comparison showed that the local Stanton number in the downstream of the straight channel increased near the surface because of the secondary re-circulating vortex. The thickness of the thermal boundary layers increased in the streamwise direction because of the significant flow mixing and heat transfer.
Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Fujii, Genyo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yasunari
2012-12-01
A 71-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement with 23 mm Medtronic Mosaic Ultra valve 4 years ago because of aortic stenosis. Although she had been asymptomatic since the operation, echocardiography showed 4 m/s of transprosthetic valve flow that implied early prosthetic valve failure. Catheter examination revealed that the mean transvalvular pressure gradient during systole was 15.1 mmHg on simultaneous pressure recording, and calculated valve area 1.82 cm(2). Her body surface area was 1.56 m(2). Prosthetic valve failure and prosthesis-patient mismatch were both denied. The discrepancy between Doppler study data and catheter data seemed to be due to fluid dynamical pressure recovery phenomenon. Net pressure difference between the left ventricle and the aorta may be significantly smaller than that estimated using Bernoulli's equation from transvalvular flow speed in some patients after aortic valve replacement.
Marques, Koen M J; van Eenige, Machiel J; Spruijt, Hugo J; Westerhof, Nico; Twisk, Jos; Visser, Cees A; Visser, Frans C
2006-12-01
To evaluate the hemodynamic impact of coronary stenoses, the fractional (FFR) or coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) usually is measured. The combined measurement of instantaneous flow velocity and pressure gradient (v-dp relation) is rarely used in humans. We derived from the v-dp relation a new index, dp(v50) (pressure gradient at flow velocity of 50 cm/s), and compared the diagnostic performance of dp(v50), CFVR, and FFR. Before coronary angiography was performed, patients underwent noninvasive stress testing. In all coronary vessels with an intermediate or severe stenosis, the flow velocity, aortic, and distal coronary pressure were measured simultaneously with a Doppler and pressure guidewire after induction of hyperemia. After regression analysis of all middiastolic flow velocity and pressure gradient data, the dp(v50) was calculated. With the use of the results of noninvasive stress testing, the dp(v50) cutoff value was established at 22.4 mmHg. In 77 patients, 124 coronary vessels with a mean 39% (SD 19) diameter stenosis were analyzed. In 43 stenoses, ischemia was detected. We found a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 56%, 86%, and 76% for CFVR; 77%, 99%, and 91% for FFR; and 95%, 95%, and 95% for dp(v50). To establish that dp(v50) is not dependent on maximal hyperemia, dp(v50) was recalculated after omission of the highest quartile of flow velocity data, showing a difference of 3%. We found that dp(v50) provided the highest sensitivity and accuracy compared with FFR and CFVR in the assessment of coronary stenoses. In contrast to CFVR and FFR, assessment of dp(v50) is not dependent on maximal hyperemia.
Heinze, Rieke; Mironov, Dmitrii; Raasch, Siegfried
2016-03-01
A detailed analysis of the pressure-scrambling terms (i.e., the pressure-strain and pressure gradient-scalar covariances) in the Reynolds-stress and scalar-flux budgets for cloud-topped boundary layers (CTBLs) is performed using high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES). Two CTBLs are simulated — one with trade wind shallow cumuli, and the other with nocturnal marine stratocumuli. The pressure-scrambling terms are decomposed into contributions due to turbulence-turbulence interactions, mean velocity shear, buoyancy, and Coriolis effects. Commonly used models of these contributions, including a simple linear model most often used in geophysical applications and a more sophisticated two-component-limit (TCL) nonlinear model, are tested against the LES data. The decomposition of the pressure-scrambling terms shows that the turbulence-turbulence and buoyancy contributions are most significant for cloud-topped boundary layers. The Coriolis contribution is negligible. The shear contribution is generally of minor importance inside the cloudy layers, but it is the leading-order contribution near the surface. A comparison of models of the pressure-scrambling terms with the LES data suggests that the more complex TCL model is superior to the simple linear model only for a few contributions. The linear model is able to reproduce the principal features of the pressure-scrambling terms reasonably well. It can be applied in the second-order turbulence modeling of cloud-topped boundary layer flows, provided some uncertainties are tolerated.
Li, Ruochen; Englehardt, James D; Li, Xiaoguang
2012-02-01
Multivariate probability distributions, such as may be used for mixture dose-response assessment, are typically highly parameterized and difficult to fit to available data. However, such distributions may be useful in analyzing the large electronic data sets becoming available, such as dose-response biomarker and genetic information. In this article, a new two-stage computational approach is introduced for estimating multivariate distributions and addressing parameter uncertainty. The proposed first stage comprises a gradient Markov chain Monte Carlo (GMCMC) technique to find Bayesian posterior mode estimates (PMEs) of parameters, equivalent to maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) in the absence of subjective information. In the second stage, these estimates are used to initialize a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, replacing the conventional burn-in period to allow convergent simulation of the full joint Bayesian posterior distribution and the corresponding unconditional multivariate distribution (not conditional on uncertain parameter values). When the distribution of parameter uncertainty is such a Bayesian posterior, the unconditional distribution is termed predictive. The method is demonstrated by finding conditional and unconditional versions of the recently proposed emergent dose-response function (DRF). Results are shown for the five-parameter common-mode and seven-parameter dissimilar-mode models, based on published data for eight benzene-toluene dose pairs. The common mode conditional DRF is obtained with a 21-fold reduction in data requirement versus MCMC. Example common-mode unconditional DRFs are then found using synthetic data, showing a 71% reduction in required data. The approach is further demonstrated for a PCB 126-PCB 153 mixture. Applicability is analyzed and discussed. Matlab(®) computer programs are provided.
Smit, Christian; Rietkerk, Max; Wassen, Martin J.
2009-01-01
The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts a shift from net negative interactions in benign environments towards net positive in harsh environments in ecological communities. While several studies found support for the SGH, others found evidence against it, leading to a debate on how nature and s
Microstructural and hardness gradients in Cu processed by high pressure surface rolling
He, Q. Y.; Zhu, X.-M.; Mei, Q. S.
2017-01-01
in the topmost surface to the microscale in the bulk. The hardness varies from 1.37 GPa at the topmost surface to about 0.6 GPa in the coarse-grained matrix. The results of the investigation demonstrate that the HPSR process shows good potential for the generation of thick gradient microstructures on the surface...
Smit, Christian; Rietkerk, Max; Wassen, Martin J.
2009-01-01
The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts a shift from net negative interactions in benign environments towards net positive in harsh environments in ecological communities. While several studies found support for the SGH, others found evidence against it, leading to a debate on how nature and
Wyss, C R; Matsen, F A; King, R V; Simmons, C W; Burgess, E M
1981-05-01
1. We studied the relationship between transcutaneous oxygen tension at the foot and local arteriovenous pressure difference in 15 normal men and women; arteriovenous pressure difference was varied by changing the height of the foot with respect to the heart and by applying external pressure to the foot. 2. Control transcutaneous oxygen tension was 67 +/- 9 SD mmHg (8.9 +/- 1.2 kPa) at a control arteriovenous pressure difference of 80 +/- 6 SD mmHg (10.6 +/- 0.8 kPa). 3. In every subject transcutaneous oxygen tension fell non-linearly with a decrease in arteriovenous pressure difference; transcutaneous oxygen tension was relatively insensitive to changes in arteriovenous pressure difference when arteriovenous pressure difference was high, but always fell sharply to zero at some positive arteriovenous pressure difference [range 13-34 mmHg (1.7-4.5 kPa)]. 4. An analysis of the data indicated that transcutaneous oxygen tension varied with arteriovenous pressure difference approximately as the oxygen tension of cutaneous venous blood under the sensor varied (in the absence of changes in cutaneous vascular resistance and oxygen consumption). 5. This analysis was supported by studies in three subjects in whom the oxygen tension of superficial venous drainage from a warmed hand or foot was measured along with transcutaneous oxygen tension while arteriovenous pressure difference was varied.
Nayak, Chitresh; Singh, Amit; Chaudhary, Himanshu; Unune, Deepak Rajendra
2017-08-01
Technological advances in prosthetics have attracted the curiosity of researchers in monitoring design and developments of the sockets to sustain maximum pressure without any soft tissue damage, skin breakdown, and painful sores. Numerous studies have been reported in the area of pressure measurement at the limb/socket interface, though, the relation between amputee's physiological parameters and the pressure developed at the limb/socket interface is still not studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of patient-specific physiological parameters viz. height, weight, and stump length on the pressure development at the transtibial prosthetic limb/socket interface. Initially, the pressure values at the limb/socket interface were clinically measured during stance and walking conditions for different patients using strain gauges placed at critical locations of the stump. The measured maximum pressure data related to patient's physiological parameters was used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The effects of physiological parameters on the pressure development at the limb/socket interface were examined using the ANN model. The analyzed results indicated that the weight and stump length significantly affects the maximum pressure values. The outcomes of this work could be an important platform for the design and development of patient-specific prosthetic socket which can endure the maximum pressure conditions at stance and ambulation conditions.
Johnson, D. R.; Uccellini, L. W.
1983-01-01
In connection with the employment of the sigma coordinates introduced by Phillips (1957), problems can arise regarding an accurate finite-difference computation of the pressure gradient force. Over steeply sloped terrain, the calculation of the sigma-coordinate pressure gradient force involves computing the difference between two large terms of opposite sign which results in large truncation error. To reduce the truncation error, several finite-difference methods have been designed and implemented. The present investigation has the objective to provide another method of computing the sigma-coordinate pressure gradient force. Phillips' method is applied for the elimination of a hydrostatic component to a flux formulation. The new technique is compared with four other methods for computing the pressure gradient force. The work is motivated by the desire to use an isentropic and sigma-coordinate hybrid model for experiments designed to study flow near mountainous terrain.
Song, Y. T.
1998-01-01
A Jacobian formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography following coordinates is proposed. It can be used in conjunction with any vertical coordinate system and is easily implemented.
Calculation and analysis of velocity and viscous drag in an artery with a periodic pressure gradient
Alizadeh, M.; Seyedpour, S. M.; Mozafari, V.; Babazadeh, Shayan S.
2012-07-01
Blood as a fluid that human and other living creatures are dependent on has been always considered by scientists and researchers. Any changes in blood pressure and its normal velocity can be a sign of a disease. Whatever significant in blood fluid's mechanics is Constitutive equations and finding some relations for analysis and description of drag, velocity and periodic blood pressure in vessels. In this paper, by considering available experimental quantities, for blood pressure and velocity in periodic time of a thigh artery of a living dog, at first it is written into Fourier series, then by solving Navier-Stokes equations, a relation for curve drawing of vessel blood pressure with rigid wall is obtained. Likewise in another part of this paper, vessel wall is taken in to consideration that vessel wall is elastic and its pressure and velocity are written into complex Fourier series. In this case, by solving Navier-Stokes equations, some relations for blood velocity, viscous drag on vessel wall and blood pressure are obtained. In this study by noting that vessel diameter is almost is large (3.7 mm), and blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. Finally, available experimental quantities of pressure with obtained curve of solving Navier-Stokes equations are compared. In blood analysis in rigid vessel, existence of 48% variance in pressure curve systole peak caused vessel blood flow analysis with elastic wall, results in new relations for blood flow description. The Resultant curve is obtained from new relations holding 10% variance in systole peak.
无
2008-01-01
Plastic limit load of viscoplastic thick-walled cylinder and spherical shell subjected to internal pressure is investigated analytically using a strain gradient plastic-itv theory. As a result, the current solutions can capture the size effect at the micron scale. Numerical results show that the smaller the inner radius of the cylinder or spherical shell, the more significant the scale effects. Results also show that the size effect is more evident with increasing strain or strain-rate sensitivity index. The classical plastic-based solutions of the same problems are shown to be a special case of the present solution.
Hunt, L. Roane; Notestine, Kristopher K.
1990-06-01
Surface and gap pressures and heating-rate distributions were obtained for simulated Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile arrays on the curved surface test apparatus of the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel at Mach 6.6. The results indicated that the chine gap pressures varied inversely with gap width because larger gap widths allowed greater venting from the gap to the lower model side pressures. Lower gap pressures caused greater flow ingress from the surface and increased gap heating. Generally, gap heating was greater in the longitudinal gaps than in the circumferential gaps. Gap heating decreased with increasing gap depth. Circumferential gap heating at the mid-depth was generally less than about 10 percent of the external surface value. Gap heating was most severe at local T-gap junctions and tile-to-tile forward-facing steps that caused the greatest heating from flow impingement. The use of flow stoppers at discrete locations reduced heating from flow impingement. The use of flow stoppers at discrete locations reduced heating in most gaps but increased heating in others. Limited use of flow stoppers or gap filler in longitudinal gaps could reduce gap heating in open circumferential gaps in regions of high surface pressure gradients.
Murata N
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Naotaka Murata,1 Hideaki Aihara,2 Yoshimitsu Soga,1 Yusuke Tomoi,1 Seiichi Hiramori,1 Yohei Kobayashi,1 Kei Ichihashi,1 Nobuhiro Tanaka3 1Department of Cardiology, Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu, 2Department of Cardiology, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Ibaraki, 3Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Objective: To examine the pressure gradient and peripheral fractional flow reserve (pFFR measured by a pressure wire as indicators of hemodynamic significance in iliofemoral angiographic intermediate stenosis. Background: The utility of pressure measurements using a pressure wire with vasodilators is unclear in cases with intermediate iliofemoral stenosis. Methods: The mean pressure gradient (MPG and mean pressure ratio (MPR were measured at baseline and after injection of isosorbide dinitrate in 23 lesions with angiographically intermediate iliofemoral stenosis. Patients with complex lesions, infrapopliteal artery lesions, chronic total occlusion, and surgical bypass grafts were excluded. Hyperemic MPR was considered equivalent to pFFR. Changes in parameters in response to vasodilators were assessed and correlations of peak systolic velocity ratio (PSVR with hyperemic MPG and pFFR were examined using duplex ultrasound. Results: After injection of isosorbide dinitrate, hyperemic MPG increased significantly (from 9.0±5.7 to 16.3±6.2 mmHg; P<0.05 and hyperemic MPR (pFFR decreased significantly (from 0.92±0.06 to 0.81±0.07; P<0.05. PSVR was significantly correlated with hyperemic MPG (R=0.52; P<0.05 and pFFR (R=–0.50; P<0.05. The optimal cut-off value of pFFR as an indicator of significant hemodynamic stenosis (PSVR >2.5 was 0.85 (area under the curve 0.72; sensitivity 94%; specificity 50%, P<0.05. Conclusion: pFFR measured using a pressure wire is reliable for prediction of hemodynamic significance in iliofemoral intermediate stenosis. Keywords: endovascular therapy, peripheral artery disease, pressure
Engwirda, Darren; Marshall, John
2016-01-01
The development of a set of high-order accurate finite-volume formulations for evaluation of the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models is described. A pair of new schemes are presented, both based on an integration of the contact pressure force about the perimeter of an associated momentum control-volume. The two proposed methods differ in their choice of control-volume geometries. High-order accurate numerical integration techniques are employed in both schemes to account for non-linearities in the underlying equation-of-state definitions and thermodynamic profiles, and details of an associated vertical interpolation and quadrature scheme are discussed in detail. Numerical experiments are used to confirm the consistency of the two formulations, and it is demonstrated that the new methods maintain hydrostatic and thermobaric equilibrium in the presence of strongly-sloping layer-wise geometry, non-linear equation-of-state definitions and non-uniform vertical stratification profiles. Additionally, one...
Cotrell, David L.; Pearlstein, Arne J.
2000-11-01
We report computations of the velocity field for flows driven by rotation of a screw in a circular cylinder with an applied opposing pressure gradient. Use of a helical coordinate system in a frame rotating with the screw reduces the flow calculation to a steady one, which is taken to be fully-developed in the helical direction. The full incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive-variables form are solved numerically using a finite-element method employing quadrilateral elements with quadratic velocity and linear pressure interpolation. A consistent penalty method is used to satisfy incompressibility. The screw cross-section is rectangular. The effect of screw clearance and other geometric parameters on the velocity field will be discussed for low and intermediate Reynolds numbers and compared to the Stokes flow case.
Rao, Shobha; Apte, Priti
2009-12-01
In view of the fact that height differences between socio-economic groups are apparent early in childhood, it is of interest to examine whether skeletal growth is reflective of the social class gradient in CVD risk. The present study examined blood pressure levels, adiposity and growth of adolescent boys from high and low social classes. In a cross-sectional study, skeletal growth (height and sitting height), adiposity (weight, BMI and body fat) and blood pressure levels of the adolescents were measured. Pune, India. Adolescent schoolboys (9-16 years) from high socio-economic (HSE; n 1146) and low socio-economic (LSE; n 932) class. LSE boys were thin, short and undernourished (mean BMI: 15.5 kg/m2 v. 19.3 kg/m2 in HSE boys, P = 0.00). Social gradient was revealed in differing health risks. The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) was high in HSE class (10.5 % v. 2.7 % in LSE class, P = 0.00) and was associated with adiposity, while the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) was high in LSE class (9.8 % v. 7.0 % in HSE class, P = 0.00) and had only a weak association with adiposity. Despite this, lower ratio of leg length to height was associated with significantly higher respective health risks, i.e. for HDBP in LSE class (OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.47) and for HSBP in HSE class (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.02, 2.77). As stunting in childhood is a major problem in India and Asia, the leg length to height indicator needs to be validated in different populations to understand CVD risks.
Defilippis V
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Vito Defilippis,1 Davide D’Antini,2 Gilda Cinnella,2 Michele Dambrosio,2 Fernando Schiraldi,3 Vito Procacci1 1Emergency Department, Riuniti Hospital, 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Foggia, Foggia, 3Emergency Department, San Paolo Hospital, Naples, Italy Background: Patients with severe hypercapnia represent a particularly serious condition in an emergency department (ED, requiring immediate attention. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is an integral part of the treatment for acute respiratory failure. The present study aimed to validate the measurement of end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 as a noninvasive technique to evaluate the effectiveness of NIV in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients admitted to the ED with severe dyspnea were enrolled in the study. NIV by means of bilevel positive airway pressure, was applied to the patients simultaneously with standard medical therapy and continued for 12 hours; the arterial blood gases and side-stream nasal/oral EtCO2 were measured at subsequent times: T0 (admission to the ED, T1h (after 1 hour, T6h (after 6 hours, and T12h (after 12 hours during NIV treatment. Results: The arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2–EtCO2 gradient decreased progressively, reaching at T6h and T12h values lower than baseline (P < 0.001, while arterial pH increased during the observation period (P < 0.001. A positive correlation was found between EtCO2 and PaCO2 values (r = 0.89, P < 0.001 at the end of the observation period. Conclusion: In our hypercapnic patients, the effectiveness of the NIV was evidenced by the progressive reduction of the PaCO2–EtCO2 gradient. The measurement of the CO2 gradient could be a reliable method in monitoring the effectiveness of NIV in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in the ED. Keywords: arterial end-tidal CO2 gradient, noninvasive ventilation, bilevel positive airway pressure, acute respiratory failure
Liu, ShaoBao; Liu, Han; Feng, ShangSheng; Lin, Min; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian
2017-04-19
Fountain streaming is a typical microfluidic pattern in plant cells, especially for cells with a high aspect ratio such as pollen tubes. Although it has been found that fountain streaming plays crucial roles in the transport of nutrients and metabolites, the positioning of organelles and the mixing of cytoplasms, its implications for the fast tip growth of pollen tubes remain a mystery. To address this, based on the observations of asiatic lily Lilium Casablanca, we developed physical models for reverse fountain streaming in pollen tubes and solved the hydrodynamics and advection-diffusion dynamics of viscous Stokes flow in the shank and apical region of pollen tubes. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrated that the gradients of turgor pressure and concentration of wall materials along the length of pollen tubes provide undamped driving force and high-efficiency materials supply, which are supposed to contribute to the fast tip-growth of pollen tubes. The sample experimental results show that the tip-growth will be abnormal when the gradients of turgor pressure change under osmotic stress induced by different concentrations of PEG-6000 (a dehydrant).
Vouga Luís
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraventricular pressure gradients have been described between the base and the apex of the left ventricle during early diastolic ventricular filling, as well as, their increase after systolic and diastolic function improvement. Although, systolic gradients have also been observed, data are lacking on their magnitude and modulation during cardiac dysfunction. Furthermore, we know that segmental dysfunction interferes with the normal sequence of regional contraction and might be expected to alter the physiological intraventricular pressure gradients. The study hypothesis is that systolic and diastolic gradients, a marker of normal left ventricular function, may be related to physiological asynchrony between basal and apical myocardial segments and they can be attenuated, lost entirely, or even reversed when ventricular filling/emptying is impaired by regional acute ischemia or severe aortic stenosis. Methods/Design Animal Studies: Six rabbits will be completely instrumented to measuring apex to outflow-tract pressure gradient and apical and basal myocardial segments lengthening changes at basal, afterloaded and ischemic conditions. Afterload increase will be performed by abruptly narrowing or occluding the ascending aorta during the diastole and myocardial ischemia will be induced by left coronary artery ligation, after the first diagonal branch. Patient Studies: Patients between 65-80 years old (n = 12, both genders, with severe aortic stenosis referred for aortic valve replacement will be selected as eligible subjects. A high-fidelity pressure-volume catheter will be positioned through the ascending aorta across the aortic valve to measure apical and outflow-tract pressure before and after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Peak and average intraventricular pressure gradients will be recorded as apical minus outflow-tract pressure and calculated during all diastolic and systolic phases of cardiac cycle
Combined effect of salt concentration and pressure gradients across charged membranes
Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil
2002-01-01
The combined effect of both concentration and pressure differences on electrical potential (Deltaphi) for two ion-exchanger membranes, one positively charged (AE) and another negatively charged (CE), measured with the membranes in contact with NaCl solutions was studied. Results show a linear...... dependence between Deltaphi and pressure, independently if DeltaC and DeltaP have the same or opposite directions. The ratio of the streaming potential for cation/anion exchange membranes is r = (2.1+/-0.4). A "bipolar" membrane (BM) was obtained by joining together both ion-exchanger membranes. In order...... to correlate the behaviour of the BP membrane with that corresponding to each sublayer, the same kind of measurements was carried out for both opposite external conditions, this means, applying the pressure on the cation exchanger (CABM) or on the anion exchanger membrane (ACBM), respectively. From values...
Salinity-gradient power : Evaluation of pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis
Post, Jan W.; Veerman, Joost; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Euverink, Gerrit J.W.; Metz, Sybrand J.; Nymeijer, Kitty; Buisman, Cees J.N.
2007-01-01
A huge potential to obtain clean energy exists from mixing water streams with different salt concentrations. Two membrane-based energy conversion techniques are evaluated: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. From the literature, a comparison is not possible since the reported perf
Estimates of pressure gradients in PEMFC gas channels due to blockage by static liquid drops
Venkatraman, M.; Shimpalee, S.; Van Zee, J.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 301 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Moon, Sung In; Extrand, C.W. [Entegris, Inc., 3500 Lyman Boulevard, Chaska, MN 55318 (United States)
2009-07-15
Numerical analyses are presented to explain the effect of drop size and contact angle on local pressures inside small channels. These pressures and channel characteristics are of interest when water condenses in the gas channels of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells and hence the study uses Reynolds numbers consistent with as typical utilization of reacting gases in 200 cm{sup 2} flow fields (i.e., 200 < Re < 1500 and stoichiometries of 1.2-2.0 at 1.0 A/cm{sup 2}). The analyses were performed using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic techniques and the results show that pressure drops are minimal until the blockage was greater than 50%. As blockage increased further, due to larger drops or increased hydrophobicity, pressure drop increased. The results of a stagnant drop are supported by visualization experiments, which show minimal distortion of the drop for these low flow rates, small ratios, and hydrophobic contact angles. Proper scaling parameters and design criteria for microchannels validation experiments are presented. (author)
Salinity-gradient power: Evaluation of pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis
Post, J.W.; Veerman, J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Metz, S.J.; Nymeijer, K.; Buisman, C.J.N.
2007-01-01
A huge potential to obtain clean energy exists from mixing water streams with different salt concentrations. Two membrane-based energy conversion techniques are evaluated: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. From the literature, a comparison is not possible since the reported perf
Thermal studies of a high gradient quadrupole magnet cooled with pressurized, stagnant superfluid
Chiesa, L; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Novitski, I; Orris, D; Ozelis, J P; Peterson, Thomas J; Tartaglia, M; Zlobin, A V
2001-01-01
A 2-m long superconducting model of an LHC Interaction Region quadrupole magnet was wound with stabrite coated cable. The resulting low interstrand resistance and high AC losses presented the opportunity to measure magnet quench performance in superfluid as a function of helium temperature and heat deposition in the coil. Our motivation was to duplicate the high radiation heat loads predicted for the inner triplet quadrupoles at LHC and study the coil cooling conditions in the magnet. At the Magnet Test Facility in Fermilab's Technical Division, the magnet quench performance was tested as a function of bulk helium temperature and current ramp rate near the planned high luminosity interaction region field gradient of 205 T/m. AC loss measurements provided a correlation between current ramp rate and heat deposition in the coil. Analysis indicates that the results are consistent with there being little participation of superfluid helium in the small channels inside the inner layer in the heat removal from the co...
Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem
2011-12-01
Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in pressure retarded osmosis--external concentration polarization, internal concentration polarization, and reverse draw salt flux--and offer insights on the design criteria of a high performance pressure retarded osmosis power generation system. Thin-film composite polyamide membranes were chemically modified to produce a range of membrane transport properties, and the water and salt permeabilities were characterized to determine the underlying permeability-selectivity trade-off relationship. We show that power density is constrained by the trade-off between permeability and selectivity of the membrane active layer. This behavior is attributed to the opposing influence of the beneficial effect of membrane water permeability and the detrimental impact of reverse salt flux coupled with internal concentration polarization. Our analysis reveals the intricate influence of active and support layer properties on power density and demonstrates that membrane performance is maximized by tailoring the water and salt permeabilities to the structural parameters. An analytical parameter that quantifies the relative influence of each performance limiting phenomena is employed to identify the dominant effect restricting productivity. External concentration polarization is shown to be the main factor limiting performance at high power densities. Enhancement of the hydrodynamic flow conditions in the membrane feed channel reduces external concentration polarization and thus, yields improved power density. However, doing so will also incur additional operating costs due to the accompanying hydraulic pressure loss. This study demonstrates that by thoughtful selection of the membrane properties and hydrodynamic conditions, the detrimental
Yip, Ngai Yin
2011-12-01
Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in pressure retarded osmosis-external concentration polarization, internal concentration polarization, and reverse draw salt flux-and offer insights on the design criteria of a high performance pressure retarded osmosis power generation system. Thin-film composite polyamide membranes were chemically modified to produce a range of membrane transport properties, and the water and salt permeabilities were characterized to determine the underlying permeability-selectivity trade-off relationship. We show that power density is constrained by the trade-off between permeability and selectivity of the membrane active layer. This behavior is attributed to the opposing influence of the beneficial effect of membrane water permeability and the detrimental impact of reverse salt flux coupled with internal concentration polarization. Our analysis reveals the intricate influence of active and support layer properties on power density and demonstrates that membrane performance is maximized by tailoring the water and salt permeabilities to the structural parameters. An analytical parameter that quantifies the relative influence of each performance limiting phenomena is employed to identify the dominant effect restricting productivity. External concentration polarization is shown to be the main factor limiting performance at high power densities. Enhancement of the hydrodynamic flow conditions in the membrane feed channel reduces external concentration polarization and thus, yields improved power density. However, doing so will also incur additional operating costs due to the accompanying hydraulic pressure loss. This study demonstrates that by thoughtful selection of the membrane properties and hydrodynamic conditions, the detrimental
White, Warren B.; Mcnally, Gerard
1987-01-01
A schematic model is used to interpret field observations related to the mixed layer response to wind stress at subinertial frequencies. It is shown that subinertial density and pressure fluctuations can arise locally from the finite wavelength character of the wind stress forcing as a fundamental part of the upper ocean transient, wind-driven response on time scales of 2-10 pendulum days. Evanescent vertical motions arise which alter the density field of the pycnocline, and hence the pressure field over the entire upper ocean. It is thus found that in the real ocean driven by wind stress, a transient geostrophic response exists which can be as large or larger than the transient Eckman response.
2007-11-02
the pressure side were studied. The same case, at the higher Reynolds number of 148,000, was also studied by Xiaohua and Durbin (2001). They used a...with the Boussinesq- assumption or the explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EASM) by Gatski (Gatski and Sepziale 1993, Gatski and Jongen 2000...approximation is employed for computing the Reynolds stresses. When the Explicit Algebraic Stress Model (EASM) is used, the turbulence equations are
Scrape-off Layer Flows With Pressure Gradient Scale Length ~ {rho}{sub p}
Robert J. Goldston
2013-03-08
A heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width balances magnetic drifts against parallel loss at c{sub s} /2, resulting in a SOL width ~ {rho}{sub p}. T{sub sep} is calculated from Spitzer–Härm parallel thermal conduction. This results in a prediction for the power scrape-off width in quantitative agreement both in magnitude and scaling with recent experimental data. To achieve the ~ c{sub s} /2 flow assumed in this model and measured experimentally sets requirements on the ratio of upstream to total SOL particle sources, relative to the square-root of the ratio of target to upstream temperature. The Pfisch-Schlüter model for equilibrium flows has been modified to allow near-sonic flows, appropriate for gradient scale lengths of order {rho}{sub p}, resulting in a new quadrupole radial flow pattern. The strong parallel flows and plasma charging implied by this model suggest a mechanism for H-mode transition, consistent with many observations
Scrape-off layer flows with pressure gradient scale length ∼ρ{sub p}
Goldston, Robert J., E-mail: rgoldston@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, MS-41, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)
2013-07-15
A heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width balances magnetic drifts against parallel loss at c{sub s}/2, resulting in a SOL width ∼ρ{sub p}. T{sub sep} is calculated from Spitzer–Härm parallel thermal conduction. This results in a prediction for the power scrape-off width in quantitative agreement both in magnitude and scaling with recent experimental data. To achieve the ∼c{sub s}/2 flow assumed in this model and measured experimentally sets requirements on the ratio of upstream to total SOL particle sources, relative to the square-root of the ratio of target to upstream temperature. The Pfisch–Schlüter model for equilibrium flows has been modified to allow near-sonic flows, appropriate for gradient scale lengths of order ρ{sub p}, resulting in a new quadrupole radial flow pattern. The strong parallel flows and plasma charging implied by this model suggest a mechanism for H-mode transition, consistent with many observations.
Vandermeer, John; Liere, Heidi; Lin, Brenda
2006-06-01
The classical case of three competitors arranged on a resource gradient such that the central competitor will be excluded due to competition from the other two is studied from the point of view of the effects of added predators. The basic formulation is motivated by a desire to understand the effects of asymmetries in multidimensional Lotka-Volterra systems. We first study the effects of perfectly specialist predators and find a rich collection of possible behaviors of the system including (1) extinction of all predators and subsequent extinction of the subordinate competitor, (2) dominant competitors and their predators coexist but the subdominant competitor goes extinct, (3) all species except the predator of the subordinate competitor coexist in coordinated phase-reversed chaos, (4) exclusion of one or more species occurs through an expanding heteroclinic cycle, and (5) all species coexist in an uncoordinated chaos. We then study the effects of five qualitatively distinct forms of polyphagy. In one case, corresponding to the well-known vulnerability to predation versus competitive ability trade-off, it is possible to have the subordinate competitor be the only survivor in the system. The other three cases of polyphagy lead to distortions in the basic pattern seen in the previously analyzed specialist case. Studying this case of ecologically motivated asymmetries in the basic Lotka-Volterra formulation is a step in the direction of fully understanding interacting populations.
Two layer dielectric-electrolyte micro-flow with pressure gradient
Ganchenko Georgy
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present work considers stability of two-phase dielectric/electrolyte system, consisting of two immiscible liquids in microchannel. The system is set in motion by the constant external electric field, which causes the electroosmotic flow in the electrolyte, and by the pressure driving force. The investigation of its linear stability has shown that there are two types of instability in the system: short-wave and long-wave instability. The short-wave instability occurs for a stronger external field than the long-wave instability but the growth rate of the short-wave instability is much higher than that of the long-wave instability.
Whitmore, Stephen A.; Petersen, Brian J.; Scott, David D.
1996-01-01
This paper develops a dynamic model for pressure sensors in continuum and rarefied flows with longitudinal temperature gradients. The model was developed from the unsteady Navier-Stokes momentum, energy, and continuity equations and was linearized using small perturbations. The energy equation was decoupled from momentum and continuity assuming a polytropic flow process. Rarefied flow conditions were accounted for using a slip flow boundary condition at the tubing wall. The equations were radially averaged and solved assuming gas properties remain constant along a small tubing element. This fundamental solution was used as a building block for arbitrary geometries where fluid properties may also vary longitudinally in the tube. The problem was solved recursively starting at the transducer and working upstream in the tube. Dynamic frequency response tests were performed for continuum flow conditions in the presence of temperature gradients. These tests validated the recursive formulation of the model. Model steady-state behavior was analyzed using the final value theorem. Tests were performed for rarefied flow conditions and compared to the model steady-state response to evaluate the regime of applicability. Model comparisons were excellent for Knudsen numbers up to 0.6. Beyond this point, molecular affects caused model analyses to become inaccurate.
Sangil, Carlos; Sansón, Marta; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio
2011-10-01
The structure and composition of subtidal rocky seaweed assemblages were studied at 69 sites on the Canary Islands (northeastern Atlantic). This group of islands are situated at the southern boundary of the warm temperate region and adjacent to the cold waters from the northwest African coastal upwelling, which creates a difference of almost 2 °C in surface seawater temperature from the eastern to the western islands. This thermal variation allows an examination of the transition between the warm temperate and the tropical regions along this longitudinal gradient together with the hypothesised Fucales-dominated assemblages towards the eastern islands in contrast to the Dictyotales-dominated assemblages towards the western ones. Environmental and biological parameters were considered in order to investigate which were the main factors explaining spatial variation along the gradient in a multi-scaled approach. Although seventy-nine macroalgae were identified, 87.63% of the total mean cover was due to six taxa ( Lobophora variegata, nongeniculate corallines, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Jania adhaerens, Cystoseira abies-marina and Pseudolithoderma adriaticum). At a large scale, sea urchin density explained the highest variation in seaweed assemblages (26.94%), and its pattern of distribution across the islands. The expected pattern of distribution according to the upwelling distance only occurred in restricted areas of the Canarian Archipelago in absence of herbivore pressure and habitat degradation. Spatial variations within islands (medium scale) were mainly related to wave exposure, while at a small scale these were mostly due to the degree of sedimentation.
Randelia, R.R.; Sahai, V.
1987-01-01
A numerical analysis of a two-phase, laminar boundary layer is carried out using the Keller Box method. The two phases are assumed to be immiscible. The problem considered involves the boundary layer flow of a compressible gas with variable properties over a flat surface in the presence of a thin liquid film with power law temperature dependent viscosity. Both zero and nonzero pressure gradients are considered. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of the presence of the liquid layer on the velocity and temperature distributions. A limited set of results are presented in terms of varying liquid Prandtl numbers, film thickness, and viscosity exponents on these distributions as well as the shear stress and heat transfer parameters at the wall and at the interface between the two fluids.
Ferrante, Marco; Lo Cacciato, Alessandro; Lövei, Gabor L
2014-01-01
Urbanisation results in a marked modification of habitats and influences several ecological processes, some of which give rise to beneficial ecological services. Natural pest control, the effect of predators on prey is one of such services. We quantified changes in the incidence of predation with.......3% in suburban and 16.4% in urban forest fragments. Mammals exerted the highest predation pressure in suburban habitats (22.2% vs. 4.9% in forest, and 8.1% in urban forest fragments).......Urbanisation results in a marked modification of habitats and influences several ecological processes, some of which give rise to beneficial ecological services. Natural pest control, the effect of predators on prey is one of such services. We quantified changes in the incidence of predation...... of these to carabids, the most common group of ground-active arthropods. Chewing insects exerted the greatest predation pressure in the original forest (52.1%), with lower values recorded in the suburban (10.1%) and urban (16.4%) forest fragments. Ants were responsible for only 4.7% of the attacks in forest, 11...
Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien
2017-11-15
The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fulgueras, Alyssa Marie; Poudel, Jeeban; Kim, Dong Sun; Cho, Jungho [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-01-15
The separation of ethylenediamine (EDA) from aqueous solution is a challenging problem because its mixture forms an azeotrope. Pressure-swing distillation (PSD) as a method of separating azeotropic mixture were investigated. For a maximum-boiling azeotropic system, pressure change does not greatly affect the azeotropic composition of the system. However, the feasibility of using PSD was still analyzed through process simulation. Experimental vapor liquid equilibrium data of water-EDA system was studied to predict the suitability of thermodynamic model to be applied. This study performed an optimization of design parameters for each distillation column. Different combinations of operating pressures for the low- and high-pressure columns were used for each PSD simulation case. After the most efficient operating pressures were identified, two column configurations, low-high (LP+HP) and high-low (HP+ LP) pressure column configuration, were further compared. Heat integration was applied to PSD system to reduce low and high temperature utility consumption.
Evaluation of the effects of pressure gradients on four Brazilian freshwater fish species
Paulo dos Santos Pompeu
2009-02-01
Full Text Available This work aimed to experimentally evaluate the behavior of Brazilian freshwater fish species when submitted to a gradual increase in pressure, as well as sudden decompression's effects simulating the passage through a hydroelectric turbine. Four species from the São Francisco river basin were tested: Astyanax bimaculatus, Hypostomus sp., Leporinus reinhardti and Prochilodus costatus. For all of them mortality rates due to decompression were extremely low. However, the symptoms related to decompression, such as bulged eyes and hemorrhage, were not observed only in Hypostomus sp., and were more frequent the larger the pressure values were, considering the values from which decompression was performed. All these symptoms decreased significantly after 24 h of observation. With the increase in pressure inside the apparatus, the four tested species moved towards the upper levels. This behavior could make possoble the implementation of bypass downstream fish passages in dams constructed in Brazil.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar experimentalmente o comportamento de espécies brasileiras quando submetidas a um aumento gradual na pressão, bem como os efeitos de uma descompressão rápida simulando a passagem por uma turbina hidrelétrica. Quatro espécies da bacia do rio São Francisco foram testadas: Astyanax bimaculatus, Hypostomus sp., Leporinus reinhardti e Prochilodus costatus. Para todas elas as taxas de mortalidade devido à descompressão foram extremamente baixas. No entanto, sintomas relacionados à descompressão, como exoftalmia e hemorragia só não foram observados em Hypostomus sp., sendo mais freqüentes quanto maior o valor de pressão a partir do qual realizou-se a descompressão. Todos estes sintomas diminuíram significativamente após 24 horas de observação. Com o aumento da pressão no aparato, as espécies testadas se movimentaram em direção aos níveis superiores. Este comportamento sugere a possibilidade de se
Sildenafil does not influence hepatic venous pressure gradient in patients with cirrhosis
Clemmesen, Jens-Otto; Giraldi, Annamaria; Ott, Peter
2008-01-01
disease. However, the effect of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors on splanchnic blood flow and portal hypertension remains essentially unknown. METHODS: Ten patients with biopsy proven cirrhosis (five females/five males, mean age 54 +/- 8 years) and an HVPG above 12 mmHg were studied after informed...... consent. Measurement of splanchnic blood flow and the HVPG during liver vein catheterization were done before and 80 min after oral administration of 50 mg sildenafil. Blood flow was estimated by use of indocyanine green clearance technique and Fick's principle, with correction for non-steady state....... RESULTS: The plasma concentration of sildenafil was 222 +/- 136 ng/mL 80 min after administration. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 77 +/- 7 mmHg to 66 +/- 12 mmHg, P = 0.003, while the splanchnic blood flow and oxygen consumption remained unchanged at 1.14 +/- 0.71 L/min and 2.3 +/- 0.6 mmol...
Gender difference and economic gradients in the secular trend of population systolic blood pressure
Andersen, Ulla; Jensen, Gorm B
2013-01-01
To a large extent population blood pressure (PBP) affects morbidity and mortality in the society. Reports indicated that PBP decreased in many western countries. The associations between the main cardiovascular risk factors and the changing PBP have been described. The aim of this study....... In addition, there was a trend towards a lowering of risk-factor adjusted SBP in the high income women with time. The mechanism that lies behind the associations between trend in SBP and income is not known but data suggest that poor lifestyle may explain some of the differences. The treated hypertensives...... was to investigate association between income factors and trends in population BP and hypertension. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective longitudinal epidemiological study on almost 20000 individuals through four surveys from 1976 to 2003. The BP measurement was fully standardised. Questionnaires...
Viscosity bio reducer Influence in a non-Newtonian fluid horizontal pipeline pressure gradient
Edgardo Jonathan Suarez-Dominguez
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Due to increased production of heavy and extra heavy crude in Mexico, it has led to the necessity touse chemicals to facilitate the transport in the pipe of our country. Experimental study was conductedto analyze the influence of a viscosity reducer of biological origin (BRV, on the rheological behaviorof heavy oil in the northern region of Mexico, finding that it exhibits a non-Newtonian viscoelasticbehavior, where a concentration increase of BRV leads to a consistency decrease and an increasedflow order, where dilatant behavior was observed in high temperatures. From these results it wasestimated the pressure losses by friction in a horizontal pipe for single phase and two phase flow. Wefound that in all cases the increase in the concentration of BRV reduces these losses.
Pedrosa, A. C. F.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Hinckel, J. A.
1984-01-01
Heat transfer measurements were determined for a flat plate with and without pressure gradient for various free stream temperatures, wall temperature ratios, and Reynolds numbers for an inlet flow Mach number of 0.45, which is a representative inlet Mach number for gas turbine rotor blades. A shock tube generated the high temperature and pressure air flow, and a variable geometry test section was used to produce inlet flow Mach number of 0.45 and accelerate the flow over the plate to sonic velocity. Thin-film platinum heat gages recorded the local heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The free stream temperatures varied from 611 R (339 K) to 3840 R (2133 K) for a T(w)/T(r,g) temperature ratio of 0.87 to 0.14. The Reynolds number over the heat gages varied from 3000 to 690,000. The experimental heat transfer data were correlated with laminar and turbulent boundary layer theories for the range of temperatures and Reynolds numbers and the transition phenomenon was examined.
Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A
2014-01-01
An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed.
Nagamatsu, H. T.; Duffy, R. E.
1984-01-01
Low and high pressure shock tubes were designed and constructed for the purpose of obtaining heat transfer data over a temperature range of 390 to 2500 K, pressures of 0.3 to 42 atm, and Mach numbers of 0.15 to 1.5 with and without pressure gradient. A square test section with adjustable top and bottom walls was constructed to produce the favorable and adverse pressure gradient over the flat plate with heat gages. A water cooled gas turbine nozzle cascade which is attached to the high pressure shock tube was obtained to measuse the heat flux over pressure and suction surfaces. Thin-film platinum heat gages with a response time of a few microseconds were developed and used to measure the heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The laminar boundary heat flux on the shock tube wall agreed with Mirel's flat plate theory. Stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders at low temperature compared with the theoretical prediction, but for a gas temperature of 922 K the heat fluxes were higher than the predicted values. Preliminary flat plate heat transfer data were measured for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients for free-stream temperatures of 350 to 2575 K and flow Mach numbers of 0.11 to 1.9. The experimental heat flux data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent theories and the agreement was good at low temperatures which was not the case for higher temperatures.
Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim
2013-01-01
Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation
Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.
2015-12-01
Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests
Giebler, R M; Behrends, M; Steffens, T; Walz, M K; Peitgen, K; Peters, J
2000-06-01
The authors hypothesized that intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal carbon dioxide insufflation during surgical procedures evoke markedly different effects on the venous low-pressure system, induce different inferior caval vein pressure gradients at similar insufflation pressures, and may provide evidence for the Starling resistor concept of abdominal venous return. Intra- and extrathoracic caval vein pressures were measured using micromanometers during carbon dioxide insufflation at six cavity pressures (baseline and 10, 15, 20, and 24 mmHg and desufflation) in 20 anesthetized patients undergoing laparoscopic (supine, n = 8) or left (n = 6) or right (n = 6) retroperitoneoscopic (prone position) surgery. Intracavital, esophageal, and gastric pressures also were assessed. Data were analyzed for insufflation pressure-dependent and group effects by one-way and two-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements, respectively, followed by the Newman-Keuls post hoc test (P < 0.05). Intraperitoneal, unlike retroperitoneal, insufflation markedly increased, in an insufflation pressure-dependent fashion, the inferior-to-superior caval vein pressure gradient (P < 0.00001) at the level of the diaphragm. In contrast to what was observed with retroperitoneal insufflation, transmural intrathoracic caval vein pressure increased at 10 mmHg insufflation pressure, but the increase flattened with an insufflation pressure of more than 10 mmHg, and pressure decreased with an inflation pressure of 20 mmHg (P = 0.0397). These data are consistent with a zone 2 or 3 abdominal vascular condition during intraperitoneal and a zone 3 abdominal vascular condition during retroperitoneal insufflation. Intraperitoneal but not retroperitoneal carbon dioxide insufflation evokes a transition of the abdominal venous compartment from a zone 3 to a zone 2 condition, presumably impairing venous return, supporting the Starling resistor concept of abdominal venous return in humans.
缪铭铭
2011-01-01
研究目的:大同至西安客运专线所经霍州至洪洞段地形陡峭,须翻越霍山山脉.为有效减少24.7 km的不良地质隧道对铁路建设、运营安全的影响,对大西客专所采用的最大坡度值进行了研究.研究结论:针对霍山越岭地段20‰、25‰、30‰三个最大坡度方案进行论述和技术经济比选,以及对国内250～300 km/h动车组在长大坡段上的加速、制动性能进行模拟.在保证运营安全的前提下,采用30‰的最大坡度可取消霍山越岭长大隧道,并有效地节省工程投资.合理提出30‰为大西客专局部困难地段的最大坡度.%Research purposes: The section between Huozhou - Hongdong of Datong - Xi 'an Passenger Dedicated Line had to cross the Huoshan mountain chain with steep terrain.In order to effectively decrease the negative impact of 24.7 km long tunnel with unfavorable geological condition on the railway construction and operation, the research was done on the maximum gradient value for the railway.Research conclusions:The discussion and technical and economic comparison were made for three schemes of 20‰gradient, 25‰ gradient and 30‰ gradient in the Huoshan crossing section, and the simulations of acceleration andbreaking performances of the 250 - 300 km/h EMU running on long slope were made.If the 30‰ gradient was used,the Huoshan long slope tunnel could be cancelled and the construction investment could be saved.So the 30‰ gradientwas determined as the maximum gradient in some difficult sections of this railway.
Throckmorton, D. A.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation was performed to determine the effect of pressure gradient on the heat transfer to space shuttle reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array gaps under thick, turbulent boundary layer conditions. Heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained on a curved array of full-scale simulated RSI tiles in a tunnel wall boundary layer at a nominal freestream Mach number of 10.3 and freestream unit Reynolds numbers of 1.6, 3.3, and and 6.1 million per meter. Transverse pressure gradients were induced over the model surface by rotating the curved array with respect to the flow. Definition of the tunnel wall boundary layer flow was obtained by measurement of boundary layer pitot pressure profiles, and flat plate wall pressure and heat transfer. Flat plate wall heat transfer data were correlated and a method was derived for prediction of smooth, curved array heat transfer in the highly three-dimensional tunnel wall boundary layer flow and simulation of full-scale space shuttle vehicle pressure gradient levels was assessed.
SARACCO, G; VELDSINK, JW; VERSTEEG, GF; VANSWAAIJ, WPM
This is the second communication of a series dealing with an experimental and modelling study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants. In paper I the behaviour of the reactor in the absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients was presented and
Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van
1995-01-01
This is the second communication of a series dealing with an experimental and modelling study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants. In paper I the behaviour of the reactor in the absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients was presented and
Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria
1995-01-01
This is the second communication of a series dealing with an experimental and modelling study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants. In paper I the behaviour of the reactor in the absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients was presented and
B. Schoser; Fong, E. (Edward); Geberhiwot, T. (Tarekegn); Hughes, D. (Derralynn); Kissel, J.T. (John T.); Madathil, S.C. (Shyam C.); Orlikowski, D. (David); Polkey, M.I. (Michael I.); M. Roberts (Mark); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); Young, P. (Peter)
2017-01-01
textabstractRespiratory muscle strength is a proven predictor of long-term outcome of neuromuscular disease (NMD), including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and spinal muscular atrophy. Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), a sensitive measure of respiratory muscle
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1989-01-01
A very low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer subject to an adverse pressure gradient is studied. The aim is to obtain highly accurate mean-flow and turbulence measurements under conditions that can be closely related to the numerical simulations of Philippe Spalart for the purposes of CFD validation. Much of the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel was completely rebuilt with a new wider contraction and working section which will improve compatibility with the simulations. A unique sophisticated high-speed computer controlled 3-D probe traversing mechanism was integrated into the test section. Construction of the tunnel and traverse is discussed in some detail. The hardware is now complete, and measurements are in progress. The mean-flow data indicate that a suitably two-dimensional base flow was established. Automation of the probe positioning and data acquistion have led to a decreased running time for total pressure measurements. However, the most significant benefits are expected to occur when using hot-wire probes. Calibrations can be performed automatically and there is no need to handle fragile probes when moving between measuring stations. Techniques are being developed which require sampling of the signals from moving hot-wire probes on the basis of their position in the flow. Measurements can be made in high intensity turbulence by flying probes upstream at high speed so that the relative magnitude of the turbulent velocity fluctuations are reduced. In regions, where the turbulence intensity is not too large, the probe can also be repetitively scanned across very dense spatial grids in other directions. With this technique, a complete profile can be measured in about 1/3 the time and with a spatial density about 50 times that obtainable using a stationary probe.
Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: dissertlin@yahoo.com.tw [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Division of Cardiology (China); Yang, Cheng-Hsu, E-mail: yangch@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology and Department of Internal Medicine (China); Chu, Chi-Ming, E-mail: chuchiming@ndmctsgh.edu.tw [National Defense Medical Center and University, Section of Health Informatics, Institute of Public Health (China); Fang, Chi-Yung, E-mail: cyfang@seed.net.tw; Chen, Chien-Jen, E-mail: cjchen@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology and Department of Internal Medicine (China); Hsu, Jen-Te, E-mail: hsujente@gmail.com; Yang, Teng-Yao, E-mail: 2859@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Division of Cardiology (China); Hang, Chi-Ling, E-mail: samuelhang@hotmail.com; Wu, Chiung-Jen, E-mail: cvcjwu@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology and Department of Internal Medicine (China)
2013-10-15
Purpose: The severity of residual stenosis (RS) sometimes cannot be accurately measured by angiography during central vein intervention. This study evaluated the role of pullback pressure measurement during central vein stenosis (CVS) intervention. Methods: A retrospective review enrolled 94 consecutive dialysis patients who underwent CVS interventions but not stenting procedures. Patients were classified into 2 groups by either angiography or pressure gradient (PG) criteria, respectively. Groups divided by angiographic result were successful group (RS {<=}30 %) and acceptable group (50 % {>=} RS > 30 %), while groups divided by PG were low PG group (PG {<=}5 mmHg) and high PG group (PG >5 mmHg). Baseline characteristics and 12-month patency rates between the groups were analyzed. Results: The angiography results placed 63 patients in the successful group and 31 patients in the acceptable group. The patency rate at 12 month was not statistically different (P = 0.167). When the patients were reclassified by the postintervention pullback PG, the patency rate at 12 months was significant (P = 0.048). Further analysis in groups redivided by different combinations of RS and PG criteria identified significant differences in the group with both RS {<=}30 % and PG {<=}5 mmHg compared with those with either RS >30 % (P = 0.047) or PG >5 mmHg (P = 0.027). In addition, there was a significant difference between those with both RS {<=}30 % and PG {<=}5 mmHg compared with those with both RS >30 % and PG >5 mmHg (P = 0.027). Conclusion: Postintervention PG can better predict long-term outcomes after angioplasty for CVS in nonstented dialysis patients than angiography.
Sobanik, John Bertram
1993-01-01
A high aspect ratio slot flow (which emulates the gas leakage path in a gas turbine engine outer turbine air seal) is studied by use of a high aspect ratio slot using water as the working fluid. The cross section of the geometry is similar to a 'T', the slot being the vertical stroke and the main flow being the cross bar. A pressure gradient in the axial direction is created by blocking the main flow at a discreet location with an orifice plate (or blade tip simulator), located above the slot. Seven individually metered secondary flow injectors are located periodically along the bottom of the wall of the slot. Two slot widths, 1/8 and 1/4 inch, were investigated for length to width aspect ratios of 384 and 192 and height to width aspect ratios 33.2 and 16.6 respectively. Orifice plate pressure drops sufficient to give Reynolds numbers based upon half width of the slot, without secondary injection turned on, of 2350 and 4700 in the 1/8 inch slot and 4700 and 9400 in the 1/4 inch slot were run. Various secondary injection scenarios were added to the flow, the cases most studied being the no-injection and the all injectors flowing equal mass rates. Total injection rates for all seven injectors of 3.78 and 7.56 slot volumes per second were run. Laser velocimetry data and flow visualization pictures using fluorescein dye in the secondary flow are compared with computational results form the TEACH 3-D computer code. Major features and trends of the flow are captured by the computational model. Recommendations for further improvement of the numerical accuracy involves modification of the TEACH 3-D code to allow the 'slip condition' on all confining boundaries of the flow, or using a code which permits the 'slip condition' on all boundaries as a built-in option.
LeHew, J.; McKeon, B.J. [California Institute of Technology, Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, Pasadena, CA (United States); Guala, M. [California Institute of Technology, Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, Pasadena, CA (United States); University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2011-10-15
Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements performed in wall parallel planes at three wall normal locations, y{sup +} = 34, 108, and 278, in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at Re{sub {tau}}=470 are used to illuminate the distribution of streamwise velocity fluctuations in a three-dimensional energy spectrum (2D in space and 1D in time) over streamwise, spanwise, and temporal wavelengths. Two high-speed cameras placed side by side in the streamwise direction give a 10{delta}x 5{delta} streamwise by spanwise field of view with a vector spacing of {delta}x{sup +}={delta}z{sup +}{approx} 37 and a time step of {delta}t{sup +}=0.5. Although 3D wavenumber-frequency spectra have been calculated in acoustics studies, to the authors' knowledge this is the first time they has been calculated and presented for a turbulent boundary layer. The calculation and normalization of this spectrum, its relation to 2D and 1D spectra, and the effects of the PIV algorithm on its shape are carefully analyzed and outlined. (orig.)
Willert, Christian E
2015-01-01
This study reports on experimentally observed near-wall reverse flow events in a fully developed flat plate boundary layer at zero pressure gradient with Reynolds numbers between $Re_\\tau = 1000$ and $Re_\\tau = 2700$. The reverse flow events are captured using high magnification particle image velocimetry sequences with record lengths varying from 50,000 to 126,000 samples. Time resolved particle image sequences allow singular reverse flow events to be followed over several time steps whereas long records of nearly statistically independent samples provide a variety of single snapshots at a higher spatial resolution. The probability of occurrence lies in the range of 0.01% to 0.1% which matches predictions made with direct numerical simulations (DNS). The self-similar size of the reverse flow bubble is about 30-50 wall units in length and 5 wall units in height which also agrees well to DNS data provided by Lenaers et al. (ETC13, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 318 (2011) 022013).
de Vries, Durk R; van Herwaarden, Margot A; Smout, André J P M; Samsom, Melvin
2008-06-01
The roles of intragastric pressure (IGP), intraesophageal pressure (IEP), gastroesophageal pressure gradient (GEPG), and body mass index (BMI) in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernia (HH) are only partly understood. In total, 149 GERD patients underwent stationary esophageal manometry, 24-h pH-metry, and endoscopy. One hundred three patients had HH. Linear regression analysis showed that each kilogram per square meter of BMI caused a 0.047-kPa increase in inspiratory IGP (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.026-0.067) and a 0.031-kPa increase in inspiratory GEPG (95% CI 0.007-0.055). Each kilogram per square meter of BMI caused expiratory IGP to increase with 0.043 kPa (95% CI 0.025-0.060) and expiratory IEP with 0.052 kPa (95% CI 0.027-0.077). Each added year of age caused inspiratory IEP to decrease by 0.008 kPa (95% CI -0.015-0.001) and inspiratory GEPG to increase by 0.008 kPa (95% CI 0.000-0.015). In binary logistic regression analysis, HH was predicted by inspiratory and expiratory IGP (odds ratio [OR] 2.93 and 2.62, respectively), inspiratory and expiratory GEPG (OR 3.19 and 2.68, respectively), and BMI (OR 1.72/5 kg/m(2)). In linear regression analysis, HH caused an average 5.09% increase in supine acid exposure (95% CI 0.96-9.22) and an average 3.46% increase in total acid exposure (95% CI 0.82-6.09). Each added year of age caused an average 0.10% increase in upright acid exposure and a 0.09% increase in total acid exposure (95% CI 0.00-0.20 and 0.00-0.18). BMI predicts IGP, inspiratory GEPG, and expiratory IEP. Age predicts inspiratory IEP and GEPG. Presence of HH is predicted by IGP, GEPG, and BMI. GEPG is not associated with acid exposure.
Mukhopadhyay, B.; Fritz, M.; Mackowiak, P.; Vu, T. C.; Ehrmann, O.; Lang, K.-D.; Ngo, H.-D.
2013-05-01
Design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of novel MEMS pressure sensors with new back-side-direct-exposure packaging concept are presented. The sensor design is optimized for harsh environments e.g. space, military, offshore and medical applications. Unbreakable connection between the active side of the Si-sensor and the protecting glass capping was realized by anodic bonding using a thin layer of metal. To avoid signal corruption of the measured pressure caused by an encapsulation system, the media has direct contact to the backside of the Si membrane and can deflect it.
Wang, Nu; Boswell, Paul G
2017-08-26
Gradient retention times are difficult to project from the underlying retention factor (k) vs. solvent composition (φ) relationships. A major reason for this difficulty is that gradients produced by HPLC pumps are imperfect - gradient delay, gradient dispersion, and solvent mis-proportioning are all difficult to account for in calculations. However, we recently showed that a gradient "back-calculation" methodology can measure these imperfections and take them into account. In RPLC, when the back-calculation methodology was used, error in projected gradient retention times is as low as could be expected based on repeatability in the k vs. φ relationships. HILIC, however, presents a new challenge: the selectivity of HILIC columns drift strongly over time. Retention is repeatable in short time, but selectivity frequently drifts over the course of weeks. In this study, we set out to understand if the issue of selectivity drift can be avoid by doing our experiments quickly, and if there any other factors that make it difficult to predict gradient retention times from isocratic k vs. φ relationships when gradient imperfections are taken into account with the back-calculation methodology. While in past reports, the accuracy of retention projections was >5%, the back-calculation methodology brought our error down to ∼1%. This result was 6-43 times more accurate than projections made using ideal gradients and 3-5 times more accurate than the same retention projections made using offset gradients (i.e., gradients that only took gradient delay into account). Still, the error remained higher in our HILIC projections than in RPLC. Based on the shape of the back-calculated gradients, we suspect the higher error is a result of prominent gradient distortion caused by strong, preferential water uptake from the mobile phase into the stationary phase during the gradient - a factor our model did not properly take into account. It appears that, at least with the stationary phase
Ludovic, Foti
2017-04-01
concentrations and subsequent risks in soils of Paris and Paris region (Île-de-France). Our study aims at filling this knowledge gap, focusing on contamination and pollution by TMs in lawns and forests that constitute the main types of vegetation in urban areas of Paris region. Considering the rational described above, the aims of the present study were (i) to examine the concentration of eight selected TMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in soils of two land-uses (public lawns and woods) along an urban pressure gradient in Paris region, (ii) to distinguish origins and sources of contamination or pollution, (iii) to evaluate the individual and overall TM contamination degree as well as the individual and overall TM pollution degree, (iiii) to use soil characteristics to better understand soil origins and histories along the urban pressure gradient and the relationship between these characteristics and TM concentrations. Ultimately, this study provides a baseline TM assessment for the long-term monitoring of the evolution of TM soil contents in urban area of the Paris region.
Vilmos Simon
2013-01-01
The aim of this study is to define optimal tooth modifications,introduced by appropriately chosen head-cutter geometry and machine tool setting,to simultaneously minimize tooth contact pressure and angular displacement error of the driven gear (transmission error) of face-hobbed spiral bevel gears.As a result of these modifications,the gear pair becomes mismatched,and a point contact replaces the theoretical line contact.In the applied loaded tooth contact analysis it is assumed that the point contact under load is spreading over a surface along the whole or part of the “potential” contact line.A computer program was developed to implement the formulation provided above.By using this program the influence of tooth modifications introduced by the variation in machine tool settings and in head cutter data on load and pressure distributions,transmission errors,and fillet stresses is investigated and discussed.The correlation between the ease-off obtained by pinion tooth modifications and the corresponding tooth contact pressure distribution is investigated and the obtained results are presented.
Kallmeyer, J.; Ferdelman, TG; Jansen, KH
2003-01-01
of the sample vessels, a back-pressure system with a constant leak rate was installed. Pressure is applied through high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) pumps that run in constant pressure mode with variable flow rate, thereby regulating any pressure fluctuations. The device allows incubations along a wide...
Calimet, Nicolas; Ullmann, G Matthias
2004-06-01
Bacteriorhodopsin pumps protons across a membrane using the energy of light. The proton pumping is inhibited when the transmembrane proton gradient that the protein generates becomes larger than four pH units. This phenomenon is known as the back-pressure effect. Here, we investigate the structural basis of this effect by predicting the influence of a transmembrane pH gradient on the titration behavior of bacteriorhodopsin. For this purpose we introduce a method that accounts for a pH gradient in protonation probability calculations. The method considers that in a transmembrane protein, which is exposed to two different aqueous phases, each titratable residue is accessible for protons from one side of the membrane depending on its hydrogen-bond pattern. This method is applied to several ground-state structures of bacteriorhodopsin, which residues already present complicated titration behaviors in the absence of a proton gradient. Our calculations show that a pH gradient across the membrane influences in a non-trivial manner the protonation probabilities of six titratable residues which are known to participate in the proton transfer: D85, D96, D115, E194, E204, and the Schiff base. The residues connected to one side of the membrane are influenced by the pH on the other side because of their long-range electrostatic interactions within the protein. In particular, D115 senses the pH at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and transmits this information to D85 and the Schiff base. We propose that the strong electrostatic interactions found between D85, D115, and the Schiff base as well as the interplay of their respective protonation states under the influence of a transmembrane pH gradient are responsible for the back-pressure effect on bacteriorhodopsin.
MatthiasBuschmann
2000-01-01
The paper presents an analysis of two-dimensional zero pressure gradient(ZPG) turbulent boundary layers(TBL) with regard to the application of power laws,only TBL with low Reynolds number 300
Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J; Chylla, Roger A; Markley, John L
2011-12-15
Time-zero 2D (13)C HSQC (HSQC(0)) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC(0) spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero (1)H-(13)C HSQC(0) in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant-time mode. Semiautomatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semiautomated gsHSQC(0) with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC(0) approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture.
Bujoreanu Leandru-Gheorghe
2015-01-01
Full Text Available High pressure torsion (HPT processing technology, consisting in the obtainment of (ultrafine bulk metallic structure during 2–3 complete rotations of the superior anvil at low speed (~10-1 rpm under high applied pressure (~ GPa applied on the lower anvil, has been modified as to allow the application of elevated number of rotation numbers (~102 rpm. By high-speed high pressure torsion (HS-HPT, coned-disk spring shape modules were processed from an as cast Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr (mass % shape memory alloy (SMA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD studies revealed that the modules became nanostructured as an effect of HS-HPT processing. After processing, a hardness gradient was obtained along the truncated cone generator, increasing from inner to outer areas, due to different deformation degrees in these zones. After complete flattening, the measurements revealed that the hardness gradient maintained its value but reversed its variation sense.
Ghonge, Tanmay; Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti; Chakraborty, Suman
2012-01-01
A wide spectrum of electrokinetic studies is modelled as isothermal ones to expedite analysis even when such conditions may be extremely difficult to realize in practice. As a clear and novel departure from this trend, we address the case of flow-induced electrohydrodynamics, commonly referred to as streaming potential, in a situation where finite temperature gradients do indeed exit. By way of analysing a model problem of flow through a narrow parallel plate channel, we show that the temperature gradients have a significant effect on the streaming potential, and, consequently, on the flow itself. We incorporate thermoelectic effects in our model by a full-fledged coupling among the electric potential, the ionic species distribution, the fluid velocity and the local fluid temperature fields without resorting to ad hoc simplifications. We expect this expository study to contribute towards more sophisticated future inquiries into practical micro-/nano-fluidic applications coupling thermal field focusing with el...
Li, Hui; Huang, Linjian; Xie, Qianyang; Cai, Xieyi; Yang, Chi; Wang, Shaoyi; Zhang, Min
2017-01-01
To investigate the effects of gradient mechanical pressure on chondrocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of markers of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Mandibular condylar chondrocytes from 5 rabbits were cultured in vitro, and pressed with static pressures of 50kPa, 100kPa, 150kPa and 200kPa for 3h, respectively. The chondrocytes cultured without pressure (0kPa) were used as control. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of aggrecan (AGG), collagen II (COL2), collagen X (COL10), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were investigated. Ultrastructures of the pressurized chondrocytes under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were observed. Chondrocyte proliferation increased at 100kPa and decreased at 200kPa. Chondrocyte apoptosis increased with peak pressure at 200kPa in a dose-dependent manner. Chondrocyte necrosis increased at 200kPa. The expression of AGG increased at 200kPa. The expression of COL2 decreased at 50kPa and increased at 150kPa. The expression of COL10 and ALP increased at 150kPa. Ultrastructure of the pressurized chondrocytes under TEM showed: at 100kPa, cells were enlarged with less cellular microvillus and a bigger nucleus; at 200kPa, cells shrank with the sign of apoptosis, and apoptosis cells were found. The mechanical loading of 150kPa is the moderate pressure for chondrocyte: cell proliferation and apoptosis is balanced, necrosis is reduced, and chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy are promoted. When the pressure is lower, chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy are inhibited. At 200kPa, degeneration of cartilage is implied. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Thuesen, Leif
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve predicts cardiac events after coronary stent implantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the 9-month angiographic in-stent restenosis rate in the setting of optimal stenting and a persisting gradient distal to the stent as assessed by a pressure wire...... performed in the target vessel: (1) P(d)/P(a) as distal to the artery as possible (fractional flow reserve per definition); (2) P(d)/P(a) just distal to the stent; (3) P(d)/P(a) just proximal to the stent; and (4) P(d)/P(a) at the ostium. Residual abnormal P(d)/P(a) was defined as a pressure drop between P......(d)/P(a) measured at points 1 and 2. Fractional flow reserve distal to the artery after stenting was significantly lower (0.88+/-0.21 versus 0.97+/-0.05; P
Gaviria, Julian; Engelbrecht, Bettina M J
2015-01-01
Tree species distributions associated with rainfall are among the most prominent patterns in tropical forests. Understanding the mechanisms shaping these patterns is important to project impacts of global climate change on tree distributions and diversity in the tropics. Beside direct effects of water availability, additional factors co-varying with rainfall have been hypothesized to play an important role, including pest pressure and light availability. While low water availability is expected to exclude drought-intolerant wet forest species from drier forests (physiological tolerance hypothesis), high pest pressure or low light availability are hypothesized to exclude dry forest species from wetter forests (pest pressure gradient and light availability hypothesis, respectively). To test these hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition, the potentially most critical stage for species discrimination, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment combined with a pest exclosure treatment at a wet and a dry forest site in Panama with seeds of 26 species with contrasting origin. Establishment success after one year did not reflect species distribution patterns. However, in the wet forest, wet origin species had a home advantage over dry forest species through higher growth rates. At the same time, drought limited survival of wet origin species in the dry forest, supporting the physiological tolerance hypothesis. Together these processes sort species over longer time frames, and exclude species outside their respective home range. Although we found pronounced effects of pests and some effects of light availability on the seedlings, they did not corroborate the pest pressure nor light availability hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition. Our results underline that changes in water availability due to climate change will have direct consequences on tree regeneration and distributions along tropical rainfall gradients, while indirect effects of light and pests
Julian Gaviria
Full Text Available Tree species distributions associated with rainfall are among the most prominent patterns in tropical forests. Understanding the mechanisms shaping these patterns is important to project impacts of global climate change on tree distributions and diversity in the tropics. Beside direct effects of water availability, additional factors co-varying with rainfall have been hypothesized to play an important role, including pest pressure and light availability. While low water availability is expected to exclude drought-intolerant wet forest species from drier forests (physiological tolerance hypothesis, high pest pressure or low light availability are hypothesized to exclude dry forest species from wetter forests (pest pressure gradient and light availability hypothesis, respectively. To test these hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition, the potentially most critical stage for species discrimination, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment combined with a pest exclosure treatment at a wet and a dry forest site in Panama with seeds of 26 species with contrasting origin. Establishment success after one year did not reflect species distribution patterns. However, in the wet forest, wet origin species had a home advantage over dry forest species through higher growth rates. At the same time, drought limited survival of wet origin species in the dry forest, supporting the physiological tolerance hypothesis. Together these processes sort species over longer time frames, and exclude species outside their respective home range. Although we found pronounced effects of pests and some effects of light availability on the seedlings, they did not corroborate the pest pressure nor light availability hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition. Our results underline that changes in water availability due to climate change will have direct consequences on tree regeneration and distributions along tropical rainfall gradients, while indirect effects of
Werisch, Stefan; Müller, Marius
2017-04-01
Determination of soil hydraulic properties has always been an important part of soil physical research and model applications. While several experiments are available to measure the water retention of soil samples, the determination of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is often more complicated, bound to strong assumption and time consuming. Although, the application of unit gradient experiments is recommended since the middle of the last century, as one method towards a (assumption free) direct measurement of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, data from unit gradient experiments is seldom to never reported in literature. We developed and build a fully automated, pressure controlled, unit gradient experiment, which allows a precise determination of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity K(h) and water retention VWC(h), especially in the highly dynamic near saturated range. The measurement apparatus applies the concept of hanging water columns and imposes the required soil water pressure by dual porous plates. This concepts allows the simultaneous and direct measurement of water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, this approach results in a technically less demanding experiment than related flux controlled experiments, and virtually any flux can be measured. Thus, both soil properties can be measured in mm resolution, for wetting and drying processes, between saturation and field capacity for all soil types. Our results show, that it is important to establish separate measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range, as the shape of the retention function and hydraulic conductivity curve do not necessarily match. Consequently, the prediction of the hydraulic conductivity curve from measurements of the water retention behavior in combination with a value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity can be misleading. Thus, separate parameterizations of the individual functions might be necessary and are
王晓冬; 朱光亚; 王磊
2015-01-01
By defining new dimensionless variables, nonlinear mathematical models for one-dimensional flow with unknown moving boundaries in semi-infinite porous media are modified to be solved analytically. The exact analytical solutions for both constant-rate and constant-pressure inner boundary constraint problems are obtained by applying the Green’s function. Two transcendental equations for moving boundary problems are obtained and solved using the Newton-Raphson iteration. The exact analytical solutions are then compared with the approximate solutions. The Pascal’s approximate formula in reference is fairly accurate for the moving boundary development under the constant-rate condition. But another Pascal’s approximate formula given in reference is not very robust for constant-pressure condition problems during the early production period, and could lead to false results at the maximum moving boundary distance. Our results also show that, in presence of larger TPG, more pressure drop is required to maintain a constant-rate production. Under the constant-pressure producing condition, the flow rate may decline dramatically due to a large TPG. What’s more, there exists a maximum distance for a given TPG, beyond which the porous media is not disturbed.
McCourt, Michael; Parrish, Ian J
2012-01-01
We present a spherically symmetric model for the origin and evolution of the temperature profiles in the hot plasma filling galaxy groups and clusters. We find that the gas in clusters is generically not isothermal, and that the temperature declines with radius at large distances from the cluster center (outside the core- and scale radii). This temperature profile is determined by the accretion history of the halo, and is not quantitatively well-described by a polytropic model. We explain quantitatively how the large-scale temperature gradient persists in spite of thermal conduction and convection. These results are a consequence of the cosmological assembly of clusters and cannot be reproduced with non-cosmological simulations of isolated halos. We show that the variation in halo assembly histories produces a ~10% scatter in temperature at fixed mass. On top of this scatter, conduction decreases the temperature of the gas near the scale radius in massive clusters, which may bias hydrostatic mass estimates in...
新型压差式吸附式制冷机的设计%Design of the pressure gradient adsorption refrigerator
张艳飞; 余晓明
2011-01-01
In this paper, the pressure gradient adsorption refrigerator system was introduced, this system based on the solar energy as the energy source used the osmotic pressure which could take the water from evaporator to the condenser. Water was absorbed by the absorption plate firstly, and then arrived the last circle by the osmotic pressure, and then extruded out from absorption material to condenser intermittently so as to take water out from the evaporator to produce refrigerating effect. The continuous adsorption refrigeration could be achieved by virtue of changing open direction of four - way directional control valve in the solar refrigeration system.%设计了一种以太阳能为驱动力,利用渗透压将水分从蒸发器端传输到冷凝器端的压差式吸附制冷机.水分先在蒸发器端被吸附板吸收,再通过渗透压自动运输到最后环节段,并被膨胀物质间歇式地挤压出吸水材料,进入冷凝器,从而保证水分不断从蒸发器抽出,产生制冷效果.通过改变太阳能制冷系统的四通换向阀的开启方向,实现吸附式制冷系统的连续制冷.
Nguyen, Trieu; van der Meer, Devaraj; van den Berg, Albert
2017-01-01
-Boltzmann equation, together with the incompressible Cauchy momentum equation under no-slip boundary conditions for viscoelastic fluid in the case of a combination of time periodic pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow. The resulting solutions allow us to predict the electrical current and solution flow rate....... As expected from the assumption of linear viscoelasticity, the results satisfy the Onsager reciprocal relation, which is important since it enables an analogy between fluidic networks in this flow configuration and electric circuits. The results especially are of interest for micro-and nanofluidic energy...
1988-07-01
IIl/r’ (b). The dashed curve is the solution presented by response in the upper ocean to subinertial wind stress forcing Codes WM and the solid curve...especially as c hand side of Eq. (3). approaches the inertial frequency f,. h nd s re is 0 With pressure terms included, the expression for The wind ... stress is mixed layer velocities are [Eq. (3.1) in WM], in the 7 = [0, r’ Re(e""’ C)] (6) usual fluid mechanical notation. and following WM. we are
林文立; 刘治钢; 马亮
2013-01-01
Maximum Power Point Tracking(MPPT) control is especially suitable for the applications such as deep-space and high-power LEO spacecraft.The traditional method using hardware chips for MPPT is simple but its tracing precision is low due to parameters-drifting.To overcome the above shortcoming and meet the intelligent management and control demands for future electrical power system,a new MPPT full digital control strategy based on optimized gradient method is presented.The digital realization logic for MPPT is introduced and the electrical power system model is built in Matlab/simulink.The cases in which the solar array works following two specific characteristic curves are simulated to validate the above MPPT control method.The analysis results prove its validity and high tracing precision.%为满足深空探测和低轨大功率航天器等特定电源需求、适应未来空间电源智能化管理的发展趋势,文章提出一种基于最优梯度法的最大功率点跟踪(MPPT)全数字控制方法,克服了采用硬件电路增量电导法因参数漂移而导致峰值功率跟踪精度不高的缺点.介绍了基于最优梯度法的MPPT算法的数字实现逻辑,并在Matlab/simulink软件中搭建了太阳电池阵MPPT控制的电源系统仿真模型,在模拟两种不同的太阳电池阵特性曲线突变的条件下,对所提出的MPPT控制策略进行了仿真,仿真结果验证了控制策略的准确度和有效性.
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
Salazar Mendoza, R.; Garcia Gutierrez, A. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa Paredes, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2005-12-01
A theoretical analysis is presented for the problem of cutting transport in a two-region, slurry-flow system in horizontal pipes, with a stationary bed of drill cuttings as a porous medium (w-region) below a two-phase dispersed flow (n-region). Volume averaging was applied to derive a rigorous mathematical model where each variable is precisely defined. The model includes volume-averaged transport equations for both the two-phase dispersed flow and the porous-medium regions, and terms from a macroscopic forces balance. The solution of the two-region model allowed evaluation of the behavior of the pressure gradient as a function of velocity, total volume fraction of cuttings, and the relationship between the height of the stationary bed and pipe diameter. It is based on a backward, finite-difference explicit scheme. The simulated physical system is a pipe diameter. It is based on a backward, finite-difference explicit scheme. The simulated physical system is a pipe of 4.135 m in horizontal length and 0.0508 m in diameter. A one dimensional, mesh-centered grid is used, consisting of 10 nodes. The numerical results were compared with experimental data on slurry flows and a good agreement was found. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis teorico del problema de transporte de recortes de perforacion en pozos horizontales. Se estudia el flujo bifasico solido-liquido en dos regiones donde la region inferior es un lecho estacionario de recortes, considerado como medio poroso, mientras que la region superior es un flujo bifasico disperso solido-liquido. Se aplica el metodo de promediado en volumen para derivar de manera matematicamente rigurosa el modelo de dos regiones. El modelo incluye las ecuaciones de transporte promediadas en volumen para cada region y terminos que resultan de un balance de fuerzas macroscopico. La solucion del modelo permite evaluar el comportamiento del gradiente de presion como funcion de la velocidad, la fraccion de volumen de recortes total y la
陈元千
2011-01-01
Bear first presented a physical concept and discriminant of the starting pressure gradient in 1972 when he studied the applied lower limit of the Darcy law. And then Professor Ge Jiali introduced the starting pressure gradient to China in 1982. The so-called starting pressure gradient refers to a pressure gradient that makes a fluid in fluid-saturated cores begin to flow. It should be pointed out that the pressure gradient of linear flow is directly proportional to the flow rate, while the starting pressure gradient is a constant. The pressure gradient of plane radial flow is directly proportional to the flow rate but inversely to the radial radius. Moreover, the starting pressure7 gradient at a position of different radial radius is variable. It is controversial for the correctness to have directly applied the Bear's starting pressure gradient and discriminant of linear flow to the plane radial flow equation by some researchers. Theoretically, the paper analyzed both the pressure gradient and starting pressure gradient of linear flow and plane radial flow and proposed the conception of starting flow rate. At the same time, a more applicable method to evaluate the starting drawdown pressure and starting bottomhole flowing pressure of low permeability tight reservoirs was proposed.%启动压力梯度的物理概念及判别式是Bear于1972年在利用岩心测试资料研究达西定律的应用下限时提出来的,葛家理教授首次介绍到我国.所谓启动压力梯度,是指流体在饱和的岩心开始发生流动时的压力梯度.应当指出,线性流的压力梯度与流量成正比,启动压力梯度为常数；平面径向流的压力梯度与流量成正比,与径向半径成反比,而且,不同径向半径位置的启动压力梯度是不同的.有关学者将线性流启动的压力梯度及判别式直接用于平面径向流方程的正确性值得质疑.笔者对线性流和平面径向流的压力梯度和启动压力梯度问题进行了
Vennes, S; Nemeth, P
2011-01-01
We present a detailed model atmosphere analysis of high-dispersion and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of the heavily polluted DAZ white dwarf GALEX J1931+0117. The spectra obtained with the VLT-Kueyen/UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph show several well-resolved Si II spectral lines enabling a study of pressure effects on line profiles. We observed large Stark shifts in silicon lines in agreement with theoretical predictions and laboratory measurements. Taking into account Stark shifts in the calculation of synthetic spectra we reduced the scatter in individual line radial velocity measurements from ~ 3 to < 1 km/s. We present revised abundances of O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe based on a critical review of line broadening parameters and oscillator strengths. The new measurements are generally in agreement with our previous analysis with the exception of magnesium with a revised abundance a factor of two lower than previously estimated. The magnesium, silicon and iron abundances exceed solar abundances, but the ox...
Rued, Klaus
1987-01-01
The requirements for fundamental experimental studies of the influence of free stream turbulence, pressure gradients and wall cooling are discussed. Under turbine-like free stream conditions, comprehensive tests of transitional boundary layers with laminar, reversing and turbulent flow increments were performed to decouple the effects of the parameters and to determine the effects during mutual interaction.
Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B. G.; Long, Y. T.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model has been developed to determine heat transfer during vapor deposition of source materials under a variety of orientations relative to gravitational accelerations. The model demonstrates that convection can occur at total pressures as low as 10-2 mm Hg. Through numerical computation, using physical material parameters of air, a series of time steps demonstrates the development of flow and temperature profiles during the course of vapor deposition. These computations show that in unit gravity vapor deposition occurs by transport through a fairly complicated circulating flow pattern when applying heat to the bottom of the vessel with parallel orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The model material parameters for air predict the effect of kinematic viscosity to be of the same order as thermal diffusivity, which is the case for Prandtl number approx. 1 fluids. Qualitative agreement between experiment and the model indicates that 6-(2-methyl-4-nitroanilino)-2,4-hexadiyn-l-ol (DAMNA) at these pressures indeed approximates an ideal gas at the experiment temperatures, and may validate the use of air physical constants. It is apparent that complicated nonuniform temperature distribution in the vapor could dramatically affect the homogeneity, orientation, and quality of deposited films. The experimental test i's a qualitative comparison of film thickness using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy on films generated in appropriately oriented vapor deposition cells. In the case where heating of the reaction vessel occurs from the top, deposition of vapor does not normally occur by convection due to a stable stratified medium. When vapor deposition occurs in vessels heated at the bottom, but oriented relative to the gravity vector between these two extremes, horizontal thermal gradients induce a complex flow pattern. In the plane parallel to the tilt axis, the flow pattern is symmetrical and opposite in direction from that where the vessel is
Gouya, Hervé; Grabar, Sophie; Vignaux, Olivier; Saade, Anastasia; Pol, Stanislas; Legmann, Paul; Sogni, Philippe
2016-07-01
To measure azygos, portal and aortic flow by two-dimensional cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D-cine PC MRI), and to compare the MRI values to hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements, in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-nine patients with cirrhosis were prospectively included. All patients underwent HVPG measurements, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 2D-cine PC MRI measurements of azygos, portal and aortic blood flow. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between the blood flow and HVPG. The performance of 2D-cine PC MRI to diagnose severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 16 mmHg) was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and area under the curves (AUC) were compared. Azygos and aortic flow values were associated with HVPG in univariate linear regression model. Azygos flow (p cine PC MRI is a promising technique to evaluate significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. • Noninvasive HVPG assessment can be performed with MRI azygos flow. • Azygos MRI flow is an easy-to-measure marker to detect significant portal hypertension. • MRI flow is more specific that varice grade to detect portal hypertension.
Poyatos, A.; Bonaque, R.; Mallol, G.; Boix, J.
2012-07-01
The organization MACER, in collaboration with the Institute of Ceramic Technology, has developed the system ISOPRESS, an integrated control device that permits to equal automatically the maximum pressure applied on the powder contained in each of the holes of the mould. This system consists of a set of pressure transducers which are located in the isostatic punches of the mould itself. With them it is possible to register in real-time the evolution of the measured pressure of the oil contained in the compensation chamber of each punch. All the transducers are connected to a data acquisition system which transfers the pressure values to a PC which performs the signal processing to obtain the pressure maximum value reached during a pressing cycle, in each one of the holes. The system is completed with a control software especially developed, that permits to regulate individually the height of the first fall of each inferior punch to guarantee the uniformity of the pressure applied in all the holes. ISOPRESS, by assuring the constancy of the bulk density of all the pieces processed, guarantees a unique piece size and minimize production problems associated to the variability of the bulk density of the pieces. (Author)
Strasser, Barbara; Schwarz, Joachim; Haber, Paul; Schobersberger, Wolfgang
2011-12-01
Aim of this study was to evaluate reliable guide values for heart rate (HF) and blood pressure (RR) with reference to defined sub maximum exertion considering age, gender and body mass. One hundred and eighteen healthy but non-trained subjects (38 women, 80 men) were included in the study. For interpretation, finally facts of 28 women and 59 men were used. We found gender differences for HF and RR. Further, we noted significant correlations between HF and age as well as between RR and body mass at all exercise levels. We established formulas for gender-specific calculation of reliable guide values for HF and RR on sub maximum exercise levels.
The causal relation between turbulent particle flux and density gradient
Milligen, B. Ph. van; Martín de Aguilera, A.; Hidalgo, C. [CIEMAT - Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); García, L.; Nicolau, J. H. [Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)
2016-07-15
A technique for detecting the causal relationship between fluctuating signals is used to investigate the relation between flux and gradient in fusion plasmas. Both a resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence model and experimental Langmuir probe data from the TJ-II stellarator are studied. It is found that the maximum influence occurs at a finite time lag (non-instantaneous response) and that quasi-periodicities exist. Furthermore, the model results show very long range radial influences, extending over most of the investigated regions, possibly related to coupling effects associated with plasma self-organization. These results clearly show that transport in fusion plasmas is not local and instantaneous, as is sometimes assumed.
Wouters, Bert; Broeckhoven, Ken; Wouters, Sam; Bruggink, Cees; Agroskin, Yury; Pohl, Christopher A; Eeltink, Sebastiaan
2014-11-28
The gradient-performance limits of capillary ion chromatography have been assessed at maximum system pressure (34.5 MPa) using capillary columns packed with 4.1 μm macroporous anion-exchange particles coated with 65 nm positively-charged nanobeads. In analogy to the van-Deemter curve, the gradient performance was assessed applying different flow rates, while decreasing the gradient time inversely proportional to the increase in flow rate in order to maintain the same retention properties. The gradient kinetic-performance limits were determined at maximum system pressure, applying tG/t0=5, 10, and 20. In addition, the effect of retention on peak width was assessed in gradient mode for mono-, di-, and trivalent inorganic anions. The peak width of late-eluting ions can be significantly reduced by using concave gradient, resulting in better detection sensitivity. A signal enhancement factor of 8 was measured for a late-eluting ion when applying a concave instead of a linear gradient. For the analysis of a complex anion mixture, a coupled column with a total length of 1.05 m was operated at the kinetic-performance limit applying a linear 250 min gradient (tG/t0=10). The peak capacity varied between 200 and 380 depending on analyte retention, and hence on charge and size of the ion.
Monkewitz, Peter A.
2017-09-01
The trinity of so-called "canonical" wall-bounded turbulent flows, comprising the zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer, abbreviated ZPG TBL, turbulent pipe flow, and channel/duct flows has continued to receive intense attention as new and more reliable experimental data have become available. Nevertheless, the debate on whether the logarithmic part of the mean velocity profile, in particular the Kármán constant κ , is identical for these three canonical flows or flow-dependent is still ongoing. In this paper, the asymptotic matching requirement of equal κ in the logarithmic overlap layer, which links the inner and outer flow regions, and in the expression for the centerline/free-stream velocity is reiterated and shown to preclude a universal logarithmic overlap layer in the three canonical flows. However, the majority of pipe and channel flow studies at friction Reynolds numbers Reτ below ≈104 extract from near-wall profiles the same κ of 0.38-0.39 as in the ZPG TBL. This apparent contradiction is resolved by a careful reanalysis of high-quality mean velocity profiles in the Princeton "Superpipe" and other pipes, channels, and ducts, which shows that the mean velocity in a near-wall region extending to around 700 "+" units in channels and ducts and 500 "+" units in pipes is the same as in the ZPG TBL. In other words, all the "canonical" flow profiles contain the lower end of the ZPG TBL log-region, which starts at a wall distance of 150 -200 "+" units with a universal κ of κZPG≈0.384 . This interior log-region is followed by a second logarithmic region with a flow specific κ >κZPG , which increases monotonically with pressure gradient. This second, exterior log-layer is the actual overlap layer matching up to the outer expansion, which implies equality of the exterior κ and κCL obtained from the evolution of the respective centerline velocity with Reynolds number. The location of the switch-over point implies furthermore that this second
Ikechi Gareth Okpechi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP is a common global cardiovascular (CV disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1; BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2, and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3. RESULTS: Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%, hypertension (31.4%, cigarette smoking (13.3%, use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%, physical inactivity (64.2% and being overweight or obese (33.7%. Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05; while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05. The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.
Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kozma, Balázs; Bassler, Kevin E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Korniss, G.
2008-04-01
Gradient networks are defined (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716) as directed graphs formed by local gradients of a scalar field distributed on the nodes of a substrate network G. We present the derivation for some of the general properties of gradient graphs and give an exact expression for the in-degree distribution R(l) of the gradient network when the substrate is a binomial (Erd{\\;\\kern -0.10em \\raise -0.35ex \\{{^{^{\\prime\\prime}}}}\\kern -0.57em \\o} s-Rényi) random graph, G_{N,p} , and the scalars are independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. We show that in the limit N \\to \\infty, p \\to 0, z = pN = \\mbox{const} \\gg 1, R(l)\\propto l^{-1} for l Bassler (2004 Nature 428 716).
Hetzel, Terence; Blaesing, Christina; Jaeger, Martin; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C
2017-02-17
The performance of micro-liquid chromatography columns with an inner diameter of 0.3mm was investigated on a dedicated micro-LC system for gradient elution. Core-shell as well as fully porous particle packed columns were compared on the basis of peak capacity and gradient kinetic plot limits. The results for peak capacity showed the superior performance of columns packed with sub-2μm fully porous particles compared to 3.0μm fully porous and 2.7μm core-shell particles within a range of different gradient time to column void time ratios. For ultra-fast chromatography a maximum peak capacity of 16 can be obtained using a 30s gradient for the sub-2μm fully porous particle packed column. A maximum peak capacity of 121 can be achieved using a 5min gradient. In addition, the influence of an alternative detector cell on the basis of optical waveguide technology and contributing less to system variance was investigated showing an increased peak capacity for all applied gradient time/column void time ratios. Finally, the influence of pressure was evaluated indicating increased peak capacity for maximum performance whereas a limited benefit for ultra-fast chromatography with gradient times below 30s was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.
McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J
2016-04-01
Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.
Zhang, H. L.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Cottrell, E.; Withers, A. C.
2017-05-01
Experiments establishing the effect of pressure on the Fe^{3+}/ΣFe ratio of andesitic silicate melts buffered by coexisting Ru and RuO_{2} were performed from 100 kPa to 7 GPa and 1400–1750 °C. Fe^{3+}/ΣFe ratios were determined by room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, but corrected for the effects of recoilless fraction. Fe^{3+}/ΣFe ratios in quenched glasses decrease with increasing pressure consistent with previous results between 100 kPa and 3 GPa (O’Neill et al., 2006), but show only small pressure effects above 5 GPa. Ratios also decrease with increasing temperature. Mössbauer hyperfine parameters indicate mean coordination of Fe^{3+} ions of ~5 in glasses, with no dependence on the pressure from which the glasses were quenched, but show an increase with pressure in mean coordination of Fe^{2+} ions, from ~5 to ~6. XANES spectra on these glasses show variations in pre-edge intensities and centroid positions that are systematic with Fe^{3+}/ΣFe, but are displaced from those established from otherwise identical andesitic glasses quenched at 100 kPa (Zhang et al., 2016). These systematics permit construction of a new XANES calibration curve relating pre-edge sub-peak intensities to Fe^{3+}/ΣFe applicable to high pressure glasses. Consistent with interpretations of the Mössbauer hyperfine parameters, XANES pre-edge peak features in high pressure glasses are owing chiefly to the effects of pressure on the coordination of Fe^{2+} ions from ~5.5 to ~6, with negligible effects evident for Fe^{3+} ions. We use the new data to construct a thermodynamic model relating the effects of oxygen fugacity and pressure on Fe^{3+}/ΣFe. We apply this model to calculate variations in oxygen fugacity in isochemical (constant Fe^{3+}/ΣFe) columns of magma representative of magma oceans, in which fO2 is fixed at the base by equilibration with molten Fe. These calculations
Zhang, H. L.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Cottrell, E.; Withers, A. C.
2017-05-01
Experiments establishing the effect of pressure on the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio of andesitic silicate melts buffered by coexisting Ru and RuO2 were performed from 100 kPa to 7 GPa and 1400-1750 °C. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios were determined by room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, but corrected for the effects of recoilless fraction. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in quenched glasses decrease with increasing pressure consistent with previous results between 100 kPa and 3 GPa (O'Neill et al., 2006), but show only small pressure effects above 5 GPa. Ratios also decrease with increasing temperature. Mössbauer hyperfine parameters indicate mean coordination of Fe3+ ions of ∼5 in glasses, with no dependence on the pressure from which the glasses were quenched, but show an increase with pressure in mean coordination of Fe2+ ions, from ∼5 to ∼6. XANES spectra on these glasses show variations in pre-edge intensities and centroid positions that are systematic with Fe3+/ΣFe, but are displaced from those established from otherwise identical andesitic glasses quenched at 100 kPa (Zhang et al., 2016). These systematics permit construction of a new XANES calibration curve relating pre-edge sub-peak intensities to Fe3+/ΣFe applicable to high pressure glasses. Consistent with interpretations of the Mössbauer hyperfine parameters, XANES pre-edge peak features in high pressure glasses are owing chiefly to the effects of pressure on the coordination of Fe2+ ions from ∼5.5 to ∼6, with negligible effects evident for Fe3+ ions. We use the new data to construct a thermodynamic model relating the effects of oxygen fugacity and pressure on Fe3+/ΣFe. We apply this model to calculate variations in oxygen fugacity in isochemical (constant Fe3+/ΣFe) columns of magma representative of magma oceans, in which fO2 is fixed at the base by equilibration with molten Fe. These calculations indicate that oxygen fugacities at the surface of shallow magma oceans are more reduced than at depth. For magma oceans in
Chia Bin Fang
2007-09-01
Full Text Available O megacólon resulta de lesão extensa dos plexos mioentéricos, a qual se traduz por incoordenação motora do cólon com inércia funcional e acalasia do esfíncter anal. Disso resulta duplo distúrbio, em que à dificuldade motora agrega-se o obstáculo para evacuar. Para que haja eliminação fecal é necessário que a pressão retal ultrapasse a anal, havendo um gradiente reto-anal. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar este gradiente em 29 pacientes portadores de megacólon, em que as pressões retais e anais foram medidas ao evacuar, comparadas com pessoas normais. Os resultados mostraram que havia pressão retal em centímetros de água aumentada em homens (72,2 ± 29,1 e mulheres (64,5 ± 20,1, superando as respectivas pressões anais de evacuação (66,4 ± 23,2 e 62,1 ± 28,7. As pressões de evacuação, por sua vez, eram muito maiores que as do grupo controle. Isto permitiu concluir haver uma reação adaptativa com maior esforço muscular para evacuar, a fim de superar o obstáculo da acalasia.Megacolon is the result of an extensive lesion of the mioenteric plexus, with lack of motor coordination and achalasia of the anal sphincter. The motility disorder caused by the muscle contraction problems added to a mechanical obstacle results cause constipation. The defecation rectal pressure increases and reaches its peak with the start of fecal flow, exceeding the anal pressure. The objective of this work was to assess the ratio of rectal / anal pressure on 29 megacolon sufferers, compared to normal subjects. Results have shown that defecation rectal pressure was higher than expected for both men (72,2 ± 29,1 cm water and women (64,5 ± 20,1 cm water exceeding the defecation anal pressure (66,4 ± 23,2 and 62,1 ± 28,7 cm water, for men and women, respectively. The defecation pressures were much higher than those of the control group, what led to the conclusion that as an adaptive reaction, muscular effort increases to make evacuation
Santosh Gangwal
2011-06-30
Producing liquid transportation fuels and power via coal and biomass to liquids (CBTL) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes can significantly improve the nation's energy security. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates increasing renewable fuels nearly 10-fold to >2.3 million barrels per day by 2022. Coal is abundantly available and coal to liquids (CTL) plants can be deployed today, but they will not become sustainable without large scale CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Co-processing of coal and biomass in CBTL processes in a 60 to 40 ratio is an attractive option that has the potential to produce 4 million barrels of transportation fuels per day by 2020 at the same level of CO{sub 2} emission as petroleum. In this work, Southern Research Institute (Southern) has made an attempt to address one of the major barriers to the development of large scale CBTL processes - cost effective/reliable dry-feeding of coal-biomass mixtures into a high pressure vessel representative of commercial entrained-flow gasifiers. Present method for dry coal feeding involves the use of pressurized lock-hopper arrangements that are not only very expensive with large space requirements but also have not been proven for reliably feeding coal-biomass mixtures without the potential problems of segregation and bridging. The project involved the development of a pilot-scale 250 lb/h high pressure dry coal-biomass mixture feeder provided by TKEnergi and proven for feeding biomass at a scale up to 6 ton/day. The aim of this project is to demonstrate cost effective feeding of coal-biomass mixtures (50:50 to 70:30) made from a variety of coals (bituminous, lignite) and biomass (wood, corn stover, switch grass). The feeder uses a hydraulic piston-based approach to produce a series of plugs of the mixture that act as a seal against high back-pressure of the gasification vessel in to which the mixture is being fed. The plugs are then fed one by one via a
Tai, Yanlong
2016-03-17
Fiber-based, flexible pressure-sensing systems have attracted attention recently due to their promising application as electronic skins. Here, a new kind of flexible pressure-sensing device based on a polydimethylsiloxane membrane instrumented with double-twisted smart threads (DTSTs) is reported. DTSTs are made of two conductive threads obtained by coating cotton threads with carbon nanotubes. One thread is coated with a homogeneous thickness of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to detect the intensity of an applied load and the other is coated with a graded thickness of SWCNTs to identify the position of the load along the thread. The mechanism and capacity of DTSTs to accurately sense an applied load are systematically analyzed. Results demonstrate that the fabricated 1D, 2D, and 3D sensing devices can be used to predict both the intensity and the position of an applied load. The sensors feature high sensitivity (between ≈0.1% and 1.56% kPa) and tunable resolution, good cycling resilience (>104 cycles), and a short response time (minimum 2.5 Hz). The presented strategy is a viable alternative for the design of simple, low-cost pressure sensors.
A New Way to Calculate the Critical Pressure Gradient of Sand Production%计算砂岩出砂临界压力梯度的新方法
聂向荣; 杨胜来; 丁景辰; 李芳芳; 章星
2013-01-01
A capillary-tube model is proposed which could transform the porous medium solid liquid coupling problems to duct flow problems,and the dynamic mechanism of sand production is studied according to the fluid mechanics as well as skin effect considered.The critical pressure gradient formula is as a quantifying characterization for the sand production.Based on sensitivity analysis,the critical pressure gradient rises with its thickness increasing.With the sand particle radius increasing,the critical pressure gradient also rises.In order to validate the effectiveness of the formula,a physical simulation experiment is designed.The formulae has a good agreement with experimental,and the average error is only 16％.%将毛管束模型引入到出砂问题的研究中,同时考虑了表皮效应,建立了出砂毛管束物理模型,该模型能够将复杂的多孔介质固液耦合问题转化为宏观的管流流动问题,通过分析砂岩颗粒在毛管束中的受力和运动,建立了砂岩出砂数学模型,分析了出砂过程动态机理,推导了出砂临界压力梯度公式,该公式从理论上对出砂问题进行了定量表征.敏感性分析表明:随着表皮厚度的增大,临界压力梯度增大；随着砂粒半径的增大,临界压力梯度也随之增大.为了验证公式的有效性,设计了砂岩出砂物理模拟实验,结果表明平均误差为16％,和实验符合较好.
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-07-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
朱正刚; KALISKE Michel
2011-01-01
Drying porous media leads to a coupled process of heat and mass transfer. Based on the macroscopic viewpoint of continuum mechanics, coupled heat, moisture movement and gas phase flow is numerically simulated. The effect of pressure gradient on the heat and mass transfer is studied. Diffusional and convectional flow of water vapor and air; moisture flow driven by gradient of moisture and temperature (Soret effect) are basic mechanisms of mass transfer in porous media. A 3-D coupled model under Dirichlet and mixed type of boundary conditions, based on the Galerkin weighted residual finite element method, is presented to account for the coupling among temperature, moisture content and gas pressure of the porous media dried at high temperature.%多孔介质干燥导致热质耦合传输过程。本文基于连续介质力学的宏观尺度，对多孔介质的热、湿和气三者耦合迁移进行数值模拟，研究压力梯度对热质传输的影响。多孔介质传质机理主要为水汽和空气的对流和扩散传输、吸附水在含湿量梯度作用下的自由扩散和其在温度梯度即Soret效应驱动下的流动。采用Galerkin加权余量的有限元方法，提出了温度、含温量和气相压力在Dirichlet边界条件及混合边界条件下的三维耦合数值模型,并对介质受高温干燥条件进行了数值模拟。
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
姜启周; 裘五四; 方蓉; 徐海松
2008-01-01
Objective To investigate the gradient changes of bilateral cerebral hemisphere pressure after lateral hemisphere injury and observe their effects on craniotomy. Methods Twenty-four patients with cerebral contusion and subdural intracerebral hematoma were included in this study. All patients received brain parenehyma pressure (BPP) monitoring by introducing optic fibro sensor into each cerebral hemisphere via the frontal lobe. All patients underwent surgical craniotomy for evacuation of space occupying lesions such as cerebral hemisphere contusion, subdural and/or intracerebral hematoma.Preoperative and postoperative BPP data at different time points were recorded and analyzed. Results Preoperative BPP value of the injured hemispheres was significantly higher than that of the other hemisphere (P ＜ 0. 01 ). There was no significant statistical difference upon BPP value at 0, 24 and 48 hours after operation between both hemispheres ( P ＞ 0.05 ). The postoperative BPP value of bilateral hemispheres was lower than the preoperative one. Conclusions BPP monitoring sensors should be introduced into the injured hemisphere so that the valuable information can be timely showed. When the cerebral hemisphere has lesions after brain injury, such lesion becomes the source of elevated intracranial pressure and can result in bilateral hemisphere pressure gradient. Craniotomy can not only effectively lower the intracranial pressure, but also eliminate the BPP gradient, which contritbutes to reposition of the oppressed brain tissue.%目的 了解一侧大脑损伤后两侧半球压力梯度的变化及开颅手术的影响.方法 选择24例一侧大脑额、颞叶脑挫伤、硬膜下脑内血肿的患者,CT显示伤侧有占位效应、中线向对侧移位.入院后即分别于两侧额部钻颅置入光导纤维传感器行两侧大脑半球脑组织压(BPP)监护,所有患者都接受开颅血肿清除手术.分别于术前、术后收集两侧大脑
A Miniature Four-Hole Probe for Measurement of Three-Dimensional Flow with Large Gradients
Ravirai Jangir
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A miniature four-hole probe with a sensing area of 1.284 mm2 to minimise the measurement errors due to the large pressure and velocity gradients that occur in highly three-dimensional turbomachinery flows is designed, fabricated, calibrated, and validated. The probe has good spatial resolution in two directions, thus minimising spatial and flow gradient errors. The probe is calibrated in an open jet calibration tunnel at a velocity of 50 m/s in yaw and pitch angles range of ±40 degrees with an interval of 5 degrees. The calibration coefficients are defined, determined, and presented. Sensitivity coefficients are also calculated and presented. A lookup table method is used to determine the four unknown quantities, namely, total and static pressures and flow angles. The maximum absolute errors in yaw and pitch angles are 2.4 and 1.3 deg., respectively. The maximum absolute errors in total, static, and dynamic pressures are 3.4, 3.9, and 4.9% of the dynamic pressures, respectively. Measurements made with this probe, a conventional five-hole probe and a miniature Pitot probe across a calibration section, demonstrated that the errors due to gradient and surface proximity for this probe are considerably reduced compared to the five-hole probe.
Goradia, S. H.; Bobbitt, P. J.; Morgan, H. L.; Ferris, J. C.; Harvey, William D.
1989-01-01
Results of correlative and design studies for transition location, laminar and turbulent boundary-layer parameters, and wake drag for forward swept and aft swept wings are presented. These studies were performed with the use of an improved integral-type boundary-layer and transition-prediction methods. Theoretical predictions were compared with flight measurements at subsonic and transonic flow conditions for the variable aft swept wing F-14 aircraft for which experimental pressure distributions, transition locations, and turbulent boundary-layer velocity profiles were measured. Flight data were available at three spanwise stations for several values of sweep, freestream unit Reynolds number, Mach numbers, and lift coefficients. Theory/experiment correlations indicate excellent agreement for both transition location and turbulent boundary-layer parameters. The results of parametric studies performed during the design of a laminar glove for the forward swept wing X-29 aircraft are also presented. These studies include the effects of a spanwise pressure gradient on transition location and wake drag for several values of freestream Reynolds numbers at a freestream Mach number of 0.9.
Voelker, Steven L; Meinzer, Frederick C; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Brooks, J Renée; Guyette, Richard P
2014-03-01
Tree-ring characteristics are commonly used to reconstruct climate variables, but divergence from the assumption of a single biophysical control may reduce the accuracy of these reconstructions. Here, we present data from bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) sampled within and beyond the current species bioclimatic envelope to identify the primary environmental controls on ring-width indices (RWIs) and carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ(13) C) in tree-ring cellulose. Variation in Δ(13) C and RWI was more strongly related to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) at the centre and western edge of the range compared with the northern and wettest regions. Among regions, Δ(13) C of tree-ring cellulose was closely predicted by VPD and light responses of canopy-level Δ(13) C estimated using a model driven by eddy flux and meteorological measurements (R(2) = 0.96, P = 0.003). RWI and Δ(13) C were positively correlated in the drier regions, while they were negatively correlated in the wettest region. The strength and direction of the correlations scaled with regional VPD or the ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration. Therefore, the correlation strength between RWI and Δ(13) C may be used to infer past wetness or aridity from paleo wood by determining the degree to which carbon gain and growth have been more limited by moisture or light. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang
2010-01-01
hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...... in the presence of conventional material hardening. Furthermore, it is shown that dissipative gradient effects can lead to both an increase and a decrease in the dissipation per load cycle depending on the magnitude of the dissipative length parameter, whereas energetic gradient effects lead to decreasing...... dissipation for increasing energetic length parameter. For dissipative gradient effects it is found that dissipation has a maximum value for some none zero value of the material length parameter, which depends on the magnitude of the deformation cycles....
A. Amorós
2008-07-01
favorable comparado con la no realización del mismo.Objective: variceal rebleeding is common following a first episode of hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of monitoring hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG to guide secondary prophylaxis. Methods: we created a Markov decision model to calculate cost-effectiveness for two strategies: Group 1: HVPG monitoring to decide treatment -when portal pressure was reduced by at least 20 percent or HVPG was less than 12 mmHg after beta-blocker administration, patients received beta-blockers; when portal pressure did not meet these criteria therapy was endoscopic band ligation. Group 2: in this group there was no monitoring of HVPG. Patients with large varices received treatment with beta-blockers combined with EBL; patients with small varices received beta-blockers plus isosorbide mononitrate. Results: there was no recurrent variceal bleeding in group 1 for good responders, and for 17% of poor responders. In group 2 a 25% rebleeding rate was detected in patients with small varices and 13% for those with big varices. Overall cost in group 1 was 14,100.49 euros, and 14,677.16 in group 2. Conclusions: HVPG measurement is cost-effective for the secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding.
Chen, Jung-San; Chang, I.-Ling; Huang, Wan-Ting; Chen, Lien-Wen; Huang, Guan-Hua
2016-09-01
This research presents an innovative asymmetric transmission design using alternate layers of water and metamaterial with complex mass density. The directional transmission behavior of acoustic waves is observed numerically inside the composite structure with gradient layer thickness distribution and the rectifying performance of the present design is evaluated. The layer thickness distributions with arithmetic and geometric gradients are considered and the effect of gradient thickness on asymmetric wave propagation is systematically investigated using finite element simulation. The numerical results indicate that the maximum pressure density and transmission through the proposed structure are significantly influenced by the wave propagation direction over a wide range of audible frequencies. Tailoring the thickness of the layered structure enables the manipulation of asymmetric wave propagation within the desired frequency range. In conclusion, the proposed design offers a new possibility for developing directional-dependent acoustic devices.
张达德; 郦能惠; 陈柏麟; 傅新民
2004-01-01
本研究针对结合微孔隙水压力计改良型GR试验系统与一般GR试验系统进行了一系列的试验分析比较,研究中所使用的试验材料包含4种不同针轧不织布及5种不同比例渥太华砂与风化泥岩混合土壤.试验结果发现,由改良型GR试验系统所得的GR试验值都高于一般GR试验系统所得结果,同时也验证了微孔隙水压力计在GR试验系统中可提供较好的孔隙水压力量测与抗阻塞潜势评估.%A series of gradient ratio (GR) tests with conventional GR test device, modified implanted GR test device with and without micro pore pressure transducers were done. 4 different types of needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles and 5 mixtures of Ottawa sand and weathered mudstone with various percentages were used as testing materials. It was found that the GR values from modified GR tests are generally greater than that obtained from the conventional GR tests. It is believed the transducers installed in the GR test systems provide better measurement on pore pressure distribution and better evaluation of the clogging potential.
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
On the violation of gradient wind balance at the top of tropical cyclones
Cohen, Yair; Harnik, Nili; Heifetz, Eyal; Nolan, David S.; Tao, Dandan; Zhang, Fuqing
2017-08-01
The existence of physical solutions for the gradient wind balance is examined at the top of 12 simulated tropical cyclones. The pressure field at the top of these storms, which depends on the vertically integrated effect of the warm core and the near surface low, is found to violate the gradient wind balance—termed here as a state of nonbalance. Using a toy model, it is shown that slight changes in the relative location and relative widths of the warm core drastically increase the isobaric curvature at the upper level pressure maps leading to nonbalance. While idealized storms return to balance within several days, simulations of real-world tropical cyclones retain a considerable degree of nonbalance throughout the model integration. Comparing mean and maximum values of different storms shows that peak nonbalance correlates with either peak intensity or intensification, implying the possible importance of nonbalance at upper levels for the near surface winds.
Droplet Motion on a Shape Gradient Surface.
Zheng, Yanfen; Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Cailong; Xing, Haiting; Wen, Xiufang; Pi, Pihui; Xu, Shouping
2017-05-02
We demonstrate a facile method to induce water droplet motion on an wedge-shaped superhydrophobic copper surface combining with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil layer on it. The unbalanced interfacial tension from the shape gradient offers the actuating force. The superhydrophobicity critically eliminates the droplet contact line pinning and the slippery PDMS oil layer lubricates the droplet motion, which makes the droplet move easily. The maximum velocity and furthest position of droplet motion were recorded and found to be influenced by the gradient angle. The mechanism of droplet motion on the shape gradient surface is systematically discussed, and the theoretical model analysis is well matched with the experimental results.
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Effect of atomization gas pressure variation on gas flow field in supersonic gas atomization
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, a computational fluid flow model was adopted to investigate the effect of varying atomization gas pressure (P0) on the gas flow field in supersonic gas atomization. The influence of P0 on static pressure and velocity magnitude of the central axis of the flow field was also examined. The numerical results indicate that the maximum gas velocity within the gas field increases with increasing P0. The aspiration pressure (ΔP) is found to decrease as P0 increases at a lower atomization gas pressure. However, at a higher atomization gas pressure increasing P0 causes the opposite: the higher atomization gas pressure, the higher aspiration pressure. The alternation of ΔP is caused by the variations of stagnation point pressure and location of Mach disk, while hardly by the location of stagnation point. A radical pressure gradient is formed along the tip of the delivery tube and increases as P0 increases.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
刘夷平; 张华; 王淑华; 王经
2008-01-01
The segregated flow pattern, which occurs in a 26.1 mm diameter, horizontal, stainless steel test section,is investigated. Pressure gradient and in situ phase distribution data were obtained for different combinations of system (E0D=4.77), the dominant effect of interracial tension and wall-wetting properties of the liquids over the gravity is considered. The approach introduces the closure relationship for the case of turbulent flow in a rough pipe,and attempts to modify the two-fluid model to account for the curved interface. In present flow rates range, wave amplitudes were found small, while interfacial mixing was observed. An adjustable definition for hydraulic diame-ters of two fluids and interfacial friction factor is adopted. The predicted pressure gradient and in situ phase distri-bution data have been compared with present experimental data and those reported in the literature.
Interplay between transport barriers and density gradient
Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.
2006-09-01
The present paper addresses two critical issues of zonal flows: the evidence of control parameters of their driving term, namely the Reynolds stress, and how they back-react on turbulence and transport. Kinetic nonlinear simulations are performed with the GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., J. Comput. Phys. (to be published)], which models the slab branch of the ion temperature gradient driven instability in the four-dimensional drift-kinetic regime. First, the numerical results show that the gradient of the guiding center density, related to the general potential vorticity, is stabilizing both linearly, by increasing the instability threshold, and nonlinearly, by activating zonal flows. Accordingly, the Reynolds stress is found to scale like LΩ-2 in the quasilinear regime, LΩ being the gradient length of the guiding center density. Second, the local temperature gradient appears to increase linearly with the curvature of the zonal flows, regardless of its sign. Such behavior agrees qualitatively with a perturbative theory. Indeed, while linear eigenmodes are localized at the maximum of the temperature gradient in the absence of zonal flows, they tend to be expelled if both exhibit a maximum at the same location. In this case, the reduction mechanism of the turbulent transport results from the ability of large zonal flow curvatures to render strong temperature gradients stable with respect to perturbations.
Westhoff, Martijn; Zehe, Erwin; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Dewals, Benjamin
2015-04-01
The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle is a conjecture assuming that a medium is organized in such a way that maximum power is subtracted from a gradient driving a flux (with power being a flux times its driving gradient). This maximum power is also known as the Carnot limit. It has already been shown that the atmosphere operates close to this Carnot limit when it comes to heat transport from the Equator to the poles, or vertically, from the surface to the atmospheric boundary layer. To reach this state close to the Carnot limit, the effective thermal conductivity of the atmosphere is adapted by the creation of convection cells (e.g. wind). The aim of this study is to test if the soil's effective hydraulic conductivity also adapts itself in such a way that it operates close to the Carnot limit. The big difference between atmosphere and soil is the way of adaptation of its resistance. The soil's hydraulic conductivity is either changed by weathering processes, which is a very slow process, or by creation of preferential flow paths. In this study the latter process is simulated in a lab experiment, where we focus on the preferential flow paths created by piping. Piping is the process of backwards erosion of sand particles subject to a large pressure gradient. Since this is a relatively fast process, it is suitable for being tested in the lab. In the lab setup a horizontal sand bed connects two reservoirs that both drain freely at a level high enough to keep the sand bed always saturated. By adding water to only one reservoir, a horizontal pressure gradient is maintained. If the flow resistance is small, a large gradient develops, leading to the effect of piping. When pipes are being formed, the effective flow resistance decreases; the flow through the sand bed increases and the pressure gradient decreases. At a certain point, the flow velocity is small enough to stop the pipes from growing any further. In this steady state, the effective flow resistance of
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
Fischer, T.; Hainzl, S.; Dahm, T.
2009-10-01
Hydraulic fracture stimulation is frequently performed in hydrocarbon reservoirs and geothermal systems to increase the permeability of the rock formation. These hydraulic fractures are often mapped by hypocentres of induced microearthquakes. In some cases microseismicity exhibits asymmetry relative to the injection well, which can be interpreted by unequal conditions for fracture growth at opposite sides of the well or by observation effects. Here we investigate the role of the lateral change of the minimum compressive stress. We use a simple model to describe the relation among the lateral stress gradient, the mean viscous pressure gradients in the fracture wings, the fracture geometry, and the net pressure in the fracture. Our model predicts a faster fracture growth in the direction of decreasing stress and a limited growth in the opposite direction. We derive a simple relationship to estimate the lateral stress gradient from the injection pressure and the shape of the seismic hypocentre cloud. The model is tested by microseismic data obtained during stimulation of a Canyon Sands gas field in West Texas. Using a maximum likelihood method we fit the parameters of the asymmetric fracture model to the space-time pattern of hypocentres. The estimated stress gradients per metre are in the range from 0.008 to 0.010 times the bottom-hole injection overpressure (8-10 kPam-1 assuming the net pressure of 1 MPa). Such large horizontal gradients in the order of the hydrostatic gradient could be caused by the inhomogeneous extraction of gas resulting in a lateral change of the effective normal stress acting normal to the fracture wall.
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Bollenbach, Tobias; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
2015-04-23
In animal embryos, morphogen gradients determine tissue patterning and morphogenesis. Shyer et al. provide evidence that, during vertebrate gut formation, tissue folding generates graded activity of signals required for subsequent steps of gut growth and differentiation, thereby revealing an intriguing link between tissue morphogenesis and morphogen gradient formation.
Fast Distributed Gradient Methods
Jakovetic, Dusan; Moura, Jose M F
2011-01-01
The paper proposes new fast distributed optimization gradient methods and proves convergence to the exact solution at rate O(\\log k/k), much faster than existing distributed optimization (sub)gradient methods with convergence O(1/\\sqrt{k}), while incurring practically no additional communication nor computation cost overhead per iteration. We achieve this for convex (with at least one strongly convex,) coercive, three times differentiable and with Lipschitz continuous first derivative (private) cost functions. Our work recovers for distributed optimization similar convergence rate gains obtained by centralized Nesterov gradient and fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) methods over ordinary centralized gradient methods. We also present a constant step size distributed fast gradient algorithm for composite non-differentiable costs. A simulation illustrates the effectiveness of our distributed methods.
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Molina, L; Elosua, R; Marrugat, J; Pons, S
1999-10-15
The relation between maximum systolic blood pressure (BP) during exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass is controversial. Physical activity also induces LV mass increase. The objective was to assess the relation between BP response to exercise and LV mass in normotensive men, taking into account physical activity practice. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three hundred eighteen healthy normotensive men, aged between 20 and 60 years, participated in this study. The Minnesota questionnaire was used to assess physical activity practice. An echocardiogram and a maximum exercise test were performed. LV mass was calculated and indexed to body surface area. LV hypertrophy was defined as a ventricular mass index > or =134 g/m2. BP was measured at the moment of maximum effort. Hypertensive response was considered when BP was > or =210 mm Hg. In the multiple linear regression model, maximum systolic BP was associated with LV mass index and correlation coefficient was 0.27 (SE 0.07). Physical activity practice and age were also associated with LV mass. An association between hypertensive response to exercise and LV hypertrophy was observed (odds ratio 3.16). Thus, BP response to exercise is associated with LV mass and men with systolic BP response > or =210 mm Hg present a 3-times higher risk of LV hypertrophy than those not reaching this limit. Physical activity practice is related to LV mass, but not to LV hypertrophy.
Laser textured surface gradients
Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.
2016-05-01
This work demonstrates a novel technique for fabricating surfaces with roughness and wettability gradients and their subsequent applications for chemical sensors. Surface roughness gradients on brass sheets are obtained directly by nanosecond laser texturing. When these structured surfaces are exposed to air, their wettability decreases with time (up to 20 days) achieving both spatial and temporal wettability gradients. The surfaces are responsive to organic solvents. Contact angles of a series of dilute isopropanol solutions decay exponentially with concentration. In particular, a fall of 132° in contact angle is observed on a surface gradient, one order of magnitude higher than the 14° observed for the unprocessed surface, when the isopropanol concentration increased from 0 to 15.6 wt%. As the wettability changes gradually over the surface, contact angle also changes correspondingly. This effect offers multi-sensitivity at different zones on the surface and is useful for accurate measurement of chemical concentration.
Sciarra, Giulio; Coussy, Olivier
2010-01-01
Second gradient theories have been developed in mechanics for treating different phenomena as capillarity in fluids, plasticity and friction in granular materials or shear band deformations. Here, there is an attempt of formulating a second gradient Biot like model for porous materials. In particular the interest is focused in describing the local dilatant behaviour of a porous material induced by pore opening elastic and capillary interaction phenomena among neighbouring pores and related micro-filtration phenomena by means of a continuum microstructured model. The main idea is to extend the classical macroscopic Biot model by including in the description second gradient effects. This is done by assuming that the surface contribution to the external work rate functional depends on the normal derivative of the velocity or equivalently assuming that the strain work rate functional depends on the porosity and strain gradients. According to classical thermodynamics suitable restrictions for stresses and second g...
Gradient induced liquid motion on laser structured black Si surfaces
Paradisanos, I.; Fotakis, C.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Stratakis, E.
2015-09-01
This letter reports on the femtosecond laser fabrication of gradient-wettability micro/nano-patterns on Si surfaces. The dynamics of directional droplet spreading on the surface tension gradients developed is systematically investigated and discussed. It is shown that microdroplets on the patterned surfaces spread at a maximum speed of 505 mm/s, which is the highest velocity demonstrated so far for liquid spreading on a surface tension gradient in ambient conditions. The application of the proposed laser patterning technique for the precise fabrication of surface tension gradients for open microfluidic systems, liquid management in fuel cells, and drug delivery is envisaged.
Gradient induced liquid motion on laser structured black Si surfaces
Paradisanos, I; Anastasiadis, S H; Stratakis, E
2015-01-01
This letter reports on the femtosecond laser fabrication of gradient-wettability micro/nano- patterns on Si surfaces. The dynamics of directional droplet spreading on the surface tension gradients developed is systematically investigated and discussed. It is shown that microdroplets on the patterned surfaces spread at a maximum speed of 505 mm/sec, that is the highest velocity demonstrated so far for liquid spreading on a surface tension gradient in ambient conditions. The application of the proposed laser patterning technique for the precise fabrication of surface tension gradients for open microfluidic systems, liquid management in fuel cells and drug delivery is envisaged.
Quantum-dot Carnot engine at maximum power.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2010-04-01
We evaluate the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum-dot Carnot heat engine. The universal values of the coefficients at the linear and quadratic order in the temperature gradient are reproduced. Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is recovered in the limit of weak dissipation.
Maria José Carvalho Carmona
2007-12-01
presión aórtica durante revascularización del miocardio (RM con CEC y su correlación con la resistencia vascular sistémica. MÉTODO: Después de la aprobación por el Comité de Ética hospitalaria, 16 pacientes sometidos a la RM con CEC hipotérmica fueron estudiados. Presiones sistólica, diastólica y media fueron obtenidas en la raíz de la aorta y en la arteria radial, a través de catéteres específicos. Débito cardíaco se obtuvo usando catéter de arteria pulmonar o directamente de la máquina de CEC y Resistencia Vascular Sistémica indexada (RVSi fue calculada en los momentos pre-CEC, inicio de la CEC, después de la última RM, al final de la CEC y pos-CEC. El análisis estadístico se realizó a través de Análisis de Variancia para medidas repetidas y correlación de orden de Spearman y el nivel de significancia se estableció en 0,05. RESULTADOS: Después del inicio de la CEC, la presión arterial radial fue sistemáticamente menor que la presión aórtica en 3 a 5 mmHg. Se observó correlación significativa entre el gradiente medio de presión aorto-radial y la RVSi solamente después de la ultima RM, correspondiendo al calentamiento del paciente (Rho = 0,67, p = 0,009. CONCLUSIONES: La medida de presión en la arterial radial subestimó sistemáticamente la presión arterial en la raíz de la aorta después de la CEC y la RVSi no suministró estimación puntual de la magnitud del gradiente de presión aorto-radial.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies have demonstrated a significant difference between the aortic and radial artery pressures in patients on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the behavior of the aorta-to-radial artery pressure gradient during myocardial revascularization (MR with CPB and its correlation with the systemic vascular resistance. METHODS: After approval by the Ethics Committee of the hospital, 16 patients undergoing MR with hypothermic CPB were studied. Systolic, diastolic and
High Gradient Accelerator Research
Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center
2016-07-12
The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.
Reduced El Niño-Southern Oscillation during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Ford, Heather L; Ravelo, A Christina; Polissar, Pratigya J
2015-01-16
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of global interannual variability, but its response to climate change is uncertain. Paleoclimate records from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) provide insight into ENSO behavior when global boundary conditions (ice sheet extent, atmospheric partial pressure of CO2) were different from those today. In this work, we reconstruct LGM temperature variability at equatorial Pacific sites using measurements of individual planktonic foraminifera shells. A deep equatorial thermocline altered the dynamics in the eastern equatorial cold tongue, resulting in reduced ENSO variability during the LGM compared to the Late Holocene. These results suggest that ENSO was not tied directly to the east-west temperature gradient, as previously suggested. Rather, the thermocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific played a decisive role in the ENSO response to LGM climate.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Sefiane, Khellil
2004-04-15
The evaporation of sessile drops at reduced pressure is investigated. The evaporation of water droplets on aluminum and PTFE surfaces at reduced pressure was compared. It was found that water droplets on an aluminum surface exhibit a 'depinning jump' at subatmospheric pressures. This is when a pinned droplet suddenly depins, with an increase in contact angle and a simultaneous decrease in the base width. The evaporation of sessile water droplets with a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) added to an aluminum surface was then studied. The initial contact angle exhibited a minimum at 0.001 wt% Triton X-100. A maximum in the evaporation rate was also observed at the same concentration. Droplets with low surfactant concentrations are found to exhibit the 'depinning jump.' It is thought that the local concentration of the surfactant causes a gradient of surface tension. The balance at the contact angle is dictated by complex phenomena, including surfactant diffusion and adsorption processes at interfaces. Due to the strong evaporation near the triple line, an accumulation of the surfactant will lead to a surface tension gradient along the interface. The gradient of surface tension will influence the wetting behavior (Marangoni effect). At low surfactant concentrations the contact line depins under the strong effect of surface tension gradient that develops spontaneously over the droplet interface due to surfactant accumulation near the triple line. The maximum evaporation rate corresponds to a minimum contact angle for a pinned droplet.
Massimo Giovannini
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Giovannini, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Section of Milan-Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy)
2015-06-30
Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Gradient systems and mechanical systems
Fengxiang Mei; Huibin Wu
2016-01-01
All types of gradient systems and their properties are discussed. Two problems connected with gradient sys-tems and mechanical systems are studied. One is the direct problem of transforming a mechanical system into a gradi-ent system, and the other is the inverse problem, which is transforming a gradient system into a mechanical system.
A universal equation for calculating the energy gradient function in the energy gradient theory
Dou, Hua-Shu
2016-01-01
The relationship for the energy variation, work done, and energy dissipation in unit volumetric fluid of incompressible flow is derived. A universal equation for calculating the energy gradient function is presented for situations where both pressure driven flow and shear driven flow are present simultaneously.
Amorós, A; J. M. Palazón; Zapater, P; E. de Madaria; Pérez-Mateo, M
2008-01-01
Objetivo: la hemorragia digestiva es una complicación frecuente en pacientes con cirrosis hepática. La tasa de recidiva tras un primer episodio oscila en torno al 60%, motivo por el cual la profilaxis está recomendada. Esta puede realizarse mediante fármacos (betabloqueantes y nitratos) combinados o no con ligadura endoscópica con bandas. El objetivo de este estudio es valorar el coste-efectividad de la medición del gradiente de presión venosa hepática (GPVH) previo a la elección de la profil...
NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TURBULENT COUNTER-GRADIENT-TRANSPORT IN ASYMMETRIC FLOW WITH A JET
QIU Xiang; GUO Hui-fen; LIU Yu-lu
2004-01-01
By using the Reynolds Stress Closure Model(RSM), turbulent Counter-Gradient-Transport (CGT) phenomenon was numerically investigated in asymmetric flow with a jet, and the computational results were compared with experimental data. The computational results show that the negative turbulent energy production only appears at some certain stations in CGT region, this fact indicates that the CGT phenomenon exists more widely than the negative turbulent energy production; while the CGT region exists all along,it gradually shrinks in the favorable pressure gradient zone until the position of the wing central part is reached, where it vanishes, but it appears in the adverse pressure gradient region; in addition, the location in the flow where uv = 0 switched sides, relative to where ()U/()y = 0, from favorable pressure gradient to adverse pressure gradient. The pressure gradient takes an important effect on the region of negative turbulent energy production and CGT.
Multistage Pressure-Retarded Osmosis
Bharadwaj, Devesh; Fyles, Thomas M.; Struchtrup, Henning
2016-10-01
One promising sustainable energy source is the chemical potential difference between salt and freshwater. The membrane process of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has been the most widely investigated means to harvest salinity gradient energy. In this report, we analyse the thermodynamic efficiency of multistage PRO systems to optimize energy recovery from a salinity gradient. We establish a unified description of the efficiencies of the component pumps (P), turbines (T), pressure exchangers (PX), and membrane modules (M) and exploit this model to determine the maximum available work with respect to the volume of the brine produced, the volume of the sea water consumed, or the volume of the freshwater that permeates the membrane. In an idealized series configuration of 1-20 modules (P-M-T), the three optimization conditions have significantly different intermediate operating pressures in the modules, but demonstrate that multistage systems can recover a significantly larger fraction of the available work compared to single-stage PRO. The biggest proportional advantage occurs for one to three modules in series. The available work depends upon the component efficiencies, but the proportional advantage of multistage PRO is retained. We also optimize one- and two-stage PX-M-T and P-M-T configurations with respect to the three volume parameters, and again significantly different optimal operating conditions are found. PX-M-T systems are more efficient than P-M-T systems, and two-stage systems have efficiency advantages that transcend assumed component efficiencies. The results indicate that overall system design with a clear focus on critical optimization parameters has the potential to significantly improve the near-term practical feasibility of PRO.
邓又斌; 王新房; 王加恩; 李治安; Takahico SHiota; David J.Sahn
1995-01-01
应用数字计算机分析彩色多普勒血流会聚区,证明计算流量与实际流量之比为1时,半球体血流会聚公式中所用速度与跨瓣压差间有明显的相关性,协方差分析示这种关系在不同瓣口间无明显差异.本研究为准确应用半球体血流会聚公式提供了一种根据临床可测踌瓣压差选择最佳Nyquist速度的方法.%By analyzing,the flow convergence region with digital computer technique,this in vitro study demonstrated that the most appropriate Nyquist velocity for applying the hemispheric flow convergence equation was correlated well with the transorifice pressure gradient when the calculated flow to actual flow rate ratio wwaS 1.Furthermore,the coveriance analysis indicated that this relation was indepenaent of orifiee size.The Present study provided us a Way to select the most Suitable Nyquist Veloeity for applying the hemispheric flow convergence equation based on the clinically measurable transorifice pressure gradient.
Dual gradient drilling - simulations during connection operations
Time, André
2014-01-01
As oilfields are ageing and depleting, operators are forced to start searching for oil in more hostile environments. These new environments can introduce new drilling challenges. Prospects like ultra deep water reservoirs and depleted offshore reservoirs are difficult to drill with conventional drilling. This has lead the industry to developing the Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) system. DGD is an unconventional drilling method and it is classified as a Managed Pressure Drilling ...
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
49 CFR 195.304 - Test pressure.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test pressure. 195.304 Section 195.304... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.304 Test pressure. The test pressure for each pressure test conducted under... continuous hours at a pressure equal to 125 percent, or more, of the maximum operating pressure and, in the...
Bigravity from gradient expansion
Yamashita, Yasuho [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Tanaka, Takahiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan)
2016-05-04
We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.
Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient
Farkas, Zoltan D
2001-11-08
This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.
On the Performance of Maximum Likelihood Inverse Reinforcement Learning
Ratia, Héctor; Martinez-Cantin, Ruben
2012-01-01
Inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) addresses the problem of recovering a task description given a demonstration of the optimal policy used to solve such a task. The optimal policy is usually provided by an expert or teacher, making IRL specially suitable for the problem of apprenticeship learning. The task description is encoded in the form of a reward function of a Markov decision process (MDP). Several algorithms have been proposed to find the reward function corresponding to a set of demonstrations. One of the algorithms that has provided best results in different applications is a gradient method to optimize a policy squared error criterion. On a parallel line of research, other authors have presented recently a gradient approximation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the reward signal. In general, both approaches approximate the gradient estimate and the criteria at different stages to make the algorithm tractable and efficient. In this work, we provide a detailed description of the different metho...
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
An Improved Double-Threshold Method Based on Gradient Histogram
YANG Shen; CHEN Shu-zhen; ZHANG Bing
2004-01-01
This paper analyzes the characteristics of the output gradient histogram and shortages of several traditional automatic threshold methods in order to segment the gradient image better. Then an improved double-threshold method is proposed, which is combined with the method of maximum classes variance, estimating-area method and double-threshold method. This method can automatically select two different thresholds to segment gradient images. The computer simulation is performed on the traditional methods and this algorithm and proves that this method can get satisfying result.
Reinforcement Learning by Value Gradients
Fairbank, Michael
2008-01-01
The concept of the value-gradient is introduced and developed in the context of reinforcement learning. It is shown that by learning the value-gradients exploration or stochastic behaviour is no longer needed to find locally optimal trajectories. This is the main motivation for using value-gradients, and it is argued that learning value-gradients is the actual objective of any value-function learning algorithm for control problems. It is also argued that learning value-gradients is significantly more efficient than learning just the values, and this argument is supported in experiments by efficiency gains of several orders of magnitude, in several problem domains. Once value-gradients are introduced into learning, several analyses become possible. For example, a surprising equivalence between a value-gradient learning algorithm and a policy-gradient learning algorithm is proven, and this provides a robust convergence proof for control problems using a value function with a general function approximator.
Huang Guo-Feng; Jia Xiao-Peng; Li Shang-Sheng; Zhang Ya-Fei; Li Yong; Zhao Ming; Ma Hong-An
2010-01-01
This paper reprots that with Ni-based catalyst/solvent and with a dopant of NaN3>, large green single crystal diamonds with perfect shape are successfully synthesized by temperature gradient method under high pressure and high temperature in a China-type cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus (SPD-6×1200), and the highest nitrogen concentration reaches approximately 1214-1257 ppm calculated by infrared absorption spectra. The synthesis conditions are about 5.5 GPa and 1240-1300℃. The growth behaviour of diamond with high-nitrogen concentration is investigated in detail. The results show that, with increasing the content of NaN3> added in synthesis system, the width of synthesis temperature region for growth high-quality diamonds becomes narrower, and the morphology of diamond crystal is changed from cube-octahedral to octahedral at same temperature and pressure, the crystal growth rate is slowed down,nevertheless, the nitrogen concentration doped in synthetic diamond increases.
陈枭
2012-01-01
MoB/CoCr gradient coatings were sprayed on 310S stainless steel using low pressure plasma spraying method) and then MoB/CoCr gradient coatings were laser remelted. The microstructure and property of MoB/CoCr coatings were studied. Results show that the surface morphology of MoB/CoCr coating is smooth and dense, cross sectional microstucture of MoB/CoCr gradient coatings consists of dentrite crystal, cystiform crystal and flat crystal from the surface to the bottom of coatings; There is convection-diffusion phenomena occurred between element of 310S stainless steel and that of coatings, Fe element appears in the coatings; Microhardness of MoB/CoCr coating increases obviously after laser remelting.%采用低压等离子喷涂技术在310S不锈钢表面制备MoB/CoCr梯度涂层,然后对MoB/CoCr涂层进行激光重熔处理,对重熔后涂层的组织结构及性能进行了研究.研究结果表明,激光重熔后,涂层表面平整致密,截面的显微组织呈树枝晶-胞状晶-平面晶过渡；激光重熔过程中,微熔的310S基体元素与熔化的涂层元素发生对流扩散现象,涂层中出现Fe元素成分；激光重熔后,MoB/CoCr层的硬度明显提高.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Gradient dynamics models for liquid films with soluble surfactant
Thiele, Uwe; Pismen, Len M
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose equations of motion for the dynamics of liquid films of surfactant suspensions that consist of a general gradient dynamics framework based on an underlying energy functional. This extends the gradient dynamics approach to dissipative non-equilibrium thin film systems with several variables, and casts their dynamic equations into a form that reproduces Onsager's reciprocity relations. We first discuss the general form of gradient dynamics models for an arbitrary number of fields and discuss simple well-known examples with one or two fields. Next, we develop the gradient dynamics (three field) model for a thin liquid film covered by soluble surfactant and discuss how it automatically results in consistent convective (driven by pressure gradients, Marangoni forces and Korteweg stresses), diffusive, adsorption/desorption, and evaporation fluxes. We then show that in the dilute limit, the model reduces to the well-known hydrodynamic form that includes Marangoni fluxes due to a linear equat...
Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density
Awad, Adel
2014-01-01
Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example w...
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C.
Vranjes, J
2015-01-01
Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...
Vranjes, J., E-mail: jvranjes@yahoo.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Kono, M., E-mail: kono@fps.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)
2015-01-15
Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES
Johnson, Rolland
2014-09-21
Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A
Generalized conjugate gradient squared
Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)
1994-12-31
In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.
Faraji, Fahim; Rajabpour, Ali
2016-09-01
In this paper we investigate the fluid transport inside a single-wall carbon nanotube induced by a temperature gradient along the tube length, focusing on the effect of fluid-wall interaction strength. It is found that the fluid moves from the hot side of the nanotube towards the cold side. By increasing the fluid-wall interaction strength, the fluid volumetric flux assumes a maximum, increases, and then decreases. Fluid transport is pressure-driven in weak interactions; in contrast, in strong interactions, the fluid is broken into two parts in the radial direction. Fluid transport in the central regions of the tube is pressure-driven, while it is surface-driven in the areas close to the wall.
Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure
Koski, Kristie Jo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2008-12-31
Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.
王学滨; 姚再兴; 潘一山
2004-01-01
The inclination angle of shear band is analyzed considering heterogeneity of rock material when a single shear band is formed in the center of specimen under triaxial compression. The analytical solution of post-peak axial stress-axial strain curve is deduced using the assumption that the total post-peak deformation is composed of entire uniform elastic deformation and localized shear plastic deformation dependent on the thickness of shear band. The obtained solution shows that the post-peak stiffness is related to the inclination angle of shear band,confining pressure,thickness of shear band and elastic modulus,etc. Using the solution,the expression for the inclination angle of shear band can be presented easily and it is dependent on constitutive parameters of rock material and geometry parameters of rock specimen. Larger dilation angle or loading rate leads to increment of the inclination angle. In addition,the inclination angle increases with the thickness of the shear band,which cannot be explained or forecasted by other existing solutions,such as Coulomb inclination,Roscoe inclination and Arthur inclination,etc.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Magnetic Field Gradient Waveform Monitoring for Magnetic Resonance
Han, Hui
Linear magnetic field gradients have played a central role in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) since Fourier Transform MRI was proposed three decades ago. Their primary function is to encode spatial information into MR signals. Magnetic field gradients are also used to sensitize the image contrast to coherent and/or incoherent motion, to selectively enhance an MR signal, and to minimize image artifacts. Modern MR imaging techniques increasingly rely on the implementation of complex gradient waveforms for the manipulation of spin dynamics. However, gradient system infidelities caused by eddy currents, gradient amplifier imperfections and group delays, often result in image artifacts and other errors (e.g., phase and intensity errors). This remains a critical problem for a wide range of MRI techniques on modern commercial systems, but is of particular concern for advanced MRI pulse sequences. Measuring the real magnetic field gradients, i.e., characterizing eddy currents, is critical to addressing and remedying this problem. Gradient measurement and eddy current calibration are therefore a general topic of importance to the science of MRI. The Magnetic Field Gradient Monitor (MFGM) idea was proposed and developed specifically to meet these challenges. The MFGM method is the heart of this thesis. MFGM methods permit a variety of magnetic field gradient problems to be investigated and systematically remedied. Eddy current effects associated with MR compatible metallic pressure vessels were analyzed, simulated, measured and corrected. The appropriate correction of eddy currents may enable most MR/MRI applications with metallic pressure vessels. Quantitative imaging (1D/2D) with model pressure vessels was successfully achieved by combining image reconstruction with MFGM determined gradient waveform behaviour. Other categories of MR applications with metallic vessels, including diffusion measurement and spin echo SPI T2 mapping, cannot be realized solely by MFGM guided
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Comparative Studies of High-Gradient Rf and Dc Breakdowns
Kovermann, Jan Wilhelm; Wuensch, Walter
2010-01-01
The CLIC project is based on normal-conducting high-gradient accelerating structures with an average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The maximum achievable gradient in these structures is limited by the breakdown phenomenon. The physics of breakdowns is not yet fully understood quantitatively. A full knowledge could have strong impact on the design, material choice and construction of rf structures. Therefore, understanding breakdowns has great importance to reaching a gradient of 100MV/m with an acceptable breakdown probability. This thesis addresses the physics underlying the breakdown effect, focusing on a comparison of breakdowns in rf structures and in a dc spark setup. The dc system is simpler, easier to benchmark against simulations, with a faster turnaround time, but the relationship to rf breakdown must be established. To do so, an experimental approach based on optical diagnostics and electrical measurements methods was made. Following an introduction into the CLIC project, a general theoretical ...
陈嘉; 李拥军; 杨文萍
2009-01-01
Objective To study the effects of carbon disulfide exposure within the national maximum allowable concentration(MAC) on blood pressure and electrocardiogram, and associations with selected factors. Methods Workers in a chemical fiber factory were divided into two groups based on the type of work: a high exposure group (HEG) of 821 individuals and a low exposure group (LEG) of 259. The CS_2 concentration at workplace was controlled under the national MAC. A set of 250 randomly selected people taking routine phys-ical check-ups in the same period and hospital constituted the control group. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic hlood pressure (DBP) were measured on the arm, and the pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) were calculated based on SBP and DBP. The blood pressure data, along with the results of the routine 12-lead electrocardiography taken at rest and records on gender, age, years of work, type of work, and concentrations of triglycerol, cholesterol, and glucose in blood, were compiled for analyses. Risk factors upon CS_2 exposure for the increase of blood pressure and occurrence of electrocardiogram abnor-malities were identified and rationalized. Results Significant difference (P<0.01) in the average values of SBP, DBP, MABP, and the corresponding abnormality incident rates was found between HEG and LEG, and between HEG and the control group. For both HEG and LEG, the incident rate of DBP abnormality(high DBP) is nearly two times as high as that of SBP. Type of work is the largest risk factor in both the high SBP and high DBP subgroups, with odds ratios (OR) of 2.086 and 2.331 respectively, and high CS_2 exposure presents more than double the risk than low exposure. On the incident rate of ECG abnormalities, beth exposure groups are significantly different (P<0.01) to the control group. High SBP in LEG and high DBP in HEG were found to be significant risk factors (OR = 3.531 and 1.638 respectively), while blood glucose
Fast Forward Maximum entropy reconstruction of sparsely sampled data.
Balsgart, Nicholas M; Vosegaard, Thomas
2012-10-01
We present an analytical algorithm using fast Fourier transformations (FTs) for deriving the gradient needed as part of the iterative reconstruction of sparsely sampled datasets using the forward maximum entropy reconstruction (FM) procedure by Hyberts and Wagner [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 5108]. The major drawback of the original algorithm is that it required one FT and one evaluation of the entropy per missing datapoint to establish the gradient. In the present study, we demonstrate that the entire gradient may be obtained using only two FT's and one evaluation of the entropy derivative, thus achieving impressive time savings compared to the original procedure. An example: A 2D dataset with sparse sampling of the indirect dimension, with sampling of only 75 out of 512 complex points (15% sampling) would lack (512-75)×2=874 points per ν(2) slice. The original FM algorithm would require 874 FT's and entropy function evaluations to setup the gradient, while the present algorithm is ∼450 times faster in this case, since it requires only two FT's. This allows reduction of the computational time from several hours to less than a minute. Even more impressive time savings may be achieved with 2D reconstructions of 3D datasets, where the original algorithm required days of CPU time on high-performance computing clusters only require few minutes of calculation on regular laptop computers with the new algorithm.
An efficient approximation algorithm for finding a maximum clique using Hopfield network learning.
Wang, Rong Long; Tang, Zheng; Cao, Qi Ping
2003-07-01
In this article, we present a solution to the maximum clique problem using a gradient-ascent learning algorithm of the Hopfield neural network. This method provides a near-optimum parallel algorithm for finding a maximum clique. To do this, we use the Hopfield neural network to generate a near-maximum clique and then modify weights in a gradient-ascent direction to allow the network to escape from the state of near-maximum clique to maximum clique or better. The proposed parallel algorithm is tested on two types of random graphs and some benchmark graphs from the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DIMACS). The simulation results show that the proposed learning algorithm can find good solutions in reasonable computation time.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
Gradient chromatography under constant frictional heat: realization and application.
Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges
2013-05-10
A new mode of gradient elution in liquid chromatography is proposed. It is derived from simple theoretical considerations and is particularly suitable for applications to fast, very-high pressure gradients. It is designed to improve the injection-to-injection repeatability of chromatographic runs at either constant flow (cF, cooling case scenario) or constant pressure (cP, heating case scenario). The purpose of this original gradient mode is to minimize the variations of the temperatures and the pressures across and along the column during the gradient time. These variations are caused by the heat generated in the column due to the friction of the eluent percolating the bed. Any temperature fluctuation affects to some extent the precision of the measurements of retention times and bandwidths of eluted compounds. The minimization of this effect was achieved by maintaining constant the frictional heat power (i.e., the product of the flow rate by the column pressure drop) generated during the gradient run, the washing step, and the re-equilibration time. The eluent temperature was recorded at the column outlet. One useful application of gradient chromatography at constant frictional heat (cFH) is illustrated for a 50-100% volume gradient of acetonitrile in water using a 4.6mm × 150 mm column packed with 3.5 μm BEH-C18 particles and operated with an Agilent 1290 Infinity liquid chromatograph. The reproducibility (eleven consecutive injections) of the retention times and peak variances of nine small molecules (RPLC check-out sample mixture) using cF, cP, and cFH gradients were compared for the same amount of heat produced (403 J) during each run time. The RSDs of the retention times and the peak variances for four consecutive injections were systematically below 0.035 and 0.50% in constant frictional heat gradient chromatography, after three initial injections. These RSDs were markedly higher for cF (0.050 and 0.90%) and cP (0.070 and 1.80%) gradients. Copyright
Sobolev gradients and differential equations
Neuberger, J W
2010-01-01
A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...
Maximum Entropy Production and Non-Gaussian Climate Variability
Sura, Philip
2016-01-01
Earth's atmosphere is in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, the large scale equator-to-pole temperature gradient is maintained by tropical heating, polar cooling, and a midlatitude meridional eddy heat flux predominantly driven by baroclinically unstable weather systems. Based on basic thermodynamic principles, it can be shown that the meridional heat flux, in combination with the meridional temperature gradient, acts to maximize entropy production of the atmosphere. In fact, maximum entropy production (MEP) has been successfully used to explain the observed mean state of the atmosphere and other components of the climate system. However, one important feature of the large scale atmospheric circulation is its often non-Gaussian variability about the mean. This paper presents theoretical and observational evidence that some processes in the midlatitude atmosphere are significantly non-Gaussian to maximize entropy production. First, after introducing the basic theory, it is shown that the ...
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Boiroux, Dimitri; Juhl, Rune; Madsen, Henrik;
2016-01-01
This paper addresses maximum likelihood parameter estimation of continuous-time nonlinear systems with discrete-time measurements. We derive an efficient algorithm for the computation of the log-likelihood function and its gradient, which can be used in gradient-based optimization algorithms...
Boiroux, Dimitri; Juhl, Rune; Madsen, Henrik
2016-01-01
. This algorithm uses UD decomposition of symmetric matrices and the array algorithm for covariance update and gradient computation. We test our algorithm on the Lotka-Volterra equations. Compared to the maximum likelihood estimation based on finite difference gradient computation, we get a significant speedup...
Laise Chaves de Oliveira
2012-12-01
analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and was attributed a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: the following findings were produced bythe study: 78.53 ± 22.53 cmH2O for PIpeak and 72.95 ± 21.22 cmH2O and 86.25 ± 21.8 cmH2O for PIsust and PEsust respectively. The values obtained throughpeak respiratory pressures (PIpeak and PEpeak were significantly higher than the measurements obtained for sustained respiratory pressures (PIsust and PEsustregardless of gender or age assessment (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: the use of measures in assessing peak maximum respiratory pressure, more easily obtained in clinical practice, may undermine the real measurements of respiratory muscle strength in children between 7 and 11 years of age.
Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds
Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)
1984-01-01
A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.
Statistical analysis of Fe abundances gradients in the Galaxy
崔辰州; 赵刚; 赵永恒; 施建荣
2001-01-01
Using the high precision data of the proper motions and parallaxes from Hipparcos catalogue, we obtained the orbital parameters of 1302 stars in the Galaxy based on the mass distribution model provided by Allen and Santillán. Fe abundances of 1295 stars among our samples were analyzed. With the correlation analyses between ［Fe/H］ and orbital parameters, we obtained that the Fe gradient is -0.057±0.007 dex/kpc along the direction of the maximum galactocentric distance (hereafter DGmax) in the range of 8.5 kpc＜DGmax＜17 kpc. We also got the result that the vertical gradient is steeper than the radial gradient. Furthermore, we divided the samples into two subgroups: giants and dwarfs; F, G and K stars; and then analyzed them respectively. Our results show that the gradient becomes flatter and flatter from giants to dwarfs, from F type to G and K type stars. We also divided the samples into disk and halo stars using maximum vertical distance Zmax=1 kpc as the criterion and got the result that the abundances of the disk stars are much higher than that of the halo stars. Our work suggests the existence of the galactic gradient and supports those chemical evolution medels which show that the halo was formed before the disk at the early stage of the Galaxy.
Maximum estimates for generalized Forchheimer flows in heterogeneous porous media
Celik, Emine; Hoang, Luan
2017-02-01
This article continues the study in [4] of generalized Forchheimer flows in heterogeneous porous media. Such flows are used to account for deviations from Darcy's law. In heterogeneous media, the derived nonlinear partial differential equation for the pressure can be singular and degenerate in the spatial variables, in addition to being degenerate for large pressure gradient. Here we obtain the estimates for the L∞-norms of the pressure and its time derivative in terms of the initial and the time-dependent boundary data. They are established by implementing De Giorgi-Moser's iteration in the context of weighted norms with the weights specifically defined by the Forchheimer equation's coefficient functions. With these weights, we prove suitable weighted parabolic Poincaré-Sobolev inequalities and use them to facilitate the iteration. Moreover, local in time L∞-bounds are combined with uniform Gronwall-type energy inequalities to obtain long-time L∞-estimates.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Maximum Likelihood Localization of Radiation Sources with unknown Source Intensity
Baidoo-Williams, Henry E
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider a novel and robust maximum likelihood approach to localizing radiation sources with unknown statistics of the source signal strength. The result utilizes the smallest number of sensors required theoretically to localize the source. It is shown, that should the source lie in the open convex hull of the sensors, precisely $N+1$ are required in $\\mathbb{R}^N, ~N \\in \\{1,\\cdots,3\\}$. It is further shown that the region of interest, the open convex hull of the sensors, is entirely devoid of false stationary points. An augmented gradient ascent algorithm with random projections should an estimate escape the convex hull is presented.
Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force
Todić Jelena T.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.
Adaptive Parallel Tempering for Stochastic Maximum Likelihood Learning of RBMs
Desjardins, Guillaume; Bengio, Yoshua
2010-01-01
Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM) have attracted a lot of attention of late, as one the principle building blocks of deep networks. Training RBMs remains problematic however, because of the intractibility of their partition function. The maximum likelihood gradient requires a very robust sampler which can accurately sample from the model despite the loss of ergodicity often incurred during learning. While using Parallel Tempering in the negative phase of Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML-PT) helps address the issue, it imposes a trade-off between computational complexity and high ergodicity, and requires careful hand-tuning of the temperatures. In this paper, we show that this trade-off is unnecessary. The choice of optimal temperatures can be automated by minimizing average return time (a concept first proposed by [Katzgraber et al., 2006]) while chains can be spawned dynamically, as needed, thus minimizing the computational overhead. We show on a synthetic dataset, that this results in better likelihood ...
Optimal Control of Polymer Flooding Based on Maximum Principle
Yang Lei
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Polymer flooding is one of the most important technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. In this paper, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems (DPSs for polymer injection strategies is established, which involves the performance index as maximum of the profit, the governing equations as the fluid flow equations of polymer flooding, and the inequality constraint as the polymer concentration limitation. To cope with the optimal control problem (OCP of this DPS, the necessary conditions for optimality are obtained through application of the calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s weak maximum principle. A gradient method is proposed for the computation of optimal injection strategies. The numerical results of an example illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Sobolev gradients and differential equations
Neuberger, John William
1997-01-01
A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional is a gradient of that functional taken relative to the underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. Equal emphasis is placed on numerical and theoretical matters. Several concrete applications are made to illustrate the method. These applications include (1) Ginzburg-Landau functionals of superconductivity, (2) problems of transonic flow in which type depends locally on nonlinearities, and (3) minimal surface problems. Sobolev gradient constructions rely on a study of orthogonal projections onto graphs of closed densely defined linear transformations from one Hilbert space to another. These developments use work of Weyl, von Neumann and Beurling.
Conjugate Gradient with Subspace Optimization
Karimi, Sahar
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a variant of the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in which we invoke a subspace minimization subproblem on each iteration. We call this algorithm CGSO for "conjugate gradient with subspace optimization". It is related to earlier work by Nemirovsky and Yudin. We apply the algorithm to solve unconstrained strictly convex problems. As with other CG algorithms, the update step on each iteration is a linear combination of the last gradient and last update. Unlike some other conjugate gradient methods, our algorithm attains a theoretical complexity bound of $O(\\sqrt{L/l} \\log(1/\\epsilon))$, where the ratio $L/l$ characterizes the strong convexity of the objective function. In practice, CGSO competes with other CG-type algorithms by incorporating some second order information in each iteration.
Flame Propagation Through Concentration Gradient
JunyaIINO; MitsuakiTANABE; 等
2000-01-01
The experiment was carried out in homogeneous propane-air mixture and in several concentration gradient of mixture.Igniter is put on the upper side of the combustion chamber,In concentration gradient experiment.ixture was ignited from lean side.An experimental study was conducted in a combustion chamber.The combustion chamber has glass windows for optical measurements at any side.For the measurement of distribution of fuel concentration,infraed absorption method using 3.39μm He-Ne laser was used,and for the observation of proagating flams,Schlieren method was employed.As a measurment result of flame propagation velocity and flammable limit,for a mixture of an identical local equivalence ratio.flame propagation velocity in concentration gradient is faster than that in homogeneous mixture,and rich flammable limit in concentration gradient shows a tendency to be higher than that in homogeneous mixture.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
Long pendulums in gravitational gradients
Suits, B H [Physics Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)
2006-03-01
Previous results for long pendulums above a spherical Earth are generalized for arbitrary non-uniform gravitational fields in the limit of small oscillation. As is the case for the previous results, gravitational gradients are multiplied by the length of the string even though the string is assumed massless. The effect is shown to arise from the constraint on the motion imposed by the string. The significance of these results for real gradients is discussed. (letters and comments)
Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe
2016-09-07
An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm(2)) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS.
Mantle transition zone shear velocity gradients beneath USArray
Schmandt, Brandon
2012-11-01
Broadband P-to-s scattering isolated by teleseismic receiver function analysis is used to investigate shear velocity (VS) gradients in the mantle transition zone beneath USArray. Receiver functions from 2244 stations were filtered in multiple frequency bands and migrated to depth through P and S tomography models. The depth-migrated receiver functions were stacked along their local 410 and 660 km discontinuity depths to reduce stack incoherence and more accurately recover the frequency-dependent amplitudes of P410s and P660s. The stacked waveforms were inverted for one-dimensional VS between 320 and 840 km depth. First, a gradient-based inversion was used to find a least-squares solution and a subsequent Monte Carlo search about that solution constrained the range of VS profiles that provide an acceptable fit to the receiver function stacks. Relative to standard references models, all the acceptable models have diminished VS gradients surrounding the 410, a local VS gradient maximum at 490-500 km depth, and an enhanced VS gradient above the 660. The total 410 VS increase of 6.3% is greater than in reference models, and it occurs over a thickness of 20 km. However, 60% of this VS increase occurs over only 6 km. The 20 km total thickness of the 410 and diminished VS gradients surrounding the 410 are potential indications of high water content in the regional transition zone. An enhanced VS gradient overlying the 660 likely results from remnants of subduction lingering at the base of the transition zone. Cool temperatures from slabs subducted since the late Cretaceous and longer-term accumulation of former ocean crust both may contribute to the high gradient above the 660. The shallow depth of the 520 km discontinuity, 490-500 km, implies that the regional mean temperature in the transition zone is 110-160 K cooler than the global mean. A concentrated Vs gradient maximum centered near 660 km depth and a low VS gradient below 675 km confirms that the ringwoodite to
Photoelectric and passivation properties of atomic layer deposited gradient AZO thin film
Zhao, Bin; Tang, Li-dan; Wang, Bing; Jia, Yi; Feng, Jia-heng
2017-02-01
Gradient Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited at 150 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with different Al concentration gradient, and their photoelectric and passivation properties were investigated. With increasing Al concentration gradient from 0.09 to 1.21%/nm, Hall-effect showed that the resistivity of gradient AZO thin films deteriorates. The minimal resistivity (2.81 × 10-3 Ω cm), the maximum mobility (9.03 cm2/Vs) and the maximum carrier concentration (2.46 × 1020 cm-3) were obtained at 0.09%/nm Al concentration gradient. The average transmittance of all the gradient AZO films can be more than 85% in the visible region. In addition, gradient AZO thin films demonstrated excellent passivation properties. The maximum minority carrier lifetime (120.6 μs) and the minimal surface recombination velocity (≤208.3 cm/s) were obtained at 0.71%/nm Al concentration gradient.
Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials
Xigeng Miao
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.
Coastal Trapped Waves, Alongshore Pressure Gradients, and the California Undercurrent
2014-01-01
D. NM W. J. Teague. C. N. Bairon. M. R. Carnes . and C. M. Lee. 2002: The Modular Ocean Dala Assimilation System (MODAS). J. Annoy Oieanic Tniwol...waves by irreimlarilies in coastline and topouraphy. J. llns. ()i»m<w.. 20." 396 421. Willmott. C J.. 1981: On the validation of models. Ph \\s. Gnffr
Volume Integral of the Pressure Gradient and Archimedes' Principle
Pickett, Galen T
2014-01-01
The theorems of vector analysis (divergence theorem, etc.) are typically first applied in the undergraduate physics curriculum in the context of the electromagnetic field and the differential forms of Maxwell's equations. However, these tools are analyzed in depth several courses later in the junior-senior level. I discuss here a "bridge" problem, using the language of vector calculus in a mechanics setting to understand Archimedes' principle as a consequence of hydrostatic equilibrium and the superposition of the external forces. It is my hope that this treatment will help students better integrate and understand understand these and similar vector analysis results in contexts beyond electromagnetism.
Volume Integral of the Pressure Gradient and Archimedes' Principle
Pickett, Galen T.
2014-01-01
The theorems of vector analysis (divergence theorem, etc.) are typically first applied in the undergraduate physics curriculum in the context of the electromagnetic field and the differential forms of Maxwell's equations. However, these tools are analyzed in depth several courses later in the junior-senior level. I discuss here a "bridge" problem, using the language of vector calculus in a mechanics setting to understand Archimedes' principle as a consequence of hydrostatic equilibrium and th...
Mean sea surface and geoid gradient comparisons with TOPEX altimeter data
Rapp, Richard H.; Yi, Yuchan; Wang, Yan Ming
1994-01-01
Cycles 4 to 54 of TOPEX data have been analyzed through comparisons with the mean sea surface given on the disturbed geophysical data record (GDR). Two inverted barometer correction procedures were considered for the data reduction. One used a constant atmospheric pressure for all data while the one adopted for use, for most computations, introduced a cycle average pressure. The maximum difference between the two estimates was 3.0 cm with a clear annual signal. With the modified correction the TOPEX sea surface was compared to The Ohio State University (OSU) mean sea surface, given on the GDR, to estimate three translations ( delta x = -2.3 cm; delta y = 25.0 cm; delta z = -0.3 cm) and a bias (43.3 cm) between the two surfaces. The only significant translation is delta y which indicates the reference frame of the TOPEX system differs from that used in the OSU mean sea surface system. The bias between the TOPEX mean sea surface and the OSU mean sea surface was used to estimate an equatorial radius of 6,378,136.55 m based on an 18-cm biased estimate of the TOPEX altimeter. Examination of the average difference, by cycle, between the TOPEX sea surface and the OSU mean sea surface suggested a bias change of 3.1 +/- 2.2 mm/yr with a positive sign indicating the average ocean surface is rising or the altimeter measured distance is decreasing. Models were implemented that solved directly for a bias, bias rate annual/semiannual, and tide correction terms. The computations indicated that a simultaneous solution for this bias, bias rate, and annual/semiannual terms gave the most accurate results. Nonsimultaneous solutions led to slightly different bias rate values. The root mean square difference between the TOPEX sea surface and OSU sea surface, after translation and bias correction, was +/- 17 cm for a typical cycle. Some locations were indentified where the difference could reach 2.3 cm and were repeated over several cycles indicating errors in the mean sea surface. Most
Gravity gradient for Greenland and its tectonic interpretation
Grushinsky, Andrew N.
2013-04-01
, evidently, was the Nares strait. To the south-west of the Nares strait observed axis of gravity gradient maximum, which lengthened along the shore of islands of Canadian Arctic Archipelago and proper Canada. It marked the narrow lengthy compression zone, arised, probably, from the character of the considering rift zone (its incomplete disclosure), which was not allowed free shifting of Canada and Canadian Arctic Archipelago from Greenland. 2. The fading of the west rift began after disclosure of the rift zone of northern part of the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Meanwhile arising east rift zone lead to the changing of the Greenland moving direction, that, probably, offer to origin compression zones in all coastal zone of Greenland, lead to orogeny. At the same time the central part of the Greenland plate was not compressed and remained weakly strained. Now the central part of Greenland was subjected to small extension, caused by glaciation. 3. The Mid-Atlantic ridge is exhibited in the gravity gradients much weaker than the west rift zone. The linear structure (axis of the gravity gradient minimum) was not observed, but then the changing and character of the gravity gradient on the different side of the rift are different. Region to the west of the rift characterized by the negative gravity gradient, while region to the east of the rift, gravity gradient are positive. One from the possible explanations of such picture can be the different petrological composition of these blocks with the different mechanical and reological features. 4. Region northeasterly of the central part of the Greenland shore have a complex enough picture of the changing compression and expansion zones, and Svalbard Archipelago from west and south bordered by zone of weaken rock.
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
Ultrafast Drop Movements Arising from Curvature Gradient
Lv, Cunjing; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Zheng, Quanshui
2011-01-01
We report experimental observation of a kind of fast spontaneous movements of water drops on surfaces of cones with diameters from 0.1 to 1.5 mm. The observed maximum speed (0.22 m/s) under ambient conditions were at least two orders of magnitude higher than that resulting from any known single spontaneous movement mechanism, for example, Marangoni effect due to gradient of surface tension. We trapped even higher spontaneous movement speeds (up to 125 m/s) in virtual experiments for drops on nanoscale cones by using molecular dynamics simulations. The underlying mechanism is found to be universally effective - drops on any surface either hydrophilic or hydrophobic with varying mean curvature are subject to driving forces toward the gradient direction of the mean curvature. The larger the mean curvature of the surface and the lower the contact angle of the liquid are, the stronger the driving force will be. This discovery can lead to more effective techniques for transporting droplets.
Dropwise Condensation on a Radial Gradient Surface
Macner, Ashley; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul
2013-11-01
In transient dropwise condensation from steam onto a cool surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. This study examines how surface functionalization affects drop growth and coalescence. Surfaces are treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact-angle (hydrophilic, neutral, and hydrophobic) or a radial gradient of contact-angles. The time evolution of number-density and associated drop-size distributions are reported. For a typical condensation experiment on a uniform angle surface, the number-density curves show two regimes: an initial increase in number-density as a result of nucleation and a subsequent decrease in number-density as a result of larger scale coalescence events. Without a removal mechanism, the fractional coverage, regardless of treatment, approaches unity. For the same angle-surface, the associated drop-size distributions progress through four different shapes along the growth curve. In contrast, for a radial gradient surface where removal by sweeping occurs, the number-density increases and then levels off to a value close to the maximum number-density that is well below unity coverage and only two shapes of distributions are observed. Implications for heat transfer will be discussed. This work was supported by a NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship.
Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N
2011-03-01
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.
Acoustic beam control in biomimetic projector via velocity gradient
Gao, Xiaowei; Dong, Erqian; Song, Zhongchang [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhang, Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: dzk@psu.edu; Tang, Liguo [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Cao, Wenwu, E-mail: yuzhang@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: dzk@psu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Li, Songhai [Sanya Key Laboratory of Marin Mammal and Marine Bioacoustics, Sanya Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Sanya 57200 (China); Zhang, Sai [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)
2016-07-04
A biomimetic projector (BioP) based on computerized tomography of pygmy sperm whale's biosonar system has been designed using gradient-index (GRIN) material. The directivity of this BioP device was investigated as function of frequency and the velocity gradient of the GRIN material. A strong beam control over a broad bandwidth at the subwavelength scale has been achieved. Compared with a bare subwavelength source, the main lobe pressure of the BioP is about five times as high and the angular resolution is one order of magnitude better. Our results indicate that this BioP has excellent application potential in miniaturized underwater sonars.
Superfast maximum-likelihood reconstruction for quantum tomography
Shang, Jiangwei; Zhang, Zhengyun; Ng, Hui Khoon
2017-06-01
Conventional methods for computing maximum-likelihood estimators (MLE) often converge slowly in practical situations, leading to a search for simplifying methods that rely on additional assumptions for their validity. In this work, we provide a fast and reliable algorithm for maximum-likelihood reconstruction that avoids this slow convergence. Our method utilizes the state-of-the-art convex optimization scheme, an accelerated projected-gradient method, that allows one to accommodate the quantum nature of the problem in a different way than in the standard methods. We demonstrate the power of our approach by comparing its performance with other algorithms for n -qubit state tomography. In particular, an eight-qubit situation that purportedly took weeks of computation time in 2005 can now be completed in under a minute for a single set of data, with far higher accuracy than previously possible. This refutes the common claim that MLE reconstruction is slow and reduces the need for alternative methods that often come with difficult-to-verify assumptions. In fact, recent methods assuming Gaussian statistics or relying on compressed sensing ideas are demonstrably inapplicable for the situation under consideration here. Our algorithm can be applied to general optimization problems over the quantum state space; the philosophy of projected gradients can further be utilized for optimization contexts with general constraints.
Carmélia Bomfim Jacó Rocha
2010-03-01
before and after the HD session. RESULTS: Both PImax and PEmax were lower than the values predicted for pre- and post-HD (p < 0.0001. Comparing the values obtained pre-HD and post- HD, PImax showed a slight improvement (p = 0.0420, evidenced only in patients with pre-HD values below 60 cmH2O (Wilcoxon; p = 0.0480. Post-HD PEmax did not differ from the pre-HD measure (p = 0.4987. CONCLUSION: The CKD patients showed a serious impairment of their respiratory muscle function, and only one isolated HD session could not significantly improve their maximum respiratory pressures. A slight improvement in the inspiratory strength was observed in patients whose PImax was lower than 60 cm-H2O before the procedure.
Causon, Tim J; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A; Haddad, Paul R
2010-07-30
A gradient kinetic plot method is used for theoretical characterisation of the performance of polymeric particulate anion exchange columns for gradient separations of small inorganic anions. The method employed requires only information obtained from a series of isocratic column performance measurements and in silico predictions of retention time and peak width under gradient conditions. Results obtained under practically constrained conditions provide parameters for the generation of high peak capacities and rapid peak production for fast analysis to be determined. Using this prediction method, a maximum theoretical peak capacity of 84 could be used to achieve separation of 26 components using a 120min gradient (R(s)>1). This approach provides a highly convenient tool for development of both mono- and multidimensional ion chromatography (IC) methodologies as it yields comprehensive understanding of the influence of gradient slope, analysis time, column length and temperature upon kinetically optimised gradient performance.
Effects of hydraulic pressure on the performance of single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.
Cheng, Shaoan; Liu, Weifeng; Guo, Jian; Sun, Dan; Pan, Bin; Ye, Yaoli; Ding, Weijun; Huang, Haobin; Li, Fujian
2014-06-15
Scaling up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) without losing power density requires a thorough understanding of the effect of hydraulic pressure on MFC performance. In this work, the performance of an activated carbon air-cathode MFC was evaluated under different hydraulic pressures. The MFC under 100 mmH2O hydraulic pressure produced a maximum power density of 1260 ± 24 mW m(-2), while the power density decreased by 24.4% and 44.7% as the hydraulic pressure increased to 500 mmH2O and 2000 mmH2O, respectively. Notably, the performance of both the anode and the cathode had decreased under high hydraulic pressures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of the cathode indicated that both charge transfer resistance and diffusion transfer resistance increased with the increase in hydraulic pressure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the similarity among anodic biofilm communities under different hydraulic pressures was ≥ 90%, and the communities of all MFCs were dominated by Geobacter sp. These results suggested that the reduction in power output of the single chamber air-cathode MFC under high hydraulic pressures can be attributed to water flooding of the cathode and suppression the metabolism of anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria.
Verstraeten, M; Broeckhoven, K; Lynen, F; Choikhet, K; Landt, K; Dittmann, M; Witt, K; Sandra, P; Desmet, G
2013-01-25
The present contribution investigates the quantitation aspects of mass-sensitive detectors with nebulizing interface (ESI-MSD, ELSD, CAD) in the constant pressure gradient elution mode. In this operation mode, the pressure is controlled and maintained at a set value and the liquid flow rate will vary according to the inverse mobile phase viscosity. As the pressure is continuously kept at the allowable maximum during the entire gradient run, the average liquid flow rate is higher compared to that in the conventional constant flow rate operation mode, thus shortening the analysis time. The following three mass-sensitive detectors were investigated: mass spectrometry detector (MS), evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and charged aerosol detector (CAD) and a wide variety of samples (phenones, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, wine, cocoa butter) has been considered. It was found that the nebulizing efficiency of the LC-interfaces of the three detectors under consideration changes with the increasing liquid flow rate. For the MS, the increasing flow rate leads to a lower peak area whereas for the ELSD the peak area increases compared to the constant flow rate mode. The peak area obtained with a CAD is rather insensitive to the liquid flow rate. The reproducibility of the peak area remains similar in both modes, although variation in system permeability compromises the 'long-term' reproducibility. This problem can however be overcome by running a flow rate program with an optimized flow rate and composition profile obtained from the constant pressure mode. In this case, the quantification remains reproducibile, despite any occuring variations of the system permeability. Furthermore, the same fragmentation pattern (MS) has been found in the constant pressure mode compared to the customary constant flow rate mode.
Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Spaliński, Michał
2016-12-01
We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes.
Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Spaliński, Michał
2016-01-01
We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes.
EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL INCLUDING A QUADRATIC GRADIENT TERM
曹绪龙; 同登科; 王瑞和
2004-01-01
The models of the nonlinear radial flow for the infinite and finite reservoirs including a quadratic gradient term were presented. The exact solution was given in real space for flow equation including quadratic gradiet term for both constant-rate and constant pressure production cases in an infinite system by using generalized Weber transform. Analytical solutions for flow equation including quadratic gradient term were also obtained by using the Hankel transform for a finite circular reservoir case. Both closed and constant pressure outer boundary conditions are considered. Moreover, both constant rate and constant pressure inner boundary conditions are considered. The difference between the nonlinear pressure solution and linear pressure solution is analyzed. The difference may be reached about 8% in the long time. The effect of the quadratic gradient term in the large time well test is considered.
Bond Growth under Temperature Gradient.
P.K. Satyawali
1999-12-01
Full Text Available Grain and bond growth for dry snow are determined by the distribution of temperature andtemperature gradient in the snow matrix. From the standpoint of particle approach and based oncubic packing structure, a bond growth model has been developed for TG metamorphism. The paper.highlights the importance of bond formation and its effect on snow viscosity and finally on the rateof settlement. This is very important for developing a numerical snow pack model if microstructureis considered to be a basic parameter. A few experiments have been carried out to validate bond formation under temperature gradient.
Avoiding vacuum arcs in high gradient normal conducting RF structures
Sjøbæk, Kyrre Ness; Adli, Erik; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter
In order to build the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), accelerating structures reaching extremely high accelerating gradients are needed. Such structures have been built and tested using normal-conducting copper, powered by X-band RF power and reaching gradients of 100 MV/m and above. One phenomenon that must be avoided in order to reliably reach such gradients, is vacuum arcs or “breakdowns”. This can be accomplished by carefully designing the structure geometry such that high surface fields and large local power flows are avoided. The research presented in this thesis presents a method for optimizing the geometry of accelerating structures so that these breakdowns are made less likely, allowing the structure to operate reliably at high gradients. This was done primarily based on a phenomenological scaling model, which predicted the maximum gradient as a function of the break down rate, pulse length, and field distribution in the structure. The model is written in such a way that it allows direct comparis...
Variation of hydraulic gradient in nonlinear finite strain consolidation
谢新宇; 黄杰卿; 王文军; 李金柱
2014-01-01
In the research field of ground water, hydraulic gradient is studied for decades. In the consolidation field, hydraulic gradient is yet to be investigated as an important hydraulic variable. So, the variation of hydraulic gradient in nonlinear finite strain consolidation was focused on in this work. Based on lab tests, the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of Ningbo soft clay were obtained. Then, a strongly nonlinear governing equation was derived and it was solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the numerical analysis was performed and it was verified with the existing experiment for Hong Kong marine clay. It can be found that the variation of hydraulic gradient is closely related to the magnitude of external load and the depth in soils. It is interesting that the absolute value of hydraulic gradient (AVHG) increases rapidly first and then decreases gradually after reaching the maximum at different depths of soils. Furthermore, the changing curves of AVHG can be roughly divided into five phases. This five-phase model can be employed to study the migration of pore water during consolidation.
Modeling Yeast Cell Polarization Induced by Pheromone Gradients
Yi, Tau-Mu; Chen, Shanqin; Chou, Ching-Shan; Nie, Qing
2007-07-01
Yeast cells respond to spatial gradients of mating pheromones by polarizing and projecting up the gradient toward the source. It is thought that they employ a spatial sensing mechanism in which the cell compares the concentration of pheromone at different points on the cell surface and determines the maximum point, where the projection forms. Here we constructed the first spatial mathematical model of the yeast pheromone response that describes the dynamics of the heterotrimeric and Cdc42p G-protein cycles, which are linked in a cascade. Two key performance objectives of this system are (1) amplification—converting a shallow external gradient of ligand to a steep internal gradient of protein components and (2) tracking—following changes in gradient direction. We used simulations to investigate amplification mechanisms that allow tracking. We identified specific strategies for regulating the spatial dynamics of the protein components (i.e. their changing location in the cell) that would enable the cell to achieve both objectives.
Human impact gradient on mammalian biodiversity
Mariana Munguía
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Drastic changes have been caused by human influence in natural landscapes, which may exert an intensive effect on species loss. However, species loss from human pressure is not random but depends on a series of environmentally associated factors. Linking species traits to environmental attributes may allow us to detect the ecological impacts of habitat so that meaningful habitat degradation gradients can be identified. The relationships between environmental factors and species traits provide the basis for identifying those biological traits that make species more sensitive to disturbance. These relationships are also helpful to detect the geographic distribution of latent risk to reveal areas where biodiversity is threatened. Here, we identify a “Human Impact Gradient for Biodiversity (HIGB” based on a three-table ordination method (RLQ analysis and fourth-corner analysis to identify key species traits that are associated with environmental gradient. Species distribution and environmental geographic data were gathered nationwide to analyze 68 localities, which represent 27% of Mexico’s surface, including 211 species of mammals. Nine environmental variables (including biophysical, geophysical and land-use impacts were analyzed by using the Geographic Information System. Three types of species’ traits were evaluated: locomotion, trophic habit and body size. We identified a human impact gradient, which was mainly determined by the percentage of the area that was covered by seedlings, the plant richness, the understory coverage percentage and the human settlement index. The most important species traits that are associated with non-human-impacted sites were carnivores, frugivores–herbivores and a body size that was greater than 17.8 kg; 25 species were selected by the decision criteria framework for species that were sensitive to degradation based on ecological function information. Conversely, granivores, fossorial and semifossorial
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
The geomagnetic field gradient tensor
Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils
2012-01-01
We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independe...... of the small-scale structure of the Earth’s lithospheric field....
Surface gradients under electrochemical control
Krabbenborg, Sven Olle
2014-01-01
Gradients are systems in which the physicochemical properties of a solution and/or surface change gradually in space and/or time. They are used for a myriad of technological and biological applications, for example for high-throughput screening, or for the investigation of biological systems. The de
Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes
Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin
2002-01-01
In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...
GOCE level 2 gravity gradients
Bouman, J.; Fiorot, S.; Fuchs, M.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Tscherning, C.C.; Veicherts, M.; Visser, P.N.A.M.
2011-01-01
Two of the GOCE Level 2 products are the gravity gradients (GGs) in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and the GGs in the Local North-Oriented Frame (LNOF). The GRF is an instrument frame and the GGs are derived from the L1b GGs. The L1b to L2 GG processing involves corrections for temporal gravi
Reinforcement Learning Through Gradient Descent
1999-05-14
Reinforcement learning is often done using parameterized function approximators to store value functions. Algorithms are typically developed for...practice of existing types of algorithms, the gradient descent approach makes it possible to create entirely new classes of reinforcement learning algorithms
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient
Xiao Guo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1 the flow with the threshold gradient would not occur instantaneously throughout the whole unit cell. Rather, it gradually occurs from the vertical drain to the outside; (2 the moving boundary would never reach the outer radius of influence if R+1
Shaping and timing gradient pulses to reduce MRI acoustic noise.
Segbers, Marcel; Rizzo Sierra, Carlos V; Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Hoogduin, Johannes M
2010-08-01
A method to reduce the acoustic noise generated by gradient systems in MRI has been recently proposed; such a method is based on the linear response theory. Since the physical cause of MRI acoustic noise is the time derivative of the gradient current, a common trapezoid current shape produces an acoustic gradient coil response mainly during the rising and falling edge. In the falling edge, the coil acoustic response presents a 180 degrees phase difference compared to the rising edge. Therefore, by varying the width of the trapezoid and keeping the ramps constant, it is possible to suppress one selected frequency and its higher harmonics. This value is matched to one of the prominent resonance frequencies of the gradient coil system. The idea of cancelling a single frequency is extended to a second frequency, using two successive trapezoid-shaped pulses presented at a selected interval. Overall sound pressure level reduction of 6 and 10 dB is found for the two trapezoid shapes and a single pulse shape, respectively. The acoustically optimized pulse shape proposed is additionally tested in a simulated echo planar imaging readout train, obtaining a sound pressure level reduction of 12 dB for the best case.
Experimental investigation and calibration of surface pressure modeling for trailing edge noise
Bertagnolio, Franck
2011-01-01
The modeling of the surface pressure spectrum under a turbulent boundary layer is investigated in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient along the flow direction. It is shown that discrepancies between measurements and results from a well-known model increase as the pressure gradient...... increases. This model is modified by introducing anisotropy in the definition of the vertical velocity component spectrum across the boundary layer. The degree of anisotropy is directly related to the strength of the pressure gradient. It is shown that by appropriately normalizing the pressure gradient...... and by tuning the anisotropy factor, experimental results can be closely reproduced by the modified model....
Gradient B drift transport of high current electron beams
Lee, J.R.; Backstrom, R.C.; Halbleib, J.A.; Quintenz, J.P.; Wright, T.P.
1984-12-01
A 1-MeV, 200-kA electron beam was transported 89 cm in a low pressure background gas via gradient B drift in the 1/r azimuthal magnetic field of a current carrying wire. The electron drift velocity was measured and found to be in good agreement with theory. Measurements of x-ray production in the target indicated high transport efficiency.
Moving-Temperature-Gradient Heat-Pipe Furnace Element
Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Gernert, Nelson J.
1993-01-01
In improved apparatus, ampoule of material directionally solidified mounted in central hole of annular heat pipe, at suitable axial position between heated and cooled ends. Heated end held in fixed position in single-element furnace; other end left in ambient air or else actively cooled. Gradient of temperature made to move along heat pipe by changing pressure of noncondensable gas. In comparison with prior crystal-growing apparatuses, this one simpler, smaller, and more efficient.
Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement
Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl
1992-01-01
Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...
Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments
Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.
1998-01-01
Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
Cheng, Zhen Lei
2016-01-08
This study reports outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes with extremely low reverse salt fluxes and robustness for harvesting salinity-gradient energy from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Almost defect-free polyamide layers with impressive low salt permeabilities were synthesized on top of robust polyethersulfone porous supports. The newly developed TFC-II membrane shows a maximum power density of 7.81 W m−2 using 1 M NaCl and DI water as feeds at 20 bar. Reproducible data obtained in the 2nd and 3rd runs confirm its stability under high hydraulic pressure differences. Comparing to other PRO membranes reported in the literature, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest slope between water flux decline and ΔPΔP increase but also the lowest ratio of reverse salt flux to water flux. Thus, the effective osmotic driving force could be well maintained even under high pressure operations. For the first time, the effect of feed pressure buildup induced by feed flowrate was evaluated towards PRO performance. A slight increment in feed pressure buildup was found to be beneficial to water flux and power density up to 10.06 W m−2 without comprising the reverse salt flux. We believe this study may open up new perspectives on outer-selective PRO hollow fiber membranes and provide useful insights to understand and design next-generation outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients
Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey
2016-11-01
Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.
Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.
2011-01-01
A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...... element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles. Some plane deformation problems relevant for certain specific orientations of a face centered cubic crystal under plane loading conditions are studied, and effective in......-plane parameters are developed based on the crystallographic properties of the material. The problem of cyclic shear of a single crystal between rigid platens is studied as well as void growth of a cylindrical void....
Penalized maximum likelihood estimation for generalized linear point processes
Hansen, Niels Richard
2010-01-01
A generalized linear point process is specified in terms of an intensity that depends upon a linear predictor process through a fixed non-linear function. We present a framework where the linear predictor is parametrized by a Banach space and give results on Gateaux differentiability of the log-likelihood....... Of particular interest is when the intensity is expressed in terms of a linear filter parametrized by a Sobolev space. Using that the Sobolev spaces are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we derive results on the representation of the penalized maximum likelihood estimator in a special case and the gradient...... of the negative log-likelihood in general. The latter is used to develop a descent algorithm in the Sobolev space. We conclude the paper by extensions to multivariate and additive model specifications. The methods are implemented in the R-package ppstat....
The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A
2017-01-01
The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.
The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum
Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A.
2017-01-01
The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted. PMID:28138544
Opposing environmental gradients govern vegetation zonation in an intermountain playa
Sanderson, J.S.; Kotliar, N.B.; Steingraeber, D.A.
2008-01-01
Vegetation zonation was investigated at an intermountain playa wetland (Mishak Lakes) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of southern Colorado. Plant composition and abiotic conditions were quantified in six vegetation zones. Reciprocal transplants were performed to test the importance of abiotic factors in governing zonation. Abiotic conditions differed among several vegetation zones. Prolonged inundation led to anaerobic soils in the Eleocharis palustris and the submerged aquatics zones, on the low end of the site's 1.25 m elevation gradient. On the high end of the gradient, soil salinity and sodicity (a measure of exchangeable sodium) were high in the Distichlis spicata zone (electrical conductivity, EC = 5.3 dS/m, sodium absorption ratio, SAR = 44.0) and extreme in the Sarcobatus vermiculatus zone (EC = 21 dS/m, SAR = 274). Transplanted species produced maximum biomass in the zone where they originated, not in any other higher or lower vegetation zone. The greatest overall transplant effect occurred for E. palustris, which experienced a ??? 77% decline in productivity when transplanted to other zones. This study provides evidence that physical factors are a major determinant of vegetation zone composition and distribution across the entire elevation gradient at Mishak Lakes. Patterns at Mishak Lakes arise from counter-directional stress gradients: a gradient from anaerobic to well-oxygenated from basin bottom to upland and a gradient from extremely high salinity to low salinity in the opposing direction. Because abiotic conditions dominate vegetation zonation, restoration of the altered hydrologic regime of this wetland to a natural hydrologic regime may be sufficient to re-establish many of the natural biodiversity functions provided by these wetlands. ?? 2008 The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Biomimetic Gradient Index (GRIN) Lenses
2006-01-01
optics include single lenses inspired by cephalopod (octopus) eyes and a three-lens, wide field of view, optical system for a surveillance sensor...camera. Details are easily resolv- able with the polymer lens. This lens system was installed on an Evolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a...lens system was installed in an NRL Evolution UAV and used to record video images at a height of up to 1000 ft. The index gradients in the polymer
Multilayer coating for high gradients
Kubo, Takayuki
2016-01-01
The multilayer coating for high gradients is reviewed. Not only the S-I-S structure, but also the S-S bilayer structure are also treated. This is an incomplete manuscript of an invited article which will be submitted to a journal. I have uploaded this version in order to help the understanding on my talk at the TESLA Technology Collaboration meeting at Saclay, France.
Future of gradient index optics
Hashizume, Hideki; Hamanaka, Kenjiro; Graham, Alan C., III; Zhu, X. Frank
2001-11-01
First developed over 30 years ago, gradient index lenses play an important role not only in telecommunications technology, but also in applications such as information interface and biomedical technology. Traditional manufacturing consists of doping a certain ion, A+ into the mother glass, drawing the glass into rods and then immersing the rods into s molten salt bath containing another certain ion B+. During a thermal ion exchange process, the original ion migrates out of the mother glass, and is replaced by the alternate ion, creating a refractive index variation. Current research is being conducted to improve the thermal ion exchange technology, and open new applications. This research includes extending working distances to greater than 100mm, decreasing the lens diameter, increasing the effective radius, and combining the technology with other technologies such as photolithographically etched masks to produce arrays of gradient index lenses. As a result of this ongoing research, the gradient index lens is expected to continue to be the enabling optical technology in the first decade of the new millennium and beyond.
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo; Rezaei, Zahra
2012-02-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the ΛCDM paradigm, the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the order of 10-37 G over the typical comoving scales ranging between 1 and 10 Mpc. While the obtained results seem to be irrelevant for seeding a reasonable galactic dynamo action, they demonstrate how the proposed fully inhomogeneous treatment can be used for the systematic scrutiny of pre-decoupling plasmas beyond the conventional perturbative expansions.
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo
2012-01-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...
Peculiarities of heat transfer to a turbulent flow of liquid under supercritical pressure
Kafengauz, N.L.
1967-03-21
The modern theory of thermal exchange is based on the hypothesis that the state of a fluid heat-carrier always remains in a thermodynamic equilibrium, and all the thermo- physical properties can be determined according to the corresponding tales if temperature and pressure are known. In the critical region, the substances acquire certain peculiar features, thus making the applicability of this hypothesis doubtful. This problem was studied experimentally at supercritical pressures when tDfU
Quadrupole gradient coil design and optimization: a printed circuit board approach.
Chu, K; Rutt, B K
1994-06-01
Three different dual-axis quadrupole gradient coils for quantitative high resolution MR imaging of small animals, phantoms and specimens were designed and built using printed circuit board technology. Numerical optimization of the conductor positions was used to increase the volume of 0.4% gradient uniformity by up to a factor of four. In one coil, the volume of 5% gradient uniformity occupied 88% and 83% of the overall diameter and length of the coil, respectively. A systematic error of 0.5% in the wire placement was shown to cause a reduction in the volume of 0.4% gradient uniformity by a factor of two, though the region of 5% gradient uniformity was not significantly affected. Heat transfer calculations were used to determine maximum peak and root-mean-squared currents that could safely be applied to the coils.
Analysis of Pressure Rise in a Closed Container Due to Internal Arcing
Peng Li
2017-03-01
Full Text Available When an arc fault occurs in a medium-voltage (MV metal enclosed switchgear, the arc heats the filling gas, resulting in a pressure rise, which may seriously damage the switchgear, the building it is contained in, or even endanger maintenance personnel. A pressure rise calculation method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD has been put forward in this paper. The pressure rise was calculated and the arc tests between the copper electrodes were performed in the container under different gap lengths by the current source. The results show that the calculated pressure rise agrees well with the measurement, and the relative error of the average pressure rise is about 2%. Arc volume has less effect on the pressure distribution in the container. Arc voltage Root-Mean-Square (RMS has significant randomness with the change of arc current, and increases with the increase of gap length. The average arc voltage gradients measure at about 26, 20 and 16 V/cm when the gap lengths are 5, 10 and 15 cm, respectively. The proportion (thermal transfer coefficient kp of the arc energy leading to the pressure rise in the container is about 44.9%. The pressure is symmetrically distributed in the container before the pressure wave reaches the walls and the process of the energy release is similar to an explosion. The maximum overpressure in the corner is increased under the reflection and superimposition effects of the pressure wave, but the pressure waves will be of no importance any longer than a few milliseconds in the closed container.
Salinity Gradients for Sustainable Energy: Primer, Progress, and Prospects.
Yip, Ngai Yin; Brogioli, Doriano; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Nijmeijer, Kitty
2016-11-15
Combining two solutions of different composition releases the Gibbs free energy of mixing. By using engineered processes to control the mixing, chemical energy stored in salinity gradients can be harnessed for useful work. In this critical review, we present an overview of the current progress in salinity gradient power generation, discuss the prospects and challenges of the foremost technologies - pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix) and provide perspectives on the outlook of salinity gradient power generation. Momentous strides have been made in technical development of salinity gradient technologies and field demonstrations with natural and anthropogenic salinity gradients (for example, seawater-river water and desalination brine-wastewater, respectively), but fouling persists to be a pivotal operational challenge that can significantly ebb away cost-competitiveness. Natural hypersaline sources (e.g., hypersaline lakes and salt domes) can achieve greater concentration difference and, thus, offer opportunities to overcome some of the limitations inherent to seawater-river water. Technological advances needed to fully exploit the larger salinity gradients are identified. While seawater desalination brine is a seemingly attractive high salinity anthropogenic stream that is otherwise wasted, actual feasibility hinges on the appropriate pairing with a suitable low salinity stream. Engineered solutions are foulant-free and can be thermally regenerative for application in low-temperature heat utilization. Alternatively, PRO, RED, and CapMix can be coupled with their analog separation process (reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and capacitive deionization, respectively) in salinity gradient flow batteries for energy storage in chemical potential of the engineered solutions. Rigorous techno-economic assessments can more clearly identify the prospects of low-grade heat conversion and large-scale energy storage
Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk in Canadian children and adolescents
Y. Shi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its risk factors show clear socioeconomic gradients in Canadian adults. Whether socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk emerge in childhood remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are socioeconomic gradients in physiological markers of CVD risk in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Using combined cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007–2011, we examined the following cardiovascular risk markers: overweight (including obesity, aerobic fitness score (AFS, blood pressure (BP, blood lipids (total as well as HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP by sex in 2149 children (ages 6–11 years and 2073 adolescents (ages 12–17 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify patterns in cardiovascular risk across strata of household income adequacy and parental educational attainment, adjusting for age and ethnicity, and stratified by age group and sex. Results: Young boys showed markedly higher prevalence of obesity than young girls (prevalence of 18.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.6–21.5 vs. 7.7%, 95% CI: 5.2–10.3. However, negative SES gradients in adiposity risk were seen in young and adolescent girls rather than boys. Young and adolescent boys were more physically fit than girls (mean AFS of 541, 95% CI: 534–546 vs. 501, 95% CI: 498–505 in children; 522, 95% CI: 514–529 vs. 460, 95% CI: 454–466 in adolescents; p < .001. Although a positive income gradient in AFS was observed in both boys and girls, statistical significance was reached only in girls (p = .006. A negative gradient of parental education in BP was observed in young children. While we observed substantial sex differences in systolic BP, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and CRP in adolescents, sex-specific socioeconomic gradients were only observed for
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
A Gradient-Based Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys
Tabesh, Majid; Boyd, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris
2017-06-01
Constitutive models are necessary to design shape memory alloy (SMA) components at nano- and micro-scales in NEMS and MEMS. The behavior of small-scale SMA structures deviates from that of the bulk material. Unfortunately, this response cannot be modeled using conventional constitutive models which lack an intrinsic length scale. At small scales, size effects are often observed along with large gradients in the stress or strain. Therefore, a gradient-based thermodynamically consistent constitutive framework is established. Generalized surface and body forces are assumed to contribute to the free energy as work conjugates to the martensite volume fraction, transformation strain tensor, and their spatial gradients. The rates of evolution of these variables are obtained by invoking the principal of maximum dissipation after assuming a transformation surface, which is a differential equation in space. This approach is compared to the theories that use a configurational force (microforce) balance law. The developed constitutive model includes energetic and dissipative length scales that can be calibrated experimentally. Boundary value problems, including pure bending of SMA beams and simple torsion of SMA cylindrical bars, are solved to demonstrate the capabilities of this model. These problems contain the differential equation for the transformation surface as well as the equilibrium equation and are solved analytically and numerically. The simplest version of the model, containing only the additional gradient of martensite volume fraction, predicts a response with greater transformation hardening for smaller structures.
Investigation, design, and integration of insert gradient coils in magnetic resonance imaging
Feldman, Rebecca E.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging utilizes the magnetic gradients of the system to de-phase protons undergoing diffusion with respect to the overall magnetization. Areas of the image with reduced signal when compared to an un-weighted image represent where protons have undergone diffusion. The stronger the gradient applied during diffusion-weighting, the larger the signal loss due to diffusion, and the larger the b-value differentiating the diffusion coefficients. However, the maximum gradient strength during image acquisition is limited by both the original strength of the signal and peripheral nerve stimulation. Nerve stimulation is induced because the changing magnetic fields of the gradient pulse sequence induce electric fields that cause stimulation. The stimulation threshold can be measured either in terms of the pulse sequence parameters of maximum gradient strength and slew rate, or in terms of the induced electric field and the duration of the electric field pulse. A finite-difference simulation was used to approximate the electric field induced inside a visible man model. The effect of varying the size, resolution, and position of the model inside the simulation was investigated with the wire pattern from a customized head/neck gradient coil. For accurate simulations, it was most important to ensure that the resolution of the model was sufficient to capture the air cavities of the sinus and trachea. The peripheral nerve stimulation thresholds of a planar gradient coil were determined from human experiments. While the electrical stimulation threshold parameters did not vary significantly from previous studies, the minimum gradient change and slew rate required to cause stimulation were significantly higher for the planar gradient than for reported thresholds of cylindrically designed gradient systems. Several non-cylindrical localized gradient designs were investigated for diffusion-weighted contrast as a fourth gradient, in addition to the
Cai, Ninghao; Xu, Xin; Song, Lili; Bai, Lina; Ming, Jie; Wang, Yuan
2014-02-01
This work studies the impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind (VSGW) in the free atmosphere on the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL). A new TCBL model is established, which relies on fiveforce balance including the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force, centrifugal force, turbulent friction, and inertial deviation force. This model is then employed to idealize tropical cyclones (TCs) produced by DeMaria's model, under different VSGW conditions (non-VSGW, positive VSGW, negative VSGW, and VSGW increase/decrease along the radial direction). The results show that the free-atmosphere VSGW is particularly important to the intensity of TC. For negative VSGW, the total horizontal velocity in the TCBL is somewhat suppressed. However, with the maximum radial inflow displaced upward and outward, the radial velocity notably intensifies. Consequently, the convergence is enhanced throughout the TCBL, giving rise to a stronger vertical pumping at the TCBL top. In contrast, for positive VSGW, the radial inflow is significantly suppressed, even with divergent outflow in the middle-upper TCBL. For varying VSGW along the radial direction, the results indicate that the sign and value of VSGW is more important than its radial distribution, and the negative VSGW induces stronger convergence and Ekman pumping in the TCBL, which favors the formation and intensification of TC.
CAI Ninghao; XU Xin; SONG Lili; BAI Lina; MING Jie; WANG Yuan
2014-01-01
This work studies the impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind (VSGW) in the free atmosphere on the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL). A new TCBL model is established, which relies on fi ve-force balance including the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force, centrifugal force, turbulent friction, and inertial deviation force. This model is then employed to idealize tropical cyclones (TCs) produced by DeMaria’s model, under diff erent VSGW conditions (non-VSGW, positive VSGW, negative VSGW, and VSGW increase/decrease along the radial direction). The results show that the free-atmosphere VSGW is particularly important to the intensity of TC. For negative VSGW, the total horizontal velocity in the TCBL is somewhat suppressed. However, with the maximum radial infl ow displaced upward and outward, the radial velocity notably intensifi es. Consequently, the convergence is enhanced throughout the TCBL, giving rise to a stronger vertical pumping at the TCBL top. In contrast, for positive VSGW, the radial infl ow is signifi cantly suppressed, even with divergent outfl ow in the middle-upper TCBL. For varying VSGW along the radial direction, the results indicate that the sign and value of VSGW is more important than its radial distribution, and the negative VSGW induces stronger convergence and Ekman pumping in the TCBL, which favors the formation and intensifi cation of TC.
On the structure of gradient Yamabe solitons
Cao, Huai-Dong; Zhang, Yingying
2011-01-01
We show that every complete nontrivial gradient Yamabe soliton admits a special global warped product structure with a one-dimensional base. Based on this, we prove a general classification theorem for complete nontrivial locally conformally flat gradient Yamabe solitons.
Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients
Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.
2013-01-01
Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients. There...
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
F. Grigoletto
2014-01-01
The objective of the internship is to study the macrophytes distribution and assemblages on Lacanau lake along a gradient of hydrodynamics, including waves. It is also to characterize this gradient at different spatial scales near the coastal areas. The first method of measuring the gradient of hydrodynamics is based on field data acquired using hydrostatic pressure sensor made for exploratory purposes in 2013. This method is used for observations on a small scale (a few square meters). The r...
Gradient Flow Convolutive Blind Source Separation
Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Nielsen, Chinton Møller
2004-01-01
Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use of a circ......Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use...
An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both?
Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T
2016-04-01
There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health.
Probabilistic maximum-value wind prediction for offshore environments
Staid, Andrea; Pinson, Pierre; Guikema, Seth D.
2015-01-01
, and probabilistic forecasts result in greater value to the end-user. The models outperform traditional baseline forecast methods and achieve low predictive errors on the order of 1–2 m s−1. We show the results of their predictive accuracy for different lead times and different training methodologies....... statistical models to predict the full distribution of the maximum-value wind speeds in a 3 h interval. We take a detailed look at the performance of linear models, generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines models using meteorological covariates such as gust speed, wind speed......, convective available potential energy, Charnock, mean sea-level pressure and temperature, as given by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecasts. The models are trained to predict the mean value of maximum wind speed, and the residuals from training the models are used to develop...
Nonlinear cross Gramians and gradient systems
Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.
2007-01-01
We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain
40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...
Ion-temperature-gradient modes in stellarator geometry
Rafiq, T.; Anderson, J.; Nadeem, M.; Persson, M. [Department of Electromagnetics and Euratom/VR Association, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)
2001-10-01
The ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-driven drift mode is studied in three-dimensional stellarator geometry using a two-fluid reactive model in the electrostatic limit. The model includes first-order FLR effect in the presence of parallel ion dynamics and using the Boltzmann distribution for the electrons. The resulting eigenvalue is solved numerically using the ballooning mode theory. The results are contrasted with the corresponding tokamak results with positive shear. In stellarators, the level of the maximum growth rate of the ITG mode is found to be smaller and the threshold ({eta}{sub i}{approx_equal}2.2) is somewhat higher. The effects of small and large temperature ratios and density gradients are found to be stabilizing on electrostatic ITG modes in stellarators. (author)
Effect of Regrown Graphite on the Growth of Large Gem Diamonds by Temperature Gradient Method
ZANG Chuan-Yi; JIA Xiao-Peng; MA Hong-An; TIAN Yu; XIAO Hong-Yu
2005-01-01
@@ Generally, when growing high-quality large gem diamond crystals by temperature gradient method under high pressure and high temperature, the crystal growth rate is only determined by the temperature gradient. However,we find that the seed crystal cannot completely absorb all the diffused carbon sources, when growing gem diamonds under a higher temperature gradient. Other influence factors appear, and the growth rate of growing diamonds is partly dependent on the crystalline form of superfluous unabsorbed carbon source, flaky regrown graphite or small diamond crystals nucleated spontaneously. The present form is determined by the growth temperature if the pressure isfixed. Different from spontaneous diamond nuclei, the appearance of regrown graphite in the diamondstable region can retard the growth rate of gem diamonds substantially, even if the temperature gradient keeps unchanged. On the other hand, the formation mechanism of metastable regrown graphite in the diamond-stable region is also explained.
New results on equatorial thermospheric winds and the midnight temperature maximum
Meriwether, J.; Faivre, M.; Fesen, C. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sherwood, P. [Interactive Technology, Waban, MA (United States); Veliz, O. [Inst. Geofisica del Peru, Lima (Peru). Radio Observatorio de Jicamarca
2008-07-01
Optical observations of thermospheric winds and temperatures determined with high resolution measurements of Doppler shifts and Doppler widths of the OI 630-nm equatorial nightglow emission have been made with improved accuracy at Arequipa, Peru (16.4 S, 71.4 W) with an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. An observing procedure previously used at Arecibo Observatory was applied to achieve increased spatial and temporal sampling of the thermospheric wind and temperature with the selection of eight azimuthal directions, equally spaced from 0 to 360 , at a zenith angle of 60 . By assuming the equivalence of longitude and local time, the data obtained using this technique is analyzed to determine the mean neutral wind speeds and mean horizontal gradients of the wind field in the zonal and meridional directions. The new temperature measurements obtained with the improved instrumental accuracy clearly show the midnight temperature maximum (MTM) peak with amplitudes of 25 to 200 K in all directions observed for most nights. The horizontal wind field maps calculated from the mean winds and gradients show the MTM peak is always preceded by an equatorward wind surge lasting 1-2 h. The results also show for winter events a meridional wind abatement seen after the MTM peak. On one occasion, near the September equinox, a reversal was observed during the poleward transit of the MTM over Arequipa. Analysis inferring vertical winds from the observed convergence yielded inconsistent results, calling into question the validity of this calculation for the MTM structure at equatorial latitudes during solar minimum. Comparison of the observations with the predictions of the NCAR general circulation model indicates that the model fails to reproduce the observed amplitude by a factor of 5 or more. This is attributed in part to the lack of adequate spatial resolution in the model as the MTM phenomenon takes place within a scale of 300-500 km and {proportional_to}45 min in local time. The
Stringy bounces and gradient instabilities
Giovannini, Massimo
2017-01-01
Bouncing solutions are obtained from a generally covariant action characterized by a potential which is a nonlocal functional of the dilaton field at two separated space-time points. Gradient instabilities are shown to arise in this context but they are argued to be nongeneric. After performing a gauge-invariant and frame-invariant derivation of the evolution equations of the fluctuations, a heuristic criterium for the avoidance of pathological instabilities is proposed and corroborated by a number of explicit examples that turn out to be compatible with a quasi-flat spectrum of curvature inhomogeneities for typical wavelengths larger than the Hubble radius.
Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters
D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch
2003-11-24
Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons.
Distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum
Latasa, Mikel
2016-11-01
The fine vertical distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) was studied in the NE Atlantic during summer stratification. A simple but unconventional sampling strategy allowed examining the vertical structure with ca. 2 m resolution. The distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, chlorophytes, pelagophytes, small prymnesiophytes, coccolithophores, diatoms, and dinoflagellates was investigated with a combination of pigment-markers, flow cytometry and optical and FISH microscopy. All groups presented minimum abundances at the surface and a maximum in the DCM layer. The cell distribution was not vertically symmetrical around the DCM peak and cells tended to accumulate in the upper part of the DCM layer. The more symmetrical distribution of chlorophyll than cells around the DCM peak was due to the increase of pigment per cell with depth. We found a vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups within the DCM layer indicating preferences for different ecological niches in a layer with strong gradients of light and nutrients. Prochlorococcus occupied the shallowest and diatoms the deepest layers. Dinoflagellates, Synechococcus and small prymnesiophytes preferred shallow DCM layers, and coccolithophores, chlorophytes and pelagophytes showed a preference for deep layers. Cell size within groups changed with depth in a pattern related to their mean size: the cell volume of the smallest group increased the most with depth while the cell volume of the largest group decreased the most. The vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups confirms that the DCM is not a homogeneous entity and indicates groups’ preferences for different ecological niches within this layer.
On the thermal gradient in the Earth's deep interior
M. Tirone
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Temperature variations in large portions of the mantle are mainly controlled by the reversible and irreversible transformation of mechanical energy related to pressure and viscous forces into internal energy along with diffusion of heat and chemical reactions. The simplest approach to determine the temperature gradient is to assume that the dynamic process involved is adiabatic and reversible, which means that entropy remains constant in the system. However heat conduction and viscous dissipation during dynamic processes effectively create entropy. The adiabatic and non-adiabatic temperature variation under the influence of a constant or varying gravitational field are discussed in this study from the perspective of the Joule–Thomson (JT throttling system in relation to the transport equation for change of entropy. The JT model describes a dynamic irreversible process in which entropy in the system increases but enthalpy remains constant (at least in an equipotential gravitational field. A comparison is made between the thermal gradient from the JT model and the thermal gradient from two models, a mantle convection and a plume geodynamic model coupled with thermodynamics including a complete description of the entropy variation. The results show that the difference is relatively small and suggests that thermal structure of the asthenospheric mantle can be well approximated by an isenthalpic model when the formulation includes the effect of the gravitational field. For non-dynamic or parameterized mantle dynamic studies the JT formulation provides a better description of the thermal gradient than the classic isentropic formulation.
Mechanisms of FGF gradient formation during embryogenesis.
Balasubramanian, Revathi; Zhang, Xin
2016-05-01
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have long been attributed to influence morphogenesis in embryonic development. Signaling by FGF morphogen encodes positional identity of tissues by creating a concentration gradient over the developing embryo. Various mechanisms that influence the development of such gradient have been elucidated in the recent past. These mechanisms of FGF gradient formation present either as an extracellular control over FGF ligand diffusion or as a subcellular control of FGF propagation and signaling. In this review, we describe our current understanding of FGF as a morphogen, the extracellular control of FGF gradient formation by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and mechanisms of intracellular regulation of FGF signaling that influence gradient formation.
Fenner, Marsha W; Kunin, Victor; Raes, Jeroen; Harris, J. Kirk; Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Mering, Christian von; Bebout, Brad M.; Pace, Norman R.; Bork, Peer; Hugenholtz, Philip
2008-04-30
To investigate the extent of genetic stratification in structured microbial communities, we compared the metagenomes of 10 successive layers of a phylogenetically complex hypersaline mat from Guerrero Negro, Mexico. We found pronounced millimeter-scale genetic gradients that are consistent with the physicochemical profile of the mat. Despite these gradients, all layers displayed near identical and acid-shifted isoelectric point profiles due to a molecular convergence of amino acid usage indicating that hypersalinity enforces an overriding selective pressure on the mat community.
46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves: (a) The maximum capacity of an installed cargo...
NIF optics phase gradient specfication
Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.
1997-05-02
A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of {approximately}80 {angstrom}/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS&T personnel.
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
Reddy, Madhuri
2011-01-01
Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents...
Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area
Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.
2011-12-01
The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation
Hao Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.
Gupta, N. K.; Mehra, R. K.
1974-01-01
This paper discusses numerical aspects of computing maximum likelihood estimates for linear dynamical systems in state-vector form. Different gradient-based nonlinear programming methods are discussed in a unified framework and their applicability to maximum likelihood estimation is examined. The problems due to singular Hessian or singular information matrix that are common in practice are discussed in detail and methods for their solution are proposed. New results on the calculation of state sensitivity functions via reduced order models are given. Several methods for speeding convergence and reducing computation time are also discussed.
Monfre, Jill M.
2011-01-01
Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.
Quick, Christopher M; Venugopal, Arun M; Dongaonkar, Ranjeet M; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H
2008-05-01
To return lymph to the great veins of the neck, it must be actively pumped against a pressure gradient. Mean lymph flow in a portion of a lymphatic network has been characterized by an empirical relationship (P(in) - P(out) = -P(p) + R(L)Q(L)), where P(in) - P(out) is the axial pressure gradient and Q(L) is mean lymph flow. R(L) and P(p) are empirical parameters characterizing the effective lymphatic resistance and pump pressure, respectively. The relation of these global empirical parameters to the properties of lymphangions, the segments of a lymphatic vessel bounded by valves, has been problematic. Lymphangions have a structure like blood vessels but cyclically contract like cardiac ventricles; they are characterized by a contraction frequency (f) and the slopes of the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship [minimum value of resulting elastance (E(min))] and end-systolic pressure-volume relationship [maximum value of resulting elastance (E(max))]. Poiseuille's law provides a first-order approximation relating the pressure-flow relationship to the fundamental properties of a blood vessel. No analogous formula exists for a pumping lymphangion. We therefore derived an algebraic formula predicting lymphangion flow from fundamental physical principles and known lymphangion properties. Quantitative analysis revealed that lymph inertia and resistance to lymph flow are negligible and that lymphangions act like a series of interconnected ventricles. For a single lymphangion, P(p) = P(in) (E(max) - E(min))/E(min) and R(L) = E(max)/f. The formula was tested against a validated, realistic mathematical model of a lymphangion and found to be accurate. Predicted flows were within the range of flows measured in vitro. The present work therefore provides a general solution that makes it possible to relate fundamental lymphangion properties to lymphatic system function.
Intrinsic parallel rotation drive by electromagnetic ion temperature gradient turbulence
Peng, Shuitao; Wang, Lu; Pan, Yuan
2017-03-01
The quasilinear intrinsic parallel flow drive including parallel residual stress, kinetic stress, cross Maxwell stress and parallel turbulent acceleration by electromagnetic ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence is calculated analytically using electromagnetic gyrokinetic theory. Both the kinetic stress and cross Maxwell stress also enter the mean parallel flow velocity equation via their divergence, as for the usual residual stress. The turbulent acceleration driven by ion pressure gradient along the total magnetic field (including equilibrium magnetic field and fluctuating radial magnetic field) cannot be written as a divergence of stress, and so should be treated as a local source/sink. All these terms can provide intrinsic parallel rotation drive. Electromagnetic effects reduce the non-resonant electrostatic stress force and even reverse it, but enhance the resonant stress force. Both the non-resonant and resonant turbulent acceleration terms are also enhanced by electromagnetic effects. The possible implications of our results for experimental observations are discussed.
Intrinsic parallel rotation drive by electromagnetic ion temperature gradient turbulence
Peng, Shuitao; Pan, Yuan
2016-01-01
The quasilinear intrinsic parallel flow drive including parallel residual stress, kinetic stress, cross Maxwell stress and parallel turbulent acceleration by electromagnetic ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence is calculated analytically using electromagnetic gyrokinetic theory. Both the kinetic stress and cross Maxwell stress also enter the mean parallel flow velocity equation via their divergence, as for the usual residual stress. The turbulent acceleration driven by ion pressure gradient along the total magnetic field (including equilibrium magnetic field and fluctuating radial magnetic field) cannot be written as a divergence of stress, and so should be treated as a local source/sink. All these terms can provide intrinsic parallel rotation drive. Electromagnetic effects reduce the non-resonant electrostatic stress force and even reverse it, but enhance the resonant stress force. Both the non-resonant and resonant turbulent acceleration terms are also enhanced by electromagnetic effects. The possible ...
Thermal-gradient-induced non-mass-dependent isotope fractionation.
Sun, Tao; Bao, Huiming
2011-03-30
Isotope fractionation resulting from gas diffusion along a thermal gradient has always been considered entirely mass-dependent. A previous report, however, showed that non-mass-dependent (17)O anomalies can be generated simply by subjecting O(2) gas in an enclosure to a thermal gradient. To explore the underlying mechanism for the anomalies, we tested the effect of gas pressure, duration of experiment, and geometry of the apparatus on the (17)O anomalies for O(2) as well as on the (33)S or (36)S anomalies for SF(6) gas. The results are consistent with our proposal that a previously ignored nuclear spin effect on gas diffusion coefficient may be largely responsible for generating the observed anomalies. This discovery provides clues to some of the puzzling non-mass-dependent isotope signatures encountered in experiments and in nature, including the triple oxygen or quadruple sulfur isotope heterogeneity in the solar system. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Leg intravenous pressure during head-up tilt.
Groothuis, J.T.; Poelkens, F.; Wouters, C.W.; Kooijman, M.; Hopman, M.T.E.
2008-01-01
Leg vascular resistance is calculated as the arterial-venous pressure gradient divided by blood flow. During orthostatic challenges it is assumed that the hydrostatic pressure contributes equally to leg arterial, as well as to leg venous pressure. Because of venous valves, one may question whether,
Dependence of maximum concentration from chemical accidents on release duration
Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph
2017-01-01
Chemical accidents often involve releases of a total mass, Q, of stored material in a tank over a time duration, td, of less than a few minutes. The value of td is usually uncertain because of lack of knowledge of key information, such as the size and location of the hole and the pressure and temperature of the chemical. In addition, it is rare that eyewitnesses or video cameras are present at the time of the accident. For inhalation hazards, serious health effects (such as damage to the respiratory system) are determined by short term averages (pressurized liquefied chlorine releases from tanks are given, focusing on scenarios from the Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field experiment. The analytical calculations and the predictions of the SLAB dense gas dispersion model agree that the ratio of maximum C for two different td's is greatest (as much as a factor of ten) near the source. At large distances (beyond a few km for the JR I scenarios), where tt exceeds both td's, the ratio of maximum C approaches unity.
Wnt Secretion and Gradient Formation
Vladimir L. Katanaev
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Concentration gradients formed by the lipid-modified morphogens of the Wnt family are known for their pivotal roles during embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt morphogens are also implicated in a variety of human diseases, especially cancer. Therefore, the signaling cascades triggered by Wnts have received considerable attention during recent decades. However, how Wnts are secreted and how concentration gradients are formed remains poorly understood. The use of model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster has provided important advances in this area. For instance, we have previously shown that the lipid raft-associated reggie/flotillin proteins influence Wnt secretion and spreading in Drosophila. Our work supports the notion that producing cells secrete Wnt molecules in at least two pools: a poorly diffusible one and a reggie/flotillin-dependent highly diffusible pool which allows morphogen spreading over long distances away from its source of production. Here we revise the current views of Wnt secretion and spreading, and propose two models for the role of the reggie/flotillin proteins in these processes: (i reggies/flotillins regulate the basolateral endocytosis of the poorly diffusible, membrane-bound Wnt pool, which is then sorted and secreted to apical compartments for long-range diffusion, and (ii lipid rafts organized by reggies/flotillins serve as “dating points” where extracellular Wnt transiently interacts with lipoprotein receptors to allow its capture and further spreading via lipoprotein particles. We further discuss these processes in the context of human breast cancer. A better understanding of these phenomena may be relevant for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...