Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Macias, B. R.; Willig, M.; Johnson, K.; Stenger, M. B.
2017-01-01
Astronauts and cosmonauts may experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing, and for several days post-landing following short- and long-duration spaceflight. Presyncopal symptoms have been documented in approximately 20% of short-duration and greater than 60% of long-duration flyers on landing day specifically during 5-10 min of controlled (no countermeasures employed at the time of testing) stand tests or 80 deg head-up tilt tests. Current operational countermeasures to orthostatic intolerance include fluid loading prior to and whole body cooling during re-entry as well as compression garments that are worn during and for up to several days after landing. While both NASA and the Russian space program have utilized compression garments to protect astronauts and cosmonauts traveling on their respective vehicles, a "next-generation" gradient compression garment (GCG) has been developed and tested in collaboration with a commercial partner to support future space flight missions. Unlike previous compression garments used operationally by NASA that provide a single level of compression across only the calves, thighs, and lower abdomen, the GCG provides continuous coverage from the feet to below the pectoral muscles in a gradient fashion (from approximately 55 mm Hg at the feet to approximately 16 mmHg across the abdomen). The efficacy of the GCG has been demonstrated previously after a 14-d bed rest study without other countermeasures and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Currently the GCG is being tested during a stand test following long-duration missions (6 months) to the International Space Station. While results to date have been promising, interactions of the GCG with other space suit components have not been examined. Specifically, it is unknown whether wearing the GCG over NASA's Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG; absorbent briefs worn for the collection of urine and feces while suited during re-entry and landing) will
Gradient evolution for potential vorticity flows
S. Balasuriya
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional unsteady incompressible flows in which the potential vorticity (PV plays a key role are examined in this study, through the development of the evolution equation for the PV gradient. For the case where the PV is conserved, precise statements concerning topology-conservation are presented. While establishing some intuitively well-known results (the numbers of eddies and saddles is conserved, other less obvious consequences (PV patches cannot be generated, some types of Lagrangian and Eulerian entities are equivalent are obtained. This approach enables an improvement on an integrability result for PV conserving flows (if there were no PV patches at time zero, the flow would be integrable. The evolution of the PV gradient is also determined for the nonconservative case, and a plausible experiment for estimating eddy diffusivity is suggested. The theory is applied to an analytical diffusive Rossby wave example.
Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.
2016-03-01
In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.
Raynald Labrecque
2009-11-01
Full Text Available It is known that mechanical work, and in turn electricity, can be produced from a difference in the chemical potential that may result from a salinity gradient. Such a gradient may be found, for instance, in an estuary where a stream of soft water is flooding into a sink of salty water which we may find in an ocean, gulf or salt lake. Various technological approaches are proposed for the production of energy from a salinity gradient between a stream of soft water and a source of salty water. Before considering the implementation of a typical technology, it is of utmost importance to be able to compare various technological approaches, on the same basis, using the appropriate variables and mathematical formulations. In this context, exergy balance can become a very useful tool for an easy and quick evaluation of the maximum thermodynamic work that can be produced from energy systems. In this short paper, we briefly introduce the use of exergy for enabling us to easily and quickly assess the theoretical maximum power or ideal reversible work we may expect from typical salinity gradient energy systems.
Bio-potential amplifier for potential gradient measurements
Bermudez, Andrea N; Spinelli, Enrique M; Muravchik, Carlos H [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)
2007-11-15
This work proposes a bio-potential amplifier suitable for measurements from an electric potential gradient sensor, in electro-encephalography (EEG). The sensor is an array made by three electrodes placed on the vertices of an equilateral triangle of reduced size. Measuring the gradient requires small separation between electrodes hence, very low amplitude signals, of a few {mu}V, are obtained. Therefore, it is important to minimize amplifier noise and electromagnetic interference effects. In the proposed scheme, the first stage is a passive and balanced ac-coupling network adapted to the gradient configuration and the second stage is an 80 dB gain amplifier. The implementation requires a reduced number of components. Therefore, the circuit can be mounted just above the electrodes (active electrodes). The proposed amplifier was built and tested. It achieves a CMRR of 125dB at 50 Hz and an equivalent input noise voltage of 0,3{mu}V RMS in the band 0.5 - 500 Hz. Finally, some preliminary results in the detection of occipital alpha rhythm are presented.
Bian, Liheng; Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Yang, Changhuei; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai
2016-01-01
Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is a novel computational coherent imaging technique for high space-bandwidth product imaging. Mathematically, Fourier ptychographic (FP) reconstruction can be implemented as a phase retrieval optimization process, in which we only obtain low resolution intensity images corresponding to the sub-bands of the sample's high resolution (HR) spatial spectrum, and aim to retrieve the complex HR spectrum. In real setups, the measurements always suffer from various degenerations such as Gaussian noise, Poisson noise, speckle noise and pupil location error, which would largely degrade the reconstruction. To efficiently address these degenerations, we propose a novel FP reconstruction method under a gradient descent optimization framework in this paper. The technique utilizes Poisson maximum likelihood for better signal modeling, and truncated Wirtinger gradient for error removal. Results on both simulated data and real data captured using our laser FPM setup show that the proposed...
Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :
Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.
2012-12-01
The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the
Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V; Linsley, Braddock K; Tudhope, Alexander W; Gagan, Michael K; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L; Esat, Tezer M; Thompson, William G; Tiwari, Manish; Potts, Donald C; Mudelsee, Manfred; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Webster, Jody M
2014-06-17
Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and δ(18)O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 °C larger temperature decrease between 17° and 20°S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial meridional temperature change during the last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous deglacial drying of northeastern Australia. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and may be more resilient than previously thought.
Maximum work configurations of finite potential capacity reservoir chemical engines
无
2010-01-01
An isothermal endoreversible chemical engine operating between the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the infinite potential capacity low-chemical-potential reservoir has been studied in this work.Optimal control theory was applied to determine the optimal cycle configurations corresponding to the maximum work output per cycle for the fixed total cycle time and a universal mass transfer law.Analyses of special examples showed that the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μ,where△μis the chemical potential difference,is an isothermal endoreversible chemical engine cycle,in which the chemical potential(or the concentration) of the key component in the working substance of low-chemical-potential side is a constant,while the chemical potentials(or the concentrations) of the key component in the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the corresponding side working substance change nonlinearly with time,and the difference of the chemical potentials(or the ratio of the concentrations) of the key component between the high-chemical-potential reservoir and the working substance is a constant.While the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μc,where △μc is the concentration difference,is different from that with the mass transfer law g∝△μ significantly.When the high-chemical-potential reservoir is also an infinite potential capacity chemical potential reservoir,the optimal cycle configuration of the isothermal endoreversible chemical engine consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches,which is independent of the mass transfer law.The object studied in this paper is general,and the results can provide some guidelines for optimal design and operation of real chemical engines.
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn; Schmidt, Burkhard; Yang, Yonggang
2014-01-01
We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to ...
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schild, Axel [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.schmidt@fu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Yang, Yonggang, E-mail: ygyang@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China)
2014-10-17
Highlights: • Coherent tunneling in one-dimensional symmetric double well potentials. • Potentials for analytical estimates in the deep tunneling regime. • Maximum velocities scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass. • In chemical physics maximum tunneling velocities are in the order of a few km/s. - Abstract: We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to several prototypical molecular models of non-cyclic and cyclic tunneling, including ammonia inversion, Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, torsions of molecular fragments, and rotational tunneling in strong laser fields. Typical maximum velocities and angular velocities are in the order of a few km/s and from 10 to 100 THz for our non-cyclic and cyclic systems, respectively, much faster than time-averaged velocities. Even for the more extreme case of an electron tunneling through a barrier of height of one Hartree, the velocity is only about one percent of the speed of light. Estimates of the corresponding time scales for
Bergboer, N.H; Verdult, V.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.
2002-01-01
We present a numerically efficient implementation of the nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood identification of multivariable linear time-invariant (LTI) state-space models. This implementation is based on a local parameterization of the system and a gradient search in the resulting parame
A CAHN-HILLIARD TYPE EQUATION WITH GRADIENT DEPENDENT POTENTIAL
Yin Jingxue; Huang Rui
2008-01-01
We investigate a Cahn-Hilliard type equation with gradient dependent potential. After establishing the existence and uniqueness, we pay our attention mainly to the regularity of weak solutions by means of the energy estimates and the theory of Campanato Spaces.
Geothermal potential of West-Central New Mexico from geochemical and thermal gradient data
Levitte, D.; Gambill, D.T.
1980-11-01
To study the low temperature and Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of west-central New Mexico, 46 water samples were collected and geothermal gradient measurements were made in 29 wells. Water chemistry data indicate that all the samples collected are meteoric waters. High temperatures of samples taken from wells between Gallup and Tohatchi indicate these wells may derive water from a warm aquifer below the depth of the wells. The chemistries of the samples farther south on the Zuni Indian reservation suggest these waters are not circulating below 600 m of the surface. Geothermometry calculations support the conclusion that the waters sampled are meteoric. The geothermometry also indicates that the deep reservoir between Gallup and Tohatchi may be greater than 60/sup 0/C. Thermal gradient data indicate an area of high gradient on the Zuni Indian Reservation with a measured maximum of 67/sup 0/C/km between 181 m and 284 m. This high probably is not hydrologically controlled. The maximum gradients in the study area are 76/sup 0/C/km and 138/sup 0/C/km, measured just east of Springerville, Arizona. These gradients are undoubtedly controlled by circulating water, possibly heated by a magmatic source at depth and circulating back to the surface.
Multiple front propagation in a potential non-gradient system
Miguel, M S; Amengual, A; Hernández-García, E
1995-01-01
A classification of dynamical systems in terms of their variational properties is reviewed. Within this classification, front propagation is discussed in a non-gradient relaxational potential flow. The model is motivated by transient pattern phenomena in nematics. A front propagating into an unstable homogenous state leaves behind an unstable periodic pattern, which decays via a second front and a second periodic state. An interface between unstable periodic states is shown to be a source of propagating fronts in opposite directions.
On the maximum likelihood training of gradient-enhanced spatial Gaussian processes
Zimmermann, Ralf
2013-01-01
Spatial Gaussian processes, alias spatial linear models or Kriging estimators, are a powerful and well-established tool for the design and analysis of computer experiments in a multitude of engineering applications. A key challenge in constructing spatial Gaussian processes is the training...... to incorporate the cross-correlations between the function values and their partial deriva- tives in the maximum likelihood estimation. In this paper it is proved that in consistency with the model assumptions, both the autocorrelations and the aforementioned cross-correlations must be considered when optimizing...
Foulger, G.R.
1995-01-01
Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author
Metz, Johan A Jacob; Staňková, Kateřina; Johansson, Jacob
2016-03-01
This paper should be read as addendum to Dieckmann et al. (J Theor Biol 241:370-389, 2006) and Parvinen et al. (J Math Biol 67: 509-533, 2013). Our goal is, using little more than high-school calculus, to (1) exhibit the form of the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics for classical life history problems, where the examples in Dieckmann et al. (J Theor Biol 241:370-389, 2006) and Parvinen et al. (J Math Biol 67: 509-533, 2013) are chosen such that they avoid a number of the problems that one gets in this most relevant of applications, (2) derive the fitness gradient occurring in the CE from simple fitness return arguments, (3) show explicitly that setting said fitness gradient equal to zero results in the classical marginal value principle from evolutionary ecology, (4) show that the latter in turn is equivalent to Pontryagin's maximum principle, a well known equivalence that however in the literature is given either ex cathedra or is proven with more advanced tools, (5) connect the classical optimisation arguments of life history theory a little better to real biology (Mendelian populations with separate sexes subject to an environmental feedback loop), (6) make a minor improvement to the form of the CE for the examples in Dieckmann et al. and Parvinen et al.
Effects of La3+ on H+ Transmembrane Gradient and Membrane Potential in Rice Seedling Roots
郑海雷; 张春光; 赵中秋; 马建华; 李利
2002-01-01
The effects of LaCl3 on membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient for rice (Oryza sativa) seedling roots were studied. Highly purified plasma membrane was isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning method. Both the gradient of transmembrane proton and membrane potential were stimulated by certain low concentration of LaCl3 and depressed by high concentration of LaCl3. The optimal concentration of La3+ is around 40～60 μmolL-1 for transmembrane proton gradient and membrane potential. It shows that La3+ can influence the generations and maintenances of membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient in rice seedling roots.
Balss, Karin Maria
The research contained in this thesis is focused on the formation and characterization of surface composition gradients on thin gold films that are formed by applications of in-plane potential gradients. Injecting milliamp currents into thin Au films yields significant in-plane voltage drops so that, rather than assuming a single value of potential, an in-plane potential gradient is imposed on the film which depends on the resistivity of the film, the cross sectional area and the magnitude of the potential drop. Furthermore, the in-plane electric potential gradient means that, relative to a solution reference couple, electrochemical reactions occurs at defined spatial positions corresponding to the local potential, V(x) ˜ E0. The spatial gradient in electrochemical potential can then produce spatially dependent electrochemistry. Surface-chemical potential gradients can be prepared by arranging the spread of potentials to span an electrochemical wave mediating redox-associated adsorption or desorption. Examples of reactions that can be spatially patterned include the electrosorption of alkanethiols and over-potential metal deposition. The unique advantage of this method for patterning spatial compositions is the control of surface coverage in both space and time. The thesis is organized into two parts. In Part I, formation and characterization of 1- and 2-component alkanethiol monolayer gradients is investigated. Numerous surface science tools are employed to examine the distribution in coverage obtained by application of in-plane potential gradients. Macroscopic characterization was obtained by sessile water drop contact angle measurements and surface plasmon resonance imaging. Gradients were also imaged on micron length scales with pulsed-force mode atomic force microscopy. Direct chemical evidence of surface compositions in aromatic thiol surface coverage was obtained by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. In Part II, the applications of in-plane potential
Thomas, Catherine [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)
2000-01-19
Theoretical models have shown that the maximum magnetic field in radio frequency superconducting cavities is the superheating field H{sub sh}. For niobium, H{sub sh} is 25 - 30% higher than the thermodynamical H{sub c} field: H{sub sh} within (240 - 274) mT. However, the maximum magnetic field observed so far is in the range H{sub c,max} = 152 mT for the best 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. This field is lower than the critical field H{sub c1} above which the superconductor breaks up into divided normal and superconducting zones (H{sub c1}{<=}H{sub c}). Thermal instabilities are responsible for this low value. In order to reach H{sub sh} before thermal breakdown, high power short pulses are used. The cavity needs then to be strongly over-coupled. The dedicated test bed has been built from the collaboration between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) - Sezione di Genoa, and the Service d'Etudes et Realisation d'Accelerateurs (SERA) of Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL). The maximum magnetic field, H{sub rf,max}, measurements on INFN cavities give lower results than the theoretical speculations and are in agreement with previous results. The superheating magnetic fields is linked to the magnetic penetration depth. This superconducting characteristic length can be used to determine the quality of niobium through the ratio between the resistivity measured at 300 K and 4.2 K in the normal conducting state (RRR). Results have been compared to previous ones and agree pretty well. They show that the RRR measured on cavities is superficial and lower than the RRR measured on samples which concerns the volume. (author)
Cesaroni, Claudio; Spogli, Luca; Alfonsi, Lucilla; De Franceschi, Giorgiana; Ciraolo, Luigi; Francisco Galera Monico, Joao; Scotto, Carlo; Romano, Vincenzo; Aquino, Marcio; Bougard, Bruno
2015-12-01
This work presents a contribution to the understanding of the ionospheric triggering of L-band scintillation in the region over São Paulo state in Brazil, under high solar activity. In particular, a climatological analysis of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data acquired in 2012 is presented to highlight the relationship between intensity and variability of the total electron content (TEC) gradients and the occurrence of ionospheric scintillation. The analysis is based on the GNSS data acquired by a dense distribution of receivers and exploits the integration of a dedicated TEC calibration technique into the Ground Based Scintillation Climatology (GBSC), previously developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. Such integration enables representing the local ionospheric features through climatological maps of calibrated TEC and TEC gradients and of amplitude scintillation occurrence. The disentanglement of the contribution to the TEC variations due to zonal and meridional gradients conveys insight into the relation between the scintillation occurrence and the morphology of the TEC variability. The importance of the information provided by the TEC gradients variability and the role of the meridional TEC gradients in driving scintillation are critically described.
B-Spline potential function for maximum a-posteriori image reconstruction in fluorescence microscopy
Shilpa Dilipkumar
2015-03-01
Full Text Available An iterative image reconstruction technique employing B-Spline potential function in a Bayesian framework is proposed for fluorescence microscopy images. B-splines are piecewise polynomials with smooth transition, compact support and are the shortest polynomial splines. Incorporation of the B-spline potential function in the maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction technique resulted in improved contrast, enhanced resolution and substantial background reduction. The proposed technique is validated on simulated data as well as on the images acquired from fluorescence microscopes (widefield, confocal laser scanning fluorescence and super-resolution 4Pi microscopy. A comparative study of the proposed technique with the state-of-art maximum likelihood (ML and maximum-a-posteriori (MAP with quadratic potential function shows its superiority over the others. B-Spline MAP technique can find applications in several imaging modalities of fluorescence microscopy like selective plane illumination microscopy, localization microscopy and STED.
Potential Aquifer Vulnerability in Regions Down-Gradient from ...
Sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium ore deposits originate when U(VI) dissolved in groundwater is reduced and precipitated as insoluble U(IV) minerals. Groundwater redox geochemistry, aqueous complexation, and solute migration are instrumental in leaching uranium from source rocks and transporting it in low concentrations to a chemical redox interface where it is deposited in an ore zone typically containing the uranium minerals uraninite, pitchblende, and/or coffinite; various iron sulfides; native selenium; clays; and calcite. In situ recovery (ISR) of these uranium ores is a process of contacting the uranium mineral deposit with leaching (lixiviant) fluids via injection of the lixiviant into wells drilled into the subsurface aquifer that hosts uranium ore, while other extraction wells pump the dissolved uranium after dissolution of the uranium minerals. Environmental concerns during and after ISR include water quality impacts from: 1) potential excursions of leaching solutions away from the injection zone into down-dip, underlying, or overlying aquifers; 2) potential migration of uranium and its decay products (e.g., Ra, Rn, Pb); and, 3) potential migration of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, V), metalloids (e.g., As), and anions (e.g., sulfate). This review describes the geochemical processes that control roll-front uranium transport and fate in groundwater systems, identifies potential aquifer vulnerabilities to ISR operations, identifies
Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal; Hamáčková, Eliška; Novák, Pavel
2016-04-01
Regional recovery of the disturbing gravitational potential in the area of Central Europe from satellite gravitational gradients data is discussed in this contribution. The disturbing gravitational potential is obtained by inverting surface integral formulas which transform the disturbing gravitational potential onto disturbing gravitational gradients in the spherical local north-oriented frame. Two numerical approaches that solve the inverse problem are considered. In the first approach, the integral formulas are rigorously decomposed into two parts, that is, the effects of the gradient data within near and distant zones. While the effect of the near zone data is sought as an inverse problem, the effect of the distant zone data is synthesized from the global gravitational model GGM05S using spectral weights given by truncation error coefficients up to the degree 150. In the second approach, a reference gravitational field up to the degree 180 is applied to reduce and smooth measured gravitational gradients. In both cases we recovered the disturbing gravitational potential from each of the four well-measured gravitational gradients of the GOCE satellite separately as well as from their combination. Obtained results are compared with the EGM2008, DIR-r2, TIM-r2 and SPW-r2 global gravitational models. The best fit was achieved for EGM2008 and the second approach combining all four well-measured gravitational gradients with rms of 1.231 m2 s-2.
Potential-scour assessments and estimates of maximum scour at selected bridges in Iowa
Fischer, E.E.
1995-01-01
The results of potential-scour assessments at 130 bridges and estimates of maximum scour at 10 bridges in Iowa are presented. All of the bridges evaluated in the study are constructed bridges (not culverts) that are sites of active or discontinued streamflow-gaging stations and peak-stage measurement sites. The period of the study was from October 1991 to September 1994.
Effect of temperature gradient on heavy quark anti-quark potential using gravity dual model
Ganesh, S
2016-01-01
The Quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is an expanding fireball, with finite dimensions. Given the finite dimensions, the temperature would be highest at the center, and close to the critical temperature, $T_c$, at the boundary, giving rise to a temperature gradient inside the QGP. A heavy quark anti-quark pair immersed in the QGP medium would see this temperature gradient. The effect of the temperature gradient on the quark anti-quark potential is analyzed using a gravity dual model. The resulting modification to the potential due to the temperature gradient is seen to have a $L^{-2}$ correction term. This could be a possible fallout of the breaking of conformal invariance at finite temperature.
Chemico-osmosis in geologic membranes: Role of membrane potential gradient
Cheng, Guanchu; Jim Hendry, M.
2014-09-01
Chemico-osmosis is conventionally regarded to occur in the positive direction, i.e., from low to high concentration reservoirs. However, experiments have shown that chemico-osmosis in clay membranes can occur in the opposite direction, i.e., from high to low concentration reservoirs. Conceptual interpretations of this negative osmosis suggest that the diffused electrolytes exert “drag” on water molecules, thus driving the entire solution toward the low concentration reservoir. This paper proposes a quantitative interpretation of this phenomenon considering the role of the induced membrane potential gradient. To this end, a model, which involves the expansion of pore-scale electrokinetics to continuum-scale chemico-osmosis behaviors, is developed for quantification of this membrane potential gradient. The numerical investigation based on the model shows that the membrane potential gradient (1) is caused by the requirement of electroneutrality in the solutions on either side of the membrane; (2) is directly proportional to the difference in effective diffusivity for cations and anions; and (3) contributes to retarding cation migration, enhancing anion migration, and driving the solution flux from low to high concentration reservoirs. These three observations thus suggest that a likely cause of negative osmosis is a decreasing tendency for the solution flux from low to high concentration reservoirs caused by a decreasing membrane potential gradient. Using these findings, previous experiments are discussed and interpreted with success from the electrodynamic perspective of the membrane potential gradient.
Chien-Chung Chen
Full Text Available Perceived depth is conveyed by multiple cues, including binocular disparity and luminance shading. Depth perception from luminance shading information depends on the perceptual assumption for the incident light, which has been shown to default to a diffuse illumination assumption. We focus on the case of sinusoidally corrugated surfaces to ask how shading and disparity cues combine defined by the joint luminance gradients and intrinsic disparity modulation that would occur in viewing the physical corrugation of a uniform surface under diffuse illumination. Such surfaces were simulated with a sinusoidal luminance modulation (0.26 or 1.8 cy/deg, contrast 20%-80% modulated either in-phase or in opposite phase with a sinusoidal disparity of the same corrugation frequency, with disparity amplitudes ranging from 0'-20'. The observers' task was to adjust the binocular disparity of a comparison random-dot stereogram surface to match the perceived depth of the joint luminance/disparity-modulated corrugation target. Regardless of target spatial frequency, the perceived target depth increased with the luminance contrast and depended on luminance phase but was largely unaffected by the luminance disparity modulation. These results validate the idea that human observers can use the diffuse illumination assumption to perceive depth from luminance gradients alone without making an assumption of light direction. For depth judgments with combined cues, the observers gave much greater weighting to the luminance shading than to the disparity modulation of the targets. The results were not well-fit by a Bayesian cue-combination model weighted in proportion to the variance of the measurements for each cue in isolation. Instead, they suggest that the visual system uses disjunctive mechanisms to process these two types of information rather than combining them according to their likelihood ratios.
Rui HUANG; Yang CAO
2011-01-01
In this paper we investigate the initial boundary value problem of Cahn-Hilliard equation with concentration dependent mobility and gradient dependent potential. By the energy method and the theory of Campanato spaces, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of classical solutions in 3-dimensional space.
Modelling streambank erosion potential using maximum entropy in a central Appalachian watershed
Pitchford, J.; Strager, M.; Riley, A.; Lin, L.; Anderson, J.
2015-03-01
We used maximum entropy to model streambank erosion potential (SEP) in a central Appalachian watershed to help prioritize sites for management. Model development included measuring erosion rates, application of a quantitative approach to locate Target Eroding Areas (TEAs), and creation of maps of boundary conditions. We successfully constructed a probability distribution of TEAs using the program Maxent. All model evaluation procedures indicated that the model was an excellent predictor, and that the major environmental variables controlling these processes were streambank slope, soil characteristics, bank position, and underlying geology. A classification scheme with low, moderate, and high levels of SEP derived from logistic model output was able to differentiate sites with low erosion potential from sites with moderate and high erosion potential. A major application of this type of modelling framework is to address uncertainty in stream restoration planning, ultimately helping to bridge the gap between restoration science and practice.
HUANG RUI; YIN JING-XUE; WANG LIANG-WEI
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the initial boundary value problem of CahnHilliard equation with concentration dependent mobility and gradient dependent potential. By the Lp type estimates and the theory of Morrey spaces, we prove the H(o)der continuity of the solutions. Then we obtain the existence of global classical solutions. The present work can be viewed as an extension to the previous work on the Cahn-Hilliard equation with concentration dependent mobility and potential.
Deutsch, Karol; Śledź, Janusz; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Labus, Michał; Karbarz, Dariusz; Pasicka, Bernadetta; Chrabąszcz, Michał; Śledź, Arkadiusz; Klank-Szafran, Monika; Vitali-Sendoz, Laura; Kameczura, Tomasz; Śpikowski, Jerzy; Stec, Piotr; Ujda, Marek; Stec, Sebastian
2017-06-01
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is an established effective method for the treatment of typical cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL). The introduction of 3-dimensional electro-anatomic systems enables RFCA without fluoroscopy (No-X-Ray [NXR]). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of CTI RFCA during implementation of the NXR approach and the maximum voltage-guided (MVG) technique for ablation of AFL.Data were obtained from prospective standardized multicenter ablation registry. Consecutive patients with the first RFCA for CTI-dependent AFL were recruited. Two navigation approaches (NXR and fluoroscopy based as low as reasonable achievable [ALARA]) and 2 mapping and ablation techniques (MVG and pull-back technique [PBT]) were assessed. NXR + MVG (n = 164; age: 63.7 ± 9.5; 30% women), NXR + PBT (n = 55; age: 63.9 ± 10.7; 39% women); ALARA + MVG (n = 36; age: 64.2 ± 9.6; 39% women); and ALARA + PBT (n = 205; age: 64.7 ± 9.1; 30% women) were compared, respectively. All groups were simplified with a 2-catheter femoral approach using 8-mm gold tip catheters (Osypka AG, Germany or Biotronik, Germany) with 15 min of observation. The MVG technique was performed using step-by-step application by mapping the largest atrial signals within the CTI.Bidirectional block in CTI was achieved in 99% of all patients (P = NS, between groups). In NXR + MVG and NXR + PBT groups, the procedure time decreased (45.4 ± 17.6 and 47.2 ± 15.7 min vs. 52.6 ± 23.7 and 59.8 ± 24.0 min, P < .01) as compared to ALARA + MVG and ALARA + PBT subgroups. In NXR + MVG and NXR + PBT groups, 91% and 98% of the procedures were performed with complete elimination of fluoroscopy. The NXR approach was associated with a significant reduction in fluoroscopy exposure (from 0.2 ± 1.1 [NXR + PBT] and 0.3 ± 1.6 [NXR + MVG] to 7.7 ± 6.0 min [ALARA + MVG] and 9
Fischer, Andreas; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
2014-01-01
The maximum fatigue load reduction potential when using trailing edge flaps on mega-watt wind turbines was explored. For this purpose an ideal feed forward control algorithm using the relative velocity and angle of attack at the blade to control the loads was implemented. The algorithm was applie...... the blade load location was investigated. When the algorithm was applied to measured time series a load reduction of 23% was achieved which is still promissing, but significantly lower than the value achieved in computations....
Cells as Active Particles in Asymmetric Potentials: Motility under External Gradients
Comelles, Jordi; Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Hortigüela, Verónica; Wollrab, Viktoria; Godeau, Amélie Luise; Samitier, Josep; Martínez, Elena; Riveline, Daniel
2014-01-01
Cell migration is a crucial event during development and in disease. Mechanical constraints and chemical gradients can contribute to the establishment of cell direction, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. Using a microfabricated topographical ratchet, we show that the nucleus dictates the direction of cell movement through mechanical guidance by its environment. We demonstrate that this direction can be tuned by combining the topographical ratchet with a biochemical gradient of fibronectin adhesion. We report competition and cooperation between the two external cues. We also quantitatively compare the measurements associated with the trajectory of a model that treats cells as fluctuating particles trapped in a periodic asymmetric potential. We show that the cell nucleus contributes to the strength of the trap, whereas cell protrusions guided by the adhesive gradients add a constant tunable bias to the direction of cell motion. PMID:25296303
Li, Hui; Gordon, Mark S
2007-03-28
A method that combines quantum mechanics (QM), typically a solute, the effective fragment potential (EFP) discrete solvent model, and the polarizable continuum model is described. The EFP induced dipoles and polarizable continuum model (PCM) induced surface charges are determined in a self-consistent fashion. The gradients of these two energies with respect to molecular coordinate changes are derived and implemented. In general, the gradients can be formulated as simple electrostatic forces and torques among the QM nuclei, electrons, EFP static multipoles, induced dipoles, and PCM induced charges. Molecular geometry optimizations can be performed efficiently with these gradients. The formulas derived for EFPPCM can be generally applied to other combined molecular mechanics and continuum methods that employ induced dipoles and charges.
Mehrotra, Anuja Seth; Puri, Sanjay; Khakhar, D V
2012-04-07
We present a simulation method for direct computation of chemical potentials in multicomponent systems. The method involves application of a field to generate spatial gradients in the species number densities at equilibrium, from which the chemical potential of each species is theoretically estimated. A single simulation yields results over a range of thermodynamic states, as in high throughput experiments, and the method remains computationally efficient even at high number densities since it does not involve particle insertion at high densities. We illustrate the method by Monte Carlo simulations of binary hard sphere mixtures of particles with different sizes in a gravitational field. The results of the gradient Monte Carlo method are found to be in good agreement with chemical potentials computed using the classical Widom particle insertion method for spatially uniform systems.
Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang
2016-06-01
Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors.
Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree.
Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano
2016-01-01
Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses.
Kelisani, M. Dayyani; Doebert, S.; Aslaninejad, M.
2016-08-01
The critical process of beam loading compensation in high intensity accelerators brings under control the undesired effect of the beam induced fields to the accelerating structures. A new analytical approach for optimizing standing wave accelerating structures is found which is hugely fast and agrees very well with simulations. A perturbative analysis of cavity and waveguide excitation based on the Bethe theorem and normal mode expansion is developed to compensate the beam loading effect and excite the maximum field gradient in the cavity. The method provides the optimum values for the coupling factor and the cavity detuning. While the approach is very accurate and agrees well with simulation software, it massively shortens the calculation time compared with the simulation software.
Kelisani, M. Dayyani, E-mail: mdayyani@cern.ch [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), BE Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Doebert, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), BE Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aslaninejad, M. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-08-21
The critical process of beam loading compensation in high intensity accelerators brings under control the undesired effect of the beam induced fields to the accelerating structures. A new analytical approach for optimizing standing wave accelerating structures is found which is hugely fast and agrees very well with simulations. A perturbative analysis of cavity and waveguide excitation based on the Bethe theorem and normal mode expansion is developed to compensate the beam loading effect and excite the maximum field gradient in the cavity. The method provides the optimum values for the coupling factor and the cavity detuning. While the approach is very accurate and agrees well with simulation software, it massively shortens the calculation time compared with the simulation software.
A Cubic B-Spline Approach for Inter-Transformation Between Potential Field and Gradient Data
Wang, B.; Gao, S. S.
2008-12-01
Traditionally, algorithms involving Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) are used to calculate gradients from field data and vise versa. Because the popular FFT differentiation algorithms are prone to noise, expensive field campaigns are increasingly utilized to obtain gradient data. In areas with both field and gradient data, transformation facilitates comparison. In areas with only one kind of data, transformation facilitates interpretation by transforming the measured data into another form of data. We advance unified formulae for interpolation, differentiation and integration using cubic B-splines, and propose new space-domain approaches for 2D and 3D transformations from potential field data to potential-field gradient data and vice versa. We also advance spline-based continuation techniques. In the spline-based algorithms, the spacing can be either regular or irregular. Analyses using synthetic and real gravity and magnetic data show that the new algorithms have higher accuracy, are more noise-tolerant and thus provide better insights into understanding the nature of the sources than the traditional FFT techniques.
Constantin, Lucian A; Fabiano, Eduardo; Della Sala, Fabio
2017-09-12
Using the semiclassical neutral atom theory, we developed a modified fourth-order kinetic energy (KE) gradient expansion (GE4m) that keeps unchanged all the linear-response terms of the uniform electron gas and gives a significant improvement with respect to the known semilocal functionals for both large atoms and jellium surfaces. On the other hand, GE4m is not accurate for light atoms; thus, we modified the GE4m coefficients making them dependent on a novel ingredient, the reduced Hartree potential, recently introduced in the Journal of Chemical Physics 2016, 145, 084110, in the context of exchange functionals. The resulting KE gradient expansion functional, named uGE4m, belongs to the novel class of u-meta-generalized-gradient-approximations (uMGGA) whose members depend on the conventional ingredients (i.e., the reduced gradient and Laplacian of the density) as well as on the reduced Hartree potential. To test uGE4m, we defined an appropriate benchmark (including total KE and KE differences for atoms, molecules and jellium clusters) for gradient expansion functionals, that is, including only those systems which are mainly described by a slowly varying density regime. While most of the GGA and meta-GGA KE functionals (we tested 18 of them) are accurate for some properties and inaccurate for others, uGE4m shows a consistently good performance for all the properties considered. This represents a qualitative boost in the KE functional development and highlights the importance of the reduced Hartree potential for the construction of next-generation KE functionals.
Membrane potential gradient is carbon monoxide-dependent in mouse and human small intestine.
Sha, Lei; Farrugia, Gianrico; Harmsen, W Scott; Szurszewski, Joseph H
2007-08-01
The aims of this study were to quantify the change in resting membrane potential (RMP) across the thickness of the circular muscle layer in the mouse and human small intestine and to determine whether the gradient in RMP is dependent on the endogenous production of carbon monoxide (CO). Conventional sharp glass microelectrodes were used to record the RMPs of circular smooth muscle cells at different depths in the human small intestine and in wild-type, HO2-KO, and W/W(V) mutant mouse small intestine. In the wild-type mouse and human intestine, the RMP of circular smooth muscle cells near the myenteric plexus was -65.3 +/- 2 mV and -58.4 +/- 2 mV, respectively, and -60.1 +/- 2 mV and -49.1 +/- 1 mV, respectively, in circular smooth muscle cells at the submucosal border. Oxyhemoglobin (20 microM), a trapping agent for CO, and chromium mesoporphyrin IX, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase, abolished the transwall gradient. The RMP gradients in mouse and human small intestine were not altered by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (200 microM). No transwall RMP gradient was found in HO2-KO mice and W/W(V) mutant mice. TTX (1 microM) and 1H-[1,2,4-]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 microM) had no effect on the RMP gradient. These data suggest that the gradient in RMP across the thickness of the circular muscle layer of mouse and human small intestine is CO dependent.
Maximum Potential Score (MPS: An operating model for a successful customer-focused strategy.
Cabello González, José Manuel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available One of marketers’ chief objectives is to achieve customer loyalty, which is a key factor for profitable growth. Therefore, they need to develop a strategy that attracts and maintains customers, giving them adequate motives, both tangible (prices and promotions and intangible (personalized service and treatment, to satisfy a customer and make him loyal to the company. Finding a way to accurately measure satisfaction and customer loyalty is very important. With regard to typical Relationship Marketing measures, we can consider listening to customers, which can help to achieve a competitive sustainable advantage. Customer satisfaction surveys are essential tools for listening to customers. Short questionnaires have gained considerable acceptance among marketers as a means to achieve a customer satisfaction measure. Our research provides an indication of the benefits of a short questionnaire (one/three questions. We find that the number of questions survey is significantly related to the participation in the survey (Net Promoter Score or NPS. We also prove that a the three question survey is more likely to have more participants than a traditional survey (Maximum Potential Score or MPS . Our main goal is to analyse one method as a potential predictor of customer loyalty. Using surveys, we attempt to empirically establish the causal factors in determining the satisfaction of customers. This paper describes a maximum potential operating model that captures with a three questions survey, important elements for a successful customer-focused strategy. MPS may give us lower participation rates than NPS but important information that helps to convert unhappy customers or just satisfied customers, into loyal customers.
The maximum potential market for dengue drugs V 1.0.
Dow, Geoffrey; Mora, Eric
2012-11-01
Drugs offer a complementary approach to vaccines for preventing the progression of symptoms and onset of the severe manifestations of dengue. Despite the rapid maturation of the research and development infrastructure for dengue drugs and the increasing frequency of dengue inhibitors reported in the scientific literature, the potential size of the market for dengue drugs has not been articulated. In the present work, extrapolating from publicly available information, we explored the economic burden attributable to dengue, the impact of dengue vaccines on clinical case loads, a possible alternative to tiered pricing for products for neglected diseases, and defined the maximum potential market for a dengue drug. Our projections suggest that in 2006, the annual global burden of dengue was US $1.7billion. Our proposed alternative to existing tiered pricing structures is that during a temporary period of market exclusivity, individual countries would pay 50% of the per-case equivalent of economic costs saved through the use of a dengue drug. This would yield prices per case of US $13-$239 depending on drug effectiveness and cost of medical and indirect costs and lost productivity in different countries. Assuming that such a pricing scheme was embraced, the maximum potential market for a dengue drug or drugs that on average reduced 40% of economic costs might be as high as US $338million annually. Our simulations suggest that dengue vaccines will begin to reduce the clinical case load of dengue in 2022, but that the number of cases will not decrease below 2006 levels and the proportion vaccinated will remain well below that required for the onset of herd immunity during the period of market exclusivity after the licensure of the first wave of dengue drugs.
Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Gagan, Michael K.; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L.; Esat, Tezer M.; Thompson, William G.; Tiwari, Manish; Potts, Donald C.; Mudelsee, Manfred; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Webster, Jody M.
2015-04-01
Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and δ18O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that were drilled by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 along the shelf edge seaward of the modern GBR. The Sr/Ca and δ18O records of the precisely U-Th dated fossil shallow-water corals show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 ° C larger temperature decrease between 17° S and 20° S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial and regionally differing temperature change during the last deglaciation, much larger temperature changes than previously recognized. Furthermore, our findings suggest a northward contraction of the Western Pacific Warm Pool during the LGM and last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous drying of northeastern Australia at that time. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and, considering temperature alone, may be more resilient than previously thought. Webster, J. M., Yokoyama, Y. & Cotteril, C. & the Expedition 325 Scientists. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Vol. 325 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International Inc., 2011). Felis, T., McGregor, H. V., Linsley, B. K., Tudhope, A. W., Gagan, M. K., Suzuki, A., Inoue, M., Thomas, A. L., Esat, T. M., Thompson, W. G., Tiwari, M., Potts, D. C., Mudelsee, M., Yokoyama, Y., Webster, J. M. Intensification of the meridional temperature gradient in the Great Barrier Reef following the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature Communications 5, 4102
Boymelgreen, Alicia; Yossifon, Gilad; Miloh, Touvia
2016-11-01
Localized electric field gradients, induced by the dual symmetry-breaking of an asymmetric particle adjacent to a wall are shown to potentially drive particle motion, even in a uniform field. Since the driving gradient is induced by the particle itself, we have termed this propulsion mechanism "self-dielectrophoresis" (sDEP), to distinguish from traditional DEP where the driving non-uniform field is externally fixed and particle direction is restricted. It is also shown that sDEP driven particles are natural cargo carriers, since the localized gradients can also trap and release targets selectively and on demand. This phenomenon is specifically characterized for Gold-Polystyrene Janus spheres, including the establishment of a non-dimensional parameter marking the critical frequency at which sDEP dominates low-frequency ICEP- evidenced by a reversal in particle direction. Additionally we demonstrate that localized gradients can transform the translating Janus particles into an externally controlled, mobile floating electrode with the ability to collect, transport and release a target sample a target 1/50 of its size. It is also shown that calculated control of the frequency enables selective sorting and transport - if the driving frequency is aligned with the positive-DEP (pDEP) response of a specific "target" and negative-DEP (nDEP) of any other contaminants, only the former will be transported with the Janus sphere. ISF,BSF,RBNI.
Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Greenbaum, Elias; Yoshida, Ken
2010-01-01
Photosystem I (PSI) complexes can support a light-driven electrochemical gradient for protons, which is the driving force for energy-conserving reactions across biological membranes. In this work, a computational model that enables a quantitative description of the light-induced proton gradients across the membrane of PSI proteoliposomes is presented. Using a set of electrodiffusion equations, a compartmental model of a vesicle suspended in aqueous medium was studied. The light-mediated proton movement was modeled as a single proton pumping step with backpressure of the electric potential. The model fits determinations of pH obtained from PSI proteoliposomes illuminated in the presence of mediators of cyclic electron transport. The model also allows analysis of the proton gradients in relation to the transmembrane ion fluxes and electric potential. Sensitivity analysis enabled a determination of the parameters that have greater influence on steady-state levels and onset/decay rates of transmembrane pH and electric potential. This model could be used as a tool for optimizing PSI proteoliposomes for photo-electrochemical applications.
Pennisi, Cristian P. [Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; Greenbaum, Elias [ORNL; Yoshida, Ken [Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
2010-01-01
Photosystem I (PSI) complexes can support a light-driven electrochemical gradient for protons, which is the driving force for energy-conserving reactions across biological membranes. In this work, a computational model that enables a quantitative description of the light-induced proton gradients across the membrane of PSI proteoliposomes is presented. Using a set of electrodiffusion equations, a compartmental model of a vesicle suspended in aqueous medium was studied. The light-mediated proton movement was modeled as a single proton pumping step with backpressure of the electric potential. The model fits determinations of pH obtained from PSI proteoliposomes illuminated in the presence of mediators of cyclic electron transport. The model also allows analysis of the proton gradients in relation to the transmembrane ion fluxes and electric potential. Sensitivity analysis enabled a determination of the parameters that have greater influence on steady-state levels and onset/decay rates of transmembrane pH and electric potential. This model could be used as a tool for optimizing PSI proteoliposomes for photo-electrochemical applications.
Vidal-García, Francisca; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos
2011-07-01
We developed a potential distribution model for the tropical rain forest species of primates of southern Mexico: the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra), the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), and the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). To do so, we applied the maximum entropy algorithm from the ecological niche modeling program MaxEnt. For each species, we used occurrence records from scientific collections, and published and unpublished sources, and we also used the 19 environmental coverage variables related to precipitation and temperature from WorldClim to develop the models. The predicted distribution of A. pigra was strongly associated with the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (23.6%), whereas the potential distributions of A. palliata and A. geoffroyi were strongly associated with precipitation during the coldest quarter (52.2 and 34.3% respectively). The potential distribution of A. geoffroyi is broader than that of the Alouatta spp. The areas with the greatest probability of presence of A. pigra and A. palliata are strongly associated with riparian vegetation, whereas the presence of A. geoffroyi is more strongly associated with the presence of rain forest. Our most significant contribution is the identification of areas with a high probability of the presence of these primate species, which is information that can be applied to planning future studies and then establishing criteria for the creation of areas to primate conservation in Mexico.
Gaiduk, Alex P.; Staroverov, Viktor N.
2012-02-01
The common way to obtain energies from Kohn-Sham exchange potentials is by using the Levy-Perdew virial relation. For potentials that are not functional derivatives (i.e., nearly all model exchange potentials in existence), this approach leads to energy expressions that lack translational and rotational invariance. We propose a method for constructing potential-based energy functionals that are free from these artifacts. It relies on the same line-integration technique that gives rise to the Levy-Perdew relation, but uses density scaling instead of coordinate scaling. The method is applicable to any exchange or correlation potential that depends on the density explicitly, and correctly recovers the parent energy functional from a functional derivative. To illustrate our approach we develop a properly invariant generalized gradient approximation for exchange starting from the model potential of van Leeuwen and Baerends.
Chengyuan Qu; Yang Cao
2013-11-01
We consider a class of nonlinear viscous Cahn–Hilliard equations with gradient dependent potentials and sources. By a Galerkin approximation scheme combined with the potential well method, we prove the global existence of weak solutions.
Potential distribution of Xylella fastidiosa in Italy: a maximum entropy model
Luciano BOSSO
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Species distribution models may provide realistic scenarios to explain the influence of bioclimatic variables in the context of emerging plant pathogens. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited Gram-negative bacterium causing severe diseases in many plant species. We developed a maximum entropy model for X. fastidiosa in Italy. Our objectives were to carry out a preliminary analysis of the species’ potential geographical distribution and determine which eco-geographical variables may favour its presence in other Italian regions besides Apulia. The analysis of single variable contribution showed that precipitation of the driest (40.3% and wettest (30.4% months were the main factors influencing model performance. Altitude, precipitation of warmest quarter, mean temperature of coldest quarter, and land cover provided a total contribution of 19.5%. Based on the model predictions, X. fastidiosa has a high probability (> 0.8 of colonizing areas characterized by: i low altitude (0–150 m a.s.l.; ii precipitations in the driest month < 10 mm, in the wettest month ranging between 80–110 mm and during the warmest quarter < 60 mm; iii mean temperature of coldest quarter ≥ 8°C; iv agricultural areas comprising intensive agriculture, complex cultivation patterns, olive groves, annual crops associated with permanent crops, orchards and vineyards; forest (essentially oak woodland; and Mediterranean shrubland. Species distribution models showed a high probability of X. fastidiosa occurrence in the regions of Apulia, Calabria, Basilicata, Sicily, Sardinia and coastal areas of Campania, Lazio and south Tuscany. Maxent models achieved excellent levels of predictive performance according to area under curve (AUC, true skill statistic (TSS and minimum difference between training and testing AUC data (AUCdiff. Our study indicated that X. fastidiosa has the potential to overcome the current boundaries of distribution and affect areas of Italy outside Apulia.
Tarasenko, A S; Storchak, L G; Himmelreich, N H
2008-02-01
Ca(2+)-independent [(3)H]GABA release induced by alpha-latrotoxin was found to consist of two sequential processes: a fast initial release realized via exocytosis and more delayed outflow through the plasma membrane GABA transporters [Linetska, M.V., Storchak, L.G., Tarasenko, A.S., Himmelreich, N.H., 2004. Involvement of membrane GABA transporters in alpha-latrotoxin-stimulated [(3)H]GABA release. Neurochem. Int. 44, 303-312]. To characterize the toxin-stimulated events attributable to the transporter-mediated [(3)H]GABA release from rat brain synaptosomes we studied the effect of alpha-latrotoxin on membrane potentials and generation of the synaptic vesicles proton gradient, using fluorescent dyes: potential-sensitive rhodamine 6G and pH-sensitive acridine orange. We revealed that alpha-latrotoxin induced a progressive dose-dependent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and an irreversible run-down of the synaptic vesicle proton gradient. Both processes were insensitive to the presence of cadmium, a potent blocker of toxin-formed transmembrane pores, indicating that alpha-latrotoxin-induced disturbance of the plasma membrane permeability was not responsible to these effects. A gradual dissipation of the synaptic vesicle proton gradient closely coupled with lowering the vesicular GABA transporter activity results in a leakage of the neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles to cytoplasm. As a consequence, there is an essential increase in GABA concentration in a soluble cytosolic pool that appears to be critical parameter for altering the mode of the plasma membrane GABA transporter operation from inward to outward. Thus, our data allow clarifying what cell processes underlain a recruitment of the plasma membrane transporter-mediated pathway in alpha-LTX-stimulated secretion.
Harrison, R G
2003-01-01
Early surface measurements of atmospheric Potential Gradient were made in many European cities in the nineteenth century (C19th). The data was usually obtained at hourly resolution, and good accounts of the calibration of the instruments are also often available. The PG measurements made by Chauveau on the Eiffel Tower, soon after its completion in the 1890s, are particularly notable. Atmospheric electrical proxy techniques in combination with simple boundary layer meteorology are used to determine air pollution levels. The C19th PG measurements in both polluted and clean Parisian air present a unique resource for European air pollution and atmospheric composition studies.
Suzuki, Keita W.; Kasai, Akihide; Isoda, Takane; Nakayama, Kouji; Tanaka, Masaru
2008-07-01
To assess the potential of stable isotope ratios as an indicator of fish migration within estuaries, stable isotope ratios in important zooplankton species were analyzed in relation to estuarine salinity gradients. Gut contents from migratory juveniles of the euryhaline marine fish Lateolabrax japonicus were examined along the Chikugo River estuary of the Ariake Sea, which has the most developed estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) in Japan. Early juveniles in March and April preyed primarily on two copepod species; Sinocalanus sinensis at lower salinities and Acartia omorii at higher salinities. Late juveniles (standard length > 40 mm) at lower salinities preyed exclusively on the mysid Acanthomysis longirostris until July and complementarily on the decapod Acetes japonicus in August. These prey species were collected along the estuary during the spring-summer seasons of 2003 and 2004, and their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios ( δ13C and δ15N) were evaluated. The δ13C values of prey species were distinct from each other and were primarily depleted within and in close proximity to the ETM (salinity < 10); S. sinensis (-26.6‰) < Acanthomysis longirostris (-23.3‰) < Acartia omorii (-21.1‰) < Acetes japonicus (-18.5‰). The overall gradient of δ13C with salinity occurred for all prey species and showed minor temporal fluctuations, while it was not directly influenced by the δ13C values in particulate organic matter along the estuary. In contrast to δ13C, the δ15N values of prey species did not exhibit any clear relationship with salinity. The present study demonstrated that δ13C has the potential for application as a tracer of fish migration into lower salinity areas including the ETM.
Li, Ruochen; Englehardt, James D; Li, Xiaoguang
2012-02-01
Multivariate probability distributions, such as may be used for mixture dose-response assessment, are typically highly parameterized and difficult to fit to available data. However, such distributions may be useful in analyzing the large electronic data sets becoming available, such as dose-response biomarker and genetic information. In this article, a new two-stage computational approach is introduced for estimating multivariate distributions and addressing parameter uncertainty. The proposed first stage comprises a gradient Markov chain Monte Carlo (GMCMC) technique to find Bayesian posterior mode estimates (PMEs) of parameters, equivalent to maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) in the absence of subjective information. In the second stage, these estimates are used to initialize a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, replacing the conventional burn-in period to allow convergent simulation of the full joint Bayesian posterior distribution and the corresponding unconditional multivariate distribution (not conditional on uncertain parameter values). When the distribution of parameter uncertainty is such a Bayesian posterior, the unconditional distribution is termed predictive. The method is demonstrated by finding conditional and unconditional versions of the recently proposed emergent dose-response function (DRF). Results are shown for the five-parameter common-mode and seven-parameter dissimilar-mode models, based on published data for eight benzene-toluene dose pairs. The common mode conditional DRF is obtained with a 21-fold reduction in data requirement versus MCMC. Example common-mode unconditional DRFs are then found using synthetic data, showing a 71% reduction in required data. The approach is further demonstrated for a PCB 126-PCB 153 mixture. Applicability is analyzed and discussed. Matlab(®) computer programs are provided.
Carmona-Espíndola, Javier, E-mail: jcarmona-26@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D. F. 09340, México (Mexico); Gázquez, José L., E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D. F. 09340, México (Mexico); Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México D. F. 07360, México (Mexico); Vela, Alberto [Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México D. F. 07360, México (Mexico); Trickey, S. B. [Quantum Theory Project, Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8435 (United States)
2015-02-07
A new non-empirical exchange energy functional of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type, which gives an exchange potential with the correct asymptotic behavior, is developed and explored. In combination with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation energy functional, the new CAP-PBE (CAP stands for correct asymptotic potential) exchange-correlation functional gives heats of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, proton affinities, binding energies of weakly interacting systems, barrier heights for hydrogen and non-hydrogen transfer reactions, bond distances, and harmonic frequencies on standard test sets that are fully competitive with those obtained from other GGA-type functionals that do not have the correct asymptotic exchange potential behavior. Distinct from them, the new functional provides important improvements in quantities dependent upon response functions, e.g., static and dynamic polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities. CAP combined with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional gives roughly equivalent results. Consideration of the computed dynamical polarizabilities in the context of the broad spectrum of other properties considered tips the balance to the non-empirical CAP-PBE combination. Intriguingly, these improvements arise primarily from improvements in the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and not from shifts in the associated eigenvalues. Those eigenvalues do not change dramatically with respect to eigenvalues from other GGA-type functionals that do not provide the correct asymptotic behavior of the potential. Unexpected behavior of the potential at intermediate distances from the nucleus explains this unexpected result and indicates a clear route for improvement.
Fuzzy logic-based assessment for mapping potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds.
Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Massone, Héctor Enrique; Martínez, Daniel Emilio
2016-07-01
This paper gives an account of the design a logic-based approach for identifying potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds based on remote sensing data. This methodological framework is applied in a sector of the Pampa Plain, Argentina, which has high level of agricultural activities and large demands for groundwater supplies. Potential infiltration sites are assessed as a function of two primary topics: hydrologic and soil conditions. This model shows the state of each evaluated subwatershed respecting to its potential contribution to infiltration mainly based on easily measurable and commonly used parameters: drainage density, geomorphologic units, soil media, land-cover, slope and aspect (slope orientation). Mapped outputs from the logic model displayed 42% very low-low, 16% moderate, 41% high-very high contribution to potential infiltration in the whole watershed. Subwatersheds in the upper and lower section were identified as areas with high to very high potential infiltration according to the following media features: low drainage density (<1.5 km/km(2)), arable land and pastures as the main land-cover categories, sandy clay loam to loam - clay loam soils and with the geomorphological units named poorly drained plain, channelized drainage plain and, dunes and beaches.
Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator
Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Min-Hyun; Cho, Yeonchoo; Nam, Seung-Geol; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Park, Seongjun
2017-07-01
Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.
Exact computation of the maximum-entropy potential of spiking neural-network models.
Cofré, R; Cessac, B
2014-05-01
Understanding how stimuli and synaptic connectivity influence the statistics of spike patterns in neural networks is a central question in computational neuroscience. The maximum-entropy approach has been successfully used to characterize the statistical response of simultaneously recorded spiking neurons responding to stimuli. However, in spite of good performance in terms of prediction, the fitting parameters do not explain the underlying mechanistic causes of the observed correlations. On the other hand, mathematical models of spiking neurons (neuromimetic models) provide a probabilistic mapping between the stimulus, network architecture, and spike patterns in terms of conditional probabilities. In this paper we build an exact analytical mapping between neuromimetic and maximum-entropy models.
Potential aquifer vulnerability in regions down-gradient from uranium in situ recovery (ISR) sites.
Saunders, James A; Pivetz, Bruce E; Voorhies, Nathan; Wilkin, Richard T
2016-12-01
Sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium ore deposits originate when U(VI) dissolved in groundwater is reduced and precipitated as insoluble U(IV) minerals. Groundwater redox geochemistry, aqueous complexation, and solute migration are important in leaching uranium from source rocks and transporting it in low concentrations to a chemical redox interface where it is deposited in an ore zone typically containing the uranium minerals uraninite, pitchblende, and/or coffinite; various iron sulfides; native selenium; clays; and calcite. In situ recovery (ISR) of uranium ores is a process of contacting the uranium mineral deposit with leaching and oxidizing (lixiviant) fluids via injection of the lixiviant into wells drilled into the subsurface aquifer that hosts uranium ore, while other extraction wells pump the dissolved uranium after dissolution of the uranium minerals. Environmental concerns during and after ISR include water quality degradation from: 1) potential excursions of leaching solutions away from the injection zone into down-gradient, underlying, or overlying aquifers; 2) potential migration of uranium and its decay products (e.g., Ra, Rn, Pb); and, 3) potential mobilization and migration of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, V), metalloids (e.g., As), and anions (e.g., sulfate). This review describes the geochemical processes that control roll-front uranium transport and fate in groundwater systems, identifies potential aquifer vulnerabilities to ISR operations, identifies data gaps in mitigating these vulnerabilities, and discusses the hydrogeological characterization involved in developing a monitoring program.
Exact computation of the Maximum Entropy Potential of spiking neural networks models
Cofre, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
Understanding how stimuli and synaptic connectivity in uence the statistics of spike patterns in neural networks is a central question in computational neuroscience. Maximum Entropy approach has been successfully used to characterize the statistical response of simultaneously recorded spiking neurons responding to stimuli. But, in spite of good performance in terms of prediction, the ?tting parameters do not explain the underlying mechanistic causes of the observed correlations. On the other hand, mathematical models of spiking neurons (neuro-mimetic models) provide a probabilistic mapping between stimulus, network architecture and spike patterns in terms of conditional proba- bilities. In this paper we build an exact analytical mapping between neuro-mimetic and Maximum Entropy models.
Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator
Kyung-Eun Byun
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.
The vertical gradient of Electro-Atmospheric potential at Macerata (Italy (Central East Apennines
G. GUALTIERI
1969-06-01
Full Text Available This work studies eleven years of measures of the gradient
of electro-atmospheric potential carried out in the Observatory of
Macerata (East Central Apennines. The medium yearly and monthly
values as well as the medium hourly values have been calculated. The
calculations are based on the values of five calm days chosen with probabilistic
methods from all the calm days of the month considered. The equation lias also been found from the medium hourly curve by
means of harmonic analysis. Then the harmonics have been examined
stopping at the third, and it has been found that these reflected the different
general and local components such as that due to the masses of air of maritime
origin and that due to the masses of continental air operating alternatively
in the region of observation. The general minimum of the local hours
"> a. m. (4 TU is clearly shown by the first harmonic, and it is also present
in the medium hourly curve but appears in this less accentuated than what
we would expect it to be.
Finally the behaviours of the vertical gradient in clear, cloudy and
calm days have been studied and the different results compared.
The behaviour of the parameter of the atmospheric electricity in relation
to the solar phenomena has also been studied and in particular with the
behaviour of the sunspots during the eleven years of observations.
Orr, John L.
1997-01-01
In many ways, the typical approach to the handling of bibliographic material for generating review articles and similar manuscripts has changed little since the use of xerographic reproduction has become widespread. The basic approach is to collect reprints of the relevant material and place it in folders or stacks based on its dominant content. As the amount of information available increases with the passage of time, the viability of this mechanical approach to bibliographic management decreases. The personal computer revolution has changed the way we deal with many familiar tasks. For example, word processing on personal computers has supplanted the typewriter for many applications. Similarly, spreadsheets have not only replaced many routine uses of calculators but have also made possible new applications because the cost of calculation is extremely low. Objective The objective of this research was to use personal computer bibliographic software technology to support the determination of spacecraft maximum acceptable concentration (SMAC) values. Specific Aims The specific aims were to produce draft SMAC documents for hydrogen sulfide and tetrachloroethylene taking maximum advantage of the bibliographic software.
Saha, S.; Rajwar, G.S.; Kumar, M.
2016-07-01
Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H) and equitabiltiy (EC) decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD) and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. (Author)
Sushil Saha
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H and equitabiltiy (EC decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. Key words: Distribution pattern; tree diversity; regeneration; mountains; temperate; Himalaya.
Evidence for Attentional Gradient in the Serial Position Memory Curve from Event-related Potentials
Azizian, Allen; Polich, John
2009-01-01
The occurrence of primacy versus recency effects in free recall is suggested to reflect either two distinct memory systems, or the operation of a single system that is modulated by allocation of attention and less vulnerable to interference. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERPs) measures were used to investigate the encoding substrates of the serial position curve and subsequent recall in young adults. Participants were instructed to remember lists of words consisting of 12 common nouns each presented once every 1.5 sec, with a recall signal following the last word to indicate that all remembered items should be written on paper. This procedure was repeated for 20 different word lists. Both performance and late ERP amplitudes reflected classic recall serial position effects. Greater recall and larger late positive component amplitudes were obtained for the primacy and recency items, with less recall and smaller amplitudes for the middle words. The late positive component was larger for recalled compared to unrecalled primacy items, but it did not differ between memory performance outcomes for the recency items. The close relationship between the enhanced amplitude and primacy retrieval supports the view that this positive component reflects one of a process series related to attentional gradient and encoding of events for storage in memory. Recency effects appear to index operations determined by the anticipation of the last stimulus presentation, which occurred for both recalled and unrecalled memory items. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:17892393
Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.
2011-12-01
In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with
Ruslana Sushko
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential. Material and Methods: in order to identify the factors that have supported the performance of Ukraine's male national team in the European Championship, data analysis and generalization of scientific and technical literature and online data, analysis of official protocols of competitive activities, analysis and generalization of best pedagogical practices, pedagogical supervision, methods of mathematical statistics were used. Results: the efficiency of competitive activity of basketball players was analyzed using such indicators as team roles, won and lost matches, scored and missed points, technical, tactical and age indicators. Conclusions: the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential were identified with regard to age indicators
Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Kvadsheim, Petter Helgevold; Ainslie, Michael
2016-01-01
Effects of noise on fish populations may be predicted by the population consequence of acoustic disturbance (PCAD) model. We have predicted the potential risk of population disturbance when the highest sound exposure level (SEL) at which adult herring do not respond to naval sonar (SEL(0)) is exceeded. When the population density is low (feeding), the risk is low even at high sonar source levels and long-duration exercises (>24 h). With densely packed populations (overwintering), a sonar exercise might expose the entire population to levels >SEL(0) within a 24-h exercise period. However, the disturbance will be short and the response threshold used here is highly conservative. It is therefore unlikely that naval sonar will significantly impact the herring population.
Anacardic acid-mediated changes in membrane potential and pH gradient across liposomal membranes.
Toyomizu, Masaaki; Okamoto, Katsuyuki; Akiba, Yukio; Nakatsu, Tetsuo; Konishi, Tetsuya
2002-01-01
We have previously shown that anacardic acid has an uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria using succinate as a substrate (Life Sci. 66 (2000) 229-234). In the present study, for clarification of the physicochemical characteristics of anacardic acid, we used a cyanine dye (DiS-C3(5)) and 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) to determine changes of membrane potential (DeltaPsi) and pH difference (DeltapH), respectively, in a liposome suspension in response to the addition of anacardic acid to the suspension. The anacardic acid quenched DiS-C3(5) fluorescence at concentrations higher than 300 nM, with the degree of quenching being dependent on the log concentration of the acid. Furthermore, the K(+) diffusion potential generated by the addition of valinomycin to the suspension decreased for each increase in anacardic acid concentration used over 300 nM, but the sum of the anacardic acid- and valinomycin-mediated quenching was additively increasing. This indicates that the anacardic acid-mediated quenching was not due simply to increments in the K(+) permeability of the membrane. Addition of anacardic acid in the micromolar range to the liposomes with DeltaPsi formed by valinomycin-K(+) did not significantly alter 9-AA fluorescence, but unexpectedly dissipated DeltaPsi. The DeltaPsi preformed by valinomycin-K(+) decreased gradually following the addition of increasing concentrations of anacardic acid. The DeltaPsi dissipation rate was dependent on the pre-existing magnitude of DeltaPsi, and was correlated with the logarithmic concentration of anacardic acid. Furthermore, the initial rate of DeltapH dissipation increased with logarithmic increases in anacardic acid concentration. These results provide the evidence for a unique function of anacardic acid, dissimilar to carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or valinomycin, in that anacardic acid behaves as both an electrogenic (negative) charge carrier driven by DeltaPsi, and a 'proton
Wright, Matthew; Matthews, James; Bacak, Asan; Silva, Hugo; Priestley, Michael; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley
2016-04-01
Small ions are created in the atmosphere by ground based radioactive decay and solar and cosmic radiation ionising the air. The ionosphere is maintained at a high potential relative to the Earth due to global thunderstorm activity, a current from the ionosphere transfers charge back to the ground through the weakly ionised atmosphere. A potential gradient (PG) exists between the ionosphere and the ground that can be measured in fair weather using devices such as an electric field mill. PG is inversely-proportional to the conductivity of the air and therefore to the number of ions of a given electrical mobility; a reduction of air ions will cause an increase of PG. Aerosols in the atmosphere act as a sink of air ions with an attachment rate dependent on aerosol size distribution and ion mobility. These relationships have been used to infer high particulate, and hence pollution, levels in historic datasets of atmospheric PG. A measurement campaign was undertaken in Manchester, UK for three weeks in July and August where atmospheric PG was measured with an electric field mill (JCI131, JCI Chilworth) on a second floor balcony, aerosol size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI3936), aerosol concentration measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC, Grimm 5.403) and local meteorological measurements taken on a rooftop measurement site ~200 m away. Field mill and CPC data were taken at 1 s intervals and SMPS data in 2.5 minute cycles. Data were excluded for one hour either side of rainfall as rainclouds and droplets can carry significant charge which would affect PG. A quantity relating to the attachment of ions to aerosol (Ion Sink) was derived from the effective attachment coefficient of the aerosols. Further measurements with the field mill and CPC were taken at the same location in November 2015 when bonfire events would be expected to increase aerosol concentrations. During the summer measurements, particle number count (PNC
Impact of local environmental conditions on atmospheric electrical potential gradient measurements
Buzás, Attila; Barta, Veronika; Steinbach, Péter; Bór, József
2017-04-01
The atmospheric electrical potential gradient (PG) is a fundamental parameter of the global electric circuit (GEC) which comprises all large scale quasi-static electrical processes occurring in between the surface of the Earth and the lower ionosphere. The observation of PG near the Earth's surface plays a pivotal role in surveying our atmospheric electrical environment. The PG shows high variability in different temporal and spatial scales and it is especially sensitive to local effects. Therefore, obtaining a PG value which represents the general state of the GEC over a larger area rather than various effects due to measuring site-specific local factors is a challenging task. PG measurements are going on in the Széchenyi István Geophysical Observatory (NCK, 47°38' N, 16°43' E) of the Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences near Nagycenk, Hungary since 1961. PG sensors are set up in NCK in an open area surrounded by buildings and trees within 20 m distance. The effect of the changing vegetation on the long-term trend observed in the PG variation at NCK has been subject of debates [1,2,3]. In order to examine the possible bias in the measured PG values due to the relatively close buildings and trees at NCK, two sets of simultaneous PG measurements from two EFM-100 field mills were compared. One field mill was kept at a fixed location while the other was moved to grid points covering the open area around the fixed field mill. The measurement was done in fair weather conditions in summer and was repeated during the winter. The poster demonstrates the performance of this method in surveying the effect of various objects and the state of vegetation on the measured PG values by comparing the measured PG differences to those obtained from electrostatic models calculated by the finite element method using the FEMM 4.2 software package. [1] F. Märcz and R. G. Harrison, 2003, Annales Gephysicae, 21: 2193-2200 [2] F. Märcz and R
Nguyen, T.; Berg, van den A.; Eijkel, J.C.T.
2015-01-01
We present an in-depth analysis and analytical solution for AC hydrodynamic flow (driven by a timedependent pressure gradient and/or electric fields) of viscoelastic fluid through cylindrical micro-, nanochannels. Particularly, for this purpose we solve the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation tog
缪铭铭
2011-01-01
研究目的:大同至西安客运专线所经霍州至洪洞段地形陡峭,须翻越霍山山脉.为有效减少24.7 km的不良地质隧道对铁路建设、运营安全的影响,对大西客专所采用的最大坡度值进行了研究.研究结论:针对霍山越岭地段20‰、25‰、30‰三个最大坡度方案进行论述和技术经济比选,以及对国内250～300 km/h动车组在长大坡段上的加速、制动性能进行模拟.在保证运营安全的前提下,采用30‰的最大坡度可取消霍山越岭长大隧道,并有效地节省工程投资.合理提出30‰为大西客专局部困难地段的最大坡度.%Research purposes: The section between Huozhou - Hongdong of Datong - Xi 'an Passenger Dedicated Line had to cross the Huoshan mountain chain with steep terrain.In order to effectively decrease the negative impact of 24.7 km long tunnel with unfavorable geological condition on the railway construction and operation, the research was done on the maximum gradient value for the railway.Research conclusions:The discussion and technical and economic comparison were made for three schemes of 20‰gradient, 25‰ gradient and 30‰ gradient in the Huoshan crossing section, and the simulations of acceleration andbreaking performances of the 250 - 300 km/h EMU running on long slope were made.If the 30‰ gradient was used,the Huoshan long slope tunnel could be cancelled and the construction investment could be saved.So the 30‰ gradientwas determined as the maximum gradient in some difficult sections of this railway.
Extreme Gradients in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Structure, Evolution, and Potential Causes.
Balsley, Ben B.; Frehlich, Rod G.; Jensen, Michael L.; Meillier, Yannick; Muschinski, Andreas
2003-10-01
During the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99) campaign in southeastern Kansas in the fall of 1999, the University of Colorado's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) made a series of vertical profiling measurements using the CIRES tethered lifting system (TLS). The results reported here began during a period when the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) was characterized by a low-level jet (LLJ) peaking at 120 m and a temperature profile that increased smoothly with height to a point slightly above the height of the LLJ peak. Then, within a period of less than 30 min, the character of the NBL changed abruptly, with the breakdown of the well-defined LLJ and the appearance of a surprisingly steep temperature change of some 3.5 K around 180-190 m AGL. Part of this inversion was extremely sharp, with the steepest portion showing a temperature change of 1 K over an altitude range of only 5 cm, corresponding to a vertical temperature gradient in excess of 20 K m-1. The general shape of this steep gradient was maintained-albeit with slightly reduced values-for at least 20 min. It is understood that the magnitude of the steepest portion of this gradient exceeds all previously observed atmospheric gradients by over an order of magnitude, although comparable gradients-albeit under very disparate conditions-have been observed in the ocean.A second surprising feature apparent in these results was the steepness of the gradients in turbulence structure at the top of the NBL and within the residual layer (RL), the region above the NBL that is usually slightly stably stratified and extends upward to the height marked by the vestiges of the previous day's capping inversion. At the NBL top, energy dissipation rates and temperature structure parameters dropped sharply by more than one order of magnitude over a distance of only a few meters. At higher altitudes within the RL, a 60-m-thick region of very weak turbulence was observed
Seeing through the Ground: The Potential of Gravity Gradient as a Complementary Technology
N. Metje
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the UK there is a huge legacy of buried utility service pipelines and cables beneath our streets and new services, such as fibre optic cables, are being added all the time. Much of this utility network is poorly mapped and recorded. It is therefore important to accurately locate and map these services to aid the installation of new, and repair and maintenance of existing, assets. This will help avoid damage to adjacent services and reduce the direct and social costs associated with finding buried utilities. This paper describes two major UK initiatives—Mapping the Underworld (MTU and Gravity Gradient Technologies and Opportunities Programme (GG-TOP—that aim to improve the way that we locate, map, and share information on buried utility services. MTU aims to develop a multisensor device to locate buried services, while GG-TOP aims to develop gravity gradient technology to deliver a (three orders of magnitude step change in performance.
Lawrence, K E; Summers, S R; Heath, A C G; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E
2016-07-15
The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T. orientalis infection by region, island and the whole of New Zealand and to estimate the average relative environmental suitability per farm by region, island and the whole of New Zealand. The relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission was estimated using the Maxent (maximum entropy) modelling program. The Maxent model predicted that 99% of North Island cattle farms (n=36,257), 64% South Island cattle farms (n=15,542) and 89% of New Zealand cattle farms overall (n=51,799) could potentially be suitable for T. orientalis transmission. The average relative environmental suitability of T. orientalis transmission at the farm level was 0.34 in the North Island, 0.02 in the South Island and 0.24 overall. The study showed that the potential spatial distribution of T. orientalis environmental suitability was much greater than presumed in the early part of the Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) epidemic. Maximum entropy offers a computer efficient method of modelling the probability of habitat suitability for an arthropod vectored disease. This model could help estimate the boundaries of the endemically stable and endemically unstable areas for T. orientalis transmission within New Zealand and be of considerable value in informing practitioner and farmer biosecurity decisions in these respective areas.
Deshpande, Paritosh C; Tilwankar, Atit K; Asolekar, Shyam R
2012-11-01
The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang-Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 μg/Nm(3) and 428 μg/Nm(3) (at 4m/s and 1m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 μg/Nm(3). These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 μg/Nm(3)). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling yards in India.
A.F.C. Infantosi
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The present study proposes to apply magnitude-squared coherence (MSC to the somatosensory evoked potential for identifying the maximum driving response band. EEG signals, leads [Fpz'-Cz'] and [C3'-C4'], were collected from two groups of normal volunteers, stimulated at the rate of 4.91 (G1: 26 volunteers and 5.13 Hz (G2: 18 volunteers. About 1400 stimuli were applied to the right tibial nerve at the motor threshold level. After applying the anti-aliasing filter, the signals were digitized and then further low-pass filtered (200 Hz, 6th order Butterworth and zero-phase. Based on the rejection of the null hypothesis of response absence (MSC(f > 0.0060 with 500 epochs and the level of significance set at a = 0.05, the beta and gamma bands, 15-66 Hz, were identified as the maximum driving response band. Taking both leads together ("logical-OR detector", with a false-alarm rate of a = 0.05, and hence a = 0.0253 for each derivation, the detection exceeded 70% for all multiples of the stimulation frequency within this range. Similar performance was achieved for MSC of both leads but at 15, 25, 35, and 40 Hz. Moreover, the response was detected in [C3'-C4'] at 35.9 Hz and in [Fpz'-Cz'] at 46.2 Hz for all members of G2. Using the "logical-OR detector" procedure, the response was detected at the 7th multiple of the stimulation frequency for the series as a whole (considering both groups. Based on these findings, the MSC technique may be used for monitoring purposes.
Sada, H
1978-10-01
Effects of phentolamine (13.3, 26.5 and 53.0 micron), alprenolol (3.5, 7.0 and 17.5 micron) and prenylamine (2.4, 4.8 and 11.9 micron) on the transmembrane potential were studied in isolated guinea-pig papillary muscles, superfused with Tyrode's solution. 1. Phentolamine, alprenolol and prenylamine reduced the maximum rate of rise of action potential (.Vmax) dose-dependently. Higher concentrations of phentolamine and prenylamine caused a loss of plateau in a majority of the preparations. Resting potential was not altered by any of the drugs. Readmittance of drug-free Tyrode's solution reversed these changes induced by 13.3 micron of phentolamine and all conconcentrations of alprenolol almost completely but those induced by higher concentrations of phentolamine and all concentrations of prenylamine only slightly. 2. .Vmax at steady state was increased with decreasing driving frequencies (0.5 and 0.25 Hz) and was decreased with increasing ones (2--5 Hz) in comparison with that at 1 Hz. Such changes were all exaggerated by the above drugs, particularly by prenylamine. 3. Prenylamine and, to a lesser degree, phentolamine and alprenolol delayed dose-dependently the recovery process of .Vmax in premature responses. 4. .Vmax in the first response after interruption of stimulation recovered toward the predrug value in the presence of the above three drugs. The time constants of recovery process ranged between 10.5 and 15.0s for phentolamine, between 4.5 and 15.5s for alprenolol. The time constant of the main component was estimated to be approximately 2s for the recovery process with prenylamine. 5. On the basis of the model recently proposed by Hondeghem and Katzung (1977), it is suggested that the drug molecules associate with the open sodium channels and dissociated slowly from the closed channels and that the inactivation parameter in the drug-associated channels is shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction.
Kojima, M; Ichiyama, M; Ban, T
1986-07-01
Phenytoin, at 50 to 200 micrograms reduced the maximum upstroke velocity of action potentials (Vmax) with increases in frequency from 0.25 to 5 Hz and in the external potassium concentration [( K+]0) from 2.7 to 8.1 mM. The drug-induced shortening of action potential duration was evident at 0.25 to 2 Hz but little at 3 to 5 Hz. Time courses of recovery of Vmax was studied by applying premature responses between the conditioning responses at 1 Hz both in control and in drug-treated preparations. Concerning the time courses of the difference between the Vmax values before and after drug treatments at the same diastolic interval, with increases in drug concentrations the intercepts at APD90 were increased but the time constants were not changed or slightly decreased in 8.1 to 5.4 mM [K+]0, whereas they were increased in 2.7 mM [K+]0. To understand the kinetic behavior of this drug on sodium channels, rate constants for the interaction of phenytoin with three states of channels in terms of Hondeghem-Katzung model were estimated from the above experiments of Vmax. The model most consistent with the present experiments was that with an affinity for inactivated channels 20 times greater than that for resting channels and with a minor affinity for open channels. Phenytoin produced a delay in the time course of recovery of overshoot and action potential duration at 0 mV (APD0), suggesting an additional inhibition of the slow channel by this drug.
Guoqing Li
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a tree species of high economic and ecological value, but is also considered to be highly invasive. Understanding the global potential distribution and ecological characteristics of this species is a prerequisite for its practical exploitation as a resource. Here, a maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt was used to simulate the potential distribution of this species around the world, and the dominant climatic factors affecting its distribution were selected by using a jackknife test and the regularized gain change during each iteration of the training algorithm. The results show that the MaxEnt model performs better than random, with an average test AUC value of 0.9165 (±0.0088. The coldness index, annual mean temperature and warmth index were the most important climatic factors affecting the species distribution, explaining 65.79% of the variability in the geographical distribution. Species response curves showed unimodal relationships with the annual mean temperature and warmth index, whereas there was a linear relationship with the coldness index. The dominant climatic conditions in the core of the black locust distribution are a coldness index of −9.8 °C–0 °C, an annual mean temperature of 5.8 °C–14.5 °C, a warmth index of 66 °C–168 °C and an annual precipitation of 508–1867 mm. The potential distribution of black locust is located mainly in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Chile and Argentina. The predictive map of black locust, climatic thresholds and species response curves can provide globally applicable guidelines and valuable information for policymakers and planners involved in the introduction, planting and invasion control of this species around the world.
Jan H.P. Serfontein
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to calculate potential cost savings that could have been generated by maximum generic substitution of antidepressants within the private health care sector of South Africa from 2004 to 2006. Data on computerised medicine claims of patients receiving one or more antidepressants during three consecutive years (i.e. 2004, 2005 and 2006 were elicited from a South African pharmaceutical benefit management company. The total study population consisted of 292 071 items (N = 5 982 869 on 273 673 prescriptions (N = 5 213 765 at a total cost of R56 183 697.91(N = R1 346 210 929.00. A quantitative, retrospective drug utilisation review was conducted, and data were analysed using the Statistical Analysis System® programme. Potential cost savings were computed for criteria-eligible substances in the study population. Generic medicine constituted 58.7% (N = 292 071 of all antidepressants claimed, at a total cost of 28.2% (N = R1 346 210 929.00of all incurred costs. With total substitution of the average price of all criteria-eligible innovators, a potential saving of 9.3% (N = R56 183 697.91 of the actual antidepressant cost over the study period was calculated. In developing countries with limited health care resources, generic medicines can be cost-saving treatment alternatives.
Opsomming
Die hoofmikpunt van hierdie studie was om die potensiële kostebesparing te bereken wat deur maksimale generiese vervanging van antidepressante in die Suid-Afrikaanse private gesondheidsorgsektor tussen 2004 en 2006 teweeggebring sou kon word. Data oor gerekenariseerde eise vir medisyne van pasiënte wat een of meer antidepressante gedurende die studietydperk ontvang het (d.i. 2004, 2005 en 2006 is van ŉ Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappy wat farmaseutiese voordele bestuur, verkry. Die totale studiepopulasie het bestaan uit 292 071 items (N = 5 982 869van 273 673 voorskrifte (N = 5 213 765 teen ŉ totale koste van R56
Kim, Kyungsoo; Lim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jaeseok; Kang, Won-Seok; Moon, Cheil; Choi, Ji-Woong
2016-06-16
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) measure a brain signal that contains abundant information about the human brain function and health. For this reason, recent clinical brain research and brain computer interface (BCI) studies use EEG signals in many applications. Due to the significant noise in EEG traces, signal processing to enhance the signal to noise power ratio (SNR) is necessary for EEG analysis, especially for non-invasive EEG. A typical method to improve the SNR is averaging many trials of event related potential (ERP) signal that represents a brain's response to a particular stimulus or a task. The averaging, however, is very sensitive to variable delays. In this study, we propose two time delay estimation (TDE) schemes based on a joint maximum likelihood (ML) criterion to compensate the uncertain delays which may be different in each trial. We evaluate the performance for different types of signals such as random, deterministic, and real EEG signals. The results show that the proposed schemes provide better performance than other conventional schemes employing averaged signal as a reference, e.g., up to 4 dB gain at the expected delay error of 10°.
Kim, Kyungsoo; Lim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jaeseok; Kang, Won-Seok; Moon, Cheil; Choi, Ji-Woong
2016-01-01
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) measure a brain signal that contains abundant information about the human brain function and health. For this reason, recent clinical brain research and brain computer interface (BCI) studies use EEG signals in many applications. Due to the significant noise in EEG traces, signal processing to enhance the signal to noise power ratio (SNR) is necessary for EEG analysis, especially for non-invasive EEG. A typical method to improve the SNR is averaging many trials of event related potential (ERP) signal that represents a brain’s response to a particular stimulus or a task. The averaging, however, is very sensitive to variable delays. In this study, we propose two time delay estimation (TDE) schemes based on a joint maximum likelihood (ML) criterion to compensate the uncertain delays which may be different in each trial. We evaluate the performance for different types of signals such as random, deterministic, and real EEG signals. The results show that the proposed schemes provide better performance than other conventional schemes employing averaged signal as a reference, e.g., up to 4 dB gain at the expected delay error of 10°. PMID:27322267
Kyungsoo Kim
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Electroencephalograms (EEGs measure a brain signal that contains abundant information about the human brain function and health. For this reason, recent clinical brain research and brain computer interface (BCI studies use EEG signals in many applications. Due to the significant noise in EEG traces, signal processing to enhance the signal to noise power ratio (SNR is necessary for EEG analysis, especially for non-invasive EEG. A typical method to improve the SNR is averaging many trials of event related potential (ERP signal that represents a brain’s response to a particular stimulus or a task. The averaging, however, is very sensitive to variable delays. In this study, we propose two time delay estimation (TDE schemes based on a joint maximum likelihood (ML criterion to compensate the uncertain delays which may be different in each trial. We evaluate the performance for different types of signals such as random, deterministic, and real EEG signals. The results show that the proposed schemes provide better performance than other conventional schemes employing averaged signal as a reference, e.g., up to 4 dB gain at the expected delay error of 10°.
Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin
2012-01-01
Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infection presence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with five predictive environmental/climatic and demographic variables, and a maximum entropy niche modelling method to construct the first ecological niche maps describing potential distribution and burden of LF in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against climate projections made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA models for 2050 under A2a and B2a scenarios to simulate the likely distribution of LF under future climate and population changes. We predict a broad geographic distribution of LF in Africa extending from the west to the east across the middle region of the continent, with high probabilities of occurrence in the Western Africa compared to large areas of medium probability interspersed with smaller areas of high probability in Central and Eastern Africa and in Madagascar. We uncovered complex relationships between predictor ecological niche variables and the probability of LF occurrence. We show for the first time that predicted climate change and population growth will expand both the range and risk of LF infection (and ultimately disease) in an endemic region. We estimate that populations at risk to LF may range from 543 and 804 million currently, and that this could rise to between 1.65 to 1.86 billion in the future depending on the climate scenario used and thresholds applied to signify infection presence.
Doss, Michael Xavier; Di Diego, José M; Goodrow, Robert J; Wu, Yuesheng; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Nesterenko, Vladislav V; Barajas-Martínez, Héctor; Hu, Dan; Urrutia, Janire; Desai, Mayurika; Treat, Jacqueline A; Sachinidis, Agapios; Antzelevitch, Charles
2012-01-01
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) hold promise for therapeutic applications. To serve these functions, the hiPSC-CM must recapitulate the electrophysiologic properties of native adult cardiomyocytes. This study examines the electrophysiologic characteristics of hiPSC-CM between 11 and 121 days of maturity. Embryoid bodies (EBs) were generated from hiPS cell line reprogrammed with Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Sox2. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record action potentials (AP) from spontaneously beating clusters (BC) micro-dissected from the EBs (n = 103; 37°C) and to examine the response to 5 µM E-4031 (n = 21) or BaCl(2) (n = 22). Patch-clamp techniques were used to record I(Kr) and I(K1) from cells enzymatically dissociated from BC (n = 49; 36°C). Spontaneous cycle length (CL) and AP characteristics varied widely among the 103 preparations. E-4031 (5 µM; n = 21) increased Bazett-corrected AP duration from 291.8±81.2 to 426.4±120.2 msec (pKr) in all (11/11). Consistent with the electrophysiological data, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry studies showed relatively poor mRNA and protein expression of I(K1) in the majority of cells, but robust expression of I(Kr.) In contrast to recently reported studies, our data point to major deficiencies of hiPSC-CM, with remarkable diversity of electrophysiologic phenotypes as well as pharmacologic responsiveness among beating clusters and cells up to 121 days post-differentiation (dpd). The vast majority have a maximum diastolic potential that depends critically on I(Kr) due to the absence of I(K1). Thus, efforts should be directed at producing more specialized and mature hiPSC-CM for future therapeutic applications.
Hannah Slater
Full Text Available Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF, in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infection presence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with five predictive environmental/climatic and demographic variables, and a maximum entropy niche modelling method to construct the first ecological niche maps describing potential distribution and burden of LF in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against climate projections made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA models for 2050 under A2a and B2a scenarios to simulate the likely distribution of LF under future climate and population changes. We predict a broad geographic distribution of LF in Africa extending from the west to the east across the middle region of the continent, with high probabilities of occurrence in the Western Africa compared to large areas of medium probability interspersed with smaller areas of high probability in Central and Eastern Africa and in Madagascar. We uncovered complex relationships between predictor ecological niche variables and the probability of LF occurrence. We show for the first time that predicted climate change and population growth will expand both the range and risk of LF infection (and ultimately disease in an endemic region. We estimate that populations at risk to LF may range from 543 and 804 million currently, and that this could rise to between 1.65 to 1.86 billion in the future depending on the climate scenario used and thresholds applied to signify infection presence.
Lovrić, Davorin; Vučić, Zlatko; Gladić, Jadranko
2007-06-01
The growth of spherical copper selenide single crystals (fed by Cu atoms at constant rate) is driven by the gradient of the chemical potential, which is in the absence of facets isotropic and proportional to inverse square of crystal radius. We investigate the influence of the facets on the local chemical potential gradient on the facet site by a model based on diffusion of Cu atoms with appropriate boundary conditions. The average chemical potential gradient decreases as crystal grows, acquiring values that are, except for the initial growing period, below the threshold value for activation of 2D nucleation. We show that in spite of this fact the local chemical potential gradient, due to the facet presence, may acquire large values, sufficient to activate 2D nucleation and to justify the occurrence of the growing mode consisting of alternation of time intervals of facet vertical growth with those in which facet does not advance, as has been preliminary detected in our experiments.
Mitochondrial membrane potential probes and the proton gradient: a practical usage guide.
Perry, Seth W; Norman, John P; Barbieri, Justin; Brown, Edward B; Gelbard, Harris A
2011-02-01
Fluorescent probes for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential are frequently used for assessing mitochondrial function, particularly in the context of cell fate determination in biological and biomedical research. However, valid interpretation of results obtained with such probes requires careful consideration of numerous controls, as well as possible effects of non-protonic charges on dye behavior. In this context, we provide an overview of some of the important technical considerations, controls, and parallel complementary assays that can be employed to help ensure appropriate interpretation of results, thus providing a practical usage guide for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potentials with cationic probes. In total, this review will help illustrate both the strengths and potential pitfalls of common mitochondrial membrane potential dyes, and highlight best-usage approaches for their efficacious application in life sciences research.
Grüning, M.; Gritsenko, O. V.; van Gisbergen, S. J. A.; Baerends, E. J.
2001-01-01
Shape corrections to the standard approximate Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation (xc) potentials are considered with the aim to improve the excitation energies (especially for higher excitations) calculated with time-dependent density functional perturbation theory. A scheme of gradient-regulated connection (GRAC) of inner to outer parts of a model potential is developed. Asymptotic corrections based either on the potential of Fermi and Amaldi or van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB) are seamlessly connected to the (shifted) xc potential of Becke and Perdew (BP) with the GRAC procedure, and are employed to calculate the vertical excitation energies of the prototype molecules N2, CO, CH2O, C2H4, C5NH5, C6H6, Li2, Na2, K2. The results are compared with those of the alternative interpolation scheme of Tozer and Handy as well as with the results of the potential obtained with the statistical averaging of (model) orbital potentials. Various asymptotically corrected potentials produce high quality excitation energies, which in quite a few cases approach the benchmark accuracy of 0.1 eV for the electronic spectra. Based on these results, the potential BP-GRAC-LB is proposed for molecular response calculations, which is a smooth potential and a genuine "local" density functional with an analytical representation.
Kleypas, Joan A; Thompson, Diane M; Castruccio, Frederic S; Curchitser, Enrique N; Pinsky, Malin; Watson, James R
2016-11-01
Coral reefs are increasingly exposed to elevated temperatures that can cause coral bleaching and high levels of mortality of corals and associated organisms. The temperature threshold for coral bleaching depends on the acclimation and adaptation of corals to the local maximum temperature regime. However, because of larval dispersal, coral populations can receive larvae from corals that are adapted to very different temperature regimes. We combine an offline particle tracking routine with output from a high-resolution physical oceanographic model to investigate whether connectivity of coral larvae between reefs of different thermal regimes could alter the thermal stress threshold of corals. Our results suggest that larval transport between reefs of widely varying temperatures is likely in the Coral Triangle and that accounting for this connectivity may be important in bleaching predictions. This has important implications in conservation planning, because connectivity may allow some reefs to have an inherited heat tolerance that is higher or lower than predicted based on local conditions alone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Steady-state properties of a finite system driven by a chemical-potential gradient
Andersen, Jørgen Vitting; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1990-01-01
A two-dimensional lattice-gas model with repulsive interactions periodically infinite in one dimension and finite in the other is driven into a mass-transporting steady state by asymmetric chemical potentials applied at the open edges. By computer-simulation techniques the steady-state current...
Henderson, Donald M; Nicholls, Robert
2015-08-01
Motivated by the work of palaeo-art "Double Death (2011)," a biomechanical analysis using three-dimensional digital models was conducted to assess the potential of a pair of the large, Late Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Carcharodontosaurus saharicus to successfully lift a medium-sized sauropod and not lose balance. Limaysaurus tessonei from the Late Cretaceous of South America was chosen as the sauropod as it is more completely known, but closely related to the rebbachisaurid sauropods found in the same deposits with C. saharicus. The body models incorporate the details of the low-density regions associated with lungs, systems of air sacs, and pneumatized axial skeletal regions. These details, along with the surface meshes of the models, were used to estimate the body masses and centers of mass of the two animals. It was found that a 6 t C. saharicus could successfully lift a mass of 2.5 t and not lose balance as the combined center of mass of the body and the load in the jaws would still be over the feet. However, the neck muscles were found to only be capable of producing enough force to hold up the head with an added mass of 424 kg held at the midpoint of the maxillary tooth row. The jaw adductor muscles were more powerful, and could have held a load of 512 kg. The more limiting neck constraint leads to the conclusion that two, adult C. saharicus could successfully lift a L. tessonei with a maximum body mass of 850 kg and a body length of 8.3 m.
Centeno, Diana A; Solano, Xuxan H; Castillo, John J
2017-08-01
A new plant peroxidase was isolated from the leaves of guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and partially purified using a biphasic polymer system (poly(ethylene glycol) - ammonium sulfate) followed by size-exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation until obtaining a homogeneous extract containing a high peroxidase activity. The novel peroxidase was characterized as having a specific activity of 408U/mg and a molecular weight of 30kDa. The pH for its optimum activity was 8.0 and exhibited a high thermostability at 66°C with a kinact of 8.0×10(-3)min(-1). The best substrates for peroxidase from guinea grass are o-dianisidine and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). POD from guinea grass was directly immobilized on the surface of a graphene screen printed electrode and cyclic voltammograms in the presence of potassium ferrocyanide ([Fe(CN)6](3-/4-)) as a redox species demonstrated an increase in the electron transfer process. The graphene- modified electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of H2O2, with a linear response in the 100μM to 3.5mM concentration range and a detection limit of 150μM. The new peroxidase from guinea grass allowed the modification of a graphene electrode providing a potential sensor detection system for determination of H2O2 in real samples with some biomedical or environmental importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Michael Xavier Doss
Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM hold promise for therapeutic applications. To serve these functions, the hiPSC-CM must recapitulate the electrophysiologic properties of native adult cardiomyocytes. This study examines the electrophysiologic characteristics of hiPSC-CM between 11 and 121 days of maturity. Embryoid bodies (EBs were generated from hiPS cell line reprogrammed with Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Sox2. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record action potentials (AP from spontaneously beating clusters (BC micro-dissected from the EBs (n = 103; 37°C and to examine the response to 5 µM E-4031 (n = 21 or BaCl(2 (n = 22. Patch-clamp techniques were used to record I(Kr and I(K1 from cells enzymatically dissociated from BC (n = 49; 36°C. Spontaneous cycle length (CL and AP characteristics varied widely among the 103 preparations. E-4031 (5 µM; n = 21 increased Bazett-corrected AP duration from 291.8±81.2 to 426.4±120.2 msec (p<0.001 and generated early afterdepolarizations in 8/21 preparations. In 13/21 BC, E-4031 rapidly depolarized the clusters leading to inexcitability. BaCl(2, at concentrations that selectively block I(K1 (50-100 µM, failed to depolarize the majority of clusters (13/22. Patch-clamp experiments revealed very low or negligible I(K1 in 53% (20/38 of the cells studied, but presence of I(Kr in all (11/11. Consistent with the electrophysiological data, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry studies showed relatively poor mRNA and protein expression of I(K1 in the majority of cells, but robust expression of I(Kr. In contrast to recently reported studies, our data point to major deficiencies of hiPSC-CM, with remarkable diversity of electrophysiologic phenotypes as well as pharmacologic responsiveness among beating clusters and cells up to 121 days post-differentiation (dpd. The vast majority have a maximum diastolic potential that depends critically on I(Kr due to the absence of
Lin, E. I. H.
1982-01-01
A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.
Mitochondrial membrane potential probes and the proton gradient: a practical usage guide
Seth W Perry; Norman, John P.; Barbieri, Justin; Brown, Edward B.; Gelbard, Harris A.
2011-01-01
Fluorescent probes for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential are frequently used for assessing mitochondrial function, particularly in the context of cell fate determination in biological and biomedical research. However, valid interpretation of results obtained with such probes requires careful consideration of numerous controls, as well as possible effects of non-protonic charges on dye behavior. In this context, we provide an overview of some of the important technical considerations...
Haakensen, M; Schubert, A; Ziola, B
2009-03-15
Identification of the beer-spoilage Lactobacillus and Pediococcus bacteria has largely taken two approaches; identification of spoilage-associated genes or identification of specific species of bacteria regardless of ability to grow in beer. The problem with these two approaches is that they are either overly inclusive (i.e., detect all bacteria of a given species regardless of spoilage potential) or overly selective (i.e., rely upon individual, putative spoilage-associated genes). Our goal was to design a method to assess the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus to spoil beer that is independent of speciation or genetic background. In searching for a method by which to differentiate between beer-spoilage bacteria and bacteria that cannot grow in beer, we explored the ability of lactobacilli and pediococci isolates to grow in the presence of varying concentrations of hop-compounds and ethanol in broth medium versus on agar medium. The best method for differentiating between bacteria that can grow in beer and bacteria that do not pose a threat as beer-spoilage organisms was found to be a hop-gradient agar plate containing ethanol. This hop-gradient agar plate technique provides a rapid and simple solution to the dilemma of assessing the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates to grow in beer, and provides new insights into the different strategies used by these bacteria to survive under the stringent conditions of beer.
Carbonero, Franck; Oakley, Brian B; Hawkins, Robert J; Purdy, Kevin J
2012-05-01
A reductionist ecological approach of using a model genus was adopted in order to understand how microbial community structure is driven by metabolic properties. The distribution along an estuarine gradient of the highly specialised genus Methanosaeta was investigated and compared to the previously determined distribution of the more metabolically flexible Desulfobulbus. Methanosaeta genotypic distribution along the Colne estuary (Essex, UK) was determined by DNA- and RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Methanosaeta distribution was monotonic, with a consistently diverse community and no apparent niche partitioning either in DNA or RNA analyses. This distribution pattern contrasts markedly with the previously described niche partitioning and sympatric differentiation of the model generalist, Desulfobulbus. To explain this difference, it is hypothesised that Methanosaeta's strict metabolic needs limit its adaptation potential, thus populations do not partition into spatially distinct groups and so do not appear to be constrained by gross environmental factors such as salinity. Thus, at least for these two model genera, it appears that metabolic flexibility may be an important factor in spatial distribution and this may be applicable to other microbes.
Lei Ke
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of rare-earth doping and low-temperature sintering on electrical properties of ZnO varistors were investigated. The potential gradient (E1mA of the ZnO varistors increased significantly to 2247.2 V/mm after doping 0.08 mol% of Y2O3 and sintering at 800°C for 2 h. The notable decrease of the grain size with the given experimental conditions was the origin for the increase in E1mA. During the process of high-temperature sintering, both the oxygen at the grain boundary interface and the neutralisation of the ions on the depletion layer were directly reduced, which caused the weight loss and the internal derangement of double Schottky barriers.
Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J; Chylla, Roger A; Markley, John L
2011-12-15
Time-zero 2D (13)C HSQC (HSQC(0)) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC(0) spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero (1)H-(13)C HSQC(0) in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant-time mode. Semiautomatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semiautomated gsHSQC(0) with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC(0) approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture.
Kawai, Cintia; Pessoto, Felipe S; Graves, Catharine V; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Nantes, Iseli L
2013-08-01
The present study investigated the effects of ΔΨ and ΔpH (pH gradient) on the interaction of cytochrome c with a mitochondrial mimetic membrane composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and cardiolipin (CL) leading to vesicle fusion. ΔpH generated by lowered bulk pH (pH(out)) of PCPECL liposomes, with an internal pH (pH(in)) of 8.0, favored vesicle fusion with a titration sigmoidal profile (pK(a) ~ 6.9). Conversely, ΔpH generated by enhanced pH(in) of PCPECL at a pH(out) of 6.0 favored the fusion of vesicles with a linear profile. We did not observe a significant amount of liposome fusion when ΔpH was generated by lowered pH(in) at a pH(out) of 8.0. At bulk acidic pH, ΔΨ generated by Na⁺ gradient also favored cyt c-promoted vesicle fusion. At acidic and alkaline pH(out), the presence of ΔpH and ΔΨ did not affect cytochrome c binding affinity measured by pyrene quenching. Therefore, cytochrome c-mediated PC/PE/CL vesicle fusion is dependent of ionization of the protein site L (acidic pH) and the presence of transmembrane potential. The effect of transmembrane potential is probably related to the generation of defects on the lipid bilayer. These results are consistent with previous reports showing that cytochrome c release prior to the dissipation of the ΔΨ(M) blocks inner mitochondrial membrane fusion during apoptosis.
Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne
2013-01-01
To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C, and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (QST) was significantly higher at 22°C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (GST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18°C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as QST was significantly lower than GST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58–0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143
Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; van Boxel, J.H.; Cabrera, M.; González-Carranza, Z.; González-Arango, C.; Stevens, W.D.; Montiel, O.M.; Raven, P.H.
2014-01-01
We provide an innovative pollen-driven connectivity framework of the dynamic altitudinal distribution of North Andean biomes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Altitudinally changing biome distributions reconstructed from a pollen record from Lake La Cocha (2780 m) are assessed in terms of their
Merino, Andrés; Martín, M. L.; Fernández-González, S.; Sánchez, J. L.; Valero, F.
2017-07-01
The aim of this paper is to analyze spatiotemporal distribution of maximum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) by using various extreme maximum temperature indices. Thresholds for determining temperature extreme event (TEE) severity are defined using 99th percentiles of daily temperature time series for the period 1948 to 2009. The synoptic-scale fields of such events were analyzed in order to better understand the related atmospheric processes. The results indicate that the regions with a higher risk of maximum temperatures are located in the river valleys of southwest and northeast of the IP, while the Cantabrian coast and mountain ranges are characterized by lower risk. The TEEs were classified, by means of several synoptic fields (sea level pressure, temperature, and geopotential height at 850 and 500 hPa), in four clusters that largely explain their spatiotemporal distribution on the IP. The results of this study show that TEEs mainly occur associated with a ridge elongated from Subtropical areas. The relationships of TEEs with teleconnection patterns, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO), and Mediterranean Oscillation (MO), showed that the interannual variability of extreme maximum temperatures is largely controlled by the dominant phase of WeMO in all seasons except wintertime where NAO is prevailing. Results related to MO pattern show less relevance in the maximum temperatures variability. The correct identification of synoptic patterns linked with the most extreme temperature event associated with each cluster will assist the prediction of events that can pose a natural hazard, thereby providing useful information for decision making and warning systems.
Sawall, Yvonne
2015-03-10
Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.
Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin
2015-03-01
Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.
Jeeva, K.; Gurubaran, S.; Williams, E. R.; Kamra, A. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Guha, A.; Selvaraj, C.; Nair, K. U.; Dhar, Ajay
2016-11-01
The scope of this paper is to explore the mechanisms operating over Maitri (70.76°S, 11.74°E, 117 m above mean sea level), a coastal Antarctic station, that produce an anomalous fair-weather diurnal pattern of the atmospheric electric potential gradient (PG) and air-Earth current density (AEC). The anomaly in the diurnal variations of AEC and the PG is displaying an ostensible minimum at 10 UT and a diminished response to the thunderstorm over the African continent in the 14-16 UT time frame. The data sets (2005-2014, except 2012) of the PG, and to some extent, AEC, from Maitri, are used to explore this anomaly. It follows that the fair-weather electrical phenomena over Maitri can be ascribed to global electrified convection on the one hand and to regional phenomena like convection due to the replacement of warm air by katabatic winds on the other hand. The katabatic winds originate on the polar plateau and blow from 130° at Maitri which are likely to transport various elements from the mountain slopes, and space charge from the polar plateau is expected to produce various disturbances in the PG and AEC monitored over the coastal Antarctica. This mechanism may be responsible for peaks in the early UT hours and also for the anomalous behavior of atmospheric electrical parameters observed at Maitri. Maitri data are compared with that of Carnegie cruise and Vostok to explain the source of anomaly.
Hevia, Arancha; Delgado, Susana; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja
2015-11-19
The idea of considering the gut microbiota as a virtual human organ has led to the concept of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which has recently been extremely successful in the treatment of cases of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Administration of safe, viable, and representative fecal microbiota is crucial for FMT. To our knowledge, suitable techniques and systematic conditions for separating the fecal microbiota from stool samples have not been thoroughly investigated. In this work we show the potential to separate stool microorganisms from the rest of fecal material using a procedure with a Nycodenz® density gradient, yielding 10(10) viable bacteria per two grams of feces. This procedure did not affect the original microbiota composition in terms of viability, distribution and proportions, as assessed by a phylogenetic metagenomic approach. Obtaining the fecal microbiota by concentration and separation of the microorganisms from the rest of the stool components would allow the standardization of its recovery and its long-term preservation. FMT or similar microbiota restoration therapies could be used for the treatment of several disorders, or even for aesthetic purposes, so the method described in our work may contribute to the setting of the basis for the development of safe and standardized products.
2011-01-01
Part 1: Simulation, Optimization, Monitoring and Control Technology; International audience; Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is one of the most destructive pests of grape in the Palearctic region. The potential geographical distribution of this pest is important to agriculture security. In this study, Maxent and ArcGIS were used to project the potential geographical distribution of L. botrana in China under the current climate. The result indicated th...
Brian K Walker
Full Text Available Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0-30 m benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework
Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Sams, Carl E; Nasim, Ghazala
2008-03-01
Stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rates vary widely across plant species. Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) tends to change with g (s), to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent wide and potentially harmful fluctuations in transpiration-induced water potential gradients across the leaf (Delta Psi leaf). Because arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often increases gs in the plant host, we tested whether the symbiosis affects leaf hydraulic homeostasis. Specifically, we tested whether k leaf changes with gs to maintain Delta Psi leaf or whether Delta Psi leaf differs when gs differs in AM and non-AM plants. Colonization of squash plants with Glomus intraradices resulted in increased gs relative to non-AM controls, by an average of 27% under amply watered, unstressed conditions. Stomatal conductance was similar in AM and non-AM plants with exposure to NaCl stress. Across all AM and NaCl treatments, k leaf did change in synchrony with gs (positive correlation of gs and k leaf), corroborating leaf tendency toward hydraulic homeostasis under varying rates of transpirational water loss. However, k leaf did not increase in AM plants to compensate for the higher gs of unstressed AM plants relative to non-AM plants. Consequently, Delta Psi leaf did tend to be higher in AM leaves. A trend toward slightly higher Delta Psi leaf has been observed recently in more highly evolved plant taxa having higher productivity. Higher Delta Psi leaf in leaves of mycorrhizal plants would therefore be consistent with the higher rates of gas exchange that often accompany mycorrhizal symbiosis and that are presumed to be necessary to supply the carbon needs of the fungal symbiont.
Goldfarb, David; Conway, Stephen; Gentzler, Michael
2016-11-01
As described in a recent publication, the tendency of pharmaceutical powders to demix due to segregation can threaten the content uniformity of solid dosage forms. Using the methodology established in this publication, examples of analysis and optimization of pharmaceutical formulations to evaluate the potential for segregation during formulation and reduce the risk of content uniformity issues upon scale-up are provided. Modification to active components and excipient properties are considered and a systematic risk assessment approach for multi-component blends emerges. Use of the measurements to understand excipient and raw material sensitivities in lieu of pilot and commercial-scale production tests is described. This approach has the potential for being readily applied to the study of the segregation risk potential outside the pharmaceutical industry.
Vacco, D.; Alley, R. B.; Pollard, D.
2008-12-01
The greatest extent of glacial ice during MIS2 (Wisconsinan) in the western US may record a short-lived (sub- millennial) cold event rather than an extended Last Glacial Maximum, based on modeling experiments simulating the Pinedale moraines of Half Moon Lake and adjacent valleys near Pinedale, Wyoming. In some locations including the Half Moon Lake valley, Bull Lake (MIS6) moraines lie well down-valley (2 km) of Pinedale moraines, whereas nearby the moraines are much more closely nested (e.g., Fremont Lake valley, 0.5 km). In a simple flow-line glacier model of Half Moon Lake valley, the subglacial topography (steep upper reaches feeding a nearly flat and locally overdeepened region down-glacier) introduces strong hysteresis behavior with abrupt transitions. We have been unable to find any steady conditions that would grow a steady-state glacier ending at the Pinedale moraines. Instead, the ice preferentially terminates either well up-valley, inside modern Half Moon Lake, or advances to the Bull Lake terminal moraines. In the model, advance of the glacier terminus past Half Moon Lake thickens the ice up-valley of the lake, raising more of the glacier into the accumulation zone and causing further advance. If we specify a warming event as the ice reaches the Pinedale moraines, a steady state Pinedale terminus is possible for a narrow range of parameters; smaller warming allows continuing advance, and larger warming triggers retreat. The modeled time-scale for advance from Half Moon Lake to the Pinedale moraines is typically some centuries for climatic perturbations tested, suggesting the hypothesis that the Pinedale maximum at this site records a short-lived event perhaps linked to the Dansgaard-Oeschger or Heinrich oscillations of the North Atlantic. Simulations for the adjacent Fremont Lake valley, in which the Bull Lake terminated up-valley of any prominent flattening of the valley floor, show more-nearly linear dependence of terminus position on snowline
Ma.del Carmen A; González-Chávez; Rogelio Carrillo-González
2013-01-01
To find if ornamental plants are applicable to the remediation of metal-polluted areas,the tolerance of chrysanthemum plants (Chysanthemum maximum) var.Shasta to different metals under hydroponic conditions was studied.Their responses as influenced by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol.& Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe BEG25 on substrates containing mine residues were also investigated.Our results showed that chrysanthemum is a metal-tolerant plant under hydroponic conditions,plants behaving as Pb-excluders,whereas Cd,Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots.Low accumulation in flowers was observed for Cd and Cu but it was concentration-dependent.Ni and Pb were not translocated to flowers.Shoot biomass was not significantly affected by the different rates of mine residue addition for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants.Mycorrhizal plants accumulated less Pb and Cu in both shoots and roots than non-mycorrhizal plants.Chysanthemum could be a prospective plant for revegetation of tailings and the use of inoculation may decrease plant metal accumulation in polluted soils.
Sunawar, A.; Garniwa, I.
2017-03-01
Cars using the principle of converting heat energy into mechanical energy, but a lot of wasted heat energy not entirely transformed into mechanical energy, studies have been conducted that converts the heat energy into electrical energy using the principle thermoelectrically. However, there are many other energies that can be harnessed from the car, such as when the car is parked in the sun or driving in the heat of the sun, the temperature in the cabin can reach 80 degrees Celsius. The heat can be harmful to humans and the children immediately into the vehicle, as well as for the goods stored in the cabin if it contains toxins can evaporate because of the heat and dangerous. The danger can be prevented by reducing the heat in the cabin and transform into other forms of energy such as electricity. By providing a temperature difference of 40 degrees on the cold side of the module can be acquired electricity thermoelectrically up to 0.17W for one of its module, if it is made a module block the energy produced is enough to lower the temperature and charge batteries for further cooling. This study will use experiment method to get the maximum drop in temperature in the car cabin
Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii
Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen
2010-01-01
Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...
Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.
1990-10-01
The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.
Interplay between transport barriers and density gradient
Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.
2006-09-01
The present paper addresses two critical issues of zonal flows: the evidence of control parameters of their driving term, namely the Reynolds stress, and how they back-react on turbulence and transport. Kinetic nonlinear simulations are performed with the GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., J. Comput. Phys. (to be published)], which models the slab branch of the ion temperature gradient driven instability in the four-dimensional drift-kinetic regime. First, the numerical results show that the gradient of the guiding center density, related to the general potential vorticity, is stabilizing both linearly, by increasing the instability threshold, and nonlinearly, by activating zonal flows. Accordingly, the Reynolds stress is found to scale like LΩ-2 in the quasilinear regime, LΩ being the gradient length of the guiding center density. Second, the local temperature gradient appears to increase linearly with the curvature of the zonal flows, regardless of its sign. Such behavior agrees qualitatively with a perturbative theory. Indeed, while linear eigenmodes are localized at the maximum of the temperature gradient in the absence of zonal flows, they tend to be expelled if both exhibit a maximum at the same location. In this case, the reduction mechanism of the turbulent transport results from the ability of large zonal flow curvatures to render strong temperature gradients stable with respect to perturbations.
林文立; 刘治钢; 马亮
2013-01-01
Maximum Power Point Tracking(MPPT) control is especially suitable for the applications such as deep-space and high-power LEO spacecraft.The traditional method using hardware chips for MPPT is simple but its tracing precision is low due to parameters-drifting.To overcome the above shortcoming and meet the intelligent management and control demands for future electrical power system,a new MPPT full digital control strategy based on optimized gradient method is presented.The digital realization logic for MPPT is introduced and the electrical power system model is built in Matlab/simulink.The cases in which the solar array works following two specific characteristic curves are simulated to validate the above MPPT control method.The analysis results prove its validity and high tracing precision.%为满足深空探测和低轨大功率航天器等特定电源需求、适应未来空间电源智能化管理的发展趋势,文章提出一种基于最优梯度法的最大功率点跟踪(MPPT)全数字控制方法,克服了采用硬件电路增量电导法因参数漂移而导致峰值功率跟踪精度不高的缺点.介绍了基于最优梯度法的MPPT算法的数字实现逻辑,并在Matlab/simulink软件中搭建了太阳电池阵MPPT控制的电源系统仿真模型,在模拟两种不同的太阳电池阵特性曲线突变的条件下,对所提出的MPPT控制策略进行了仿真,仿真结果验证了控制策略的准确度和有效性.
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
Gritsenko, O V; Mentel, Ł M; Baerends, E J
2016-05-28
In spite of the high quality of exchange-correlation energies Exc obtained with the generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) of density functional theory, their xc potentials vxc are strongly deficient, yielding upshifts of ca. 5 eV in the orbital energy spectrum (in the order of 50% of high-lying valence orbital energies). The GGAs share this deficiency with the local density approximation (LDA). We argue that this error is not caused by the incorrect long-range asymptotics of vxc or by self-interaction error. It arises from incorrect density dependencies of LDA and GGA exchange functionals leading to incorrect (too repulsive) functional derivatives (i.e., response parts of the potentials). The vxc potential is partitioned into the potential of the xc hole vxchole (twice the xc energy density ϵxc), which determines Exc, and the response potential vresp, which does not contribute to Exc explicitly. The substantial upshift of LDA/GGA orbital energies is due to a too repulsive LDA exchange response potential vxresp (LDA) in the bulk region. Retaining the LDA exchange hole potential plus the B88 gradient correction to it but replacing the response parts of these potentials by the model orbital-dependent response potential vxresp (GLLB) of Gritsenko et al. [Phys. Rev. A 51, 1944 (1995)], which has the proper step-wise form, improves the orbital energies by more than an order of magnitude. Examples are given for the prototype molecules: dihydrogen, dinitrogen, carbon monoxide, ethylene, formaldehyde, and formic acid.
Ceh; Lasic
1997-01-01
Many drugs are successfully loaded into preformed liposomes by using various gradients and transmembrane potential. Several experimental breakthroughs, however, have not been paralleled by theoretical understanding of the processes. Recently, we have developed a rigorous treatment of loading of weak acids and bases into liposomes. The model is based on equilibration of chemical potentials of permeable neutral species. Charged molecules are not allowed to permeate the membrane. Although this assumption is quite reasonable and experimental data fit the theoretical predictions rather well, we have extended the model of liposome loading. In the expanded model, terms which allow leakage of protons, buildup of the transmembrane pH gradient, an antiport exchange of various cations with protons, and leakage of other molecules from or into liposomes are added to the basic model.
Piretzidis, Dimitrios; Sideris, Michael G.
2017-09-01
Filtering and signal processing techniques have been widely used in the processing of satellite gravity observations to reduce measurement noise and correlation errors. The parameters and types of filters used depend on the statistical and spectral properties of the signal under investigation. Filtering is usually applied in a non-real-time environment. The present work focuses on the implementation of an adaptive filtering technique to process satellite gravity gradiometry data for gravity field modeling. Adaptive filtering algorithms are commonly used in communication systems, noise and echo cancellation, and biomedical applications. Two independent studies have been performed to introduce adaptive signal processing techniques and test the performance of the least mean-squared (LMS) adaptive algorithm for filtering satellite measurements obtained by the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission. In the first study, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to gain insights about the implementation of the LMS algorithm on data with spectral behavior close to that of real GOCE data. In the second study, the LMS algorithm is implemented on real GOCE data. Experiments are also performed to determine suitable filtering parameters. Only the four accurate components of the full GOCE gravity gradient tensor of the disturbing potential are used. The characteristics of the filtered gravity gradients are examined in the time and spectral domain. The obtained filtered GOCE gravity gradients show an agreement of 63-84 mEötvös (depending on the gravity gradient component), in terms of RMS error, when compared to the gravity gradients derived from the EGM2008 geopotential model. Spectral-domain analysis of the filtered gradients shows that the adaptive filters slightly suppress frequencies in the bandwidth of approximately 10-30 mHz. The limitations of the adaptive LMS algorithm are also discussed. The tested filtering algorithm can be
Piretzidis, Dimitrios; Sideris, Michael G.
2017-03-01
Filtering and signal processing techniques have been widely used in the processing of satellite gravity observations to reduce measurement noise and correlation errors. The parameters and types of filters used depend on the statistical and spectral properties of the signal under investigation. Filtering is usually applied in a non-real-time environment. The present work focuses on the implementation of an adaptive filtering technique to process satellite gravity gradiometry data for gravity field modeling. Adaptive filtering algorithms are commonly used in communication systems, noise and echo cancellation, and biomedical applications. Two independent studies have been performed to introduce adaptive signal processing techniques and test the performance of the least mean-squared (LMS) adaptive algorithm for filtering satellite measurements obtained by the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission. In the first study, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to gain insights about the implementation of the LMS algorithm on data with spectral behavior close to that of real GOCE data. In the second study, the LMS algorithm is implemented on real GOCE data. Experiments are also performed to determine suitable filtering parameters. Only the four accurate components of the full GOCE gravity gradient tensor of the disturbing potential are used. The characteristics of the filtered gravity gradients are examined in the time and spectral domain. The obtained filtered GOCE gravity gradients show an agreement of 63-84 mEötvös (depending on the gravity gradient component), in terms of RMS error, when compared to the gravity gradients derived from the EGM2008 geopotential model. Spectral-domain analysis of the filtered gradients shows that the adaptive filters slightly suppress frequencies in the bandwidth of approximately 10-30 mHz. The limitations of the adaptive LMS algorithm are also discussed. The tested filtering algorithm can be
João Carlos Ferreira Melo Júnior
2015-11-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACTRestinga formations grow on sandy spits of coastal plains, an environment whose conditions limit the growth and development of vegetal species. Studies on restinga gradients are good examples of how plants acclimate to restrictive environments. This work compares three woody species co-occurring in four vegetations of a restinga from Southern Brazil. It pinpoints morpho-anatomical attributes that favor the survival of species faced with spatial variability of soil and light conditions. Results indicate that they respond differently to environmental variables on different scales. The plastic response of morphological attributes is more marked than that of anatomical ones. Varronia curassavica and Dodonaea viscosa showed more xeromorphic features on the more stressful restinga formations while Symphyopappus casarettoi varied between xerophyte to mesophyte forms along the gradient. Individual height, fresh and dry leaf masses, leaf area, specific leaf mass and area, leaf density, and water content are particularly noteworthy. These responses are strategies allowing the studied species to survive in restinga environment with highly variable soil nutrient, water availability, and light conditions. The environmental conditions are important features that modulate de plant morphology along the gradient. Keywords: coastal vegetation, leaf morphology, leaf anatomy, light and soil conditions.RESUMENRestinga (o cordón litoral es una formación que se desarrolla en cordones arenosos de planícies litorales. Este ambiente presenta condiciones limitantes al crecimiento y desarrollo de las especies vegetales. Estudios en gradientes de restinga son buenos ejemplos de como las plantas se aclimatan a las condiciones ambientales restrictivas. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo comparar tres especies leñosas co-ocurrentes en cuatro fisonomías de una restinga del sur de Brasil, buscando conocer los atributos morfo-anatómicos que favorecen la sobrevivencia
João Carlos Ferreira de MELO JÚNIOR
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Restinga (o cordón litoral es una formación que se desarrolla en cordones arenosos de planícies litorales. Este ambiente presenta condiciones limitantes al crecimiento y desarrollo de las especies vegetales. Estudios en gradientes de restinga son buenos ejemplos de como las plantas se aclimatan a las condiciones ambientales restrictivas. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo comparar tres especies leñosas co-ocurrentes en cuatro fisonomías de una restinga del sur de Brasil, buscando conocer los atributos morfo-anatómicos que favorecen la sobrevivencia de estas especies frente a la heterogeneidad espacial de las condiciones de suelo y luz. Los resultados indican que las variables ambientales fueron percibidas en diferentes escalas por las especies. Varronia curassavica y Dodonaea viscosa mostraron características más xeromórficas en las formaciones de restinga más estressantes, mientras que Symphyopappus casarettoi varió entre formas xerofíticas a mesofíticas a lo largo del gradiente. Atributos morfológicos presentaron respuesta plástica mas acentuada que los anatómicos, destácandose la altura de los individuos, las masas foliares frescas y secas, el área foliar, el área y la masa específica foliar, la densidad foliar y el contenido de agua. Tales características representan estrategias que permiten a las especies estudiadas sobrevivir en ambientes de restinga con elevada variación en la disponibilidad de nutrientes, agua del suelo y condiciones de luminosidad. Las condiciones ambientales son características importantes que modulan la morfología de la planta de lo largo del gradiente.
Minetti, Alberto E.; Pavei, Gaspare; Biancardi, Carlo M.
2012-12-01
Walking and running in low gravity cannot be used at useful speeds, while 'skipping', a gait displayed by kids and spontaneously adopted by astronauts of Apollo missions, proved to have the potential to become the gait of choice in that condition. In this paper the previous biomechanical and metabolic analysis of level skipping is extended to positive and negative gradients, in normal gravity. The results confirm at all gradients the higher (average) ground reaction force during the contact phase, with respect to running at the same speed, which would allow confidently facing the Lunar surface where the dust and regoliths affect, in addition to a lower gravity, the locomotion dynamics. Metabolic data, other gait variables related to the mechanical work done and the locomotor/respiratory coupling have also been investigated.
Gritsenko, O. V.; Mentel, Ł. M.; Baerends, E. J.
2016-05-01
In spite of the high quality of exchange-correlation energies Exc obtained with the generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) of density functional theory, their xc potentials vxc are strongly deficient, yielding upshifts of ca. 5 eV in the orbital energy spectrum (in the order of 50% of high-lying valence orbital energies). The GGAs share this deficiency with the local density approximation (LDA). We argue that this error is not caused by the incorrect long-range asymptotics of vxc or by self-interaction error. It arises from incorrect density dependencies of LDA and GGA exchange functionals leading to incorrect (too repulsive) functional derivatives (i.e., response parts of the potentials). The vxc potential is partitioned into the potential of the xc hole vxchole (twice the xc energy density ɛxc), which determines Exc, and the response potential vresp, which does not contribute to Exc explicitly. The substantial upshift of LDA/GGA orbital energies is due to a too repulsive LDA exchange response potential vxresp L D A in the bulk region. Retaining the LDA exchange hole potential plus the B88 gradient correction to it but replacing the response parts of these potentials by the model orbital-dependent response potential vxresp G L L B of Gritsenko et al. [Phys. Rev. A 51, 1944 (1995)], which has the proper step-wise form, improves the orbital energies by more than an order of magnitude. Examples are given for the prototype molecules: dihydrogen, dinitrogen, carbon monoxide, ethylene, formaldehyde, and formic acid.
Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S
2015-02-01
We discuss three molecular/crystalline properties that we believe to be among the factors that influence the impact/shock sensitivities of energetic materials (i.e., their vulnerabilities to unintended detonation due to impact or shock). These properties are (a) the anomalously strong positive electrostatic potentials in the central regions of their molecular surfaces, (b) the free space per molecule in their crystal lattices, and (c) their maximum heats of detonation per unit volume. Overall, sensitivity tends to become greater as these properties increase; however these are general trends, not correlations. Nitramines are exceptions in that their sensitivities show little or no variation with free space in the lattice and heat of detonation per unit volume. We outline some of the events involved in detonation initiation and show how the three properties are related to different ones of these events.
Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.
2016-11-01
Strain gradient theory is used to study free vibration, wave propagation and tension analyses of a sandwich micro/nano rod made of piezoelectric materials under electric potential. The structure is resting on a Pasternak’s foundation medium. Love’s rod model is used for derivation of displacement field. The piezoelectric face sheets are subjected to two-dimensional electric potential including an applied voltage at top of plate and a cosine term along the thickness direction. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive governing equations of motion in terms of axial displacement and electric potential. Three distinct behaviors of the present problem including free vibration, wave propagation and tension analyses are performed. Some important numerical results are presented in detail to capture the effect of materials length scales and applied voltage on the different behaviors of microrod.
Almeida Ana G
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of intra-ventricular gradients (IVG during dobutamine or exercise stress is not infrequent, and can be associated to symptoms during stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of IVG during exercise stress echocardiography in cardiac syndrome X patients. Methods We prospectively evaluated 91 patients (pts mean aged 51 ± 12 years (age ranged 20 to 75 years old, 44 of whom were women. All pts had angina, positive exercise ECG treadmill testing, normal rest echocardiogram and no coronary artery disease on coronary angiogram (cardiac X syndrome. After complete Doppler echocardiographic evaluation with determination of left ventricular outflow tract index (LVOTi, relative left ventricular wall thickness (RLVWT and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVDVi, all patients underwent stress echocardiography with two-dimensional and Doppler echographic evaluation during and after treadmill exercise. Results For analysis purpose patients were divided in 2 groups, according to the development of IVG. Doppler evidence of IVG was found in 33 (36% of the patients (Group A, with mean age 47 ± 14 years old (age ranged 20 to 72 years and with a mean end-systolic peak gradient of 86 ± 34 mmHg (ranging from 30 to 165 mmHg. The IVG development was accompanied by SAM of the mitral valve in 23 pts. Three of these pts experienced symptomatic hypotension. Ten were women (30% pts. 58 pts in group B, 34 of whom were women (59% (p = 0,01 vs group A, mean aged 53,5 ± 10,9 years old (age ranged 34 to 75 years (p = 0,03 vs group A, did not develop IVG. LVOTi was 10,29 ± 0,9 mm/m2 in group A and 11,4 ± 1 mm/m2 in group B (p 2 in group A and 56 ± 11,6 ml/m2 in group B (p = 0,000. Conclusion 1. A significant number of patients with cardiac X syndrome developed IVG during upright exercise in treadmill. These pts (group A are mainly males and younger than those who did not develop IVG. 2. The development of IVG
ZHAO Zhong-qiu; ZHENG Hai-lei; ZHU Yong-guan
2004-01-01
The salt-secreting mangrove, Avicennia marina, and non-salt-secreting mangrove, Kandelia candel were cultivated in sand with various salinities(0 ‰, 10 ‰, 20 ‰, 30 ‰, 40 ‰) for 60 d. Plasma membrane vesicles of high-purity in leaves and roots of A.marina and K. candel seedlings were obtained by two-phase partitioning. The function of the plasma membranes, the activity of ATPase, membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient, at various salinities were investigated. The results showed that within a certain range of salinity(A. marina and roots of K. candel: 0-30‰;leaves of K.candel: 0-20‰), the activity of ATPase increased with increasing salinity, while high salinity(above 30‰ or 20‰) inhibited ATPase activity. In comparison with A. marina, K. candel appeared to be more sensitive to salinity. The dynamics of membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient in leaves and roots of A. marina and K. candel seedlings were similar to that of ATPase. When treated directly by NaCl all the indexes were inhibited markedly: there was a little increase within 0-10‰(K. candel) or 0-20‰(A. marina) followed by sharp declining. It indicated that the structure and function of plasma membrane was damaged severely.
Danielle eMonteverde
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m 2 d-1. This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers.
Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kozma, Balázs; Bassler, Kevin E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Korniss, G.
2008-04-01
Gradient networks are defined (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716) as directed graphs formed by local gradients of a scalar field distributed on the nodes of a substrate network G. We present the derivation for some of the general properties of gradient graphs and give an exact expression for the in-degree distribution R(l) of the gradient network when the substrate is a binomial (Erd{\\;\\kern -0.10em \\raise -0.35ex \\{{^{^{\\prime\\prime}}}}\\kern -0.57em \\o} s-Rényi) random graph, G_{N,p} , and the scalars are independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. We show that in the limit N \\to \\infty, p \\to 0, z = pN = \\mbox{const} \\gg 1, R(l)\\propto l^{-1} for l Bassler (2004 Nature 428 716).
Pakdad, Kamran; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi
2017-05-01
Malaria is considered as a major public health problem in southern areas of Iran. The goal of this study was to predict best ecological niches of three main malaria vectors of Iran: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. A databank was created which included all published data about Anopheles species of Iran from 1961 to 2015. The suitable environmental niches for the three above mentioned Anopheles species were predicted using maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). AUC (area under Roc curve) values were 0.943, 0.974 and 0.956 for An. stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l respectively, which are considered as high potential power of model in the prediction of species niches. The biggest bioclimatic contributor for An. stephensi and An. fluviatilis s.l. was bio 15 (precipitation seasonality), 25.5% and 36.1% respectively, followed by bio 1 (annual mean temperature), 20.8% for An. stephensi and bio 4 (temperature seasonality) with 49.4% contribution for An. culicifacies s.l. This is the first step in the mapping of the country's malaria vectors. Hence, future weather situation can change the dispersal maps of Anopheles. Iran is under elimination phase of malaria, so that such spatio-temporal studies are essential and could provide guideline for decision makers for IVM strategies in problematic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ciarletti, Valerie; Levassur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Lasue, Jeremie; Statz, Christoph; Plettemeier, Dirk; Kofman, Wlodek; Herique, Alain
2015-04-01
There has been, prior to the ESA Rosetta rendez-vous, no direct evidence about the structure of cometary nuclei. Approaching their internal structure is of major importance to better understand their accretion in the early solar system and their subsequent evolution processes. The successful Rosetta mission with the recent descent and landing of Philae on the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on the 12th of November 2014 has provided for the first time in-situ data of the upper most importance to this matter. With receivers and transmitters onboard both Rosetta and Philae, the CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) bistatic radar uses radiowaves at 90 MHz that have the ability to propagate through the nucleus between the main spacecraft and the lander. CONSERT preliminary data analysis should allow us to retrieve the permittivity and, if any, to point out changes in local properties of the nucleus. In this paper, we specifically investigate the possible existence and impact of a local subsurface permittivity gradient over depths ranging from tens to hundreds of meters. Even if CONSERT's primary goal is to perform the tomography of the whole nucleus, the grazing angles configurations (where Rosetta is just below Philae's horizon and where the propagation mainely takes place in the near surface zone) provide the best configurations to study the effect of a potential near surface permittivity gradient beneath the lander. Results of propagation simulations for graz-ing angles configurations showing the effect of such a gradient as well as preliminary comparison with experimental data collected in the same Rosetta/Philae configuration will be presented. Acknowledgements: The research on the CONSERT experiment is supported by funding from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). CONSERT was designed and built by a consortium led by IPAG UJF/CNRS (France), in collaboration
Feng, Jinian
2017-01-01
Climate change will markedly impact biology, population ecology, and spatial distribution patterns of insect pests because of the influence of future greenhouse effects on insect development and population dynamics. Onion maggot, Delia antiqua, larvae are subterranean pests with limited mobility, that directly feed on bulbs of Allium sp. and render them completely unmarketable. Modeling the spatial distribution of such a widespread and damaging pest is crucial not only to identify current potentially suitable climactic areas but also to predict where the pest is likely to spread in the future so that appropriate monitoring and management programs can be developed. In this study, Maximum Entropy Niche Modeling was used to estimate the current potential distribution of D. antiqua and to predict the future distribution of this species in 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2080 by using emission scenario (A2) with 7 climate variables. The results of this study show that currently highly suitable habitats for D.antiqua occur throughout most of East Asia, some regions of North America, Western Europe, and Western Asian countries near the Caspian sea and Black Sea. In the future, we predict an even broader distribution of this pest spread more extensively throughout Asia, North America and Europe, particularly in most of European countries, Central regions of United States and much of East Asia. Our present day and future predictions can enhance strategic planning of agricultural organizations by identifying regions that will need to develop Integrated Pest Management programs to manage the onion maggot. The distribution forecasts will also help governments to optimize economic investments in management programs for this pest by identifying regions that are or will become less suitable for current and future infestations. PMID:28158259
Marshall, C.T.; O'Brien, L.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna
2003-01-01
There is accumulating evidence to suggest that spawning stock biomass (SSB) may not bedirectly proportional to reproductive potential. The wide-ranging implications of this conclu-sion necessitate that it be tested for as many stocks as possible. Undertaking such tests iscomplicated by the fact...... provided evidence that char-acteristics of the spawning stock, e.g. age diversity and female-only SSB, influence recruitmentin ways that are not properly accounted for by using SSB as the sole index of reproductivepotential. This is further evidence that the assumption of proportionality between SSB and...
Kaufmann, Tobias; Kübler, Andrea
2014-10-01
Objective. The speed of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), based on event-related potentials (ERP), is inherently limited by the commonly used one-stimulus paradigm. In this paper, we introduce a novel paradigm that can increase the spelling speed by a factor of 2, thereby extending the one-stimulus paradigm to a two-stimulus paradigm. Two different stimuli (a face and a symbol) are presented at the same time, superimposed on different characters and ERPs are classified using a multi-class classifier. Here, we present the proof-of-principle that is achieved with healthy participants. Approach. Eight participants were confronted with the novel two-stimulus paradigm and, for comparison, with two one-stimulus paradigms that used either one of the stimuli. Classification accuracies (percentage of correctly predicted letters) and elicited ERPs from the three paradigms were compared in a comprehensive offline analysis. Main results. The accuracies slightly decreased with the novel system compared to the established one-stimulus face paradigm. However, the use of two stimuli allowed for spelling at twice the maximum speed of the one-stimulus paradigms, and participants still achieved an average accuracy of 81.25%. This study introduced an alternative way of increasing the spelling speed in ERP-BCIs and illustrated that ERP-BCIs may not yet have reached their speed limit. Future research is needed in order to improve the reliability of the novel approach, as some participants displayed reduced accuracies. Furthermore, a comparison to the most recent BCI systems with individually adjusted, rapid stimulus timing is needed to draw conclusions about the practical relevance of the proposed paradigm. Significance. We introduced a novel two-stimulus paradigm that might be of high value for users who have reached the speed limit with the current one-stimulus ERP-BCI systems.
Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Huete, Alfredo; Davies, Kevin; Cleverly, James; Beringer, Jason; Eamus, Derek; van Gorsel, Eva; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Meyer, Wayne S.
2016-10-01
A direct relationship between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) estimated by the eddy covariance (EC) method and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices (VIs) has been observed in many temperate and tropical ecosystems. However, in Australian evergreen forests, and particularly sclerophyll and temperate woodlands, MODIS VIs do not capture seasonality of GEP. In this study, we re-evaluate the connection between satellite and flux tower data at four contrasting Australian ecosystems, through comparisons of GEP and four measures of photosynthetic potential, derived via parameterization of the light response curve: ecosystem light use efficiency (LUE), photosynthetic capacity (Pc), GEP at saturation (GEPsat), and quantum yield (α), with MODIS vegetation satellite products, including VIs, gross primary productivity (GPPMOD), leaf area index (LAIMOD), and fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPARMOD). We found that satellite-derived biophysical products constitute a measurement of ecosystem structure (e.g. leaf area index - quantity of leaves) and function (e.g. leaf level photosynthetic assimilation capacity - quality of leaves), rather than GEP. Our results show that in primarily meteorological-driven (e.g. photosynthetic active radiation, air temperature, and/or precipitation) and relatively aseasonal ecosystems (e.g. evergreen wet sclerophyll forests), there were no statistically significant relationships between GEP and satellite-derived measures of greenness. In contrast, for phenology-driven ecosystems (e.g. tropical savannas), changes in the vegetation status drove GEP, and tower-based measurements of photosynthetic activity were best represented by VIs. We observed the highest correlations between MODIS products and GEP in locations where key meteorological variables and vegetation phenology were synchronous (e.g. semi-arid Acacia woodlands) and low correlation at locations where they were asynchronous (e
Yoo, Han-Ill; Martin, Manfred
2010-11-28
It is well known that the open-cell voltage (U) of a galvanic cell involving a binary compound, or a multinary compound with a single kind of mobile ionic species, is a state property under a gradient of chemical potential of the mobile component. It is not so transparent, however, whether U is still a state property when involving a ternary or multinary compound with two or more kinds of mobile ions under multiple chemical potential gradients of those mobile components. We clarify this issue with a multinary oxide that conducts oxide ions, protons and electron holes and is exposed to the chemical potential gradients of both water and oxygen. We show that U is path- and history-dependent, and manifests itself along the diffusion paths of the two mobile components H and O under given boundary conditions.
Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.
2011-01-01
Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role
Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Camisa, Vincenzo; Leone, Lucia; Pinto, Rosanna; Lopresto, Vanni; Merla, Caterina; Giorda, Ezio; Carsetti, Rita; Zaffina, Salvatore; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Teofili, Luciana; Grassi, Claudio
2016-05-01
This study investigates effects of gradient magnetic fields (GMFs) emitted by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices on hematopoietic stem cells. Field measurements were performed to assess exposure to GMFs of staff working at 1.5 T and 3 T MRI units. Then an exposure system reproducing measured signals was realized to expose in vitro CD34+ cells to GMFs (1.5 T-protocol and 3 T-protocol). CD34+ cells were obtained by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting from six blood donors and three MRI-exposed workers. Blood donor CD34+ cells were exposed in vitro for 72 h to 1.5 T or 3 T-protocol and to sham procedure. Cells were then cultured and evaluated in colony forming unit (CFU)-assay up to 4 weeks after exposure. Results showed that in vitro GMF exposure did not affect cell proliferation but instead induced expansion of erythroid and monocytes progenitors soon after exposure and for the subsequent 3 weeks. No decrease of other clonogenic cell output (i.e., CFU-granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte and CFU-granulocyte/macrophage) was noticed, nor exposed CD34+ cells underwent the premature exhaustion of their clonogenic potential compared to sham-exposed controls. On the other hand, pilot experiments showed that CD34+ cells exposed in vivo to GMFs (i.e., samples from MRI workers) behaved in culture similarly to sham-exposed CD34+ cells, suggesting that other cells and/or microenvironment factors might prevent GMF effects on hematopoietic stem cells in vivo. Accordingly, GMFs did not affect the clonogenic potential of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells exposed in vitro together with the whole mononuclear cell fraction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Qasim, Bashar; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Joussein, Emmanuel; Soubrand, Marilyne; Gauthier, Arnaud
2016-05-01
The phytoavailabilities and potential remobilization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb were assessed in contaminated technosols from former mining and smelting sites. The PTE concentrations in soil pore water (SPW) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)-measured concentration (C DGT) methods were used to assess the bioavailabilities of PTE and their remobilization in this study. Together with classical Chelex-100 DGT probes to measure Zn, Cd, and Pb, novel ferrihydrite-backed DGT were used for As and Sb measurements alongside with Rhizon soil moisture sampler method for SPW sampling. To assess the phytoavailabilities of PTE, a germination test with dwarf beans as a plant indicator was used for this purpose. Dwarf bean primary leaves showed high Zn concentrations in contrast to Pb and Cd which showed low phytoavailabilities. Despite As and Sb are present in high concentrations in the mine tailings, their phytoavailabilities indicate very low bioavailabilities. The amounts of Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb extracted with DGT devices correlated well with the total dissolved PTE concentrations in the SPW. The highest R values were observed for Zn, followed by Cd and Pb, indicating the ability of the soil to sustain SPW concentrations, which decreased in that order. Good correlations were also observed between each of dissolved PTE concentrations in SPW, DGT-measured PTE concentrations (C DGT), and the accumulation of PTE in dwarf bean primary leaves. It could be concluded that the use of Rhizon soil moisture samplers and DGT methods may be considered to be a good methods to predict the PTE bioavailabilities in contaminated technosols.
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
1988-01-01
We hypothesized that the occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), in diastole, might be a mechanism for the saturation of twitch potentiation common to a variety of inotropic perturbations that increase the total cell Ca. We used a videomicroscopic technique in single cardiac myocytes to quantify the amplitude of electrically stimulated twitches and to monitor the occurrence of the mechanical manifestation of spontaneous SR Ca2+ release, i.e., the spontaneo...
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Investigation, design, and integration of insert gradient coils in magnetic resonance imaging
Feldman, Rebecca E.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging utilizes the magnetic gradients of the system to de-phase protons undergoing diffusion with respect to the overall magnetization. Areas of the image with reduced signal when compared to an un-weighted image represent where protons have undergone diffusion. The stronger the gradient applied during diffusion-weighting, the larger the signal loss due to diffusion, and the larger the b-value differentiating the diffusion coefficients. However, the maximum gradient strength during image acquisition is limited by both the original strength of the signal and peripheral nerve stimulation. Nerve stimulation is induced because the changing magnetic fields of the gradient pulse sequence induce electric fields that cause stimulation. The stimulation threshold can be measured either in terms of the pulse sequence parameters of maximum gradient strength and slew rate, or in terms of the induced electric field and the duration of the electric field pulse. A finite-difference simulation was used to approximate the electric field induced inside a visible man model. The effect of varying the size, resolution, and position of the model inside the simulation was investigated with the wire pattern from a customized head/neck gradient coil. For accurate simulations, it was most important to ensure that the resolution of the model was sufficient to capture the air cavities of the sinus and trachea. The peripheral nerve stimulation thresholds of a planar gradient coil were determined from human experiments. While the electrical stimulation threshold parameters did not vary significantly from previous studies, the minimum gradient change and slew rate required to cause stimulation were significantly higher for the planar gradient than for reported thresholds of cylindrically designed gradient systems. Several non-cylindrical localized gradient designs were investigated for diffusion-weighted contrast as a fourth gradient, in addition to the
Mantle transition zone shear velocity gradients beneath USArray
Schmandt, Brandon
2012-11-01
Broadband P-to-s scattering isolated by teleseismic receiver function analysis is used to investigate shear velocity (VS) gradients in the mantle transition zone beneath USArray. Receiver functions from 2244 stations were filtered in multiple frequency bands and migrated to depth through P and S tomography models. The depth-migrated receiver functions were stacked along their local 410 and 660 km discontinuity depths to reduce stack incoherence and more accurately recover the frequency-dependent amplitudes of P410s and P660s. The stacked waveforms were inverted for one-dimensional VS between 320 and 840 km depth. First, a gradient-based inversion was used to find a least-squares solution and a subsequent Monte Carlo search about that solution constrained the range of VS profiles that provide an acceptable fit to the receiver function stacks. Relative to standard references models, all the acceptable models have diminished VS gradients surrounding the 410, a local VS gradient maximum at 490-500 km depth, and an enhanced VS gradient above the 660. The total 410 VS increase of 6.3% is greater than in reference models, and it occurs over a thickness of 20 km. However, 60% of this VS increase occurs over only 6 km. The 20 km total thickness of the 410 and diminished VS gradients surrounding the 410 are potential indications of high water content in the regional transition zone. An enhanced VS gradient overlying the 660 likely results from remnants of subduction lingering at the base of the transition zone. Cool temperatures from slabs subducted since the late Cretaceous and longer-term accumulation of former ocean crust both may contribute to the high gradient above the 660. The shallow depth of the 520 km discontinuity, 490-500 km, implies that the regional mean temperature in the transition zone is 110-160 K cooler than the global mean. A concentrated Vs gradient maximum centered near 660 km depth and a low VS gradient below 675 km confirms that the ringwoodite to
Holoubek, Ales; Vecer, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel
2007-03-01
Proteoliposomes carrying reconstituted yeast plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in their lipid membrane or plasma membrane vesicles are model systems convenient for studying basic electrochemical processes involved in formation of the proton electrochemical gradient (Deltamicro(H) (+)) across the microbial or plant cell membrane. Deltapsi- and pH-sensitive fluorescent probes were used to monitor the gradients formed between inner and outer volume of the reconstituted vesicles. The Deltapsi-sensitive fluorescent ratiometric probe oxonol VI is suitable for quantitative measurements of inside-positive Deltapsi generated by the reconstituted H(+)-ATPase. Its Deltapsi response can be calibrated by the K(+)/valinomycin method and ratiometric mode of fluorescence measurements reduces undesirable artefacts. In situ pH-sensitive fluorescent probe pyranine was used for quantitative measurements of pH inside the proteoliposomes. Calibration of pH-sensitive fluorescence response of pyranine entrapped inside proteoliposomes was performed with several ionophores combined in order to deplete the gradients passively formed across the membrane. Presented model system offers a suitable tool for simultaneous monitoring of both components of the proton electrochemical gradient, Deltapsi and DeltapH. This approach should help in further understanding how their formation is interconnected on biomembranes and even how transport of other ions is combined to it.
Lee, H.; Haimson, B.
2007-12-01
drillhole wall conditions is drastically different from that conventionally expected, but is compatible with breakout formation mechanism in granite (Haimson, Int. J. Rock Mech., 2007). All the 'unjacketed' true triaxial strength data can be fitted by a simple function in the octahedral shear stress versus octahedral normal stress domain, yielding a Nadai-type true triaxial strength criterion. The criterion can be used in conjunction with breakouts that have been located within the cored zone to yield the maximum horizontal in situ stress σH when the other two principal stress are known. Assuming that the state of stress at breakout-drillhole intersections (located for example by BHTV logging) is sufficient to bring about brittle failure (Vernik and Zoback, 1992), one can substitute the known principal stresses there (obtained from the Kirsch solution) for the corresponding values in the criterion. The in situ σv is given by the overburden density, σh is typically obtained from hydrofrac shut-in pressures, breakout width is extracted from BHTV logs, borehole fluid pressure is a function of its density, and the Poisson's ratio is obtained from mechanical lab testing. The only unknown, σH, is thus readily computed. An actual computation was not carried out because data on hydrofrac pressures and breakout dimensions were not available at the time of this submission.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang
2010-01-01
hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...... in the presence of conventional material hardening. Furthermore, it is shown that dissipative gradient effects can lead to both an increase and a decrease in the dissipation per load cycle depending on the magnitude of the dissipative length parameter, whereas energetic gradient effects lead to decreasing...... dissipation for increasing energetic length parameter. For dissipative gradient effects it is found that dissipation has a maximum value for some none zero value of the material length parameter, which depends on the magnitude of the deformation cycles....
sprotocols
2015-01-01
Authors: Bevin Gangadharan & Nicole Zitzmann ### Abstract Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is a protein separation technique often used to separate plasma or serum proteins in an attempt to identify novel biomarkers. This protocol describes how to run 2-DE gels using narrow pH 3-5.6 immobilised pH gradient strips to separate 2 mg of serum proteins. pH 3-6 ampholytes are used to enhance the solubility of proteins in this pH range before the serum proteins are separated in...
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
Dabdoub, Alain; Kelley, Matthew W
2005-09-15
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, is crucial for embryonic development in all animals as it is responsible for the regulation of coordinated orientation of structures within the plane of the various epithelia. In the mammalian cochlea, one of the best examples of planar polarity in vertebrates, stereociliary bundles located on mechanosensory hair cells within the sensory epithelium are all uniformly polarized. Generation of this polarity is important for hair cell mechanotransduction and auditory perception as stereociliary bundles are only sensitive to vibrations in their single plane of polarization. We describe the two step developmental process that results in the generation of planar polarity in the mammalian inner ear. Furthermore, we review evidence for the role of Wnt signaling, and the possible generation of a Wnt gradient, in planar polarity.
Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials
Xigeng Miao
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.
Wang Qian [Department of Chemistry and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bohn, Paul W. [Department of Chemistry and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: bohn@scs.uiuc.edu
2006-08-14
Surface composition gradients of the signaling molecule, epidermal growth factor (EGF), have been prepared by an adaptation of the electrochemical gradient technique. EGF is covalently bound to the reactive component, 11-amino-l-undecanethiol (AUT), in a counterpropagating two-component gradient composed of AUT and poly(ethylene glycol) thiol (PEG) using carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Areas of the surface presenting -NH{sub 2} termination react with succinimidyl esters of solvent-accessible acidic amino acids in EGF, while non-specific protein adsorption is resisted in the PEG regions. The maximum surface coverage of EGF prepared in this manner was determined by surface plasmon resonance reflectometry (SPR) on spatially uniform films to be 20% < {gamma} {sub EGF} < 70% depending on the concentration of the EGF derivatization solution. EGF retains its biological activity with this immobilization process, as verified by culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) on an EGF-terminated surface for 24 h. PEG shows good resistance to EGF physical adsorption as demonstrated by both SPR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The N / C ratio of EGF gradients, which is characteristic of EGF adsorption, because only the protein contains N, while both protein and PEG contain C, was spatially mapped with XPS. The gradient composition distributions are sigmoidal with lateral distance, with the position of the gradient transition region being readily controlled by adjusting the applied potential window. EGF gradients with variable quantitative surface coverage profiles were generated by varying EGF and AUT concentrations.
Droplet Motion on a Shape Gradient Surface.
Zheng, Yanfen; Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Cailong; Xing, Haiting; Wen, Xiufang; Pi, Pihui; Xu, Shouping
2017-05-02
We demonstrate a facile method to induce water droplet motion on an wedge-shaped superhydrophobic copper surface combining with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil layer on it. The unbalanced interfacial tension from the shape gradient offers the actuating force. The superhydrophobicity critically eliminates the droplet contact line pinning and the slippery PDMS oil layer lubricates the droplet motion, which makes the droplet move easily. The maximum velocity and furthest position of droplet motion were recorded and found to be influenced by the gradient angle. The mechanism of droplet motion on the shape gradient surface is systematically discussed, and the theoretical model analysis is well matched with the experimental results.
Christiansen, Jesper Riis; Vesterdal, Lars; Gundersen, Per
2012-01-01
half the catchment area at both sites, the global warming potential (GWP) derived from N2O and CH4 was more than doubled when accounting for these wet areas in the catchments. The results stress the importance of wet soils in assessments of forest soil global warming potentials, as even small...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Tsuji, Tetsuro; Iseki, Hirotaka; Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki
2016-11-01
Thermophoresis of a nano particle in a fluid is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. In order to elucidate effective factors on the characteristics of thermophoresis, simple models for both the fluid and the nano particle are considered, namely, the surrounding fluid consists of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles and the model nano particle is a cluster consisting of several tens of LJ particles. Interaction between the fluid particle and the model nano particle is described by the LJ interaction potential or repulsive interaction potential with the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rule. As a preliminary result, the effect of mass on thermophoretic force acting on the model nano particle is investigated for both interaction potentials.
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Bollenbach, Tobias; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
2015-04-23
In animal embryos, morphogen gradients determine tissue patterning and morphogenesis. Shyer et al. provide evidence that, during vertebrate gut formation, tissue folding generates graded activity of signals required for subsequent steps of gut growth and differentiation, thereby revealing an intriguing link between tissue morphogenesis and morphogen gradient formation.
Fast Distributed Gradient Methods
Jakovetic, Dusan; Moura, Jose M F
2011-01-01
The paper proposes new fast distributed optimization gradient methods and proves convergence to the exact solution at rate O(\\log k/k), much faster than existing distributed optimization (sub)gradient methods with convergence O(1/\\sqrt{k}), while incurring practically no additional communication nor computation cost overhead per iteration. We achieve this for convex (with at least one strongly convex,) coercive, three times differentiable and with Lipschitz continuous first derivative (private) cost functions. Our work recovers for distributed optimization similar convergence rate gains obtained by centralized Nesterov gradient and fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) methods over ordinary centralized gradient methods. We also present a constant step size distributed fast gradient algorithm for composite non-differentiable costs. A simulation illustrates the effectiveness of our distributed methods.
Fogarty, F M; O'Keeffe, J; Zhadanov, A; Papkovsky, D; Ayllon, V; O'Connor, R
2014-09-18
Haeme-responsive gene (HRG)-1 encodes a 16-kDa transmembrane protein that is induced by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and associates with the vacuolar-(H(+)) ATPase (V-ATPase). We previously reported that HRG-1 is essential for V-ATPase activity in endosomal acidification and receptor trafficking. Here, we show that in highly invasive and migratory cancer cell lines, HRG-1 and the V-ATPase are co-expressed at the plasma membrane, whereas in less invasive cell lines and non-transformed cells HRG-1 over-expression remains confined to intracellular compartments. Stable suppression of HRG-1 in invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells decreases extracellular pH, cell growth, migration and invasion. Ectopic expression of HRG-1 in non-invasive MCF-7 cells enhances V-ATPase activity, lowers the extracellular pH and increases the pH-dependent activity of MMP2 and MMP9 matrix metalloproteinases. HRG-1 enhances trafficking of the glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) with a concomitant increase in glucose uptake and lactate production. HRG-1 also promotes trafficking of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R), β1-integrin and IGF-1 signalling. Taken together, our findings indicate that HRG-1 expression at the plasma membrane enhances V-ATPase activity, drives glycolytic flux and facilitates cancer cell growth, migration and invasion. Thus, HRG-1 may represent a novel target for selectively disrupting V-ATPase activity and the metastatic potential of cancer cells.
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters
D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch
2003-11-24
Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons.
Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.
2011-01-01
A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...... element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles. Some plane deformation problems relevant for certain specific orientations of a face centered cubic crystal under plane loading conditions are studied, and effective in......-plane parameters are developed based on the crystallographic properties of the material. The problem of cyclic shear of a single crystal between rigid platens is studied as well as void growth of a cylindrical void....
Laser textured surface gradients
Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.
2016-05-01
This work demonstrates a novel technique for fabricating surfaces with roughness and wettability gradients and their subsequent applications for chemical sensors. Surface roughness gradients on brass sheets are obtained directly by nanosecond laser texturing. When these structured surfaces are exposed to air, their wettability decreases with time (up to 20 days) achieving both spatial and temporal wettability gradients. The surfaces are responsive to organic solvents. Contact angles of a series of dilute isopropanol solutions decay exponentially with concentration. In particular, a fall of 132° in contact angle is observed on a surface gradient, one order of magnitude higher than the 14° observed for the unprocessed surface, when the isopropanol concentration increased from 0 to 15.6 wt%. As the wettability changes gradually over the surface, contact angle also changes correspondingly. This effect offers multi-sensitivity at different zones on the surface and is useful for accurate measurement of chemical concentration.
Sciarra, Giulio; Coussy, Olivier
2010-01-01
Second gradient theories have been developed in mechanics for treating different phenomena as capillarity in fluids, plasticity and friction in granular materials or shear band deformations. Here, there is an attempt of formulating a second gradient Biot like model for porous materials. In particular the interest is focused in describing the local dilatant behaviour of a porous material induced by pore opening elastic and capillary interaction phenomena among neighbouring pores and related micro-filtration phenomena by means of a continuum microstructured model. The main idea is to extend the classical macroscopic Biot model by including in the description second gradient effects. This is done by assuming that the surface contribution to the external work rate functional depends on the normal derivative of the velocity or equivalently assuming that the strain work rate functional depends on the porosity and strain gradients. According to classical thermodynamics suitable restrictions for stresses and second g...
Gradient induced liquid motion on laser structured black Si surfaces
Paradisanos, I.; Fotakis, C.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Stratakis, E.
2015-09-01
This letter reports on the femtosecond laser fabrication of gradient-wettability micro/nano-patterns on Si surfaces. The dynamics of directional droplet spreading on the surface tension gradients developed is systematically investigated and discussed. It is shown that microdroplets on the patterned surfaces spread at a maximum speed of 505 mm/s, which is the highest velocity demonstrated so far for liquid spreading on a surface tension gradient in ambient conditions. The application of the proposed laser patterning technique for the precise fabrication of surface tension gradients for open microfluidic systems, liquid management in fuel cells, and drug delivery is envisaged.
Gradient induced liquid motion on laser structured black Si surfaces
Paradisanos, I; Anastasiadis, S H; Stratakis, E
2015-01-01
This letter reports on the femtosecond laser fabrication of gradient-wettability micro/nano- patterns on Si surfaces. The dynamics of directional droplet spreading on the surface tension gradients developed is systematically investigated and discussed. It is shown that microdroplets on the patterned surfaces spread at a maximum speed of 505 mm/sec, that is the highest velocity demonstrated so far for liquid spreading on a surface tension gradient in ambient conditions. The application of the proposed laser patterning technique for the precise fabrication of surface tension gradients for open microfluidic systems, liquid management in fuel cells and drug delivery is envisaged.
Unimodal and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention
Föcker, J.; Hötting, K.; Gondan, Matthias
2010-01-01
Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that spatial attention is gradually distributed around the center of the attentional focus. The present study compared uni- and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention to investigate whether the orienting of auditory and visual...... spatial attention is based on modality specific or supramodal representations of space. Auditory and visual stimuli were presented from five speaker locations positioned in the right hemifield. Participants had to attend to the innermost or outmost right position in order to detect either visual...... or auditory deviant stimuli. Detection rates and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated that spatial attention is distributed as a gradient. Unimodal spatial ERP gradients correlated with the spatial resolution of the modality. Crossmodal spatial gradients were always broader than the corresponding...
Quantum-dot Carnot engine at maximum power.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2010-04-01
We evaluate the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum-dot Carnot heat engine. The universal values of the coefficients at the linear and quadratic order in the temperature gradient are reproduced. Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is recovered in the limit of weak dissipation.
High Gradient Accelerator Research
Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center
2016-07-12
The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.
Stringy bounces and gradient instabilities
Giovannini, Massimo
2017-01-01
Bouncing solutions are obtained from a generally covariant action characterized by a potential which is a nonlocal functional of the dilaton field at two separated space-time points. Gradient instabilities are shown to arise in this context but they are argued to be nongeneric. After performing a gauge-invariant and frame-invariant derivation of the evolution equations of the fluctuations, a heuristic criterium for the avoidance of pathological instabilities is proposed and corroborated by a number of explicit examples that turn out to be compatible with a quasi-flat spectrum of curvature inhomogeneities for typical wavelengths larger than the Hubble radius.
Massimo Giovannini
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Giovannini, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Section of Milan-Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy)
2015-06-30
Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
张琳; 侯学霞; 刘慧鑫; 刘炜; 万康林; 郝琴
2016-01-01
Objective To predict the potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai by using Maximum Entropy model (MaxEnt).Methods The sero-diagnosis data of Lyme disease in 6 counties (Huzhu,Zeku,Tongde,Datong,Qilian and Xunhua) and the environmental and anthropogenic data including altitude,human footprint,normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature in Qinghai province since 1990 were collected.By using the data of Huzhu Zeku and Tongde,the prediction of potential distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was conducted with MaxEnt.The prediction results were compared with the human sero-prevalence of Lyme disease in Datong,Qilian and Xunhua counties in Qinghai.Results Three hot spots of Lyme disease were predicted in Qinghai,which were all in the east forest areas.Furthermore,the NDVI showed the most important role in the model prediction,followed by human footprint.Datong,Qilian and Xunhua counties were all in eastern Qinghai.Xunhua was in hot spot area Ⅱ,Datong was close to the north of hot spot area Ⅲ,while Qilian with lowest sero-prevalence of Lyme disease was not in the hot spot areas.The data were well modeled in MaxEnt (Area Under Curve=0.980).Conclusions The actual distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was in consistent with the results of the model prediction.MaxEnt could be used in predicting the potential distribution patterns of Lyme disease.The distribution of vegetation and the range and intensity of human activity might be related with Lyme disease distribution.%目的 应用最大熵模型(MaxEnt)预测青海省莱姆病的分布.方法 查阅1990年以来青海省人群莱姆病的血清检测数据,共收集到6个县(互助、泽库、同德、大通、祁连、循化)的血清学结果,将互助、泽库、同德县的血清学检测结果以及青海省环境和人为活动数据[包括海拔、人口足迹、归一化植被指数(NDVI)、温度等]导入MaxEnt软件,分析环境以及人为条件适宜的莱姆病
Gradient systems and mechanical systems
Fengxiang Mei; Huibin Wu
2016-01-01
All types of gradient systems and their properties are discussed. Two problems connected with gradient sys-tems and mechanical systems are studied. One is the direct problem of transforming a mechanical system into a gradi-ent system, and the other is the inverse problem, which is transforming a gradient system into a mechanical system.
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Salinity-gradient energy driven microbial electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide
Li, Xiaohu; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng
2017-02-01
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a strong oxidant, is widely used in various chemical industries and environmental remediation processes. In this study, we developed an innovative method for cost-effective production of H2O2 by using a microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC). In the MREC, electrical potential generated by the exoelectrogens and the salinity-gradient between salt and fresh water were utilized to drive the high-rate H2O2 production. Operational parameters such as air flow rate, pH, cathodic potential, flow rate of salt and fresh water were investigated. The optimal H2O2 production was observed at salt and fresh water flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1, air flow rate of 12-20 mL min-1, cathode potential of -0.485 ± 0.025 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The maximum H2O2 accumulated concentration of 778 ± 11 mg L-1 was obtained at corresponding production rate of 11.5 ± 0.5 mg L-1 h-1. The overall energy input for the synthesis process was 0.45 ± 0.03 kWh kg-1 H2O2. Cathode potential was the key factor for H2O2 production, which was mainly affected by the air flow rate. This work for the first time proved the potential of MREC as an efficient platform technology for simultaneous electrosynthesis of valuable chemicals and utilization of salinity-gradient energy.
马世发; 艾彬; 赵克飞
2014-01-01
Geography simulation model such as Cellular Automata (CA) is one of the most important tools for simulating and early warning the urban growth. The CA model can simulate urban sprawling accurately only when suitable conversion rules for every cell are achieved. Hence, the core of CA is to derive the conversion rules, and many researchers have been interested in discovering the rules. However, the conversion rules of tradi-tional CA are mainly derived from historic samples, in which both changed samples and unchanged ones are con-sidered for function fitting to retrieve parameters simultaneously. In this approach, it is assumed that if the urban sprawling occurred, samples were labeled as 1; otherwise, samples were accordingly labeled as 0. However, it will result in over fitting for the unchanged samples, because those samples with labels of 0 may have the potenti-ality to transform in future, especially for those located at the rural-urban fringe. Therefore, we proposed a gradi-ent CA for simulating urban sprawling. In this model, whether or not urban growth would occur was determined by the developing probability instead of its developed or undeveloped status. Accordingly, the unchanged sam-ples were set to the values ranging from 0 to 1. And in this research, the developing potentiality was estimated ac-cording to present planning maps. Compared with traditional CA, the gradient CA could avoid the over fitting problem for the unchanged samples to a certain degree. Moreover, the fitting objective was distinguished from traditional CA for its ability in retrieving conversion rules. In addition, particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to obtain the parameters of spatial indices. Finally, Guangzhou City, which locates in the Pearl River Delta of China, was chosen as the study area for model implementation and validation. In this case study, the spa-tial developing potentiality was allocated referring to the major function zone (MFZ) planning, because MFZ is
Plant Size and Competitive Dynamics along Nutrient Gradients.
Goldberg, Deborah E; Martina, Jason P; Elgersma, Kenneth J; Currie, William S
2017-08-01
Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability are unimodal functions of maximum potential size, such that plants that are too large (or too small) are disproportionately suppressed by competition. Optimal size increases with nitrogen supply, even when plants compete for nitrogen only in a size-symmetric manner, although adding size-asymmetric competition for light does substantially increase the advantage of larger size at high nitrogen. These complex interactions of plant size and nitrogen supply lead to strong nonlinearities such that small differences in nitrogen can result in large differences in plant invasion success and the influence of competition along productivity gradients.
Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States
Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.
1977-01-01
Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.
Bigravity from gradient expansion
Yamashita, Yasuho [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Tanaka, Takahiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan)
2016-05-04
We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.
Vich, M.; Romero, R.; Richard, E.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.
2010-09-01
Heavy precipitation events occur regularly in the western Mediterranean region. These events often have a high impact on the society due to economic and personal losses. The improvement of the mesoscale numerical forecasts of these events can be used to prevent or minimize their impact on the society. In previous studies, two ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) based on perturbing the model initial and boundary conditions were developed and tested for a collection of high-impact MEDEX cyclonic episodes. These EPSs perturb the initial and boundary potential vorticity (PV) field through a PV inversion algorithm. This technique ensures modifications of all the meteorological fields without compromising the mass-wind balance. One EPS introduces the perturbations along the zones of the three-dimensional PV structure presenting the local most intense values and gradients of the field (a semi-objective choice, PV-gradient), while the other perturbs the PV field over the MM5 adjoint model calculated sensitivity zones (an objective method, PV-adjoint). The PV perturbations are set from a PV error climatology (PVEC) that characterizes typical PV errors in the ECMWF forecasts, both in intensity and displacement. This intensity and displacement perturbation of the PV field is chosen randomly, while its location is given by the perturbation zones defined in each ensemble generation method. Encouraged by the good results obtained by these two EPSs that perturb the PV field, a new approach based on a manual perturbation of the PV field has been tested and compared with the previous results. This technique uses the satellite water vapor (WV) observations to guide the correction of initial PV structures. The correction of the PV field intents to improve the match between the PV distribution and the WV image, taking advantage of the relation between dark and bright features of WV images and PV anomalies, under some assumptions. Afterwards, the PV inversion algorithm is applied to run
Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient
Farkas, Zoltan D
2001-11-08
This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.
On the Performance of Maximum Likelihood Inverse Reinforcement Learning
Ratia, Héctor; Martinez-Cantin, Ruben
2012-01-01
Inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) addresses the problem of recovering a task description given a demonstration of the optimal policy used to solve such a task. The optimal policy is usually provided by an expert or teacher, making IRL specially suitable for the problem of apprenticeship learning. The task description is encoded in the form of a reward function of a Markov decision process (MDP). Several algorithms have been proposed to find the reward function corresponding to a set of demonstrations. One of the algorithms that has provided best results in different applications is a gradient method to optimize a policy squared error criterion. On a parallel line of research, other authors have presented recently a gradient approximation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the reward signal. In general, both approaches approximate the gradient estimate and the criteria at different stages to make the algorithm tractable and efficient. In this work, we provide a detailed description of the different metho...
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
An Improved Double-Threshold Method Based on Gradient Histogram
YANG Shen; CHEN Shu-zhen; ZHANG Bing
2004-01-01
This paper analyzes the characteristics of the output gradient histogram and shortages of several traditional automatic threshold methods in order to segment the gradient image better. Then an improved double-threshold method is proposed, which is combined with the method of maximum classes variance, estimating-area method and double-threshold method. This method can automatically select two different thresholds to segment gradient images. The computer simulation is performed on the traditional methods and this algorithm and proves that this method can get satisfying result.
Reinforcement Learning by Value Gradients
Fairbank, Michael
2008-01-01
The concept of the value-gradient is introduced and developed in the context of reinforcement learning. It is shown that by learning the value-gradients exploration or stochastic behaviour is no longer needed to find locally optimal trajectories. This is the main motivation for using value-gradients, and it is argued that learning value-gradients is the actual objective of any value-function learning algorithm for control problems. It is also argued that learning value-gradients is significantly more efficient than learning just the values, and this argument is supported in experiments by efficiency gains of several orders of magnitude, in several problem domains. Once value-gradients are introduced into learning, several analyses become possible. For example, a surprising equivalence between a value-gradient learning algorithm and a policy-gradient learning algorithm is proven, and this provides a robust convergence proof for control problems using a value function with a general function approximator.
InSAR derived horizontal subsidence gradient as a tool for hazard assessment in urban areas.
Cabral-Cano, E.; Dixon, T.; Diaz-Molina, O.
2007-05-01
Mexico City's subsidence has been recognized for over a century, after the first well battery was drilled to supply water to the rapidly growing city at the end of the XIX century. Consequences of the subsidence process are costly but the economic consequences of subsidence in urban areas is hard to assess due to the fact that their costs are generally factored into yearly maintenance budgets rather than accounting for them as a unique natural disaster. It has thus become increasingly important to assess the extent and magnitude of damage due to ground subsidence in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Periodic InSAR and GPS measurements including data from an 8 site permanent GPS network in Mexico City has enabled us to derive an integrated composite displacement map for Mexico City. This image was used to calculate the horizontal subsidence gradient for areas smaller than 100x100m throughout the city by computing the observed displacement difference divided by the respective pixel to pixel horizontal distance and comparing similarly calculated values from all adjacent pixels in order to select the maximum gradient. Both empiric and analytical approaches can been used to correlate the potential for surface faulting in high horizontal subsidence gradient zones and show that the principal factor for constraining these areas can be successfully determined using a combined Differential InSAR and GPS approach. We present surface faulting risk maps for several cities in central Mexico derived from the horizontal subsidence gradient approach as an example of this technique.
Gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization
Janečka, Adam
2016-01-01
Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of a dissipation potential, which leads to several advantageous features like Maxwell--Onsager relations, distinguishing between thermodynamic forces and fluxes or geometrical interpretation of the dynamics. Entropy production maximization is a powerful tool for predicting constitutive relations in engineering. In this paper, both approaches are compared and their shortcomings and advantages are discussed.
Convergence of approximations of monotone gradient systems
Zambotti, Lorenzo
2006-01-01
We consider stochastic differential equations in a Hilbert space, perturbed by the gradient of a convex potential. We investigate the problem of convergence of a sequence of such processes. We propose applications of this method to reflecting O.U. processes in infinite dimension, to stochastic partial differential equations with reflection of Cahn-Hilliard type and to interface models.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Inversion gradients for acoustic VTI wavefield tomography
Li, Vladimir
2017-03-21
Wavefield tomography can handle complex subsurface geology better than ray-based techniques and, ultimately, provide a higher resolution. Here, we implement forward and adjoint wavefield extrapolation for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media using a generalized pseudospectral operator based on a separable approximation for the P-wave dispersion relation. This operator is employed to derive the gradients of the differential semblance optimization (DSO) and modified image-power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for a data-domain objective function that can more easily incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are similar to the ones obtained with a space-time finite-difference (FD) scheme for a system of coupled wave equations but the pseudospectral method is not hampered by the imprint of the shear-wave artifact. Numerical examples also show the potential advantages of the modified image-power objective function in estimating the anellipticity parameter η.
Vranjes, J
2015-01-01
Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...
Vranjes, J., E-mail: jvranjes@yahoo.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Kono, M., E-mail: kono@fps.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)
2015-01-15
Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.
Generation of tunable and pulsatile concentration gradients via microfluidic network
Zhou, Bingpu
2014-06-04
We demonstrate a compact Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip which can quickly generate ten different chemical concentrations simultaneously. The concentration magnitude of each branch can be flexibly regulated based on the flow rate ratios of the two injecting streams. The temporal/pulsatile concentration gradients are achieved by integrating on-chip pneumatic actuated valves controlled by the external signals. The temporal concentration gradients can also be tuned precisely by varying applied frequency and duty cycle of the trigger signal. It is believed that such microdevice will be potentially used for some application areas of producing stable chemical gradients as well as allowing fast, pulsatile gradient transformation in seconds.
Maximum entropy production: can it be used to constrain conceptual hydrological models?
M. C. Westhoff
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years, optimality principles have been proposed to constrain hydrological models. The principle of maximum entropy production (MEP is one of the proposed principles and is subject of this study. It states that a steady state system is organized in such a way that entropy production is maximized. Although successful applications have been reported in literature, generally little guidance has been given on how to apply the principle. The aim of this paper is to use the maximum power principle – which is closely related to MEP – to constrain parameters of a simple conceptual (bucket model. Although, we had to conclude that conceptual bucket models could not be constrained with respect to maximum power, this study sheds more light on how to use and how not to use the principle. Several of these issues have been correctly applied in other studies, but have not been explained or discussed as such. While other studies were based on resistance formulations, where the quantity to be optimized is a linear function of the resistance to be identified, our study shows that the approach also works for formulations that are only linear in the log-transformed space. Moreover, we showed that parameters describing process thresholds or influencing boundary conditions cannot be constrained. We furthermore conclude that, in order to apply the principle correctly, the model should be (1 physically based; i.e. fluxes should be defined as a gradient divided by a resistance, (2 the optimized flux should have a feedback on the gradient; i.e. the influence of boundary conditions on gradients should be minimal, (3 the temporal scale of the model should be chosen in such a way that the parameter that is optimized is constant over the modelling period, (4 only when the correct feedbacks are implemented the fluxes can be correctly optimized and (5 there should be a trade-off between two or more fluxes. Although our application of the maximum power principle did
Quasi-geostrophic dynamics in the presence of moisture gradients
Monteiro, Joy M
2016-01-01
The derivation of a quasi-geostrophic (QG) system from the rotating shallow water equations on a midlatitude beta-plane coupled with moisture is presented. Condensation is prescribed to occur whenever the moisture at a point exceeds a prescribed saturation value. It is seen that a slow condensation time scale is required to obtain a consistent set of equations at leading order. Further, since the advecting wind fields are geostrophic, changes in moisture (and hence, precipitation) occur only via non-divergent mechanisms. Following observations, a saturation profile with gradients in the zonal and meridional directions is prescribed. A purely meridional gradient has the effect of slowing down the dry Rossby waves, through a reduction in the "equivalent gradient" of the background potential vorticity. A large scale unstable moist mode results on the inclusion of a zonal gradient by itself, or in conjunction with a meridional moisture gradient. For gradients that are are representative of the atmosphere, the mos...
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Fermi气体在势阱中的最大囚禁范围与状态方程%Maximum trap range and equation of state for Fermi gas in potential trap
袁都奇
2011-01-01
在Thomas-Fermi近似条件下,研究了n维广义幂律势阱中Fermi原子气体的最大囚禁范围,给出了n维势阱中气体的实际囚禁体积,导出了状态方程.结果表明,最大囚禁范围和囚禁气体压强不仅与势阱性质有关,也与自由理想Fermi系统的化学势有关.对三维球对称简谐势阱进行了应用,表明在Thomas-Fermi近似有效的前提下,当系统满足条件(kT/hw)2(16π2g/9N)2/3≤1时,压强对温度的依赖关系并不明显,而对粒子质量、粒子数及势场强度w有较强的非线性依赖关系.%In the Thomas-Fermi semi-classical approximation, the maximal trap range and the real trap volume of ideal Fermi gas in an n-dimensional potential trap are gaven, and the relevant equations of state are derived. These results indicate that the maximal trap range and the real pressure of trapped gas are related to the potential field and the chemical potentialof the free and ideal Fermi system. When the Thomas-Fermi approximate is valid and the condition (Kt/hω)2(16π2g/9N)2/3＜1is satisfied, the application of the equation of state to three-dimensional spherical symmetry harmonic trap yields the result that the change of pressure is not obvious when the temperature changes, but the change of pressure is closely related to mass of particle, number of particles and the frequency of harmonic potential.
郝朝运; 谭乐和; 范睿; 陈海平; 邬华松; 李志刚; 吴刚
2011-01-01
The potential geographical distributions of Piper hairumense were predicted with Maxent software based on twenty four locations and twenty seven environmental layers. The results showed that the Maxent model had 87.5% success rate and was statistically significant. The potential distributions of P. Hainanense with the highest suitability were mainly located in the Hainan Island, southern Guangdong and Guangxi. Northern Vietnam and Central Laos where the species had never been documented were also predicted as the suitable habitat. Only small area of the species' potential distribution had been under protection. According to the jackknife test, some precipitation and temperature parameters were identified as highly effective factors on the distribution of the species and could possibly account for its narrow distribution scale. This approach presented here appeared to be quite promising in predicting suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species with small sample records and could be an effective tool for biodiversity conservation planning, monitoring and management.%利用获得的24个种群位点和27个环境图层,选择最大熵模型(Maxent)在地理和环境空间上模拟了我国药用植物海南蒟(Piper hainanense)的潜在地理布局.结果表明,Maxent模型的预测准确率高达87.5％,p值检验显示具有统计显著性.海南蒟的潜在区主要集中在海南、广东南部和广西部分地区,与已知的实际分布密切相关,此外在越南北部和老挝中部也有潜在分布的可能.目前已有部分分布区位于政府设定的自然保护区内,但仍有超过80％的分布区未被有效保护,常遭受人为干扰破坏.根据留一法检验和环境因子分析,部分与温度和降水有关的环境因子决定了海南蒟的潜在地理布局.
Generalized conjugate gradient squared
Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)
1994-12-31
In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.
Efficiency at maximum power of thermochemical engines with near-independent particles.
Luo, Xiaoguang; Liu, Nian; Qiu, Teng
2016-03-01
Two-reservoir thermochemical engines are established by using near-independent particles (including Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein particles) as the working substance. Particle and heat fluxes can be formed based on the temperature and chemical potential gradients between two different reservoirs. A rectangular-type energy filter with width Γ is introduced for each engine to weaken the coupling between the particle and heat fluxes. The efficiency at maximum power of each particle system decreases monotonously from an upper bound η(+) to a lower bound η(-) when Γ increases from 0 to ∞. It is found that the η(+) values for all three systems are bounded by η(C)/2 ≤ η(+) ≤ η(C)/(2-η(C)) due to strong coupling, where η(C) is the Carnot efficiency. For the Bose-Einstein system, it is found that the upper bound is approximated by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency: η(CA)=1-sqrt[1-η(C)]. When Γ → ∞, the intrinsic maximum powers are proportional to the square of the temperature difference of the two reservoirs for all three systems, and the corresponding lower bounds of efficiency at maximum power can be simplified in the same form of η(-)=η(C)/[1+a(0)(2-η(C))].
Efficiency at maximum power of thermochemical engines with near-independent particles
Luo, Xiaoguang; Liu, Nian; Qiu, Teng
2016-03-01
Two-reservoir thermochemical engines are established by using near-independent particles (including Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein particles) as the working substance. Particle and heat fluxes can be formed based on the temperature and chemical potential gradients between two different reservoirs. A rectangular-type energy filter with width Γ is introduced for each engine to weaken the coupling between the particle and heat fluxes. The efficiency at maximum power of each particle system decreases monotonously from an upper bound η+ to a lower bound η- when Γ increases from 0 to ∞ . It is found that the η+ values for all three systems are bounded by ηC/2 ≤η+≤ηC/(2 -ηC ) due to strong coupling, where ηC is the Carnot efficiency. For the Bose-Einstein system, it is found that the upper bound is approximated by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency: ηCA=1 -√{1 -ηC } . When Γ →∞ , the intrinsic maximum powers are proportional to the square of the temperature difference of the two reservoirs for all three systems, and the corresponding lower bounds of efficiency at maximum power can be simplified in the same form of η-=ηC/[1 +a0(2 -ηC ) ] .
Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-11-22
Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.
Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto
2017-08-01
An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-07-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation
Lei Luo
2013-01-01
item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Comparative Studies of High-Gradient Rf and Dc Breakdowns
Kovermann, Jan Wilhelm; Wuensch, Walter
2010-01-01
The CLIC project is based on normal-conducting high-gradient accelerating structures with an average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The maximum achievable gradient in these structures is limited by the breakdown phenomenon. The physics of breakdowns is not yet fully understood quantitatively. A full knowledge could have strong impact on the design, material choice and construction of rf structures. Therefore, understanding breakdowns has great importance to reaching a gradient of 100MV/m with an acceptable breakdown probability. This thesis addresses the physics underlying the breakdown effect, focusing on a comparison of breakdowns in rf structures and in a dc spark setup. The dc system is simpler, easier to benchmark against simulations, with a faster turnaround time, but the relationship to rf breakdown must be established. To do so, an experimental approach based on optical diagnostics and electrical measurements methods was made. Following an introduction into the CLIC project, a general theoretical ...
Electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices
Cheng, Hemeng; Li, Changan; Song, Yun [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Tianxing, E-mail: txma@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Li-Gang, E-mail: sxwlg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Hai-Qing [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)
2014-08-18
We investigate the electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices using transfer matrix method. By introducing two kinds of gradient potentials of square barriers along electrons propagation direction, we find that Bloch oscillations up to terahertz can occur. Wannier-Stark ladders, as the counterpart of Bloch oscillation, are obtained as a series of equidistant transmission peaks, and the localization of the electronic wave function is also signature of Bloch oscillation. Furthermore, the period of Bloch oscillation decreases linearly with increasing gradient of barrier potentials.
Fast Forward Maximum entropy reconstruction of sparsely sampled data.
Balsgart, Nicholas M; Vosegaard, Thomas
2012-10-01
We present an analytical algorithm using fast Fourier transformations (FTs) for deriving the gradient needed as part of the iterative reconstruction of sparsely sampled datasets using the forward maximum entropy reconstruction (FM) procedure by Hyberts and Wagner [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 5108]. The major drawback of the original algorithm is that it required one FT and one evaluation of the entropy per missing datapoint to establish the gradient. In the present study, we demonstrate that the entire gradient may be obtained using only two FT's and one evaluation of the entropy derivative, thus achieving impressive time savings compared to the original procedure. An example: A 2D dataset with sparse sampling of the indirect dimension, with sampling of only 75 out of 512 complex points (15% sampling) would lack (512-75)×2=874 points per ν(2) slice. The original FM algorithm would require 874 FT's and entropy function evaluations to setup the gradient, while the present algorithm is ∼450 times faster in this case, since it requires only two FT's. This allows reduction of the computational time from several hours to less than a minute. Even more impressive time savings may be achieved with 2D reconstructions of 3D datasets, where the original algorithm required days of CPU time on high-performance computing clusters only require few minutes of calculation on regular laptop computers with the new algorithm.
An efficient approximation algorithm for finding a maximum clique using Hopfield network learning.
Wang, Rong Long; Tang, Zheng; Cao, Qi Ping
2003-07-01
In this article, we present a solution to the maximum clique problem using a gradient-ascent learning algorithm of the Hopfield neural network. This method provides a near-optimum parallel algorithm for finding a maximum clique. To do this, we use the Hopfield neural network to generate a near-maximum clique and then modify weights in a gradient-ascent direction to allow the network to escape from the state of near-maximum clique to maximum clique or better. The proposed parallel algorithm is tested on two types of random graphs and some benchmark graphs from the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DIMACS). The simulation results show that the proposed learning algorithm can find good solutions in reasonable computation time.
Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient Accelerators
Sheehy, S L
2016-01-01
These notes provide an overview of Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for medical applications. We begin with a review of the basic principles of this type of accelerator, including the scaling and non-scaling types, highlighting beam dynamics issues that are of relevance to hadron ac- celerators. The potential of FFAG accelerators in the field of hadron therapy is discussed in detail, including an overview of existing medical FFAG designs. The options for FFAG treatment gantries are also considered.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review
Baggenstoss, Paul M.
2017-06-01
We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.
Angelis, G I; Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C [Imaging, Proteomics and Genomics, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Reader, A J [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Lionheart, W R, E-mail: georgios.angelis@mmic.man.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester (United Kingdom)
2011-07-07
Iterative expectation maximization (EM) techniques have been extensively used to solve maximum likelihood (ML) problems in positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. Although EM methods offer a robust approach to solving ML problems, they usually suffer from slow convergence rates. The ordered subsets EM (OSEM) algorithm provides significant improvements in the convergence rate, but it can cycle between estimates converging towards the ML solution of each subset. In contrast, gradient-based methods, such as the recently proposed non-monotonic maximum likelihood (NMML) and the more established preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG), offer a globally convergent, yet equally fast, alternative to OSEM. Reported results showed that NMML provides faster convergence compared to OSEM; however, it has never been compared to other fast gradient-based methods, like PCG. Therefore, in this work we evaluate the performance of two gradient-based methods (NMML and PCG) and investigate their potential as an alternative to the fast and widely used OSEM. All algorithms were evaluated using 2D simulations, as well as a single [{sup 11}C]DASB clinical brain dataset. Results on simulated 2D data show that both PCG and NMML achieve orders of magnitude faster convergence to the ML solution compared to MLEM and exhibit comparable performance to OSEM. Equally fast performance is observed between OSEM and PCG for clinical 3D data, but NMML seems to perform poorly. However, with the addition of a preconditioner term to the gradient direction, the convergence behaviour of NMML can be substantially improved. Although PCG is a fast convergent algorithm, the use of a (bent) line search increases the complexity of the implementation, as well as the computational time involved per iteration. Contrary to previous reports, NMML offers no clear advantage over OSEM or PCG, for noisy PET data. Therefore, we conclude that there is little evidence to replace OSEM as the algorithm of choice
Sobolev gradients and differential equations
Neuberger, J W
2010-01-01
A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...
Annular beam with segmented phase gradients
Shubo Cheng
2016-08-01
Full Text Available An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.
Annular beam with segmented phase gradients
Cheng, Shubo; Wu, Liang [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tao, Shaohua, E-mail: eshtao@csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)
2016-08-15
An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.
Maximum Entropy Production and Non-Gaussian Climate Variability
Sura, Philip
2016-01-01
Earth's atmosphere is in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, the large scale equator-to-pole temperature gradient is maintained by tropical heating, polar cooling, and a midlatitude meridional eddy heat flux predominantly driven by baroclinically unstable weather systems. Based on basic thermodynamic principles, it can be shown that the meridional heat flux, in combination with the meridional temperature gradient, acts to maximize entropy production of the atmosphere. In fact, maximum entropy production (MEP) has been successfully used to explain the observed mean state of the atmosphere and other components of the climate system. However, one important feature of the large scale atmospheric circulation is its often non-Gaussian variability about the mean. This paper presents theoretical and observational evidence that some processes in the midlatitude atmosphere are significantly non-Gaussian to maximize entropy production. First, after introducing the basic theory, it is shown that the ...
Thermodynamics, maximum power, and the dynamics of preferential river flow structures on continents
A. Kleidon
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The organization of drainage basins shows some reproducible phenomena, as exemplified by self-similar fractal river network structures and typical scaling laws, and these have been related to energetic optimization principles, such as minimization of stream power, minimum energy expenditure or maximum "access". Here we describe the organization and dynamics of drainage systems using thermodynamics, focusing on the generation, dissipation and transfer of free energy associated with river flow and sediment transport. We argue that the organization of drainage basins reflects the fundamental tendency of natural systems to deplete driving gradients as fast as possible through the maximization of free energy generation, thereby accelerating the dynamics of the system. This effectively results in the maximization of sediment export to deplete topographic gradients as fast as possible and potentially involves large-scale feedbacks to continental uplift. We illustrate this thermodynamic description with a set of three highly simplified models related to water and sediment flow and describe the mechanisms and feedbacks involved in the evolution and dynamics of the associated structures. We close by discussing how this thermodynamic perspective is consistent with previous approaches and the implications that such a thermodynamic description has for the understanding and prediction of sub-grid scale organization of drainage systems and preferential flow structures in general.
A. Kleidon
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The organization of drainage basins shows some reproducible phenomena, as exemplified by self-similar fractal river network structures and typical scaling laws, and these have been related to energetic optimization principles, such as minimization of stream power, minimum energy expenditure or maximum "access". Here we describe the organization and dynamics of drainage systems using thermodynamics, focusing on the generation, dissipation and transfer of free energy associated with river flow and sediment transport. We argue that the organization of drainage basins reflects the fundamental tendency of natural systems to deplete driving gradients as fast as possible through the maximization of free energy generation, thereby accelerating the dynamics of the system. This effectively results in the maximization of sediment export to deplete topographic gradients as fast as possible and potentially involves large-scale feedbacks to continental uplift. We illustrate this thermodynamic description with a set of three highly simplified models related to water and sediment flow and describe the mechanisms and feedbacks involved in the evolution and dynamics of the associated structures. We close by discussing how this thermodynamic perspective is consistent with previous approaches and the implications that such a thermodynamic description has for the understanding and prediction of sub-grid scale organization of drainage systems and preferential flow structures in general.
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Boiroux, Dimitri; Juhl, Rune; Madsen, Henrik;
2016-01-01
This paper addresses maximum likelihood parameter estimation of continuous-time nonlinear systems with discrete-time measurements. We derive an efficient algorithm for the computation of the log-likelihood function and its gradient, which can be used in gradient-based optimization algorithms...
Boiroux, Dimitri; Juhl, Rune; Madsen, Henrik
2016-01-01
. This algorithm uses UD decomposition of symmetric matrices and the array algorithm for covariance update and gradient computation. We test our algorithm on the Lotka-Volterra equations. Compared to the maximum likelihood estimation based on finite difference gradient computation, we get a significant speedup...
Sawall, Yvonne
2015-01-01
Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12 degrees latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5 degrees N, 21-27 degrees C) and southern (16.5 degrees N, 28-33 degrees C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29 degrees C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals
Geothermal Gradient Drilling and Measurements Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean
Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.; Adams, M.C.
1984-07-01
This technical report on the Phase II geothermal exploration of Ascension Island documents the data collected during thermal gradient drilling and the subsequent thermal and fluid chemical investigations. It also documents the completion of the Phase II exploration strategy which was proposed at the end of the Phase I--Preliminary Examination of Ascension Island. The thermal gradient drilling resulted in seven holes which range from 206 to 1750 ft (53-533 m) deep, with a cumulative footage of 6563 ft (2000 m). The drilling procedure and the problems encountered during the drilling have been explained in detail to provide information valuable for any subsequent drilling program on the island. In addition, the subsurface geology encountered in the holes has been documented and, where possible, correlated with other holes or the geology mapped on the surface of the island. Temperatures measured in the holes reach a maximum of 130 F (54.4 C) at 1285 ft (391.7 m) in hole GH-6. When the temperatures of all holes are plotted against elevation, the holes can be classed into three distinct groups, those which have no thermal manifestations, those with definite geothermal affinities, and one hole which is intermediate between the other two. From consideration of this information, it is clear that the highest geothermal potential on the island is in the Donkey Flat area extending beneath Middleton Ridge, and in the Cricket Valley area. Because of the greater drilling depths and the remote nature of the Cricket Valley area, it is recommended that future exploration concentrate in the area around Middleton Ridge.
Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds
Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)
1984-01-01
A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.
Kang, Ji Yun; Kim, Jung Gi; Park, Hyo Wook; Kim, Hyoung Seop
2016-05-27
The concept of multiscale architectured materials is established using composition and grain size gradients. Composition-gradient nanostructured materials are produced from coarse grained interstitial free steels via carburization and high-pressure torsion. Quantitative analyses of the dislocation density using X-ray diffraction and microstructural studies clearly demonstrate the gradients of the dislocation density and grain size. The mechanical properties of the gradient materials are compared with homogeneous nanostructured carbon steel without a composition gradient in an effort to investigate the gradient effect. Based on the above observations, the potential of multiscale architecturing to open a new material property is discussed.
Statistical analysis of Fe abundances gradients in the Galaxy
崔辰州; 赵刚; 赵永恒; 施建荣
2001-01-01
Using the high precision data of the proper motions and parallaxes from Hipparcos catalogue, we obtained the orbital parameters of 1302 stars in the Galaxy based on the mass distribution model provided by Allen and Santillán. Fe abundances of 1295 stars among our samples were analyzed. With the correlation analyses between ［Fe/H］ and orbital parameters, we obtained that the Fe gradient is -0.057±0.007 dex/kpc along the direction of the maximum galactocentric distance (hereafter DGmax) in the range of 8.5 kpc＜DGmax＜17 kpc. We also got the result that the vertical gradient is steeper than the radial gradient. Furthermore, we divided the samples into two subgroups: giants and dwarfs; F, G and K stars; and then analyzed them respectively. Our results show that the gradient becomes flatter and flatter from giants to dwarfs, from F type to G and K type stars. We also divided the samples into disk and halo stars using maximum vertical distance Zmax=1 kpc as the criterion and got the result that the abundances of the disk stars are much higher than that of the halo stars. Our work suggests the existence of the galactic gradient and supports those chemical evolution medels which show that the halo was formed before the disk at the early stage of the Galaxy.
Maximum potential cost-savings attributable to generic substitution ...
D. Husselmann
Background: Schizophrenia is a costly illness to treat, especially during a time of escalating medicine ... suffer from common mental disorders, including, inter alia, ...... delusional or even hostile when changing their medicine to a generic ...
Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries
Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.
2009-01-01
The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This
Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries
Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.
2009-01-01
The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This
Pressure-gradient-induced Alfven eigenmodes: 2. Kinetic excitation with ion temperature gradient
Bierwage, Andreas; Zonca, Fulvio
2009-01-01
The kinetic excitation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discrete Alfven eigenmodes in the second MHD ballooning stable domain is studied in the presence of a thermal ion temperature gradient (ITG), using linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of a local flux tube in shifted-circle tokamak geometry. The instabilities are identified as alpha-induced toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (alphaTAE); that is, bound states trapped between pressure-gradient-induced potential barriers of the Schroedinger equation for shear Alfven waves. Using numerical tools, we examine in detail the effect of kinetic thermal ion compression on alphaTAEs; both non-resonant coupling to ion sound waves and wave-particle resonances. It is shown that the Alfvenic ITG instability thresholds (e.g., the critical temperature gradient) are determined by two resonant absorption mechanisms: Landau damping and continuum damping. The numerical results are interpreted on the basis of a theoretical framework previously derived from a variational f...
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Maximum Likelihood Localization of Radiation Sources with unknown Source Intensity
Baidoo-Williams, Henry E
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider a novel and robust maximum likelihood approach to localizing radiation sources with unknown statistics of the source signal strength. The result utilizes the smallest number of sensors required theoretically to localize the source. It is shown, that should the source lie in the open convex hull of the sensors, precisely $N+1$ are required in $\\mathbb{R}^N, ~N \\in \\{1,\\cdots,3\\}$. It is further shown that the region of interest, the open convex hull of the sensors, is entirely devoid of false stationary points. An augmented gradient ascent algorithm with random projections should an estimate escape the convex hull is presented.
Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E
2016-05-01
Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate.
The causal relation between turbulent particle flux and density gradient
Milligen, B. Ph. van; Martín de Aguilera, A.; Hidalgo, C. [CIEMAT - Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); García, L.; Nicolau, J. H. [Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)
2016-07-15
A technique for detecting the causal relationship between fluctuating signals is used to investigate the relation between flux and gradient in fusion plasmas. Both a resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence model and experimental Langmuir probe data from the TJ-II stellarator are studied. It is found that the maximum influence occurs at a finite time lag (non-instantaneous response) and that quasi-periodicities exist. Furthermore, the model results show very long range radial influences, extending over most of the investigated regions, possibly related to coupling effects associated with plasma self-organization. These results clearly show that transport in fusion plasmas is not local and instantaneous, as is sometimes assumed.
Hybrid high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole
N'gotta, P.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.
2016-12-01
This paper presents an innovative compact permanent magnet quadrupole with a strong gradient for potential use in future light source lattices. Its magnetic structure includes simple mechanical parts, rectangular permanent magnet blocks and soft iron poles. It has a wide aperture in the horizontal plane to accommodate an x-ray beam port, a common constraint in storage ring-based light sources. This specificity introduces field quality deterioration because of the resulting truncation of the poles; a suitable field quality can be restored with an optimized pole shape. A 82 T /m prototype with a bore radius of 12 mm and a 10 mm vertical gap between poles has been constructed and magnetically characterized. Gradient inhomogeneities better than 10-3 in the good field region were obtained after the installation of special shims.
Stochastic gradient descent on Riemannian manifolds
Bonnabel, Silvere
2011-01-01
Stochastic gradient descent is a simple appproach to find the local minima of a function whose evaluations are corrupted by noise. In this paper, mostly motivated by machine learning applications, we develop a procedure extending stochastic gradient descent algorithms to the case where the function is defined on a Riemannian manifold. We prove that, as in the Euclidian case, the descent algorithm converges to a critical point of the cost function. The algorithm has numerous potential applications, and we show several well-known algorithms can be cast in our versatile geometric framework. We also address the gain tuning issue in connection with the tools of the recent theory of symmetry-preserving observers.
Adaptive Parallel Tempering for Stochastic Maximum Likelihood Learning of RBMs
Desjardins, Guillaume; Bengio, Yoshua
2010-01-01
Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM) have attracted a lot of attention of late, as one the principle building blocks of deep networks. Training RBMs remains problematic however, because of the intractibility of their partition function. The maximum likelihood gradient requires a very robust sampler which can accurately sample from the model despite the loss of ergodicity often incurred during learning. While using Parallel Tempering in the negative phase of Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML-PT) helps address the issue, it imposes a trade-off between computational complexity and high ergodicity, and requires careful hand-tuning of the temperatures. In this paper, we show that this trade-off is unnecessary. The choice of optimal temperatures can be automated by minimizing average return time (a concept first proposed by [Katzgraber et al., 2006]) while chains can be spawned dynamically, as needed, thus minimizing the computational overhead. We show on a synthetic dataset, that this results in better likelihood ...
Optimal Control of Polymer Flooding Based on Maximum Principle
Yang Lei
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Polymer flooding is one of the most important technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. In this paper, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems (DPSs for polymer injection strategies is established, which involves the performance index as maximum of the profit, the governing equations as the fluid flow equations of polymer flooding, and the inequality constraint as the polymer concentration limitation. To cope with the optimal control problem (OCP of this DPS, the necessary conditions for optimality are obtained through application of the calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s weak maximum principle. A gradient method is proposed for the computation of optimal injection strategies. The numerical results of an example illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Sobolev gradients and differential equations
Neuberger, John William
1997-01-01
A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional is a gradient of that functional taken relative to the underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. Equal emphasis is placed on numerical and theoretical matters. Several concrete applications are made to illustrate the method. These applications include (1) Ginzburg-Landau functionals of superconductivity, (2) problems of transonic flow in which type depends locally on nonlinearities, and (3) minimal surface problems. Sobolev gradient constructions rely on a study of orthogonal projections onto graphs of closed densely defined linear transformations from one Hilbert space to another. These developments use work of Weyl, von Neumann and Beurling.
Conjugate Gradient with Subspace Optimization
Karimi, Sahar
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a variant of the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in which we invoke a subspace minimization subproblem on each iteration. We call this algorithm CGSO for "conjugate gradient with subspace optimization". It is related to earlier work by Nemirovsky and Yudin. We apply the algorithm to solve unconstrained strictly convex problems. As with other CG algorithms, the update step on each iteration is a linear combination of the last gradient and last update. Unlike some other conjugate gradient methods, our algorithm attains a theoretical complexity bound of $O(\\sqrt{L/l} \\log(1/\\epsilon))$, where the ratio $L/l$ characterizes the strong convexity of the objective function. In practice, CGSO competes with other CG-type algorithms by incorporating some second order information in each iteration.
Flame Propagation Through Concentration Gradient
JunyaIINO; MitsuakiTANABE; 等
2000-01-01
The experiment was carried out in homogeneous propane-air mixture and in several concentration gradient of mixture.Igniter is put on the upper side of the combustion chamber,In concentration gradient experiment.ixture was ignited from lean side.An experimental study was conducted in a combustion chamber.The combustion chamber has glass windows for optical measurements at any side.For the measurement of distribution of fuel concentration,infraed absorption method using 3.39μm He-Ne laser was used,and for the observation of proagating flams,Schlieren method was employed.As a measurment result of flame propagation velocity and flammable limit,for a mixture of an identical local equivalence ratio.flame propagation velocity in concentration gradient is faster than that in homogeneous mixture,and rich flammable limit in concentration gradient shows a tendency to be higher than that in homogeneous mixture.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
Long pendulums in gravitational gradients
Suits, B H [Physics Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)
2006-03-01
Previous results for long pendulums above a spherical Earth are generalized for arbitrary non-uniform gravitational fields in the limit of small oscillation. As is the case for the previous results, gravitational gradients are multiplied by the length of the string even though the string is assumed massless. The effect is shown to arise from the constraint on the motion imposed by the string. The significance of these results for real gradients is discussed. (letters and comments)
Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe
2016-09-07
An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm(2)) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS.
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
Photoelectric and passivation properties of atomic layer deposited gradient AZO thin film
Zhao, Bin; Tang, Li-dan; Wang, Bing; Jia, Yi; Feng, Jia-heng
2017-02-01
Gradient Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited at 150 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with different Al concentration gradient, and their photoelectric and passivation properties were investigated. With increasing Al concentration gradient from 0.09 to 1.21%/nm, Hall-effect showed that the resistivity of gradient AZO thin films deteriorates. The minimal resistivity (2.81 × 10-3 Ω cm), the maximum mobility (9.03 cm2/Vs) and the maximum carrier concentration (2.46 × 1020 cm-3) were obtained at 0.09%/nm Al concentration gradient. The average transmittance of all the gradient AZO films can be more than 85% in the visible region. In addition, gradient AZO thin films demonstrated excellent passivation properties. The maximum minority carrier lifetime (120.6 μs) and the minimal surface recombination velocity (≤208.3 cm/s) were obtained at 0.71%/nm Al concentration gradient.
Gravity gradient for Greenland and its tectonic interpretation
Grushinsky, Andrew N.
2013-04-01
, evidently, was the Nares strait. To the south-west of the Nares strait observed axis of gravity gradient maximum, which lengthened along the shore of islands of Canadian Arctic Archipelago and proper Canada. It marked the narrow lengthy compression zone, arised, probably, from the character of the considering rift zone (its incomplete disclosure), which was not allowed free shifting of Canada and Canadian Arctic Archipelago from Greenland. 2. The fading of the west rift began after disclosure of the rift zone of northern part of the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Meanwhile arising east rift zone lead to the changing of the Greenland moving direction, that, probably, offer to origin compression zones in all coastal zone of Greenland, lead to orogeny. At the same time the central part of the Greenland plate was not compressed and remained weakly strained. Now the central part of Greenland was subjected to small extension, caused by glaciation. 3. The Mid-Atlantic ridge is exhibited in the gravity gradients much weaker than the west rift zone. The linear structure (axis of the gravity gradient minimum) was not observed, but then the changing and character of the gravity gradient on the different side of the rift are different. Region to the west of the rift characterized by the negative gravity gradient, while region to the east of the rift, gravity gradient are positive. One from the possible explanations of such picture can be the different petrological composition of these blocks with the different mechanical and reological features. 4. Region northeasterly of the central part of the Greenland shore have a complex enough picture of the changing compression and expansion zones, and Svalbard Archipelago from west and south bordered by zone of weaken rock.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
Maximum-likelihood cluster recontruction
Bartelmann, M; Seitz, S; Schneider, P J; Bartelmann, Matthias; Narayan, Ramesh; Seitz, Stella; Schneider, Peter
1996-01-01
We present a novel method to recontruct the mass distribution of galaxy clusters from their gravitational lens effect on background galaxies. The method is based on a least-chisquare fit of the two-dimensional gravitational cluster potential. The method combines information from shear and magnification by the cluster lens and is designed to easily incorporate possible additional information. We describe the technique and demonstrate its feasibility with simulated data. Both the cluster morphology and the total cluster mass are well reproduced.
Ultrafast Drop Movements Arising from Curvature Gradient
Lv, Cunjing; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Zheng, Quanshui
2011-01-01
We report experimental observation of a kind of fast spontaneous movements of water drops on surfaces of cones with diameters from 0.1 to 1.5 mm. The observed maximum speed (0.22 m/s) under ambient conditions were at least two orders of magnitude higher than that resulting from any known single spontaneous movement mechanism, for example, Marangoni effect due to gradient of surface tension. We trapped even higher spontaneous movement speeds (up to 125 m/s) in virtual experiments for drops on nanoscale cones by using molecular dynamics simulations. The underlying mechanism is found to be universally effective - drops on any surface either hydrophilic or hydrophobic with varying mean curvature are subject to driving forces toward the gradient direction of the mean curvature. The larger the mean curvature of the surface and the lower the contact angle of the liquid are, the stronger the driving force will be. This discovery can lead to more effective techniques for transporting droplets.
Dropwise Condensation on a Radial Gradient Surface
Macner, Ashley; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul
2013-11-01
In transient dropwise condensation from steam onto a cool surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. This study examines how surface functionalization affects drop growth and coalescence. Surfaces are treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact-angle (hydrophilic, neutral, and hydrophobic) or a radial gradient of contact-angles. The time evolution of number-density and associated drop-size distributions are reported. For a typical condensation experiment on a uniform angle surface, the number-density curves show two regimes: an initial increase in number-density as a result of nucleation and a subsequent decrease in number-density as a result of larger scale coalescence events. Without a removal mechanism, the fractional coverage, regardless of treatment, approaches unity. For the same angle-surface, the associated drop-size distributions progress through four different shapes along the growth curve. In contrast, for a radial gradient surface where removal by sweeping occurs, the number-density increases and then levels off to a value close to the maximum number-density that is well below unity coverage and only two shapes of distributions are observed. Implications for heat transfer will be discussed. This work was supported by a NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship.
Generalized Relativistic Wave Equations with Intrinsic Maximum Momentum
Ching, Chee Leong
2013-01-01
We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential are stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied are bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.
Generalized relativistic wave equations with intrinsic maximum momentum
Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim
2014-05-01
We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wave functions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential is stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied is bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.
Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N
2011-03-01
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.
Superfast maximum-likelihood reconstruction for quantum tomography
Shang, Jiangwei; Zhang, Zhengyun; Ng, Hui Khoon
2017-06-01
Conventional methods for computing maximum-likelihood estimators (MLE) often converge slowly in practical situations, leading to a search for simplifying methods that rely on additional assumptions for their validity. In this work, we provide a fast and reliable algorithm for maximum-likelihood reconstruction that avoids this slow convergence. Our method utilizes the state-of-the-art convex optimization scheme, an accelerated projected-gradient method, that allows one to accommodate the quantum nature of the problem in a different way than in the standard methods. We demonstrate the power of our approach by comparing its performance with other algorithms for n -qubit state tomography. In particular, an eight-qubit situation that purportedly took weeks of computation time in 2005 can now be completed in under a minute for a single set of data, with far higher accuracy than previously possible. This refutes the common claim that MLE reconstruction is slow and reduces the need for alternative methods that often come with difficult-to-verify assumptions. In fact, recent methods assuming Gaussian statistics or relying on compressed sensing ideas are demonstrably inapplicable for the situation under consideration here. Our algorithm can be applied to general optimization problems over the quantum state space; the philosophy of projected gradients can further be utilized for optimization contexts with general constraints.
Maximum entropy principle and texture formation
Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier
2006-01-01
The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.
Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.
McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J
2016-04-01
Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.
Causon, Tim J; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A; Haddad, Paul R
2010-07-30
A gradient kinetic plot method is used for theoretical characterisation of the performance of polymeric particulate anion exchange columns for gradient separations of small inorganic anions. The method employed requires only information obtained from a series of isocratic column performance measurements and in silico predictions of retention time and peak width under gradient conditions. Results obtained under practically constrained conditions provide parameters for the generation of high peak capacities and rapid peak production for fast analysis to be determined. Using this prediction method, a maximum theoretical peak capacity of 84 could be used to achieve separation of 26 components using a 120min gradient (R(s)>1). This approach provides a highly convenient tool for development of both mono- and multidimensional ion chromatography (IC) methodologies as it yields comprehensive understanding of the influence of gradient slope, analysis time, column length and temperature upon kinetically optimised gradient performance.
Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems
Guifu Du
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.
Damping of toroidal ion temperature gradient modes
Sugama, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
1999-04-01
The temporal evolution of linear toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes is studied based on a kinetic integral equation including an initial condition. It is shown how to evaluate the analytic continuation of the integral kernel as a function of a complex-valued frequency, which is useful for analytical and numerical calculations of the asymptotic damping behavior of the ITG mode. In the presence of the toroidal {nabla}B-curvature drift, the temporal dependence of the density and potential perturbations consists of normal modes and a continuum mode, which correspond to contributions from poles and from an integral along a branch cut, respectively, of the Laplace-transformed potential function of the complex-valued frequency. The normal modes have exponential time dependence with frequencies and growth rates determined by the dispersion relation while the continuum mode, which has a ballooning structure, shows a power law decay {proportional_to} t{sup -2} in the asymptotic limit, where t is the time variable. Therefore, the continuum mode dominantly describes the long-time asymptotic behavior of the density and potential perturbations for the stable system where all normal modes have negative growth rates. By performing proper analytic continuation for the homogeneous version of the kinetic integral equation, dependences of the normal modes` growth rate, real frequency, and eigenfunction on {eta}{sub i} (the ratio of the ion temperature gradient to the density gradient), k{sub {theta}} (the poloidal wavenumber), s (the magnetic shear parameter), and {theta}{sub k} (the ballooning angle corresponding to the minimum radial wavenumber) are numerically obtained for both stable and unstable cases. (author)
Extreme Ionospheric Gradients Observed in South Korea during the Last Solar Cycle
Jung, S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, J.
2012-12-01
Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) support aircraft precision approach and landing by providing differential corrections for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) pseudorange measurements and integrity information to aviation users within several tens of kilometers of GBAS-equipped airports. During the peak of the last solar cycle, extreme ionospheric gradients as large as 412 mm/km at high elevation and 360 mm/km at low elevation were observed in the United States. For a GBAS user at a 200-foot decision height (DH) for Category I precision approach, a spatial gradient of 412 mm/km could cause a residual range error of 8 meters. To predict the maximum position errors that GBAS users might suffer from these ionospheric threats, an ionospheric anomaly "threat model" for GBAS was developed in the Conterminous U.S (CONUS). The threat model issued to simulate worst-case ionospheric errors and develop mitigation strategies under ionospheric disturbances. Ionospheric conditions should be investigated for all regions where GBAS will be fielded in the future. We presents a method to identify ionospheric anomalies that can pose a potential integrity risk to GBAS users and details the study of extreme ionospheric gradients observed in South Korea during the last solar cycle. GPS dual-frequency code and carrier-phase measurements collected from a total of 74 GPS reference stations in South Korea were processed to observe ionospheric anomalies. Precise ionospheric delay estimates are obtained using the simplified truth processing method and ionospheric gradients are computed using the well-known "station pair method". Ionospheric threats can be modeled as a spatially linear semi-infinite wedge moving with constant speed in mid-latitude regions. A total of 22 dates during the last solar maximum period in 2000 - 2004 were investigated to identify ionospheric anomalies occurred in South Korea. Ten of the dates were the days previously chosen to construct the current
Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Spaliński, Michał
2016-12-01
We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes.
Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Spaliński, Michał
2016-01-01
We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes.
Bond Growth under Temperature Gradient.
P.K. Satyawali
1999-12-01
Full Text Available Grain and bond growth for dry snow are determined by the distribution of temperature andtemperature gradient in the snow matrix. From the standpoint of particle approach and based oncubic packing structure, a bond growth model has been developed for TG metamorphism. The paper.highlights the importance of bond formation and its effect on snow viscosity and finally on the rateof settlement. This is very important for developing a numerical snow pack model if microstructureis considered to be a basic parameter. A few experiments have been carried out to validate bond formation under temperature gradient.
Avoiding vacuum arcs in high gradient normal conducting RF structures
Sjøbæk, Kyrre Ness; Adli, Erik; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter
In order to build the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), accelerating structures reaching extremely high accelerating gradients are needed. Such structures have been built and tested using normal-conducting copper, powered by X-band RF power and reaching gradients of 100 MV/m and above. One phenomenon that must be avoided in order to reliably reach such gradients, is vacuum arcs or “breakdowns”. This can be accomplished by carefully designing the structure geometry such that high surface fields and large local power flows are avoided. The research presented in this thesis presents a method for optimizing the geometry of accelerating structures so that these breakdowns are made less likely, allowing the structure to operate reliably at high gradients. This was done primarily based on a phenomenological scaling model, which predicted the maximum gradient as a function of the break down rate, pulse length, and field distribution in the structure. The model is written in such a way that it allows direct comparis...
Variation of hydraulic gradient in nonlinear finite strain consolidation
谢新宇; 黄杰卿; 王文军; 李金柱
2014-01-01
In the research field of ground water, hydraulic gradient is studied for decades. In the consolidation field, hydraulic gradient is yet to be investigated as an important hydraulic variable. So, the variation of hydraulic gradient in nonlinear finite strain consolidation was focused on in this work. Based on lab tests, the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of Ningbo soft clay were obtained. Then, a strongly nonlinear governing equation was derived and it was solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the numerical analysis was performed and it was verified with the existing experiment for Hong Kong marine clay. It can be found that the variation of hydraulic gradient is closely related to the magnitude of external load and the depth in soils. It is interesting that the absolute value of hydraulic gradient (AVHG) increases rapidly first and then decreases gradually after reaching the maximum at different depths of soils. Furthermore, the changing curves of AVHG can be roughly divided into five phases. This five-phase model can be employed to study the migration of pore water during consolidation.
Modeling Yeast Cell Polarization Induced by Pheromone Gradients
Yi, Tau-Mu; Chen, Shanqin; Chou, Ching-Shan; Nie, Qing
2007-07-01
Yeast cells respond to spatial gradients of mating pheromones by polarizing and projecting up the gradient toward the source. It is thought that they employ a spatial sensing mechanism in which the cell compares the concentration of pheromone at different points on the cell surface and determines the maximum point, where the projection forms. Here we constructed the first spatial mathematical model of the yeast pheromone response that describes the dynamics of the heterotrimeric and Cdc42p G-protein cycles, which are linked in a cascade. Two key performance objectives of this system are (1) amplification—converting a shallow external gradient of ligand to a steep internal gradient of protein components and (2) tracking—following changes in gradient direction. We used simulations to investigate amplification mechanisms that allow tracking. We identified specific strategies for regulating the spatial dynamics of the protein components (i.e. their changing location in the cell) that would enable the cell to achieve both objectives.
Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-01-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.
Conditioning the full waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-08-05
Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual tradeoff between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain in which the small scattering angles of the gradient update is initially muted out. A model update hierarchical filtering strategy includes applying varying degree of filtering to the different parameter updates. A feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using both FWI and reection based FWI (RFWI), two strategies to combat the tradeoff between anisotropic parameters are outlined.
Hetzel, Terence; Blaesing, Christina; Jaeger, Martin; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C
2017-02-17
The performance of micro-liquid chromatography columns with an inner diameter of 0.3mm was investigated on a dedicated micro-LC system for gradient elution. Core-shell as well as fully porous particle packed columns were compared on the basis of peak capacity and gradient kinetic plot limits. The results for peak capacity showed the superior performance of columns packed with sub-2μm fully porous particles compared to 3.0μm fully porous and 2.7μm core-shell particles within a range of different gradient time to column void time ratios. For ultra-fast chromatography a maximum peak capacity of 16 can be obtained using a 30s gradient for the sub-2μm fully porous particle packed column. A maximum peak capacity of 121 can be achieved using a 5min gradient. In addition, the influence of an alternative detector cell on the basis of optical waveguide technology and contributing less to system variance was investigated showing an increased peak capacity for all applied gradient time/column void time ratios. Finally, the influence of pressure was evaluated indicating increased peak capacity for maximum performance whereas a limited benefit for ultra-fast chromatography with gradient times below 30s was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Broeckhoven, K; Verstraeten, M; Choikhet, K; Dittmann, M; Witt, K; Desmet, G
2011-02-25
We report on a general theoretical assessment of the potential kinetic advantages of running LC gradient elution separations in the constant-pressure mode instead of in the customarily used constant-flow rate mode. Analytical calculations as well as numerical simulation results are presented. It is shown that, provided both modes are run with the same volume-based gradient program, the constant-pressure mode can potentially offer an identical separation selectivity (except from some small differences induced by the difference in pressure and viscous heating trajectory), but in a significantly shorter time. For a gradient running between 5 and 95% of organic modifier, the decrease in analysis time can be expected to be of the order of some 20% for both water-methanol and water-acetonitrile gradients, and only weakly depending on the value of V(G)/V₀ (or equivalently t(G)/t₀). Obviously, the gain will be smaller when the start and end composition lie closer to the viscosity maximum of the considered water-organic modifier system. The assumptions underlying the obtained results (no effects of pressure and temperature on the viscosity or retention coefficient) are critically reviewed, and can be inferred to only have a small effect on the general conclusions. It is also shown that, under the adopted assumptions, the kinetic plot theory also holds for operations where the flow rate varies with the time, as is the case for constant-pressure operation. Comparing both operation modes in a kinetic plot representing the maximal peak capacity versus time, it is theoretically predicted here that both modes can be expected to perform equally well in the fully C-term dominated regime (where H varies linearly with the flow rate), while the constant pressure mode is advantageous for all lower flow rates. Near the optimal flow rate, and for linear gradients running from 5 to 95% organic modifier, time gains of the order of some 20% can be expected (or 25-30% when accounting for
Complex polymer brush gradients based on nanolithography and surface-initiated polymerization.
Lin, Xiankun; He, Qiang; Li, Junbai
2012-05-07
Confined surface gradients consisting of polymer brushes have great potential in various applications such as microfluidic devices, sensors, and biophysical research. Among the available fabrication approaches, nanolithographies combined with self-assembled monolayers and surface-initiated polymerization have became powerful tools to engineer confined gradients or predefined complex gradients on the nanometre size. In this tutorial review, we mainly highlight the research progress of the fabrication of confined polymer brush gradients by using electron beam, laser, and probe-based nanolithographies and the physical base for these approaches. The application of these polymer brush gradients in biomedical research is also addressed.
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
The geomagnetic field gradient tensor
Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils
2012-01-01
We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independe...... of the small-scale structure of the Earth’s lithospheric field....
Surface gradients under electrochemical control
Krabbenborg, Sven Olle
2014-01-01
Gradients are systems in which the physicochemical properties of a solution and/or surface change gradually in space and/or time. They are used for a myriad of technological and biological applications, for example for high-throughput screening, or for the investigation of biological systems. The de
Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes
Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin
2002-01-01
In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...
GOCE level 2 gravity gradients
Bouman, J.; Fiorot, S.; Fuchs, M.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Tscherning, C.C.; Veicherts, M.; Visser, P.N.A.M.
2011-01-01
Two of the GOCE Level 2 products are the gravity gradients (GGs) in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and the GGs in the Local North-Oriented Frame (LNOF). The GRF is an instrument frame and the GGs are derived from the L1b GGs. The L1b to L2 GG processing involves corrections for temporal gravi
Reinforcement Learning Through Gradient Descent
1999-05-14
Reinforcement learning is often done using parameterized function approximators to store value functions. Algorithms are typically developed for...practice of existing types of algorithms, the gradient descent approach makes it possible to create entirely new classes of reinforcement learning algorithms
Wouters, Bert; Broeckhoven, Ken; Wouters, Sam; Bruggink, Cees; Agroskin, Yury; Pohl, Christopher A; Eeltink, Sebastiaan
2014-11-28
The gradient-performance limits of capillary ion chromatography have been assessed at maximum system pressure (34.5 MPa) using capillary columns packed with 4.1 μm macroporous anion-exchange particles coated with 65 nm positively-charged nanobeads. In analogy to the van-Deemter curve, the gradient performance was assessed applying different flow rates, while decreasing the gradient time inversely proportional to the increase in flow rate in order to maintain the same retention properties. The gradient kinetic-performance limits were determined at maximum system pressure, applying tG/t0=5, 10, and 20. In addition, the effect of retention on peak width was assessed in gradient mode for mono-, di-, and trivalent inorganic anions. The peak width of late-eluting ions can be significantly reduced by using concave gradient, resulting in better detection sensitivity. A signal enhancement factor of 8 was measured for a late-eluting ion when applying a concave instead of a linear gradient. For the analysis of a complex anion mixture, a coupled column with a total length of 1.05 m was operated at the kinetic-performance limit applying a linear 250 min gradient (tG/t0=10). The peak capacity varied between 200 and 380 depending on analyte retention, and hence on charge and size of the ion.
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.
2008-01-01
Regression models were developed for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average concentrations of atrazine in streams using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The current effort builds on the original WARP models, which were based on the annual mean and selected percentiles of the annual frequency distribution of atrazine concentrations. Estimates of annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentrations for selected durations are needed to characterize the levels of atrazine and other pesticides for comparison to specific water-quality benchmarks for evaluation of potential concerns regarding human health or aquatic life. Separate regression models were derived for the annual maximum and annual maximum 21-day, 60-day, and 90-day moving-average concentrations. Development of the regression models used the same explanatory variables, transformations, model development data, model validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The models accounted for 72 to 75 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sampling sites used for model development. Predicted concentration statistics from the four models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports the application of the WARP models for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentration in streams and provides a framework to interpret the predictions in terms of uncertainty. For streams with inadequate direct measurements of atrazine concentrations, the WARP model predictions for the annual maximum and the annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentrations can be used to characterize
The phenotypic variance gradient - a novel concept.
Pertoldi, Cino; Bundgaard, Jørgen; Loeschcke, Volker; Barker, James Stuart Flinton
2014-11-01
Evolutionary ecologists commonly use reaction norms, which show the range of phenotypes produced by a set of genotypes exposed to different environments, to quantify the degree of phenotypic variance and the magnitude of plasticity of morphometric and life-history traits. Significant differences among the values of the slopes of the reaction norms are interpreted as significant differences in phenotypic plasticity, whereas significant differences among phenotypic variances (variance or coefficient of variation) are interpreted as differences in the degree of developmental instability or canalization. We highlight some potential problems with this approach to quantifying phenotypic variance and suggest a novel and more informative way to plot reaction norms: namely "a plot of log (variance) on the y-axis versus log (mean) on the x-axis, with a reference line added". This approach gives an immediate impression of how the degree of phenotypic variance varies across an environmental gradient, taking into account the consequences of the scaling effect of the variance with the mean. The evolutionary implications of the variation in the degree of phenotypic variance, which we call a "phenotypic variance gradient", are discussed together with its potential interactions with variation in the degree of phenotypic plasticity and canalization.
Magnetic Field Gradient Waveform Monitoring for Magnetic Resonance
Han, Hui
image reconstruction. A new 'demand compensation' gradient waveform adjustment method was proposed to address this particular challenge. This idea was verified in this thesis. It should also be noted that, in a general sense, this new waveform compensation method will potentially provide a novel solution to a variety of gradient related problems in MRI.
Uniform spinning sampling gradient electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.
Johnson, David H; Ahmad, Rizwan; Liu, Yangping; Chen, Zhiyu; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L
2014-02-01
To improve the quality and speed of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) acquisition by combining a uniform sampling distribution with spinning gradient acquisition. A uniform sampling distribution was derived for spinning gradient EPRI acquisition (uniform spinning sampling, USS) and compared to the existing (equilinear spinning sampling, ESS) acquisition strategy. Novel corrections were introduced to reduce artifacts in experimental data. Simulations demonstrated that USS puts an equal number of projections near each axis whereas ESS puts excessive projections at one axis, wasting acquisition time. Artifact corrections added to the magnetic gradient waveforms reduced noise and correlation between projections. USS images had higher SNR (85.9 ± 0.8 vs. 56.2 ± 0.8) and lower mean-squared error than ESS images. The quality of the USS images did not vary with the magnetic gradient orientation, in contrast to ESS images. The quality of rat heart images was improved using USS compared to that with ESS or traditional fast-scan acquisitions. A novel EPRI acquisition which combines spinning gradient acquisition with a uniform sampling distribution was developed. This USS spinning gradient acquisition offers superior SNR and reduced artifacts compared to prior methods enabling potential improvements in speed and quality of EPR imaging in biological applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
A thermodynamic force generated by chemical gradient and adsorption reaction
Sugawara, Takeshi
2009-01-01
Biological units such as macromolecules, organelles, and cells are directed to a proper location under gradients of relevant chemicals. By considering a macroscopic element that has binding sites for a chemical adsorption reaction to occur on its surface, we show the existence of a thermodynamic force that is generated by the gradient and exerted on the element. By assuming local equilibrium and adopting the grand potential from thermodynamics, we derive a formula for such a thermodynamic force, which depends on the chemical potential gradient and Langmuir isotherm. The conditions under which the formula can be applied are demonstrated to hold in intracellular reactions. The role of the force in the partitioning of bacterial chromosome/plasmid during cell division is discussed.
Raising gradient limitations in 2.1 GHz superconducting photonic band gap accelerator cavities
Simakov, Evgenya I., E-mail: smirnova@lanl.gov; Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Haynes, W. Brian; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.; Suvorova, Natalya A.; Tajima, Tsuyoshi [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Boulware, Chase H.; Grimm, Terry L. [Niowave, Inc., 1012 North Walnut Street, Lansing, Michigan 48906 (United States)
2014-06-16
We report results from recent 2.1 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) photonic band gap (PBG) resonator experiments at Los Alamos. Two 2.1 GHz PBG cells with elliptical rods were fabricated and tested at high power in a liquid helium bath at the temperatures of 4 K and below 2 K. The described SRF PBG cells were designed with a particular emphasis on changing the shape of the PBG rods to reduce peak surface magnetic fields and at the same time to preserve its effectiveness at damping higher-order-modes. The superconducting PBG cavities have great potential for damping long-range wakefields in SRF accelerator structures without affecting the fundamental accelerating mode. The cells performed in accordance with simulation's predictions and the maximum achieved accelerating gradient was 18.3 MV/m. This represents a 30% increase over gradients previously demonstrated in superconducting PBG cavities with round rods.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients
Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey
2016-11-01
Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.
Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob
2011-01-01
The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...
Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection
Hogden, J.
1997-05-01
The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.
Penalized maximum likelihood estimation for generalized linear point processes
Hansen, Niels Richard
2010-01-01
A generalized linear point process is specified in terms of an intensity that depends upon a linear predictor process through a fixed non-linear function. We present a framework where the linear predictor is parametrized by a Banach space and give results on Gateaux differentiability of the log-likelihood....... Of particular interest is when the intensity is expressed in terms of a linear filter parametrized by a Sobolev space. Using that the Sobolev spaces are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we derive results on the representation of the penalized maximum likelihood estimator in a special case and the gradient...... of the negative log-likelihood in general. The latter is used to develop a descent algorithm in the Sobolev space. We conclude the paper by extensions to multivariate and additive model specifications. The methods are implemented in the R-package ppstat....
The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A
2017-01-01
The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.
The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum
Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A.
2017-01-01
The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted. PMID:28138544
Opposing environmental gradients govern vegetation zonation in an intermountain playa
Sanderson, J.S.; Kotliar, N.B.; Steingraeber, D.A.
2008-01-01
Vegetation zonation was investigated at an intermountain playa wetland (Mishak Lakes) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of southern Colorado. Plant composition and abiotic conditions were quantified in six vegetation zones. Reciprocal transplants were performed to test the importance of abiotic factors in governing zonation. Abiotic conditions differed among several vegetation zones. Prolonged inundation led to anaerobic soils in the Eleocharis palustris and the submerged aquatics zones, on the low end of the site's 1.25 m elevation gradient. On the high end of the gradient, soil salinity and sodicity (a measure of exchangeable sodium) were high in the Distichlis spicata zone (electrical conductivity, EC = 5.3 dS/m, sodium absorption ratio, SAR = 44.0) and extreme in the Sarcobatus vermiculatus zone (EC = 21 dS/m, SAR = 274). Transplanted species produced maximum biomass in the zone where they originated, not in any other higher or lower vegetation zone. The greatest overall transplant effect occurred for E. palustris, which experienced a ??? 77% decline in productivity when transplanted to other zones. This study provides evidence that physical factors are a major determinant of vegetation zone composition and distribution across the entire elevation gradient at Mishak Lakes. Patterns at Mishak Lakes arise from counter-directional stress gradients: a gradient from anaerobic to well-oxygenated from basin bottom to upland and a gradient from extremely high salinity to low salinity in the opposing direction. Because abiotic conditions dominate vegetation zonation, restoration of the altered hydrologic regime of this wetland to a natural hydrologic regime may be sufficient to re-establish many of the natural biodiversity functions provided by these wetlands. ?? 2008 The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Biomimetic Gradient Index (GRIN) Lenses
2006-01-01
optics include single lenses inspired by cephalopod (octopus) eyes and a three-lens, wide field of view, optical system for a surveillance sensor...camera. Details are easily resolv- able with the polymer lens. This lens system was installed on an Evolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a...lens system was installed in an NRL Evolution UAV and used to record video images at a height of up to 1000 ft. The index gradients in the polymer
Multilayer coating for high gradients
Kubo, Takayuki
2016-01-01
The multilayer coating for high gradients is reviewed. Not only the S-I-S structure, but also the S-S bilayer structure are also treated. This is an incomplete manuscript of an invited article which will be submitted to a journal. I have uploaded this version in order to help the understanding on my talk at the TESLA Technology Collaboration meeting at Saclay, France.
Future of gradient index optics
Hashizume, Hideki; Hamanaka, Kenjiro; Graham, Alan C., III; Zhu, X. Frank
2001-11-01
First developed over 30 years ago, gradient index lenses play an important role not only in telecommunications technology, but also in applications such as information interface and biomedical technology. Traditional manufacturing consists of doping a certain ion, A+ into the mother glass, drawing the glass into rods and then immersing the rods into s molten salt bath containing another certain ion B+. During a thermal ion exchange process, the original ion migrates out of the mother glass, and is replaced by the alternate ion, creating a refractive index variation. Current research is being conducted to improve the thermal ion exchange technology, and open new applications. This research includes extending working distances to greater than 100mm, decreasing the lens diameter, increasing the effective radius, and combining the technology with other technologies such as photolithographically etched masks to produce arrays of gradient index lenses. As a result of this ongoing research, the gradient index lens is expected to continue to be the enabling optical technology in the first decade of the new millennium and beyond.
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo; Rezaei, Zahra
2012-02-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the ΛCDM paradigm, the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the order of 10-37 G over the typical comoving scales ranging between 1 and 10 Mpc. While the obtained results seem to be irrelevant for seeding a reasonable galactic dynamo action, they demonstrate how the proposed fully inhomogeneous treatment can be used for the systematic scrutiny of pre-decoupling plasmas beyond the conventional perturbative expansions.
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo
2012-01-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...
Várnai, Csilla; Burkoff, Nikolas S; Wild, David L
2013-12-10
Maximum Likelihood (ML) optimization schemes are widely used for parameter inference. They maximize the likelihood of some experimentally observed data, with respect to the model parameters iteratively, following the gradient of the logarithm of the likelihood. Here, we employ a ML inference scheme to infer a generalizable, physics-based coarse-grained protein model (which includes Go̅-like biasing terms to stabilize secondary structure elements in room-temperature simulations), using native conformations of a training set of proteins as the observed data. Contrastive divergence, a novel statistical machine learning technique, is used to efficiently approximate the direction of the gradient ascent, which enables the use of a large training set of proteins. Unlike previous work, the generalizability of the protein model allows the folding of peptides and a protein (protein G) which are not part of the training set. We compare the same force field with different van der Waals (vdW) potential forms: a hard cutoff model, and a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential with vdW parameters inferred or adopted from the CHARMM or AMBER force fields. Simulations of peptides and protein G show that the LJ model with inferred parameters outperforms the hard cutoff potential, which is consistent with previous observations. Simulations using the LJ potential with inferred vdW parameters also outperforms the protein models with adopted vdW parameter values, demonstrating that model parameters generally cannot be used with force fields with different energy functions. The software is available at https://sites.google.com/site/crankite/.
Quadrupole gradient coil design and optimization: a printed circuit board approach.
Chu, K; Rutt, B K
1994-06-01
Three different dual-axis quadrupole gradient coils for quantitative high resolution MR imaging of small animals, phantoms and specimens were designed and built using printed circuit board technology. Numerical optimization of the conductor positions was used to increase the volume of 0.4% gradient uniformity by up to a factor of four. In one coil, the volume of 5% gradient uniformity occupied 88% and 83% of the overall diameter and length of the coil, respectively. A systematic error of 0.5% in the wire placement was shown to cause a reduction in the volume of 0.4% gradient uniformity by a factor of two, though the region of 5% gradient uniformity was not significantly affected. Heat transfer calculations were used to determine maximum peak and root-mean-squared currents that could safely be applied to the coils.
M. Mihelich
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at first order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP(N tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS(N tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists (N ≈ 10 ~ 100, we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N* such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium fluxes imposed to the boundaries. We find that the optimal resolution N* depends on the non equilibrium fluxes, so that deeper convection should be represented on finer grids. This result points to the inadequacy of using a single grid for representing convection in climate and weather models. Moreover, the application of this principle to passive scalar transport parametrization is therefore expected to provide both the value of the optimal flux, and of the optimal number of degrees of freedom (resolution to describe the system.
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
A Gradient-Based Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys
Tabesh, Majid; Boyd, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris
2017-06-01
Constitutive models are necessary to design shape memory alloy (SMA) components at nano- and micro-scales in NEMS and MEMS. The behavior of small-scale SMA structures deviates from that of the bulk material. Unfortunately, this response cannot be modeled using conventional constitutive models which lack an intrinsic length scale. At small scales, size effects are often observed along with large gradients in the stress or strain. Therefore, a gradient-based thermodynamically consistent constitutive framework is established. Generalized surface and body forces are assumed to contribute to the free energy as work conjugates to the martensite volume fraction, transformation strain tensor, and their spatial gradients. The rates of evolution of these variables are obtained by invoking the principal of maximum dissipation after assuming a transformation surface, which is a differential equation in space. This approach is compared to the theories that use a configurational force (microforce) balance law. The developed constitutive model includes energetic and dissipative length scales that can be calibrated experimentally. Boundary value problems, including pure bending of SMA beams and simple torsion of SMA cylindrical bars, are solved to demonstrate the capabilities of this model. These problems contain the differential equation for the transformation surface as well as the equilibrium equation and are solved analytically and numerically. The simplest version of the model, containing only the additional gradient of martensite volume fraction, predicts a response with greater transformation hardening for smaller structures.
Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients
Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio
In this study, the GOCE (Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gradiometry data were used to study geologic structures and mass variations within the lithosphere in areas of known subduction zones. The advantage of gravity gradiometry over other gravity methods is that gradie......In this study, the GOCE (Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gradiometry data were used to study geologic structures and mass variations within the lithosphere in areas of known subduction zones. The advantage of gravity gradiometry over other gravity methods...... is that gradients are extremely sensitive to localized density contrasts within regional geological settings, which makes it ideally suited for detecting subduction zones. Second order gravity gradients of disturbing potential were extracted from global geopotential model, the fifth release GOCE model ‘EGM_TIM_RL05......’. In order to remove the signal which mainly corresponds to the gravity signal of the lower mantle, long wavelength part of the gravity signal was removed up to degree and order 60. Because the areas with notable topography differences coincide with subduction zones, topography correction was also performed...
On the structure of gradient Yamabe solitons
Cao, Huai-Dong; Zhang, Yingying
2011-01-01
We show that every complete nontrivial gradient Yamabe soliton admits a special global warped product structure with a one-dimensional base. Based on this, we prove a general classification theorem for complete nontrivial locally conformally flat gradient Yamabe solitons.
Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients
Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.
2013-01-01
Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients. There...
THE ENERGETIC CONSEQUENCES OF HYDROGEN GRADIENTS IN METHANOGENIC ECOSYSTEMS
DOLFING, J
1992-01-01
In the dense microbial aggregates usually found in methanogenic waste water treatment systems, hydrogen has to diffuse from producers to consumers at considerable rates. The ensuing hydrogen gradients dissipate part of the potential energy that would otherwise be available to the hydrogen-consuming
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Application of microfluidic chip to realize controllable pH gradient
LUO Chunxiong; SUN Manhui; XU Luping; ZHANG Zhiling; C. Crozatier; CHEN Yong; JI Hang
2005-01-01
A kind of PH gradient microfluidic chips through soft-lithography microfabrication for isoelectric focusing (IEF) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is introduced here. These pH gradient chips have the advantages such as easy fabrication, controllable pH range and precision, isoelectric focusing and separation at the same time, low voltage for isoelectric focusing, and time stable pH gradient. This method has potential application to sample preparation, separation and analysis of microfluidic chips.
Gradient Flow Convolutive Blind Source Separation
Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Nielsen, Chinton Møller
2004-01-01
Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use of a circ......Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use...
An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both?
Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T
2016-04-01
There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health.
Nonlinear cross Gramians and gradient systems
Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.
2007-01-01
We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain
40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...
Ion-temperature-gradient modes in stellarator geometry
Rafiq, T.; Anderson, J.; Nadeem, M.; Persson, M. [Department of Electromagnetics and Euratom/VR Association, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)
2001-10-01
The ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-driven drift mode is studied in three-dimensional stellarator geometry using a two-fluid reactive model in the electrostatic limit. The model includes first-order FLR effect in the presence of parallel ion dynamics and using the Boltzmann distribution for the electrons. The resulting eigenvalue is solved numerically using the ballooning mode theory. The results are contrasted with the corresponding tokamak results with positive shear. In stellarators, the level of the maximum growth rate of the ITG mode is found to be smaller and the threshold ({eta}{sub i}{approx_equal}2.2) is somewhat higher. The effects of small and large temperature ratios and density gradients are found to be stabilizing on electrostatic ITG modes in stellarators. (author)
Acoustic beam control in biomimetic projector via velocity gradient
Gao, Xiaowei; Dong, Erqian; Song, Zhongchang [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhang, Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: dzk@psu.edu; Tang, Liguo [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Cao, Wenwu, E-mail: yuzhang@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: dzk@psu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Li, Songhai [Sanya Key Laboratory of Marin Mammal and Marine Bioacoustics, Sanya Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Sanya 57200 (China); Zhang, Sai [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)
2016-07-04
A biomimetic projector (BioP) based on computerized tomography of pygmy sperm whale's biosonar system has been designed using gradient-index (GRIN) material. The directivity of this BioP device was investigated as function of frequency and the velocity gradient of the GRIN material. A strong beam control over a broad bandwidth at the subwavelength scale has been achieved. Compared with a bare subwavelength source, the main lobe pressure of the BioP is about five times as high and the angular resolution is one order of magnitude better. Our results indicate that this BioP has excellent application potential in miniaturized underwater sonars.
Distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum
Latasa, Mikel
2016-11-01
The fine vertical distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) was studied in the NE Atlantic during summer stratification. A simple but unconventional sampling strategy allowed examining the vertical structure with ca. 2 m resolution. The distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, chlorophytes, pelagophytes, small prymnesiophytes, coccolithophores, diatoms, and dinoflagellates was investigated with a combination of pigment-markers, flow cytometry and optical and FISH microscopy. All groups presented minimum abundances at the surface and a maximum in the DCM layer. The cell distribution was not vertically symmetrical around the DCM peak and cells tended to accumulate in the upper part of the DCM layer. The more symmetrical distribution of chlorophyll than cells around the DCM peak was due to the increase of pigment per cell with depth. We found a vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups within the DCM layer indicating preferences for different ecological niches in a layer with strong gradients of light and nutrients. Prochlorococcus occupied the shallowest and diatoms the deepest layers. Dinoflagellates, Synechococcus and small prymnesiophytes preferred shallow DCM layers, and coccolithophores, chlorophytes and pelagophytes showed a preference for deep layers. Cell size within groups changed with depth in a pattern related to their mean size: the cell volume of the smallest group increased the most with depth while the cell volume of the largest group decreased the most. The vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups confirms that the DCM is not a homogeneous entity and indicates groups’ preferences for different ecological niches within this layer.
Mechanisms of FGF gradient formation during embryogenesis.
Balasubramanian, Revathi; Zhang, Xin
2016-05-01
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have long been attributed to influence morphogenesis in embryonic development. Signaling by FGF morphogen encodes positional identity of tissues by creating a concentration gradient over the developing embryo. Various mechanisms that influence the development of such gradient have been elucidated in the recent past. These mechanisms of FGF gradient formation present either as an extracellular control over FGF ligand diffusion or as a subcellular control of FGF propagation and signaling. In this review, we describe our current understanding of FGF as a morphogen, the extracellular control of FGF gradient formation by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and mechanisms of intracellular regulation of FGF signaling that influence gradient formation.
Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro
Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas
2015-04-01
Future climate characteristics of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, will be governed by two superior processes: (i) global climate change and (ii) local land cover transformation. Whilst precipitation amounts remained stable throughout the last climate normals, recent studies revealed distinctly increasing air temperatures in the study region between 1973 and 2013, resulting in a gradual reduction of available moisture. In addition, climate predictions show rising temperatures over East Africa throughout the 21st century. Modifications of the local hydrological cycle resulting from land cover transformation will either favor or counteract the thus induced, increasing dryness. Considering that the local-scale climate is a key parameter for ecosystem processes and biodiversity, quantifying the driving components on the credit (precipitation, through-fall, fog) and debit side of the local-scale water balance is of outstanding (biogeo-)scientific importance. In this context, a multidisciplinary German research unit investigates the interrelationship between climate, land use and biodiversity along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. A total of 65 climate stations have been installed to record rainfall and estimate potential evaporation across different land cover types ranging from savanna (880 m a.s.l.) to the upper mountain Helichrysum sites (4,550 m a.s.l.). The associated data is used for both the area-wide interpolation of meteorological parameters and as input for satellite-based retrievals of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an extensive field campaign employing a surface-layer scintillometer in order to gain insights into ET dynamics over different land cover types following elevational and disturbance gradients. Scintillometer measurements are available for study sites below (savanna, maize, grassland, coffee plantations) and above the forest belt (natural and disturbed ericaceous forest, Helichrysum), covering a period of 4-7 days
Analytical gradients for excitation energies from frozen-density embedding.
Kovyrshin, Arseny; Neugebauer, Johannes
2016-08-21
The formulation of analytical excitation-energy gradients from time-dependent density functional theory within the frozen-density embedding framework is presented. In addition to a comprehensive mathematical derivation, we discuss details of the numerical implementation in the Slater-function based Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) program. Particular emphasis is put on the consistency in the use of approximations for the evaluation of second- and third-order non-additive kinetic-energy and exchange-correlation functional derivatives appearing in the final expression for the excitation-energy gradient. We test the implementation for different chemical systems in which molecular excited-state potential-energy curves are affected by another subsystem. It is demonstrated that the analytical implementation for the evaluation of excitation-energy gradients yields results in close agreement with data from numerical differentiation. In addition, we show that our analytical results are numerically more stable and thus preferable over the numerical ones.
Interleaving Gradient Magnetic Field Method for Diffusion Weighted Spectroscopy
GAO Song; ZU Zhong-Liang; BAO Shang-Lian
2008-01-01
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy(DWS)has considerable potential in clinical and research applications.However.it is seldom implemented in conventional magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)scanners due to the strict hardware requirements.We propose an interleaving gradient magnetic field(IGMF)method based on point resolved spectroscopy(PRESS).Four interlaced powerful diffusion sensitive gradient magnetic fields are positioned around the two πrefocusing rf pulses in the PRESS sequence.This method utilizes the interval time in the PRESS pulse sequence,doubles the duration time of the diffusion sensitive gradient magnetic field and decreases the detrimental effect of the induced eddy current.The results of theoretical analysis and experimental observation demonstrate that the IGMF method is suitable for conventional MRI scanners.
Optimized third-order force-gradient symplectic algorithms
无
2010-01-01
With the natural splitting of a Hamiltonian system into kinetic energy and potential energy,we construct two new optimal thirdorder force-gradient symplectic algorithms in each of which the norm of fourth-order truncation errors is minimized.They are both not explicitly superior to their no-optimal counterparts in the numerical stability and the topology structure-preserving,but they are in the accuracy of energy on classical problems and in one of the energy eigenvalues for one-dimensional time-independent Schrdinger equations.In particular,they are much better than the optimal third-order non-gradient symplectic method.They also have an advantage over the fourth-order non-gradient symplectic integrator.
NIF optics phase gradient specfication
Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.
1997-05-02
A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of {approximately}80 {angstrom}/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS&T personnel.
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
Integrating the Gradient of the Thin Wire Kernel
Champagne, Nathan J.; Wilton, Donald R.
2008-01-01
A formulation for integrating the gradient of the thin wire kernel is presented. This approach employs a new expression for the gradient of the thin wire kernel derived from a recent technique for numerically evaluating the exact thin wire kernel. This approach should provide essentially arbitrary accuracy and may be used with higher-order elements and basis functions using the procedure described in [4].When the source and observation points are close, the potential integrals over wire segments involving the wire kernel are split into parts to handle the singular behavior of the integrand [1]. The singularity characteristics of the gradient of the wire kernel are different than those of the wire kernel, and the axial and radial components have different singularities. The characteristics of the gradient of the wire kernel are discussed in [2]. To evaluate the near electric and magnetic fields of a wire, the integration of the gradient of the wire kernel needs to be calculated over the source wire. Since the vector bases for current have constant direction on linear wire segments, these integrals reduce to integrals of the form
Conditioning the full-waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-04-23
Multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual trade-off between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which small scattering-angles of the gradient update are initially muted out. The model update hierarchical filtering strategy include applying varying degrees of filtering to the different anisotropic parameter updates, a feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using FWI and reflection-based FWI, when the modeled data are obtained with the single-scattering theory, allows access to additional low model wavenumber components. Combining such access to wavenumbers with scattering-angle filters applied to the individual parameter gradients allows for multiple strategies to avoid complex FWI nonlinearity as well as the parameter trade-off.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
Gupta, N. K.; Mehra, R. K.
1974-01-01
This paper discusses numerical aspects of computing maximum likelihood estimates for linear dynamical systems in state-vector form. Different gradient-based nonlinear programming methods are discussed in a unified framework and their applicability to maximum likelihood estimation is examined. The problems due to singular Hessian or singular information matrix that are common in practice are discussed in detail and methods for their solution are proposed. New results on the calculation of state sensitivity functions via reduced order models are given. Several methods for speeding convergence and reducing computation time are also discussed.
Davies, J K; Sherriff, N S
2014-03-01
This paper seeks to introduce and analyse the development of the Gradient Evaluation Framework (GEF) to facilitate evaluation of policy actions for their current or future use in terms of their 'gradient friendliness'. In particular, this means their potential to level-up the gradient in health inequalities by addressing the social determinants of health and thereby reducing decision-makers' chances of error when developing such policy actions. A qualitative developmental study to produce a policy-based evaluation framework. The scientific basis of GEF was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process. This process followed an initial narrative review, based on realist review principles, which highlighted the need for production of a dedicated evaluation framework. The consensus-building process included expert workshops, a pretesting phase, and external peer review, together with support from the Gradient project Scientific Advisory Group and all Gradient project partners, including its Project Steering Committee. GEF is presented as a flexible policy tool resulting from a consensus-building process involving experts from 13 European countries. The theoretical foundations which underpin GEF are discussed, together with a range of practical challenges. The importance of systematic evaluation at each stage of the policy development and implementation cycle is highlighted, as well as the socio-political context in which policy actions are located. GEF offers potentially a major contribution to the public health field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant and common frame of reference for the evaluation of public health interventions that aim to level-up the social gradient in health inequalities. Further research, including the need for practical field testing of GEF and the exploration of alternative presentational formats, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salinity Gradients for Sustainable Energy: Primer, Progress, and Prospects.
Yip, Ngai Yin; Brogioli, Doriano; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Nijmeijer, Kitty
2016-11-15
Combining two solutions of different composition releases the Gibbs free energy of mixing. By using engineered processes to control the mixing, chemical energy stored in salinity gradients can be harnessed for useful work. In this critical review, we present an overview of the current progress in salinity gradient power generation, discuss the prospects and challenges of the foremost technologies - pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix) and provide perspectives on the outlook of salinity gradient power generation. Momentous strides have been made in technical development of salinity gradient technologies and field demonstrations with natural and anthropogenic salinity gradients (for example, seawater-river water and desalination brine-wastewater, respectively), but fouling persists to be a pivotal operational challenge that can significantly ebb away cost-competitiveness. Natural hypersaline sources (e.g., hypersaline lakes and salt domes) can achieve greater concentration difference and, thus, offer opportunities to overcome some of the limitations inherent to seawater-river water. Technological advances needed to fully exploit the larger salinity gradients are identified. While seawater desalination brine is a seemingly attractive high salinity anthropogenic stream that is otherwise wasted, actual feasibility hinges on the appropriate pairing with a suitable low salinity stream. Engineered solutions are foulant-free and can be thermally regenerative for application in low-temperature heat utilization. Alternatively, PRO, RED, and CapMix can be coupled with their analog separation process (reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and capacitive deionization, respectively) in salinity gradient flow batteries for energy storage in chemical potential of the engineered solutions. Rigorous techno-economic assessments can more clearly identify the prospects of low-grade heat conversion and large-scale energy storage
Wnt Secretion and Gradient Formation
Vladimir L. Katanaev
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Concentration gradients formed by the lipid-modified morphogens of the Wnt family are known for their pivotal roles during embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt morphogens are also implicated in a variety of human diseases, especially cancer. Therefore, the signaling cascades triggered by Wnts have received considerable attention during recent decades. However, how Wnts are secreted and how concentration gradients are formed remains poorly understood. The use of model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster has provided important advances in this area. For instance, we have previously shown that the lipid raft-associated reggie/flotillin proteins influence Wnt secretion and spreading in Drosophila. Our work supports the notion that producing cells secrete Wnt molecules in at least two pools: a poorly diffusible one and a reggie/flotillin-dependent highly diffusible pool which allows morphogen spreading over long distances away from its source of production. Here we revise the current views of Wnt secretion and spreading, and propose two models for the role of the reggie/flotillin proteins in these processes: (i reggies/flotillins regulate the basolateral endocytosis of the poorly diffusible, membrane-bound Wnt pool, which is then sorted and secreted to apical compartments for long-range diffusion, and (ii lipid rafts organized by reggies/flotillins serve as “dating points” where extracellular Wnt transiently interacts with lipoprotein receptors to allow its capture and further spreading via lipoprotein particles. We further discuss these processes in the context of human breast cancer. A better understanding of these phenomena may be relevant for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies.
Ant functional responses along environmental gradients.
Arnan, Xavier; Cerdá, Xim; Retana, Javier
2014-11-01
Understanding species distributions and diversity gradients is a central challenge in ecology and requires prior knowledge of the functional traits mediating species' survival under particular environmental conditions. While the functional ecology of plants has been reasonably well explored, much less is known about that of animals. Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth, and they perform a great variety of ecological functions. In this study, we analyse how the functional species traits present in ant communities vary along broad gradients in climate, productivity and vegetation type in the south-western Mediterranean. To this end, we compiled one of the largest animal databases to date: it contains information on 211 local ant communities (including eight climate variables, productivity, and vegetation type) and 124 ant species, for which 10 functional traits are described. We used traits that characterize different dimensions of the ant functional niche with respect to morphology, life history and behaviour at both individual and colony level. We calculated two complementary functional trait community indices ('trait average' and 'trait dissimilarity') for each trait, and we analysed how they varied along the three different gradients using generalized least squares models that accounted for spatial autocorrelation. Our results show that productivity, vegetation type and, to a lesser extent, each climate variable per se might play an important role in shaping the occurrence of functional species traits in ant communities. Among the climate variables, temperature and precipitation seasonality had a much higher influence on functional responses than their mean values, whose effects were almost lacking. Our results suggest that strong relationships might exist between the abiotic environment and the distribution of functional traits among south-western Mediterranean ant communities. This finding indicates that
The atomistic representation of first strain-gradient elastic tensors
Admal, Nikhil Chandra; Marian, Jaime; Po, Giacomo
2017-02-01
We derive the atomistic representations of the elastic tensors appearing in the linearized theory of first strain-gradient elasticity for an arbitrary multi-lattice. In addition to the classical second-Piola) stress and elastic moduli tensors, these include the rank-three double-stress tensor, the rank-five tensor of mixed elastic moduli, and the rank-six tensor of strain-gradient elastic moduli. The atomistic representations are closed-form analytical expressions in terms of the first and second derivatives of the interatomic potential with respect to interatomic distances, and dyadic products of relative atomic positions. Moreover, all expressions are local, in the sense that they depend only on the atomic neighborhood of a lattice site. Our results emanate from the condition of energetic equivalence between continuum and atomistic representations of a crystal, when the kinematics of the latter is governed by the Cauchy-Born rule. Using the derived expressions, we prove that the odd-order tensors vanish if the lattice basis admits central-symmetry. The analytical expressions are implemented as a KIM compliant algorithm to compute the strain gradient elastic tensors for various materials. Numerical results are presented to compare representative interatomic potentials used in the literature for cubic crystals, including simple lattices (fcc Al and Cu and bcc Fe and W) and multi-lattices (diamond-cubic Si). We observe that central potentials exhibit generalized Cauchy relations for the rank-six tensor of strain-gradient elastic moduli. In addition, this tensor is found to be indefinite for many potentials. We discuss the relationship between indefiniteness and material stability. Finally, the atomistic representations are specialized to central potentials in simple lattices. These expressions are used with analytical potentials to study the sensitivity of the elastic tensors to the choice of the cutoff radius.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees
van Iersel, Leo
2009-01-01
A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Mitigation of maximum world oil production: Shortage scenarios
Hirsch, Robert L. [Management Information Services, Inc., 723 Fords Landing Way, Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)
2008-02-15
A framework is developed for planning the mitigation of the oil shortages that will be caused by world oil production reaching a maximum and going into decline. To estimate potential economic impacts, a reasonable relationship between percent decline in world oil supply and percent decline in world GDP was determined to be roughly 1:1. As a limiting case for decline rates, giant fields were examined. Actual oil production from Europe and North America indicated significant periods of relatively flat oil production (plateaus). However, before entering its plateau period, North American oil production went through a sharp peak and steep decline. Examination of a number of future world oil production forecasts showed multi-year rollover/roll-down periods, which represent pseudoplateaus. Consideration of resource nationalism posits an Oil Exporter Withholding Scenario, which could potentially overwhelm all other considerations. Three scenarios for mitigation planning resulted from this analysis: (1) A Best Case, where maximum world oil production is followed by a multi-year plateau before the onset of a monatomic decline rate of 2-5% per year; (2) A Middling Case, where world oil production reaches a maximum, after which it drops into a long-term, 2-5% monotonic annual decline; and finally (3) A Worst Case, where the sharp peak of the Middling Case is degraded by oil exporter withholding, leading to world oil shortages growing potentially more rapidly than 2-5% per year, creating the most dire world economic impacts. (author)
Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding
Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao
2012-01-01
In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.
Biomimetic Gradient Polymers with Enhanced Damping Capacities.
Wang, Dong; Zhang, Huan; Guo, Jing; Cheng, Beichen; Cao, Yuan; Lu, Shengjun; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian
2016-04-01
Designing gradient structures, mimicking biological materials, such as pummelo peels and tendon, is a promising strategy for developing advanced materials with superior energy damping capacities. Here a facile and effective approach for fabricating polymers with composition gradients at millimeter length scale is presented. The gradient thiol-ene polymers (TEPs) are created by the use of density difference of ternary thiol-ene-ene precursors and the subsequent photo-crosslinking via thiol-ene reaction. The compositional gradients are analyzed via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), compressive modulus testing, atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation, and swelling measurements. In contrast to homogeneous TEPs networks, the resultant gradient polymer shows a broader effective damping temperature range combining with good mechanical properties. The present result provides an effective route toward high damping materials by the fabrication of gradient structures.
Mathematics of Experimentally Generated Chemoattractant Gradients.
Postma, Marten; van Haastert, Peter J M
2016-01-01
Many eukaryotic cells move in the direction of a chemical gradient. Several assays have been developed to measure this chemotactic response, but no complete mathematical models of the spatial and temporal gradients are available to describe the fundamental principles of chemotaxis. Here we provide analytical solutions for the gradients formed by release of chemoattractant from a point source by passive diffusion or forced flow (micropipettes) and gradients formed by laminar diffusion in a Zigmond chamber. The results show that gradients delivered with a micropipette are formed nearly instantaneously, are very steep close to the pipette, and have a steepness that is strongly dependent on the distance from the pipette. In contrast, gradients in a Zigmond chamber are formed more slowly, are nearly independent of the distance from the source, and resemble the temporal and spatial properties of the natural cAMP wave that Dictyostelium cells experience during cell aggregation.
Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: thom1@pml.ac.uk; Boegi, Christian [BASF SE, Product Safety, GUP/PA, Z470, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Winter, Matthew J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owens, J. Willie [The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, 11810 East Miami River Road, Cincinnati, OH 45252 (United States)
2009-02-19
There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic
The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem
Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data
Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.
1997-01-01
EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...
Nonlinear cross Gramians and gradient systems
Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J.M.A.
2007-01-01
We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that precisely correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Han...
High-resolution MRI encoding using radiofrequency phase gradients.
Sharp, Jonathan C; King, Scott B; Deng, Qunli; Volotovskyy, Vyacheslav; Tomanek, Boguslaw
2013-11-01
Although MRI offers highly diagnostic medical imagery, patient access to this modality worldwide is very limited when compared with X-ray or ultrasound. One reason for this is the expense and complexity of the equipment used to generate the switched magnetic fields necessary for MRI encoding. These field gradients are also responsible for intense acoustic noise and have the potential to induce nerve stimulation. We present results with a new MRI encoding principle which operates entirely without the use of conventional B0 field gradients. This new approach--'Transmit Array Spatial Encoding' (TRASE)--uses only the resonant radiofrequency (RF) field to produce Fourier spatial encoding equivalent to conventional MRI. k-space traversal (image encoding) is achieved by spin refocusing with phase gradient transmit fields in spin echo trains. A transmit coil array, driven by just a single transmitter channel, was constructed to produce four phase gradient fields, which allows the encoding of two orthogonal spatial axes. High-resolution two-dimensional-encoded in vivo MR images of hand and wrist were obtained at 0.2 T. TRASE exploits RF field phase gradients, and offers the possibility of very low-cost diagnostics and novel experiments exploiting unique capabilities, such as imaging without disturbance of the main B0 magnetic field. Lower field imaging (imaging are favorable application domains as, in both cases, it is technically easier to achieve the short RF pulses desirable for long echo trains, and also to limit RF power deposition. As TRASE is simply an alternative mechanism (and technology) of moving through k space, there are many close analogies between it and conventional B0 -encoded techniques. TRASE is compatible with both B0 gradient encoding and parallel imaging, and so hybrid sequences containing all three spatial encoding approaches are possible.
US Forest Service LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data and biophysical gradient layers using...
Efficient and robust gradient enhanced Kriging emulators.
Dalbey, Keith R.
2013-08-01
%E2%80%9CNaive%E2%80%9D or straight-forward Kriging implementations can often perform poorly in practice. The relevant features of the robustly accurate and efficient Kriging and Gradient Enhanced Kriging (GEK) implementations in the DAKOTA software package are detailed herein. The principal contribution is a novel, effective, and efficient approach to handle ill-conditioning of GEK's %E2%80%9Ccorrelation%E2%80%9D matrix, RN%CC%83, based on a pivoted Cholesky factorization of Kriging's (not GEK's) correlation matrix, R, which is a small sub-matrix within GEK's RN%CC%83 matrix. The approach discards sample points/equations that contribute the least %E2%80%9Cnew%E2%80%9D information to RN%CC%83. Since these points contain the least new information, they are the ones which when discarded are both the easiest to predict and provide maximum improvement of RN%CC%83's conditioning. Prior to this work, handling ill-conditioned correlation matrices was a major, perhaps the principal, unsolved challenge necessary for robust and efficient GEK emulators. Numerical results demonstrate that GEK predictions can be significantly more accurate when GEK is allowed to discard points by the presented method. Numerical results also indicate that GEK can be used to break the curse of dimensionality by exploiting inexpensive derivatives (such as those provided by automatic differentiation or adjoint techniques), smoothness in the response being modeled, and adaptive sampling. Development of a suitable adaptive sampling algorithm was beyond the scope of this work; instead adaptive sampling was approximated by omitting the cost of samples discarded by the presented pivoted Cholesky approach.
Noninvasive estimation of 2-D pressure gradients in steady flow using ultrasound
Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes;
2014-01-01
A noninvasive method for estimating 2-D pressure gradients from ultrasound vector velocity data is presented. It relies on vector velocity fields acquired using the transverse oscillation method during steady flow conditions. The pressure gradients are calculated from the velocity fields using...... of -7% for the axial component and -8% for the lateral component. The relative standard deviation of the estimator is 5% (axial component) and 30% (lateral component) when studying the pressure gradient across the constriction using 3 velocity frames per pressure estimate. The study shows that 2-D...... phantom. The geometry of the model is determined from magnetic resonance imaging. The presented study is conducted assuming steady flow using velocity data acquired at 18 frames per second. The proposed method shows pressure gradients at the constricted region from -8 kPa/m to 9 kPa/m, with a maximum bias...
Wireless SAW Based Temperature Gradient Sensor Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prime Photonics proposes design and development of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) based temperature gradient sensor for instrumentation of thermal protection systems...
On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.
2003-01-01
the tangent moduli governing increments of stress and strain. It is shown that the modification is far from benign from a mathematical standpoint, changing the qualitative character of solutions and leading to a new type of localization that is at odds with what is expected from a strain gradient theory......By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter....... The findings raise questions about the physical acceptability of this class of strain gradient theories....
INFLUENCES OF SLOPE GRADIENT ON SOIL EROSION
刘青泉; 陈力; 李家春
2001-01-01
The main factors influencing soil erosion include the net rain excess, the water depth, the velocity, the shear stress of overland flows , and the erosion-resisting capacity of soil. The laws of these factors varying with the slope gradient were investigated by using the kinematic wave theory. Furthermore, the critical slope gradient of erosion was driven. The analysis shows that the critical slope gradient of soil erosion is dependent on grain size , soil bulk density , surface roughness, runoff length, net rain excess, and the friction coefficient of soil, etc. The critical slope gradient has been estimated theoretically with its range between 41. 5 °～ 50°.
Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers
Veerachary, Mummadi
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs
Peter Recht
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.
Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem
Hoede, Cornelis
1988-01-01
The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs
J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum
Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.
2012-01-01
We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the i
Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy
L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability
R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings
2010-01-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v
Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems
Lasak, Katarzyna
In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...
Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes
Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael
EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...
Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays
Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.
1971-01-01
Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....
Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force
Todić Jelena T.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.
Zhu, X X; Macdonald, P M
1995-05-01
An empirical compensation function for the correction of eddy current effects in the Stejskal-Tanner pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments has been established. Eddy currents may arise as a result of the application of sharp and strong gradient pulses and may cause severe distortion of the NMR signals. In this method, the length of one gradient pulse is altered to compensate for the eddy current effects. The compensation is considered to be ideal when the position and the phase of the spin-echo maximum obtained from an aqueous solution of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the same in the presence and absence of a gradient pulse in the PGSE pulse sequence. We first characterized the functional dependence of the length of the required compensation on the three principal variables in the PGSE experiment: the gradient strength, the duration of the gradient pulse, and the interval between the two gradient pulses. Subsequently, we derived a model which successfully describes the general relationship between these variables and the size of the induced eddy current. The parameters extracted from fitting the model to the experimental compensation data may be used to predict the correct compensation for any combination of the three principal variables.
pH gradients induced by urea metabolism in 'artificial mouth' microcosm plaques.
Sissons, C H; Wong, L; Hancock, E M; Cutress, T W
1994-06-01
Evidence was sought for urea-induced pH gradients in dental plaque microcosm biofilms cultured from the mixed salivary bacteria in a multi plaque 'artificial mouth'. Application of 500 mmol/l urea for short periods (6 min) to 5-8 mm maximum-thickness plaques induced intraplaque pH gradients of up to 0.7 pH units with the surface alkaline relative to the inner plaque. These pH gradients persisted for more than 5 h in the absence of a flow of fluid. With 30-min urea applications and a flow of a basal medium containing mucin (BMM, pH 7.0), the pH of the inner (deeper) plaque regions also increased. Although the pH gradient initially formed was alkaline at the plaque surface, the BMM flow lowered the surface pH to neutrality whilst the inner layers were still alkaline, thereby reversing the pH gradient. In thick microcosm dental plaques, urea-induced pH gradients can therefore form and last many hours. They probably result from the significant time taken for urea to penetrate to the inner layers of plaque, its rapid metabolism by the outer plaque layers, and a rate-limiting clearance of ammonia. Even a slow BMM flow over the plaque greatly increased the rate of return to the resting pH, causing the gradients to change polarity.
Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients.
Berg, B.
2009-04-01
Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients. B. Berg, Dipartimento Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Complesso Universitario, Monte San Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy and Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland. Studies of several processes, using climatic gradients do provide new information as compared with studies at e.g. a single site. Decomposition of plant litter in such gradients give response in decomposition rates to natural climate conditions. Thus Scots pine needle litter incubated in a climate gradient with annual average temperature (AVGT) ranging from -0.5 to 6.8oC had a highly significant increase in initial mass-loss rate with R2 = 0.591 (p<0.001) and a 5o increase in temperature doubled the mass-loss rate. As a contrast - needle litter of Norway spruce incubated in the same transect had no significant response to climate and for initial litter a 5o increase increased mass-loss rate c. 6%. For more decomposed Scots pine litter we could see that the effect of temperature on mass-loss rate gradually decreased until it disappeared. Long-term decomposition studies revealed differences in litter decomposition patterns along a gradient, even for the same type of litter. This could be followed by using an asymptotic function that gave, (i) a measure a maximum level of decomposition, (ii) the initial decomposition rate. Over a gradient the calculated maximum level of decomposition decreased with increasing AVGT. Other gradient studies revealed an effect of AVGT on litter chemical composition. Pine needle litter from stands under different climate conditions had nutrient concentrations related to AVGT. Thus N, P, K, and S were positively related to AVGT and Mn negatively, all of them significantly. This information may be used to explain the changing pattern in decomposition over the gradient.
Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers.
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob
2011-03-01
The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.
On Global Magnetic ``Monopoly'' Near Solar Cycle Maximums
Kryvodubskyj, V.
During last maximums of the solar activity the both poles of the polar magnetic field had the same polarity. Since in the turbulent α Ω -dynamo model the excitation thresholds of the periodic dipole and quadrupole modes of the poloidal madnetic field (PMF) are rather close [Parker E. N.: 1971, Ap.J. V. 164, p. 491] then it is possible that the quadrupole mode may be excited due to variations of physical parameters in a some regions of the solar convection zone (SCZ). The pattern of the excited modes (dipole, quadrupole, octupole, etc.) is determined by the values of wave number of the Parker's dynamo-wave. We calculated these values for the SCZ model by Stix (1989) [Stix M.: 1989, The Sun. Berlin, p. 200] in the vicinity of solar tachocline (a region of strong shear of angular velocity at the base of the SCZ) with using our estimation of the helical turbulence parameter [Krivodubskij V. N.: 1998, Astron. Reports V. 42, No 1, p. 122] and values of the radial gradient of the angular velocity obtained from the newer helioseismic measurements (during rising phase of 23th solar cycle: 1995-1999) [Howe R.,Christensen-Dalsgaard J., Hill F. et al.: 2000, Science. V. 287, p. 2456]. It is found out that at low latitudes dynamo mechanism produces rather the dipole (wave number ≈ -7), the main antisymmetric, relatively to equatorial plane, mode of the PMF; while at the latitudes higher than 50o the conditions are more favourable for exciting of the quadrupole (wave number ≈ +8), the lowest symmetric mode. Arised north-south magnetic structure asymmetry gives an opportunity to explain the space magnetic anomaly of the PMF (``monopoly'') observed near solar cycle maximums.
Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells
Z. Adam Szybinski
2006-01-01
, -2, -3, and -4, and all four encountered geothermal fluids. The holes provided valuable water geochemistry, supporting the geothermometry results obtained from the hot springs and Magma well. The temperature data gathered from all the wells clearly indicates the presence of a major plume of thermal water centered on the Pumpernickel Valley fault, and suggests that the main plume is controlled, at least in part, by flow from this fault system. The temperature data also defines the geothermal resource with gradients >100oC/km, which covers an area a minimum of 8 km2. Structural blocks, down dropped with respect to the Pumpernickel Valley fault, may define an immediate reservoir. The geothermal system almost certainly continues beyond the recently drilled holes and might be open to the east and south, whereas the heat source responsible for the temperatures associated with this plume has not been intersected and must be at a depth greater than 920 meters (depth of the deepest well – Magma well). The geological and structural setting and other characteristics of the Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area are markedly similar to the portions of the nearby Dixie Valley geothermal field. These similarities include, among others, the numerous, unexposed en echelon faults and large-scale pull-apart structure, which in Dixie Valley may host part of the geothermal field. The Pumpernickel Valley project area, for the majority of which Nevada Geothermal Power Company has geothermal rights, represents a geothermal site with a potential for the discovery of a relatively high temperature reservoir suitable for electric power production. Among locations not previously identified as having high geothermal potential, Pumpernickel Valley has been ranked as one of four sites with the highest potential for electrical power production in Nevada (Shevenell and Garside, 2003). Richards and Blackwell (2002) estimated the total heat loss and the preliminary production capacity for the
Evaluating the Gradient of the Thin Wire Kernel
Wilton, Donald R.; Champagne, Nathan J.
2008-01-01
Recently, a formulation for evaluating the thin wire kernel was developed that employed a change of variable to smooth the kernel integrand, canceling the singularity in the integrand. Hence, the typical expansion of the wire kernel in a series for use in the potential integrals is avoided. The new expression for the kernel is exact and may be used directly to determine the gradient of the wire kernel, which consists of components that are parallel and radial to the wire axis.
Polychromatic microdiffraction characterization of defect gradients in severely deformed materials.
Barabash, Rozaliya I; Ice, Gene E; Liu, Wenjun; Barabash, Oleg M
2009-01-01
This paper analyzes local lattice rotations introduced in severely deformed polycrystalline titanium by friction stir welding. Nondestructive three-dimensional (3D) spatially resolved polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction, is used to resolve the local crystal structure of the restructured surface from neighboring local structures in the sample material. The measurements reveal strong gradients of strain and geometrically necessary dislocations near the surface and illustrate the potential of polychromatic microdiffraction for the study of deformation in complex materials systems.
Newton's method in the context of gradients
John W. Neuberger
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This paper gives a common theoretical treatment for gradient and Newton type methods for general classes of problems. First, for Euler-Lagrange equations Newton's method is characterized as an (asymptotically optimal variable steepest descent method. Second, Sobolev gradient type minimization is developed for general problems using a continuous Newton method which takes into account a "boundary condition" operator.
An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC.
Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.
1983-01-01
Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…
NUMERICAL METHODS IN MARINE ECOLOGY 2. GRADIENT ...
GRADIENT ANALYSIS OF ROCKY SHORE SAMPL~S FROM FALSE BAY ... could be applied to marine studies and it showed quantitatively that the fauna varied with changes ... tigator and the computational facilities at his disposal. ... the major environmental gradients affecting distribution in a more complex situation with.
An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC.
Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.
1983-01-01
Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…
李白尼; 魏武; 马骏; 张润杰
2009-01-01
In order to predict and analyse the potential geographical distributions of three important quarantine invasive pests.Dacus bivittatus.D.ciliatus and D.vertebratus,three ecological niche modeling techniques,BIOCLIM.DOMAIN and Maximum entroPY niche.based modeling(Maxent)were implemented by using distribution records of the three fruit fly species and a set of environmental predictor variables.Differences in prediction performance of the three models with thresholds were observed.An evaluation using independent records of D.bivittatus showed that Maxent offers the most accurate predictions than two other models based on three values of ROC/AUC.Kappa.and TTS.Prediction outcomes made by Maxent revealed that the three fruit fly species have broadly similar potential ranges in Central American,South American,Southeast Asia,and Coastalarea8 of Australia in general.D.ciliatus has the comparatively widest potential range among the three species,including Coastal areas of Mediterranean Sea,Saudi Arabia,Yemen,Oman and South Iran,suggesting that it may be tolerant of the widest range of climatic conditions among the three species.In China,while large area8 ofYunnan and Hainan are very habitable for all the three fruit fly species,southern part of Guangdong and Taiwan are also their habitable areas.D.ciliatus has the widest potential distribution area.with southern part ot btenuan,Guizhou and Tibet plus the coastal areas of southern China all being its suitable areas.The risk of the three fruit fly species permanently establishing in Guangdong if introduced exist but low.Jackknife analysis revealed that temperature and its variation have comparative significant influence on the distribution patterns of three fruit fly species both in global and restricted regions.%本研究首先对3种重要生态位模型BIOCLIM,DOMAIN和Maxent(基于最大熵值原理模型)的分布预测精确度进行了分析和比较,再结合分布点记录以及一系列环境数据图层对3种重
STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS
无
2001-01-01
The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.
Microfluidic chip containing porous gradient for chemotaxis study
Al-Abboodi, Aswan; Tjeung, Ricky; Doran, Pauline; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Chan, Peggy
2011-12-01
We have developed a new porous gradient microfluidic device based on in situ Gtn-HPA/CMC-Tyr hydrogel that comprises gelatin hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugate and carboxymethyl cellulose tyramine (CMC-Tyr) conjugate. The device is fabricated using a soft lithographic technique, in which microstructures were patterned on a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a polymeric mold. Human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) were employed as invasive cancer cell model. Porosity gradients were generated by flowing pore etching fluid in the gradient generator network. Results suggested that spatial control of the porosity can be obtained, which mimics the 3-dimensional microenvironment in vivo for cell-based screening applications including real time chemotaxis, cytotoxicity, and continuous drug-response monitoring. A chemoattractant gradient is then generated and cell migration is monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. The viability of cells was evaluated using calcien AM stain. Herein, we successfully monitored the chemotactic responses of cancer cells, confirmed the validity of using in situ porous hydrogels as a construction material for a microchemotaxis device, and demonstrated the potential of the hydrogel with tunable porosity based microfluidic device in biological experiments. This device will also be practical in controlling the chemical and mechanical properties of the surroundings during the formation of tissue engineered constructs.
Engineering functionality gradients by dip coating process in acceleration mode.
Faustini, Marco; Ceratti, Davide R; Louis, Benjamin; Boudot, Mickael; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David
2014-10-08
In this work, unique functional devices exhibiting controlled gradients of properties are fabricated by dip-coating process in acceleration mode. Through this new approach, thin films with "on-demand" thickness graded profiles at the submillimeter scale are prepared in an easy and versatile way, compatible for large-scale production. The technique is adapted to several relevant materials, including sol-gel dense and mesoporous metal oxides, block copolymers, metal-organic framework colloids, and commercial photoresists. In the first part of the Article, an investigation on the effect of the dip coating speed variation on the thickness profiles is reported together with the critical roles played by the evaporation rate and by the viscosity on the fluid draining-induced film formation. In the second part, dip-coating in acceleration mode is used to induce controlled variation of functionalities by playing on structural, chemical, or dimensional variations in nano- and microsystems. In order to demonstrate the full potentiality and versatility of the technique, original graded functional devices are made including optical interferometry mirrors with bidirectional gradients, one-dimensional photonic crystals with a stop-band gradient, graded microfluidic channels, and wetting gradient to induce droplet motion.
Ren, Y; Mazzucato, E; Guttenfelder, W; Bell, R E; Domier, C W; LeBlanc, B P; Lee, K C; Luhmann Jr, N C; Smith, D R
2011-03-21
In this letter we report the first clear experimental observation of density gradient stabilization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in a fusion plasma. It is observed that longer wavelength modes, k⊥ρs ≤10, are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in the plasma effective thermal diffusivity.
Modeling Mediterranean ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum
U. Mikolajewicz
2010-10-01
Full Text Available A regional ocean general circulation model of the Mediterranean is used to study the climate of the last glacial maximum. The atmospheric forcing for these simulations has been derived from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, which in turn was forced with surface conditions from a coarse resolution earth system model. The model is successful in reproducing the general patterns of reconstructed sea surface temperature anomalies with the strongest cooling in summer in the northwestern Mediterranean and weak cooling in the Levantine, although the model underestimates the extent of the summer cooling in the western Mediterranean. However, there is a strong vertical gradient associated with this pattern of summer cooling, which makes the comparison with reconstructions nontrivial. The exchange with the Atlantic is decreased to roughly one half of its present value, which can be explained by the shallower Strait of Gibraltar as a consequence of lower global sea level. This reduced exchange causes a strong increase of the salinity in the Mediterranean in spite of reduced net evaporation.
Modeling Mediterranean Ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum
U. Mikolajewicz
2011-03-01
Full Text Available A regional ocean general circulation model of the Mediterranean is used to study the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum. The atmospheric forcing for these simulations has been derived from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, which in turn was forced with surface conditions from a coarse resolution earth system model. The model is successful in reproducing the general patterns of reconstructed sea surface temperature anomalies with the strongest cooling in summer in the northwestern Mediterranean and weak cooling in the Levantine, although the model underestimates the extent of the summer cooling in the western Mediterranean. However, there is a strong vertical gradient associated with this pattern of summer cooling, which makes the comparison with reconstructions complicated. The exchange with the Atlantic is decreased to roughly one half of its present value, which can be explained by the shallower Strait of Gibraltar as a consequence of lower global sea level. This reduced exchange causes a strong increase of salinity in the Mediterranean in spite of reduced net evaporation.
High precision Hugoniot measurements of D2 near maximum compression
Benage, John; Knudson, Marcus; Desjarlais, Michael
2015-11-01
The Hugoniot response of liquid deuterium has been widely studied due to its general importance and to the significant discrepancy in the inferred shock response obtained from early experiments. With improvements in dynamic compression platforms and experimental standards these results have converged and show general agreement with several equation of state (EOS) models, including quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) calculations within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). This approach to modeling the EOS has also proven quite successful for other materials and is rapidly becoming a standard approach. However, small differences remain among predictions obtained using different local and semi-local density functionals; these small differences show up in the deuterium Hugoniot at ~ 30-40 GPa near the region of maximum compression. Here we present experimental results focusing on that region of the Hugoniot and take advantage of advancements in the platform and standards, resulting in data with significantly higher precision than that obtained in previous studies. These new data may prove to distinguish between the subtle differences predicted by the various density functionals. Results of these experiments will be presented along with comparison to various QMD calculations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Maximum likelihood tuning of a vehicle motion filter
Trankle, Thomas L.; Rabin, Uri H.
1990-01-01
This paper describes the use of maximum likelihood parameter estimation unknown parameters appearing in a nonlinear vehicle motion filter. The filter uses the kinematic equations of motion of a rigid body in motion over a spherical earth. The nine states of the filter represent vehicle velocity, attitude, and position. The inputs to the filter are three components of translational acceleration and three components of angular rate. Measurements used to update states include air data, altitude, position, and attitude. Expressions are derived for the elements of filter matrices needed to use air data in a body-fixed frame with filter states expressed in a geographic frame. An expression for the likelihood functions of the data is given, along with accurate approximations for the function's gradient and Hessian with respect to unknown parameters. These are used by a numerical quasi-Newton algorithm for maximizing the likelihood function of the data in order to estimate the unknown parameters. The parameter estimation algorithm is useful for processing data from aircraft flight tests or for tuning inertial navigation systems.
Payoff-monotonic game dynamics and the maximum clique problem.
Pelillo, Marcello; Torsello, Andrea
2006-05-01
Evolutionary game-theoretic models and, in particular, the so-called replicator equations have recently proven to be remarkably effective at approximately solving the maximum clique and related problems. The approach is centered around a classic result from graph theory that formulates the maximum clique problem as a standard (continuous) quadratic program and exploits the dynamical properties of these models, which, under a certain symmetry assumption, possess a Lyapunov function. In this letter, we generalize previous work along these lines in several respects. We introduce a wide family of game-dynamic equations known as payoff-monotonic dynamics, of which replicator dynamics are a special instance, and show that they enjoy precisely the same dynamical properties as standard replicator equations. These properties make any member of this family a potential heuristic for solving standard quadratic programs and, in particular, the maximum clique problem. Extensive simulations, performed on random as well as DIMACS benchmark graphs, show that this class contains dynamics that are considerably faster than and at least as accurate as replicator equations. One problem associated with these models, however, relates to their inability to escape from poor local solutions. To overcome this drawback, we focus on a particular subclass of payoff-monotonic dynamics used to model the evolution of behavior via imitation processes and study the stability of their equilibria when a regularization parameter is allowed to take on negative values. A detailed analysis of these properties suggests a whole class of annealed imitation heuristics for the maximum clique problem, which are based on the idea of varying the parameter during the imitation optimization process in a principled way, so as to avoid unwanted inefficient solutions. Experiments show that the proposed annealing procedure does help to avoid poor local optima by initially driving the dynamics toward promising regions in
High order compact schemes for gradient approximation
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose three gradient recovery schemes of higher order for the linear interpolation. The first one is a weighted averaging method based on the gradients of the linear interpolation on the uniform mesh, the second is a geometric averaging method constructed from the gradients of two cubic interpolation on macro element, and the last one is a local least square method on the nodal patch with cubic polynomials. We prove that these schemes can approximate the gradient of the exact solution on the symmetry points with fourth order. In particular, for the uniform mesh, we show that these three schemes are the same on the considered points. The last scheme is more robust in general meshes. Consequently, we obtain the superconvergence results of the recovered gradient by using the aforementioned results and the supercloseness between the finite element solution and the linear interpolation of the exact solution. Finally, we provide several numerical experiments to illustrate the theoretical results.
Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates
Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)
1997-08-01
Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.
A new family of conjugate gradient methods
Shi, Zhen-Jun; Guo, Jinhua
2009-02-01
In this paper we develop a new class of conjugate gradient methods for unconstrained optimization problems. A new nonmonotone line search technique is proposed to guarantee the global convergence of these conjugate gradient methods under some mild conditions. In particular, Polak-Ribiére-Polyak and Liu-Storey conjugate gradient methods are special cases of the new class of conjugate gradient methods. By estimating the local Lipschitz constant of the derivative of objective functions, we can find an adequate step size and substantially decrease the function evaluations at each iteration. Numerical results show that these new conjugate gradient methods are effective in minimizing large-scale non-convex non-quadratic functions.
Maximum information entropy: a foundation for ecological theory.
Harte, John; Newman, Erica A
2014-07-01
The maximum information entropy (MaxEnt) principle is a successful method of statistical inference that has recently been applied to ecology. Here, we show how MaxEnt can accurately predict patterns such as species-area relationships (SARs) and abundance distributions in macroecology and be a foundation for ecological theory. We discuss the conceptual foundation of the principle, why it often produces accurate predictions of probability distributions in science despite not incorporating explicit mechanisms, and how mismatches between predictions and data can shed light on driving mechanisms in ecology. We also review possible future extensions of the maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE), a potentially important foundation for future developments in ecological theory.
Maximum-power quantum-mechanical Carnot engine.
Abe, Sumiyoshi
2011-04-01
In their work [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)], Bender, Brody, and Meister have shown by employing a two-state model of a particle confined in the one-dimensional infinite potential well that it is possible to construct a quantum-mechanical analog of the Carnot engine through changes of both the width of the well and the quantum state in a specific manner. Here, a discussion is developed about realizing the maximum power of such an engine, where the width of the well moves at low but finite speed. The efficiency of the engine at the maximum power output is found to be universal independently of any of the parameters contained in the model.
Novel TPPO Based Maximum Power Point Method for Photovoltaic System
ABBASI, M. A.
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system has a great potential and it is installed more when compared with other renewable energy sources nowadays. However, the PV system cannot perform optimally due to its solid reliance on climate conditions. Due to this dependency, PV system does not operate at its maximum power point (MPP. Many MPP tracking methods have been proposed for this purpose. One of these is the Perturb and Observe Method (P&O which is the most famous due to its simplicity, less cost and fast track. But it deviates from MPP in continuously changing weather conditions, especially in rapidly changing irradiance conditions. A new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method, Tetra Point Perturb and Observe (TPPO, has been proposed to improve PV system performance in changing irradiance conditions and the effects on characteristic curves of PV array module due to varying irradiance are delineated. The Proposed MPPT method has shown better results in increasing the efficiency of a PV system.
Probabilistic maximum-value wind prediction for offshore environments
Staid, Andrea; Pinson, Pierre; Guikema, Seth D.
2015-01-01
, and probabilistic forecasts result in greater value to the end-user. The models outperform traditional baseline forecast methods and achieve low predictive errors on the order of 1–2 m s−1. We show the results of their predictive accuracy for different lead times and different training methodologies....... statistical models to predict the full distribution of the maximum-value wind speeds in a 3 h interval. We take a detailed look at the performance of linear models, generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines models using meteorological covariates such as gust speed, wind speed......, convective available potential energy, Charnock, mean sea-level pressure and temperature, as given by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecasts. The models are trained to predict the mean value of maximum wind speed, and the residuals from training the models are used to develop...
Effective soil hydraulic conductivity predicted with the maximum power principle
Westhoff, Martijn; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Zehe, Erwin; Dewals, Benjamin
2016-04-01
Drainage of water in soils happens for a large extent through preferential flowpaths, but these subsurface flowpaths are extremely difficult to observe or parameterize in hydrological models. To potentially overcome this problem, thermodynamic optimality principles have been suggested to predict effective parametrization of these (sub-grid) structures, such as the maximum entropy production principle or the equivalent maximum power principle. These principles have been successfully applied to predict heat transfer from the Equator to the Poles, or turbulent heat fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. In these examples, the effective flux adapts itself to its boundary condition by adapting its effective conductance through the creation of e.g. convection cells. However, flow through porous media, such as soils, can only quickly adapt its effective flow conductance by creation of preferential flowpaths, but it is unknown if this is guided by the aim to create maximum power. Here we show experimentally that this is indeed the case: In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoirs connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. From the steady state potential difference and the observed flow through the aquifer, and effective hydraulic conductance can be determined. This observed conductance does correspond to the one maximizing power of the flux through the confined aquifer. Although this experiment is done in an idealized setting, it opens doors for better parameterizing hydrological models. Furthermore, it shows that hydraulic properties of soils are not static, but they change with changing boundary conditions. A potential limitation to the principle is that it only applies to steady state conditions
Model Selection Through Sparse Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Banerjee, Onureena; D'Aspremont, Alexandre
2007-01-01
We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added l_1-norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive l_1-norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov's first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright & Jordan (2006)), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for...
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....
Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams
Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn
2016-01-01
Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
Simakov, Evgenya I.; Kurennoy, Sergey S.; O'Hara, James F.; Olivas, Eric R.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.
2014-02-01
We present a design of a superconducting rf photonic band gap (SRF PBG) accelerator cell with specially shaped rods in order to reduce peak surface magnetic fields and improve the effectiveness of the PBG structure for suppression of higher order modes (HOMs). The ability of PBG structures to suppress long-range wakefields is especially beneficial for superconducting electron accelerators for high power free-electron lasers (FELs), which are designed to provide high current continuous duty electron beams. Using PBG structures to reduce the prominent beam-breakup phenomena due to HOMs will allow significantly increased beam-breakup thresholds. As a result, there will be possibilities for increasing the operation frequency of SRF accelerators and for the development of novel compact high-current accelerator modules for the FELs.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-01-01
An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...
A stochastic maximum principle via Malliavin calculus
Øksendal, Bernt; Zhou, Xun Yu; Meyer-Brandis, Thilo
2008-01-01
This paper considers a controlled It\\^o-L\\'evy process where the information available to the controller is possibly less than the overall information. All the system coefficients and the objective performance functional are allowed to be random, possibly non-Markovian. Malliavin calculus is employed to derive a maximum principle for the optimal control of such a system where the adjoint process is explicitly expressed.
Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-08
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs
Wang, Long; Wang, Yi
2012-01-01
Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.
Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error
Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun
2016-09-01
We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.
Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.
Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C
2007-10-01
Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system.
Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition
Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana
2016-01-01
We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...
A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs
Zhang Heping
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density
Awad, Adel
2014-01-01
Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example w...
Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion
Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles
2016-07-01
Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-01-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Training Concept, Evolution Time, and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle
Alexey Bezryadin
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The maximum entropy production principle (MEPP is a type of entropy optimization which demands that complex non-equilibrium systems should organize such that the rate of the entropy production is maximized. Our take on this principle is that to prove or disprove the validity of the MEPP and to test the scope of its applicability, it is necessary to conduct experiments in which the entropy produced per unit time is measured with a high precision. Thus we study electric-field-induced self-assembly in suspensions of carbon nanotubes and realize precise measurements of the entropy production rate (EPR. As a strong voltage is applied the suspended nanotubes merge together into a conducting cloud which produces Joule heat and, correspondingly, produces entropy. We introduce two types of EPR, which have qualitatively different significance: global EPR (g-EPR and the entropy production rate of the dissipative cloud itself (DC-EPR. The following results are obtained: (1 As the system reaches the maximum of the DC-EPR, it becomes stable because the applied voltage acts as a stabilizing thermodynamic potential; (2 We discover metastable states characterized by high, near-maximum values of the DC-EPR. Under certain conditions, such efficient entropy-producing regimes can only be achieved if the system is allowed to initially evolve under mildly non-equilibrium conditions, namely at a reduced voltage; (3 Without such a “training” period the system typically is not able to reach the allowed maximum of the DC-EPR if the bias is high; (4 We observe that the DC-EPR maximum is achieved within a time, Te, the evolution time, which scales as a power-law function of the applied voltage; (5 Finally, we present a clear example in which the g-EPR theoretical maximum can never be achieved. Yet, under a wide range of conditions, the system can self-organize and achieve a dissipative regime in which the DC-EPR equals its theoretical maximum.
Minkwitz, David; van den Boogaart, Karl Gerald; Gerzen, Tatjana; Hoque, Mainul; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel
2016-11-01
The estimation of the ionospheric electron density by kriging is based on the optimization of a parametric measurement covariance model. First, the extension of kriging with slant total electron content (STEC) measurements based on a spatial covariance to kriging with a spatial-temporal covariance model, assimilating STEC data of a sliding window, is presented. Secondly, a novel tomography approach by gradient-enhanced kriging (GEK) is developed. Beyond the ingestion of STEC measurements, GEK assimilates ionosonde characteristics, providing peak electron density measurements as well as gradient information. Both approaches deploy the 3-D electron density model NeQuick as a priori information and estimate the covariance parameter vector within a maximum likelihood estimation for the dedicated tomography time stamp. The methods are validated in the European region for two periods covering quiet and active ionospheric conditions. The kriging with spatial and spatial-temporal covariance model is analysed regarding its capability to reproduce STEC, differential STEC and foF2. Therefore, the estimates are compared to the NeQuick model results, the 2-D TEC maps of the International GNSS Service and the DLR's Ionospheric Monitoring and Prediction Center, and in the case of foF2 to two independent ionosonde stations. Moreover, simulated STEC and ionosonde measurements are used to investigate the electron density profiles estimated by the GEK in comparison to a kriging with STEC only. The results indicate a crucial improvement in the initial guess by the developed methods and point out the potential compensation for a bias in the peak height hmF2 by means of GEK.
Huiwen Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To understand the morphological and physiological responses of leaves to changes in altitudinal gradients, we examined ten morphological and physiological characteristics in one-year-old needles of Picea schrenkiana var. tianschanica at ten points along an altitudinal gradient from 1420 to 2300 m a.s.l. on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northwest China. Our results indicated that LA, SD, LPC, and LKC increased linearly with increasing elevation, whereas leaf δ13C, LNC, Chla + b, LDMC, LMA, and Narea varied nonlinearly with changes in altitude. With elevation below 2100 m, LNC, Narea, and Chla + b increased, while LDMC and LMA decreased with increasing altitude. When altitude was above 2100 m, these properties showed the opposite patterns. Leaf δ13C was positively correlated with Narea and LNC and negatively correlated with SD and LA, suggesting that leaf δ13C was indirectly controlled by physiological and morphological adjustments along altitudinal gradients. Based on the observed maximum values in LNC, Narea, Chla + b, and LA and the minimum values in LMA and LDMC at the elevation of 2100 m, suggesting higher photosynthetic capacity and greater potential for fast growth under superior optimum zone, we concluded that the best growing elevation for P. schrenkiana var. tianschanica in the Tianshan Mountains was approximately 2100 m.
WANG Yuan-peng; SHI Ji-yan; LIN Qi; CHEN Xin-cai; CHEN Ying-xu
2007-01-01
All the regulations that define a maximum concentration of metals in the receiving soil are based on total soil metal concentration. However, the potential toxicity of a heavy metal in the soil depends on its speciation and availability. We studied the effects of heavy metal speciation and availability on soil microorganism activities along a Cu/Zn contamination gradient. Microbial biomass and enzyme activity of soil contaminated with both Cu and Zn were investigated. The results showed that microbial biomass was negatively affected by the elevated metal levels. The microbial biomass-C (Cmic)/organic C (Corg) ratio was closely correlated to heavy metal stress. There were negative correlations between soil microbial biomass, phosphatase activity and NH4NO3 extractable heavy metals. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted using empirical models with the availability of Cu and Zn. We observed that 72% of the variation in phosphatase activity could be explained by the NH4NO3-extractable and total heavy metal concentration. By considering different monitoring approaches and different viewpoints, this set of methods applied in this study seemed sensitive to site differences and contributed to a better understanding of the effects of heavy metals on the size and activity of microorganisms in soils. The data presented demonstrate the relationship between heavy metals availability and heavy metal toxicity to soil microorganism along a contamination gradient.
Multi-parameter gradient procedure for polarimetry data inversion in tokamak plasma
Chrzanowski, J., E-mail: j.chrzanowski@am.szczecin.pl [Maritime University, Szczecin Wały Chrobrego 1/2 (Poland); Kravtsov, Yu. A. [Maritime University, Szczecin Wały Chrobrego 1/2 (Poland); Mazon, D. [Association Euratom/CEA, CEA Cadarache DSM/IRFM, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); JET, Culham (United Kingdom)
2013-10-15
Highlights: ► We use gradient procedure to fit plasma parameters to polarimetric data. ► Calculations are performed in developed by authors angular variables technique. ► Numerical results are compared with experimentally measured angular parameters. ► We observe satisfied accuracy of inversion procedure after several iterations. -- Abstract: Multi-parameter gradient procedure is suggested which allows fitting tokamak plasma model to polarimetric data. One of the simplest version of gradient procedure deals with four parameters model: maximum values of electron density, maximum value of electric current density in plasma, common radius of electron density, electric current distributions and increment of the safety factor inside plasma. Using recently developed by authors angular variables technique (AVT) in plasma polarimetry we may compute angular parameters of polarization ellipse for a given set of four plasma parameters and compare them with experimentally measured angular parameters. With angular parameters, measured in two channels polarimetric system (two azimuthal and two ellipticity angles, totally four experimental values). Applying then gradient procedure for squared difference between computed and measured parameters, we find four parameters of plasma model and thereby perform inversion of polarimetric data. Numerical simulations have approved that gradient procedure provides acceptable accuracy of inversion already after several iterations.
Efficient way to convert propagating waves into guided waves via gradient wire structures.
Chu, Hong Chen; Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun
2016-08-01
We propose a method for the design of gradient wire structures that are capable of converting propagating waves into guided waves along the wire. The conversion process is achieved by imposing an additional wave vector to the scattered waves via the gradient wire structure, such that the wave vector of scattered waves is beyond the wave number in the background medium. Thus, the scattered waves turn into evanescent waves. We demonstrate that two types of gradient wire structures, with either a gradient permittivity and a fixed radius, or a gradient radius and a fixed permittivity, can both be designed to realize such a wave conversion effect. The principle demonstrated in our work has potential applications in various areas including nanophotonics, silicone photonics, and plasmonics.
Intracellular chemical gradients: morphing principle in bacteria
Endres Robert G
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Advances in computational biology allow systematic investigations to ascertain whether internal chemical gradients can be maintained in bacteria – an open question at the resolution limit of fluorescence microscopy. While it was previously believed that the small bacterial cell size and fast diffusion in the cytoplasm effectively remove any such gradient, a new computational study published in BMC Biophysics supports the emerging view that gradients can exist. The study arose from the recent observation that phosphorylated CtrA forms a gradient prior to cell division in Caulobacter crescentus, a bacterium known for its complicated cell cycle. Tropini et al. (2012 postulate that such gradients can provide an internal chemical compass, directing protein localization, cell division and cell development. More specifically, they describe biochemical and physical constraints on the formation of such gradients and explore a number of existing bacterial cell morphologies. These chemical gradients may limit in vitro analyses, and may ensure timing control and robustness to fluctuations during critical stages in cell development.
Satellite gravity gradient grids for geophysics.
Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Fuchs, Martin; Sebera, Josef; Lieb, Verena; Szwillus, Wolfgang; Haagmans, Roger; Novak, Pavel
2016-02-11
The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite aimed at determining the Earth's mean gravity field. GOCE delivered gravity gradients containing directional information, which are complicated to use because of their error characteristics and because they are given in a rotating instrument frame indirectly related to the Earth. We compute gravity gradients in grids at 225 km and 255 km altitude above the reference ellipsoid corresponding to the GOCE nominal and lower orbit phases respectively, and find that the grids may contain additional high-frequency content compared with GOCE-based global models. We discuss the gradient sensitivity for crustal depth slices using a 3D lithospheric model of the North-East Atlantic region, which shows that the depth sensitivity differs from gradient to gradient. In addition, the relative signal power for the individual gradient component changes comparing the 225 km and 255 km grids, implying that using all components at different heights reduces parameter uncertainties in geophysical modelling. Furthermore, since gravity gradients contain complementary information to gravity, we foresee the use of the grids in a wide range of applications from lithospheric modelling to studies on dynamic topography, and glacial isostatic adjustment, to bedrock geometry determination under ice sheets.
García-Robledo, Carlos; Kuprewicz, Erin K; Staines, Charles L; Erwin, Terry L; Kress, W John
2016-01-19
The critical thermal maximum (CTmax), the temperature at which motor control is lost in animals, has the potential to determine if species will tolerate global warming. For insects, tolerance to high temperatures decreases with latitude, suggesting that similar patterns may exist along elevational gradients as well. This study explored how CTmax varies among species and populations of a group of diverse tropical insect herbivores, the rolled-leaf beetles, across both broad and narrow elevational gradients. Data from 6,948 field observations and 8,700 museum specimens were used to map the elevational distributions of rolled-leaf beetles on two mountains in Costa Rica. CTmax was determined for 1,252 individual beetles representing all populations across the gradients. Initial morphological identifications suggested a total of 26 species with populations at different elevations displaying contrasting upper thermal limits. However, compared with morphological identifications, DNA barcodes (cytochrome oxidase I) revealed significant cryptic species diversity. DNA barcodes identified 42 species and haplotypes across 11 species complexes. These 42 species displayed much narrower elevational distributions and values of CTmax than the 26 morphologically defined species. In general, species found at middle elevations and on mountaintops are less tolerant to high temperatures than species restricted to lowland habitats. Species with broad elevational distributions display high CTmax throughout their ranges. We found no significant phylogenetic signal in CTmax, geography, or elevational range. The narrow variance in CTmax values for most rolled-leaf beetles, especially high-elevation species, suggests that the risk of extinction of insects may be substantial under some projected rates of global warming.
Micromechanical modeling of damage in periodic composites using strain gradient plasticity
Azizi, Reza
2012-01-01
Damage evolution at the fiber matrix interface in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is studied using strain gradient theory of plasticity. The study includes the rate independent formulation of energetic strain gradient plasticity for the matrix, purely elastic model for the fiber and cohesive zone...... model under simple shear and transverse uniaxial tension using plane strain and periodic boundary conditions. The result of the overall response curve, effective plastic strain, effective stress and higher order stress distributions are shown. The effect of the material length scale, maximum stress...
A Resistivity Gradient Piezoelectric FGM Actuator
无
2000-01-01
A resistivity gradient actuator based on lead zirconate titanate ceramics was successfully developed and the bending deflections up to 140 μm were obtained. The actuator material was a matrix of PZT ceramic into which smooth gradient of piezoelectric activity was introduced. The application of an electric field then causes the actuator to bend due to differential strains induced by the piezoelectric effect. The resistivity gradient of the actuator was achieved by doping PZT with suitable donor and acceptor dopants. PZT powder was modified and synthesized by using two stage powder fabrication method. The actuator was fabricated by uniaxial pressing followed by isostatic pressing with two layers of different resistivities.
Discussion of liquid threshold pressure gradient
Xiukun Wang
2017-06-01
The correct interpretation is that there are two flow regimes: nonlinear flow regime (non-Darcy flow regime when the pressure gradients are low, and linear flow regime (Darcy flow regime when the pressure gradient is intermediate or high. The nonlinear flow regime starts from the origin point. As the pressure gradient is increased, the curve becomes a straight line demonstrating the linear flow regime. We have verified our views by first analyzing the causes of non-Darcy flow, and then systematically analyzed typical experimental data and correlations in the literature. We conclude that TPG does not exist. We also use several counter examples to support our conclusion.
GRADIENT ENERGY DETECTION OF LSB STEGANOGRAPHY
Li Zhi; Sui Aifen; Niu Xinxin; Yang Yixian
2005-01-01
The spatial Least Significant Bit (LSB) steganography results in the alteration of the smooth characteristics between adjoining pixels of the raw image. The relation between the length of embedded message and the gradient energy is theoretically analyzed, and then a steganalysis and detection method, named Gradient Energy-Flipping Rate (GEFR) detection is proposed. Based on the analysis of the variation of the gradient energy, which results from the LSB steganography in color and grayscale image, the secret message embedded in the target image is detected, and the length of the embedded message is estimated. The method is proved effective and accurate by simulation (detection rate reaches 0.01bit per pixel).
Colour and stellar population gradients in galaxies
Tortora, C; Cardone, V F; Capaccioli, M; Jetzer, P; Molinaro, R
2010-01-01
We discuss the colour, age and metallicity gradients in a wide sample of local SDSS early- and late-type galaxies. From the fitting of stellar population models we find that metallicity is the main driver of colour gradients and the age in the central regions is a dominant parameter which rules the scatter in both metallicity and age gradients. We find a consistency with independent observations and a set of simulations. From the comparison with simulations and theoretical considerations we are able to depict a general picture of a formation scenario.
Strain gradient effects in surface roughening
Borg, Ulrik; Fleck, N.A.
2007-01-01
A thin aluminium sheet comprising of large polycrystals is pulled in uniaxial tension and the resulting surface profile is measured in a scanning electron microscope. The surface profile near the grain boundaries reveals a local deformation pattern of width of a few micrometres and is strong...... evidence for strain gradient effects. Numerical analyses of a bicrystal undergoing in-plane tensile deformation are also studied using a strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and also by using a strain gradient plasticity theory for an isotropic solid. Both theories include an internal material length...
Speciation gradients and the distribution of biodiversity.
Schluter, Dolph; Pennell, Matthew W
2017-05-31
Global patterns of biodiversity are influenced by spatial and environmental variations in the rate at which new species form. We relate variations in speciation rates to six key patterns of biodiversity worldwide, including the species-area relationship, latitudinal gradients in species and genetic diversity, and between-habitat differences in species richness. Although they sometimes mirror biodiversity patterns, recent rates of speciation, at the tip of the tree of life, are often highest where species richness is low. Speciation gradients therefore shape, but are also shaped by, biodiversity gradients and are often more useful for predicting future patterns of biodiversity than for interpreting the past.
Colour and stellar population gradients in galaxies
Tortora, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Cardone, V. F.; Capaccioli, M.; Jetzer, P.; Molinaro, R.
We discuss the colour, age and metallicity gradients in a wide sample of local SDSS early- and late-type galaxies. From the fitting of stellar population models we find that metallicity is the main driver of colour gradients and the age in the central regions is a dominant parameter which rules the scatter in both metallicity and age gradients. We find a consistency with independent observations and a set of simulations. From the comparison with simulations and theoretical considerations we are able to depict a general picture of a formation scenario.
Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2013-01-01
We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors......, as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics....
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering
JIANG Wei; QU Jiao; LI Benxi
2007-01-01
With the development of Support Vector Machine (SVM),the "kernel method" has been studied in a general way.In this paper,we present a novel Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering algorithm (KMEC).By using mercer kernel functions,the proposed algorithm is firstly map the data from their original space to high dimensional space where the data are expected to be more separable,then perform MEC clustering in the feature space.The experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance in the non-hyperspherical and complex data structure.
The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.
Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M
2003-11-14
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.
Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension
Bastea, S
2009-01-27
Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.
Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming
Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.
1988-05-01
Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.
COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT
PETRU SERGIU SERBAN
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.
Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2012-01-01
In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...
CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer
2011-12-01
CORA analyzes emission line spectra with low count numbers and fits them to a line using the maximum likelihood technique. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise, the software derives the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. CORA has been applied to an X-ray spectrum with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory.
Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2014-04-01
We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.
Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits
Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej
2015-03-01
The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.
Zipf's law and maximum sustainable growth
Malevergne, Y; Sornette, D
2010-01-01
Zipf's law states that the number of firms with size greater than S is inversely proportional to S. Most explanations start with Gibrat's rule of proportional growth but require additional constraints. We show that Gibrat's rule, at all firm levels, yields Zipf's law under a balance condition between the effective growth rate of incumbent firms (which includes their possible demise) and the growth rate of investments in entrant firms. Remarkably, Zipf's law is the signature of the long-term optimal allocation of resources that ensures the maximum sustainable growth rate of an economy.
Maximum modulation of plasmon-guided modes by graphene gating
Radko, Ilya; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Grigorenko, Alexander N.
2016-01-01
The potential of graphene in plasmonic electro-optical waveguide modulators has been investigated in detail by finite-element method modelling of various widely used plasmonic waveguiding configurations. We estimated the maximum possible modulation depth values one can achieve with plasmonic...... devices operating at telecom wavelengths and exploiting the optical Pauli blocking effect in graphene. Conclusions and guidelines for optimization of modulation/intrinsic loss trade-off have been provided and generalized for any graphene-based plasmonic waveguide modulators, which should help...
Mapping the MPM maximum flow algorithm on GPUs
Solomon, Steven; Thulasiraman, Parimala
2010-11-01
The GPU offers a high degree of parallelism and computational power that developers can exploit for general purpose parallel applications. As a result, a significant level of interest has been directed towards GPUs in recent years. Regular applications, however, have traditionally been the focus of work on the GPU. Only very recently has there been a growing number of works exploring the potential of irregular applications on the GPU. We present a work that investigates the feasibility of Malhotra, Pramodh Kumar and Maheshwari's "MPM" maximum flow algorithm on the GPU that achieves an average speedup of 8 when compared to a sequential CPU implementation.
Use of Maximum Entropy Modeling in Wildlife Research
Roger A. Baldwin
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Maximum entropy (Maxent modeling has great potential for identifying distributions and habitat selection of wildlife given its reliance on only presence locations. Recent studies indicate Maxent is relatively insensitive to spatial errors associated with location data, requires few locations to construct useful models, and performs better than other presence-only modeling approaches. Further advances are needed to better define model thresholds, to test model significance, and to address model selection. Additionally, development of modeling approaches is needed when using repeated sampling of known individuals to assess habitat selection. These advancements would strengthen the utility of Maxent for wildlife research and management.
Tie Liu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this work, Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 alloys were solidified in a high magnetic field gradient (8.8 T, -565 T2/m at various cooling rates. Changes in the magnetostriction, crystal orientation, and magnetization of the alloys were investigated. The application of the magnetic field gradient has a strong influence on the magnetostrictive performance. At lower cooling rates, the maximum magnetostriction increases gradually with depth from the top surface of the alloys. However, the effect of the magnetic field gradient is strongly dependent on the cooling rate. With increasing cooling rate, the magnetostriction gradient decreases. The magnetization measurement shows that the saturation magnetization at lower cooling rates increases gradually with depth from the top surface of the alloys. However, with increasing cooling rate, the increase in the saturation magnetization is reduced. The XRD measurement results show that the orientation behavior of the (Tb, DyFe2 phase exhibits a continuous change throughout the alloys at lower cooling rates, but is almost unchanged at higher cooling rates. The change in the magnetostriction of the alloys can be attributed to the changes in crystal orientation and the amount of the (Tb, DyFe2 phase in the alloys caused by both the magnetic field gradient and cooling rate.
Adam H Freedman
Full Text Available Ecological gradients have long been recognized as important regions for diversification and speciation. However, little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences or conservation implications of human activities that fundamentally change the environmental features of such gradients. Here we show that recent deforestation in West Africa has homogenized the rainforest-savanna gradient, causing a loss of adaptive phenotypic diversity in a common rainforest bird, the little greenbul (Andropadus virens. Previously, this species was shown to exhibit morphological and song divergence along this gradient in Central Africa. Using satellite-based estimates of forest cover, recent morphological data, and historical data from museum specimens collected prior to widespread deforestation, we show that the gradient has become shallower in West Africa and that A. virens populations there have lost morphological variation in traits important to fitness. In contrast, we find no loss of morphological variation in Central Africa where there has been less deforestation and gradients have remained more intact. While rainforest deforestation is a leading cause of species extinction, the potential of deforestation to flatten gradients and inhibit rainforest diversification has not been previously recognized. More deforestation will likely lead to further flattening of the gradient and loss of diversity, and may limit the ability of species to persist under future environmental conditions.